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1

Chile.  

PubMed

The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038

1992-05-01

2

Chile.  

PubMed

Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the Allende government resulted in enormous fiscal deficits, economic recession, inflation, and severe decline in the gross domestic product. In 1982 the government devalued the peso and agreed to the International Monetary Fund's 2-year austerity program to lower the $20.5 billion national debt. In 1987 the gross domestic product was $18.4 billion, $1465 per capita; the annual real growth rate was 5.4%, and inflation had fallen from an annual rate of over 1000% to 21.5%. 245 Chilean pesos equal US1$. Chile's chief export is copper ($2.2 billion in 1987), of which Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter. Chile also exports gold, silver, iron ore, molybdenum, iodine, and nitrates. Chile has 20% of the world's copper reserves and 33% of the world's lithium. 21% of Chile's gross domestic product consists of textiles, metal manufacturing, food processing, pulp, paper, and wood products; and 10% consists of agricultural produce. Relations with the United States deteriorated after the 1976 murder in Washington, DC, of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier. Arms and security assistance to Chile were banned, and in 1981 the US Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps ceased operations in Chile. PMID:12177976

1988-09-01

3

Los derechos de los pacientes: algunas reflexiones desde la atención primaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews legal coverage in Spain and the European Community of the European Letter of Patients’ Rights (Letter of Rome) and the Patients’ Decalogue of the Barcelona Declaration. Both these documents were drawn up by patients’ and citizens’ associations and mainly reflect on compliance with these rights in primary care.We review rights related to patient information and autonomy,

Fernando Palacio

2005-01-01

4

Chile Country Package.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The package of materials contains the following marketing and trade information on the country of Chile. (1) Chile Country Fact Sheet (4/92); (2) Trade Outlook 'Chile, Benchmark for an Open Economy' (4/92); (3) Chile Country Marketing Plan (Fiscal Year 19...

1992-01-01

5

Geography of Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to explore the diverse geographic regions of Chile. How many kinds of terrain does Chile have? Please work with a partner to answer the following questions about each region in Chile, using the websites made available to you. Make sure you take advantage of these websites, because at the end of the lesson you will be completing a ...

Drummond, Ms.

2009-10-21

6

Continuous Seismic Reflexion Profiles in the Red Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty continuous seismic reflexion profiles have been made across the main trough of the Red Sea north of 17 degrees N latitude. The main trough is characterized by mildly deformed sediment layers along the margins with highly disturbed materials in the deeper axial trough. A strong seismic reflector is observed at depths up to 500 m beneath the main trough,

J. D. Phillips; D. A. Ross

1970-01-01

7

Software Reflexion Models: Bridging the Gap between Design and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artifacts constituting a software system often drift apart over time. We have developed the software reflexion model technique to help engineers perform various software engineering tasks by exploiting—rather than removing—the drift between design and implementation. More specifically, the technique helps an engineer compare artifacts by summarizing where one artifact (such as a design) is consistent with and inconsistent with

Gail C. Murphy; David Notkin; Kevin J. Sullivan

2001-01-01

8

Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ? TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

9

Chile: ¿autosuficiencia o \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El escenario energético de escasez a nivel mundial se empieza a reflejar fuertemente en América Latina. Chile tiene una política energética diseñad a en el período dictatorial, y administrada en la d emocracia, que hace muy vulnerable su economía, su medio ambiente y su seguridad. En este artículo se analizan críticament e los diversos aspectos que inciden fuertemente en

Antonio Elizalde Hevia; Mario González Gutiérrez

2008-01-01

10

New protests in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile's military regime in 1982 celebrated its ninth anniversary to the accompaniment of the most widespread and publicly expressed opposition since the coup of 11 September 1973. The collapse of its much-vaunted ‘economic miracle’ … most painfully demonstrated by devastated national industries, an unemployment rate of 25%, and a foreign debt estimated by some economists as the highest per capita

Malcolm Coad

1982-01-01

11

Forensic psychiatry in Chile.  

PubMed

Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. PMID:23102739

St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

2012-10-23

12

1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

2010-03-30

13

Ophthalmology in Chile.  

PubMed

The practice of ophthalmology in Chile does not differ much from that in the United States. Basic ophthalmologic knowledge is the same, and common clinical problems are solved in the same way. The difference becomes evident in the more complex clinical problems. We have the knowledge and ability to perform the treatment but come up against the problem of high cost of technical instruments. Vitreous surgery, intraocular lens surgery, and laser treatments are performed, but we have to overcome the obstacles of obtaining the expensive and limited number of instruments. Perhaps, a US ophthalmologist will not understand this problem because, as I became aware during my stay as a fellow at The Wilmer Institute, Baltimore, and at other times when I have visited the United States, these difficulties do not arise. Lasers are bought, instruments are ordered by telephone, and manufacturers swamp the doctors with propaganda and offers of "call toll free for 30 days on trial." On the other hand, we know that, due to our efforts and using the means at our disposal, we have managed to keep the specialty at a high level, solving health problems and making the practice of ophthalmology pleasant in this beautiful country. Chilean ophthalmology has great prestige in South America. It has been the forerunner in the instruction of ophthalmologists, creating a method of teaching and of systematic specialization that has been unique in Latin America. It is an example to other branches of medicine in Chile. Although ophthalmologists are badly distributed in the country, considering our particular geographic and economic conditions, they fulfill their objectives in providing adequate visual health care for the population. This has come about through the combined effort of all Chilean ophthalmologists based on the example of their predecessors. Also, there has been a sense of solidarity among us, with responsibility and enthusiasm shown in practicing and in communicating ophthalmic precepts altruistically to the coming generations. PMID:3718319

Meyer, F

1986-06-01

14

Ultraviolet dermal reflexion and mate choice in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some fish, including the guppy, have the ability to perceive ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. Female guppies prefer to associate with males that are viewed under light conditions that include UV-A, in preference to conditions lacking these wavelengths. We used reflexion spectrophotometry to show that male guppies reflect UV light from both their structural (purple, green and white) and pigment (orange) colour

Elizabeth M. White; Julian C. Partridge; Stuart C. Church

2003-01-01

15

On the Oblique Reflexion and Transmission of Ocean Waves at Shore Fast Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is reported describing the oblique reflexion and penetration of ocean waves into shore fast sea ice. The arbitrary depth model allows all velocity potentials occurring in the open water region to be matched precisely to their counterparts in the ice-covered region. Matching is done using a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique which allows the complete solution to be

Colin Fox; Vernon A. Squire

1994-01-01

16

Pinochet Returns to Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A frail and ailing General Augusto Pinochet returned to Santiago this morning, after his release from a seventeen-month house arrest in the United Kingdom. Reflecting Pinochet's continuing popularity in military circles and the Army's power in Chile, his return was handled entirely by the Chilean army, which banned the media until shortly before Pinochet's plane landed. On Thursday, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw announced that, for medical reasons, Pinochet would not be extradited to Spain, where he was indicted for human rights abuses. The former dictator's health had considerably declined since his initial arrest in October 1998, and he was said to be suffering from brain damage, sparking concerns in some UK governmental circles that he might die on British soil before the extradition was resolved. While he has escaped prosecution in European courts, Pinochet still faces 59 civil lawsuits in his home country, although many observers doubt that any trial will take place. This decision has angered families of the General's victims and human rights activists, but the process has established one important legal precedent for future prosecutions of ex-dictators. In their March 1999 ruling, Britain's Law Lords determined that Pinochet was not automatically immune to prosecution for acts committed as a head of state. This reversal of the "sovereign immunity" claimed by many former dictators may pave the way to future prosecutions for human rights abuses.

De Nie, Michael W.

17

[Chile: Standing up again].  

PubMed

One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more. PMID:20556326

Reyes B, Humberto

2010-05-19

18

Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of the troponin-associated reflexions from the frog muscle.  

PubMed Central

The vertebrate skeletal muscle gives rise to a series of x-ray reflexions indexed as orders (n) of 77 nm, the even orders being meridional whereas the odd orders being near-meridional. The diffraction intensities associated with these reflexions originate from the axial period of 39 nm attributable to the repeat of troponin-tropomyosin on the thin filament. In the present study, the x-ray intensities of the furthest inner reflexions, A2 (n = 2) reflexion at an axial spacing of 1/39 nm-1 and A4 (n = 4) reflexion at 1/19 nm, of this series were measured with a time resolved manner. Upon activation of the frog striated muscle, the two reflexions underwent biphasic time courses of the intensity changes. With A2 reflexion, a rapid intensity increase by 16%, being completed by the time when tension rises to 5%, was followed by a slow intensity decrease down to 50%, which was associated with the tension rise. In both phases, lateral widths remained unchanged. A4 reflexion also behaves in the same way, although the first phase (the intensity increase) was not clear due to unsatisfactory statistics. We interpret phase one as being caused by conformational change of the troponin-tropomyosin complex upon binding of Ca2+ to troponin, whereas phase two being due to direct contribution of the mass of the myosin heads bound to the thin filament, although possible contribution of conformational changes of the regulatory proteins to phase two is not excluded. The results indicated that the calcium activation of the thin filament leads the onset of the actomyosin interaction. Images FIGURE 1

Maeda, Y; Popp, D; Stewart, A A

1992-01-01

19

Introduccion, establecimiento y potencial de Apion ulicis como antagonista de Ulex europaeus en el sur de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen  El coleópteroApion ulicis Forster, introducido desde Nueva Zelanda se estableció exitosamente enUlex europaeus L. en todas las localidades del Sur de Chile donde fue introducido, entre los paralelos 37 y 43 grados Lat. Sur.\\u000a \\u000a Los niveles de consumo de semilla que muestran las plantas infestadas con este insecto, indican queA. ulicis puede ser un valioso agente de control biológico de

H. Norambuena; R. Carrillo; M. Neira

1986-01-01

20

Nurses' Aides in Chile (Auxiliares de Enfermeria en Chile).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nurses' aide personnel occupy a key position in Chile within the public health team, especially in those zones which are far from urban centers where the team very often consists of one aide, aporadically supervised by a nurse. The Department of Public He...

1975-01-01

21

VOTER TURNOUT: EVIDENCE FROM CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been a steady decline in voter turnout in Chile since the first democratic election following the military dictatorship of 1973-1990. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether (i) socioeconomic variables and (ii) the electoral system have any effect on political participation. Initially, we use a panel for the different elections since 1989. We find that political

Rodrigo Cerda; Rodrigo Vergara

2008-01-01

22

Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We built the first rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in Chile. Erosivities varied as a result of the rainfall depths, elevation and latitude. We established a relation between the calculated erosivities and annual rainfall. This relation offers a means of estimating erosivity when time or data is limiting.

Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.

2011-11-01

23

Caliciviruses and Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Chile  

PubMed Central

Human caliciviruses caused 45% of 55 gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring in Santiago, Chile, during 2000–2003. Outbreaks affected ?99 persons, occurred most commonly in the home, and were associated with seafood consumption. Thirteen outbreak strains sequenced were noroviruses, including 8 GII, 2 GI, and 3 belonging to a novel genogroup.

Vidal, Roberto; Solari, Veronica; Mamani, Nora; Jiang, Xi; Vollaire, Jimena; Roessler, Patricia; Prado, Valeria; Matson, David O.

2005-01-01

24

Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the

B. F. Atwater; M. Cisternas; I. Salgado; G. Machuca; M. Lagos; A. Eipert; M. Shishikura

2003-01-01

25

Examination of the shock wave regular reflexion phenomenon in a rarefied supersonic plasma flow  

SciTech Connect

The flow properties of a low-pressure weakly ionized supersonic argon plasma jet are examined using Fabry-Perot interferometry and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The flow velocity and equilibrium temperature measured at the torch nozzle exit are in close agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations. The model also predicts the plasma flow to be in a rarefied regime. Departure from thermal equilibrium is indeed observed behind the nozzle where the parallel temperature differs significantly from the perpendicular temperature. The development of the axial velocity component along the jet center stream line reveals the occurrence of the shock wave regular reflexion phenomenon: No Mach disk is formed and the flow experiences successive supersonic-to-supersonic transitions before reaching a subsonic regime. Shock wave regular reflexion is in fact favored under our experimental conditions since the speed ratio is high and the rarefaction degree is pronounced at the nozzle exit.

Mazouffre, S.; Caubet-Hilloutou, V.; Lengrand, J.C.; Pawelec, E. [Laboratoire d'Aerothermique, 1C avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans (France); University of Opole, Oleska 48, Opole (Poland)

2005-01-01

26

Chile?s Regional Arrangements and the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas: The Importance of Market Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

July 2001Among Chile?s bilateral regional agreements, only Chile?s agreements with ?Northern? partners provide enough market access to offset the costs to Chile of trade diversion. Because of preferential market access, however, ?additive regionalism? is likely to provide Chile with far more gains than the static welfare gains from unilateral free trade. At least one partner country loses from each of

David Tarr; Glenn Harrison; Thomas Rutherford

2001-01-01

27

Counternarcotic Efforts in the Southern Cone: Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review of the current drug activity in Chile is made focusing on consumption, legal framework and law enforcing institutions responsible for counter drug activity. The possible role of the Chilean Armed Forces is discussed. The future of Chile as a pote...

J. Swett

1990-01-01

28

The Ford Brand Personality in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study is to empiri- cally measure the Ford Brand Personality in Chile, using as a framework, the five-dimension Brand Personality scale developed by Aaker (1997). The study was carried out in two mid- sized cities in the central part of Chile. The confirmatory factor analysis of the measurement model and the analysis of the structural

José I Rojas-Méndez; Isabel Erenchun-Podlech; Elizabeth Silva-Olave

2004-01-01

29

YIELD AND QUALITY OF MACHINE-HARVESTED RED CHILE PEPPERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chile peppers (capsicum annuum L.) are a major crop in the southwestern United States. Several chile types are grown regionally, including long, green chile for fresh market and canning; dried, red chile for pungent powder, paprika and oleoresin; jalopenos; and cayenne peppers. During the last dec...

30

Relations Between Chile and ESO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal questioning of ESO's privileges and immunities at the designated VLT site on the Paranal mountain south of the city of Antofagasta (see ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994), and also around the ownership of the land. ESO is now very worried about the timely completion of this 500 million DEM project. Unless a clarification of this problem is achieved as soon as possible, it is unlikely that the current plan for the construction of the VLT observatory at Paranal can be maintained. The ESO delegation expressed the opinion that these uncertainties must be removed, before the final negotiations about the above mentioned Treaty can proceed. RECEPTION BY THE PRESIDENT OF CHILE During its stay in Santiago, the ESO delegation was honoured to be received by the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz Tagle. ESO extended a warm invitation to the President to lay the cornerstone of the VLT observatory at Paranal later in 1994 at the appropriate moment. Twenty-five years ago, in 1969, the ESO La Silla observatory was inaugurated by his predecessor and father, Don Eduardo Frei Montalva. DECISIONS BY THE ESO COUNCIL The ESO delegation reported about the discussions in Santiago to the ESO Council, during its ordinary semi-annual session on June 7 - 8, 1994. The Council noted with satisfaction the clear attitude expressed by the Chilean Government, especially what concerns ESO's privileges and immunities in the host country. The ESO Council expects that the Chilean courts will also confirm these privileges and immunities. The ESO Council expressed the hope that it will now be possible to arrive at a resolution of the outstanding issues. However, in view of the increasingly tight VLT schedule - it is planned to ship the first VLT building to Paranal in the month of September this year - the Council was also much concerned about any further delays. Council requested the ESO management to ensure that the authorities of the member countries will be kept closely informed about the further developments during the coming months. The ESO Council Working Group on

1994-06-01

31

Revolutionary Left and Terrorist Violence in Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides an understanding of the current political situation in Chile, this Note reviews events leading up to the 1973 coup that established a military government there. In particular, it discusses the Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria...

W. Sater

1986-01-01

32

Employment responses to international liberalization in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates employment patterns in Chile following a substantial trade liberalization. The paper examines patterns of job creation and job destruction and relates these patterns to firms' size and trade orientation.

James Levinsohn

1999-01-01

33

Chile: perspectives in school health.  

PubMed

The leading health problems of children and adolescents in Chile is reviewed. The Chilean educational system and how the system addresses its principal health problems are described. A school health program is described as well as other educational programs designed and developed by nongovernmental institutions which have a smaller coverage. Current research studies regarding growth and development, child morbidity, nutritional level, and mental health studies are reviewed. In addition, principal challenges that include developing more efficient ways of referring children, enriching the curriculum and teacher training, assigning school hours for health teachers, and enlarging coverage of the health care evaluation programs are outlined. Of special importance is developing prevention programs for parents and children using school and community leaders to prevent health problems in areas such as human sexuality education, decision-making, social abilities, and alcohol and drug abuse. Main efforts should be directed toward low-income families and children to improve life conditions. PMID:2246870

Langdon, M C; Gazmuri, C; Venegas, L

1990-09-01

34

Tradition and transgression: Lesbian motherhood in chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study that explored how Chilean lesbians perceive and carry out motherhood. Lesbian mothering is\\u000a a reflexive project in which lesbians must question issues that heterosexual women take for granted. For lesbian women in\\u000a Chile, having a child involves not only exerting great effort and imagination but also bucking social expectations. Homosexuals\\u000a in Chile live under

Florencia Herrera

2009-01-01

35

Chile Country Set (1992). Article: Chile: This Remains a Benchmark for Successful Open Economy (April 1992).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chile continues to be Latin America's benchmark for a successful and open market economy. Since 1983, the country has moved farther, faster, and more effectively toward a stable, market-oriented economy than any nation in the region. Chile has become one ...

1992-01-01

36

A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

Wals, Arjen E. J.

2009-01-01

37

[Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].  

PubMed

Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile PMID:19301766

O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

2008-11-01

38

7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Fresh pomegranates from Chile. 319.56-56 Section 319.56-56...319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

2013-01-01

39

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi...

2010-01-01

40

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi...

2013-01-01

41

The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

2009-06-01

42

69 FR 41875 - Meetings of the U.S.-Chile Environment Affairs Council and the U.S.-Chile Joint Commission for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ustr.gov/new/fta/Chile/final/ 19.environment.PDF; The U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement...www.ustr.gov/environment/tpa/chile- environment.pdf. DATES: To guarantee receipt in proper time for...

2004-07-12

43

The new student loan system in Chile’s higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile’s higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently,\\u000a the Chilean Congress passed Law # 20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system\\u000a guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private capital

Christian Larraín; Salvador Zurita

2008-01-01

44

Amending and complicating Chile’s seismic catalog with the Santiago earthquake of 7 August 1580  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical earthquakes of Chile’s metropolitan region include a previously uncatalogued earthquake that occurred on 7 August 1580 in the Julian calendar. We found an authoritative account of this earthquake in a letter written four days later in Santiago and now archived in Spain. The letter tells of a destructive earthquake that struck Santiago and its environs. In its reported effects it surpassed the one in the same city in 1575, until now presumed to be the only earthquake in the first century of central Chile’s written history. It is not yet possible to identify the source of the 1580 earthquake but viable candidates include both the plate boundary and Andean faults at shallows depths around Santiago. By occurring just five years after another large earthquake, the 1580 earthquake casts doubt on the completeness of the region’s historical earthquake catalog and the periodicity of its large earthquakes. That catalog, based on eyewitness accounts compiled mainly by Alexander Perrey and Fernand Montessus de Ballore, tells of large Chile’s metropolitan region earthquakes in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. The addition of a large earthquake in 1580 implies greater variability in recurrence intervals and may also mean greater variety in earthquake sources.

Cisternas, Marco; Torrejón, Fernando; Gorigoitia, Nicolás

2012-02-01

45

Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF),

Felipe G. Morandé; Carlos Garcia

2004-01-01

46

27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles Valley viticultural area are four 1:24,000 Scale U.S.G.S. topography maps. They are titled: (1) St. Helena, CA 1960 photorevised 1980; (2) Rutherford, CA 1951 photorevised...

2013-04-01

47

Education of the Televiewer in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

Reyes, Miguel T.

48

Strategies to capture biotechnology opportunities in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two complementary strategies are proposed to help develop the biotechnology industry in Chile. The objectives of such propositions are based on identifying business opportunities, which can be transformed into biotechnology projects that complement the competitive advantages of the most active areas of the Chilean economy. As a result, the establishment of these initiatives may create the proper business environment where

Cristian Hernandez-Cuevas; Pablo D. T. Valenzuela

49

DIETS OF SYMPATRIC RAPTORS IN SOUTHERN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the diets of four sympatric raptor species in Torres del Paine National Park, Magallanes region, Chile. This assemblage includes some of the least-known raptors in southern South America. Two strigids, Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba), had the most generalized diets. The Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) preyed primarily on birds and lizards, and

AGUSTIN IRIARTE; WILLIAM L. FRANKLIN; WARREN E. JOHNSON

1990-01-01

50

The ecological footprint of Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of Santiago de Chile, this paper explains how the ecological footprint of a city can be calculated and how this footprint can be compared with the biological capacity available for human use. As ecological footprints provide an easily communicable way of measuring the ecological bottom?line condition for sustainability, it is a useful tool for promoting a sustainable

Mathis Wackernagel

1998-01-01

51

Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, all covered workers must place 10% of monthly earnings in a savings account with a highly regulated intermediary that manages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to

Peter Diamond

1993-01-01

52

Nutrition transition in Chile: determinants and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyse the determinants and consequences of the nutrition transition in Chile and describe the related health promotion policies. Design and setting: This is a descriptive, population-based study including data on demographic, diet, nutrition and biomedical related variables. Data came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the National Institute of Statistics (INE),

Cecilia Albala; Fernando Vio; Juliana Kain; Ricardo Uauy

2002-01-01

53

Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloe Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the ...

D. Oddo H. Poggi M. E. Balcells P. Garcia R. Rabagliati

2011-01-01

54

(lat 228-248S), Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In northern Chile, precipitation in the High Andes (.3500 m) recharges ground- water systems that flow down the Pacific slope and feed large aquifers in the hyper- arid Atacama Desert. Wetlands, which are often found along the base of the Andes, mark locations where the water table inter- sects the land surface. At these locations, paleo-wetland deposits, which are present

Jason A. Rech; Jay Quade; Julio L. Betancourt

55

Industry Sector Analysis - Photocopiers (Chile) August 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past 4 years, demand for office/business equipment has grown at an annual rate of over 20%. This rapid growth is a result of robust economic growth in Chile, a boom in a new office building construction, and the opening of what had until very r...

P. Jaramillo J. R. Sickler

1994-01-01

56

Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bearing in mind the current and pressing need for an update of the existing Chilean power supply system – which has been remarkably influenced by new requirements – the search for new energy supply sources has become a top priority.The wind resource, vis-à-vis its associated mature technology features and its apparent availability throughout Chile, comes forward as a feasible option

David Watts; Danilo Jara

2011-01-01

57

Diffusion of Technical Agricultural Information in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined current thought concerning the role of mass communication in economic development in developing nations; analyzed existing efforts to diffuse agricultural technology in Chile; assessed the effectiveness of various approaches; and tested the effects (primarily on knowledge levels) of an experimental technical information service…

Brown, Marion Ray

58

Home Depot in Chile: Case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retailing is rapidly becoming a global industry and many retailers are expanding to foreign markets. However, some retailers successful in their home countries have failed in emerging markets such as Chile. A case study of the failed operation of Home Depot in the Chilean market helps in understanding why retailers do not succeed in all international markets. This case study

Constanza Bianchi; Presidente Errazuriz

2006-01-01

59

Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae

Daniel González-Acuña; Alberto A. Guglielmone

2005-01-01

60

Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of trees. We sampled 45 such trees, some of them completely dead and the rest surviving only from shoots near the ground. One-third of these trees lived through the 1837 earthquake; they contain over 180 annual rings. Five of the trees also contain rings earlier than 1737. From this evidence, we tentatively infer that the islands underwent more subsidence in 1960 than they did in 1737 or 1837. Comparisons with old Chilean documents for the estuary further suggest that subsidence in 1837 did not approach that of 1960. In their depiction and description of the Misquihue islands in 1874, surveyor Francisco Vidal and botanist Carlos Juliet show nothing like the ghost forests seen today. Twice in the first 37 years after the 1837 earthquake, surveyors mapped as emergent several islands that the 1960 earthquake would lower into tidal water. Today, 43 years after they subsided in 1960, these islands remain submerged as barren intertidal flats. Research supported by Fondecyt 1020224.

Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

2003-12-01

61

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Clementines, mandarins, and tangerines from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clementines, mandarins, and tangerines from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Clementines, mandarins, and tangerines from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile only under the following...

2009-01-01

62

75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

2010-01-22

63

75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States...the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010...concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission...

2010-05-19

64

Felix Mirabel becomes ESO Representative in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting on April 1, Felix Mirabel will take up a double role as ESO Representative in Chile and Head of ESO's Office for Science in Chile. Felix Mirabel was born in 1944 in Uruguay. After finishing secondary school, he went to Argentina where he obtained a PhD in Astrophysics at the University of La Plata, and a Master degree in Philosophy from the University of Buenos Aires. He pursued postdoctoral studies at Jodrell Bank in the UK, at the University of Maryland, and then in Puerto Rico using the Arecibo radiotelescope. In 1990, after having worked at Caltech as a Guggenheim fellow, he moved to France working as director of research at the CEA (Saclay), where he stayed until joining ESO.

2005-03-01

65

Circulation and variability in the Chile Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current observations at several depths between 250 and 3750m are reported from a 30°S, deep sea site 150km off the Chile coast for the period July 1993–June 2001. These results are used with current observations from a nearby slope site, satellite altimeter data, and hydrographic and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler data from the WOCE P6E section along 32.5°S to address

Gary Shaffer; Samuel Hormazabal; Oscar Pizarro; Marcel Ramos

2004-01-01

66

Circulation andvariability in the Chile Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current observations at several depths between 250 and 3750 m are reported from a 30? S, deep sea site 150 km off the Chile coast for the periodJuly 1993-June 2001. These results are usedwith current observations from a nearby slope site, satellite altimeter data, and hydrographic and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler data from the WOCE P6E section along 32.5? S

Gary Shaffer; Samuel Hormazabal; Oscar Pizarro; Marcel Ramos

67

An overview of seaweed resources in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seaweed harvest in Chile has doubled during the past decade, and export values have increased by 300% because of diversification\\u000a and increase in the volume of products with greater value added. The export value of seaweed products increased from US $18\\u000a million in 1980 to $52 million in 1991. During the past decade, the successful cultivation of Gracilaria was

M. Avila; M. Seguel

1993-01-01

68

Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1945, No. 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chile is a republic 2,630 miles long, extending along the western coast of South America from Peru to the southernmost tip of the continent. In width it averages about 110 miles, with snow-capped, volcano-studded Andes in the East, a low coastal range along the Pacific and a string of valleys and plains in between. It is estimated that 5,000…

Ebaugh, Cameron D.

1945-01-01

69

Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123years (refs 4, 5),

Marco Cisternas; Brian F. Atwater; Fernando Torrejón; Yuki Sawai; Gonzalo Machuca; Marcelo Lagos; Annaliese Eipert; Cristián Youlton; Ignacio Salgado; Takanobu Kamataki; Masanobu Shishikura; C. P. Rajendran; Javed K. Malik; Yan Rizal; Muhammad Husni

2005-01-01

70

The Evolution of Evolutionary Thinking in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific study of evolution in Chile has experienced periods of diversification and stasis, depending upon the social\\u000a and political context at different times. In the eighteenth century, most of the natural history research consisted of systematics\\u000a and taxonomy and, as in most of South America, this task was performed mainly by natural historian theologists. Later, the\\u000a immigration of European

Rodrigo Medel

2008-01-01

71

Joint Committee Between ESO and the Government of Chile for the Development of Astronomy in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In accordance with Article Nine of the interpretative, supplementary and amending agreement to the “Convention between the Government of Chile and the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere for the Establishment of an Astronomical Observatory in Chile”, a Joint Committee has been constituted, on 13 March 1998, to co-operate directly in programmes for training young scientists, for engineers and technologists, and for equipment in general. The founding document was officially signed by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, His Excellency Mr. José Miguel Insulza S., and the ESO Director General, Prof. R. Giacconi.

1998-06-01

72

Neural network classifier of jalapeno chile using imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic sorting in the canning industry involves searching for simple methods for classifying automatically the products. Reliable classifiers can use discriminant analysis but the actual technology available with neural networks is growing due to its advantages of experience-based learning, generalization, graceful degradation and fault tolerance. In this paper we present a neural network classifier of jalapeno chile based on chile

F. Hahn; J. L. Zapata

1996-01-01

73

Chile: Issues and Opportunities in the Shelter and Urban Sector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The newly elected government of Chile (GOC) that took office in March 1990 has a four-year transitional term in which to consolidate the democratic process. Growing urban problems throughout Chile will test the mettle of the new democracy. Poverty continu...

L. Baker P. Wilson

1991-01-01

74

Risk Perception in a Developing Country: The Case of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we characterize risk perception in Chile, based on the psychometric paradigm, exploring the difference between perceived social and personal risk. For this purpose, we conducted a survey including 54 hazards, 16 risk attributes, and 3 risk constructs. The survey, divided into four parts, was administered to 508 residents of Santiago, Chile. Using factor analysis, three main factors,

Nicoláááas Bronfman; Luis A. Cifuentes

2003-01-01

75

Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

2012-01-01

76

The Institutionalization of Community Interventions in Chile: Characteristics and Contradictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical analysis of the consequences of successive institutionalization of community intervention in Chile is presented. This analysis is based on research of current community interventions in Chile, whose results are compared with Chilean community practice from previous historical periods. Chilean community intervention was formerly practiced out of governmental institutions and universities and was sustained primarily by foreign agencies and

Mariane Krause

2002-01-01

77

Chile: Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Consolidation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this thesis is to analyze civil-military relations and democratic consolidation in Chile. It examines civil-military relations in Chile by using the eleven prerogatives of the military, as an institution in a democratic regime, and as defin...

T. M. Ormsby

1998-01-01

78

The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limarí, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limarí valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993,

Robert R. Hearne; K. William Easter

1997-01-01

79

The impact of earthquakes on Chile's international tourism demand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the impacts of three earthquakes on international tourist arrivals in Chile. The shocks under analysis occurred on 21 April 2007, 14 November 2007 and 27 February 2010, in the north, south and center of Chile, respectively. The impacts are measured as the difference between the predicted and the effectively observed volume of visitor arrivals after the quakes

César Andrés Mendoza; Juan Gabriel Brida; Nicolás Garrido

2012-01-01

80

Industry Sector Analysis - Water Pollution Control Equipment (Chile) September 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chile has posted the highest average economic growth rate in Latin America during the past 8 years. In 1992, Chile's economy grew 9.7 percent, while unemployment fell to under 5 percent. Air, water and soil pollution are common in both industrial areas an...

I. M. Valenzuela

1994-01-01

81

Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

2012-01-01

82

Protected Areas in Chile: History, Current Status, and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural reserves or protected areas are a keystone of global strategies for biological conservation. With over 18% of its land under protection, Chile faces challenges similar to those in other developing countries. In this paper we describe the history and status of protected areas in Chile, and identify the challenges that the country confronts for improving the conservation and social

Aníbal Pauchard; Pablo Villarroel

83

Biosecurity practices on intensive pig production systems in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile eradicated classical swine fever (CSF) in April 1998, following a 17-year eradication programme. The authors describe biosecurity levels of pig farms in Chile after the eradication of CSF. A formal survey was administered to 50 large integrated pig farms, which represented almost 60% of the swine population. The main topics on the questionnaire were production, health management, biosecurity, insurance

C. Julio Pinto; V. Santiago Urcelay

2003-01-01

84

The Seismogenic Coupling Zone in Central Chile - Amphibious Experiments SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with

C. M. Krawczyk; M. Stiller; J. Mechie; S. Lueth; P. Wigger; O. Oncken; C. Reichert; K. Bataille

2003-01-01

85

GANADERÍA Y CONTAMINACIÓN DIFUSA, IMPLICANCIAS PARA EL SUR DE CHILE Livestock production and diffuse pollution, implications for Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T As a result of the free trade agreements signed by Chile, which will open markets for the export of dairy and beef products, it is expected that the livestock production activity will be increased and intensified in Southern Chile. Despite the technological knowledge available for livestock production in the area, little is

Marta Alfaro; Francisco Salazar

2005-01-01

86

Extrasolar Planet Research at Universidad de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present the latest publications and current status on projects lead by researchers and doctoral candidates at Universidad de Chile in the area of extrasolar planets. Making use of the privileged access to world-class telescopes, the research efforts are focused in ground-based observations. Long- and short-term projects are currently underway: (1) exoplanetary atmospheric characterization, (2) monitoring of southern transiting planets searching for transit-timing variations, (3) the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar planet RV search (CHEPS), and (4) study of post main-sequence planetary hosts.

Rojo, Patricio; Hoyer, S.; Jenkins, J.; Jones, M.

2010-10-01

87

A Seismic Refraction and Reflexion Study of the Continent--Ocean Transition beneath the North Biscay Margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of the northern margin of the Bay of Biscay consists of a series of tilted and rotated blocks bounded by prominent listric faults whose polarity is consistently down toward the continent--ocean boundary. These blocks formed by rifting in late Jurassic -- early Cretaceous time and are now thinly covered by post-rift sediments of Aptian to Recent age. Seismic refraction profiles were occupied on the shelf, on either side of and across the continent--ocean transition to the shelf, using Pubs and Obs with explosives and a 4 × 1000 in3 (4 × 16400 cm3) airgun array. Two-ship expanding spread multichannel (48-trace) seismic reflexion profiles and 30 km fixed offset reflexion profiles were located along the seismic refraction profiles on either side of the transition. A two-ship 30 km fixed offset multichannel profile was located across the transition as well as a 5 km fixed offset multichannel profile extending from the ocean crust to the shelf. Conventional 48-trace single ship multichannel profiles were located along all the refraction and two-ship reflexion lines. Interpretation of the refraction profiles has been made by using ray tracing as well as synthetic seismograms. Conventional seismic processing techniques have been used to prepare the two-ship multichannel seismic data for interpretation. The survey is believed to be the first attempt to apply two-ship multichannel seismic data to the study of the change in crustal structure of a rifted passive margin from the shelf to the ocean crust. The results from the experiment led to the identification of a zone of transition between continental and oceanic crust 8 km wide. The seismic refraction data show progressive thinning of the continental crust from 33 km to about 5 km close to the transition zone. However, extension values calculated in the upper crust from the rotation of fault blocks are much less (1.1-1.4) and suggest that the majority of the thinning is achieved by extensive attenuation of the lower crust.

Avedik, F.; Camus, A. L.; Ginsburg, A.; Montadert, L.; Roberts, D. G.; Whitmarsh, R. B.

1982-05-01

88

Elemental analysis of airborne particulates in Chile.  

PubMed

Aerosol samples collected in three characteristic Chilean cities-including urban and remote zones-have been analyzed by the PIXE spectroscopic technique. Elemental composition, total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particle size distribution, and the peculiar geographic and meteorological parameters have been included in this study. Santiago--the polluted capital of Chile--registered high TSP indexes and important amounts of hazardous elements in air such as S, V, Cr, Zn, Br and Pb. The atmosphere of Antofagasta city showed marine and mineral activity influence. Results from Chillán city are similar to those from rural environments. Protons and deuterons-provided by the isochronous cyclotron of the University of Chile-were used to excite X-ray radiation from the sample. Signals were processed by an energy dispersive detection system, including a cryogenic Si(Li) detector, electronic for pulse amplification and an analog to digital converter. The absolute elemental concentration of the particulate matter in air was obtained through a fundamental parameter equation. Samples consist of particulate material collected directly on Nuclepore filters or deposited over Kapton foils. Typical elements analyzed were Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb. PMID:15092200

Romo-Kröger, C M

1990-01-01

89

[Public financing of health research in Chile].  

PubMed

Background: In Chile, researchers can apply to public research funds through specific research projects and must compete with other professionals of other disciplines. Aim: To perform a critical assessment of the allocation of public funds for health research in Chile by a public institution called CONICYT. Material and Methods: A database was constructed with health projects financed by CONICYT, between 2002 and 2006. Projects were classified (according to their titles) in three methodological categories and nine topics. Age, gender and region where the main researcher is based, were also recorded. Results: 768 research projects were analyzed. Biomedical, clinical and public health research projects accounted for 66, 24 and 10% of allocated funds, respectively. Main researchers were female in 31 % of projects, their mean age was 52 years and 76% worked in the Metropolitan region. Conclusions: These results show that some objectives of the National Research System lead by CONICYT, such as using research as a tool for regional development and allocating funds for conditions with a large burden, are not been met. PMID:20361149

Paraje, Guillermo

2010-03-26

90

ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the ceremony, along with ambassadors in Chile of ESO members States, and representatives of the Chilean government and the scientific community. To review the impact of the numerous projects financed over the last decade, ESO presented the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", based on the reports of the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile fund. Since the beginning, the ESO-Chile fund has granted over 2.5 million euros to finance post-doc and astronomy professors for main Chilean universities, development of research infrastructure, organisation of scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers, and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In addition to the 400,000 euros given annually by ESO to the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, around 550,000 euros are granted every year to finance regional collaboration programmes, fellowships for students in Chilean universities, and the development of radio astronomy through the ALMA-Chile Committee. In total, apart form the 10 percent of the observing time at all ESO telescopes, ESO contributes annually with 950,000 euros for the promotion of astronomy and scientific culture in Chile. The growth of astronomy and related sciences in Chile in the last years has been outstanding. According to a study by the Chilean Academy of Science in 2005, the number of astronomers has doubled over the last 20 years and there has been an 8-fold increase in the number of scientific publications. It is gratifying to see that 100 percent of the observing time granted by international observatories in Chile is actually used by the national community. The same study stated that astronomy could be the first scientific discipline in Chile with the standards of a developed country, with additional benefits in terms of technological improvement and growth of human resources. The English edition of the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe" is available here. The Spanish edition can be downloaded here.

2006-06-01

91

The Politics of Space and Culture in Santiago, Chile’s Street Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discussions of contentious politics have focused on struggles in and over space and place. This article builds upon\\u000a these concerns by using ethnographic, interview, and documentary data to analyze the spatial politics of street market vendors\\u000a in Santiago, Chile. Drawing upon Lefebvre’s concepts of perceived, conceived, and lived space as well as ideas drawn from\\u000a research on space and

Joel Stillerman

2006-01-01

92

Zur Reflexion und Transmission elektromagnetischer Wellen bei senkrechtem Einfall auf ebene Grenzflächen zwischen unterschiedlich absorbierenden Medien  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Born und Ladenburg bemerkten bereits 1911, daß bei der Reflexion und Transmission elektromagnetischer Wellen durch eine Grenzfläche zwischen zwei verschieden stark absorbierenden Medien außer den mit den laufenden Wellen verbundenen Poyntingvektoren noch ein zur Erfüllung der Energiebilanz an der Grenzfläche notwendiger, sog. gemischter Poyntingvektor zu beachten ist. Die mit diesem Vektor beschriebene Energieströmung ist stets dorthin gerichtet, wo aus derselben mehr Energie absorbiert wird. Sie entsteht im Zusammenhang mit einer räumlichen Modulation des Energieverbrauchs im partiell stehenden Interferenzfeld der einlaufenden und der reflektierten Welle, wobei die Energieabsorption bei den meisten Substanzen durch das elektrische Feld erfolgt, während das Magnetfeld daran praktisch unbeteiligt ist.Da jedoch die Mitberücksichtigung der magnetischen Effekte zum besseren Verständnis des gemischten Poyntingvektors beitragen kann. wird im folgenden zu ihrer quantitativen Beschreibung in die zweite Maxwellsche Gleichung ein dem Stromglied in der ersten Maxwell-Gleichung analoger Zusatzterm eingeführt. Die Amplitude des gemischten Poyntingvektors erweist sich dann als wesentlich abhängig vom Verhältnis der elektrischen zu den magnetischen Verlusten. Dies wird durch Betrachtung eines Mediums verdeutlicht, in welchem außer den Verlusten durch das elektrische Feld auch hiermit vergleichbare Verluste über das Magnetfeld auftreten, wobei beide Verlustarten zusammen eine an die räumliche Verteilung der Feldenergie besser angepaßte Absorption ergeben. Bei gleichen Energiedichten und Energieverlusten des elektrischen und des magnetischen Feldes verschwindet der gemischte Poyntingvektor.Translated AbstractOn Reflection and Transmission of Electromagnetic Waves Propagating Perpendicular to Plane Surfaces between Different Absorbing MediaBorn and Ladenburg already in 1911 pointed out that to describe reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves through a plane surface between two different absorbing media in addition to the usual Poynting vectors of the running waves the so called mixed Poynting vector is necessary to maintain the balance of energy on the boundary plane. The flow of energy connected with this vector always points toward the region of maximal wastage of this energy and is closely related to the spatial modulation of the energy consumption within the partially standing interference pattern between the incoming and the reflected wave. In almost all substances the energy absorption is caused by the electric field whereas practically a direct contribution from the magnetic field can be neglected.But taking account of these magnetic effects we may get a better understanding of the mixed Poynting vector. To that end we add to the second of the Maxwell equations a quantity analogous to the electric current term in the first Maxwell equation. The amplitude of the mixed Poynting vector then turns out to depend essentially on the ratio of the energy absorption by the electric and the magnetic field. To confirm this fact we consider a medium, which shows in addition to the usual electric losses also magnetic ones of comparable magnitudes. In such materials the resultant energy consumption is distributed more similar to the spatial distribution of the fieldenergy. As a result the amplitude of the mixed Poynting vector disappears if the percentage of energy absorption by the electric and the magnetic field and their energy densities themselves are made equal to each other.

Richter, G.

93

Certain Vegetables and Grape Juice: Probable Economic Effects of Accelerated Tariff Elimination for Certain Goods of Chile. Investigation No. 332-398 and Chile FTA-103-020.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (U.S.-Chile FTA), signed June 6, 2003, was implemented in both countries on January 1, 2004. Under the agreement, all U.S. duties on fruit and vegetable imports from Chile were scheduled to be eliminated by the...

2008-01-01

94

Political justice under authoritarian regimes in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent military regimes of Argentina (1976-83), Brazil (1964-85), and Chile (1973-89) each dealt with opponents and dissidents in different ways. The institutional configurations--formal and informal rules governing the application of political \\

Anthony W. Pereira

2003-01-01

95

Household treatment for "chile burns" of the hands.  

PubMed

In New Mexico, chile peppers (Capsicum annum) are prepared by roasting and manually removing the skin from the fruit. Peeling is often done barehanded and may cause prolonged burning pain, irritation, and erythema but not vesication. In a survey of elderly Hispanic women, treatment with oils or cool tap water were frequently used home remedies. Twenty female subjects immersed their hands in a standardized slurry of green chile for 40 minutes, afterwards one hand was placed in cool tap water and the other in vegetable oil for a total of 75 minutes. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale while the hands were immersed in the chile slurry, test baths, and after drying. The difference in pain score was calculated for each subject. Analysis was by pooled regression. Cool tap water immersion initially provided more relief while vegetable oil provided better long-term relief from the pain of "chile burns". PMID:3441015

Jones, L A; Tandberg, D; Troutman, W G

1987-01-01

96

[Additions to the geometrid fauna (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) of Chile].  

PubMed

Three species of geometrid moths are reported from the extreme North of Chile. All three are new for the Chilean fauna: Scopula umbilicata (Fabricius, 1794) (Sterrhinae), Cataspilates grisescens Warren, 1897, and Pero obtusaria Prout, 1928 (Ennominae). PMID:18506295

Vargas, Héctor A; Hausmann, Axel

97

Preliminary forecast model energy map - 2010 Chile event  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image show preliminary calculations for wave height resulting from the February 2010 tsunami generated by the 8.8 magnitude earthquake that struck just offshore of Maule, Chile on February 27, 2010.

Center, Noaa T.

98

Industry Sector Analysis - Woodworking Machinery (Chile) November 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The furniture manufacturing sector in Chile, as a whole, is a well-developed industry by Latin America standards, and is still open for foreign investment, either for expanding or retrofitting the existing facilities. Sources contacted for this analysis i...

C. Vidal

1994-01-01

99

Three halls for music performance in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

2002-11-01

100

Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile  

PubMed Central

We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient’s leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus–like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia.

Balcells, M. Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; Garcia, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddo, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.; Fuerst, Paul A.

2011-01-01

101

Endemic scrub typhus-like illness, Chile.  

PubMed

We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient's leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus-like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia. PMID:21888791

Balcells, M Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; García, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddó, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Kelly, Daryl J; Richards, Allen L; Fuerst, Paul A

2011-09-01

102

[Ectoparasitosis of clinical importance in Chile].  

PubMed

Several parasitic diseases affect the skin and appendages in humans, the most common are head lice and scabies. Both diseases have worldwide distribution with geographical variations. In Chile, the reported prevalence of head lice is 20-25% and of scabies 1-5%. Other ectoparasites include fleas and mite, causing transient parasitosis related to human and animal contact. These parasites are associated with various factors such as poor personal hygiene, promiscuity, long hair, crowding, and sharing of combs, among others. Various effective pharmacological therapies are available, which base on several active compounds. Important therapeutic options include topical treatments with pyrethroids, lindane, crotamiton, and malathion as well as oral medications such as ivermectin, which is used in case of drug intolerance, poor treatment response, infections with multiple parasites or concomitant bacterial infections. For some drugs, resistance has been reported in patients received multiple dosis. PMID:22051621

Moreno M, Claudia

2011-10-19

103

Catastrophic influences on the vegetation of the Valdivian Andes, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In association with a devastating earthquake in 1960, thousands of debris avalanches, landslides, and mudflows occurred in\\u000a the Andes of south-central Chile. Catastrophic mass movements associated with seismic activity have affected the Andes of\\u000a south-central Chile several times in the past 400 years and have profoundly influenced the regional vegetation.\\u000a \\u000a The most widespread forest types in the Andean Cordillera of

Thomas T. Veblen; David H. Ashton

1978-01-01

104

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

105

Institutional and Organizational Arrangements for Water Markets in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. Market allocation in\\u000a Chile is possible, in part, because a system of transferable water-use rights was reestablished in 1981. These rights are\\u000a independent of land use and land ownership, thus trading of water rights is fairly unrestricted. The codification of these\\u000a water-use

Robert R. Hearne

106

Opportunities for improving disaster management in Chile: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to propose measures to improve management of rainfall-related disasters in Chile. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research was carried out as a case study in the semi-arid region of Chile where above-normal rainy events occur once or twice during some rainy seasons. Measures to improve management are suggested based on theory, field data, and community participation. The

Paulina Aldunce; Alejandro León

2007-01-01

107

The 2010 Chile Earthquake - Variations in the Rupture Mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude 8.8, February 27, 2010 Chile, that occurred along the south central Nazca\\/South American plate boundary was an underthrusting event with an aftershock length of ~600 km along strike, with a bi-lateral rupture that started near Cobquecura and ruptured north to Valparaiso and ruptured 100 km south of Concepcion. This segment of the south central coast of Chile has

S. L. Beck; D. Comte; T. Lay; E. Kiser; M. Ishii

2010-01-01

108

70 FR 55203 - Meeting of the U.S.-Chile Environment Affairs Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FTA/Final_Texts/ asset_upload_ file 482 -- 401.3.pdf; The U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement...Bilateral/Chile_FTA/asset_upload_file 411--5109.pdf. DATES: To guarantee receipt in proper time for...

2005-09-20

109

75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the...order would supersede a prior order issued to the Australia Fund. DATES: Filing Dates: The...

2010-03-09

110

Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.  

PubMed

It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. PMID:16163355

Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

2005-09-15

111

Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. Methods The ''decision space'' approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. Findings Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some

Thomas J. Bossert; Osvaldo Larranaga; Ursula Giedion; JoseJesus Arbelaez; Diana M. Bowser

2003-01-01

112

U.S. Exports to Chile: A State-by-State Overview, 1987-1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introductory Note; Statistical Regions Used in the Report; Top State Exporters to Chile; States with Greatest Percentage Growth in Exports to Chile from 1987 to 1991; States with Greatest Dollar Growth in Exports to Chile from 1987 to 1991; Stat...

1993-01-01

113

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2013-01-01

114

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2009-01-01

115

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2010-01-01

116

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2013-04-01

117

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2010-04-01

118

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2009-04-01

119

ANÁLISIS PRELIMINAR DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS Y CAPSAICINOIDES EN VARIEDADES DE CHILE CON DIFERENTE CAPACIDAD PUNGENTE  

Microsoft Academic Search

El chile jalapeño provoca un alto nivel de irritación a diferentes niveles del tracto estomacal en comparación con el chile habanero. A pesar de que el chile habanero presenta una mayor capacidad pungente, no es irritante. A la fecha se desconoce la naturaleza de los compuestos responsables de este efecto. En el presente trabajo se reporta el análisis preliminar de

Salvador Horacio; Guzmán Maldonado; Irineo Torres Pacheco; Mario González Chavira; María Alejandra; Mora Avilés; Guadalupe Herrera Hernández; David Hernández López

120

Nutrition and national development: the case of Chile.  

PubMed

This study is an historical analysis of food consumption and nutrition in Chile emphasizing the influence of political and economic factors on nutritional standards. It attempts to document and explain the persistence of malnutrition as a widespread social problem in Chile even as the country achieved a relatively advanced state of economic development and boasted an unusually progressive record of social legislation. The major findings of the study were: (a) Chile's pattern of development, social reform efforts notwithstanding, consistently discriminated against low-income groups, and (b) this discrimination perpetuated low standards of nutrition and low levels of food consumption among the country's poor and undermined the effectiveness of specific measures to alleviate malnutrition. PMID:468441

Solimano, G; Hakim, P

1979-01-01

121

Analysis and projections of physics in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient for a community that has doubled. Likewise, even 50% of the productivity corresponds to regional centres, only 35% of projects coming from FONDECYT are awarded to the regions (away from the metropolitan region). Regarding experimental Physics, this represents 20% of the community in both, researchers and productivity of the community. However, in the regular FONDECYT contest in 2005, only 2 projects (10%) were awarded in experimental Physics, which is undoubtedly insufficient. The study also includes a brief analysis according to social appraisal of Physics, dissemination activities to other areas of national living, and relation of Physics with the productive sector. Finally, some recommendations are made: - To create a special fund for experimental Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. Complementarily, experimental Physics should be one of the priority areas for the technological and scientific development of the country. - To duplicate the amount assigned to Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. - To create a system that allows increasing the salaries of the researchers in Physics so they could be assimilated to other professional salaries in our country or at an international level. Not only demands must be globalized but also the benefits.

Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

2008-11-01

122

Volatile carbonylic compounds in downtown Santiago, Chile.  

PubMed

Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal, 2-butenal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methylbenzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde were measured during six spring days at downtown Santiago de Chile. Measurements were performed 24h/day and averaged over three hour periods. The averages of the maxima (ppbv) were, formaldehyde: 3.9+/-1.4; butanal: 3.3+/-3.4; acetaldehyde: 3.0+/-0.9; acetone: 2.4+/-1.0; 2-butenal: 0.56+/-0.52; propanal: 0.46+/-0.21; benzaldehyde: 0.34+/-0.3; 3-butanal: 0.11+/-0.05; hexanal: 0.11+/-0.08; 2-methylbenzaldehyde: 0.08+/-0.05; 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde: 0.05+/-0.03. Aliphatic aldehydes (C1-C3) are strongly correlated among them and weakly with primary (toluene) and secondary (ozone plus nitrogen dioxide or PAN) pollutants. In particular, the correlation between acetaldehyde and propanal values remains even if diurnal and nocturnal data are considered separately, indicating similar sources. All these aldehydes present maxima values in the morning (9-12h) and minima at night (0-3h). The best correlation is observed when butanal and 2-butenal data are considered (r=0.99, butanal/2-butenal=6.2). These compounds present maxima values during the 3-6h period, with minima values in the 0-3h period. These data imply a strong pre-dawn emission. Other aldehydes show different daily profiles, suggesting unrelated origins. Formaldehyde is the aldehyde whose concentration values best correlate with the levels of oxidants. The contribution of primary emissions and photochemical processes to formaldehyde concentrations were estimated by using a multiple regression. This treatment indicates that (32+/-16)% of measured values arise from direct emissions, while (79+/-23)% is attributable to secondary formation. PMID:16084564

Rubio, María A; Zamorano, Natalia; Lissi, Eduardo; Rojas, Alicia; Gutiérrez, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich

2005-08-09

123

The Seismogenic Coupling Zone in Central Chile - Amphibious Experiments SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with an onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment between 36\\deg and 39\\deg S, crossing the rupture area of the 1960 Chile earthquake. The campaign comprised: (1) a 2-D wide-angle component recording chemical shots and airgun pulses along three consecutive E-W onshore profiles; (2) a seismic reflection experiment in the onshore-offshore transition; and (3) a 3-D component which recorded both active and passive sources. Offshore, the upper plate is split into many segments with pronounced forearc basins and a narrow accretionary wedge. A thick subduction channel seems to cause a non-frontally accreting subduction mode. Along the westernmost part of the southernmost E-W refraction seismic line, the profile spread of the active reflection seismic survey at 38\\deg 15' S was 54 km long, and also recorded the airgun shots of the marine profile with the first 18 km of its spread. Different mainly eastward dipping reflection bands are observed. Between 5-25 km depth the internal structure of the Palaeozoic accretionary wedge is described. Reflections between 16-42 km correlate with Wadati-Benioff seismicity and are interpreted as imaging the top of the downgoing plate. In the central part of the profile a break in reflectivity located below the axis of the coastal cordillera more or less coincides with the intersection between the oceanic plate and the continental Moho. This break in reflectivity also approximately correlates with the downdip end of the seismogenic plate interface as defined by geodetic modelling. These new seismic data provide the geometry of the subduction zone in the area, and hence we suggest the relocation of the 1960 Chile earthquake at 73\\deg 05' W.

Krawczyk, C. M.; Stiller, M.; Mechie, J.; Lueth, S.; Wigger, P.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Bataille, K.

2003-12-01

124

Detailed Axial Morphology of the Chile Rise as it Approaches the Chile Triple Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New bathymetric mapping along the two southernmost Chile Rise spreading segments shows axial volcanic structure that had not been evident in prior data. On the first segment extending north from the triple junction, where the basement is not obscured by sediment, a narrow line of volcanic structures appears to track the center of the rift valley. However, the next segment north, which is offset almost 50 km along a transform fault, has axial volcanic features that vary in position within the rift valley. In the northern ~half of this segment, lineated small volcanic structures hug the eastern scarp of the rift whereas in the south they are apparent only along the western part of the valley floor. A classic ridge-transform intersection (RTI) nodal deep occurs at this southern end of the segment. The position of the basin is asymmetric relative to the axis, toward the ‘inside corner’ on the eastern side of the rift valley. It is intriguing that the nodal deep, which is often modeled as the result of viscous mantle upwelling and plate stresses at an RTI, is centered on the opposite side of the rift valley from where the most recent volcanic activity occurred. Presumably this reflects interplay between local magma plumbing and tectonic stresses. In addition to the local ridge-transform forces, regional factors associated with subduction along the edge of the Cocos plate may affect mantle flow, melting, and detailed plate kinematics. We will present maps that combine the new Simrad EM122 swath sonar data, obtained during cruise MV1003 aboard R/V Melville, with pre-existing German and Chilean bathymetric grids. We will also discuss some of the tectonic and magmatic implications of the observed detailed morphologic patterns. As one of the few areas on the globe where active subduction and spreading occur in close proximity, the southernmost Chile rise presents a natural laboratory for studying the manifestations of interaction between these processes.

Blackman, D. K.; Henig, A. S.; Barroso, E.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thurber, A. R.; German, C. R.; Inspire Cruise Participants, T.

2010-12-01

125

Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile  

PubMed Central

Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean-born (with similar health needs, i.e. horizontal inequity). Factors associated with immigrants’ access to, and use of, healthcare were sex, urban/rural status, education and country of origin. Conclusion There were significant associations between SES, and access to and use of healthcare among immigrants in Chile and a higher prevalence of no health care provision entitlement among poor and disabled immigrants compared to the Chilean-born. Changing associations between access and use of healthcare and SES among immigrants in Chile over time may reflect changes in their socio-demographic composition or in the survey methodology between 2006 and 2009. Resumen Introducción La evidencia internacional indica menor acceso y uso de servicios de salud por parte de inmigrantes, pero sus factores desencadenantes varían significativamente dependiendo del contexto. Algunas investigaciones se han desarrollado en este tema en América Latina, desde una perspectiva cualitativa. Este estudio cuantitativo exploró el auto-reporte de acceso y uso de servicios de salud de inmigrantes en Chile y los comparó con la población chilena. Métodos Análisis secundario de datos de encuesta nacional CASEN 2006 y 2009. Inmigrantes fueron comparados con chilenos en características demográficas (edad, sexo, urbano/rural, composición del hogar, etnia), estatus socioeconómico (educación, ingreso, situación contractual), tipo de previsión (pública, privada, otra, ninguna), y uso de varios servicios de atención primaria. Análisis descriptivo, estratificado, y modelos de regresión ponderados para entender factores asociados al acceso y uso de servicios de salud en STATA 11.0. Resultados Se observó un aumento de reporte de inmigrantes y de la desigualdad en el ingreso de inmigrantes entre 2006 y 2009. Hubo una disminución en la tasa de inmigrantes sin previsión y un aumento en el acceso al sistema privado. Los inmigrantes usaron más frecuentemente la atención prenatal y ginec

2012-01-01

126

Dual seismogenic behavior: The 1985 Central Chile Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated leveling lines evidenced almost half a meter of uplift at coastal localities nearby the epicentral region of the March 3, 1985, Ms=7.8, Central Chile earthquake. A tide gauge at Valparaiso and two limnigraphs, 27 km apart, situated at the extremes of Rapel Lake, to the south of the leveling line, have been recording continuously sea level and the equipotential

Sergio E. Barrientos

1995-01-01

127

Dual seismogenic behavior: The 1985 Central Chile earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated leveling lines evidenced almost half a meter of uplift at coastal localities nearby the epicentral region of the March 3, 1985, Ms=7.8, Central Chile earthquake. A tide gauge at Valparaíso and two limnigraphs, 27 km apart, situated at the extremes of Rapel Lake, to the south of the leveling line, have been recording continuously sea level and the equipotential

Sergio E. Barrientos

1995-01-01

128

Forecasting ozone daily maximum levels at Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In major urban areas, air pollution impact on health is serious enough to include it in the group of meteorological variables that are forecast daily. This work focusses on the comparison of different forecasting systems for daily maximum ozone levels at Santiago, Chile. The modelling tools used for these systems were linear time series, artificial neural networks and fuzzy models.

Héctor Jorquera; Ricardo Pérez; Aldo Cipriano; Andrés Espejo; M. Victoria Letelier; Gonzalo Acuña

1998-01-01

129

International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

2005-01-01

130

The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

McEwan, Patrick J.

2013-01-01

131

Photometric Observations of Aerosol Plumes From Lascar Volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lascar volcano, Chile, is the most active volcano in the Central Andes region. We conducted field campaigns at Lascar during October-November 2002 and December 2004, using a visible to near infrared Microtops II sun- photometer to measure spectral optical depths in order to infer particle size distributions of volcanic aerosols in the volcanic plume. Through this method we hope to

L. A. Rodriguez; I. Watson; J. G. Viramonte; M. Poodts; A. Cabrera; A. Amigo; W. I. Rose; C. M. Oppenheimer; G. J. Bluth

2007-01-01

132

Rica Aventura - A new iron meteorite from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A chemical analysis of an iron meteorite found near the Rica Aventura nitrate mine in Chile is presented. The meteorite appears to be a group IVA fine octahedrite and is distinct from group IIA hexahedrites found in the same vicinity. Structural differences between the Rica Aventura meteorite and two other Chilean group IVA octahedrites suggest that Rica Aventura is unique

E. Olsen; W. Zeitschel

1979-01-01

133

Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multi-faceted program of applied research was undertaken to control endemic typhoid fever in Santiago, Chile. These studies included: (1) A Case/Control study to identify risk factors and incriminate specific vehicles involved in transmission of S. typh...

M. M. Levine R. E. Black C. Lanata M. L. Clements S. Sears

1983-01-01

134

Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A multi-faceted program of applied research was undertaken to control endemic typhoid fever in Santiago, Chile. These studies included: (1) A Case/Control study to identify risk factors and incriminate specific vehicles involved in transmission of S. typh...

M. M. Levine R. E. Black C. Lanata M. L. Clements S. Sears

1982-01-01

135

The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the…

Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

2008-01-01

136

In Situ Conservation of Wild Chiles and Their Biotic Associates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild congeners of domesticated crops increasingly serve as sources of genes for improving crop cul- tivars. Although wild congeners have been included in seed collections for ex situ storage, there has been little work to protect populations of these wild species in their natural habitats for in situ conservation. We as- sessed the distribution of chile plants ( Capsicum annuum

Joshua Jordan Tewksbury; Gary Paul Nabhan; Donald Norman; Humberto Suzan; John Tuxill; Jim Donovan

1999-01-01

137

Postseismic deformation in Chile: Constraints on the asthenospheric viscosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

By means of a spherical Earth model with Maxwell rheology, an analysis of the postseismic deformation field due to the viscoelastic relaxation of the mantle and asthenosphere following the great 1960 Chile earthquake is performed. Due to the exceptional energy release of that earthquake, geomorphological evidences of postseismic deformation are available in a broad area surrounding the rupture zone. The

Antonio Piersanti

1999-01-01

138

Peer effects on student achievement: evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports estimates of peer effects on student achievement, using a 1997 census of eighth-grade achievement in Chile. The data allow detailed measures of peer characteristics to be constructed for each classroom within a school. The paper addresses the endogeneity of peer variables by including school fixed effects that control for unobserved family and student characteristics. The estimates suggest

Patrick J. McEwan

2003-01-01

139

Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

2011-01-01

140

The Evaluation of Education in Chile: Two Opposing Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The case of Chile seems to be one of those most affected by the bursting in of neoliberalism worldwide. Due to the imposition by force, the Chilean education model lived through a series of transformations, which lead to a betrayal of its republican history, as seen in the privatization of education services and the way the right to education

Jorge Inzunza Higueras

2009-01-01

141

School Choice in Chile: Two Decades of Educational Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book examines the decentralization and privatization of schools in Chile. It analyzes whether the introduction of market mechanisms in the supply of, and demand for, schools enhances educational performance. The text discusses the microeconomic assumptions underlying the proposition that elementary and secondary education could function as a…

Gauri, Varun

142

The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides new evidence on the incidence of payroll taxation by examining the experience of Chile before and after the privatization of its Social Security system. This policy change led to a sharp exogenous reduction in the payroll tax burden on Chilean firms; on average, payroll tax rates fell by 25 percent over six years. Using data from a

Jonathan Gruber

1997-01-01

143

Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

2013-01-01

144

Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

Montecinos, Carmen

2009-01-01

145

Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

Cabalin, Cristian

2012-01-01

146

Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santiago de Chile, São Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las

Paulo Artaxo; Pedro Oyola; Roberto Martinez

1999-01-01

147

The Last Glaciation in Central Magellan Strait, Southernmost Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacial landforms and drift stratigraphy in central Magellan Strait, southernmost Chile, document repeated fluctuations during the last glacial cycle of outlet lobes from an ice cap centered over the southern Andes. The lobes developed comparatively low-gradient profiles because of low basal shear stresses over soft deformable beds and this made them sensitive to even small-scale changes in the mass balance.

Chalmers M. Clapperton; David E. Sugden; Darrell S. Kaufman; Robert D. McCulloch

1995-01-01

148

Taxes and income distribution in Chile: some unpleasant redistributive arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the direct impact of taxes on income distribution at the household level in Chile and estimates the distributional effect of several changes in the tax structure. We find that income distributions before and after taxes are very similar (Gini coefficients of 0.488 and 0.496, respectively). Moreover, radical modifications of the tax structure, such as raising the value

Eduardo M. R. A. Engel; Alexander Galetovic; Claudio E. Raddatz

1999-01-01

149

The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

McEwan, Patrick J.

2013-01-01

150

Tsunamis de origen cercano a las costas de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the tsunamis happened in Chile, on the base of variables that, related, they allow to characterize the phenomenon. For it is elaborated a database synthesis from the tsunamis of near origin to our coast for the period 1562-2000, considering the event localization, generator earthquake magnitude (M), hypocenter depth, tsunami magnitude (m) and the maximum bench mark of

MARCELO LAGOS LOPEZ

2000-01-01

151

An index of sustainable economic welfare (ISEW) for Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile has experienced a period of strong economic growth. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has doubled in the past 12 years, however, income inequality remains relatively the same as in the 1960s. The economic growth is primarily attributed to the exports of natural resources, which accounts for 80% of total exports. However, the GDP fails to account for the loss

Beatriz E. Castaneda; Silvia Tiezzi

1999-01-01

152

Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy

2004-01-01

153

Pattern of glacial—interglacial vegetation in subtropical Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pleistocene vegetation in the Mediterranean climate region of subtropical Chile during >40,000 yr of the last glaciation stands in contrast with vegetation of the past 10,000 yr of the present interglaciation. During the last ice age, open woodland of southern beech (Nothofagus dombeyi and N. obliqua types) and Andean podocarp (Prumnopitys andina) mixed with grasses and composites, was established on

C. J. Heusser

1994-01-01

154

Acceptance of Transgenic Milk in La Araucania Region,Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T Considering the high level of concern caused by genetically modified foods (GMF) in developed countries, the relevance of this variable in decision-making about the purchase of fluid milk among consumers in Temuco (La Araucanía Region, Chile) was determined. By means of a personal survey of 400 people and using conjoint analysis, it

2008-01-01

155

Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

2013-01-01

156

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Fish from the Concepción Bay, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic resistant bacteria from commercial demersal and pelagic fish captured in the Concepción Bay, Chile were investigated. Viable counts of antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from gill and intestinal content samples showed high frequencies of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, while the proportion of chloramphenicol resistance was rather low. A high incidence of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline and nitrofurantoin,

C. D Miranda; R Zemelman

2001-01-01

157

Conserving Land Privately: Spontaneous Markets for Land Conservation in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation and administration of national parks has traditionally been the sole responsibility of the government. It entails substantial costs and is seldom fully manageable. However, the free market may provide unexpected help. In Chile, for example, private landowners are buying land for conservation purposes, at their own cost. This article explores this spontaneous market phenomenon, its roots, characteristics, benefits

Elisa Corcuera; Claudia Sepúlveda; Guillermo Geisse

158

FENOLOGÍA DEL CULTIVO DEL CHILE (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Datos diarios de temperaturas máximas y mínimas del aire fueron usados para determinar las unidades calor, que sirvieron como referencia para definir las principales etapas fenológicas en seis tipos diferentes de chile (Capsicum annuum). Las unidades calor sirvieron para inferir el período de mayor requerimiento de nutrimentos, así como la relación con la sintomatología de las enfermedades más importantes

Salvador Montes Hernández; Elena Heredia García; J. Alfonso; Aguirre Gómez

159

Sectoral Demand for Credit and Credit Policy (Chile).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Chile, the use of agricultural credit has not aided sectoral development. This document analyzes the causes of this problem by discussing the behavior of agricultural credit for the period 1965-77, with particular emphasis on the period 1974-77; and by...

C. Cuevas

1979-01-01

160

VESSEL COLLISION WITH A LARGE WHALE OFF SOUTHERN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cruise vessel, Radiance of the Seas (Radiance), with a length of 293 m, docked in Puerto Montt, Chile at 0800 on 30 January 2009. The Radiance, owned by Royal Caribbean International, departed from Punta Arenas at 19:00 on 27 January. It probably traveled south in the Magallanes Straits and then north until it departed the Straits through the Sarmiento

Robert L. Brownell; Barbara Galletti Vernazzani; Carole A. Carlson

161

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that poverty and other structural inequalities would be

Rosario Ceballo; Cynthia Ramirez; Marcela Castillo; Gabriela Alejandra Caballero; Betsy Lozoff

2004-01-01

162

Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both…

Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

2011-01-01

163

Ice volumetric changes on active volcanoes in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the glaciers in southern Chile have been retreating and shrinking during recent decades in response to atmospheric warming and decrease in precipitation. However, some glacier fluctuations are directly associated with the effusive and geothermal activity of ice-covered active volcanoes widely distributed in the region. The aim of this paper is to study the ice volumetric changes by comparing

Andrés Rivera; Francisca Bown; Ronald Mella; Jens Wendt; Gino Casassa; César Acuña; Eric Rignot; Jorge Clavero; Benjamin Brock

2006-01-01

164

Injuries due to deliberate violence in Chile.  

PubMed

An analysis was made over a period of 6 months of the incidents involving deliberate violence as registered in 'Vicaria', the clinic for out-patients within the Cathedral of Santiago de Chile. A total of 236 victims of deliberate violence were observed. Men aged 15-24 years were found to be victims of deliberate violence most frequently. 'Under education' was the most frequently registered occupation for both sexes, and a large group of male victims were 'Unemployed'. 82% of the victims were men and 14% women, 1.5% were boys and 1.5% girls less than or equal to 14 years of age. None of the victims were alcohol intoxicated when arriving in the clinic. The incidents took place in streets for 81% of the male victims and 79% of the female victims, and in the majority of the cases the aggressor(s) was one (or several) police officer(s). Six percent of the female victims had been injured at home. There was no reporting of the aggressor being a relative or acquaintance. The most frequent type of violence was blunt violence from baton(s) (44%), while blunt violence without the use of instruments was reported less frequently (33%). The use of firearms was registered in 18% of the cases, and of sharp instruments, combustion, electro-shock and chain in 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.1% and 0.4% of the cases respectively. A total of 517 primary and secondary diagnoses were applied to the patients. Most of the victims (99%) had moderate or less serious lesions according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) (score less than or equal to 2). Twenty-four percent of the victims had more than 4 lesions, and 7% more than 10 lesions. The head/neck region and the trunk were affected with equal frequency, the frequency of injuries of the head/neck region being comparable with that observed among torture victims and in contrast to the pronounced predominance of injuries of the head/neck region observed in a Danish emergency ward study of deliberate violence. PMID:2376361

Aalund, O; Danielsen, L; Sanhueza, R O

1990-07-01

165

Weathering of iron meteorites from Monturaqui, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monturaqui is a meteorite crater, 370 m diameter, in the Andes Mountains, Chile. The surface topography and the state of the corroded meteorite suggest, however, that the climate some time ago must have been more humid. Small fragments of severely corroded iron meteorites have been collected in the vicinity, 50-200 m from the crater rim. Fourteen fragments of iron shale have been examined in order to determine the corrosion products of an entirely disintegrated iron meteorite. Polished sections display some vugs and microporosities and are more than 99.9% oxidic. The nonoxidic parts are minute particles of taenite (38-42 wt% Ni), shcreibersite, rabdite (42 wt% Ni, 0.13 wt% Co, 12.5 wt% P), and cohenite (microhardness 1100 +/- 50). The overall morphology of the oxide shales, which sometimes are of breadcrust type, is that of a coarse octahedrite. X-ray diffractometry on powder samples discloses goethite and maghemite, and occasionally peaks from lepidocrocite and reevesite were identified. Peaks from magnetite, akaganeite, and hematite were not identified. The mineralogy and oxidation state of Fe was also investigated by Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy. Spectra of a representative powder sample were obtained between 16 and 350 K. No indication of purely Fe(II)-containing compounds was present. The dominating components in the Mossbauer spectra are due to maghemite and goethite. The chemistry of the oxides was investigated by microprobe analysis including Fe2O3, NiO, CoO, SiO2, Al2O3, SO3, and Cl in the scheme. The total of the analyses varied from 80.3 to 100.9 wt% with a mean of 87.9 wt%. Despite the relatively simple mineralogy, it is not simple to relate the analyzes to different mineralogies (or mixtures) because of the unknown porosity of the analyzed points and the content of structural hydroxyls in goethite. Point analyses having totals close to 100 may be considered to be dominated by relatively bulky aggregates of maghemite.

Koch, C. Bender; Buchwald, V. F.

1994-07-01

166

ISA virus in Chile: evidence of vertical transmission.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), genus Isavirus (family Orthomyxoviridae), is present in all large salmon (Salmo salar)-producing countries around the North Atlantic. The target species for this virus are members of the genus Salmo, but the virus may also replicate in other salmonids introduced to the North Atlantic (Oncorhychus spp.). Existing ISA virus isolates can be divided into two major genotypes, a North American (NA) and a European (EU) genotype, based on phylogenetic analysis of the genome. The EU genotype can be subdivided into several highly supported clades based on analysis of segments 5 (fusion protein gene) and 6 (hemagglutinin-esterase gene). In 1999 an ISA virus belonging to the NA genotype was isolated from Coho salmon in Chile, and in 2007 the first outbreaks of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon was observed. Several salmon farms in Chile were affected by the disease in 2007, and even more farms in 2008. In this study, ISA virus has been isolated from salmon in a marine farm suffering an outbreak of the disease in 2008 and from smolts with no signs of ISA in a fresh water lake. Sequencing of the partial genome of these ISA viruses, followed by phylogenetic analysis including genome sequences from members of the NA and EU genotypes, showed that the Chilean ISA virus belongs to the EU genotype. The Chilean ISA virus groups in a clade with exclusively Norwegian ISA viruses, where one of these isolates was obtained from a Norwegian brood stock population. All salmonid species in the southern hemisphere have been introduced from Europe and North America. The absence of natural hosts for ISA viruses in Chile excludes the possibility of natural reservoirs in this country, and the close relationship between contemporary ISA virus strains from farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and Norway suggest a recent transmission from Norway to Chile. Norway export large amounts of Atlantic salmon embryos every year to Chile; hence, the best explanation for the Norwegian ISA virus in Chile is transmission via these embryos, i.e. vertical or transgenerational transmission. This supports other studies showing that the ISA virus can be transmitted vertically. PMID:19034606

Vike, Siri; Nylund, Stian; Nylund, Are

2008-11-26

167

Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, ?3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep-sea chemically-reducing ecosystem (hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, oxygen minimum zones and large organic falls) have the potential to co-exist.

German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

2010-12-01

168

PARALELO ENTRE LA ACTIVIDAD Y LA SUSTANCIA ADICTIVA DESDE UN ENFOQUE SOCIAL Y SUS POSIBLES TRATAMIENTOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El tema de las adicciones ha sido abordado históric amente por la literatura desde múltiples puntos de vista, sin embargo en esta investigación bibliográfica nuestra intenci ón es dimensionar las teorías sobre el origen de la s adicciones, considerando la complementariedad teórica para la q ue se presta el tema, permitiendo un paralelo con l as terapias psicoanalíticas y

Alan Herzberg; Viviana Messina; Diego Moreno; Natalia Olmedo; Romina Pitronello; Francisca Roman

169

HONGOS COMESTIBLES SILVESTRES COLECTADOS EN LA X REGION DE CHILE (Wild eatable mushrooms collected in the X Region of Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty species of wild eatable mushrooms (autochtho- nous and exotic) Basidiomycota and Ascomycota that fructify in vegetal remains, native forests, forest planta- tions, parks, gardens and, prairies of the X Region of Chile are reported. A macro-microscopic description of them is presented and their ecological aspects and distribution are commented. Besides, a list of those wild eatable Basidiomycota that fructify

170

ACEPTACIÓN DE LECHE TRANSGENICA EN LA REGIÓN DE LA ARAUCANÍA, CHILE Transgenic milk acceptance in La Araucanía Region, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the much concern caused by the Genetically Modified Foods (GMF) in developed countries, it was determined the relevance of this variable in fluid milk purchase decision-making process in consumers of Temuco (La Araucanía Region, Chile) and the existence of different market segment. By means of a personal survey to 400 people and using conjoin analysis was determined that the

171

SEISMIC DESIGN OF LOS QUILLAYES TAILINGS DAMS IN CHILE DISEÑO SISMICO DE LA PRESA DE RELAVES LOS QUILLAYES IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the characteristics of Los Quillayes high tailings dam currently in operation at Los Pelambres copper mine in Chile and also includes a description of the selected design earthquake, the geotechnical characterization of tailings sand including cyclic strength, and the stability analysis originally carried out, both 2D and 3D, and other design considerations. A description of the current

Luis Valenzuela

172

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for establishing a new centre for observation in Chile - ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new centre for astronomical observation in Chile.

2002-12-01

173

Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): Achievements, Open Questions and Strategies for the Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being…

Pigozzi, Mary Joy

2010-01-01

174

ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. ESO has constructed a road from the main road in the area (the ``Old Panamericana'') to the summit. It passes by the ESO base camp (in the foreground, left of the road). The constructors' camp is located on the other side of the road. This photo (ESO PR Photo 08/94-1) accompanies ESO Press Release 08/94 of 6 May 1994 and may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-2: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is located in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. The altitude is 2650 metres. In this view towards the East, the high mountains of the Andean Cordillera are in the background. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. The four excavations for the buildings that will house the four 8.2 metre VLT unit telescopes are clearly seen. There are some dust clouds from the construction activity at the site. There are several other peaks in this area which may possibly be used for astronomical installations. The one to the left on which some site testing equipment can be seen, is known as the ``NTT Peak''. This photo (ESO PR Photo 08/94-2) accompanies ESO Press Release 08/94 of 6 May 1994 and may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-3: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is located in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. The altitude is 2650 metres. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. The four excavations for the buildings that will house t

1994-05-01

175

Typing of the rabies virus in Chile, 2002-2008.  

PubMed

In Chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008. A total of 612 RABV isolates were tested using a panel with eight monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein (N-mAbs) for antigenic typing, and a product of 320-bp of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced from 99 isolates. Typing of the isolates revealed six different antigenic variants but phylogenetic analysis identified four clusters associated with four different bat species. Tadarida brasiliensis bats were confirmed as the main reservoir. This methodology identified several independent rabies enzootics maintained by different species of insectivorous bats in Chile. PMID:22458941

Yung, V; Favi, M; Fernandez, J

2012-03-30

176

[Hantavirus in Chile: review and cases analysis since 1975].  

PubMed

Since the identification of the first case of Hantavirus infection in Chile in 1995, a great advance in the knowledge of the disease natural history has occurred. There is evidence to suppose that the infection by Andes virus in suburban areas of Argentina and Chile, whose natural reservoir is Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, has been present but unidentified for a long time. We describe a serologically proven case occurred in 1975. The clinical presentation of the disease slightly differs from that described for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS), caused by Sin Nombre virus in the USA. There is a wider range of presentation forms including, besides HPS, mild and asymptomatic cases, a greater proportion of renal involvement and pediatric cases. Therefore the epidemiological scenario would be an endemic disease with fluctuations that follow changes in rodent population and their interactions with humans. PMID:10835761

Baró, M; Vergara, J; Navarrete, M

1999-12-01

177

[Chile: political education and a critical reading of television].  

PubMed

A study of television was conducted in Chile in 1971. There is a discontinuous aspect in the requests of the public, especially in times of crisis and rupture with the traditional order. In order to measure the various levels of appreciation and critique raised by the television in various areas of the working class in Chile, the poblaciones (peripheric residential zones) were chosen as the place for the study. 100 interviews were conducted. 60% of the people questioned were sympathizers or militants of the various left wing parties; the other 40% were sympathizers or militants of the opposition (Christian democracy, National party and right wing of the radical party). Television does not make any distinction between the publics, but the public makes distinctions between the effects of television. Melodramas and detective programs have the largest adhesion in the popular public of Latin America. PMID:12261387

Mattelart, M

178

75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised...

2010-02-23

179

Refractive error study in children: results from La Florida, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To assess the prevalence of refractive errors and vision impairment in school-age children in a suburban area (La Florida) of Santiago, Chile.METHODS:Random selection of geographically defined clusters was used to identify a representative sample of children 5 to 15 years of age. Children in the 26 selected clusters were enumerated through a door-to-door survey and invited to report to a

Eugenio Maul; Silviana Barroso; Sergio R. Munoz; Robert D. Sperduto; Leon B. Ellwein

2000-01-01

180

A study of migration to Greater Santiago (Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resumen  Se presentan los resultados mas significativos de una encuesta realizada en el Gran Santiago (Chile) en 1962 por el Centro\\u000a Latinamericano de Demografia de las Naciones Unidas (CELADE). La población estudiada era por entonces de, aproximadamente,\\u000a 2.054.000 habitantes. Dieha investigación utilizó una muestra probabílistiea de poco más que 2.000 hogares familiares. Los\\u000a cuestionarios fueron diseñados para investigar características demoqráficas y

Juan C. Elizaga

1966-01-01

181

International comparison of platinum resistance thermometers between Chile and Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An International Bilateral Comparison of Platinum Resistance Thermometers was performed between the National Metrology Institutes of Chile (LCPNT) and the Ecuadorian Standardization Institute of Ecuador (INEN), both represented by their National Laboratories of Temperature. This comparison was carried out in the range from -39 °C up to 232 °C. The final results obtained by each laboratory showed to be equivalent (EN < 1) in the measured temperature range.

Araya, M.; Almeida, D.

2013-09-01

182

Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.  

PubMed

We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4. PMID:21691853

Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

2011-06-21

183

Childhood nutrition in Chile: From deficit to excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile has undergone an epidemiological and nutritional transition. In children, there has been an important decline in the rates of nutritional deficit, measured as weight\\/height (W\\/H) and height\\/age (H\\/A) with a corresponding increase in the prevalences of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these changes and present the results to the institutions in charge of

Juliana Kain; Fernando Vio; Cecilia Albala

1998-01-01

184

Mercury Contamination in Chile: A Chronicle of a Problem Foretold  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Incas and the people they dominated, some of which lived in the northern central region of Chile, used mercury for a long\\u000a time without understanding much about it. At first, its usage was only as an adornment on objects utilized in their sacred\\u000a ceremonies. The mercury was found along with other metals in a rock that was known as

Carlos A. Barrios-Guerra

185

mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.  

PubMed

The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. PMID:16323203

García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

2006-03-01

186

76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: December...

2011-12-16

187

Curriculum Convergence in Chile: The Global and Local Context of Reforms in Curriculum Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 14 years since Chile's return to democracy, educational reform has figured prominently in the social policy agenda. As is true throughout Latin America, Chilean policy makers have placed the quality of educational opportunities among their main concerns. Having previously focused on the numerical expansion of enrollment, Chile's leadership…

Valverde, Gilbert A.

2004-01-01

188

Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

Young, Nathan

2007-01-01

189

The Guggenheims and the Coming of the Great Depression in Chile, 1923-1934  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of Guggenheim's nitrate enterprise in Chile from 1925 to 1932 provides a lesson about the transformation of Guggenheim's investments in Chile, as well as about the main problems that arose after the restructuring of the Guggenheim family business. Guggenheim's venture in Chilean nitrate production from the mid 1920s through its failure in 1934 constituted at first Guggenheim's most

Elisabeth Glaser-Schmidt

190

The use of partial extraction geochemistry for copper exploration in northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future discoveries of copper resources in the richly endowed porphyry copper belts of northern Chile are likely to occur in areas covered by post-mineral sedimentary and volcanic rock. Most of northern Chile is within a region of interior drainage that has existed since at least mid-Tertiary time when many of the porphyry copper deposits were being uplifted, eroded and supergene

David L. Kelley; Gwendy E. M. Hall; L. Graham Closs; Ian C. Hamilton; Robert M. McEwen

2003-01-01

191

Co-management and “consciousness”: Fishers’ assimilation of management principles in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile's new Management Area system delegates management responsibility to organizations of artisanal shell-fishers on the condition that they team with professionally trained marine biologists. A survey of participating fishers in Chile's Fourth and Fifth regions examined four social benefits predicted to result from this type of co-management: (1) improved rapport between fishers and the state, (2) greater awareness among fishers

Sarah Schumann

2007-01-01

192

Role of Technological Gatekeepers in the Growth of Industrial Clusters: Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Giuliani E. Role of technological gatekeepers in the growth of industrial clusters: evidence from Chile, Regional Studies. Industrial clusters are often associated with innovative success. However, there is very little research on what types of organizational models apply to clusters as they grow. This paper uses longitudinal micro-level data for a wine cluster in Chile. It shows that the most

Elisa Giuliani

2011-01-01

193

Small scale mining in the area of the Choapa river, Central Chile: an environmental risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Choapa valley is typically for the northern part of Chile with agriculture based one hundred percent on irrigation influenced by serious variations of precepitation. It will also become one of the major copper mining districts of Chile due to the increase in production of the mine Los Pelambres. For a further development of the water resources esp. groundwater a

Michael Wrobel; Thomas R. Rüde; Stefan Wohnlich

194

Estudio cualitativo de los determinantes de la violencia escolar en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative study of school violence determinants in Chile. Results of a qualitative research on school violence carried out in Chile are presented. Particularly, this paper presents the results regarding the determinants of school violence according to the perception of high school students considered by their schools as aggressive or violent. Among the multiplicity of factors that young people establish as

Mauricio García; Pablo Madriaza

2006-01-01

195

A Decade Lost and Found: Mexico and Chile in the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s. This paper analyzes four possible explanations for why Chile recovered much faster than Mexico did. Comparing data from the two countries allows us to rule out a monetarist explanation, an explanation based on falls in real wages and real exchange rates, and a debt overhang explanation. Using growth accounting,

Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

2002-01-01

196

Guide to Conducting Business Along the Houston, Texas-San Antonio, Chile Trade Corridor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Guide to Conducting Business along the Houston, Texas-San Antonio, Chile Trade Corridor describes both the logistics chain and steps that need to be taken to conduct business between the United States and Chile along the sea corridor joining the port of...

L. B. Boske C. F. Samudio

2003-01-01

197

Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

2002-01-01

198

Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

Matear, Ann

2007-01-01

199

Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in…

Matear, Ann

2006-01-01

200

Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

Young, Nathan

2007-01-01

201

Offshore transport episodes of anthropogenic sulfur in northern Chile: Potential impact on the stratocumulus cloud deck  

Microsoft Academic Search

An outstanding meteorological feature appearing off the coast in Central and Northern Chile is the persistent stratus cloud deck under the subtropical Pacific High. It has a large impact on the regional and global energy balance and atmospheric circulation. In connection with mid-latitude synoptic-scale disturbances, subsiding easterly flow down the subtropical Andes often occurs in Northern Chile allowing large anthropogenic

Nicolás Huneeus; L. Gallardo; J. A. Rutllant

2006-01-01

202

Observations and Modeling of the 27 February 2010 Tsunami in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 27 February 2010, a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred just off the coast of Chile, 100km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The tsunami accounts for 124 victims out of about 500 fatalities. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event and tsunami

C. E. Synolakis; H. M. Fritz; C. M. Petroff; P. A. Catalan; R. Cienfuegos; P. Winckler; N. Kalligeris; R. Weiss; G. Meneses; C. Valderas-Bermejo; C. W. Ebeling; A. Papadopoulos; M. Contreras; R. Almar; J. C. Dominguez; S. E. Barrientos

2010-01-01

203

Permisos comerciables de emisión en Chile. Lecciones, desafíos y oportunidades para países en desarrollo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile has pioneered the implementation of emission offseting programs pursuing simultaneously economic growth and environmental protection. In this paper, emission trading programs implemented in Santiago of Chile are analyzed and its relevance for developing countries is evaluated. It is argued that emission trading programs can be the best tool to deal with air pollution problems even in cases in which

Enrique Calfucura; Jessica Coria; José Miguel Sánchez

2009-01-01

204

Chile: Climbing on Giants' Shoulders: Better Schools for all Chilean Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile has made impressive progress in educational attainment. Yet, despite recent improvements, outcomes, as measured by PISA results, still need to catch up with OECD standards and equity problems should be addressed. One decisive ingredient will be better teachers. Chile should aim to attract qualified individuals to the profession and bolster initiatives to improve initial teacher education and training. A

Nicola Brandt

2010-01-01

205

The Emergence Of New Successful Export Activities In Latin America: The Case Of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of new export opportunities has been an important trait of economic growth and development in Chile since the mid-1970s (Agosin, 1999; Meller, 1994; and Meller and Sáez, 1995). An additional aspect that makes Chile an interesting case study is that these opportunities have arisen almost entirely in segments of the food and forestry sectors.1 This marks a clear

Claudio Bravo-Ortega; Manuel Agosin Trumper

2007-01-01

206

The Emergence of New Successful Export Activities in Latin America: The Case of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys overall export growth in Chile and focuses on three case studies of the emergence of successful export activities in Chile: wine, pork and blueberries. Each case study discusses how companies, associations, and governments at various levels have addressed market failures and facilitated the provision of public goods necessary for each activity. The case studies additionally profile first

Manuel Agosin; Claudio Bravo-Ortega

2009-01-01

207

Chemical and chronologic complexity in the convecting upper mantle: Evidence from the Taitao ophiolite, southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of the ca. 6Ma Taitao ophiolite, Chile, located ?50km south of the Chile Triple Junction, allows detailed chemical and isotopic study of rocks that were recently extracted from the depleted mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (DMM). Ultramafic and mafic rocks are examined for isotopic (Os, Sr, Nd, and O), and major and trace element compositions, including the highly

Ruth F. Schulte; Manuel Schilling; Ryo Anma; James Farquhar; Mary F. Horan; Tsuyoshi Komiya; Philip M. Piccoli; Lynnette Pitcher; Richard J. Walker

2009-01-01

208

75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...the antidumping duty order on preserved mushrooms from Indonesia would not be likely...

2010-04-15

209

POWER, NATURE AND NEOLIBERALISM: THE POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF WATER IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1990s, international water sector reforms have centred heavily on economic and market approaches. In regard to water resources management, tradable water rights have been promoted, often supported by the neoliberal model adopted in Chile. Chile's 1981 Water Code was reformed to comprise a system of water rights that could be freely traded with few restrictions. International financial institutions

Jessica Budds

2004-01-01

210

Percepción diferenciada de salsa de tomate transgénica en el sur de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. Differentiated perception of transgenic tomato sau- ce in the southern Chile. The present study considers the debate generated in developed countries by genetically modified foods, the importance of this variable to consumers in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) when purchasing tomato sauce and different market segments were studied through a personal survey administered to 400 people. Using conjoint analysis, it

B. Schnettler Morales; O. Sepúlveda Bravo; D. Ruiz Fuentes; M. Denegri Coria

2008-01-01

211

How general are global trends in biotic homogenization? Floristic tracking in Chile, South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To quantify the occurrence of floristic change in the vascular flora of Chile. We test whether continental areas have experienced floristic modification leading to either homogenization, differentiation or tracking. Methods On the basis of the geographical distribution of native (1806 species) and naturalized plants (552 species) in continental Chile, we quantified change between two floristic stages: (1) pre-European flora,

Sergio A. Castro; Fabian M. Jaksic

2008-01-01

212

Pliocene near-trench magmatism in southern Chile: A possible manifestation of ridge collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight shallow-level intrusions and an ophiolite complex have recently been discovered in a remote region along the Pacific coast of southern Chile known as the Taitao Peninsula. The magmatic rocks are found only 10 to 15 km from the buried extension of the Peru-Chile Trench. The ophiolite body includes serpentinized ultramaflc rocks, gabbro, dikes, and an interbedded sequence of volcanic

Randall D. Forsythe; Eric P. Nelson; Michael J. Carr; Margaret E. Kaeding; Miguel Herve; Constantino Mpodozis; Jose Manuel Soffia; Salvador Harambour

1986-01-01

213

Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

214

[AIDS in Chile: a problem with multiple facets].  

PubMed

Chile's 1st case of AIDS was diagnosed in 1984. Some 250 AIDS cases and 1600 HIV positive persons have since been reported, although the actual number by some estimates may reach 5000. Chile, although in the initial stages of the epidemic, already has a serious problem which at present can only be combatted through education. It will be necessary to convince the population that significant modifications of sexual behavior are needed to control the spread of the disease. Education for AIDS prevention is a priority of the National Commission on AIDS (CONASIDA), which is basing its program on the premise that stable monogamy is the most natural form of expression of a couple. Manuals for prevention are under development, and the 1st, for health workers and the general population, is in process of publication. A series of pamphlets and educational videos for workers in sexually transmitted disease clinics are under development. Educational materials are also being created for specific groups such as university students and agricultural workers and for groups at high risk. A social communications campaign has been prepared and approved by the authorities, and is awaiting funding for dissemination. Education of the population is also a concern for the Catholic Church, which views reinforcement of the family and its mission of providing sex education as a primary means of preventing AIDS. CONASIDA is also responsible for epidemiological study of AIDS in Chile through surveillance of sentinel groups and in quality control of the blood supply. Condoms are to be distributed in sexually transmitted disease clinics for the purpose of AIDS prevention. PMID:12343309

Ormazabal, B

1991-03-01

215

Physical Dating Violence Victimization in College Women in Chile  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. Methods A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n?=?441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Results Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Conclusions The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of dating violence, HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs for adolescents and young adults.

Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Zhao, Zhenxiang

2010-01-01

216

Microalgal blooms: a global issue with negative impact in Chile.  

PubMed

Ecological and health problems posed by microalgal blooms (red tides) occurring in the Southern part of Chile are reviewed. Out of the six human illnesses provoked by microalgal toxins, paralytic shellfish poisoning is the most important, because of its high mortality rate and the high levels of phycotoxins found in contaminated molluscs. Saxitoxin and its analogues bind to a receptor in the voltage-gated sodium channel of neural membranes. The most important toxin-producer microalgae are Alexandrium catenella and Dinophysis acuta. Phycotoxins become concentrated by filter-feeding shellfish, like Mytilus chilensis. Highly sensitive methods available for detection of microalgal toxins are analyzed. PMID:10029901

Lagos, N

1998-01-01

217

[Exanthematic typhus epidemic in Chile (1932-1939)].  

PubMed

After the great epidemic of the exanthematic typhus of 1918-1919 in Chile, there was a gradual decrease in the number of cases , until it became endemic around 1926. Starting in 1932 and until 1939 a new epidemic outbreak occured that prompted researchers to its study supported by the new clinical and technological advances of this period. Subsequently, two important events occured: the erradication of the vector ( human louse) by means of effective insecticides and the discovery of an effective antibiotic treatment. PMID:23877780

Laval, Enrique

2013-06-01

218

Monitoring marine life from space - Envisat experience in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of satellite data, primarily from instruments aboard ESA's Envisat, together with in situ sea measurements, provide a powerful tool for monitoring the environmental conditions of coastal waters and the health of southern oceans. Ocean monitoring by satellite remote sensing to protect public health and the fishing industry started in southern Chile in 2002. Last year, a major advance was achieved when Envisat data products were received in near-realtime, allowing early detection of marine conditions that favoured harmful algal bloons and the growth of dangerous bacteria.

Rodriguez, Cristina; Haag, Christian; Fea, Maurizio; Gutierrez, Héctor

2006-05-01

219

Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile has been found between 12 600 and 10 200 cal. yr BP. The new site at Salar Punta Negra (24°28S/60°53W/2976 m) includes about 1000 classifiable, mostly unifacial artefacts and, uniquely, three different diagnostic types of early projectile points. Two of the Lateglacial/early Holocene projectile types have wide distribution and are known from different geographical areas in South America: the Palaeoindian Fell fish-tail point mainly from the southern cone of South America, and the triangular Tuina points typical of the Puna of the south-central Andes in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. In addition, we found a third type, a stemmed point typical for the Salar Punta Negra. Filling a large geographical gap of Fell occupation, the site at Salar Punta Negra provides evidence for generally much higher mobility and diversity of early cultures, and supports an Andean-Pacific route for early human exploration of South America to the south through the desert at intermediate altitudes. Contemporaneous high-amplitude climatic changes were fundamental preconditions to provide adequate environments and habitats, and to make Palaeoindian hunting-gathering occupation possible in the Atacama Desert.

Grosjean, Martin; Núñez, Lautaro; Cartajena, Isabel

2005-10-01

220

Challenges for psychiatric recruitment and training in Chile.  

PubMed

Abstract This paper aims to describe the current challenges to recruitment of psychiatrists in Chile, and investigate factors related to interest in psychiatry from medical students of the Chilean Biobío Region. An online survey was completed by 39 medical students currently performing the internship. This survey included questions regarding socio-demographic aspects, probability of choosing a medical speciality, influencing factors on the choice of the medical speciality, and personal features. Students were separated in two groups for the analysis based on their likelihood of choosing psychiatry as a career. A total of 35.9% of the respondents showed some degree of interest in psychiatry. Factors considered important by the respondents were academic opportunities, training vacancies, and balance between job and personal life. The low participation in the study does not allow the extrapolation of data to the national situation, and may represent response bias to those already interested in psychiatry as a career. However, Chile has an average psychiatrist rate per number of inhabitants for the region, but an uneven distribution of this resource. National policies must be focused on this issue in order to reduce the gap in mental healthcare. PMID:24032495

Vicente, Benjamín; Rosel, Leonardo

2013-08-01

221

Astronomy Outreach Activities in Chile: IYA 2009 and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.

Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.

2012-08-01

222

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters between the parties.

2002-10-01

223

IRIS Community Response to the Great Chile Earthquake of 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and the 2nd largest to be recorded by modern digital seismic networks. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of seismologists from Germany, France, the UK, and the US, working with seismologists in Chile, coordinated resources to deploy both broadband and short period seismometers and accelerometers above the rupture zone to capture aftershocks associated with this significant earthquake. The U.S. IRIS Community response involved deployment of 59 broadband and 4 combined broadband and accelerometer stations spanning the rupture region of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. Four of these stations were subsequently upgraded for real-time telemetry, and these data have been freely available from the IRIS DMC since shortly after they came online. Data recorded at these stations will be combined to produce an open international community data volume providing an unprecedented opportunity to investigate processes associated with great earthquakes and to image the anatomy of a subduction zone. Scientific objectives potentially attainable using this unique data set fall into two general categories: (1) rupture processes of megathrusts, and (2) active tectonics and dynamics of an oceanic-continental (Andean) margin. For example, the relatively dense station spacing - 30 km - of the IRIS CHAMP (Chile RAMP) broadband seismic network will facilitate investigation into the character of the aftershock zone in the low-slip regions of the main shock to determine if these regions are locked or creeping, and whether these states are governed by variations in temperature or fluid content. The dataset also offers opportunities to generate higher resolution images of the seismogenic zone, forearc wedge, and subducting slab, that can reveal the role that spatial changes in material properties play in seismogenesis and slab dynamics. We can take advantage of data collected before the event at collocated stations to investigate secular changes in the properties of the medium in the rupture zone or upper plate, which can further elucidate the role of fluids in the seismogenic zone.

Meltzer, A.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S.; Russo, R. M.; Simpson, D. W.; Barrientos, S. E.; Comte, D.; Pardo, M. H.; Ruiz, J.; Aranda, C.; Slad, G.; Greschke, B.; Barstow, N.; Bonnet, B.; Reusch, A. M.; Bataille, K.; Cabello, O.; Velasco, A. A.; Ebeling, C. W.; Tilmann, F.; Vilotte, J.; Rietbrock, A.; Heit, B.; Schurr, B.; Lange, D.

2010-12-01

224

Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations. Updated December 10, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following a violent coup against democratically elected Marxist President Salvador Allende in 1973, Chile experienced 17 years of military rule under General Augusto Pinochet before reestablishing democratic rule in 1990. A center-left coalition of partie...

P. J. Meyer

2009-01-01

225

Chile: Political and Economic Conditions and U.S. Relations. Updated March 2, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following a violent coup against democratically elected Marxist President Salvador Allende in 1973, Chile experienced 17 years of military rule under General Augusto Pinochet before reestablishing democratic rule in 1990. A center-left coalition of partie...

P. J. Meyer

2010-01-01

226

Some Evidence on Educational Relationships in Chile. (CI-370.0983-G618).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of two empirical investigations involving education in Chile. The first study estimates the importance of school and non-school variables to dropout rate differences among schools. The second study evaluates the impact on w...

M. Goldfarb

1972-01-01

227

La Productividad Científica de Economía y Administración en Chile. Un Análisis Comparativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper compares the volume and scientific productivity of Business Administration and Economics in Chile with the rest of scientific disciplines at the national and international levels. Given that scientific productivity is heteroge

Claudia Contreras; Gonzalo Edwards; Alejandra Mizala

2006-01-01

228

Easter Island, Chile Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS). Parts A, C-F.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A statistical data summary of surface weather observation climatology for: Easter Island Chile. This summary is similar to the Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO), but is based on data collected from limited-duty weather obser...

1985-01-01

229

77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...must make a substantial investment in the sector to achieve...firms have already made investments in Chile's renewable...would attract global investment and provide an incentive...Date Day Activity...medium-sized firm (SME) \\1\\, and...

2012-10-18

230

Multilevel modeling of social factors and preterm delivery in Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Birth before the 37th week of gestation (preterm birth) is an important cause of infant and neonatal mortality, but has been little studied outside of wealthy nations. Chile is an urbanized Latin American nation classified as \\

Jay S Kaufman; Faustino T Alonso; Paulina Pino

2008-01-01

231

United States and the Republic of Chile Partner to Battle Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A new alliance between the United States National Cancer Institute and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Chile, aims to accelerate progress against cancer in Hispanic populations in the United States and Latin America.

232

Investigations of the Cerro Colorado Pluton, Northern Chile, Using Enhanced LANDSAT Thematic Mapper Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Digitally enhanced Thematic Mapper images of the Cerro Colorado pluton, northern Chile, were studied in conjunction with fieldwork. The imagery displays many internal features which suggest that the intrusion is more complex than previously noted. The bul...

A. Pontual

1988-01-01

233

[Scarlet fever epidemic during year 1929 in Chile].  

PubMed

Scarlet fever is endemic in Chile, with relatively low morbidity and periodic exacerbations every 4 or 5 years, which can become epidemics. From 1921 to 1927, the number of patients hospitalized in the country fluctuated from 15 to 65 per year, until an epidemic involving nearly 3.000 patients started at the end of 1928 and continued during all 1929. 978 patients died, 537 (52.5%) were from Santiago. Public Health authorities confronted this emergency with prevention, prophylaxis, isolation and treatment measures and 558 beds were disposed for patient hospitalization. Vaccination trials were undertaken and specific treatment with antitoxins was used in patients with toxic clinical cases, having satisfactory results. Convalescent patients were controlled in order to stop the spread of the infection. After approximately 3 years, this disease returned to its regular endemicity. PMID:19621150

Laval R, Enrique

2009-06-16

234

How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?  

PubMed Central

In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented.

Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois

2012-01-01

235

Influence on UV Radiation by wildfire smoke in Valparaíso, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV absorption in Valparaíso, Chile, is analyzed during the passage of a smoke column from a nearby forest fire. Total solar absorption is measured, UVB and UVA radiation, UV nanometre to nanometre between 295 nm and 315 nm. With the purpose of seeing what factors intervene in this absorption, tropospheric ozone and PM10 particulate material are measured during the passage of this smoke column from the forest fire. In addition, considerations were made on the chemical compounds which are normally present during a forest fire such as, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, etc., depreciating their evidence that is the PM10 particulate material, which acts as a black body that is primarily responsible for the UV absorption. This affirmation is based on the fact that no absorption, which notoriously indicates some particular compound, was observed on the spectroradiometer register. All of the bands, nanometre to nanometre, showed the same behaviour, indicating the same type of absorption.

Da Silva, L.; Cortés, O.; Ossandón, Á.; Mera, E.

2012-02-01

236

Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile  

PubMed Central

Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities.

Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

2011-01-01

237

Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today.

Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustin; Appenzeller, Otto

2009-01-01

238

Interannual variability of the coastal fog at Fray Jorge relict forests in semiarid Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal mountains of semiarid Chile are punctuated by patches of fog-dependent evergreen forests. Fog episodes often occur when the prominent coastal topography intercepts a well developed deck of stratocumulus (Sc) off north central Chile. A 22-year record of ground-based fog observations at Fray Jorge Biosphere Reserve (FJBR, 30°S), atmospheric reanalysis and satellite derived low cloud amount are used to

René Garreaud; Jonathan Barichivich; Duncan A. Christie; Antonio Maldonado

2008-01-01

239

Anatomy and affinities of the petrified plants from the teriary of Chile (VI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new species and one new genus of dicotyledonous woods,Chilechicoxylon microporosum gen. et sp. nov.,Proteoxylon patagonicum sp. nov. andLaurinium beilschmiedioides sp. nov., are described from the Tertiary (or in case of the first and last species from the Cretaceous-Tertiary) of Chile\\u000a Chico, XI Region, Chile. Previously only wood of temperate species has been identified from Patagonia.Proteoxylon patagonicum (Proteaceae) is the

Makoto Nishida; Takeshi Ohsawa; Harufumi Nishida

1990-01-01

240

Cost-effectiveness of universal childhood hepatitis A vaccination in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatitis A is an important public health problem in Chile. Childhood vaccination has reduced hepatitis A rates in several countries, prompting this evaluation of its cost-effectiveness in Chile. Using a Markov model, we project mass vaccination would reduce hepatitis A cases among birth cohort members and their personal contacts >80%. Vaccination costs of US$ 5.3–6.4 million would be offset by

M. Teresa Valenzuela; R. Jake Jacobs; Oscar Arteaga; Maria S. Navarrete; Allen S. Meyerhoff; Bruce L. Innis

2005-01-01

241

Wide-Angle Seismic Experiment Across the Oeste Fault Zone, Central Andes, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

From December 6-21, 2007, we conducted a 3-component, radio-telemetric, seismic survey along a ~ 15-km wide E-W transect in the Central Andes, at a latitude of ~ 22.41° S, centered north of the city of Calama (68.9° W), Chile. The study area is sandwiched between the Central Depression in the west and the Andean Western Cordillera of Chile. Recording stations,

J. M. Lorenzo; G. A. Yáñez; E. E. Vera; J. Sepúlveda

2008-01-01

242

The Subducted Chile Ridge Imaged with Teleseismic Travel-time Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a teleseismic travel-time inversion for upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the Chile triple junction region. Data were recorded at 46 seismic stations deployed in southern Chile from December 2004 to February 2007 (for details, see the Chile Ridge Subduction Project, http://seismology.geology.ufl.edu/chile). The area covered by the network (42-46 degrees South and 72-78 degrees West) lies above the projected position of the subducted Chile ridge, which separates the Nazca and Antarctic oceanic plates. Because the Nazca plate subducts nearly 5 cm/yr faster than the Antarctic plate, the trailing edge of the last Nazca lithosphere formed before the ridge subducts has been inferred to separate steadily from the leading edge of the Antarctic lithosphere, forming progressively larger slab windows with depth. The relative delay times are obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme, which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 30,000 nodes beneath the region.. We image a high-velocity slab in the upper mantle dipping steeply to the East, which we associate with the subducted Nazca oceanic lithosphere, and a distinct low-velocity anomaly at the projected location of the subducted Chile ridge.

Vandecar, J. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Comte, D.; Murdie, R. E.; van der Lee, S.

2007-12-01

243

The Subducted Chile Ridge Imaged with Teleseismic Travel-time Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a teleseismic travel-time inversion for upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the Chile triple junction region. Data were recorded at 46 seismic stations deployed in southern Chile from December 2004 to February 2007 (for details, see the Chile Ridge Subduction Project, http://seismology.geology.ufl.edu/chile). The area covered by the network (42-46 degrees South and 72-78 degrees West) lies above the projected position of the subducted Chile ridge, which separates the Nazca and Antarctic oceanic plates. Because the Nazca plate subducts nearly 5 cm/yr faster than the Antarctic plate, the trailing edge of the last Nazca lithosphere formed before the ridge subducts has been inferred to separate steadily from the leading edge of the Antarctic lithosphere, forming progressively larger slab windows with depth. The relative delay times are obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme, which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 30,000 nodes beneath the region.. We image a high-velocity slab in the upper mantle dipping steeply to the East, which we associate with the subducted Nazca oceanic lithosphere, and a distinct low-velocity anomaly at the projected location of the subducted Chile ridge.

Vandecar, J. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Comte, D.; Murdie, R. E.; van der Lee, S.

2004-12-01

244

Tectonics and mechanism of a spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction based on new marine geophysical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chile Triple Junction (CTJ), an RTT-type triple junction located at 46°30'S off Taitao Peninsula, the western coast of Chile, is to be remarked in that the Chile Ridge, one of the typical mid-oceanic ridges that generate oceanic plates, is subducting underneath the South American continental plate. It is well known that earthquakes occur frequently off the Chilean coast. But

T. Matsumoto; A. Doi; S. Kise; N. Abe

2010-01-01

245

LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL DESDE UN ENFOQUE INTERDISCIPLINAR EN ESTUDIANTES DE LA CARRERA INGENIERÍA EN AGRONOMÍA ORIENTADA AL DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

La investigación objeto de análisis ofrece un estudio teórico curricular para determinar la presencia del sistema de contenidos, conceptos, habilidades y valores básicos de la problemática relacionada con la Educación Ambiental desde un enfoque interdisciplinario en la carrera de Agronomía, aunque este campo de investigación es muy ilustrado por diferentes autores nacionales e internacionales, se debe señalar que todavía existen

Orlando Rodríguez Ávila

2010-01-01

246

Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( ? = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

1987-05-01

247

Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

248

Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile?  

PubMed Central

Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33°S) to Aysén (46°S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30°S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting ?0.6% seropositivity. We sequenced partial ANDV small (S) segment RNA from 6 HCPS patients and 32 rodents of four different species collected throughout the known range of hantavirus infection in Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single cosmopolitan lineage of ANDV Sout remains the sole etiologic agent for HCPS in Chile.

Medina, Rafael A.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.; Hjelle, Brian

2009-01-01

249

Historical Perspective of a Union Catalog in Chile: Authorities and Periodicals Perspectiva Historica del Catalogo Colectivo en Chile: Autoridades y Publicaciones Periodicas  

Microsoft Academic Search

For almost 20 years, the National Bibliographic Network (Red Nacional de Información Bibliográfica (RENIB)) has been the driving force of library networking and resource sharing in Chile. Administratively dependent on the National Library (Biblioteca Nacional) and also physically located on its premises, RENIB has been very successful in bringing together librarians from most of the major Chilean libraries and in

Elizabeth N. Steinhagen

2002-01-01

250

H-2 antigen frequencies among wild mice from Chile.  

PubMed

Thirty-five wild mice (Mus musculus L.) were captured at four different localities in Chile. The mice were typed for the presence of 15 K-, 11 D-, 14 A-, and two E-region H-2 antigens, using the complement-antibody microcytotoxicity assay. The mice from the sample representing the largest locality had a characteristic antigenic profile distinguishing them from other mouse populations thus far studied. With respect to class I H-2 antigens, the profile was characterized by the presence of antigens H-2K.16, 31, 103, 19, 108, 21, 33, 26, 115, and H-2D.4, 106, 30, 32, 111, 114, and 18 (in order of decreasing antigen frequency), and by the absence of antigens H-2K.15, 17, 20, 113, 116 and H-2D.2, 9, 110, and 112. The profile was, furthermore, characterized by the relatively high frequency of antigens H-2K.16, 31, and H-2D.4 and 106. The profile of class II antigens was also unique to the Chilean population but less conspicuously so than that of the class I antigens. Analysis of antigenic associations suggested that among the 34% blank H-2K alleles there were at least two coding for relatively frequent but as yet unidentified K antigens. Similarly, among the 57% blanks at the H-2D locus there were at least two frequent alleles encoding unidentified D antigens. Analysis of genetic distances suggested similarity between South American mice and mice from coastal regions of Europe. PMID:7314065

Figueroa, F; Klein, J

1981-03-01

251

Earthquake-induced Rockfall and Tsunami in Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On April 21 2007 a magnitude 6.2 (Mw) earthquake took place near Aysen Fiord in southern Chile (45.37S, 73.02W) . This earthquake triggered large landslides and rockfalls on the abrupt topography of the northern and southern flanks of the Fiord. Upon striking the water, these landslides and rockfalls produced a major tsunami that significantly affected both coasts of the Fiord. Several meters of runup in the Fiord resulted in significant damage and 10 fatalities. A tide gage located in Puerto Chacabuco, 15 km from the main rockfalls, recorded the tsunami with maximum peak to trough height of 1.0 m. A seismograph, a hydrophone and a GPS dual frequency device captured the earthquake-generated waveforms and the ensuing rockfall that took place 140 s later. An integrated analysis of the signals reveal the origin and nature of both events. A coupled landslide tsunami simulation is being produced to compare with field observations of the slides and resultant waves.

Barrientos, S. E.; Vigny, C.; Ward, S. N.; Bataille, K. D.

2009-12-01

252

Metagenomes of the Picoalga Bathycoccus from the Chile Coastal Upwelling  

PubMed Central

Among small photosynthetic eukaryotes that play a key role in oceanic food webs, picoplanktonic Mamiellophyceae such as Bathycoccus, Micromonas, and Ostreococcus are particularly important in coastal regions. By using a combination of cell sorting by flow cytometry, whole genome amplification (WGA), and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained metagenomic data for two natural picophytoplankton populations from the coastal upwelling waters off central Chile. About 60% of the reads of each sample could be mapped to the genome of Bathycoccus strain from the Mediterranean Sea (RCC1105), representing a total of 9 Mbp (sample T142) and 13 Mbp (sample T149) of non-redundant Bathycoccus genome sequences. WGA did not amplify all regions uniformly, resulting in unequal coverage along a given chromosome and between chromosomes. The identity at the DNA level between the metagenomes and the cultured genome was very high (96.3% identical bases for the three larger chromosomes over a 360 kbp alignment). At least two to three different genotypes seemed to be present in each natural sample based on read mapping to Bathycoccus RCC1105 genome.

Vaulot, Daniel; Lepere, Cecile; Toulza, Eve; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Poulain, Julie; Gaboyer, Frederic; Moreau, Herve; Vandepoele, Klaas; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Gavory, Frederick; Piganeau, Gwenael

2012-01-01

253

Permanent deformation caused by subduction earthquakes in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are accompanied by coseismic and post-seismic rebound: blocks of crust on either side of the fault spring back to their initial, undeformed configuration. This rebound is well documented by space geodetic data, such as the Global Positioning System. Thus, all earthquake-induced deformation of the crust is considered non-permanent and is modelled as an elastic or visco-elastic process. Here, however, we show that earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in northern Chile caused the crust to deform permanently. We identify millimetre- to metre-scale tension cracks in the crust of the Atacama Desert and use cosmogenic nuclides to date the timing of crack formation. The cracks were formed by between 2,000 and 9,000 individual plate-boundary earthquakes that occurred in the past 0.8-1 million years. We show that up to 10% of the horizontal deformation generated during the earthquakes, recorded by Global Positioning System data and previously assumed to be recoverable, is permanent. Our data set provides a record of permanent strain in the shallow crust of the South American Plate. Although deformation of the deep crust may be predominantly elastic, we conclude that modelling of the earthquake cycle should also include a significant plastic component.

Baker, A.; Allmendinger, R. W.; Owen, L. A.; Rech, J. A.

2013-06-01

254

[Compliance with tuberculosis treatment in adults in Santiago, Chile].  

PubMed

A prospective study was conducted to estimate the current magnitude of adherence to short-course tuberculosis treatment, the degree of abandonment, the characteristics of treatment dropouts, and the causes of this abandonment. The study group was made up of tuberculosis patients over the age of 15 who received care at the Western and Southern Health Services of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, between 1 October 1987 and 31 January 1988. The percentage abandoning treatment, calculated by the life table method, was 11.5. The profile of patients who dropped out of treatment was as follows: male, under 45 years of age, single, low level of education, no steady work, homeless, and alcoholic. In addition, an opinion survey on the variables associated with abandonment was conducted and it was concluded that the main ones were alcoholism and intolerance to tuberculosis drugs. Awareness of this profile makes it possible to take measures to prevent patients from abandoning treatment, as well as to educate and even hospitalize at the start of treatment those tuberculous patients exhibiting such a profile. PMID:1837720

Ferrer, X; Kirschbaum, A; Toro, J; Jadue, J; Muñoz, M; Espinoza, A

1991-11-01

255

Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences  

PubMed Central

Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal.

2013-01-01

256

Traumatic effects of political repression in Chile: a clinical experience.  

PubMed

The author examines psychic trauma resulting from human rights violations in Chile. Starting from trauma theories developed by authors such as Ferenczi, Winnicott and Stolorow, she posits the relevance of the subject's emotionally significant environment in the production of the traumatic experience. She describes the characteristics of the therapeutic process on the basis of a clinical case. She emphasizes the need to recognize the damage that may be produced within the reliable link between patient and analyst, pointing out the risk of retraumatization if analysts distance themselves and apply 'technique' rigorously, leaving out their own subjective assessments. Therapists must maintain their focus on the conjunction of the patient's intersubjective context and inner psychic world both when exploring the origin of the trauma and when insight is produced. The author posits repetition in the transference as an attempt at reparation, at finding the expected response from the analyst that will help patients assemble the fragments of their history and achieve, as Winnicott would put it, a feeling of continuity in the experience of being. PMID:16174610

Cordal, Margarita Díaz

2005-10-01

257

Thermal control of the seismogenic zone of southern central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed thermal models for the Chile subduction zone along two profiles at 38.2°S and 42°S within the rupture area of the 1960 M = 9.5 Valdivia earthquake and south of the 2010 M = 8.8 Maule earthquake. The age difference of the subducting Nazca Plate has a major impact on the thermal regime, being much younger and hotter in the south. Seafloor heat flow observations confirm this difference but also indicate that in the southern area, heat advection at the outer rise cools the incoming plate. Heat flow values derived from the depth of gas hydrate bottom-simulating reflectors are in general agreement with probe and borehole measurements. The positions where the plate interface reaches temperatures of 100-150°C and 350-450°C differ between the two profiles. If these temperatures control the updip and downdip limits of the interplate seismogenic zone, the seismogenic zone widens and shifts landward to greater depths from south to north. Observed microseismicity, however, seems to fade at temperatures much lower than 350-450°C. This discrepancy can be explained in three alternative ways: (1) deformation in a thick subduction channel controls the seismic/aseismic transition; (2) microseismicity recorded over a limited time period does not represent the rupture depth of large interface earthquakes; or (3) the serpentinized mantle wedge controls the downdip limit.

VöLker, David; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Stipp, Michael; Wang, Kelin; He, Jiangheng

2011-10-01

258

Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile.  

PubMed

This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002-2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between sea and lake manure. Dry matter contents were low averaging c. 12-15%. Manures showed low OM contents with values

Salazar, F J; Saldana, R C

2006-09-07

259

Seasonal thermal structure and exchange in Baker Channel, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of four field campaigns undertaken between November 2007 and August 2008 in the Baker Channel fjord complex in southern Chile provide a unique record of the seasonal evolution of its vertical and axial structure. The observations document the warming of subsurface waters during the summer and autumn of 2008 creating a subsurface temperature maximum that persists at the channel head until the following spring. An analysis of the observed horizontal and vertical structure is used to infer that the subsurface heating owes to the seasonal intrusion of relatively warm water from Penas Gulf. A series of numerical simulations provide support for the hypothesis that seasonal density fluctuations in the Penas Gulf are responsible for modulating the exchange of intermediary waters and maintaining anomalously warm water at the channel head from autumn until the following spring. The exchange mechanism involves adjustment of the Baker Channel density field to the summer buoyancy increase in the Penas Gulf, which creates an inflow of relatively warm water that fills the channel below the level of the brackish seaward flowing surface layer. The predominantly seasonal renewal of intermediary waters in Baker Channel contrasts with the more usually synoptic nature of above sill exchange in fjords.

Aiken, Christopher M.

2012-11-01

260

Image of the seismogenic coupling zone in Central Chile: The amphibious experiment SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with an onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment between 36° and 39° S, crossing the rupture area of the 1960 Chile earthquake. The campaign comprised: (1) a 2-D wide-angle component recording chemical shots and airgun pulses along three consecutive E-W onshore profiles; (2) a seismic reflection experiment in the onshore-offshore transition; and (3) a 3-D component which recorded both active and passive sources. Offshore, the upper plate is split into many segments with pronounced forearc basins and narrow accretionary wedges. A thick subduction channel seems to cause a non-accretionary subduction mode. Covering onshore the westernmost part of a long E-W refraction seismic line (one amongst three), the profile spread of the reflection seismic survey at 38° 15`S was 54 km long, with three set-ups of 18 km length each, and extended from the coast to the east. Furthermore, the offshore-onshore transition zone is imaged by a wide-angle section resulting from the registration of the airgun shots of the marine profile with the first 18 km of the spread of the NVR survey. Different mainly eastward dipping reflection bands are observed between 5-25 km depth. These bands are interpreted to describe the internal structure of the Palaeozoic accretionary wedge in the region. The reflections between 25-45 km depth correlate with Wadati-Benioff seismicity and are suggested to image the top of the downgoing plate. Below the coast, the plate dips with c. 15° below the continent. In the central part of the profile, a break in reflectivity located below the axis of the coastal cordillera more or less coincides with the intersection between the oceanic plate and the continental Moho. This break in reflectivity also approximately correlates with the downdip end of the seismogenic plate interface as defined by geodetic modelling.

Krawczyk, C. M.; Stiller, M.; Lüth, S.; Mechie, J.; Spoc Research Group

2003-04-01

261

Protecting the Local Dark-Sky Areas around the International Observatories in Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers efforts by IAU Commission 50's new Working Group on Light Pollution to slow or halt the spread of incipient light pollution near the VLT, the Magellan 6.5m telescopes, Gemini South, SOAR, Blanco and many smaller telescopes in Chile. An effort has just begun to protect the ALMA site in Northern Chile from RFI. Such work includes extensive outreach programs to the local population, schools and industry as well as to local, regional and national levels of government in Chile. The group is working internationally with such organizations as the IDA; one member has recently led the production of "The first world atlas of the artificial night-sky brightness". These efforts have resulted in the first national-level environmental legislation covering dark skies as part of a government effort to protect the environment. Chilean manufacturers are now producing competitive, full-cut-off, street lighting designed specifically to comply with the new legislation. The Chilean national tourism agency is supporting "Astronomical Tourism" based on the dark, clear skies of Chile. An international conference on Controlling Light Pollution and RFI will be held in La Serena, Chile on 5-7 March, 2002, backed up by a parallel meeting of Chilean amateur astronomers. Much work remains to be done. Most of this work is supported by funding from the US National Science Foundation through CTIO, and from ESO, OCIW and CONAMA.

Smith, M. G.

2001-12-01

262

Andes virus infections in the rodent reservoir and in humans vary across contrasting landscapes in Chile  

PubMed Central

Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging infectious disease first reported in Chile in 1995. Andes hantavirus (ANDV) is responsible for the more than 500 cases of HCPS reported in Chile. Previous work showed that ANDV is genetically differentiated in Chile across contrasting landscapes. To determine whether the reservoir rodent (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus) populations are also geographically segregated, we conducted range-wide spatial genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus in Chile using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene. Given that landscape structure influences the incidence of hantavirus infections, we also tested 772 O. longicaudatus specimens for antibodies to ANDV captured during the period 2000 ? 2006. Population genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus are largely congruent with those reported for ANDV, with the host primarily differentiated according to three defined ecoregions, Mediterranean, Valdivian rain forest and North Patagonian rain forest. Significant differences in the relative prevalence of anti-ANDV antibodies in rodent samples also were found across the three ecoregions. We relate these results to the number of reported human HCPS cases in Chile, and discuss the importance of landscape differences in light of ANDV transmission to humans and among rodent populations.

Torres-Perez, Fernando; Palma, R. Eduardo; Hjelle, Brian; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.

2009-01-01

263

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications...471 Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and...

2009-04-01

264

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications...471 Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and...

2013-04-01

265

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications...471 Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and...

2010-04-01

266

High resolution receiver function Images of the lithosphere beneath the Central Andes between 19°and 24° S using data of Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Installation of observatories in northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta), the IPGP (Paris), and the GFZ Potsdam. Currently we operate 16 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers. All seismic stations are located in northern Chile at 19°-24° S between Arica in the North

F. Sodoudi; G. Asch; R. Kind; O. Oncken; J. Vilotte; S. E. Barrientos; P. Salazar Reinoso

2009-01-01

267

Testing models of diversification in mice in the Abrothrix olivaceus\\/xanthorhinus complex in Chile and Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of the forest-dwelling mouse Abrothrix olivaceus and the steppe-dwelling A. xanthorhinus across a transect between 45 and 47 ° ° ° ° S in southern Chile were analysed using the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b ) sequence, substantially adding to the data presented previously for these taxa from Argentina and Chile. The level of variation in the cyt b

M. F. Smith; D. A. Kelt; J. L. Patton

2001-01-01

268

The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

2012-01-01

269

Geographic patterns of distribution of trees and shrubs in the transitional Mediterranean-temperate climatic zone of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

One main aim of biogeography is to determine if species are randomly distributed or if there exist groups of species with common distributional patterns known as chorotypes. In this study, we determined through quantitative techniques if there exists such chorotypes for trees and shrubs in the transitional Mediterranean- temperate climatic zone of Chile, Eigth Administrative Region of Chile. Additionally, we

ERNESTO A. TENEB; LOHENGRIN A. CAVIERES; MARÍA JOSÉ PARRA; ALICIA MARTICORENA

270

Variation and persistence of the middle rocky intertidal community of central Chile, with and without human harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are an important intertidal predator in central Chile. Following a five-year study we report on the effects of the exclusion of humans from the rocky intertidal at Las Cruces, central Chile. The middle intertidal of harvested and non-harvested areas diverged in species diversity and composition during the experiment. In harvested areas the middle intertidal rocky shore was dominated throughout

L. R. Durán; J. C. Castilla

1989-01-01

271

Phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro ?-amylase inhibitory potential of tea infusions (Camellia sinensis) commercialized in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is considered the largest tea consumer in America, so a broad variety of tea types and brands are available in Chilean markets. Thirty-four commercial teas (white, green, red, oolong, and black) commonly found in Chile were evaluated according to their phenolic profiles, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro inhibition against ?-amylase relevant for hyperglycemia control. Multivariate tools were used to evidence

Ana María Quesille-Villalobos; Jorge Saavedra Torrico; Lena Gálvez Ranilla

2012-01-01

272

Preliminary numerical simulations of the 27 February 2010 Chile tsunami: first results and hints in a tsunami early warning perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tsunamigenic earthquake (M 8.8) that occurred offshore central Chile on 27 February 2010 can be classified as a typical subduction-zone earthquake. The effects of the ensuing tsunami have been devastating along the Chile coasts, and especially between the cities of Valparaiso and Talcahuano, and in the Juan Fernandez islands. The tsunami propagated across the entire Pacific Ocean, hitting with

S. Tinti; R. Tonini; A. Armigliato; F. Zaniboni; G. Pagnoni; Sara Gallazzi; Lidia Bressan

2010-01-01

273

Shelf resonance and impact of near-field tsunami generated by the 2010 Chile earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 Chile earthquake of Mw 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in the near field that resulted in warnings across the Pacific. Numerical modeling shows trapping and amplification of the energy over the continental shelf and slope. A spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals resonance oscillations with periods up to 129 min along the central Chile coast. The temporal and spectral data provides an explanation for the long-period waves recorded by DART buoys and the prolonged wave activities and belated impacts reported by residents and survey teams. The present study of the 2010 Chile tsunami together with those of the 2006 Kuril and 2009 Samoa tsunamis has directly associated shelf resonance with impacts on insular and continental coasts and provided a tool to identify at-risk localities in tsunami hazard assessment.

Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai

2011-06-01

274

Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?  

PubMed

Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

2012-08-01

275

Biological vulnerability in the Elqui Valley (Coquimbo Region, Chile) to economically important arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. Pizarro-Araya, J. Cepeda-Pizarro, J.E. Barriga, and A. Bodini. 2009. Biological vulnerability in the Elqui Valley (Coquimbo Region, Chile) to economically important arthropods. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36(2):215-228. Current climate conditions in north-central Chile (25°57´-32°13'S, 71°43´-68°16´W) are characterized by increasing temperatures and decreasing rainfall. Global warming is expected to alter the hydrology and ecoclimatic characteristics of north-central basins with multiple effects,

Jaime Pizarro-Araya; Jorge Cepeda-Pizarro; Juan E. Barriga; Andrés Bodini

2009-01-01

276

Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile  

PubMed Central

Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents’ use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mother’s and father’s use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents’ use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add to the growing evidence concerning the negative consequences of corporal punishment for youth outcomes.

Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

2012-01-01

277

Geomorphological characterization of endorheic basins in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative geomorphology regroups a large number of interesting tools to characterize natural basins across scales. The application of these tools to several river basins allows the description and comparison of geomorphological properties at different spatial scales as oppose to more traditional descriptors that are typically applied at a single scale, meaning the catchment scale. Most of the recent research using these quantitative geomorphological tools has focused on open catchments and no specific attention has been given to endorheic basins, and the possibility of having particular features that distinguish them from exorheic catchments. The main objective of our study is to characterize endorheic basins and investigate whether these special geomorphological features can be identified. Because scaling invariance is a widely observed and relatively well quantified property of open basins, it provides a suitable tool to characterize differences between the geomorphology of closed and open basins. Our investigation focuses on three closed basins located in northern Chile which describe well the diversity in the geomorphology and geology of this arid region. Results show that endhoreic basins exhibit different slope-area and flow paths sinuosity regimes compared to those observed in open basins. These differences are in agreement with the particular self-similar behavior across spatial scales of the Euclidean length of subcatchments, as well as the Hack's law and Horton's ratios. These regimes imply different physical processes inside the channel network regardless of the basin area, and they seem to be related to the endorheic character of these basins. The analysis of the probability density functions of contributing areas and lengths to the lower region shows that the hypothesis of self-similarity can also be applied to closed basins. Theoretical expressions for these distributions were derived and validated by the data. Future research will focus on (1) applying similar analyses in other locations and comparing the results, and (2) understanding and modeling the effects of groundwater in forming the landscape of these arid regions.

Dorsaz, J.; Gironas, J. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

278

The Influence Of Earthquakes On Degassing At Villarrica Volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villarrica is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile and is presently characterized by continuous degassing, high-level seismicity and a persistent lava lake within its crater. Three stationary NOVAC-type scanning Mini-DOAS UV spectrometers for the quantification of SO2 fluxes were installed at the volcano in March 2009. Seismic stations used for this study include the OVDAS (Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur) volcano monitoring network, and 7 dedicated short period and broadband seismometers that were deployed in the region for more than one year. We have registered several cases of correlation between SO2 fluxes and seismic activity (LP events). Seismic events have in several cases been followed by an increase in degassing activity. The response seems to occur on two different time scales. Regional earthquake events in 2009 and 2010, and the 2011 Araucania event which occurred on January 2 and had a magnitude of 7.1, were followed by strongly increased degassing activity at Villarrica 2-4 days later, interpreted as due to increased bubble nucleation in the magmatic system at depth. The large Maule earthquake on February 27, 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 had little immediate effect, but was followed several weeks later by an immense increase in degassing activity of about one order of magnitude compared to the baseline level. We speculate that this was a result of changing stress fields in the lower crust and at mantle depths caused by the Maule event, possibly changing melting conditions temporarily. Numerical models based on seismic, petrologic and gas flux data are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the time-lag between seismicity and degassing. We thus aim at gaining insight into the interface between magmatic and volcano-tectonic processes, especially factors playing a role for the onset of volcanic unrest.

Hansteen, T. H.; Bredemeyer, S.; Garofalo, K.; Pena, P.; Rupke, L.; Mora Stock, C.; Dzierma, Y.; Rabbel, W.; Bataille, K.; Gil Cruz, F.

2011-12-01

279

Segmentation of an Active Forearc Setting Chile (37°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many forearc-regions are characterized by seismo- and morphotectonic segments that may record recurring activity of large earthquakes in the past. Here, we investigate the forearc of the active convergent margin of south-central to southern Chile corresponding to the rupture zone of the Chilean 1960 megathrust earthquake. We apply geomorphological and sedimentological analyses, as well as compiled structural and geophysical data to reconstruct the morphotectonic evolution and segmentation of the active forearc setting, and in a further step, we evaluate the responsible driving forces. It is very important, from a landscape development as well as from an earthquake-hazard perspective, to understand the evolution of forearc segmentation. However, it is not well known on which timescales forearc segments retain their tectono-geomorphic identity, how they are related to earthquake rupture zones, and what may govern their long-term evolution. Our results document a pronounced segmentation of the southern Chilean forearc into three segments that had a semi-independent structural and geomorphic evolution. From north to south we call them Nahuelbuta, Toltén and Bueno segment. Whereas the Toltén segment appears to be quasi-stable, the other two segments record Quaternary uplift. The Nahuelbuta and Bueno segments are characterized by broad, N-S oriented antiformal structures with numerous anomalies in the highly dynamic fluvial network. Our inferred morphotectonic segmentation can be reproduced by structural, seismic as well as gravimetric data, and partly coincides with earthquake rupture zones. Apparently, this segmentation is persistent over time-scales of 104 to 106 years as opposed to transient earthquake rupture zones that exhibit short-term variability over 102 to 103 years. Finally, we propose that this differential forearc evolution is focussed by inherited upper plate structures, but appears to be ultimately controlled by subsequent physical changes in the highly inhomogeneous subducting plate, and rheological properties of the forearc.

Rehak, K.; Strecker, M.; Echtler, H.

2006-12-01

280

Segmentation Control on Crustal Accretion: Insights From the Chile Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Controls on crustal accretion at mid-ocean ridges include spreading rate and mantle temperature and composition. Less studied is the effect of the segmentation geometry, although it has been known for some time that large offset transforms have significant effects on the extent of melting and lava compositions produced by ridges in their vicinity. The PANORAMA 4 expedition surveyed the Chile Ridge between 36°-43°S in order to examine the effects of ridge segmentation on crustal accretion. This section of the ridge is spreading uniformly at intermediate rates (~53 mm/yr) and rock sampling and regional data indicate a largely uniform mantle composition with no systematic changes in mantle thermal structure. Thus the segmentation geometry is the primary crustal accretion variable. The survey mapped and sampled 19 first order ridge segments and their transform offsets. The ridges range from 130 to 10 km in length with mapped transform offsets from 168 to 19 km. The segments primarily have axial valley morphology, with segments longer than ~65 km typically displaying central highs deepening toward segment ends. Mantle Bouguer anomalies (MBAs) show that these segments also have bulls eye lows associated with the central highs indicating thicker crust than at segment ends. Overall the mapped segments displays a trend of increasing depth and MBA, implying diminishing crustal production, with decreasing segment length and increasing transform offset. We examine the cause of this trend by modeling the mantle flow pattern generated by finite length ridge segments using the Phipps-Morgan and Forsyth (1988) algorithm. The results indicate that at a constant spreading rate mantle upwelling rates are greatest and extend deeper near the segment center, and that for segments that are significantly offset, upwelling rates decrease overall with decreasing segment length. The modeling implies that segmentation itself, even without cooling and lithospheric relief at transforms has a strong influence on mantle advection and therefore on crustal production.

Martinez, F.; Karsten, J. L.; Milman, M. S.; Klein, E. M.

2002-12-01

281

INDUCCIÓN Y DIFERENCIACIÓN FLORAL DE CUATRO CULTIVARES DE MANZANO EN CHILE Flower induction and differentiation of four apple cultivars in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The present study was conducted in San Clemente, Chile (35°33' S lat; 71°24' W long), during the 1996- 1997 and 1997-1998 growing seasons, and was aimed to determine the approximate induction and flower differentiation dates on apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) cvs. Royal Gala, Fuji, Red Chief and Braeburn. Induction date was determined

Gustavo Adolfo Lobos; José Antonio Yuri

2006-01-01

282

Aporte de la hojarasca al ciclo biogeoquímico en plantaciones de Eucalyptus nitens, X Región, Chile Litter contribution to biogeochemical cycle in Eucalyptus nitens plantations, X Region, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The litterfall in Eucalyptus nitens plantations, established on an andisol (close to Fresia, X Region, Chile), were measured after canopy closure (4-7 years old), in an area under different fertilization treatments. At canopy closure annual litterfall was the highest (7-11 t ha-1), and becoming lower after it (5-6 t ha-1); the main quantity was measured in summer (45-60%). With

Juan E. Schlatter; Víctor Gerding; Sigrid Calderón

283

The Salar Llamara, Chile: A Possible Analogue for Etched Terrain on Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ``etched terrain'' on Mars is reported to consist of mesas, pits, ridges, etc. formed by differential erosion of layered sedimentary deposits (Griffes et al. 2007). Here we present our work on a unique landscape in northern Chile that possesses many of the features of etched terrain on Mars, offering an Earth-based perspective on the eolian and aqueous processes involved

R. Amundson; A. M. Heimsath; M. Jungers; G. Chong; C. Demergasso

2009-01-01

284

Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

2011-01-01

285

Contributions to the Geology and Palaeontology of Chiloe Island, Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Royal Society Expedition to southern Chile in 1958 geological observations were made at Chepu and on the San Pedro tableland in the island of Chiloe. The island is composed of schist, Tertiary sediments, fluvioglacial deposits and volcanics. The schist, of uncertain age, forming the basement at Chiloe, is an extension of the schist of the coastal range of

W. A. Watters; C. A. Fleming

1972-01-01

286

Carbon pools in an arid shrubland in Chile under natural and afforested conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arid and semiarid regions comprise 41% of the continental area of Chile, but no estimates of carbon (C) pools have been reported for these areas. This study quantified the C pools of biomass, litter, and soil for natural compared to afforested (two-year-old Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L. Wendl.) sit...

287

Implementation of New Technologies to Monitor Phytoplankton Blooms in the South of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot project has been carried out to demonstrate the applicability of remote sensing in the Xth region of Chile, related to the monitoring of algal blooms. Most of the fish farms of the country are located in this area, where considerable economic losses for this activity are the consequence of algal blooms. The implementation of new technologies to monitor

C. Rodríguez-Benito; C. Haag; A. Alvial

2004-01-01

288

Boron exposure assessment using drinking water and urine in the North of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Boron is an essential trace element for plants and humans however it is still an open question what levels of boron are actually safe for humans. This study, conducted between 2006 and 2010, measured exposure levels of boron in drinking water and urine of volunteers in Arica, an area in the North of Chile with high levels of naturally occurring

S. Cortes; E. Reynaga-Delgado; A. M. Sancha; C. Ferreccio

2011-01-01

289

Comparison of Educational Goals in Chile Before and After 1973. Working Paper Series, No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines the educational goals in Chile before and after 1973 when the Chilean military led by Pinochet brutally eliminated the democratically elected government of Allende and the Unidad Popular. Reforms were initiated in 1967, 1968, 1969, and 1970, and at the time of the coup, were being implemented in all eight Chilean universities.…

Kirberg, Enrique

290

Heat balance and eddies in the Peru-Chile current system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peru-Chile current System (PCS) is a region of persistent biases in global climate models. It has strong coastal upwelling, alongshore boundary currents, and mesoscale eddies. These oceanic phenomena provide essential heat transport to maintain a cool oceanic surface underneath the prevalent atmospheric stratus cloud deck, through a combination of mean circulation and eddy flux. We demonstrate these behaviors in a regional, quasi-equilibrium oceanic model that adequately resolves the mesoscale eddies with climatological forcing. The key result is that the atmospheric heating is large (>50 W m-2) over a substantial strip >500 km wide off the coast of Peru, and the balancing lateral oceanic flux is much larger than provided by the offshore Ekman flux alone. The atmospheric heating is weaker and the coastally influenced strip is narrower off Chile, but again the Ekman flux is not sufficient for heat balance. The eddy contribution to the oceanic flux is substantial. Analysis of eddy properties shows strong surface temperature fronts and associated large vorticity, especially off Peru. Cyclonic eddies moderately dominate the surface layer, and anticyclonic eddies, originating from the nearshore poleward Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC), dominate the subsurface, especially off Chile. The sensitivity of the PCS heat balance to equatorial intra-seasonal oscillations is found to be small. We demonstrate that forcing the regional model with a representative, coarse-resolution global reanalysis wind product has dramatic and deleterious consequences for the oceanic circulation and climate heat balance, the eddy heat flux in particular.

Colas, François; McWilliams, James C.; Capet, Xavier; Kurian, Jaison

2012-07-01

291

Climatic change in Chile at around 2700 BP and global evidence for solar forcing: a hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palaeoecological and geological evidence for changing atmospheric circulation patterns in Chile indicates that equatorward and poleward shifts of the Southern Westerlies (Pacific precipitation source) were an important factor during Weichselian and Holocene climate change. We focus on the evidence and possible causes of considerable climate change in the Holocene at around 2700 BP, which was associated with a steep rise

Bas van Geel; Calvin J. Heusser; Hans Renssen; Cor J. E. Schuurmans

2000-01-01

292

Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits"…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

293

Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…

Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

2011-01-01

294

The Impact of School Choice and Public Policy on Segregation: Evidence from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Advocates argue that vouchers can make improved educational opportunity available to disadvantaged students. Critics contend that vouchers increase the risk of stratification. Researchers have found that Chile's voucher program has lead to increased socioeconomic school segregation. What has been overlooked, however, is segregation between…

Elacqua, Gregory

2012-01-01

295

Trends in the Elemental Composition of Fine Particulate Matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle

Sonja N. Sax; Petros Koutrakis; Pablo A. Ruiz Rudolph; Francisco Cereceda-Balic; Ernesto Gramsch; Pedro Oyola; Zhengmin Qian; Qingci He; Hung-Mo Lin; Lingli Kong; Duanping Liao; Niannian Yang; Christy Bentley; Shuangqing Xu; Benjamin Burns; Kenneth Krach; Charles Cole; Jessica Mangus; Howard Butler; Baikun Li; Donald Robinson; Ronke Luke-Boone; Vineet Aggarwal; Buzz Harris; Eric Anderson; David Ranum; Thomas Kulp; Karla Armstrong; Ricky Sommers; Thomas McRae; Karin Ritter; Jeffrey Siegell; Doug Pelt; Mike Smylie; Eugene Kim; Philip Hopke; Yi-Ming Kuo; Jian-Wen Wang; Cheng-Hsien Tsai; Stephen Musson; Timothy Townsend; Kurt Seaburg; John Mousa; Ke Du; Mark Rood; Byung Kim; Michael Kemme; Bill Franek; Kevin Mattison; Joan Cook; James Noel; Pratim Biswas; Daniel Giammar; Jorge Jimenez; Candis Claiborn; Timothy Larson; Timothy Gould; Thomas Kirchstetter; Lara Gundel

2007-01-01

296

Contested H 2O: Science, policy and politics in water resources management in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically explores the politics that mediate the use of environmental science assessments as the basis of resource management policy. Drawing on recent literature in the political ecology tradition that has emphasised the politicised nature of the production and use of scientific knowledge in environmental management, the paper analyses a hydrological assessment in a small river basin in Chile,

Jessica Budds

2009-01-01

297

Discrimination and Victimization: Parade for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride, in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the population participating in the LGBT Pride Parade in Santiago, Chile, from discrimination and victimization standpoints. The sample consisted of 488 subjects older than 18 years (M = 25.1), who were interviewed during the 2007 event. For this purpose, a questionnaire from the Latin American Centre of Sexuality and Human Rights (CLAM) was adapted and administered. Approximately

Jaime Barrientos; Jimena Silva; Susan Catalan; Fabiola Gómez; Jimena Longueira

2010-01-01

298

Achievement versus Aptitude in College Admissions: A Cautionary Note Based on Evidence from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years there has been a debate over the alleged superiority of achievement tests over aptitude tests on the grounds that the first would be fairer for college admissions and less influenced by family background. The switch from aptitude tests to achievement tests in Chile presented a unique opportunity to examine this claim. Regression…

Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica; Cofre, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

299

The 16 September 1986 eruption of Lascar volcano, north Chile: Satellite investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images acquired in 1984 and 1985 revealed a pronounced thermal anomaly on Lascar volcano, north Chile. Subsequent images showed that the anomaly was persistent but variable and that after a significant eruption on 16 September 1986 it was weaker and divided into several sources. TM studies and other observations of Lascar indicate that the persistent thermal

L. S. Glaze; P. W. Francis; S. Self; D. A. Rothery

1989-01-01

300

LEARNING TO BEAT COCHRANE'S TREADMILL Public policy, markets and social learning in Chile's small scale agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the small farming development strategy followed in Chile since the early 1990's, shows that in the context of increasingly liberalized economies open to international competition, the success and sustainability of local development initiatives depends on the interaction between market characteristics and signals, reformist public policies, and the approaches used to facilitate social learning and adaptive management. Market-oriented

Julio A. Berdegué

301

CHARACTERIZATION OF TOXOPLASMAA GONDII ISOLATES IN FREE-RANGE CHICKENS FROM CHILE, SOUTH AMERICA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 85 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Chile was determined. Antibodies to T. gondii were...

302

National Voucher Plans in Chile and Sweden: Did Privatization Reforms Make for Better Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines national experiences with educational vouchers in Chile and Sweden in relation to commonly held assumptions of proponents and opponents. Finds that vouchers did not improve academic achievement; "flight from public education" was related to prior lack of public support for public education; increased choice primarily benefited better…

Carnoy, Martin

1998-01-01

303

The Effectiveness and Efficiency of Private Schools in Chile's Voucher System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied the relative effectiveness and efficiency of private and public schools in Chile, which instituted a national voucher plan in 1980 using national achievement figures and financial data. Nonreligious voucher schools are marginally less effective than public schools in predicting academic achievement in fourth grade; Catholic voucher…

McEwan, Patrick J.; Carnoy, Martin

2000-01-01

304

Christian Education in Chile: Is the Seventh-Day Adventist System at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Diverse perspectives with respect to Christian Education constitute a potential path for misunderstanding and contradictions; this study considers this situation in the context of a Seventh-day Adventist Christian system with students and parents from different religious perspectives in Chile. The parents/sponsors of the eighth graders were…

Grajales G., Tevni; Leon V., Vicente H.; Elias, Galiya

2010-01-01

305

Exploring the Relationship Between Export Intensity and Exporter Characteristics, Resources, and Capabilities: Evidence From Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on exporters in Chile in order to compare the characteristics, resources, and capabilities for export success (RACFES) possessed by high, medium, and low intensity exporters. Data for this study were collected throughan Internet survey of Chilean manufacturers that export. Of the 480 companies in the sample, 133 responded to the questionnaire consisting of 69 items, yielding a

Sadrudin A. Ahmed; Juan Rock

2012-01-01

306

ZONAS DE CONCENTRACIÓN DE ICTIOPLANCTON EN EL ARCHIPIÉLAGO DE JUAN FERNÁNDEZ, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We document the horizontal distribution of the ichthyoplankton collected around the oceanic Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile, during the Cimar 6 - Islas cruise, in October 2000. A total of 8.969 eggs and 201 larvae, from 18 fish families, were analysed. Two nearshore spawning areas around the archipelago are described (> 1.000 eggs x 1.000 m -3 ), westward from Alejandro

MAURICIO F. LANDAETA; LEONARDO R. CASTRO

2004-01-01

307

Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

2009-01-01

308

An Experimental Study of Labor Market Discrimination: Gender, Social Class and Neighborhood in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to study the Chilean labor market and determine the presence or absence of gender discrimination. In order to transcend the limitations of earlier works, an experimental design is used, the first of its kind in Chile. This study also allows socioeconomic discrimination associated with names and places of residence to be addressed. The study

David Bravo; Claudia Sanhueza; Sergio Urzua

2008-01-01

309

Análisis del metabolismo energético y de materiales de Brasil, Chile y Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo presenta una aplicación de las metodologías de Análisis de Flujo de Materiales y Análisis Integrado Multi- Escala del Metabolismo Social (MSIASM, siglas en inglés) para la caracterización de modelos de desarrollo económico de Brasil, Chile, y Venezuela, mediante la utilización combinada de datos económicos y de uso de energía y materiales para diferentes sectores y en diversos niveles

Nina Eisenmenger; Jesús Ramos Martín; Heinz Schandl

2007-01-01

310

RECONNAISSANCE FOR URANIUM IN THE PUNTA ARENAS AREA, PROVINCE OF MAGALLANES, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reconnaissance of the Punta Arenas area in southern Chile was made to ; investigate the uranium potential of the sedimentary rocks of Jurassic to ; Tertiary age, many of which show traces of oil although only one sedimentary ; sequence is productive. No metallic or radioactive mineral deposits are known in ; this sedimentary section. No igneous rocks were

P. H. Knowles; W. A. Bowes; A. Moraga B; M. Serrano C

1962-01-01

311

ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

Howie, S. J.

2010-01-01

312

Occurrence and distribution of Chilean dolphin (Cephalorhynchus eutropia) in coastal waters of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chilean dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia, is an endemic species distributed along the central?southern coast of Chile. Biological and ecological knowledge about this species is insufficient; it is catalogued as Data Deficient “DD” by the World Conservation Union. This study provides information on the species’ occurrence and distribution along the central Chilean coast from January 2000 to March 2001. Monthly land?based

Emilia Alvarez; Carlos Olavarría

2007-01-01

313

[Disentery and hepatic abscess in the colonial and republican Chile. Doctor Miguel Claro Vásquez].  

PubMed

The frequency and severity of dysentery and hepatic abscess during the colonial and republican era in Chile are reviewed. The amebian etiology was confirmed in both clinical entities. Also, Miguel Claro Vásquez, physician and later priest and bishop of the Catholic Church, was distinguished for his contribution to hepatic abscess surgery. PMID:20140320

Laval R, Enrique

2010-02-03

314

Information technology in Chile: How perceptions and use are related to age, gender, and social class  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was conducted in two cities in Chile to determine the perceptions and use of information technology (IT) by people of different ages and genders, and from different social classes. The survey results show that the main variable influencing IT use and perception is social class: the higher a user's social class, the more positive their perception of IT

José O. Maldifassi; Enrique C. Canessa

2009-01-01

315

Evaporation and land surface energy budget at the Salar de Atacama, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Playa systems are driven by evaporation processes, yet the mechanisms by which evaporation occurs through playa salt crusts are still poorly understood. In this study we examine playa evaporation as it relates to land surface energy fluxes, salt crust characteristics, groundwater and climate at the Salar de Atacama, a 3000 km2 playa in northern Chile containing a uniquely broad range

Stephanie K. Kampf; Scott W. Tyler; Cristián A. Ortiz; José F. Muñoz; Paula L. Adkins

2005-01-01

316

Drivers of land abandonment in Southern Chile and implications for landscape planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades, land abandonment has become one of the most important trends in land use and cover change. This study identifies drivers of land abandonment in Southern Chile through a spatially explicit statistical model, based on an economic theoretical framework. A logistic regression was used to model the probability of land abandonment, observed as the land cover change from

G. Ignacio Díaz; Laura Nahuelhual; Cristian Echeverría; Sandra Marín

2011-01-01

317

Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla  

Microsoft Academic Search

L. Böhm, N. Arismendi, and L. Ciampi. 2009. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36 (2): 249-258. The biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, was evaluated through the addition of organic amendments of dry and chopped leaves of Buddleja globosa, Drymis winteri, Eucalyptus globulus, Gevuina

Laura Böhm; Nolberto Arismendi; Luigi Ciampi

2009-01-01

318

Spatially explicit models to analyze forest loss and fragmentation between 1976 and 2020 in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forest fragmentation threatens biodiversity in one of the last remaining temperate rainforests that occur in South America. We study the current and future impacts of fragmentation on spatial configuration of forest habitats at the landscape level time in southern Chile. For this purpose, we identify the geophysical variables (“pattern drivers”) that explain the spatial patterns of forest loss and fragmentation

Cristian Echeverria; David A. Coomes; Myrna Hall; Adrian C. Newton

2008-01-01

319

Does consideration of GHG reductions change local decision making? A Case Study in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

While local air pollution has been a public concern in developing countries for some time, climate change is looked upon as a non-urgent, developed world problem. In this work we present a case study of the interaction of measures to abate air pollution and measures to mitigate GHG emissions in Santiago, Chile, with the purpose of determining if the consideration

L. A. Cifuentes; G. Blumel

2003-01-01

320

La Libertad do Expression Politica en la Prensa Escrita de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following essay examines the concentration of ownership that is present in current day Chilean written media. Two companies, Consorcio Periodístico de Chile S.A (Copesa) and El Mercurio, constitute a duopoly that easily dominates all other publications in terms of circulation and audience. The power of the duopoly began to grow starting with the military coup of 1973. During the

Jessica Merrill

2010-01-01

321

[Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].  

PubMed

Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health. PMID:18666482

Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

2008-04-01

322

CONSUMERS' PREFERENCES AND WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS IN CHILE : A CONJOINT ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out in Chile in order to evaluate urban consumers' preferences for traditional food, employing conjoint analysis.1 A total of 234 questionnaires were filled out by respondents from two Chilean cities, Santiago and Talca. A homemade marmalade and three product attributes with its respective different levels were chosen (price, quality label and package appearance). Nine profiles were

CARLOS PADILLA; PABLO VILLALOBOS; GUY HENRY

2005-01-01

323

Paulo Freire in Chile, 1964-1969: "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" in Its Sociopolitical Economic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, John Holst presents findings of his historical research on Paulo Freire's educational work in Chile from 1964 to 1969. Freire's "Education as the Practice of Freedom", which was written in 1965 from notes he brought from Brazil, was informed by a liberal developmentalist outlook. In contrast, his "Pedagogy of the Oppressed",…

Holst, John D.

2006-01-01

324

Active faulting in northern Chile: ramp stacking and lateral decoupling along a subduction plate boundary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large features parallel to the coastline of northern Chile have long been suspected to be the sites of young or active deformation: (1) The 700-km long Coastal Scarp, with average height (above sea level) of about 1000 m; (2) The Atacama Fault zone, that stretches linearly for about 1100 km at an average distance of 30-50 km from the

Rolando Armijo; Ricardo Thiele

1990-01-01

325

Enlightenment, Education, and the Republican Project: Chile's "Instituto Nacional" (1810-1830)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the establishment of the "Instituto Nacional de Chile" between 1810 and 1830 as a crucial element of a political and cultural project advanced from an enlightened and republican elite. Its early inception in 1813 resulted from the necessity of consolidating a republican order, as shown by the different projects between 1810…

Baeza Ruz, Andres

2010-01-01

326

Privatization Reform and Inequality of Educational Opportunity: The Case of Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile has experienced considerable educational expansion over the past few decades, as well as a privatization reform in 1981 that introduced full parental choice through a voucher system, in the context of a market-oriented transformation of the country. Using a cohort analysis of the 2001 Chilean Mobility Survey, this article examines trends in…

Torche, Florencia

2005-01-01

327

Exploring Quality of Life during the Transition from School to Work in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from Chile's national household survey (CASEN) for the years 1990-2003 reveal that the transition process from school to active working life has been postponed over the course of the 13 year period while its duration has steadily increased, resulting in a delayed integration into the labour force. This finding is consistent with experiences…

Jeria, Maria

2009-01-01

328

Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a "logic of induction" has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical…

Rambla, Xavier

2006-01-01

329

Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…

Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

2011-01-01

330

Comparing Protest Movements in Chile and California: Interculturality in an Internet Chat Exchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on an analysis of chat transcripts from an English-language telecollaboration project between students at universities in Chile and California. This research found that the richest intercultural interactions involved events that could not have been foreseen: the immigrant rights demonstrations in the USA and the massive student…

Menard-Warwick, Julia

2009-01-01

331

Rethinking the Role of Elite Private Schools in a Neoliberal Era: An Example from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neoliberalism has brought a privatization trend that has deeply affected the structure of the educational system of countries. While public schools lag behind, new forms of private schooling have arisen creating different forms of inequality. Nonetheless, in Chile the major inequality exists between schools attended by low and middle income…

Fernandez, Eduardo Cavieres

2009-01-01

332

The guild structure of a community of predatory vertebrates in central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic ecology of eleven predator species (Falconiforms: Buteo polyosoma, Elanus leucurus, Falco sparverius, Geranoaetus melanoleucus, Parabuteo unicinctus; Strigiforms: Athene cunicularia, Bubo virginianus, Tyto alba; Carnivores: Dusicyon culpaeus; Snakes: Philodryas chamissonis, Tachymenis peruviana) in two nearby localities of central Chile is analyzed. The localities exhibit the typical climate (hot-dry summers, coldrainy winters), and vegetation (chaparral), of mediterranean ecosystems. Densities of

Fabian M. Jaksié; Harry W. Greene; José L. Yáñez

1981-01-01

333

SYNOPTIC ASPECTS OF THE CENTRAL CHILE RAINFALL VARIABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE SOUTHERN OSCILLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Chile winter (June, July, August (JJA)) rainfall shows positive anomalies during the developing stage of warm events of the Southern Oscillation. Conversely, cold events correspond quite closely to dry conditions. A synoptic characterization of major storms during the most recent warm events is presented. Dry months during cold- event years are described in terms of average 500-hPa contour anomaly

JOSE RUTLLANT; HUMBERTO FUENZALIDA

1991-01-01

334

Tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Andes of northern Argentina and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two orogenic cycles, both with different evolution, are developed in the western margin of the South American continent in northern Argentina and Chile: the Paleozoic ``Hercynic'' cycle and the Meso-Cenozoic ``Andean'' cycle. The Hercynic cycle. A wide marine basin extending westward of the Cordillera Oriental which developed in Cambrian-Ordovician times marks the beginning of this cycle. In contrast to Peru

Beatríz Coira; John Davidson; Constantino Mpodozis; Victor Ramos

1982-01-01

335

Moral Dilemmas in Teaching Recent History Related to the Violation of Human Rights in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…

Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel

2009-01-01

336

Los Estados Unidos y la República de Chile se unen para combatir el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Una nueva alianza entre el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de los Estados Unidos y el Ministerio de Salud de la República de Chile, tiene el propósito de acelerar el avance contra el cáncer en la población hispana en los Estados Unidos y en América Latina.

337

Anatomy and affinities of the petrified plants from the tertiary of chile V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of dicotyledonous woods including three new species,Aextoxicoxylon harambouri sp. nov.,Myrceugenellites maytenoides sp. nov.,Laurelites doroteaensis sp. nov. andLaurinoxylon uniseriatum Gothan, were described from the Tertiary of Cerro Dorotea, Ultima Esperanza and Fuego Island, Chile. It was elucidated thatNothofagoxylon boureaui Salard from Cerro Dorotea is synonymous withLaurinoxylon uniseriatum from Antarctica.

Makoto Nishida; Harufumi Nishida

1988-01-01

338

Cost-effectiveness of a folic acid fortification program in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePericonceptional intake of folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), a frequent birth defect that can cause significant infant mortality and disability. In Chile, fortification of wheat flour with folic acid has resulted in significant reduction in the risk of anencephaly and spina bifida. We investigated the cost-effectiveness implications of this policy.

Adolfo Llanos; Eva Hertrampf; Fanny Cortes; Andrea Pardo; Scott D. Grosse; Ricardo Uauy

2007-01-01

339

Ecology of the Patagonia puma Felis concolor patagonica in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of the Patagonia puma was studied in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Thirteen pumas were captured from 1986 to 1989 and equipped with radio transmitters. During the winter of 1988 there was one puma per 17 km2 in the 200 km2 study area. Home ranges varied from 24 to 107 km2. Female home ranges overlapped with those

William L. Franklin; Warren E. Johnson; Ronald J. Sarno; J. Agustin Iriarte

1999-01-01

340

Collusion among Helath Insures in Chile: Good, Bad and Ugly Reasons in a Split Decision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze in this paper the TDLC’s ruling in an antitrust case against five health insurance providers (“Isapres”) in Chile, accused of colluding to reduce the coverage on the health insurance plans they offer. The TDLC is a court of appeals specialized in free competition and composed of a combination of economists and lawyers. We considers the fact that the

Claudio Agostini; Manuel Willington; Eduardo Saavedra

2010-01-01

341

Density dependence in the camelid Vicugna vicugna: the recovery of a protected population in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vicuna Vicugna vicugna is a wild South carrying capacity of the study area was estimated from the census data and from models based on precipitation American camelid. Following over-exploitation, which brought the species to the brink of extinction in Chile in and local primary productivity. Using the census data, an estimation of carrying capacity as the asymptote of the

C. Bonacic; D. W. Macdonald; J. Galaz; R. M. Sibly

2002-01-01

342

Effect of wildfire on soil physical and chemical properties in a Nothofagus glauca forest, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of a wildfire on soil chemical and physical properties in a Nothofagus glauca (Phil.) Krasser forest in the Coastal Mountain Range of south-central Chile were investigated. Response of the soil during the first two years following a wildfire was examined, where data from soil in a burned forest were compared to that in an adjacent, unburned stand. The effects

CREIGHTON M. LITTON; RÓMULO SANTELICES

2003-01-01

343

Contaminación del Aire Atmosférico por Material Particulado en una Ciudad Intermedia: El Caso de Chillán (Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through an analysis of the urban contamination of the city of Chillán in Chile, it is demonstrated that the increase in atmospheric pollution during autumn and winter in the city of Chillán must be considered as a problem of anthropogenic origin. This is explained mainly due to the massive use of wood for residential heating in urban areas of the

José E. Celis; José R. Morales; Claudio A. Zaror; Omar F. Carvacho

2007-01-01

344

Do Depositors Punish Banks for Bad Behavior? Market Discipline in Argentina, Chile, and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

February 1999A study of the banking industries of Argentina, Chile, and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s finds that across countries and across deposit insurance schemes, market discipline exists even among small insured depositors - who punish risky banks by withdrawing their deposits. Bank fundamentals are at least as important as other factors affecting deposit behavior.Peria and Schmukler examine the

Maria Soledad Martinez Peria; Sergio L. Schmukler

1999-01-01

345

Variability of soil water tension in a trickle irrigated Chile pepper field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-water tension variability in a 0.15 hectare drip irrigated chile pepper field was evaluated in order to determine the number of tensiometers required for scheduling irrigations in such a field. Four plots were irrigated with a trickle irrigation system. Fifty tensiometers were installed in each plot and monitored on 13 days using a handheld pressure transducer (tensimeter). The standard deviations

J. M. H. Hendrickx; P. J. Wierenga

1990-01-01

346

Distribution of Hopanoids and Steroids Along a Precipitation Gradient of the Atacama Desert, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atacama Desert in northern Chile is one of the oldest and dries regions on the planet that extends across 1000 km from 20° S to 30° S along the Pacific coast of South America. In recent years this area has received more attention by the astrobiology community after the discovery of Mars-like soils in the Yungay area, the hyperarid

Enrique Iñiguez; Rafael Navarro-Gonzalez; Chris McKay

2008-01-01

347

Metal speciation and environmental impact on sandy beaches due to El Salvador copper mine, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several coastal rocky shores in northern Chile have been affected by the discharges of copper mine tailings. The present study aims to analyze the chemical speciation of heavy metals in relation to the diversity of sessile species in the rocky intertidal benthic community on the northern Chilean coast, which is influenced by the presence of copper mine tailings.In particular, the

Marco Ramirez; Serena Massolo; Roberto Frache; Juan A. Correa

2005-01-01

348

Modeling Soil Carbon Storage in the “Espinal” Agroecosystem of Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unsustainable management of the “Espinal” agroecosystem of central Chile has progressively lowered the organic matter content and fertility of soil as evidenced by decreasing forage production and lower coverage of espino (Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol.), a leguminous tree. This savannah-type ecosystem includes the soil Cauquenes clay loam (Ultic Palexeralfs; Umbric Acrisols) that formed in granitic residuum, and a Mediterranean-type climate

Neal Stolpe; Cristina Muñoz; Erick Zagal; Carlos Ovalle

2008-01-01

349

TacklingHealthInequitiesinChile:Maternal,Newborn, Infant,andChildMortalityBetween1990and2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all preg- nancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth

Rogelio Gonzalez; Jennifer Harris Requejo; Jyh Kae Nien; Mario Merialdi; Flavia Bustreo; Ana Pilar Betran

2009-01-01

350

An unusual Xanthophyllomyces strain from leaves of Eucalyptus globulus in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthophyllomyces sp. was isolated as an epiphytic red yeast from leaves of Eucalyptus glo-bulus in Concepción, Chile. Sexual reproduction was by basidiospores produced from one or rarely two metabasidia arising from a yeast cell without preceding paedogamy. The main carotenoid pigment was astaxanthin. This isolate did not cluster with the X. dendrorhous complex (including Phaffia rhodozyma) in ITS and 26S

Roland W. S. Weber; José Becerra; Mario J. Silva; Paolo Davoli

2008-01-01

351

Subduction of the Chile Ridge Imaged by Teleseismic Travel-time Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making use of teleseismic data recorded at 46 seismic stations deployed in southern Chile from December 2004 to February 2007 (see the Chile Ridge Subduction Project; http:seismology.geology.ufl.edu/chile), we present a preliminary inversion for the mantle P-wave velocity structure beneath the region. The area covered by the network (42-46 degrees South and 72-78 degrees West) lies above the projected position of the subducted Chile ridge, which separates the Nazca and Antarctic oceanic plates. Because the Nazca plate subducts nearly 5 cm/yr faster than the Antarctic plate, the trailing edge of the last Nazca lithosphere formed before the ridge subducts has been inferred to separate steadily from the leading edge of the Antarctic lithosphere, forming progressively larger slab windows with depth. We use the teleseismic inversion to test models for such slab windows. The P-wave relative delay times are obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 30,000 nodes beneath the region.

Vandecar, J. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Comte, D.; Murdie, R. E.; van der Lee, S.

2007-05-01

352

Poverty and Inequality in Chile 1990-1998: Learning from Microeconomic Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contributes to understand the microeconomic determinants of household income dynamics in poverty and inequality in Chile during the 90’s . We use a microsimulation based on the decomposition of distributional changes, developed by Bourguignon et.al. (2000). We estimate a participation model and an earnings equation for each economic agent. We examine how income distribution and poverty would change

David Bravo; Dante Contreras; Sergio Urzúa

2002-01-01

353

Towards post-neoliberalism? The comparative politico-economic transition of New Zealand and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the evolution of the dominant politico-economic paradigm over the past 80 years in two 'resource periphery' nation states that have become 'models' of economic reform, New Zealand and Chile. Analysing the forces that have driven change, it traces the shared transition from a neoclassical model, through structuralist\\/Keynesian principles, and on to neoliber- alism. The paper discusses whether

Edward R. T. Challies; Warwick E. Murray

2008-01-01

354

Los “Chicago Boys”: A Powerful Exchange of People and Ideas between Chile and Chicago  

Microsoft Academic Search

On September 11th, 1973, Chile broke with its strong democratic history when the military bombed the presidential palace and Augusto Ugarte Pinochet began his 17-year dictatorship. On the day of the coup, a team of Chicago-educated Chilean economists presented a document they had been asked to draft by the Chilean Navy. It called for the abolition of the statist economy

Josephine B Reinhardt

2012-01-01

355

Reforming water allocation policy through markets in tradable water rights: lessons from Chile, Mexico, and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing water scarcity, rising costs of irrigation subsidies, and general economic liberalization are creating strong incentives for comprehensive water reform with establishment of tradable water rights and the development of markets in these rights. Experiences in Chile, Mexico, and California indicate that water allocation through markets in tradable water rights offers a viable approach to improving the efficiency of water

Mark W. Rosegrant

1994-01-01

356

Trade Creation, Trade Diversion and Investment Flows: Evidence from the Canada-Chile Free Trade Agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the perspective of the new regionalism described by Ethier (2001), this paper examines the changes in trade patterns introduced with the Canada - Chile Free Trade Agreement signed in 1997. Dynamic gravity equations are used to appraise the trade creation or trade diversion effect for a sample period beginning in 1994 and ending in 2002. Commodities at the two

Guillermo Yane

357

Copper bioavailability in a coastal environment of Northern Chile: Comparison of bioassay and analytical speciation approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach including chemical speciation analyses and microalgal bioassays was used to assess the impact of copper from copper mining on a coastal area in Northern Chile. Dissolved copper ranged from <1?gl?1 at reference sites to 48?gl?1 at sites close to the mine discharge. Dissolved copper at sites closest to the discharge always exceeded seawater complexing capacities determined by

J. L. Stauber; S. Andrade; M. Ramirez; M. Adams; J. A. Correa

2005-01-01

358

Taxonomy, natural history and zoogeography of sand beach isopods from the coast of Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven species of marine isopods were collected on sandy beaches of Southern Chile (from about 37° S until 42° S). From these, Excirolana hirsuticauda Menzies, Excirolana monodi Carvacho, Chaetilia paucidens Menzies, Macrochiridothea setifer Menzies and M. mehuinensis Jaramillo are known only from the Chilean coasts. Another species, Excirolana braziliensis Richardson, is known from other areas of American coasts. One species

E. Jaramillo

1982-01-01

359

Performance and Seismic Vulnerability of Masonry Housing Types Used in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masonry is the most used construction material, especially for residential dwellings built in all regions of Chile, up to four stories high. The masonry wall's reinforcement of these buildings can be classified into three types: confined, reinforced and hybrid. Although buildings with confined masonry walls have limited shear strength and ductility, they have demonstrated acceptable seismic behavior. Experience for buildings

M. O. Moroni; M. Astroza; C. Acevedo

2004-01-01

360

Salmon aquaculture and coastal ecosystem health in Chile: Analysis of regulations, environmental impacts and bioremediation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007 salmon, mollusk and seaweed aquaculture production in Chile totaled 904 thousand tonnes, making the nation the leading marine aquaculture producer in the western world. Salmonids grown in open cage net pens account for over 73% of the production. This review summarizes the current status of Chilean aquaculture and proposes the establishment of new regulations and monitoring programmes that

Alejandro H. Buschmann; Felipe Cabello; Kyle Young; Juan Carvajal; Daniel A. Varela; Luis Henríquez

2009-01-01

361

Choosing policy instruments for controlling ozone depleting substances in a developing context: The case of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile ratified the Montreal Protocol in 1990 which sets out an agenda for the reduction and then elimination of ozone depleting substances (ODS); however, by 1998 the country had not yet defined a strategy to encourage greater compliance, so that in the same year the National Environmental Commission decided to examine the policy options available. This paper examines the process

Raúl O’Ryan; Andrés Ulloa; Gonzalo Asencio

2006-01-01

362

Conservation genetics of the endangered conifer Fitzroya cupressoides in Chile and Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intraspecific patterns of genetic variation can often be used toidentify biogeographic divisions which can be especially useful in thedesign of conservation strategies. Although abundant empirical evidenceexist on the genetic characteristics of plant species from the NorthernHemisphere as well as tropical endangered taxa, this information isparticularly limited on threatened species from endemism-rich areas inthe southern Andes of Argentina and Chile. The

A. C. Premoli; T. Kitzberger; T. T. Veblen

2000-01-01

363

Climate change impacts on an alpine watershed in Chile: Do new model projections change the story?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We evaluate differences in CMIP3 and CMIP5 climate projections.We evaluate climate-attributed changes in the Mataquito river basin Chile, South America.The location of snow line will shift to higher elevations.Reduction in the number of days with precipitation falling as snow.Extreme precipitation and streamflow events expected to become more frequent in 21st century.

Demaria, E. M. C.; Maurer, E. P.; Thrasher, B.; Vicuña, S.; Meza, F. J.

2013-10-01

364

ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

Howie, S. J.

2010-01-01

365

Spreading of the ocean floor: Undeformed sediments in the peru-chile trench  

USGS Publications Warehouse

None of the expected stratigraphic and structural effects of a spreading sea floor have been imposed on the sedimentary fill of the Peru-Chile Trench. During at least the last several million years, and perhaps during much of the Cenozoic, the trench has not been affected by an oceanic crust thrusting under the continent.

Scholl, D. W.; Von Huene, R.; Ridlon, J. B.

1968-01-01

366

Dengue-1 virus isolation during first dengue fever outbreak on Easter Island, Chile.  

PubMed

Dengue virus was detected for the first time in Chile, in an outbreak of dengue fever on Easter Island. The virus was isolated in tissue culture and characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as being dengue type 1. PMID:14718094

Perret, Cecilia; Abarca, Katia; Ovalle, Jimena; Ferrer, Pablo; Godoy, Paula; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena; Ferrés, Marcela

2003-11-01

367

800,000Year Record of Plate Boundary Earthquakes in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coseismic cracks preserved in the hyper-arid Atacama Desert of Northern Chile provide a unique record of the seismic history of the modern Andean forearc, which has generated the largest earthquakes on earth. Loveless et al. (2009) mapped more than 50,000 cracks on satellite imagery and, based on boundary element modeling, suggested that they indicate repeated rupture of approximately the same

A. M. Baker; L. A. Owen; J. Rech; R. W. Allmendinger

2010-01-01

368

First report of root rot of Chicory caused by Phytophthora cryptogea in Chile  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var sativum Bisch.), a relatively new high value crop in Chile, was introduced for commercial production of inulin. Inulins are polysaccharides extracted from chicory tap roots that are used in processed foods due to their beneficial gastrointestinal properties. Approxi...

369

Threats and Opportunities of Science at a For-Profit University in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty years after pro-market policies were first adopted, how best to organize Chile's scientific enterprise remains as elusive as when universities were state-run and funded. This paper explores scientific research at a for-profit university, University Andres Bello, to ask if a new mode of knowledge production is in the making and with what…

Barandiaran, Javiera

2012-01-01

370

Toxoplasma gondii in feral american minks at the Maullin river, Chile  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

American mink (Neovison vison) is a widely distributed invasive species in southern Chile. Thirty four feral minks were trapped at two distinct sites (rural and peri-urban), diet analyzed, and Toxoplasma gondii exposure compared using PCR and specific antibodies. Serum samples were evaluated using a...

371

Imaging the slab beneath central Chile using the Spectral Elements Method and adjoint techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on imaging the subducting slab beneath Central Chile using novel inversion techniques based on the adjoint method and accurate wave propagation simulations using the Spectral Elements Method. The study area comprises the flat slab portion of the Nazca plate between 29 S and 34 S subducting beneath South America. We will use a database of regional seismicity

E. D. Mercerat; G. Nolet; M. Marot; P. Deshayes; T. Monfret

2010-01-01

372

The Legacies of Patrimonial Patriarchalism: Contesting Political Legitimacy in Allende’s Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, how citizens and political leaders have understood, incorporated, and contested the relationship between the familial and the political has been central to the development of their society. The author examines the ideological influence that familial beliefs had on the process of delegitimizing the presidency of Salvador Allende and legitimizing the military coup through an analysis of political rhetoric

Gwynn Thomas

2011-01-01

373

[Geographic variation of the fox Lycalopex culpaeus (Mammalia, Canidae) in Chile: taxonomic implications].  

PubMed

We studied the geographic variation of skulls of Lycalopex culpaeus using qualitative and quantative analyses. The sampling area covered Chile, from its northern portion, to Tierra del Fuego and the neighbouring Hoste Island, as well as part of Argentina. Five subespecies are currently recognized from this large area. We found two morphotypes that are segregated geographically. Both groups mostly differ by morphometric attributes, followed by qualitative features. Specimens from northern Chile (Tarapacá and Antofagasta) have small skulls, short rostrum, a liriform sagital zone, and lack the interparietal crest. The second group is formed by specimens from north-western and central Argentina, central-south Chile, Patagonia, and the austral islands of Tierra del Fuego and Hoste. This group presents a strong sagital crest, large rostrum, and a large skull. Our results agree with observed patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation. We propose to retain the name L. c. andinus for the populations of northern Chile and to synonymize L. c. magellanicus, L. c. lycoides, and L. c. smithersi under L. c. culpaeus. PMID:19637719

Guzmán, Jonathan A; D'Elía, Guillermo; Ortiz, Juan Carlos

374

Optimization of the atmospheric pollution monitoring network at Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental pollution is a problem affecting many cities in our planet. Santiago de Chile is one with the worst indices. Because of that, local authorities implemented a few years ago an air quality monitoring network with eight monitoring stations located across the whole city. These stations continuously collect information about the presence and level of atmospheric contaminants as well as

Claudio Silva; Alexis Quiroz

2003-01-01

375

Canl to Curarrehue (Chile): A Journey in Alternative Development. Outdoor Education and Sustainable Development: Part Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The outdoor experience's core element of connection to the earth is a central feature of an environmental-education project in Canl forest sanctuary (Chile). Developed to provide integrated environmental and adventure-education experiences to forest visitors, the project expanded to train local youth as ecotourism guides and native-tree nursery…

Walker, Rod

1999-01-01

376

Increased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic in drinking water is an established cause of lung, bladder, and skin cancers in adults and may also cause adult kidney and liver cancers.Some evidence for these effects originated from region II of Chile, which had a period of elevated arsenic levels in drinking water, in particular from 1958 to 1970.This unique exposure scenario provides a rare opportunity to

Jane Liaw; Guillermo Marshall; Yan Yuan; Catterina Ferreccio; Craig Steinmaus; Allan H. Smith

377

Causes of childhood blindness: Results from West Africa, South India and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using World Health Organization definitions of visual loss and a standardised methodology, 905 children were examined in Chile, West Africa and South India. Of these 806 (89%) suffered from blindness (BL) or severe visual impairment (SVI). Causes of SVI and BL were classified anatomically and aetiologically, and avoidable causes identified. In W. Africa (n=284) the major anatomical cause of SVI\\/BL

C E Gilbert; R Canovas; M Hagan; S Rao; A Foster

1993-01-01

378

Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santiago de Chile, São Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las Condes during July and August 1996. The study employed stacked filter units (SFU) for aerosol sampling, collecting fine mode aerosol (dp<2?m) and coarse mode aerosol (2

Artaxo, Paulo; Oyola, Pedro; Martinez, Roberto

1999-04-01

379

Sub-slab mantle anisotropy beneath south-central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of mantle flow in convergent margins is crucial to unravelling both the contemporary geodynamics and the past evolution of subduction zones. By analysing shear-wave splitting in both teleseismic and local arrivals, we can determine the relative contribution from different parts of the subduction zone to the total observed SKS splitting, providing us with a depth constraint on anisotropy. We use this methodology to determine the location, orientation and strength of seismic anisotropy in the south-central Chile subduction zone. Data come from the TIPTEQ network, deployed on the forearc during 2004-2005. We obtain 110 teleseismic SKS and 116 local good-quality shear-wave splitting measurements. SKS average delay times are 1.3 s and local S delay times are only 0.2 s. Weak shear-wave splitting from local phases is consistent with a shape preferred orientation (SPO) source in the upper crust. We infer that the bulk of shear-wave splitting is sourced either within or below the subducting Nazca slab. SKS splitting measurements exhibit an average north-easterly fast direction, with a strong degree of variation. Further investigation suggests a relationship between the measurement's fast direction and the incoming ray's back-azimuth. Finite-element geodynamic modelling is used to investigate the strain rate field and predicted LPO characteristics in the subduction zone. These models highlight a thick region of high strain rate and strong S-wave anisotropy, with plunging olivine a-axes, in the sub-slab asthenosphere. We forward model the sub-slab sourced splitting with a strongly anisotropic layer of thick asthenosphere, comprising an olivine a-axis oriented parallel to the direction of subduction. The subducting lithosphere is not thick enough to cause 1.2 s of splitting, therefore our results and subsequent models show that the Nazca slab is entraining the underlying asthenosphere; its flow causes it to be strongly anisotropic. Our observation has important implications for the controlling factors on sub-slab mantle flow and the movement of asthenospheric material within the Earth.

Hicks, Stephen P.; Nippress, Stuart E. J.; Rietbrock, Andreas

2012-12-01

380

Controls on sedimentary nitrogen isotopes along the Chile margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chilean margin sedimentary N isotope records have been the focus of paleoceanographic studies examining the extent of water-column denitrification in the eastern South Pacific in the past. Here we use 15N/ 14N of nitrate and surface sedimentary N along the Chilean coast to investigate the relative contributions of water-column denitrification and surface nitrate assimilation by phytoplankton to the sedimentary N isotope record. Off northern and central Chile, subsurface enrichment of 15NO3- is associated with the lowest oxygen concentrations and maximum nitrate deficits, the product of water-column denitrification, locally at 21°S and through the transport of denitrified waters to the south. While elevated, the ? 15N of pycnocline nitrate shows no distinct trend with distance from the OMZ and is nearly homogenous within the shallow subsurface layer, presumably due to lateral circulation along the margin. Moreover, an isotopically depleted and relatively uniform layer exists within the shallow subsurface, possibly as a result of the remineralization of newly fixed nitrogen that may work to further homogenize the ? 15N of the upwelling nitrate. Whereas the high ? 15N of sedimentary N in the region is clearly a product of denitrification and its isotopic imprint on nitrate along the margin, the northward increase in sedimentary ? 15N from higher southern latitudes also reflects the degree of surface layer nitrate consumption by phytoplankton. The northward increase in sedimentary ? 15N corresponds to a regional decrease in the surface nitrate concentration, and isotopic fractionation during nitrate assimilation is apparent in shallow nitrate ? 15N. A comparison of the ? 15N in shallow subsurface nitrate and sedimentary N suggests that, north of ˜30°S, nearly complete nitrate consumption causes the ? 15N of sediments to converge on that of the nitrate supply, such that denitrification should be the dominant signal in downcore ? 15N records from these latitudes. Moreover, the lateral homogeneity of the denitrification signal in the subsurface within this region suggests that such records will provide robust reconstructions of denitrification intensity.

De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Robinson, Rebecca S.; Hebbeln, Dierk; Sigman, Daniel M.; Ulloa, Osvaldo

2009-07-01

381

The Aftershock Analyses of 27 February 2010 Chile M=8.8 Mega Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1960, the biggest earthquake (M=9.5), the human ever recorded event, occurred in south Chile. Subsequently several mega earthquake (M >8) occurred, including the M=8.8 earthquake in 2010. This reflects that an incomplete release of tectonic energy exists in the Chile subduction system. The west coast of Chile is a long convergence plate boundary between the Nazca and the South American plate. The Nazca Plate subducts beneath the South American Plate toward the northeast with a convergence rate of about 6.5 cm/year, accumulating the stress in the lower part of the subducted plate to some extent resulting in destructive ruptures. On 27 February 2010, the Maule mega earthquake (M=8.8) occurred offshore central Chile. The epicenter (35.9° S, 72.73° W) is located at 115 km, NE of Concepción, the second biggest city in Chile. The main shock was a thrust-type subduction earthquake where the Nazca Plate subducted into the South America Plate (the Chile subduction system). The focal depth of main shock is 35 km which caused more than 500-km long rupture in the accretionary prism and produced a destructive tsunami of more than 20 m. It killed several hundreds of people and damaged countless buildings. Even up to today, aftershocks and volcanic activities continue to occur in this region. During May-August of last year, we shipped 20 OBSs to Chile and conducted two aftershock surveys in the tsunami-affected area. The OBSs recorded more than 4,000 aftershock events, magnitude from M=6.0 to 1.0. Results show that the aftershock data were concentrated into two masses: the landward side of the paleo-accretionary prism and the seaward side of the subducting plate, leaving a "white zone" in the frontal accretionary prisms. Both data sets consistently indicate the same result. The angle between the paleo-accretionary prism and the subduction plate seems to be greater than that of the frontal-accretionary prism. We suggest that the greater of the splay fault angle the higher the risk for the occurrence of a destructive tsunami. Even though our study covered only a short period of aftershocks it appears to show shows important basic characteristics of the 2010 Maule mega event.

Lee, C.-S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Gutscher, M.; Miller, M.; Gallardo, V.

2012-04-01

382

Observations and Modeling of the 27 February 2010 Tsunami in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 February 2010, a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred just off the coast of Chile, 100km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile’s mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The tsunami accounts for 124 victims out of about 500 fatalities. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event and tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary ITST was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment per established protocols. The 3-25 March ITST covered an 800km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter Island), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21-23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile’s mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometers inland along rivers. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Coastal uplift measurements in Chile are compared with tectonic land level changes from the 2007 Solomon Islands event. Preliminary modeling results, field observations, video recordings and satellite imagery are presented. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards as community-based education and awareness are essential to save lives in locales at risk.

Synolakis, C. E.; Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J. C.; Barrientos, S. E.

2010-12-01

383

Is Anisakis simplex s.l. a biological marker for stock identification of Strangomera bentincki from Chile?  

PubMed

The absence of the larval Anisakis simplex s. l. in samples from central Chile but heavy infections in fish from southern localities suggest the existence of two stocks of Strangomera bentincki, one closely associated with the central coast of Chile (landing port San Antonio and Talcahuano, c. 33° 30' S-36° 40' S) and the other associated with southern Chile (landing port Puerto Montt, c. 41° 30' S). Results confirm the usefulness of metazoan parasites, like A. simplex s. l. as biological markers. PMID:23902315

Oliva, M E

2013-07-10

384

Spatial and temporal variability of planktonic archaeal abundance in the Humboldt Current System off Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest advances in the field of microbial ecology have shown that planktonic Archaea are one of the most abundant unicellular microorganisms of the oceans. However, no information is available on the contribution this group makes to the prokaryote assemblages that inhabit the eastern South Pacific Ocean. Here, we describe the relative abundance and vertical distribution of planktonic Archaea off northern and central-southern Chile. Data come from several cruises and a 45-month time series at a station located on the shelf off central-southern Chile. Both the taxonomic composition of the prokaryote community and its relative abundance were determined using quantitative dot blot 16S-rRNA hybridizations. Total Archaea in central-southern Chile made up 6-87% of the prokaryote rRNA in the water column and did not present evidence of any seasonal pattern. Crenarchaea were the most abundant archaeal group at this site and were significantly associated with the ammonium concentration ( r2=0.16, p=0.0003, n=80). Archaeal abundance in the time series was usually greater in the deeper layer (>50 m), with contributions reaching up to ˜90% of the prokaryote rRNA on certain occasions, and decreasing towards the surface. Important increments in the relative abundance of total Archaea were observed on given dates at the surface of the time-series station off central-southern Chile. Off northern Chile, total Archaea normally contributed from ˜10% to 50% of the prokaryote rRNA found between 10 and 1000 m, and were generally important in the mesopelagic realm. Our results indicate that Archaea constitute an important fraction of the prokaryote assemblage in the water column of the Humboldt Current System, especially in the oxygen minimum zone.

Quiñones, Renato A.; Levipan, Héctor A.; Urrutia, Homero

385

[Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections and algal intoxications as emergent public health problems in Chile].  

PubMed

There is interest in the paradigm that relates environmental sea changes to the emergence of diseases that affect both aquatic organisms in the sea and human beings. The emergence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as an important cause of epidemic summer diarrhea in 2004 and 2005, confined mainly to the tenth region in Chile, could be a manifestation of this trend. This and other areas of the country have also experienced several outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) caused by harmful algal blooms (HAB) of Alexandrium catenella, Dinophysis acuta and Pseudonitzchia species, respectively. The short historical record of these pathological phenomena in Chile suggests that they are increasing in frequency and expanding their geographical range. The V parahaemolyticus isolates responsible for the Chilean outbreaks correspond mainly to the pandemic strain O3:K6. HAB found in Chile and the intoxications caused by them have similar biological characteristics to those described in other areas of the world. The tenth region, the area where these problems are emerging, produces approximately 80-90% of the shellfish consumed in Chile and a large proportion of the shellfish that is exported. Prevention of these public health problems can be attained by developing policies that increase environmental surveillance for Vibrios and toxic algae, improve the epidemiological surveillance of acute diarrhea and algal intoxications after the ingestion of raw bivalves, and educate the population on the mode of transmission of these diseases. Scientific capacity and laboratories need to be developed to widen the limited knowledge of the biology of Vibrio and toxic algae and the environmental factors that favor their emergence as public health and economic problems in Chile. PMID:16311702

Hernández, Cristina; Ulloa, Juanita; Vergara, José Antonio; Espejo, Romilio; Cabello, Felipe

2005-11-09

386

Tidal modulation of continuous nonvolcanic seismic tremor in the Chile triple junction region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We located continuous seismic tremor with coherent amplitude wave trains in the Chile ridge subduction region (~46.5°S) in two clusters north and south of the Chonos Archipelago, between the Chile trench and the North Patagonian fore arc. Tremor persisted from December 2004 to February 2007 (the entire period of the Chile Ridge Subduction Project temporary seismic deployment), and lasted >17 h on six occasions. Tremor in the more active southern cluster reached a maximum duration of 48 h, and we observed no more than 3 continuous days without tremor activity. The cluster locations coincide with the surface projections of subducted transform faults formed at the Chile ridge. We also detected simultaneous, colocated low-frequency microearthquakes with well-defined impulsive waves within the tremor signals distributed from the surface to 40 km depth, suggesting tremors and earthquakes are part of the same process. The periodicity of tremor duration is strongly correlated with semidiurnal, diurnal, and long-period tides, M2, N2, K1, O1, P1, and Mm (12.421 h, 12.000 h, 23.934 h, 25.819 h, 24.066 h, and 27.555 days, respectively). We found a significant correlation between tremor occurrence and Earth tides when tidal stress is calculated for the slip plane of a right-lateral strike-slip fault with strike N95°E, which is near parallel to subducted transform faults (N78°E) of the Chile ridge, indicating that the very small stresses resulting from the combination of ocean loading and solid Earth tides (~1 kPa) are sufficient to facilitate or suppress tremor production; tremors occur when shear stresses are maximum and wane or are low when shear stresses are minimum.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

2013-04-01

387

CO 2 outgassing off central Chile (31–30°S) and northern Chile (24–23°S) during austral summer 1997: the effect of wind intensity on the upwelling and ventilation of CO 2-rich waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of pH and alkalinity has been used to calculate the distribution of total inorganic carbon (TC) and fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO2) in the upper 200m of the water column in coastal upwelling areas off northern Chile (23–24°S, near Antofagasta) and central Chile (30–31°S, near Coquimbo) during austral summer 1997. In these upwelling areas, colder surface waters were

Rodrigo Torres; David Turner; José Rutllant; Marcus Sobarzo; Tarsicio Antezana; Humberto E Gonzalez

2002-01-01

388

Mechanisms for Planetary Spherules Formation and Alteration: Salar Grande, Chile -- An Example of Volcanic\\/Aqueous Processes Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica nodules and hematite spherules are observed at Salar Grande and Monturaqui, Atacama Desert, Chile. The Planetary Spherules Project investigates formation, deposition and alteration processes as analogs to Gusev Crater and Meridiani, Mars.

I. Ukstins Peate; N. A. Cabrol; E. A. Grin; C. Dressing; T. Franklin; K. Parsons; J. L. Piatek; G. Chong

2009-01-01

389

Mechanisms for Planetary Spherules Formation and Alteration: Salar Grande, Chile -- An Example of Volcanic/Aqueous Processes Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silica nodules and hematite spherules are observed at Salar Grande and Monturaqui, Atacama Desert, Chile. The Planetary Spherules Project investigates formation, deposition and alteration processes as analogs to Gusev Crater and Meridiani, Mars.

Ukstins Peate, I.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; French, R.; Dressing, C.; Franklin, T.; Parsons, K.; Piatek, J. L.; Chong, G.

2009-03-01

390

High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic complex by the granite and we conclude that some parts of the mafic complex were emplaced before the granite. The well defined 206/238U-age for zircons and the slightly younger 40Ar/39Ar -ages for biotites of both rock suites show that emplacement and cooling of the Torres del Paine Intrusion took place in a relatively short time-frame. Halpern, 1973, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84/7: 2407-2422. Sanchez et.al., 2006. V SSAGI, Punta del Este, April 2006.

Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

2006-12-01

391

Dendroclimatology of high-elevation Nothofagus pumilio forests at their northern distribution limit in the central Andes of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp et Endl.) Krasser, is a deciduous tree species that grows in Chile and adjacent Argentina between 36 and 56°S, often forming the Andean tree line. This paper presents the first eight tree-ring chro - nologies from N. pumilio at its northern range limit in the central Andes of Chile (36-39°S) and the first precipitation reconstruction for this

Antonio Lara; Juan Carlos Aravena; Ricardo Villalba; Alexia Wolodarsky-Franke; Brian Luckman; Rob Wilson

2001-01-01

392

Of Pirates and Moneylenders: Product Market Competition and the Depth of Lending relationships in a rural market in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often suggested that interlinked and monitored loan contract terms such as those used by trader-lenders in rural markets serve as collateral substitutes and therefore should benefit asset-poor borrowers in particular. Yet, empirically this is not always true. For example, most of the new monitored finance from contract farming firms and agro-industry traders during Chile’s recent agricultural boom went

Jonathan Conning

2001-01-01

393

Network Learning, Principal-Agent Conflict, and Award-Winning Wine-Making in Chile's Colchagua Valley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile’s Colchagua Valley is both a geographical cluster of wineries and a dynamic learning network of wine-making professionals. A principal-agent problem arises in that the latter knowledge network is frowned upon by owners and top managers. Whereas experts aim at maximising quality, firms are interested in profits. Individual, personal success as a world-class expert is worth more to each professional,

David Hojman

2005-01-01

394

A biometric and ecologic comparison between Artemia from Mexico and Chile  

PubMed Central

Background A preliminary biometric and ecologic database for the brine shrimp Artemia from Mexico and Chile is presented. The area abounds in small and seasonal ponds and large inland lakes, the latter mainly located in Mexico, although relatively large and isolated lakes are found in complex hydrological settings in pre-high plateau areas of Chile. This paper summarizes research efforts aimed at the localization, characterization, and evaluation of the aquaculture potential of Artemia populations in Mexico and Chile, which exhibit great habitat diversity (ponds, salterns, coastal lagoons, sea arms, coastal and inland lakes), contrasting weather conditions and different levels of isolation and human intervention. Results This study covered locations between 29° north latitude (Baja California, Mexico) to 50° south latitude (Puerto Natales, Chile). Biological characteristics considered are species name, reproductive mode, cyst diameter, chorion thickness, and nauplius length, whereas ecological data include pond size, pH, salinity, temperature, and water ionic composition. Artemia franciscana is the only species found in Mexico, it exists together with A. persimilis in Chile, though separated geographically. Ecological differences in habitat exist between both regions but also within countries, a pattern particularly clear with regard to water composition. Surprisingly, a Mexican (Cuatro Ciénegas, A. franciscana) and a Chilean location (Torres del Paine, A. persimilis) share habitat characteristics, at least for the period when data were collected. The discriminat analysis for cyst diameter and nauplius length shows that Artemia from only one location match in cyst diameter with those from San Francisco Bay (SFB) (Point Lobos), and one (Marquez) is far apart from SFB and all the others. The Chilean locations (Pampilla, Cejar, Cahuil, Llamara, Yape) share cyst diameter, but tend to differ from SFB. The remaining Mexican locations (Juchitan, Ohuira, Yavaros) are well separated from all the others. With regard to nauplii length, populations tend to distribute in a relatively random manner, being Marquez the location differing the most in cyst diameter from SFB. Conclusion This database will contribute to the knowledge of radiation centers and serves as a baseline for further biogeographic studies, population characterization, management, and monitoring of Artemia biodiversity. Likewise, the impact of colonization and translocations for aquaculture purposes can be better assessed with a baseline for reference. Mexico and Chile exemplify the need to increase and further integrate regional information to tackle fundamental problems underlying practical utilization of Artemia.

Castro, Thalia B; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Castro, Jorge M; Castro, German M

2006-01-01

395

Fresnel-Reflexion-Halo Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Planar laser action of two-dimensional disc-shaped active material is reviewed for the light emerging because of Fresnel reflections in the partly closed cylindrical Fabry-Perot resonator constituting the natural surrounding of the material. The calculati...

Z. G. Horvath S. Varro

1981-01-01

396

VIOLENCIA CONTRA MUJERES: REFLEXIONES TEÓRICAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Violence appears in different forms and circumstances and involves distinct kinds of violent acts against children, women, elderly and other defenseless persons. This serious problem, which degrades women's integrity, is denoted by terms like domestic violence, gender violence and violence against women. Gender violence can appear as physical, psychological, sexual, economic violence, as well as violence at work. Violence against

Leticia Casique Casique

397

Resource exploitation and cross-region growth trajectories: nonparametric estimates for Chile.  

PubMed

As a sector of primary concern for national development strategies, mining keeps stimulating an intensive debate in Chile, regarding its role for long-term growth. Partly drawn on theoretical contributions to growth and mineral resource accounting, this analysis assesses patterns of economic growth across Chilean regions. The theoretical and methodological rationale for focusing on weak sustainability, by testing convergence across regions in a distribution dynamics perspective, is first discussed. This is followed by a brief review of policy issues and previous empirical findings of concern to Chile's mining and regional growth. Panel data over the period 1960-2001 are analysed, with growth measured in terms of both income per capita as such, and sustainable measures of this variable. Kernel density and quantile regression estimates indicate persistent bimodal (if not possibly trimodal) distribution of nationally standardised regional incomes per capita, whereby conditions for cross-region convergence are matched only within the inner range of this distribution. PMID:16996676

Mainardi, Stefano

2006-09-25

398

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Holmgren, C. A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J. L.

2008-01-01

399

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18°S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area.

Holmgren, C. A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J. L.

2008-01-01

400

Variability of cadmium, copper and zinc levels in molluscs and associated sediments from Chile.  

PubMed

The concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in mussel and sediment samples collected together from eight different geographical coastal areas of Chile were determined. The mussels studied were 'Chorito Maico', 'Almejas' and 'Navajuelas Chilenas' (Perumytilus purpuratus, Semelle solida and Tagellus dombeii, respectively). Sampling was carried out in July and September 1992 and January and April 1993 (winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons in Chile, respectively). The metal levels in these mussels varied among species; there were several sites where the metal concentrations in molluscs approached or exceeded the criteria levels for Cd, Cu and Zn in shellfish products: 1, 10 and 50 ppm ww respectively, which are regarded as safe levels for human consumption. The results of metal levels in sediments showed two areas clearly polluted with Cu. Strong relationships between Cu concentrations in the three molluscs and sediments were found; weak correlations were observed for Zn in S. solida. PMID:15091389

De Gregori, I; Pinochet, H; Gras, N; Muñoz, L

1996-01-01

401

Microbial colonization of the salt deposits in the driest place of the Atacama Desert (Chile).  

PubMed

The Atacama Desert (Chile), one of the most arid places on Earth, shows hostile conditions for the development of epilithic microbial communities. In this study, we report the association of cyanobacteria (Chroococcidiopsis sp.) and bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria and Beta-Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla inhabiting the near surface of salt (halite) deposits of the Salar Grande Basin, Atacama Desert (Chile). The halite deposits were investigated by using optical, confocal and field emission scanning electron microscopes, whereas culture-independent molecular techniques, 16S rDNA clone library, alongside RFLP analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were applied to investigate the bacterial diversity. These microbial communities are an example of life that has adapted to extreme environmental conditions caused by dryness, high irradiation, and metal concentrations. Their adaptation is, therefore, important in the investigation of the environmental conditions that might be expected for life outside of Earth. PMID:22661023

Stivaletta, Nunzia; Barbieri, Roberto; Billi, Daniela

2012-06-02

402

An inverted double seismic zone in chile: evidence of phase transformation in the subducted slab.  

PubMed

Data from two microseismic field experiments in northern Chile revealed an elongated cluster of earthquakes in the subducted Nazca plate at a depth of about 100 kilometers in which down-dip tensional events were consistently shallower than a family of compressional earthquakes. This double seismic zone shows a distribution of stresses of opposite polarity relative to that observed in other double seismic zones in the world. The distribution of stresses in northern Chile supports the notion that at depths of between 90 to 150 kilometers, the basalt to eclogite transformation of the subducting oceanic crust induces tensional deformation in the upper part of the subducted slab and compressional deformation in the underlying mantle. PMID:17839180

Comte, D; Suárez, G

1994-01-14

403

[Epidemiology and laboratory: a different point or view of public health in Chile].  

PubMed

The authors present an abridged history from their personal point of view of public health dealing with communicable diseases in Chile, in reference to an article previously published in Revista Chilena de Infectología. They do not agree with the mainly critical view of the author. They recognize that although there is a lot to be done on this matter, Chile has been a pioneer in Latin America in many policies relating to the control of these infections, having been recognized by international organisms. The relationship between the National Institute of Public Health, the Ministry of Health and the Laboratory Network, has strongly contributed along the years to concrete sanitary achievements in the field of transmissible diseases which are a pride for our country. PMID:18580992

García M, Julio; Heitmann G, Ingrid

2008-06-24

404

Temporal variation of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in native mammals in Chile.  

PubMed

In the present study, we compared Trypanosoma cruzi infection in four native mammals from a hyperendemic area of Chagas disease in Chile for two different periods to assess the occurrence of interannual variation (1999-2000 vs. 2005-2006). Parasite detection in mammals is performed by polymerase chain reaction assays and confirmed by Southern blot analysis and hybridization test with a universal probe. Results showed significant differences in the levels of T. cruzi infection between the compared periods. We suggest that the major El Niño event occurred in 1997-1998, a large-scale global climatic fluctuation, could be indirectly explaining the extremely high T. cruzi infection in 1999-2000 by means of a time-lag response of the wild transmission cycle of Chagas disease in semiarid Chile after the irruption of small rodent populations. PMID:19505255

Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Campos, Ricardo; Acuña-Retamar, Mariana; Coronado, Ximena; Cattan, Pedro E; Solari, Aldo

2010-04-01

405

Supergene Origin of the Lastarria Kaolin Deposit, South-Central Chile, and Paleoclimatic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residual kaolin deposits near Lastarria, South-Central Chile, were formed by weathering of subvolcanic quartz porphyry stocks, which intruded the metamorphic basement of the Coastal Cordil- lera. The clay fractions (<2 bum) consist mainly of poorly-ordered, very fine-grained kaolinite and lath- shaped illite (17-38 wt. %) with minor amounts of quartz, sanidine, and goethite. A sample from the top of

H. A. Gilg; H. MILLER; S. M. E SHEPPARD

1999-01-01

406

The densest meteorite collection area in hot deserts: The San Juan meteorite field (Atacama Desert, Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract- We describe the geological, morphological, and climatic setting of the San Juan meteorite collection area in the Central Depression of the Atacama Desert (Chile). Our recovery activities yielded 48 meteorites corresponding to a minimum of 36 different falls within a 3.88 km2 area. The recovery density is in the range 9-12 falls km-2 depending on pairing, making it the

Jérôme Gattacceca; Millarca Valenzuela; Minoru Uehara; A. J. Timothy Jull; Marlène Giscard; Pierre Rochette; Régis Braucher; Clement Suavet; Matthieu Gounelle; Diego Morata; Pablo Munayco; Michèle Bourot-Denise; Didier Bourles; François Demory

2011-01-01

407

Interseismic strain accumulation measured by GPS in the seismic gap between Constitución and Concepción in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Concepción–Constitución area [35–37°S] in South Central Chile is very likely a mature seismic gap, since no large subduction earthquake has occurred there since 1835. Three campaigns of global positioning system (GPS) measurements were carried out in this area in 1996, 1999 and 2002. We observed a network of about 40 sites, including two east–west transects ranging from the coastal

J. C. Ruegg; A. Rudloff; C. Vigny; R. Madariaga; J. B. de Chabalier; J. Campos; E. Kausel; S. Barrientos; D. Dimitrov

2009-01-01

408

Air Pollution and Health Effects: A Study of Respiratory Illness Among Children in Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental management has benefits, not just costs, and analysis can help focus efforts to get more benefits out of each dollar. Among children in Santiago, Chile, reduced concentrations of small dust particles (PM10) will reduce a range of symptoms, from coughs to bronchitis.Ostro, Eskeland, Feyzioglu, and Sanchez estimate dose-response functions for respiratory disease among children based on data from public

Gunnar Eskeland; Bart D. Ostro; Tarhan Feyzioglu; Jose Miguel Sanchez

1998-01-01

409

Electrical power systems (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama and Peru)  

SciTech Connect

This 12-part set of reports contains market information on the following countries and topics: Brazil - potentiometers, steam turbines, gas turbines, electric generators; Chile - power systems; Colombia - electric generators; Dominican Republic - electric generators; Guatemala - power generation and distribution equipment, non-current carriers, electric generators, and turbines; Jamaica - power systems; Panama - power generation and control equipment; and Peru - power generation equipment. These reports have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1992-01-01

410

Non-explosive, constructional evolution of the ice-filled caldera at Volcán Sollipulli, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radar and gravity survey of the ice-filled caldera at Volcán Sollipulli, Chile, indicates that the intra-caldera ice has\\u000a a thickness of up to 650?m in its central part and that the caldera harbours a minimum of 6?km3 of ice. Reconnaissance geological observations show that the volcano has erupted compositions ranging from olivine basalt\\u000a to dacite and have identified five

J. S. Gilbert; M. V. Stasiuk; C. R. Adam; M. D. Murphy; R. S. J. Sparks; J. A. Naranjo

1996-01-01

411

Non-explosive, constructional evolution of the ice-filled caldera at Volcán Sollipulli, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radar and gravity survey of the ice-filled caldera at Volcán Sollipulli, Chile, indicates that the intra-caldera ice has a thickness of up to 650 m in its central part and that the caldera harbours a minimum of 6 km3 of ice. Reconnaissance geological observations show that the volcano has erupted compositions ranging from olivine basalt to dacite and have

J. S. Gilbert; M. V. Stasiuk; C. R. Adam; M. D. Murphy; R. S. J. Sparks; J. A. Naranjo

1996-01-01

412

Effect of biosolid incorporation on arsenic distribution in Mollisol soils in central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of biosolid incorporation on arsenic distribution in Mollisol soils in central Chile was studied. Two soils were sequentially extracted for arsenic with a five-step method that accounts for the following arsenic forms: non-specifically adsorbed (F1), specifically adsorbed (F2), amorphous and poorly crystallized Fe and Al oxides (F3), well-crystallized Fe and Al oxides (F4) and residual (F5). The arsenic

Loreto Ascar; Inés Ahumada; Pablo Richter

2008-01-01

413

Functional diversity of marine macrobenthic communities from sublittoral soft-sediment habitats off northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benthic communities show changes in composition and structure across different environmental characteristics and habitats.\\u000a However, incorporating species biological traits into the analysis can provide a better understanding of system functioning\\u000a within habitats. We compare the functional diversity of macrobenthic communities from a contrasting shallow (15 m) and deep\\u000a (50 m) sublittoral soft-sediment habitats in northern Chile, using biological traits analysis. Our aim

Aldo S. PachecoMaria; Maria Teresa González; Julie Bremner; Marcelo Oliva; Olaf Heilmayer; Jürgen Laudien; José M. Riascos

2011-01-01

414

Neoliberal RestructuringThe Origin and Formation of Economic Groups in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern day Chile the economic entrepreneurial landscape is made up of large multinational conglomerates, local economic groups, and so-called emerging economic groups (that burgeoned with the transformation of former government employees into owners of important parts of state-owned companies).This last group is mainly comprised of the neoliberal technocracy that designed the economic policy of the Pinochet dictatorship. The power

Alex E. Fernández Jilberto

2004-01-01

415

ITQ’s in Chile: Measuring the Economic Benefits of Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001 an individual (operationally transferable) quota system was introduced for all the most important industrial fisheries\\u000a in Chile. This system was put in place after years of declining stocks and over investment. In this paper we describe this\\u000a reform and estimate related allocative efficiency benefits for the most important industrial fishery in the country, the southern\\u000a pelagic fishery. Benefits

Andrés Gómez-Lobo; Julio Peña-Torres; Patricio Barría

2011-01-01

416

Identification of a founder mutation in the protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene in variegate porphyria patients from chile.  

PubMed

Variegate porphyria (VP; OMIM 176200) is characterized by a partial defect in the activity of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO), the seventh enzyme of the porphyrin-heme biosynthetic pathway. The disease is usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait displaying incomplete penetrance. In an effort to characterize the spectrum of molecular defects in VP, we identified 3 distinct mutations in 6 VP families from Chile by PCR, heteroduplex analysis, automated sequencing, restriction enzyme digestion and haplotyping analysis. The mutations consisted of 2 deletions and 1 missense mutation, designated 1239delTACAC, 1330delT and R168H. The occurrence of the missense mutation R168H had been reported previously in American, German and Dutch VP families, suggesting that this may represent a frequent recurrent mutation. Interestingly, the mutation 1239delTACAC was found in patients from 4 unrelated families living in different parts of Chile, suggesting that it might represent a common mutation in Chile. Haplotype analysis using 15 microsatellite markers which closely flank the PPO gene on chromosome 1q22, spanning approximately 21 cM, revealed the presence of R168H on different haplotypes in 6 VP patients from 3 unrelated families. In contrast, we found the occurrence of 1239delTACAC on the same chromosome 1 haplotype in 11 mutation carriers from 4 unrelated families with VP. These findings are consistent with R168H representing a hotspot mutation and 1239delTACAC existing as a founder mutation in the PPO gene. Our data comprise the first genetic studies of the porphyrias in South America and will streamline the elucidation of the genetic defects in VP patients from Chile by allowing an initial screening for the founder mutation 1239delTACAC. PMID:11173967

Frank, J; Aita, V M; Ahmad, W; Lam, H; Wolff, C; Christiano, A M

2001-01-01

417

The hot spring and geyser sinters of El Tatio, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The siliceous sinter deposits of El Tatio geothermal field in northern Chile have been examined petrographically and mineralogically. These sinters consist of amorphous silica (opal-A) deposited around hot springs and geysers from nearly neutral, silica-saturated, sodium chloride waters. Water cooling and evaporation to dryness are the main processes that control the opal-A deposition in both subaqueous and subaerial settings, in

J. L. Fernandez-Turiel; M. Garcia-Valles; D. Gimeno-Torrente; J. Saavedra-Alonso; S. Martinez-Manent

2005-01-01

418

Seed germination in temperate rain forest species of southern Chile: chilling and gap-dependency germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy gap and chilling requirements for seed germination were assessed in 61 and 44 species, respectively, in the temperate\\u000a rain forest of southern Chile. Germination assays within canopy gap and understorey were carried out under natural conditions.\\u000a Germination tests in cold stratified and non-stratified seeds were performed under laboratory conditions. Seeds were collected\\u000a of common trees, shrubs, vines and perennial

Javier A. Figueroa

2003-01-01

419

Ethnobotany of pre-altiplanic community in the Andes of northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of the surrounding environment and use of the flora by the inhabitants of Toconce, a Pre-Altiplanic community\\u000a in the Andes of northern Chile, were investigated. Six ecological units, which are given the local names of Pampa, Tolar,\\u000a Medano, Pajonal, Hoyada, and Paniso, are recognized by the people of Toconce on the basis of their different dominant plants,\\u000a geomorphology

Carlos Aldunate; Carolina Villagrán; Juan J. Armesto; Victoria Castro

1983-01-01

420

Paleoproductivity evolution off central Chile from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Early Holocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geochemical and paleontological reconstruction of paleoproductivity, upwelling intensity and sea surface temperature (SST) off central Chile at 35°S (GeoB3359-3) reveals marked changes from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) through the Early Holocene. Surface-water productivity was determined by the interaction between the atmospheric (the Southern Westerlies) and oceanographic (the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, ACC) systems from the LGM through early Termination

Oscar E. Romero; Jung-Hyn Kim; Dierk Hebbeln

2006-01-01

421

Holocene rainfall variability in southern Chile: a marine record of latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and clay mineral parameters of a high accumulation marine sediment core from the Chilean continental slope (41°S) provide a 7700 yr record of rainfall variability in southern Chile related to the position of the Southern Westerlies. We especially use the iron content, measured with a time-resolution of ca. 10 yr on average, of 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry dated marine sediments

Frank Lamy; Dierk Hebbeln; Ursula Röhl; Gerold Wefer

2001-01-01

422

Seasonal Climatology of Hydrographic Conditions in the Upwelling Region Off Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 30 years of hydrographic data from the northern Chile (18 degreesS-24 degreesS) upwelling region are used to calculate the surface and subsurface seasonal climatology extending 400 km offshore. The data are interpolated to a grid with sufficient spatial resolution to preserve cross-shelf gradients and then presented as means within four seasons: austral winter (July-September), spring (October-December), summer (January-March), and

J. L. Blanco; Andrew Thomas; M.-E. Carr; P. T. Strub

2001-01-01

423

Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in a Thioploca-dominated sediment off the coast of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental shelf sediments of the central Chile upwelling area are dominated by the presence of dense mats of the filamentous, sulfur-depositing bacterium Thioploca spp. We examined rates and pathways of S and methane cycling in these sediments along a transect from the Bay of Concepción to the continental slope. Sulfate reduction rates (170–4670 nmol cm?3 d?1) were equal to or

Timothy G. Ferdelman; Cindy Lee; Silvio Pantoja; Jens Harder; Brad M. Bebout; Henrik Fossing

1997-01-01

424

Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Infant Mortality in Two Areas of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-1.9), neonatal mortality (RR = 1.53; CI, 1.4-1.7), and postneonatal mortality (RR = 1.26; CI, 1.2-1.3) after adjustment for location and calendar time. The findings from this investigation may support a role for arsenic exposure in increasing the risk of late fetal and infant mortality. Key words: arsenic, Chile, drinking water, infant mortality, neonatal death,

Claudia Hopenhayn-Rich; Steven R. Browning; Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Catterina Ferreccio; Cecilia Peralta; Herman Gibb

2000-01-01

425

Growth and carotenogenesis in eight strains of Dunaliella salina Teodoresco from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of growth and carotenogenesis in eight strains of the green algaDunaliella salina collected from salt ponds at Salar de Atacama (23° 30? S; 68° 15? W) and Antofagasta (23° 39? S; 70° 24? W), Chile and kept\\u000a in unialgal cultures at the Laboratorio Cultivo de Algas, University of Concepcion. The algae were grown in Erdschreiber medium

Ana S. Cifuentes; Mariela González; Marianela Conejeros; Victor Dellarossa; Oscar Parra

1992-01-01

426

Avian gut-passage effects on seed germination of shrubland species in Mediterranean central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of avian gut-passage on seed germination are important to assess the effectiveness of frugivores in woodland regeneration,\\u000a particularly in biodiversity hotspots that have a high incidence of avian frugivory. We examined the effect of avian gut-passage\\u000a on seed germination in contrast to seeds that remain uneaten in five shrub species in Mediterranean central Chile and sought\\u000a to determine the

Sharon ReidJuan; Juan J. Armesto

2011-01-01

427

A network analysis of plant–pollinator interactions in temperate rain forests of Chiloé Island, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study characterizes the structure of a plant–pollinator network in a temperate rain forest of Chiloé Island, southern\\u000a Chile, where woody species are strongly dependent on biotic pollinators, and analyzes its robustness to the loss of participating\\u000a species. Degree distribution, nestedness, and expected species persistence were evaluated. In addition, we assessed the roles\\u000a of predefined subsets of plants (classified by

Rodrigo Ramos-Jiliberto; Abraham A. Albornoz; Fernanda S. Valdovinos; Cecilia Smith-Ramírez; Matías Arim; Juan J. Armesto; Pablo A. Marquet

2009-01-01

428

Late Pleistocene to Holocene tephrostratigraphy of the Lonquimay Volcano, South Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lonquimay Volcanic Complex (LVC) in South Central Chile (38.38°S, 71.58°W) is part of the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes, which formed in response to the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. During the course of its magmatic evolution, the LVC produced explosive eruptions documented in the succession of widespread tephra deposits, as well as

D. Gilbert; A. Freundt; S. Kutterolf; C. Burkert

2010-01-01

429

Groundwater flow modelling of the regional aquifer of the Pampa del Tamarugal, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA) is an important source of groundwater in northern Chile. In this study, a groundwater\\u000a flow model of this aquifer is developed and calibrated for the period 1983–2004. The model reproduces the observed flow-field\\u000a and the water balance components reasonably well. Five scenarios are defined to evaluate the response to different pumping\\u000a situations. These scenarios

Rodrigo Rojas; Alain Dassargues

2007-01-01

430

Inversion of forearc basins in south-central Chile caused by rapid glacial age trench fill  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the response of a forearc to the increase in sediment flux to the trench caused by the onset of glacial denudation in the Patagonian Andes. We investigated shelf-coastal basins in south-central Chile, which generally comprise Eocene early Miocene nearshore facies overlain by late Miocene early Pliocene deep-water siltstones and by late Pliocene Quaternary nearshore deposits. Seismic profiles

Daniel Melnick; Helmut P. Echtler

2006-01-01

431

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the oxygen-deficient waters off northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the pathways of N2 production in the oxygen-deficient water column of the eastern tropical South Pacific off Iquique, Chile, at 20uS, through short anoxic incubations with 15N-labelled nitrogen compounds. The location was characterized by steep chemical gradients, with oxygen decreasing to below detection at ,50-m depth, while nitrite reached 6 mmol L21 and ammonium was less than 50

Bo Thamdrup; Tage Dalsgaard; Marlene Mark Jensen; Osvaldo Ulloa; Laura Farías; Ruben Escribano

2006-01-01

432

UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

2008-01-01

433

UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

434

El Salvador, Chile Porphyry Copper Deposit Revisited: Geologic and Geochronologic Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26° 15? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed

Paula Cornejo; Richard M. Tosdal; Constantino Mpodozis; Andrew J. Tomlinson; Orlando Rivera; C. Mark Fanning

1997-01-01

435

Characterization and evolution of tropospheric plumes from Lascar and Villarrica volcanoes, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct sampling (filter pack and impactor) and remote sensing (ultraviolet spectroscopy and Sun photometry) of the plumes of Lascar and Villarrica volcanoes, Chile, reveal that both are significant and sustained emitters of SO2 (28 and 3.7 kg s-1, respectively), HCl (9.6 and 1.3 kg s-1, respectively), HF (4.5 and 0.3 kg s-1, respectively) and near-source sulfate aerosol (0.5 and 0.1

T. A. Mather; V. I. Tsanev; A. J. S. McGonigle; C. Oppenheimer; A. G. Allen

2004-01-01

436

Interseismic coupling, segmentation and mechanical behavior of the central Chile subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements carried out in Chile over the last two decades showed that an entire portion of the Nazca-South America subduction zone (38°S - 24°S) was locked over this period of time. The induced accumulation of elastic deformation in the upper-plate was not released until the recent Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the southern part of this section. Locking or coupling between the two plates varies both with depth and along strike. Here we use our own GPS data (an updated solution of our extended network in central Chile), combined with other published data sets, to quantify the spatial variations of the coupling that prevailed before the Maule earthquake. Using a simple elastic model based on the back-slip assumption, we show that coupling variations on the subduction plane are sufficient to explain the observed surface deformation, with no need of a sliver in central Chile. We identify four segments characterized by higher coupling and separated by narrow areas of lower coupling. This segmentation is in good agreement with historical and recent seismicity in Chile. In particular the narrow zones of lower coupling seem to have stopped most large seismic ruptures, including Maule's. These zones are often associated with irregular bathymetric or coastal features (fracture zones or peninsulas). Finally, coseismic and early post-seismic slip distribution of the Maule earthquake, occurring either in previously highly or weakly coupled zones, map a complex distribution of velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening patches on the subduction interface.

MéTois, M.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.

2012-03-01

437

Interseismic coupling, segmentation and mechanical behavior of the Central Chile subduction zone.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements carried out in Chile over the last two decades showed that an entire portion of the Nazca-South America subduction zone (38°S-24°S) was locked over this period of time. The induced accumulation of elastic deformation in the upper-plate was not released until the recent Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the southern part of this section. Locking or coupling between the two plates varies both with depth and along strike. Here we use our own GPS data (an updated solution of our extended network in central Chile), combined with other published data sets, to quantify the spatial variations of the coupling that prevailed before the Maule earthquake. Using a simple elastic model based on the back-slip assumption, we show that coupling variations on the subduction plane are sufficient to explain the observed surface deformation, with no need of a sliver in central Chile. We identify four segments characterized by higher coupling and separated by narrow areas of lower coupling. This segmentation is in good agreement with historical and recent seismicity in Chile. In particular, the La Serena Bay (30°S-28°S) where the locked zone vanishes is a stable boundary where historical events stopped. The Maule region that ruptured in feb. 27th of 2010 (Mw 8.8) from 38 S to 34 S, was characterized by a well developped fully locked zone that extents far indepth and narrows where the earthquake stopped propagating (San Antonio at 34°S and south of Arauco peninsula at 38°S). These narrow zones of lower coupling are often associated with irregular bathymetric or coastal features (fracture zones or peninsulas). Finally, coseismic and early post-seismic slip distribution of the Maule earthquake, occurring either in previously highly or weakly coupled zones, map a complex distribution of velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening patches on the subduction interface.

Métois, M.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.

2012-04-01

438

Iodine-129, iodine-127 and caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile.  

PubMed

Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41×1.5(±1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (109×1.5(±1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs. PMID:22484471

Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V

2012-04-05

439

Investment Banking and Security Market Development: Why is Chile Di¤erent from the United States?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract There is vast evidence that in developed security markets, particularly the United States, …rms access “direct” markets,through,investment,banks with whom,they establish long-term relationships. By contrast, we present evidence from a small emerging economy—Chile— which suggests that local intermediaries do not establish relationships with …rms but rather engage in “arm’s length” investment banking. This does not a¤ect conglomerates,and large Chilean …rms

Bharat N. Anand; Alexander Galetovic

440

Diving patterns of breeding female rockhopper penguins ( Eudyptes chrysocome) : Noir Island, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diving behaviour of female southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) was studied at Noir Island (54°30?S–73°00?W), Chile, in the southeast Pacific Ocean. This isolated island is located at\\u000a the edge of the continental shelf in an area where the Humboldt Current originates, and holds a population of more than 150,000\\u000a breeding pairs. On 13 December 2005, four TDRs were successfully

Andrea Raya Rey; Klemens Pütz; Guillermo Luna-Jorquera; Benno Lüthi; Adrián Schiavini

2009-01-01

441

[A tribute to the professors of forensic medicine at the University of Chile].  

PubMed

The outstanding work of professors of the chair of Forensic Medicine at the School of Medicine of the University of Chile is highlighted. This chair is divided in three periods, that are paralell to the history of Chilean medicine. During these periods, the chair initiated, developed and fortified its teaching activities. The practice of forensic medicine was institutionalized and spread throughout the country. Its field of action and knowledge areas also increased. PMID:18769817

Ciocca G, Luis; Bórquez V, Pamela; Burgos S, Raúl

2008-07-30

442

Development of a biofertilizer based on filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria for rice crops in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a biofertilizer based on filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria selected from\\u000a rice fields and to generate a technological package compatible with its use for the rice crop in Chile. Thirty-four Chilean\\u000a rice fields, located between Maule and BioBío regions, were sampled during the 1998\\/1999 and 1999\\/2000 growing seasons. A\\u000a total of 9 species and

Iris Pereira; Rodrigo Ortega; Leticia Barrientos; Mario Moya; Guissella Reyes; Victor Kramm

2009-01-01

443

The surface energy balance of an active ice-covered volcano: Villarrica Volcano, southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy balance of bare snow and tephra-covered ice near the glacier equilibrium line elevation on Villarrica Volcano, southern Chile, was investigated during 2004 and 2005, combining meteorological, surface temperature and ablation measurements with energy balance modelling. A tephra thermal conductivity of 0.35 W m-1 K-1, and a critical tephra thickness of 0.1 m tephra. Windblown tephra impurities lowered snow

Benjamin Brock; Andrés Rivera; Gino Casassa; Francisca Bown; César Acuñn

2007-01-01

444

Hydrographic Conditions Off Northern Chile During the 1996-1998 La Niña and El Niño Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of oceanographic conditions in the upwelling region off northern Chile (18 degrees-24 degrees S) between 1996 and 1998 (including the 1997-1998 El Niño) is presented using hydrographic measurements acquired on quarterly cruises of the Chilean Fisheries Institute, with sea surface temperature (SST), sea level, and wind speeds from Arica (18.5 degrees S), Iquique (20.5 degrees S), and Antofagasta

Jose Luis Blanco; M. E. Carr; Andrew Thomas; P. T. Strub

2002-01-01

445

Hydrographic conditions off northern Chile during the 1996–1998 La Niña and El Niño events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of oceanographic conditions in the upwelling region off northern Chile (18°–24°S) between 1996 and 1998 (including the 1997–1998 El Niño) is presented using hydrographic measurements acquired on quarterly cruises of the Chilean Fisheries Institute, with sea surface temperature (SST), sea level, and wind speeds from Arica (18.5°S), Iquique (20.5°S), and Antofagasta (23.5°S) and a time series of vertical

Jose Luis Blanco; Mary-Elena Carr; Andrew C. Thomas; P. Ted Strub

2002-01-01

446

Changing marine productivity off northern Chile during the past 19 000 years: a multivariable approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multivariable approach utilising bulk sediment, planktonic Foraminifera and siliceous phytoplankton has been used to reconstruct rapid variations in palaeoproductivity in the Peru-Chile Current System off northern Chile for the past 19 000 cal. yr. During the early deglaciation (19 000-16 000 cal. yr BP), our data point to strongest upwelling intensity and highest productivity of the past 19 000 cal. yr. The late deglaciation (16 000-13 000 cal. yr BP) is characterised by a major change in the oceanographic setting, warmer water masses and weaker upwelling at the study site. Lowest productivity and weakest upwelling intensity are observed from the early to the middle Holocene (13 000-4000 cal.yrBP), and the beginning of the late Holocene (<4000cal.yrBP) is marked by increasing productivity, mainly driven by silicate-producing organisms. Changes in the productivity and upwelling intensity in our record may have resulted from a large-scale compression and/or displacement of the South Pacific subtropical gyre during more productive periods, in line with a northward extension of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and increased advection of Antarctic water masses with the Peru-Chile Current. The corresponding increase in hemispheric thermal gradient and wind stress induced stronger upwelling. During the periods of lower productivity, this scenario probably reversed. Copyright

Mohtadi, M.; Romero, O. E.; Hebbeln, D.

2004-05-01

447

Streamflow Trend in Three Watersheds of a Mediterranean Mountain Region in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Region of Valparaiso, Chile is one of the many semiarid mountainous regions of the world that will be impacted by water availability for future development. Located in a transition zone between arid and more humid conditions in Central Chile, this area is sensitive to desertification. Under a Mediterranean climate, hydrological processes in Valparaiso watersheds are highly variable seasonally. Seasonal variability of streamflow and precipitation are the main characteristics of the hydrological processes of the region. The presence of Los Andes modified somewhat this variability, which at present time ensures a continuous flow of water for irrigation, domestic and industrial uses because dry summers are offset by snowmelt. In our work, statistical analysis of three separate watersheds in Valparaiso was undertaken to understand precipitation trends in the last sixty years by comparing discharge values in transects from arid to more humid conditions. Although similarities at a regional scale are present, statistically significant differences in discharge associated with hypsometric parameters were found. Slight differences in the local scale climate, extension of glaciers, historical presence of productive activities and geomorphological variables could explain this response but not allow final conclusions about trends observed from the decade of 1950s to the present. But, these differences allow the identification of spatial patterns associated with the varying geomorphology of the watersheds. Thus, we developed a watershed classification scheme based on aerial photography and ground checking to improve future modeling of hydrological response in similar watersheds in Central Chile.

Chamorro Lopez, A. O.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.; High Alpine; Arctic Research Program

2011-12-01

448

Multi-level modeling of social factors and preterm delivery in Santiago de Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Birth before the 37th week of gestation (preterm birth) is an important cause of infant and neonatal mortality, but has been little studied outside of wealthy nations. Chile is an urbanized Latin American nation classified as "middle-income" based on its annual income per capita of about $6000. Methods We studied the relations between maternal social status and neighborhood social status on risk of preterm delivery in this setting using multilevel regression analyses of vital statistics data linked to geocoded decennial census data. The analytic data set included 56,970 births from 2004 in the metropolitan region of Santiago, which constitutes about 70% of all births in the study area and about 25% of all births in Chile that year. Dimensionality of census data was reduced using principal components analysis, with regression scoring to create a single index of community socioeconomic advantage. This was modeled along with years of maternal education in order to predict preterm birth and preterm low birthweight. Results Births in Santiago displayed an advantaged pattern of preterm risk, with only 6.4% of births delivering before 37 weeks. Associations were observed between risk of outcomes and individual and neighborhood factors, but the magnitudes of these associations were much more modest than reported in North America. Conclusion While several potential explanations for this relatively flat social gradient might be considered, one possibility is that Chile's egalitarian approach to universal prenatal care may have reduced social inequalities in these reproductive outcomes.

Kaufman, Jay S; Alonso, Faustino T; Pino, Paulina

2008-01-01

449

[The growing challenge of the editorial process in Revista Médica de Chile].  

PubMed

During the recent 6 years, a growing number of manuscripts have been submitted annually to Revista Médica de Chile. In 2005 this number was 60% greater than in the year 2000. This determined an increased workload in the editorial handling of manuscripts and in the number of external peer reviewers, who were over 400 participants during 2004, each one reviewing from one to five manuscripts in that year. An increasing use of the electronic mail helps to communicate editors with reviewers and authors. However, there is yet no availability of a software in Spanish to handle all communications in the editorial process in this language. The number of pages per issue has been increased and authors have been requested to limit the extension of their manuscripts, in order to allow more accepted manuscripts to appear in a shorter period of time. At the present, an average of 8.9 months separates the date of submission to the date of publication, in those manuscripts that were accepted in revised version after external peer review. The increasing number of submissions and the fact that this journal ranks high among Chilean journals, in the number of visits to full-text articles in the web page www.scielo.cl, testify that in spite of the aforementioned limitations Revista Médica de Chile is well considered among authors and readers in Chile and other Spanish-speaking countries. PMID:16532156

Reyes B, Humberto; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

2006-03-08

450

[Undergraduate and postgraduate studies in the biological sciences in Chile (1985)].  

PubMed

A study group of scientists was convened by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biological Society of Chile) and the Regional Program for Graduate Training in Biological Sciences, PNUD-Unesco, RLA 78/024, to assess undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences in Chile. The group presented this report at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society. Discussion centered on the features that should characterize the studies leading to the academic degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Magíster (Master) and Doctor (Ph. D) in Sciences, and also on the qualifications that the universities should satisfy in order to grant them. After analyzing the present situation of undergraduate and graduate studies in Biological Sciences in Chilean universities, the group made the following main suggestions: 1. It is recommended that Chilean universities agree on a 4-year plan for the Licenciado degree, without the requirement of a thesis. The importance of providing the students with good laboratory exercises and field experience and with the opportunity to perform short research projects is stressed. In addition, a sound theoretical training on mathematics, physics and chemistry in the education of a modern Biologist is important. Licenciate studies ought to be the basis for professional careers and the universities should offer to the Licenciados free access to their professional schools. 2. It is considered appropriate for Chile and its universities to develop graduate programs in those disciplines that have reached a level of excellence. To accomplish this aim, adequate finance of the universities is necessary to permit them to provide the essential facilities for doing research, and to create a wide system of fellowships for graduate students. Direct government support for research and graduate student fellowships is requested. 3. Research experience of the kind needed for the preparation of a doctoral thesis is recommended as the academic level appropriate for those engaged in teaching undergraduate students in sciences. Teachers in graduate programs should be qualified active researchers. 4. The creation is proposed of a Consejo Nacional de Universidades (National Council of Universities), to be autonomous and composed primarily of outstanding scientists. One of the main functions of this Council would be to licence universities to grant undergraduate and graduate academic degrees in science. 5. The Sociedad de Biología de Chile must maintain an interest in the evaluation of undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences. PMID:3448995

Niemeyer, H

1986-01-01

451

The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Tsunami propagation in the Pacific Ocean is simulated using the benchmarked tsunami model MOST (Titov and Gonzalez, 1997; Titov and Synolakis, 1998). For initial conditions the inversion model of Lorito et al. (2011) is utilized. The model results highlight the directivity of the highest tsunami waves towards Juan Fernández and Easter Island during the transoceanic propagation. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

2011-12-01

452

Una revisión de los beneficios del aporte complementario de nutrientes durante el embarazo: desde hierro y ácido fólico hasta probióticos pasando por ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de cadena larga  

Microsoft Academic Search

ResumenEn esta revisión se resume el conocimiento actual sobre la eficacia de los aportes complementarios prenatales de nutrientes, desde hierro y ácido fólico (HAF), que representan el patrón asistencial en muchas partes del mundo, hasta los más novedosos como ácidos grasos ?–3 y probióticos, en la mejora de los desenlaces del estado de salud materno-infantil. En ensayos aleatorios controlados se

Usha Ramakrishnan

2010-01-01

453

The Republic of Chile: an upper middle-income country at the crossroads of economic development and aging.  

PubMed

Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population, making Chile an intriguing case study for examining the impact of these societal-level trends on the aging experience. This paper highlights essential characteristics of this country for understanding its emerging aging society. It reveals that there is a fundamental lack of adequate and depthful epidemiologic and country-specific research from which to fully understand the aging experience and guide new policies in support of health and well-being. PMID:22534464

Gitlin, Laura N; Fuentes, Patricio

2012-04-25

454

Air contaminant statistical distributions with application to PM10 in Santiago, Chile.  

PubMed

The use of statistical distributions to predict air quality is valuable for determining the impact of air chemical contaminants on human health. Concentrations of air pollutants are treated as random variables that can be modeled by a statistical distribution that is positively skewed and starts from zero. The type of distribution selected for analyzing air pollution data and its associated parameters depend on factors such as emission source and local meteorology and topography. International environmental guideline use appropriate distributions to compute exceedance probabilities and percentiles for setting administrative targets and issuing environmental alerts. The distribution bears a relationship to the normal distribution, and there are theoretical - and physical-based mechanistic arguments that support its use when analyzing air-pollutant data. Others distribution have also been used to model air population data, such as the beta, exponential, gamma, Johnson, log-logistic, Pearson, and Weibull distribution. One model also developed from physical-mechanistic considerations that has received considerable interest in recent year is the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. This distribution has theoretical arguments and properties similar to those of the log-normal distribution, which renders it useful for modeling air contamination data. In this review, we have addressed the range of common atmospheric contaminants and the health effects they cause. We have also reviewed the statistical distributions that have been use to model air quality, after which we have detailed the problem of air contamination in Santiago, Chile. We have illustrated a methodology that is based on the Birnbaum-Saunders distributions to analyze air contamination data from Santiago, Chile. Finally, in the conclusions, we have provided a list of synoptic statements designed to help readers understand the significance of air pollution in Chile, and in Santiago, in particular, but that can be useful to other cites and countries. PMID:23149810

Marchant, Carolina; Leiva, Víctor; Cavieres, M Fernanda; Sanhueza, Antonio

2013-01-01

455

Weather Type classification over Chile; patterns, trends, and impact in precipitation and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andes Cordillera induces considerable disturbances on the structure and evolution of the pressure systems that influences South America. Different weather types for southern South America are derived from the daily maps of geopotential height at 850hPa corresponding to a 42 year period, spanning from 1958 to 2000. Here we have used the ECWMF ERA-40 reanalysis dataset to construct an automated version of the Lamb Weather type (WTs) classification scheme (Jones et al., 1993) developed for the UK. We have identified 8 basic WTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 6 main directional types) following a similar methodology to that previously adopted by Trigo and DaCamara, 2000 (for Iberia). This classification was applied to two regions of study (CLnorth and CLsouth) which differ 20° in latitude, so that the vast Chile territory could be covered. Then were assessed the impact of the occurrence of this weather types in precipitation in Chile, as well as in the distribution of precipitation and temperature fields (reanalysis data) in southern half of South America. The results allow to conclude that the precipitation in central region of Chile is largely linked with the class occurrence (concerning CLnorth) of cyclonic circulation and of West quadrant (SW, W and NW), despite of it's relatively low frequency. In CLsouth, for its part, it is verified that the most frequent circulation is from the west quadrant, although the associated amount of rainfall is lower than in CLnorth. There was also a general decrease of precipitation at local weather stations chosen in the considered period of study, particularly in austral winter.

Frias, T.; Trigo, R. M.; Garreaud, R.

2009-04-01

456

Paleomagnetic constraints on syn and post-mineralization deformation of major porphyry copper deposits in chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Chile porphyry copper deposits are found mainly within three distinct provinces. The oldest deposits are located in the late Jurassic Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the Coastal Cordillera. Eocene giant deposits are found in a restricted north-south belt within the Domeyko Cordillera of Northern Chile in the latitude range of 21-26^oS while the youngest late Miocene-Pliocene copper ores are located within the Andean Cordillera of central Chile (29-34^oS). Paleomagnetic studies were carried out to characterize the magnetic properties of the mineralized bodies and better constrain the interpretation of prospection-related aeromagnetic data. Despite structural and magnetic complexities, interpretable remanent magnetizations acquired during the mineralization processes provide a unique marker of syn or post-mineralization tectonics. We report paleomagnetic results for three distinct deposits. In the El Teniente giant porphyry copper deposit of Pliocene age, characteristic magnetizations show insignificant rotations or tilts. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data do not show evidence for a significant tectonic strain associated with the ore emplacement process. The Chuquicamata deposit of Eocene age is cut longitudinally by a major N-S fault, the west fissure fault. A nearly 130^o counterclockwise rotation can be recognized in the non-mineralized Fortuna granodiorite pluton to the west of the fault. Paleomagnetic results within the mineralized rocks do not show evidence for such large rotations. AMS data showing 20 to 30% of anisotropy demonstrate the importance of the tectonic strain associated with emplacement of this major porphyry copper deposit. Large clockwise rotations (about 45^o) are observed at the Mantos Blancos copper deposit in the Coastal Cordillera. Preliminary paleomagnetic results in mineralized rocks and non-mineralized crosscutting dikes indicate suggest that Mantos Blancos was rotated as a whole during early tertiary Andean deformation. These three examples demonstrate that paleomagnetism is an appropriate tool to better decipher the complex structural history of most Andean porphyry copper deposits.

Roperch, P.; Astudillo, N.; Townley, B.; Ramirez, L. E.

2003-04-01

457

[The University of Chile School of medicine : 170 years serving the country].  

PubMed

The first course on Medical Sciences in Chile was inaugurated in 1833, being its director William C Blest, MD, an Irish physician graduated in Edinburgh University. Therefore, Dr. Blest can be considered the founder of Chilean formal medical education. When the University of Chile was established (in 1842), among its five initial Faculties was included Medicine, on the basis of the Medical Sciences course created ten years before. By then, the medical profession was not yet socially reputed and the initial years of the Faculty were difficult. During the 19th Century and until the second decade of the 20th century, this was the only medical school in the country. Its development was slow but sustained, reaching its apogee in the middle of the 20th Century, when it had outstanding clinical and basic sciences teachers and investigators. Clinical research, postgraduate teaching and medical specialization had a great development during that period. Nowadays, it is a complex Faculty that teaches eight health sciences courses leading to different professional titles, gives higher academic degrees in biomedicine and public health and certifies different medical specialties. It has a modern, well equipped library and a unique Museum of Medicine. Besides the traditional Departments in Medical Faculties, it has Departments of Medical Teaching, Bioethics and Medical Humanities. It provides continuing medical education programs and distance teaching has recently experienced a great development. The community is also favored with specific teaching programs. The academic promotion of its faculty members is based in a strict evaluation. During its existence, the Faculty has graduated a large number of physicians and other health care professionals. Our country should be grateful to the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, in its 170th birthday, for its outstanding contribution to the development, welfare and happiness of Chilean society. PMID:12870228

Goic, Alejandro

2003-04-01

458

[Clinical and medical assistance in childbirth: trajectory of national and international influences, Santiago, Chile, 1900-1950].  

PubMed

This article outlines various aspects of the history of medical assistance for childbirth and its professionalization in Santiago, Chile, identifying the influences and interactions of Chilean medicine and national health and social policies with European clinical obstetrics and social medicine. It also explores the discussion and selective adoption and adaptation of these ideas by the Latin American scientific community and Chile's increasing interest in the US-developed field of public health specialization in the first half of the 20th century. PMID:18831148

Campos, Maria Soledad Zarate

2008-01-01

459

Spain-Chile and Spain-Ecuador cooperation in the field of research nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

The Spanish Board of Nuclear Energy (JEN) has been cooperating for the last several years with the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy (CCHEN)), on the one hand, and with the Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica (Ecuadorian Commission of Atomic Energy (CEEA)), on the other. The result of this cooperation has been the implementation of projects in both countries to create research centers around a nuclear reactor as the main working tool: the Lo Aguirre reactor in Chile and the Ruminahui reactor in Ecuador.

Avendano, G.; Rodriguez, M.L.; Manas, L.; Masalleras, E.; Montes, J.

1981-01-01

460

Influence of Initial Population Densities of Meloidogyne incognita on Three Chile Cultivars  

PubMed Central

The effects of Meloidogyne incognita on the Big Jim, Jalapeno, and New Mexico No. 6 chile (Capsicum annuum) cultivars were investigated in microplots for two growing seasons. All three cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and reacted similarly to different initial populations of this nematode. Severe stunting and yield suppressions occurred at all initial M. incognita densities tested ranging from 385 to 4,230 eggs and larvae/500 cm³ soil. Regression analysis of the microplot data from a sandy loam soil showed yield losses of 31% for the 1978 season and 25% for the 1979 season for the three cultivars for each 10-fold increase in the initial population of M. incognita.

Lindsey, D. L.; Clayshulte, Margaret Stefano

1982-01-01

461

Molecular epidemiology of hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Southern Chile.  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of public health importance. In Chile, the Cordobes/Chilean clone was the predominant healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) clone in 1998. Since then, the molecular epidemiological surveillance of MRSA has not been performed in Southern Chile. We aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HA-MRSA infections in Southern Chile to identify the MRSA clones involved, and their evolutionary relationships with epidemic international MRSA lineages. A total of 303 single inpatient isolates of S. aureus were collected in the Valdivia County Hospital (2007-2008), revealing 33 % (100 MRSA/303) prevalence for HA-MRSA infections. The SCCmec types I and IV were identified in 97 % and 3 % of HA-MRSA, respectively. All isolates lacked the pvl genes. A random sample (n = 29) of all MRSA was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec subtyping, agr and spa typing, and virulence genes profiling. PFGE analysis revealed the predominance (89 %, 26/29) of pulsotype A and three additional pulsotypes, designated H1, I33, and G1. Pulsotype A (ST5-SCCmecI-spa-t149) is clonally related to the Cordobes/Chilean clone. Pulsotype H1 (ST5-SCCmecIVNT-spa-t002) is genetically related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-SCCmecIV). Pulsotype I33 (ST5-SCCmecIVc-spa-t002) is clonally related by PFGE to the community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) clone spread in Argentina, I-ST5-IVa-PVL(+). The G1 pulsotype (ST8-SCCmecIVc-spa-t024) is clonally related to the epidemic USA300 CA-MRSA. Here, we demonstrate the stability of the Cordobes/Chilean clone over time as the major HA-MRSA clone in Southern Chile. The identification of two CA-MRSA clones might suggest that these clones have entered into the healthcare setting from the community. These results emphasize the importance of the local surveillance of MRSA infections in the community and hospital settings. PMID:23765159

Medina, G; Egea, A L; Otth, C; Otth, L; Fernández, H; Bocco, J L; Wilson, M; Sola, C

2013-06-14

462

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

SciTech Connect

Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

2011-06-01

463

Late Quaternary evolution of the San Antonio Submarine Canyon in the central Chile forearc ( ??? 33??S)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrosweep swath-bathymetry and seismic-reflection data reveal the morphology, sedimentary processes, and structural controls on the submarine San Antonio Canyon. The canyon crosses the forearc slope of the central Chile margin for more than 150 km before it empties into the Chile Trench near 33??S latitude. In its upper reaches, the nearly orthogonal segments of the San Antonio Canyon incise ??? 1 km into thick sediment following underlying margin-perpendicular basement faults and along the landward side of a prominent margin-parallel thrust ridge on the outer mid-slope. At a breach in the outer ridge, the canyon makes a sharp turn into the San Antonio Reentrant. Resistance to erosion of outcropping basement at the head of the reentrant has prevented the development of a uniformly sloping thalweg, leaving gentle gradients ( 6??) across the lower slope. Emergence of an obstruction across the head of the San Antonio Reentrant has trapped sediment in the midslope segments of the canyon. Presently, little sediment appears to reach the Chile Trench through the San Antonio Canyon. The development of the San Antonio Canyon was controlled by the impact of a subducted seamount, which formed the San Antonio Reentrant and warped the middle slope along its landward advancing path. Incision of the canyon landward of the outer mid-slope ridge may be ascribed to a combination of headward erosion and entrenchment by captured unconfined turbidity currents. Flushing of the canyon was likely enhanced during the lowered sea level of the last glaciation. Where the canyon occupies the triangular embayment of the reentrant at the base of the slope, sediment has ponded behind a small accretionary ridge. On the trench floor opposite the San Antonio Canyon mouth, a 200-m-thick levee-overbank complex formed on the left side of a distributary channel emanating from a breach in the accretionary ridge. Axial transfer of sediment was inhibited to the north of the San Antonio Canyon mouth, which left the trench to the north sediment starved. Between ??? 32??40???S and 33??40???S, the Chile Trench axial turbidite channel deeply incises the San Antonio distributary complex. This entrenchment may have been initiated when the barrier to northward transport was eliminated. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Laursen, J.; Normark, W. R.

2002-01-01

464

FEATURE OF THE 3 MARCH 1985 CHILE EARTHQUAKE - POSSIBLE TERRAIN AMPLIFICATION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents results of site-response experiments performed five months after the M//s equals 7. 8 Central Chile Earthquake of 3 March 1985. The objectives of the experiments performed are to identify amplification due to topography and geology. Topographical amplification at Canal Beagle, a subdivision of Vina del Mar, was hypothesized immediately after the main event, when extensive damage was observed on the ridges of Canal Beagle. Spectral ratios determined from aftershock data obtained from a temporary dense array are used to show that there was substantial amplification of motions at the ridges of Canal Beagle.

Celebi, M.

1986-01-01

465

ACTPol: Overview of a next-generation polarization-sensitive CMB observatory in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ACTPol is a new polarization sensitive receiver on the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope which is surveying the Chilean sky and will produce deep maps of the polarization, temperature, and lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in two frequency bands centered near 90 and 150 GHz. These measurements will improve constraints on inflation, neutrino properties, curvature, the primordial helium abundance, and dark energy. Cross correlating the ACTPol maps with optical surveys accessible from Chile will significantly amplify these constraints. In this talk I provide an overview of the project inclduing discussions of the instrument, science goals, and status of ACTPol.

McMahon, Jeff

2013-04-01

466

An unusual Xanthophyllomyces strain from leaves of Eucalyptus globulus in Chile.  

PubMed

Xanthophyllomyces sp. was isolated as an epiphytic red yeast from leaves of Eucalyptus glo-bulus in Concepción, Chile. Sexual reproduction was by basidiospores produced from one or rarely two metabasidia arising from a yeast cell without preceding paedogamy. The main carotenoid pigment was astaxanthin. This isolate did not cluster with the X. dendrorhous complex (including Phaffia rhodozyma) in ITS and 26S rDNA-based phylogenetic analyses. The phylloplane may be a further habitat for Xanthophyllomyces, in addition to the well-known spring sap-flows of deciduous trees and the recently-characterised ascostromata of Cyttaria hariotii. PMID:18501574

Weber, Roland W S; Becerra, José; Silva, Mario J; Davoli, Paolo

2007-12-23

467

Add-on conservation benefits of marine territorial user rights fishery policies in central Chile.  

PubMed

To combine the rational use of marine benthic resources and economic development of small-scale fishers, Chile passed legislation in 1991 establishing a comanagement policy that grants exclusive territorial user rights for fisheries (TURFs) to artisanal fisher organizations in well-defined inshore coastal areas, known as Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABRs). In general the policy has been proclaimed a management and economic success because benthic resource abundances have increased inside MEABRs in comparison with open-access areas. However, there is a lack of studies assessing the impact of this management policy on nontargeted subtidal species and community assemblages and the policy's implications for biodiversity and conservation. This study starts to fill this gap and links the allocation of TURFs for benthic resources with add-on conservation benefits for species that are not directly linked with the fishery policy. Comparative subtidal surveys inside vs. outside MEABRs were used to assess the effects of three MEABRs on managed targeted benthic species, biodiversity (species richness), and community assemblages in central Chile. Surveys focused exclusively on subtidal kelp forest habitats dominated by Lessonia trabeculata, spanning 4-12 m in depth and with similar levels of habitat complexity. The study comprised: (1) quantification of kelp forest complexity, (2) understory survey of sessile species, (3) quantification of conspicuous benthic macroinvertebrates, including those under management, and (4) quantification of reef-fish species inside the kelp habitat. Results showed population enhancement of target-managed invertebrates inside MEABRs. Moreover, reef-fish species were significantly more diverse and abundant inside MEABRs, and community assemblages of nontarget benthic invertebrates and reef fish were significantly different inside vs. outside MEABRs. The comanagement of inshore benthic resources in Chile, through MEABRs aims for the sustainability of invertebrate and algae stocks. However, our study shows that this management tool, which in practice restricts access to the entire management area, provides important conservation add-on effects for species that are not the focus of the management policies. Therefore, in Chile, the hundreds of already established MEABRs could represent an important ancillary network, which complements the biodiversity objectives of fully protected areas such as no-take marine protected areas or others. PMID:18372572

Gelcich, Stefan; Godoy, Natalio; Prado, Luis; Castilla, Juan Carlos

2008-01-01

468

Silver nitrate promotes shoot development and plant regeneration of chile pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) via organogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Chile pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants were regenerated from cotyledon explantsin vitro in four major stages: bud induction, bud enlargement, shoot elongation, and root development. Bud induction medium contained\\u000a 0.5 mg\\/L (2.9?M) indole-3-acetic acid and 2 mg\\/L (8.9 ?M) N6-benzyladenine. Bud enlargement occurred, and an occasional shoot appeared when medium with 2 mg\\/L (6?M) gibberellic acid, 2 mg\\/L (8.9 ?M)

Camille L. Hyde; Gregory C. Phillips

1996-01-01

469

Geochemical model of a magmatic–hydrothermal system at the Lastarria volcano, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lastarria volcano (25°10??S, 68°31??W; 5,697 m?above sea level), located in the Central Andes Volcanic Zone (northern Chile),\\u000a is characterized by four distinct fumarolic fields with outlet temperatures ranging between 80°C and 408°C as measured between\\u000a May 2006–March 2008 and April–June 2009. Fumarolic gasses contain significant concentrations of high temperature gas compounds\\u000a (i.e., SO2, HCl, HF, H2, and CO), and isotopic ratios

Felipe Aguilera; F. Tassi; T. Darrah; S. Moune; O. Vaselli

2011-01-01

470

Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a Dengue-1 virus isolated on Easter Island, Chile.  

PubMed

Dengue-1 viruses responsible for the dengue fever outbreak in Easter Island in 2002 were isolated from acute-phase sera of dengue fever patients. In order to analyze the complete genome sequence, we designed primers to amplify contiguous segments across the entire sequence of the viral genome. RT-PCR products obtained were cloned, and complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were determined. This report constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of a DENV-1 isolate from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis shows that an Easter Island isolate is most closely related to Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses. PMID:18815724

Cáceres, C; Yung, V; Araya, P; Tognarelli, J; Villagra, E; Vera, L; Fernández, J

2008-09-25

471

[Chile between pandemic: the influenza of 1918, globalization and the new medicine].  

PubMed

In 1918 Chile met the deadly presence of the Spanish influenza pandemic twentieth century's most important. For many historians, this event is an important milestone in the historical process of the unification of the world through sickness and in which our country has been involved. In this context, this paper aims to examine how the flu broke into Chilean society and how that situation helped give new impetus to the modernization of the Chilean public health and the establishment in the 1920s to model new medicine or preventive medicine. PMID:23677160

López, Marcelo; Beltrán, Miriam

2013-04-01

472

Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile  

PubMed Central

Two issues long debated among Pacific and American prehistorians are (i) whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken (Gallus gallus) to the Americas and (ii) whether Polynesian contact with South America might be identified archaeologically, through the recovery of remains of unquestionable Polynesian origin. We present a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence from a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile. These results not only provide firm evidence for the pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to the Americas, but strongly suggest that it was a Polynesian introduction.

Storey, Alice A.; Ramirez, Jose Miguel; Quiroz, Daniel; Burley, David V.; Addison, David J.; Walter, Richard; Anderson, Atholl J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Athens, J. Stephen; Huynen, Leon; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

2007-01-01

473

LOS PESCADORES ARCAICOS DE LA DESEMBOCADURA DEL RÍO LOA (NORTE DE CHILE): EL SITIO CALETA HUELÉN 42 ARCHAIC FISHERFOLK FROM THE MOUTH OF THE RÍO LOA (NORTHERN CHILE): THE CALETA HUELÉN 42 SITE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The archaeological site of Caleta Huelén 42 is located on the northern edge of the mouth of the Loa river, in the northern Chile. The site relates culturally to the second phase of the Camarones Complex, as well as with the Quiani Complex. It represents an important southward continuum of the expansion of archaic fishing groups similar to Morro 1,

José A. Cocilovo; Héctor H. Varela; María A. Costa-Junqueira; Silvia G. Quevedo

2005-01-01

474

ARTE RUPESTRE EN ASENTAMIENTOS DEL PERÍODO TARDÍO EN LOS VALLES DE LLUTA Y AZAPA, NORTE DE CHILE ROCK ART IN LATE HORIZON SETTLEMENTS IN THE VALLEYS OF LLUTA AND AZAPA, NORTHERN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabajo busca contribuir a la discusión sobre el proceso de expansión del estado Inka hacia las áreas periféricas del sur de los Andes, particularmente en los valles costeros Lluta y Azapa del extremo norte de Chile. Este proceso es analizado explorando el rol del arte rupestre -como soporte material de transmisión de ideología- en el proceso de integración que

Daniela Valenzuela; Calogero M. Santoro; Álvaro Romero

2004-01-01

475

TRAS LA PISTA DEL INCA EN PETROGLIFOS PARAVECINALES AL QHAPAQÑAN EN EL ALTO LOA, NORTE DE CHILE IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF THE INCA THROUGH NEIGHBOURING PETROGLYPHS SITES ALONG THE QHAPAQÑAN IN ALTO LOA, NORTHERN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

La duda acerca de si en realidad existió un arte rupestre propiamente incaico ha obsesionado a los investigadores durante décadas. En este artículo se discute este problema con datos del sitio SBa-518, un pequeño asentamiento agropastoril con arte rupestre figurativo tanto naturalista como esquemático, situado a un kilómetro del camino inca del Alto Loa, Región de Antofagasta, norte de Chile.

Diego Artigas

2007-01-01

476

Diversity of Bacteroidetes in high-altitude saline evaporitic basins in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phylum Bacteroidetes represents one of the most abundant bacterial groups of marine and freshwater bacterioplankton. We investigated the diversity of Bacteroidetes in water and sediment samples from three evaporitic basins located in the highlands of northern Chile. We used both 16S rRNA gene clone libraries created with targeted Bacteroidetes-specific primers and separation of specifically amplified gene fragments by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed a reduced richness of these organisms in samples from Salar de Huasco (two to four DGGE bands) increasing in Salar de Ascotán (two to seven DGGE bands) and Laguna Tebenquiche at Salar de Atacama (four to eight DGGE bands). Cluster analysis (WPGMA) of DGGE bands showed that bands from Salar de Huasco and Salar de Ascotán grouped together and samples from Salar de Atacama formed separate clusters in water and sediment samples, reflecting different Bacteroidetes communities between sites. Most of the sequences analyzed belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae and clustered with the genera Psychroflexus, Gillisia, Maribacter, Muricauda, Flavobacterium, and Salegentibacter. The most abundant phylotype was highly related to Psychroflexus spp. and was recovered from all three study sites. The similarity of the analyzed sequences with their closest relatives in GenBank was typically <97% and notably lower when compared with type strains, demonstrating the unique character of these sequences. Culture efforts will be necessary to get a better description of the diversity of this group in saline evaporitic basins of northern Chile.

Dorador, Cristina; Meneses, Daniela; Urtuvia, Viviana; Demergasso, Cecilia; Vila, Irma; Witzel, Karl-Paul; Imhoff, Johannes F.

2009-06-01

477

[Structure of human resources in a public hospital in Chile: an experience in introducing changes].  

PubMed

This article discusses the structural and operational reform process that took place beginning in 1994 in Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, a tertiary pediatric care facility run by Oriente Metropolitan Health Center in Santiago, Chile. The formation of the Chilean health care system is briefly outlined, along with the changes brought about by the military government in 1979 and other transformations introduced by the first democratic government in 1990 and by the second one, in 1994. In spite of Chile's favorable health indicators and of the current government's desire to establish equitable services and to launch a decentralized system, the health care system that was fundamentally modeled in the fifties and sixties has failed to respond successfully to the demographic transition and to the population's new epidemiologic profile. One of the main problems is that services at the secondary and tertiary levels lack what is necessary to respond to the demand. Under a new leadership with an interest in modern administrative methods, clinical services at Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital were restructured with new departments and units, a study of the organizational climate was carried out, the entire staff was intensively trained so as to generate a spirit of involvement and a new vision of the hospital's mission and teamwork, and a strategic plan was drawn up that is still being implemented. PMID:9441021

Artaza Barrios, O; Montt Vidal, J; Vásquez Leichtle, C

1997-11-01

478

Using Tsunami Deposits and Observed Tsunami Heights to Test Source Models of 1960 Chile Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-field tsunami simulations of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw 9.5) were performed with several source models. The computed inundation areas are compared with tsunami deposits localization and observed tsunami heights. Tsunami simulations were focused on the Pacific coasts of the south-central Chile, examining the Rio Maullin estuary in detail, localized at 41.5° S midway along the 1960 rupture; in this place the 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The tsunami heights at the coast were greater than 9 m above sea level, and in much of this flooded area, the tsunami reached a height of 4.5 m. Fault parameters of source models examined in this study consider six sources from Kanamori and Cipar (1974) with the same length, width, slip, strike and dip but different rake and depth; six sources proposed by Cifuentes (1989) with the same length, strike and rake but different width, slip, dip and depth; and one source from Barrientos and Ward (1990). The results allow propose the earthquake source models for tsunami generation that better fit with real evidences. Research supported by Fondecyt 1060227 and 1060745.

Lagos, M.; Cisternas, M.

2007-05-01

479

Forest Volume and Biomass estimation from SAR/LIDAR/Optical Fusion in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports on research to investigate ALOS/PALSAR L-band radar and optical time series data in conjunction with airborne lidar datasets to develop advanced data fusion algorithms for biomass and ecosystem structure measurements in support of the NASA DESDynI mission. The research is based on the acquisition of ALOS/PALSAR time series data beginning in 2007 and the timely confluence of these acquisitions with other highly relevant remote sensing and ground reference data sets in forested areas in Chile. Through collaboration with Digimapas Chile, the project has access to 75,000 km2 of 1-meter resolution full-waveform small footprint lidar (SFPL) data and 0.5 m resolution digital orthophoto imagery covering the commercial forests of Arauco, one of the largest cellulose producers in Latin America. Field inventory data from Arauco are used to test terrain and environmental influences on biomass estimation from empirical regression tree based data fusion approaches. The SAR data acquisitions available from PALSAR during the project time frame will span a five year period from 2007 to 2011, allowing investigations into how L-band time series data, similar to that expected from the DESDynI SAR (backscatter and interferometric coherence), can be used to build (1) the DESDynI biomass map product to be produced at the end of the “designed mission life” (i.e., 3 and/or 5/5+ years) and (2) annual maps of aboveground biomass change.

Kellndorfer, J. M.; Walker, W. S.; Goetz, S. J.; Cormier, T.; Kirsch, K.; Gonzalez, S.; Rombach, M.

2009-12-01

480

SYMPTOMS OF ANOTHER LIFE: Time, Possibility, and Domestic Relations in Chile's Credit Economy  

PubMed Central

In this article, I explore the synergy and disjunctures of the consumer credit system and care for the mentally ill and addicted in the lifeworlds of the urban poor in Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the expansion of the credit system has had a double-edged effect on the poor. Although it produces perpetual indebtedness, it also is a resource amid unstable labor. Following an extended family over several years, this article examines how women take up credit through a wider field of domestic relations and institutions to care for kin with mental illness and addiction within the home. Such gestures of care enact a temporality of waiting, allowing different, but unpredictable, aspects of others to emerge. Through longitudinal ethnographic research with this family, I demonstrate both how possibility is actualized within the home as symptoms of illness and forms of domestic violence, and how a wider network of dependencies—from neighbors to lending institutions—shapes the temporality of relations within the home. Such a study of care in relation to the credit economy may offer other analytic perspectives on discourses of individualism, consumerism, and cost-effectiveness accompanying the expansion of consumer credit as they are absorbed into the everyday.

HAN, CLARA

2011-01-01

481

European hares in Chile: a different lagomorph reservoir for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis?  

PubMed

Ruminants are the principal host for infection by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map), the cause of Johne's disease. Based on studies of a Map-infected population of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Scotland, lagomorphs as a broad taxonomic order were proposed as potential nonruminant reservoirs for Map. To determine whether a different lagomorph species may serve as a wildlife reservoir, we investigated Map infection in European hares (Lepus europaeus) sharing habitat with known Map-infected dairy cattle in southern Chile. Fecal, mesenteric lymph node, and ileal samples were aseptically collected from 385 wild hares for liquid culture and real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of acid-fast isolates. All tissue samples were also acid-fast stained and examined microscopically. We isolated Map from at least one tissue from 48 hares (12.6%) and fecal samples from 16 hares (4.2%). No Map was found in tissues of eight of the fecal-culture-positive hares. Histologically, all tissues from all hares were within normal limits, and no acid-fast organisms were observed in any sample. Active infection, implying amplification of the organism secondary to resultant disease, was not evident. With this report Map isolations on a population versus incidental detection have now been made from two lagomorph species. However, although the rabbit population studied in Scotland appears to function as a Map reservoir, the hares studied in Chile appear to be a dead-end host, serving only as potential mechanical vectors for the organism. PMID:21719843

Salgado, Miguel; Manning, Elizabeth J B; Monti, Gustavo; Bölske, Göran; Söderlund, Robert; Ruiz, Manuel; Paredes, Enrique; Leiva, Sergio; Van Kruningen, Herbert; Kruze, Juan

2011-07-01

482

Acoustics: A branch of engineering at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the 1960s, the first acousticians graduating at UACh had acquired an education in applied physics and musical arts, since there was no College of Engineering at that time. Initially, they had a (rather modest) four-year undergraduate program, and most of the faculty were not specialized teachers. The graduates from such a program received a sound engineering degree and they were skilled for jobs in the musical industry and sound reinforcement companies. In addition, they worked as sound engineers and producers. Later, because of the scientific, industrial and educational changes in Chile during the 1980s, the higher education system had massive changes that affected all of the undergraduate and graduate programs of the 61 universities in Chile. The UACh College of Engineering was officially founded in 1989. Then, acoustics as an area of expertise was included, widened and developed as an interdisciplinary subject. Currently, the undergraduate program in acoustics at UACh offers a degree in engineering sciences and a 6-year professional studies in Civil Engineering (Acoustics), having two main fields: Sound and Image, and Environment and Industry.

Poblete, Victor; Arenas, Jorge P.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

2002-11-01

483

Religion and intimate partner violence in Chile: macro- and micro-level influences.  

PubMed

The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present study explores the puzzle posed by these seemingly opposing macro- and micro-level forces. Results based on data from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a questionnaire on gender-based violence administered to students at a large public university in Chile, show that moderate or low levels of religiosity are associated with reduced vulnerability to violence, but high levels are not. This non-linearity sheds light on the puzzle, because at the macro level the religious views shaping Chile's legal and social environment have been extreme. PMID:19856701

Lehrer, Evelyn L; Lehrer, Vivian L; Krauss, Ramona C

2009-09-01

484

Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile's universal voucher system.  

PubMed

This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9-12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E

2010-07-01

485

Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.  

PubMed

In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile. PMID:23183564

Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

2012-09-01

486

Clones identification of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile by using PCR-RAPDs technique*  

PubMed Central

A protocol of polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNAs (PCR-RAPDs) was established to analyse the gene diversity and genotype identification for clones of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile. Ten (out of 34) clones from introduction trial located in Voipir-Villarrica, Chile, were studied. The PCR-RAPDs technique and a modified hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol were used for genomic DNA extraction. The PCR tests were carried out employing 10-mer random primers. The amplification products were detected by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Forty nine polymorphic bands were obtained with the selected primers (BG04, BF07, BF12, BF13, and BF14) and were ordered according to their molecular size. The genetic similarity between samples was calculated by the Jaccard index and a dendrogram was constructed using a cluster analysis of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Of the primers tested, 5 (out of 60) RAPD primers were selected for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. A total of 49 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 252 bands. The genetic similarity analysis demonstrates an extensive genetic variability between the tested clones and the dendrogram depicts the genetic relationships among the clones, suggesting a geographic relationship. The results indicate that the RAPD markers permitted the identification of the assayed clones, although they are derived from the same geographic origin.

Toral Ibanez, Manuel; Caru, Margarita; Herrera, Miguel A.; Gonzalez, Luis; Martin, Luis M.; Miranda, Jorge; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.

2009-01-01

487

Andean structural control on interseismic coupling in the North Chile subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Segmentation can influence the extent of earthquake rupture and event magnitude: large megathrust earthquakes result from total rupture of relatively continuous segments of the subduction interface. Segmentation is attributed to variations in the frictional properties o