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Sample records for chile reflexiones desde

  1. Chile.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038

  2. Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

    2009-01-01

    Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This paper discusses the approach and shows how it can be applied to investigate reliability issues in SoS.

  3. Evaluating Self-Reflexion Analysis Using Repertory Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice*, James; McDaniel, Brenda L.

    Vladimir Lefebvre’s Algebraic Model of Self-Reflexion is a formal and flexible system for modeling the processes that underlie human judgments. The model has received notable empirical support from studies within personal construct psychology using the repertory grid approach. In this chapter we briefly review this research and the repertory grid method, and then report the results of two new studies on the model conducted in our laboratory. Lastly, we will briefly discuss the implications of our findings with regard to future research on self-reflexion.

  4. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  5. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  6. Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

    La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ? TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

  7. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L.

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  8. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Calvin, M E

    1998-01-01

    The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women. PMID:12348695

  9. Fires in Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  10. Eso's Situation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed that the best VLT site would be the Paranal Mountain, 700 km north of La Silla and 130 km south of Antofagasta, the capital of the Second Region in Chile. In October 1988, the Chilean Government by an official act donated the land surrounding Paranal (in all 725 sq. km) to ESO. As is the case for La Silla, this would serve to protect the planned, incredibly sensitive mega-telescope against all possible future sources of outside interference. The donation was made on the condition that ESO would indeed proceed with the construction of the VLT at Paranal within the next five years. The corresponding decision was taken by the ESO Council in December 1990. The construction of the VLT observatory site at Paranal started immediately thereafter, thus fulfilling the condition attached to the donation. The construction of the VLT is now well advanced. In Europe, the main parts of the first VLT unit 8.2-metre telescope will be pre-assembled later this year and the first two of the enormous mirrors are being polished. In Chile, the extensive landscaping of the Paranal peak was finished in 1993, during which around 300,000 cubic metres of rock and soil was removed to provide a 100x100 sq. metres platform for the VLT, and the concrete foundations are now ready. The installation of the first telescope enclosure can now begin and the next will start later this year. The first of the four telescopes is expected to start observations in late 1997. All in all, ESO has until now committed about 70 percent of the expected total investment for the VLT, estimated to be approximately 570 million DEM. THE OWNERSHIP OF PARANAL According to information later received, the Chilean Ministry of National Properties ("Bienes Nacionales") inscribed in 1977 in its name various lands in the commune of Taltal, including the area of the Paranal peak. At that time, i.e. ten years before ESO decided to construct the VLT, nobody in this Organisation could imagine that this telescope would one day be constructed at that site. It was only seven years later, in 1984, that ESO initiated the search for a future VLT site that ultimately led to the recommendation in favour of Paranal, the subsequent donation by the Chilean Government and the beginning of the construction, as described above. ESO has never had any doubt on the legality of this donation by the Chilean Government. The Organisation started the work at Paranal in full confidence that this generous act was correct and respected its condition, i.e. to start construction of the VLT observatory within a given time frame. However, in April 1993, when the work at Paranal was already quite advanced, a Chilean family brought a lawsuit against the Chilean State and ESO, claiming that a small part of the land (about 22 sq. km, including the very peak of Paranal) that was inscribed by the state in 1977, had been property of this family. The lawsuit is presently pending with the competent Chilean courts and it is not known when a final judgement will be given. In keeping with its status as an International Organisation and conforming to the international practice of such organisations, ESO decided not to become a party in this lawsuit. The Organisation, therefore, has restricted its involvement to merely invoking the immunity from lawsuit and jurisdiction to which it is entitled (see below). ESO believes that the issue of past ownership is an internal Chilean matter. Nevertheless, it has been widely reported that on January 30, 1995, in response to an appeal by the claimants, a Chambre of the Chilean Supreme Court issued a preliminary decision that may be interpreted as ordering to stop the construction of the VLT during an undetermined period of time. This would seriously delay the entire project and necessarily entail additional, substantial costs. ESO'S IMMUNITIES ESO's relations with its host state, the Republic of Chile, is governed by an international Convention ("Convenio"), signed in 1963 and ratified by the Chilean Congress (Parliament) in 1964. According to this, the Chilean Government "grants to ESO the same immunities, prerogatives, privileges and facilities as the Government applies to the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America (CEPAL), as granted in the Convention signed in Santiago on 16 February 1953" (Article 4 of the Chile-ESO Convention). Through this, the Chilean Government has in particular recognized that "the possessions and properties of (ESO) wherever they may be, and whoever may have them in his possession, shall be exempt of registration, requisition, confiscation, expropriation and of whatever interference, may it be through executive, administrative, judicial or legislative action" (Art. 4, Sec. 8, CEPAL Convention). Such privileges and immunities are not peculiar to the relations between Chile and ESO. They apply, as already mentioned, to CEPAL as well as to all other United Nations' Agencies and they are today typically recognized by the host states of International Organisations throughout the world. The Chilean Government and ESO agreed in 1983-84 by an exchange of diplomatic notes that these privileges and immunities apply not only to the La Silla observatory, but equally to any other observatory site that the Organisation may establish in the future in the Republic of Chile. It is obvious that, in order to exclude a possible breach of international law, the reported preliminary decision requires to be considered and interpreted in the light of these privileges and immunities. ESO trusts that the competent Chilean authorities will take the appropriate action and decisions which are required for ensuring the Organisation's international status and its protection from any public interference into its possessions and properties. In a Press Conference at the ESO Headquarters in Santiago de Chile on February 13, 1995, Mr. Daniel Hofstadt, ESO's highest-ranking representative in Chile, stated on behalf of the Organisation that "ESO is in Chile with the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate elements of Chilean labour legislation into its rules and regulations for local staff. These proposed actions are contained in an Amendment to the Convention which was initialled late last year and is now awaiting signature by the Chilean Government and ratification by the Chilean Congress, as well as by the ESO Council. FUTURE INFORMATION In conjunction with the present Press Release ESO has prepared a pre-edited video-news reel with video-clips (approx. 4 minutes) about Paranal and the current work there. It is available for TV channels in the usual formats (Beta-SP and M II). Please fax your request to the ESO Information Service (+4989-3202362). ESO will continue to keep the media informed about further important developments around the VLT Project, in addition to the usual scientific and technological news, available through Press Releases and the ESO house journal, "The Messenger/El Mensajero". ----- Notes: [1] See also the following ESO Press Releases: PR 14/94 of 29 September 1994, PR 13/94 of 9 August 1994; PR 12/94 of 10 June 1994; PR 08/94 of 5 May 1994, and PR 07/94 of 21 April 1994. [2] The Council of ESO consists of two representatives from each of the eight member states. It is the highest legislative authority of the organisation and normally meets twice a year. ----- ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.hq.eso.org/) and on CompuServe (space science and astronomy area, GO SPACE).

  11. Chile’s dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  12. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

    This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Escondida Mine, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  14. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented. PMID:12347181

  15. Bruggen Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station caught a rare glimpse of the massive ice fields and glaciers of Patagonia early in the afternoon on September 25, 2001. This part of the South American coast sees frequent storms and is often obscured from view by cloud cover. Bruggen Glacier in southern Chile is the largest western outflow from the Southern Patagonian Ice Field and, unlike most glaciers worldwide, advanced significantly since 1945. From 1945 to 1976, Bruggen surged 5 km across the Eyre Fjord, reaching the western shore by 1962 and cutting off Lake Greve from the sea. The glacier continued advancing both northward and southward in the fjord to near its present position before stabilizing. The growth covers a distance of more than 10 km north to south, adding nearly 60 square km of ice. Additional information on this and other Patagonian glaciers may be found at the following link: USGS - Historic Fluctuations of Outlet Glaciers from the Patagonian Ice Fields. Image ISS003-E-6061 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  16. Highlights on DESD Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief report, delivered after the completion of the 1st year of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014), highlights the recent developments regarding the Decade (2005). It reports on the documents prepared, the regional and national launches of the Decade held so far and presents relevant…

  17. 1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

  18. Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

  19. Destruction in Downtown Concepcion, Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A masonry building in the downtown part of Concepcion, Chile partially collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Most modern buildings in Concepcion were undamaged during the earthquake due to the city's adoption of adequate building standards. However, many masonry buildings s...

  20. Patagonia Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.

    This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  1. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

    The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

    These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Size: 7.5 x 7.5 km (4.5 x 4.5 miles) Location: 23.6 deg. South lat., 67.6 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3, and thermal band 12 Original Data Resolution: 15 m and 90 m Date Acquired: January 6, 2002 and November 19, 2000

  2. Chile Pepper Response to Nitrogen Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, we evaluated the effects of N fertilization (6 N rates) on chile pepper fresh yield and biomass accumulation following two years of continuous corn production. A polymer-coated urea, ESN® (Environmentally Smart Nitrogen), N fertilizer source was used. Fresh chile pepper yields increased ...

  3. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  4. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  5. YIELD AND QUALITY OF MACHINE-HARVESTED RED CHILE PEPPERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chile peppers (capsicum annuum L.) are a major crop in the southwestern United States. Several chile types are grown regionally, including long, green chile for fresh market and canning; dried, red chile for pungent powder, paprika and oleoresin; jalopenos; and cayenne peppers. During the last dec...

  6. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  7. Educational Ethics and the DESD: Considering Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The United Nation's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) aims to prepare students for pressing economic and environmental problems. In this article, I argue that an exclusive emphasis on an ambiguous goal, sustainable development, raises important questions for educational ethics. Specifically, I argue that DESD mission…

  8. Educational Ethics and the DESD: Considering Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The United Nation's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) aims to prepare students for pressing economic and environmental problems. In this article, I argue that an exclusive emphasis on an ambiguous goal, sustainable development, raises important questions for educational ethics. Specifically, I argue that DESD mission…

  9. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since 1906? Since the number of M>7.0 aftershocks has been low, does the distribution of large-magnitude aftershocks differ from previous events of this size? What is the origin of the extensional-type aftershocks at shallow depths within the upper plate? The international seismological community (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.A.) in collaboration with the Chilean seismological community responded with a total of 140 portable seismic stations to deploy in order to record aftershocks. This combined with the Chilean permanent seismic network, in the area results in 180 stations now in operation recording continuous at 100 cps. The seismic equipment is a mix of accelerometers, short -period and broadband seismic sensors deployed along the entire length of the aftershock zone that will record the aftershock sequence for three to six months. The collected seismic data will be merged and archived to produce an international data set open to the entire seismological community immediately after archiving. Each international group will submit their data as soon as possible in standard (mini seed) format with accompanying meta data to the IRIS DMC where the data will be merged into a combined data set and available to individuals and other data centers. This will be by far the best-recorded aftershock sequence of a large megathrust earthquake. This outstanding international collaboration will provide an open data set for this important earthquake as well as provide a model for future aftershock deployments around the world.

  10. Repeating Earthquakes in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyton, F.; Ruiz, S.; Quilaqueo, M.; Campos, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Northern Chile was described as a seismic gap due to the lack of large seismicity in more than a 100 years. Recently, another large subduction earthquake (Mw 8.1) released part of the accumulated energy in the area. Due to the anticipation produced by this activity, a large seismological network deployed at the site successfully recorded this event. This network is composed by a wide variety of instruments, ranging from strong-motion accelerograms, broadbands, and continuous GPS. This wide variety of instruments enabled a detailed study of this large event, as well as the precursory activity and subsequent aftershock events. This enormously rich database has been used to detect repeating earthquakes, interpreted as aseismic slip along the plate boundary and strongly linked to large subduction earthquakes. In the present study, we search for repeating events in the plate boundary, as well as within the subducting slab (intermediate-depth intraplate earthquakes) using reported clusters in the area, previously identified with standard techniques, extending the observational time window to ~2008. We use a methodology successfully applied to interplate events in this area: using the clusters' waveforms as a template, we search for repeating events in the continuous data. We believe that these findings will improve our current knowledge of the seismic sequences of large interplate and intermediate-depth intraplate earthquakes.

  11. Analysis of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D J; Corbus, D; Holz, R

    1996-06-01

    Chile recently began a major rural electrification program to electrify those 240,000 families (about half of the rural people) who lack electricity access. In this paper, we discuss a pilot project to electrify three remote villages in Chile`s Region IX using wind/genset/battery hybrids. The intent of this project is to demonstrate the reliability and cost-effectiveness of wind/genset/battery hybrids and to encourage replication of these types of systems in Chile`s electrification program. For each village, electricity connections are planned for several residences, and also schools, health posts, community centers, or chapels. Projected average daily loads are small, ranging from 4 to 10 kWh. Using the optimization program HOMER and the simulation program Hybrid2, we evaluated options to maximize technical performance, minimize costs, and gain experience with a variety of systems and components. We find that wind/genset/battery hybrids will be able to provide cost-effective, reliable power for these sites. More importantly, their inherent flexibility allows for variations in load and resource without greatly affecting the cost of energy.

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh pomegranates from Chile. 319.56-56 Section 319... Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum) may be imported into the continental...) of Chile. Harvested pomegranates must be placed in field cartons or containers that are marked...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fresh pomegranates from Chile. 319.56-56 Section 319... Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum) may be imported into the continental...) of Chile. Harvested pomegranates must be placed in field cartons or containers that are marked...

  14. Diffusion of Technical Agricultural Information in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion Ray

    This study examined current thought concerning the role of mass communication in economic development in developing nations; analyzed existing efforts to diffuse agricultural technology in Chile; assessed the effectiveness of various approaches; and tested the effects (primarily on knowledge levels) of an experimental technical information service…

  15. A systems approach to chile harvest mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article reviews nearly half a century of published research on harvest mechanization of C. annuum var. annuum cultivars, focusing on chile for canning and fresh markets. At present, most of the crop is still harvested by hand, displacing production to locations where labor costs are low. Mech...

  16. Earthquake-Ready High Rise in Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A well-engineered high rise apartment and two-story building in Talca, Chile suffered no evident damage, though much of the city was affected by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Many buildings in this city were constructed with adobe or masonry and suffered major collapse. These undamaged buil...

  17. Volunteer Outreach Activities at ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESO-Chile Outreach Volunteer Team

    2012-06-01

    ESO staff in Chile are often asked to disseminate astronomical knowledge to schools and to the general public. A significant number of volunteers are now involved in these activities and the most recent projects in low-income schools and neighbourhoods are described and possible perspectives discussed.

  18. Bat rabies in urban centers in Chile.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, C A; Favi, M; Yung, V; Pavletic, C; de Mattos, C C

    2000-04-01

    One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the Chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reservoirs. No non-rabies lyssaviruses were found in this study. The Chilean samples were not related to viruses of the sylvatic cycle maintained by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. Five genetic variants were identified from insectivorous bats in Chile. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was identified as the reservoir for the rabies genetic variant most frequently isolated in the country between 1977 and 1998. The close association of a group of viruses obtained from a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Brazilian free-tailed bats, and a red bat (Lasiurus borealis) with viruses maintained by Lasiurus spp. in North America implicated species of this genus as the possible reservoirs of this particular genetic variant in Chile. Reservoirs for the other three variants remain unknown. PMID:10813604

  19. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    PubMed

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  20. Rubber finger stripper harvester for green chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest mechanization as a system requires modifying or creating new components including cultivars, production practices, and harvest, transportation and processing plant machinery. New Mexican chile is one of the last segments of the pepper industry to still rely on hand labor. This paper reports ...

  1. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  2. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  3. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... southwest corner of Rancho Catacula in section 34, T8N, R4W on the Yountville, CA, quadrangle map; (9) Then... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154 Section 9.154 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  4. Diffusion of Technical Agricultural Information in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion Ray

    This study examined current thought concerning the role of mass communication in economic development in developing nations; analyzed existing efforts to diffuse agricultural technology in Chile; assessed the effectiveness of various approaches; and tested the effects (primarily on knowledge levels) of an experimental technical information service…

  5. Education of the Televiewer in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel T.

    This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

  6. Studying Volcaniclastic Deposits Northern Patagonia, Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS research hydrologist Tom Pierson, working with geologists from SERNAGEOMIN (Chile's geological survey), examines lahar and volcanic flood deposits along Rio Chaitén, approximately 8 km downstream of Chaitén volcano. The rhyolite volcano's current eruptive phase began in May, 2008,...

  7. Education of the Televiewer in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel T.

    This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

  8. Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

    2003-12-01

    Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the R¡o Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5§ S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of trees. We sampled 45 such trees, some of them completely dead and the rest surviving only from shoots near the ground. One-third of these trees lived through the 1837 earthquake; they contain over 180 annual rings. Five of the trees also contain rings earlier than 1737. From this evidence, we tentatively infer that the islands underwent more subsidence in 1960 than they did in 1737 or 1837. Comparisons with old Chilean documents for the estuary further suggest that subsidence in 1837 did not approach that of 1960. In their depiction and description of the Misquihue islands in 1874, surveyor Francisco Vidal and botanist Carlos Juliet show nothing like the ghost forests seen today. Twice in the first 37 years after the 1837 earthquake, surveyors mapped as emergent several islands that the 1960 earthquake would lower into tidal water. Today, 43 years after they subsided in 1960, these islands remain submerged as barren intertidal flats. Research supported by Fondecyt 1020224.

  9. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  10. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A process began in which emission standards appropriate for Chile were set; this process included careful evaluation of risks versus mitigation costs for abatement options. Such options were developed and implemented. More recently, local communities have pressed for more significant reductions of arsenic in air and water. Considerable experience was gained with the arsenic experience on how to manage this type of hazardous pollutant, in a context of trade-offs among production, jobs, income, and health. In this review article, we cover arsenic levels in Chile's air, water, and soils and discuss health impacts and patterns of exposure. We also describe the process followed to set arsenic regulatory standards, as well as abatement options for air and water and the associated costs. PMID:19025095

  11. [Rabies in Chile: 1989-2005].

    PubMed

    Favi C, Myriam; Rodríguez A, Luis; Espinosa M, Carla; Yung P, Verónica

    2008-04-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study about epidemiology of rabies in Chile between years 1989 and 2005 was done. A data base of 39793 national registries of rabies samples was analyzed by means of statistical packages. Out of 39793 analyzed cases, 719 bats, 7 dogs, 7 cats, 1 bovine and 1 human were positive to rabies throughout the 17 years of this study. The statistical analysis established a significant increase in the proportions of positivity in bats, with predominance of variant 4 between the reservoirs. Given the complexity of the wild cycle of the rabies in Chile, it is necessary to maintain a program control of rabies, directed to educate people for a responsible possession of domestic animals, due to the risk of rabies transmission from bat to the susceptible species. PMID:18425219

  12. [Medical subspecialties in Chile: current status].

    PubMed

    Oyonarte, M

    1996-04-01

    There is no reliable registry of medical subspecialists in Chile According to the records of the Autonomous National Corporation for Certification of Medical Specialties (CONACEM), the largest number of certifications is in internal medicine (n = 681), followed by cardiology (n = 153), respiratory medicine (n = 106), gastroenterology (n = 93), endocrinology (n = 77), rheumatology (n = 55), hematology (n = 50) nephrology (n = 50), and infections diseases (n = 31). Over 55% of those certified in internal medicine and 70% of those certified in medical subspecialties (except nephrology) live in the metropolitan area of Santiago. Almost 80% of university-trained internists have received their training at the University of Chile (1952-1995), whereas 52% of university-trained subspecialists have been trained at the Catholic University of Chile. A sizeable number of nonofficial specialist-training programs are conducted at some universities at variance with their own official training policies. In internal medicine, a larger number of specialists have been trained by the universities than are certified by CONACEM, whereas the converse is true for medical subspecialists. More than 80% of the internists in Chile work for the Ministry of Health, who cares for 70% of the country's population. The best internist: population ratio is in Arica and Valdivia, and the poorest one in Arauco and in Viña del Mar/Quillota. According to estimations done by the Santiago Medical Society (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine) and its subspecialty affiliate societies, an adequate proportion of internists would be 1 for every 10,000 inhabitants, and for subspecialists, 1 for every 100,000 inhabitants. More information is needed about the ideal number of specialists and subspecialists required, and about their ideal distribution throughout the country. CONACEM needs to be strengthened, the universities should be able to certify non-university training centers, and the migration of subspecialists out of Santiago should be encouraged. PMID:9110492

  13. Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1945, No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Cameron D.

    1945-01-01

    Chile is a republic 2,630 miles long, extending along the western coast of South America from Peru to the southernmost tip of the continent. In width it averages about 110 miles, with snow-capped, volcano-studded Andes in the East, a low coastal range along the Pacific and a string of valleys and plains in between. It is estimated that 5,000…

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata...

  19. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  20. The Library Scene in Chile and Public Library Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmore, Marilyn P.

    This paper assessing the development of libraries in Chile focuses on the public library movement. An introductory section on the historical, economic, technological, and educational background of Chile is provided, as well as a discussion of the adverse effect of the military regime on the country's cultural life. The main part of the paper…

  1. Honors in Chile: New Engagements in the Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skewes, Juan Carlos; Sampaio, Carlos Alberto Cioce; Conway, Frederick J.

    2012-01-01

    Honors programs are rare in Latin America, and in Chile they were unknown before 2003. At the Universidad Austral de Chile, an interdisciplinary group of scholars linked to environmental studies put forward a pilot project for implementing a new experience in higher education. Challenged by an educational environment where (i) apathy and…

  2. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  3. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  4. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  5. HIV ISSUES AND MAPUCHES IN CHILE

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. The module was carried out in connection with a first-aid course in an attempt to increase effectiveness of the intervention by working jointly with an established community program. Sixteen (16) Mapuches participated voluntarily and demonstrated some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are affective. Participants correctly identified sexual contact as a means of transmission, but when asked why, one person stated, “I just know it, I read it.” There were significant barriers to communication within the group, secondary to cultural practices related to age and gender. Major obstacles in controlling HIV are the lack of prevention strategies targeted to disadvantaged groups. The module developed for this intervention was the first effort of the Academic Community Partnership established between the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile and the Mapuche group around HIV prevention. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and healthcare needs. PMID:18457766

  6. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

    1975-01-01

    Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

  7. Advances in Tsunami Hazard Mitigation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, M.; Arenas, F.; Lillo, I.; Tamburini, L.

    2012-12-01

    Chile has records of recurring tsunamis. This is confirmed by its geological evidences, long historical records and instrumental data. However, tsunamis were always an underestimated hazard. In 2010 its coasts were affected by a large near-field tsunami and in 2011 for a far-field tsunami generated in Japan, confirming the high vulnerability of coastal communities. Both events had different magnitudes and impacts on coastal areas. The near-field tsunami was generated by an earthquake (Mw 8.8) that occurred on the 27th of February 2010, the waves arrived at the coast in a few minutes and mostly impacted small coastal communities located within the rupture area, there were 156 victims and 25 missing. While the far-field tsunami was generated by a giant earthquake (Mw 9) that occurred on the 11th of March 2011 in Japan, arriving their first waves on the coast of Chile twenty one hours later, displacing thousands of people to high ground. These two recent events have resulted in advances in tsunami hazard mitigation, mainly in the localities that were affected by both events, incorporating the tsunami risk and the emergency management in territorial planning. Example of this is the consideration of risk based on worst case scenarios, design and assessment of mitigation scenarios (e.g. tsunami forest, mitigation parks, dikes and fills) using tsunami modeling and land use policies more rigorous. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

  8. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  9. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the ceremony, along with ambassadors in Chile of ESO members States, and representatives of the Chilean government and the scientific community. To review the impact of the numerous projects financed over the last decade, ESO presented the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", based on the reports of the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile fund. Since the beginning, the ESO-Chile fund has granted over 2.5 million euros to finance post-doc and astronomy professors for main Chilean universities, development of research infrastructure, organisation of scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers, and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In addition to the 400,000 euros given annually by ESO to the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, around 550,000 euros are granted every year to finance regional collaboration programmes, fellowships for students in Chilean universities, and the development of radio astronomy through the ALMA-Chile Committee. In total, apart form the 10 percent of the observing time at all ESO telescopes, ESO contributes annually with 950,000 euros for the promotion of astronomy and scientific culture in Chile. The growth of astronomy and related sciences in Chile in the last years has been outstanding. According to a study by the Chilean Academy of Science in 2005, the number of astronomers has doubled over the last 20 years and there has been an 8-fold increase in the number of scientific publications. It is gratifying to see that 100 percent of the observing time granted by international observatories in Chile is actually used by the national community. The same study stated that astronomy could be the first scientific discipline in Chile with the standards of a developed country, with additional benefits in terms of technological improvement and growth of human resources. The English edition of the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe" is available here. The Spanish edition can be downloaded here.

  10. [The Vida Chile program: results and challenges with health promotion policy in Chile, 1998-2006].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Judith; Cancino, Anselmo; Pezoa, Sergio; Salamanca, Fernando; Soto, Marina

    2007-01-01

    The Government of Chile has placed a high priority on health promotion. This is evident in the advances made through its National Plan for Health Promotion (Plan Nacional de Promoción de la Salud) and the Vida Chile National Council for Health Promotion (Consejo Nacional para la Promoción de la Salud Vida Chile). Chaired by the minister of health, Vida Chile is made up of 28 public and private institutions from around the country. Vida Chile has a network of local councils that have been established in the country's comunas (communes, or local-level divisions of the country's provinces) and that include government officials and representatives of local societal and community organizations and private businesses. This report details the methods used to evaluate the National Plan as well as provides a preliminary assessment of the technical and financial results for the 1998-2006 period. Coverage indicators (number of participants; number of accredited health-promoting schools, workplaces, and universities; and number of health promotion events) and the extent of strategy implementation were used to measure the success of the program. Health promotion activities grew markedly during this period. Among the notable accomplishments were the following four: (1) 98% of the communes now have their own community health promotion plan and intersectoral Vida Chile committee to implement the plan, (2) there has been an increase in societal and community groups involved in the health promotion strategies, (3) 34% of the primary and secondary schools have become accredited health-promoting schools, and (4) approximately 20% of the total population benefited directly from community-health-plan activities in 2006. The average per capita cost of the community health plans' activities in 2006 was US$ 6.60. The two most important factors that facilitated the operation of the local health promotion plans were participation by community and societal groups and having an adequate budget for the local activities. Hindering factors included a lack of time and/or human resources to devote to health promotion, a geographically dispersed population, and difficulty in accessing the activities. PMID:17565800

  11. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. PMID:26340665

  12. Iterative and FEM methods to solve the 2‑D Radiative Transfer Equation with specular reflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Hardy, David; Favennec, Yann; Rousseau, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    The present paper deals with iterative algorithms coupled with finite element methods (FEM) to solve the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) within semi-transparent heterogenous materials where specular reflexions occur on their boundaries. As our intention is to use such solution for inversion, the forward model should be solved as fastly as possible. This communication compares, in terms of both accuracy and CPU, the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method with the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method, both being coupled with the Discrete Ordinate Method. Next, several iteratives methods used to accelerate the convergence are compared. These methods are the Gauss-Siedel (GS), the Source-Iteration (SI) and the Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) methods.

  13. New species of Anisophya Karabag from Chile (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phanopterinae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the most primitive Neotropical bush katydids (Phaneropterinae) — including species of Cosmophyllum Blanchard, Stenophylla Brunner von Wattenwyl, Marenestha Brunner von Wattenwyl, Anisophya Karabag, Coryphoda Brunner von Wattenwyl, and Burgilis Stål — are endemic in Chile. The Chilean species...

  14. Conducting a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, G. A.; Crosby, J. L.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1998, we directed a two-week laboratory-oriented teacher professional development program, "Curso Experimental de Quimica", for thirty-six high school chemistry teachers in Santiago, Chile. Participants earned a certificate of completion from the University of Chile. Our involvement began in 1996, when we presented a plenary lecture in science education at the XXII Latin American Congress of Chemistry in Concepcion, Chile. In that address, we discussed the philosophy and the operation of the Master of Arts in Chemistry Program1 that we were running in the State of Washington. The response to the presentation was enthusiastic, and eventually Hugo Zunino, the Dean of the School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Chile, visited us in Pullman to explore the idea of involving us in a teacher development initiative in Santiago.

  15. The 2015 Chile-U.S. Astronomy Education Outreach Summit in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, Sandra Lee; Arnett, Dinah; Hardy, Eduardo; Cabezón, Sergio; Spuck, Tim; Fields, Mary Sue; Smith, R. Chris

    2015-08-01

    The first Chile-U.S. Astronomy Education Outreach Summit occurred March 22-28, 2015. The Summit was organized and supported by the U.S. Embassy in Chile, Associated Universities Inc., Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, the Carnegie Institution for Science, the Image of Chile Foundation, the National Science Foundation, and La Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. The Summit brought together a team of leading experts and officials from Chile and the U.S. to share best practices in astronomy education and outreach. In addition, Summit participants discussed enhancing existing partnerships, and building new collaborations between U.S. Observatories and astronomy education outreach leaders in Chile.The Summit was an exciting and intense week of work and travel. Discussions opened in Santiago on March 22 with a variety of astronomy education and public outreach work sessions, a public forum, and on March 23 the U.S. Embassy sponsored a Star Party. On Tuesday, March 24, the Summit moved to San Pedro de Atacama, where activities included work sessions, a visit to the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array telescope facilities, and a second public forum. From San Pedro, the team traveled to La Serena for additional work sessions, visits to Gemini and Cerro Tololo, a third public forum, and the closing session. At each stop, authorities and the broader community were invited to participate and provide valuable input on the current state, and the future, of astronomy education and public outreach.Following the Summit a core working committee has continued meeting to draft a “roadmap document” based on findings from the Summit. This document will help to identify potential gaps in astronomy outreach efforts, and how the U.S. facilities and Chilean institutions might work together strategically to address these needs. The first draft of this “roadmap document” will be made available for comment in both Spanish and English in late September 2015.

  16. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  17. Exoplanet Surveys at Universidad de Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Patricio; Jenkins, James; Hoyer, Sergio; Jones, Matías

    2014-04-01

    We present and highlight the first results of the three main exoplanet surveys we are currently conducting at Universidad de Chile: CHEPS, Red Giant Exoplanets (radial velocity), and TraMoS (transit lightcurves). We have several interesting candidates at the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search (CHEPS) project, which is aimed at searching for the currently missing southern bright transiting planets at a few m/s radial velocity precision. Using the same technique, we are also characterizing the planetary population in a constrained sample of Red Giant stars. The Transit Monitoring from the South (TraMoS) project is aimed both at improving transit parameters and at detecting any kind of lightcurve variability from several known southern exoplanet systems.

  18. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  19. Avian influenza in Chile: a successful experience.

    PubMed

    Max, Vanessa; Herrera, José; Moreira, Rubén; Rojas, Hernán

    2007-03-01

    Avian influenza (AI) was diagnosed in May 2002 for the first time in Chile and South America. The epidemic was caused by the highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) virus subtype H7N3 that emerged from a low pathogenic virus. The index farm was a broiler breeder, located in San Antonio, V Region, which at the time was a densely populated poultry area. Stamping of 465,000 breeders, in 27 sheds, was immediately conducted. Surveillance activities detected a second outbreak, 1 wk later, at a turkey breeding farm from the same company. The second farm was located 4 km from the index case. Only 25% of the sheds were infected, and 18,500 turkeys were destroyed. In both outbreaks, surveillance zones and across-country control measures were established: prediagnosis quarantine, depopulation, intensive surveillance, movement control, and increased biosecurity. Other measures included cleaning, disinfection, and controlling the farms with sentinels to detect the potential presence of the virus. Zoning procedures were implemented to allow the international trade of poultry products from unaffected areas. Positive serologic results to H5N2 virus also were detected in other poultry farms, but there was no evidence of clinical signs or virus isolation. Epidemiological investigation and laboratory confirmation determined that positive serology was related to a contaminated imported batch of vaccine against inclusion body hepatitis. All actions taken allowed the control of the epidemic, and within 7 mo, Chile was free of AI. Epidemic and control measures that prevented further spread are described in this article, which illustrates the importance of a combination of control measures during and after an outbreak of AI. This study is a good example of how veterinary services need to respond if their country is affected by HPAI. PMID:17494584

  20. New records to Chile of the Family Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Américo; Hilbig, Brigitte; Rozbaczylo, Nicolás

    2002-05-01

    The Paraonidae are a polychaete family of small body size which have not been reported for Chile until recently. Mainly due to improved sample-processing methods, research campaigns carried out in 1994 and 1996 on three areas off southern Chile have yielded numerous records. Several species proved to be new to the Chilean polychaete fauna, including species that have been known previously only from Antarctic areas. These new records and range extensions are reported in this paper.

  1. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  2. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition, site installation was accomplished with special care. At each station a cavern was blasted into the bedrock up to 5 meters deep to ensure stable conditions for measurements. Currently five stations are additionally recording continuously GPS signals, another five are also recording meteorological data, and another seven are equipped with Magneto-Telluric (MT) probes (fluxgate magnetometers and electrode lines). It is planned to extend the multi-parameter observation to as many stations as possible. So far ten of the stations are sending continuous data via satellite links (VSAT) to the GEOFON data host at the GFZ. We will be reporting first results on seismicity, transient deformation and MT from the first two years of recording.

  3. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-15

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. PMID:16163355

  4. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index. Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  5. [A personal view of endocrinology in Chile].

    PubMed

    Jadresic, Alfredo

    2005-06-01

    In a short historical review of the outstanding changes occurred in the whole of endocrinology and particularly in Chile over the last 60 years -with the background of an infant mortality drop from 200 per thousand in 1940 to 8 per thousand today and a mean life expectancy increase from 42 to 76 years- the author outlines major achievements in this country. He comments on the use in former days of biological tests on urine extract to measure hormones for diagnostic procedures replaced by hormone determinations in blood by radioimmunoassays; today's medication with synthetic hormones instead of opotherapeutic preparations obtained from organ extracts; the identification of new hormones, receptors and new knowledge that enables us to understand the role of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, the interaction of neurological, endocrine and immunological systems and the involvement of stress in various diseases. Finally the description of DNA and the international cooperative project to establish the human genome map with unpredictable potential applications in medicine. The author underlines the importance of collaborative work in all branches of medicine, often making cooperation more effective than competition. The enormous expansion of biological information demands that direct application of scientific knowledge to clinical medicine is prevented as being insufficient for an optimal clinical judgment, since a bio-psychosociological perspective of the patient and the doctor's clinical experience are essential factors in the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:16075140

  6. Equity in health care utilization in Chile.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile.The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992-2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index.Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  7. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  8. Regional differences in psychiatric disorders in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Robert; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra; Navarrette, Gonzalo; Veloso, Paula; Torres, Silverio

    2006-01-01

    Background Psychiatric epidemiological surveys in developing countries are rare and are frequently conducted in regions that are not necessarily representative of the entire country. In addition, in large countries with dispersed populations national rates may have low value for estimating the need for mental health services and programs. Methods The Chile Psychiatric Prevalence Study using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was conducted in four distinct regions of the country on a stratified random sample of 2,978 people. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and service utilization rates were estimated. Results Significant differences in the rates of major depressive disorder, substance abuse disorders, non-affective psychosis, and service utilization were found across the regions. The differential prevalence rates could not be accounted by socio-demographic differences between sites. Conclusions Regional differences across countries may exist that have both implications for prevalence rates and service utilization. Planning mental health services for population centers that span wide geographical areas based on studies conducted in a single region may be misleading, and may result in areas with high need being underserved. PMID:17036264

  9. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  10. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  11. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  12. Tracking Our Progress: A Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the UN DESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilbury, Daniella

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability agenda is a concern of several UN agencies that appreciate how well-being, social justice, human development and the health of our planet are inextricably linked. This remit underpinned the launch of the UN Decade in Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) in 2005. As the DESD reaches its mid-point, mechanisms for assessing…

  13. A reference frequency database of 15 autosomal STRs in Chile.

    PubMed

    Toscanini, Ulises; Moreno, Fabián; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Morales, Eugenia Aguirre; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    We estimated the allele frequencies for the 15 autosomal STR loci included in the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler (Applied Biosystems, USA) in a sample of 986 unrelated non-Native American individuals collected at five different localities from Chile, namely, Iquique, Santiago, Concepción, Temuco and Punta Arenas. Frequency distributions and several forensic parameters were estimated at each recruitment site. In addition, analyses were carried out merging the data into five sample locations. No significant statistical differences could be detected between different regions in Chile. These data represent one of the very few studies performed on autosomal STRs in Chile and therefore provide a useful tool for forensic casework carried out in the country. PMID:26074412

  14. Going beyond city boarders: the case of Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal cities interact in various ways with the adjacent ocean. Such interactions are of particular interest over central Chile where: 1) substantial emissions of oxidized sulfur in connection with copper smelting, power plants and possibly volcanic quasi permanent degassing occur; 2) upwelling results in hot spots of biogenic bromine and iodine; 3) substantial production of sea-salt aerosols takes place. These interactions may constitute an important constrain when defining policy measures for addressing air pollution in the most urbanized regions of Chile. This is because Chilean cities are applying curbing measures on a relatively fast pace, which may turn halogen chemistry relevant in the upcoming decades when defining appropriate measures for air pollution control and emission reductions of chemically active tracers. We overview these issues and look out for ways of addressing them in the framework of the recently awarded Center for Climate and Resilience Research in Chile.

  15. Nutrition and national development: the case of Chile.

    PubMed

    Solimano, G; Hakim, P

    1979-01-01

    This study is an historical analysis of food consumption and nutrition in Chile emphasizing the influence of political and economic factors on nutritional standards. It attempts to document and explain the persistence of malnutrition as a widespread social problem in Chile even as the country achieved a relatively advanced state of economic development and boasted an unusually progressive record of social legislation. The major findings of the study were: (a) Chile's pattern of development, social reform efforts notwithstanding, consistently discriminated against low-income groups, and (b) this discrimination perpetuated low standards of nutrition and low levels of food consumption among the country's poor and undermined the effectiveness of specific measures to alleviate malnutrition. PMID:468441

  16. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  17. Complex segregation analysis of facial clefting in Chile.

    PubMed

    Palomino, H; Cerda-Flores, R M; Blanco, R; Palomino, H M; Barton, S A; de Andrade, M; Chakraborty, R

    1997-01-01

    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) has an incidence of 1.5 per 1,000 live births in Chile, with 1.7 per 1,000 in males and 1.3 per 1,000 in females, which is nearly the same as the level found in Asian populations. The high rate of occurrence of CL/P in Chile is probably due to the presence of Amerindian genes in Chilean populations. Using the computer program PAP, a complex segregation analysis of CL/P was conducted for 67 multigeneration pedigrees from Chile, each ascertained from one affected proband. These pedigrees yielded 162 affected individuals and over 898 family members who were included in the analysis. The most parsimonious model of transmission indicated the presence of an autosomal dominant gene with reduced (20-25%) penetrance. PMID:9224940

  18. [Penicillin production in Chile between 1944 and 1954].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cecilia; Parada, Mirtha

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production in Chile was a pioneering development; however there is not much information to learn about it. The Chilean Institute for Bacteriology (Instituto Bacteriológico de Chile) produced penicillin between 1944 and 1973. The stage starting in 1953 is better known since there was an agreement with United Nations. Our research focused on building a story about production between 1944 and 1954 based on archival information and the national and international historic context. Our results place Chile amongst the pioneer countries in the successful industrialization of the drug. Our conclusions are that this was a proper industrial production as opposite to a pilot plant - a name commonly used to call the early factory. We explain the production plant trajectory by making relations between technological change and governance. Finally, we believe the later expansion of the plant, in the context of the agreement with the United Nations, took place under unpromising governance conditions, which called for passive innovation and technology management. PMID:25860052

  19. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient for a community that has doubled. Likewise, even 50% of the productivity corresponds to regional centres, only 35% of projects coming from FONDECYT are awarded to the regions (away from the metropolitan region). Regarding experimental Physics, this represents 20% of the community in both, researchers and productivity of the community. However, in the regular FONDECYT contest in 2005, only 2 projects (10%) were awarded in experimental Physics, which is undoubtedly insufficient. The study also includes a brief analysis according to social appraisal of Physics, dissemination activities to other areas of national living, and relation of Physics with the productive sector. Finally, some recommendations are made: - To create a special fund for experimental Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. Complementarily, experimental Physics should be one of the priority areas for the technological and scientific development of the country. - To duplicate the amount assigned to Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. - To create a system that allows increasing the salaries of the researchers in Physics so they could be assimilated to other professional salaries in our country or at an international level. Not only demands must be globalized but also the benefits.

  20. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one thousand aftershocks during the following week using waveform cross-correlation and the double-difference algorithm. Aftershocks reveal that rupture during this earthquake was confined to the deeper part (35 - 55 km depth) of the seismogenic coupling zone, except near the Mejillones peninsula that marks rupture termination in the south. Here earthquake activity reaches to depths of 20 km and even shallower, possibly indicating upper plate activation. The sequence also features an M 6.8 earthquake that broke the oceanic slab on an almost vertical plane at the down-dip end of the megathrust rupture. Confrontation with the aftershock distribution of the 1995 M 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake on the adjoining southern segment reveals an intriguing mirror symmetry with an axis crossing the Mejillones peninsula, emphasizing the penisula's significance as a segment boundary. Since then activity inside the remaining seismic gap to the north picked up with three earthquakes exceeding magnitude 6, maybe heralding the next great rupture.

  1. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  3. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  4. Popular Education for Peasant Communities in Chile. Chapter 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infante R., Isabel; Letelier G., Eugenia

    The rural population of Chile has been served poorly by the formal educational system, rural educational attainment lags behind that of urban areas, and outmigration and alienation of rural youth are high. In the past decade, popular education has attempted to educate rural people and put them in control of their destinies by drawing on popular…

  5. Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montecinos, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

  6. Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 clonal complex, Chile 2012.

    PubMed

    Araya, Pamela; Fernández, Jorge; Del Canto, Felipe; Seoane, Mabel; Ibarz-Pavón, Ana B; Barra, Gisselle; Pidal, Paola; Díaz, Janepsy; Hormazábal, Juan C; Valenzuela, María T

    2015-02-01

    Serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis was the main cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Chile during 2012. The case-fatality rate for this disease was higher than in previous years. Genotyping of meningococci isolated from case-patients identified the hypervirulent lineage W:P1.5,2:ST-11, which contained allele 22 of the fHbp gene. PMID:25625322

  7. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  8. The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

  9. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  10. Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1964, No. 10. OE-14096

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeburger, Adela R.; Hauch, Charles C.

    1964-01-01

    This bulletin notes that Chile was one of the first Latin American republics to achieve political democracy, with all aspects of its cultural, educational, and philosophical life influenced by Spanish tradition, reinforced by French and Italian influences. This document provides a brief historical background, then proceeds to describe the system…

  11. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  12. Children's Rights and Education in Argentina, Chile, and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poveda, David; Gomez, Viviana; Messina, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Relates the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child to education policy by comparing policies in Argentina, Chile, and Spain. Uses case studies in these countries to propose a framework that reveals some possible obstacles to the implementation of children's rights. (SLD)

  13. Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

  14. The Drought-Stress Transcriptome of Chile Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chile pepper is an economically important crop in semi-arid subtropical regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States. Because these areas are often water limited and high thermal stress environments, significant decreases in yield are routine. The identification of genetic factors controllin...

  15. The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…

  16. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  17. 75 FR 11583 - The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...

  18. Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

  19. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  20. The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

  1. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  2. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep-sea chemically-reducing ecosystem (hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, oxygen minimum zones and large organic falls) have the potential to co-exist.

  3. Worthy Women of Chile: What Role Did They Play? Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad Program 1995 (Chile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Ruth A.

    This paper describes the lives of some notable women in the history of Chile from the time of the conquistadors to the present. The significant women described in the paper include: (1) Ines de Suarez (accompanied Pedro de Validivia in 1544); (2) Micaela Bastidas Puyucahua (wife of Incan leader Jose Gabriel Tupac Amaru, about 1780); (3) Gabriela…

  4. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Kenney, M. J.; Murray, L. W.

    1997-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

  5. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

    1997-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

  6. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. ESO has constructed a road from the main road in the area (the ``Old Panamericana'') to the summit. It passes by the ESO base camp (in the foreground, left of the road). The constructors' camp is located on the other side of the road. This photo (ESO PR Photo 08/94-1) accompanies ESO Press Release 08/94 of 6 May 1994 and may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-2: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is located in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. The altitude is 2650 metres. In this view towards the East, the high mountains of the Andean Cordillera are in the background. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. The four excavations for the buildings that will house the four 8.2 metre VLT unit telescopes are clearly seen. There are some dust clouds from the construction activity at the site. There are several other peaks in this area which may possibly be used for astronomical installations. The one to the left on which some site testing equipment can be seen, is known as the ``NTT Peak''. This photo (ESO PR Photo 08/94-2) accompanies ESO Press Release 08/94 of 6 May 1994 and may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-3: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is located in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. The altitude is 2650 metres. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. The four excavations for the buildings that will house the four 8.2 metre VLT unit telescopes are clearly seen. The positions of some of the future structures have been marked. The control building will be located on the platform at the rightmost edge of the mountain. This photo (ESO PR Photo 08/94-3) accompanies ESO Press Release 08/94 of 6 May 1994 and may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-4: CERRO PARANAL This photo of the ESO Base Camp at the foot of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained in late March 1994. Paranal is located in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. The altitude is 2650 metres. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. This photo (ESO PR Photo 08/94-4) accompanies ESO Press Release 08/94 of 6 May 1994 and may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  7. Forest fragmentation and rhinocryptid nest predation in central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Pablo M.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2003-12-01

    Fragmentation of forest landscapes can raise the intensity of nest predation by increasing the abundance and richness of generalist or introduced predators. Understory foraging birds, such as rhinocryptids, can be highly vulnerable to nest predation in fragmented landscapes because they often place their nests on the ground. Temperate deciduous forests in Chile have been intensively fragmented in the last centuries, causing changes in nest predator densities. We tested if predation of artificial nests, mimicking those of rhinocryptids, placed on and above ground was higher in the remnant fragments of central Chile due to an increase in predator abundance. The rate of nest predation in forest remnants was larger than in native continuous forest. Small mammals were the main nest predators. Despite high predation rates, the abundance of rhinocryptids is higher in forest remnants, suggesting that fragments might constitute ecological traps.

  8. Typing of the rabies virus in Chile, 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Yung, V; Favi, M; Fernandez, J

    2012-12-01

    In Chile, dog rabies has been controlled and insectivorous bats have been identified as the main rabies reservoir. This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008. A total of 612 RABV isolates were tested using a panel with eight monoclonal antibodies against the viral nucleoprotein (N-mAbs) for antigenic typing, and a product of 320-bp of the nucleoprotein gene was sequenced from 99 isolates. Typing of the isolates revealed six different antigenic variants but phylogenetic analysis identified four clusters associated with four different bat species. Tadarida brasiliensis bats were confirmed as the main reservoir. This methodology identified several independent rabies enzootics maintained by different species of insectivorous bats in Chile. PMID:22458941

  9. Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time. PMID:25196338

  10. [Breast feeding in Chile, past and present (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mardones, F

    1979-08-01

    Breastfeeding practices have greatly diminished in all industrialized countries in the past 30 years; only now breastfeeding is enjoying a revival, especially among better educated people, as data gathered in Sweden and in the U.S. show. In Chile, as in most underdeveloped countries, the practice of breastfeeding began declining in urban, then in rural areas, reaching the largest decline in 1930. Modernization and all the factors connected with it, and especially urbanization, are accountable for this change. To encourage breastfeeding in Chile several recommendations are possible, among which is the education of parents on the advantages of breastfeeding. Mass media and all communication channels should be used; 2) better alimentation, when necessary at government expenses, for pregnant and nursing mothers; 3) legislation regulating the advertisement and distribution of infant formulas; 4) information on the possible effects of oral contraception on lactation; and 5) new social legislation protecting pregnant and nursing mothers. PMID:397578

  11. Paleogene tectonics and forearc strike-slip faulting: southern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, R.B.; Cande, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that highly oblique Nazca-South America convergence during the middle to late Paleogene resulted in the development of a dextral strike-slip fault landward of the Chile trench. The Linquine-Ofqui fault (LOF) is nearly 1000 km long and trends approximately N10/sup 0/E between 39/sup 0/S and 47/sup 0/S. It consists of several fault strands with the dominant strand represented by a mylonitic zone approximately 3 km wide. Preliminary field mapping (Herve, 1984) indicates seaward trending splay faults that can be projected offshore in the vicinity of two large embayments along the Chile margin. The Golfo de Guafo embayment occurs between 43/sup 0/S and 44/sup 0/S and is approx.40 km wide in the N-S direction. The Golfo de Penas embayment is approx.75 km wide in the N-S direction and occurs between 47/sup 0/S and 48/sup 0/S at the southern end of the LOF. The authors suggest that these embayments are a consequence of NE-SW extension due to movement on splay faults of the LOF system during the middle to late Paleogene. Convergence during this time was highly oblique. Movement decreased on the northern portion of the LOF prior to a decrease in movement on the southern end. Radiometric dates on rocks from the fault zone (Herve, 1984) provide constraints on the timing of movement along the fault. Marine geophysical data allow you to map the structures in these embayments which support the model of dextral shear along the LOF. Reactivation of the LOF may have occurred 6 Ma when a segment of the actively spreading Chile ridge was subducted at the Chile trench adjacent to the Golfo de Penas.

  12. New L Chondrites from Antofagasta, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez de Los Rios, E.

    1992-07-01

    Desert regions can be productive meteorite recovery locations because of low humidity, minimal ground cover and, in favorable situations, high prevailing winds to deflate surfaces. For these reasons we have made reconnaissance searches of a particularly arid Atacama Desert tract between Antofagasta and Mejillones, Chile (approx. 23 degrees 15'S, 70 degrees 30'W). One of us (EMR) had previously collected new ordinary chondrites from this same area, which has been named Pampa (a), (b), (c), and (e). The Pampa de Agua Blanca (PAB) chondrite is also apparently from this same area. In our brief 1991 reconnaissance we found additional specimens of (a) and (c). All of these meteorites have been found as multiple stones, necessitating pairing studies. Consequently, we examined our finds (a, b, c, and e), borrowed specimens from the Field Museum (a, b, PAB) and Robert Haag (c), and have performed the first detailed studies of the Pampa meteorites. Here we summarize results of these studies. Shock levels refer to the classification developed by Stoffler et al. (1991). PAMPA (a): This weathered meteorite is represented by several partially fusion-crusted fragments with a combined mass of approximately 380 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section, although some chondrule fragments are present; considerable recrystallization is evident and plagioclase (Ab(sub)80Or5-Ab(sub)83Or(sub)5) is present as clear grains. Diopside and hydroxylapatite are also present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.4% mean deviation-PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (a) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA (b): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with a combined weight of approximately 10 kg. We examined thin sections from four individual stones of (b). A few distinct barred chondrules are evident in thin section, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)74.8 mean, 0.9 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, minor mosaicism and very rare (<25%) planar deformation features. We classify Pampa (b) as L4/5, shock level 4. PAMPA (c): This is a highly weathered, desert-varnished meteorite represented by numerous stones with a combined weight of approximately 25 kg. We examined sections from three stones of (c); the most notable feature of the meteorite is considerable darkening. Metal is almost entirely weathered. A few distinct barred and excentroradial chondrules are evident, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.3 mean, 0.8 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, mosaicism, planar deformation features, and melt veins and pockets. Some turbid glass is present. We classify Pampa (c) as L4, shock level 6. The classification of Pampa (c) given in the Meteoritical Bulletin (Graham, 1989) (L6) is incorrect. PAMPA (e): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with an unknown total mass. No distinct chondrules are present in the single thin section available to us. Considerable recrystallization is evident, and clear plagioclase grains are present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.07 PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (e) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA de AGUA BLANCA: This is a weathered meteorite represented by specimens totaling 10 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.2 mean, 0.2 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, minor mosaicism and very rare (<25%) planar deformation features. Clear plagioclase (Ab(sub)76Or(sub)8-Ab(sub)84Or(sub)5) grains are present. We classify Pampa de Agua Blanca as L6, shock level 4. We conclude by noting that the Atacama Desert in general, and the Antofagasta area in particular, appears to be a fruitful region for future meteorite searches. We note with curiosity that all chondrites found to date in the Antofogasta-Mejillones area have been of the L persuasion. METEORITE OLIVINE (Fo) PYROXENE (En) GLASS? SHOCK CLASS. MEAN PMD CaO MEAN PMD Pampa (a) L6 75.0 0.4 <=0.05 77.2 0.7 NO 1 Pampa (b) L

  13. Chile's national nutritional supplementation program for older people: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Dangour, Alan D; Moreno, Ximena; Albala, Cecilia; Rivera-Marquez, Alberto; Lera, Lydia; Villalobos, Alicia; Morris, Saul S; Uauy, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Demographic changes in developing countries have resulted in rapid increases in the size of the older population. As a result, health-care budgets face increasing costs associated with the declining health and function of older people. Some governments have responded to this situation by designing innovative programs aimed at older people. One such program, implemented by the government of Chile, distributes an instant food mix fortified with vitamins and minerals to all persons over 70 years old who are registered by the national health service. The national health service covers approximately 90% of the older population. The program specifically targets nutritional vulnerability and micronutrient deficiency, which are common among poor older people in Chile. We present here the findings of a one-year investigation into all aspects of Chile's program for the elderly. The research included in-depth interviews with policy makers and program implementers, focus group discussions with user groups, analysis of the micronutrient content of the nutritional supplement, and telephone interviews of a random sample of older people. The results demonstrate that there can be a considerable degree of self-targeting within national programs; programs need to be sufficiently flexible to permit periodic protocol change; user groups must be consulted both before and during program implementation; and the design of an effective program evaluation must be in place before program implementation. It is hoped that these results will be useful to policy makers and implementers planning programs aimed at improving the health and function of older people. PMID:16060220

  14. [Early detection of cervical cancer in Chile: time for change].

    PubMed

    Léniz Martelli, Javiera; Van De Wyngard, Vanessa; Lagos, Marcela; Barriga, María Isabel; Puschel Illanes, Klaus; Ferreccio Readi, Catterina

    2014-08-01

    Mortality rates for cervical cancer (CC) in Chile are higher than those of developed countries and it has an unequal socioeconomic distribution. The recognition of human papilloma virus (HPV) as the causal agent of cervical cancer in the early 80's changed the prevention paradigms. Current goals are to prevent HPV infection by vaccination before the onset of sexual activity and to detect HPV infection in women older than 30 years. This article reviews CC prevention and early detection methods, discusses relevant evidence to support a change in Chile and presents an innovation proposal. A strategy of primary screening based on HPV detection followed by triage of HPV-positive women by colposcopy in primary care or by cytological or molecular reflex testing is proposed. Due to the existence in Chile of a well-organized nationwide CC prevention program, the replacement of a low-sensitivity screening test such as the Papanicolau test with a highly sensitive one such as HPV detection, could quickly improve the effectiveness of the program. The program also has a network of personnel qualified to conduct naked-eye inspections of the cervix, who could easily be trained to perform triage colposcopy. The incorporation of new prevention strategies could reduce the deaths of Chilean women and correct inequities. PMID:25424677

  15. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Muñoz; Becker, Peter H; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g(-1) wet weight). The highest sumDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g(-1)). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g(-1)), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (sumOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepción Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile. PMID:12860109

  16. mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.

    PubMed

    García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. PMID:16323203

  17. Surnames in Chile: a study of the population of Chile through isonymy.

    PubMed

    Barrai, I; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Dipierri, J; Alfaro, E; Acevedo, N; Mamolini, E; Sandri, M; Carrieri, A; Scapoli, C

    2012-03-01

    In Chile, the Hispanic dual surname system is used. To describe the isonymic structure of this country, the distribution of 16,277,255 surnames of 8,178,209 persons was studied in the 15 regions, the 54 provinces, and the 346 communes of the nation. The number of different surnames found was 72,667. Effective surname number (Fisher's ?) for the entire country was 309.0, the average for regions was 240.8 ± 17.6, for provinces 209.2 ± 8.9, and for communes 178.7 ± 4.7. These values display a variation of inbreeding between administrative levels in the Chilean population, which can be attributed to the 'Prefecture effect' of Nei and Imaizumi. Matrices of isonymic distances between units within administrative levels were tested for correlation with geographic distance. The correlations were highest for provinces (r = 0.630 ± 0.019 for Euclidean distance) and lowest for communes (r = 0.366 ± 0.009 for Lasker's). The geographical distribution of the first three-dimensions of the Euclidean distance matrix suggests that population diffusion may have taken place from the north of the country toward the center and south. The prevalence of European plus European-Amerindian (95.4%) over Amerindian ethnicity (4.6%, CIA World Factbook) is compatible with diffusion of Caucasian groups over a low-density area populated by indigenous groups. The significant excess of maternal over paternal indigenous surnames indicates some asymmetric mating between nonAmerindian and Amerindian Chileans. The available studies of Y-markers and mt-markers are in agreement with this asymmetry. In the present work, we investigate the Chilean population with the aim of detecting its structure through the study of isonymy (Crow and Mange,1965) in the three administrative levels of the nation, namely 15 regions, 54 provinces, and 346 communes. PMID:22271503

  18. 77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... State. ACTION: Notice of the next meeting of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Environmental Affairs... (Environment) of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement (``FTA'') and Article II of the United States... Environmental Cooperation; (3) ] Chapter 19 (Environment) of the United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement;...

  19. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 50818) and determined on January 4, 2010 that it would conduct expedited reviews (75 FR... COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and...

  20. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...The Department invites the public, including NGOs, educational institutions, private sector enterprises and other interested persons, to submit written comments or suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement, which was signed on June 17, 2003. We encourage submitters to refer to: (1) The U.S.-Chile......

  1. Canker and twig dieback of blueberry caused by Pestalotiopsis spp. and a Truncatella sp. in Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has great economic importance in Chile, currently with about 8,500 ha being cultivated. Recently, the presence of canker and dieback symptoms has been observed along the productive blueberry zone of Chile extending from the V Region (32º49´ South lat.) in the north to the ...

  2. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... allowed. Importation of pomegranates (Punica granatum) from Chile is allowed if the fruit is fumigated... Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and Fig (Ficus carica) from Chile Imported into the Continental United States.... Fresh figs (Ficus carica) and fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum) may be imported into the...

  3. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., 2011, however, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 15225-15228, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0018) a... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a... United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems...

  4. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... periodic distributions of long-term capital gains with respect to their outstanding common stock as... that the purpose of the Chile Fund Plan is to allow the Chile Fund to make fixed periodic distributions... make fixed periodic distributions to provide a steady return to the Australia Fund's...

  5. Carlota, a new genus of Agrypnini from the Valdivian Forests of Chile (Elateridae, Agrypninae, Agrypnini)

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Bohart, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlota gen. n., with one included species C. coigue sp. n., is described and illustrated from the Valdivian forests of Chile. The relationships of this genus to other Agrypnini from Chile are discussed and generic key for Chilean Agrypninae genera is provided. PMID:25061355

  6. Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matear, Ann

    2007-01-01

    The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

  7. Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

  8. Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matear, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in…

  9. Spatial variability of atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Barra, Ricardo; Mendoza, Gonzalo; Montory, Monica; Oyiliagu, Catherine E.; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the spatial variability of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chilean atmosphere, XAD-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for 12 months (2006-2007) along three elevational gradients in Northern, Central and Southern Chile, for a total of 20 sampling sites, ranging in elevation from 10 to 4400 m and ranging over 26 degrees of latitude. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) had largely uniform air concentrations with latitude and altitude, and is therefore used to derive sampler specific sampling rates, that account for differences in uptake kinetics due to environmental factors such as altitude and temperature. Levels of pesticides in the atmosphere of Chile are very low and only ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, ?-endosulfan and chlorothalonil were present in all of the samples. The concentrations of these four pesticides in air decreased from North to South, with much steeper gradients for chlorothalonil and endosulfan. Chlorothalonil levels were greatly elevated in air samplers deployed in urban locations. Endosulfan concentrations in air tend to increase with elevation. Since endosulfan is particularly susceptible to mountain cold-trapping, such gradients may reflect the re-volatilization of endosulfan that had been preferentially deposited at higher altitudes. Alternatively, increasing endosulfan concentrations with elevation could be the result of transport to higher altitude sites from the other side of Andes. Airshed analysis indeed indicates that air masses originating outside of Chile have a higher influence on the higher elevation sites, especially along the Northern transect. Concentrations of four-ring PAHs ranged from 0.3 to 1300 pg m -3, with higher levels in air samplers deployed in urban areas and close to roads. PCB concentrations were low (0.7-27 pg m -3), with slightly higher levels of volatile congeners in two urban sampling sites in Concepcion and Arica. PCB-52 is the only congener present in all samples, with levels that are remarkably uniform across the country.

  10. Physical Dating Violence Victimization in College Women in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. Methods A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n?=?441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Results Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Conclusions The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of dating violence, HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs for adolescents and young adults. PMID:20350204

  11. [Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

    2004-05-01

    This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas. PMID:15231085

  12. The Epidemiology of Abortion And Its Prevention in Chile.

    PubMed

    Koch, Elard

    2015-01-01

    Mortality by abortion has continuously decreased over the past fifty years in Chile. In fact, maternal death as a result of an induced abortion has become an exceptionally rare phenomenon in epidemiological terms (a risk of 1 in 4 million pregnant women of fertile age or 0.4 per 100,000 life births for abortion of any type, excluding ectopic pregnancy). After abortion became illegal in 1989, deaths related to abortion continued to decrease from 10.8 to 0.39 per 100,000 live births. This scientific fact challenges the common notion that less permissive abortion laws lead to greater mortality associated with abortion. PMID:26103709

  13. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  14. Panoramic View of the Andes Mountains, Chile and Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of the Andes Mountains of Chile and Argentina (24.5S, 69.5W) is dominated by the yellows and browns of the coastal Atacama Desert and the full width of the Andes altiplano, about 300 miles. Winter snow can be seen capping the 22,000 to 23,000 ft. peaks of the Andes. Wisps of cirrus clouds lie over the altiplano and offshore fog obscures the coast. In the distance, the low Chaco Plain appears green with pastures and agriculture.

  15. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  16. 25 years of an integrated vaccination program in Chile.

    PubMed

    Borgoño, J M; Corey, G

    1978-01-01

    Various problems and subjects related to the long Chilean experience in vaccination programmes are reported. Emphasis is placed on proper administrative and planning steps in order to obtain the right epidemiological diagnosis, to develop the infrastructure of health, to support financially, to manage resources, to train personnel, to apply techniques and to evaluate periodically. The advantages of the integration of the programme in primary services are commented on. Epidemiological evaluation and surveillance are considered highly important in the successes obtained. The particular structure of health services in Chile has played a meaningful role in meeting public health requirements for the past 25 years, specifically with respect to vaccination programmes. PMID:753659

  17. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Pablo; Garrido, Marcela; Lessard, Eli; Swanson, Julian; Mallon, William K.; Saldias, Fernando; Basaure, Carlos; Lara, Barbara; Swadron, Stuart P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO) that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED) presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%). Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2%) of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8%) cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine). Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39%) patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a relatively low rate of alcohol and recreational drug co-ingestion, and a relatively low rate of acetaminophen ingestion. PMID:26823936

  18. [The Revista Médica de Chile. 100 years ago].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1990-01-01

    Manuel Barros Borgoño MD, Professor of Surgery who graduated in France (1879) was President of the Santiago Medical Society (1885), Dean of the Faculty of Medicine (1889-95) and Rector of the University of Chile (1901). He was a contributor of the Journal. As a prominent surgeon, he introduced different forms of anesthesia, like morphine and atropine, cocaine and methylchloride. He was an organizer of the first Chilean and the first Latin American Medical Congress. In the University he encouraged medical research and helped establish the basic role of the University as a leading institution in the nation. He died in 1903. PMID:2152709

  19. Electromagnetic study of the active continental margin in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echternacht, Friedrich; Tauber, Sebastian; Eisel, Markus; Brasse, Heinrich; Schwarz, Gerhard; Haak, Volker

    1997-06-01

    Magnetotelluric and geomagnetic deep sounding measurements were carried out in the magmatic arc and forearc regions of northern Chile between 19.5° and 22°S to study the electrical conductivity structures of this active continental margin. The instruments used covered a very broad period range from 10 -4 s to approx. 2 × 10 4 s and thus enabled a resolution of deep as well as shallow structures. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of data from an east-west profile crossing Chile from the Pacific coast to the Western Cordillera at 20.5°S. A decomposition of the impedance tensors using the Groom-Bailey decomposition scheme shows that a two-dimensional interpretation is possible. The resulting regional strike direction is N9°W. Two-dimensional models were calculated in this coordinate frame and include the significant bathymetry of the trench as well as the topography of the Andes. The final model shows a generally high resistivity in the forearc and a very good conductor below the Precordillera. Unlike earlier models from areas further south, a good conductor is not observed below the magmatic arc itself. This correlates with the so-called Pica gap in the volcanic chain and a higher age of volcanic activity compared with adjacent areas.

  20. Frequency Dispersion of the 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Wright, L.; Titov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    On 1 April 2014, a Mw 8.2 earthquake struck off the coast of Iquique, Chile. A tsunami was triggered by this earthquake and caused flooding along the northern coast of Chile. Time series of water surface elevations were recorded at tide gauges and DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Report of Tsunamis) tsunami sensors in the Pacific Ocean. By comparing the wave spectra of the Iquique event with those of other historical events in this region, we notice the former are characterized with significantly higher energy concentration in high-frequency wave modes. This is an indicator of strong frequency dispersion effects, which can quickly reduce the amplitudes of the leading waves in open ocean. These effects are demonstrated through numerical simulations with a weakly dispersive Boussinesq model. The oceanic propagation of this tsunami is also simulated with MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami), the numerical simulating tool of NO­AA's tsunami forecast system, termed SIFT (Short-term Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis). Though MOST is based on the nonlinear shallow-water theory, the numerical dispersion introduced by its finite difference scheme can be manipulated to compensate the neglected physical frequency dispersion, and makes it applicable to dispersive wave propagations.

  1. Death patterns during the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A; Viboud, Cécile

    2014-11-01

    Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918-1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July-August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

  2. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  3. Astronomy Outreach Activities in Chile: IYA 2009 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.

  4. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  5. Two new species of Austrobdella (Hirudinida: Piscicolidae) from Chile.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julianne I; Urrutia, Paula M; Burreson, Eugene M

    2007-02-01

    Austrobdella coliumicus n. sp. is described from Coliumo Bay, Chile. It is characterized by a continuous, external coelomic canal (= marginal lacuna), 5 pairs of testisacs, accessory gland cells, a body not distinctly divided into trachelosome and urosome, 2 pairs of dorsal ocelli on the trachelosome, dorsal and ventral segmental ocelli present on the urosome, green overall pigmentation with transverse brown bands, and the absence of conducting tissue. Austrobdella coliumicus is distinguished from other species of Austrobdella by the presence of 2 pairs of ocelli on the trachelosome and a more cylindrical body. It is unusual that this leech was collected from inside the mantle cavity of the razor clam, Ensis macha. Austrobdella losmoliniensis n. sp. is described from the electric ray, Discopyge tschudii, collected at Los Molinos, Chile. It is characterized by a continuous, external coelomic canal; 5 pairs of testisacs; accessory gland cells; a body distinctly divided into trachelosome and urosome; 1 pair of eyes on the oral sucker; overall black pigmentation with unpigmented areas; and the absence of conducting tissue. Austrobdella losmoliniensis can be distinguished from other species of Austrobdella by the combination of 1 pair of eyes on the oral sucker and black pigmentation. PMID:17436961

  6. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2009].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2009-08-01

    During the first semester of 2009 Revista Médica de Chile has received an increasing number of manuscripts. Close to 30% were rejected while most other are in the process of being improved by the authors after receiving criticisms by external peer reviewers and the editors. The time lag between acceptance and publication of manuscripts is on an average six months. During 2008, 10% of articles published were submitted by authors from countries other than Chile and most of them were printed in English. Impact factor and other indexes provided by the ISI Web of Knowledge showed a promising improvement in 2008. The International Advisory Committee and the National Editorial Committee were renewed, a new Section on Laboratory Medicine was incorporated and several minor changes were done in design and format, in the title page and the issues' content. The main problems to be faced relate to the increasing cost of editing and printing, with a reduction in commercial advertising historically contributed by the pharmaceutical industry. Another major concern is to stimulate governmental agencies, scientific societies and universities to establish a national independent registry of clinical trials, that should become a mandatory requisite for every manuscript submitted to Chilean medical journals, reporting clinical trials performed in the country; foreign manuscripts should document the satisfaction of an identical requisite in their original source. PMID:19915775

  7. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  8. [Mental health financing in Chile: a pending debt].

    PubMed

    Errázuriz, Paula; Valdés, Camila; Vöhringer, Paul A; Calvo, Esteban

    2015-09-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of mental health disorders in Chile, there is a significant financing deficit in this area when compared to the world's average. The financing for mental health has not increased in accordance with the objectives proposed in the 2000 Chilean National Mental Health and Psychiatry Plan, and only three of the six mental health priorities proposed by this plan have secure financial coverage. The National Health Strategy for the Fulfilment of Health Objectives for the decade 2011-2020 acknowledges that mental disorders worsen the quality of life, increase the risk of physical illness, and have a substantial economic cost for the country. Thus, this article focuses on the importance of investing in mental health, the cost of not doing so, and the need for local mental health research. The article discusses how the United States is trying to eliminate the financial discrimination suffered by patients with mental health disorders, and concludes with public policy recommendations for Chile. PMID:26530201

  9. Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries. PMID:20945755

  10. Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ≈10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

  11. Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Martin; Núñez, Lautaro; Cartajena, Isabel

    2005-10-01

    Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile has been found between 12 600 and 10 200 cal. yr BP. The new site at Salar Punta Negra (24°28S/60°53W/2976 m) includes about 1000 classifiable, mostly unifacial artefacts and, uniquely, three different diagnostic types of early projectile points. Two of the Lateglacial/early Holocene projectile types have wide distribution and are known from different geographical areas in South America: the Palaeoindian Fell fish-tail point mainly from the southern cone of South America, and the triangular Tuina points typical of the Puna of the south-central Andes in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. In addition, we found a third type, a stemmed point typical for the Salar Punta Negra. Filling a large geographical gap of Fell occupation, the site at Salar Punta Negra provides evidence for generally much higher mobility and diversity of early cultures, and supports an Andean-Pacific route for early human exploration of South America to the south through the desert at intermediate altitudes. Contemporaneous high-amplitude climatic changes were fundamental preconditions to provide adequate environments and habitats, and to make Palaeoindian hunting-gathering occupation possible in the Atacama Desert.

  12. Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Coke, R; Moreno, R S

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the correlation between the ethnic structure and the prevalence of single gene defects in Chile. At present the Chilean population is approximately 64% white and 35% Amerindian with traces of other admixture. Fewer than 4% of the Chilean population are foreign born. Investigations indicate that all severe diseases and many others without impaired reproduction have mutation rates within the range of the white population. Classical ethnic diseases are very rare. Autosomal recessive disorders have a wide range of variability: cystic fibrosis has a low incidence and PKU has a similar incidence to English rates. Only 30% of the inborn errors of metabolism have been described in Chilean medical publications. In addition, no Chilean haemoglobin or haptoglobin variants have been described. Some rare inherited diseases in Chilean human isolates have been described, including achromatopsia, chondrocalcinosis, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and supernumerary nipples is the highest in the world and they are associated with aboriginal origin. Single gene defects in Chile are probably shaped by factors related to its ethnic population structure. These local rare single gene defects may be good markers of population admixture for genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:7815439

  13. Complexity in Size, Recurrence and Source of Historical Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, M.

    2013-05-01

    Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32°- 35° S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.

  14. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today’s modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state. PMID:21212817

  15. A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow. Earthquake-induced static seabed vertical displacement is used as an input boundary condition to the model. The model is hierarchically set up with three nested domain levels; with 250 domains in total covering the entire Chilean coast. Spatial grid-cell resolution is equal to the native SRTM resolution of approximately 90m. In addition to the stochastic events, the 1960 (M9.5) Valdivia and 2010 (M8.8) Maule earthquakes are modelled. The modelled tsunami inundation map for the 2010 Maule event is validated through comparison with real observations. The vulnerability component consists of an extensive damage curves database, including curves for buildings, contents and business interruption for 21 occupancies, 24 structural types and two secondary modifies such as building height and period of construction. The building damage curves are developed by use of load-based method in which the building's capacity to resist tsunami loads is treated as equivalent to the design earthquake load capacity. The contents damage and business interruption curves are developed by use of deductive approach i.e. HAZUS flood vulnerability and business function restoration models are adapted for detailed occupancies and then assigned to the dominant structural types in Chile. The vulnerability component is validated through model overall back testing by use of observed aggregated earthquake and tsunami losses for client portfolios for 2010 Maule earthquake.

  16. A new species of Lilloiconcha Weyrauch, 1965 (Pulmonata: Charopidae) from central Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Aliaga, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Most recent research concerning terrestrial mollusks from Chile has focused in species from southern areas of the country (Vargas-Almonacid 2000, Vargas-Almonacid & Stuardo 2007, Miquel & Barker 2009, Miquel & Cádiz-Lorca 2009, among others), all of them involving charopid or punctid snails, with only a few works reviewing species from northern Chile (Miquel & Araya, 2013, Araya & Catalán, 2014). In this study we describe the occurrence of a new charopid species, the second record of the genus Lilloiconcha in the country, living near Los Molles in central Chile. This small species lives buried in humus and underneath stones, large boulders and rotten leaves. PMID:26623811

  17. [Informatics in the School of Medicine of the University of Chile. I. Origin and evolution of biomedical computing in Chile].

    PubMed

    Vivaldi, E A

    1990-08-01

    In the sixties and seventies, the School of Medicine of the University of Chile was the first Chilean institution to incorporate computers into academic endeavors through its own Computer Center. Later, professors were marginated from policy making, which became oriented to administrative goals, but they compensated that situation with the easy access to personal computers brought about by present technology. In 1986, when School authorities were again elected by the faculty staff, professors were able to participate again in a committee designing projects in this area. Current development at the School of Medicine include a proliferation of personal computers, the implementation of a computer network with access to medical data bases, and a growing number of applications in the fields of research and teaching. In the near future, due to the accessibility of telecommunications and computers, these advancements should have an impact on the whole biomedical community, a situation that would restore, after many years, the traditional role of the University of Chile in the life of the country. PMID:2152234

  18. Geomorphic surfaces and supergene enrichment in Northern Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenstar, Laura; Mather, Anne; Stuart, Finlay; Cooper, Frances; Sparks, Steve

    2014-05-01

    Supergene enrichment of porphyry copper deposits in the central Andes is thought to be closely correlated with periods of relatively humid climate and the formation of regionally extensive paleosurfaces (e.g. Mortimer, C. 1973) . In northern Chile, two such paleosurfaces have been proposed: the ca. 23 Ma Tarapaca paleosurface within the Coastal Cordillera, and the ca. 10 Ma Pacific paleosurface within the Longitudinal Valley. The Pacific paleosurface is regarded as a single stratigraphic horizon that formed due to either a marked increase in the aridity of the area (Galli-Oliver 1967), regional surface uplift that created a change in the locus of deposition (e.g. Mortimer and Rendic 1975), or a combination of the two. The formation of this surface has been associated with the timing of supergene enrichment throughout the northern Chile and southern Peru (Alpers and Brimhall 1988). Multispectral satellite mapping of the Pacific paleosurface in northern Chile using Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) imagery, combined with seismic data (Jordan et al. 2010) indicates that the Pacific paleosurface is not a single chronostratigraphic surface, as previously thought, but an amalgamation of surfaces that have both an erosional and depositional history. New in situ cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial boulders on the paleosurface is combined with previous data (Dunai et al. 2005, Kober et al. 2007 and Evenstar et al., 2009) giving ages ranging from ca. 23 Ma to <1 Ma, supporting a multiphase and much more continuous history. By combining these apparent exposure ages with regional geomorphology, underlying sedimentology, and seismic sections, the geomorphic evolution of the Longitudinal Valley can be constrained. The results show a complex interplay between uplift within the Coastal Cordillera and Precordillera in the south and a distinct change in depositional pattern towards the north. The Longitudinal Valley is increasingly incised to the north and drains into the Pacific Ocean above 19°30. The close temporal correlation between the formation of these paleosurfaces and supergene enrichment means that placing tighter constraints on their age and regional extent could help locate areas where the geneneration and preservation of supergene deposits is possible.

  19. IRIS Community Response to the Great Chile Earthquake of 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, A.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S.; Russo, R. M.; Simpson, D. W.; Barrientos, S. E.; Comte, D.; Pardo, M. H.; Ruiz, J.; Aranda, C.; Slad, G.; Greschke, B.; Barstow, N.; Bonnet, B.; Reusch, A. M.; Bataille, K.; Cabello, O.; Velasco, A. A.; Ebeling, C. W.; Tilmann, F.; Vilotte, J.; Rietbrock, A.; Heit, B.; Schurr, B.; Lange, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and the 2nd largest to be recorded by modern digital seismic networks. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of seismologists from Germany, France, the UK, and the US, working with seismologists in Chile, coordinated resources to deploy both broadband and short period seismometers and accelerometers above the rupture zone to capture aftershocks associated with this significant earthquake. The U.S. IRIS Community response involved deployment of 59 broadband and 4 combined broadband and accelerometer stations spanning the rupture region of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. Four of these stations were subsequently upgraded for real-time telemetry, and these data have been freely available from the IRIS DMC since shortly after they came online. Data recorded at these stations will be combined to produce an open international community data volume providing an unprecedented opportunity to investigate processes associated with great earthquakes and to image the anatomy of a subduction zone. Scientific objectives potentially attainable using this unique data set fall into two general categories: (1) rupture processes of megathrusts, and (2) active tectonics and dynamics of an oceanic-continental (Andean) margin. For example, the relatively dense station spacing - 30 km - of the IRIS CHAMP (Chile RAMP) broadband seismic network will facilitate investigation into the character of the aftershock zone in the low-slip regions of the main shock to determine if these regions are locked or creeping, and whether these states are governed by variations in temperature or fluid content. The dataset also offers opportunities to generate higher resolution images of the seismogenic zone, forearc wedge, and subducting slab, that can reveal the role that spatial changes in material properties play in seismogenesis and slab dynamics. We can take advantage of data collected before the event at collocated stations to investigate secular changes in the properties of the medium in the rupture zone or upper plate, which can further elucidate the role of fluids in the seismogenic zone.

  20. Coastal Upwelling off Chile: Ocean Productivity and Surface Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebbeln, D.; Lamy, F.

    2002-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system of the Peru-Chile Current belongs to the most productive regions in the world oceans. In spite of this fact only very little is known about the sediment distribution in its southern part off the coast of Chile. To increase the knowledge about this region a multi-parameter study of the surface sediment distribution at over 100 sampling sites along the Chilean continental slope between 23°S and 45°S has been carried out. Detailed analyses of sedimentary data (TOC, carbonate, and biogenic opal contents, delta 15N) reveal a close relation to environmental conditions in the region. Coastal upwelling along the Chilean coast, centered around main upwelling centers such as off Antofagasta (23°S), off Lengua de Vaca (30°S), off Valparaiso (33°S), and off Concepci¢n (35-38°S), sustains the high productivity observed in satellite pigment data and in sediment data. However, the highest pigment concentrations are found south of 40°S where prevailing onshore winds of the Southern Westerlies generally prevent coastal upwelling. There, also highest estimated accumulation rates of organic carbon and biogenic opal at the sea floor are found. Thus, the general pattern of a southward increase of surface water productivity known from satellite data is closely reflected in the organic carbon, biogenic opal and ?15N data, although the observation of highest productivity south of the upwelling area is surprising. Probably, this high productivity in the south can be attributed to the advection of (macro-) nutrients by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, supplying so-called high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to the Chilean margin. Impinging on the Chilean margin these waters can take up micronutrients such as iron from the strong riverine input and from benthic exchange processes. The combination of macro- and micro-nutrients in this area most likely results in the high productivity of the area between 40°S and 45°S. From there these fertile waters are transported to the north by the Peru-Chile Current. Although the nutrients are kept in the system by coastal upwelling processes on their way north, total productivity is decreasing as the nutrients are gradually consumed on their way north and taken out of the system by sedimentation.

  1. Tidal Energy Resource Assessment in Chacao Channel, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Suarez, L.; Cienfuegos, R.; Thomson, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Chacao Channel, located in Los Lagos region in Chile (41º S; 73º W), is a highly energetic tidal channel, with a complex hydrodynamics resulting from the propagation of tidal waves through a narrow channel. The channel flow exhibits bi-directional tidal currents up to 4 to 5 m/s along with a high tidal range up to 6 m in its east end (Aiken, 2008: Cáceres et al., 2003). The channel has previously been identified as one of the most attractive sites in Chile for tidal energy extraction (Garrad Hassan and Partners, 2009); however this statement is based on global model predictions over coarse bathymetric information. In this investigation, the first hydrodynamic characterization of the Chacao channel is carried out in order to assess the hydrokinetic power available and to select the most interesting spots where the first tidal energy extraction devices might be installed in Chile. The Chacao channel hydrodynamic characterization and resource assessment is carried out in two stages: field measurements and numerical hydrodynamic modeling. The first stage involves a 10 m resolution multi-beam bathymetry of the channel, sea-level measurements using 6 tidal gauges distributed over the channel berms, tidal current measurements with 6 ADCPs distributed along the channel, and detailed measurements of turbulence in a specific spot in the channel using the Tidal Turbulence Mooring (TTM) developed by Thomson et al. (2013). In a second stage, numerical hydrodynamic modeling using FVCOM (Chen et al., 2003) was prepared for the entire Chacao channel region, using the field data collected in the first stage for calibration and validation of the model. The obtained results allow us to define suitable sites for marine energy extraction, finding large areas with 30 to 60 m depths where horizontal currents are above 1.5 m/s during 60% of the time of a 28 days tidal cycle, however the high levels of turbulence detected by the TTM indicate the need for more detailed studies on the interesting sites, in order to meet the hydrodynamic aspects related to infrastructure design and the definition of device location and distribution in the flow. This work has been supported by Conicyt/Fondef Project D09i1052 and the Office of Naval Research Global.

  2. Testing and Contrasting Road Safety Education, Deterrence, and Social Capital Theories: A Sociological Approach to the Understanding of Male Drink-Driving in Chile’s Metropolitan Region

    PubMed Central

    Nazif, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents’ statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables ‘years of formal education’ and ‘years of driving experience’ have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable ‘having children’ were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile’s context. Data were taken from the “Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety” survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile’s Metropolitan Region road users' population. PMID:22105406

  3. Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D.

    1997-08-01

    The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

  4. Genome Sequences of Three Oenococcus oeni Strains Isolated from Maipo Valley, Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni is part of the microbial terroir involved in wine production. Here, we present three genome sequences of O. oeni strains isolated from spontaneous malolactic fermentation of cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon Maipo Valley, Chile. PMID:26272563

  5. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... (76 FR 14320-14323, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0024) a proposal \\1\\ to amend the regulations by allowing....56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum) may be imported into...

  6. Genome Sequences of Three Oenococcus oeni Strains Isolated from Maipo Valley, Chile.

    PubMed

    Jara, Carla; Romero, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni is part of the microbial terroir involved in wine production. Here, we present three genome sequences of O. oeni strains isolated from spontaneous malolactic fermentation of cultivar Cabernet Sauvignon Maipo Valley, Chile. PMID:26272563

  7. Assessment of unconventional tight-gas resources of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.

    2016-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed a technically recoverable mean resource of 8.3 trillion cubic feet of unconventional tight gas in the Zona Glauconitica of the Magallanes Basin Province, Chile.

  8. A new species of Periclista Konow (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) associated with Nothofagus (Fagaceae) in Argentina and Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Periclista dapotoae Smith, n. sp., is described from Argentina and Chile and separated from the described species of Periclista from South America. It was reared from Nothofagus antarctica (Forst. F.) Oest (Fagaceae). Periclista leucoma (Spinola) is a new combination....

  9. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2014-01-01

    Objective to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Method Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. Results among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. Conclusions the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses. PMID:26107824

  10. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995–2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate. PMID:25816116

  11. 1960 Chile - New estimate of polar motion excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slade, M. A.; Yoder, C. F.

    1989-01-01

    A recent reanalysis of the International Latitude Serivce (ILS) polar motion data-day has been processed using Kalman filtering techniques to generate the polar motion excitation function over the time-span from 1960 to 1965. The resulting excitation function has been examined for the effects of 1960 Chile in an attempt to determine experimentally how large earthquake affect polar motion. The resulting upper bound of about 75 x 10 to the 22nd N-m for a 10-deg dip (about 36 x 10 to the 22nd N-m for 20-deg dip) is consistent with results obtained from previous seismic studies, including a recent normal mode excitation result. Following future great earthquakes, monitoring of polar motion by space-based techniques such as VLBI should continue at high temporal resolution for several weeks in order to directly measure the rheological parameters of the upper mantle.

  12. [A general practitioners' program for primary care in Chile].

    PubMed

    Bass del Campo, Germán Camilo

    2015-01-01

    The public health system in Chile does not have a comprehensive development policy for physician resources in primary care, so there is currently a significant deficit of hours for medical care. The article contains a proposal for a "General Program for Primary Care Physicians", which aims to reduce the gap of general practitioners and specialists in primary care. The program proposes to integrate newly graduated physicians to work in the public medical offices with the subsequent possibility of applying for a scholarship specialty, and consecutively a return period as a specialist in the public health network. The immediate implementation of this program is perfectly feasible given the current availability of doctors, over 1400 medical graduates from universities. PMID:25826371

  13. Volcanological evolution of Paniri volcano, Central Andes, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazcano, J.; Godoy, B.; Aguilera, F.; Wilke, H.

    2012-12-01

    San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC) is located between 21°45'S-22°15'S, in the Recent volcanic arc of Central Andes. This volcanic chain comprises several volcanic edifices and dacitic domes, with a total lenght of ~65 km. Volcanic structures distributed in SPLVC show a NW-SE trending orientation and have been been built over Miocene ignimbrite fields. Paniri volcano (5946 m a.s.l.) is a composite stratovolcano located in SPLVC, and distributes southwards San Pedro - San Pablo volcanic complex, at the northern side of Chao Dacite. In this work, the volcanological evolution of Paniri is presented. This volcanic edifice is constituted by two cones, generated during four stages. The first stage corresponds to the plateau-type stage consituted by extensive andesitic and basaltic-andesite lavas and scoria flows that overlie the ignimbritic basement of the volcano. Over these mafic flows, thick dacitic flows were erupted at the northern, southern and southwestern flank of the volcano. After this stage, the main edifice was constructed, presenting two stages: the Old and the Young Cone. The Old Cone Stage was built on the southern part of the volcano. It is constituted by andesitic-to-dacitic lavas and pyroclastic flows. After that, lavic and pyroclastic flows were erupted north of the Old Cone, generating the Young Cone Stage, corresponding to lavas and pyroclastic flows that overlay the previous Old Cone. Composition of the flows of this stage vary from basaltic-andesite to dacite. An 40Ar/39Ar radiometric measure from an basaltic-andesite lava flow of the Young Cone Stage gave a plateau age of 400±50 ka. Significant dissection by glacial erosion affect southern flank of old cone and diverse parts of young cone, being in the last less pervasive. Frontal and lateral morraines deposits are present in the related glacial valleys. The last stage in the evolution of this volcano corresponds to emision of andesitic flows, with autobreccia textures. These flows reach up to 7 km and come from the Young Cone summit, covering the lava flows erupted in the previous stage. Thus, according with the presented evolution, Paniri is similar to San Pedro, Cerro del León, and Toconce volcanoes, distributed in SPLVC. Stratigraphic relation, glacial erosion and radiometric dating indicate that this volcano is younger than Cerro del Leon and Toconce southwards, both showing a marked hydrothermal alteration (López et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2012), and older than Chao Dacite, and San Pedro - San Pablo volcanic complex. No historical activity have been observed for Paniri volcano. References López, C., Aguilera, F., Godoy, B., Wörner, G., y Kojima, S., 2012. Evolución del sitema volcánico Toconce (Región de Antofagasta, Chile) mediante interpretación fotogeológica, petrográfica y geoquímica. In XIII Congreso Geológico Chileno. 13 - 17 agosto, Antofagasta, Chile. Silva, F., Aguilera, F., Godoy, B., Wörner, G., y Kojima, S., 2012. Evolución del sitema volcánico Cerro del León (Región de Antofagasta, Chile) mediante interpretación fotogeológica, petrográfica y geoquímica. In XIII Congreso Geológico Chileno. 13 - 17 agosto, Antofagasta, Chile.

  14. [Measles outbreaks in developed countries: A lesson for Chile].

    PubMed

    Cerda, Jaime; Abarca, Katia; Jiménez, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    The measles vaccine has been used for over 50 years and has proven to be safe, effective and inexpensive, Nevertheless, in 2013 145,700 measles deaths occurred, mostly in countries with low per capita income and weak health infrastructure. The occurrence of measles cases is not restricted to developing countries, but also affects developed countries (Europe and USA), where is associated with a reduction in vaccination coverage, explained by a loss of confidence of some parents in the vaccine. This perspective article addresses the loss of confidence in the vaccine, and the individual and collective consequences of the decision to not vaccinate a child. Various strategies to reverse this phenomenon are presented, most notably the continuing education of health professionals, parents and patients using scientific arguments, given in an understandable and interesting language. Finally, the current situation of Chile (a country with current certification of measles elimination) is presented, emphasizing the importance of maintaining this condition. PMID:26230440

  15. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Southern Chile, 1995-2012.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-04-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995-2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate. PMID:25816116

  16. Interdisciplinary Studies of Eruption at Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallister, John S.; Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Eichelberger, John C.; Lara, Luis; Moreno, Hugo; Muñoz, Jorge; Castro, Jonathan M.; Iroumé, Andrés; Andreoli, Andrea; Jones, Julia; Swanson, Fred; Crisafulli, Charlie

    2010-10-01

    High-silica rhyolite magma fuels Earth's largest and most explosive eruptions. Recurrence intervals for such highly explosive eruptions are in the 100- to 100,000­year time range, and there have been few direct observations of such eruptions and their immediate impacts. Consequently, there was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer­diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions [Naranjo and Stern, 2004; Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), 2008; Carn et al., 2009; Castro and Dingwell, 2009; Lara, 2009; Muñoz et al., 2009]. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which explosive activity waned and a new lava dome was extruded.

  17. Occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in food in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cordano, A M; Rocourt, J

    2001-10-22

    Out of 2145 food samples analysed 77 were found contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes in Santiago, Chile. Samples were: 603 ice-cream (3.5% contaminated), 256 soft cheese (0.8%), 155 hard cheese (0%), 229 baby milk bottles (0%), 634 processed meat products (3.6%) and 268 crustaceous shellfish (11.6%). Three different isolation media were used: for 318 samples, Modified McBride Agar (MMA), Lithium chloride Phenylethanol Moxalactam agar, and Polymyxin Acriflavine Lithium chloride Ceftazidime Aesculin Mannitol agar; for 1827 samples MMA was replaced by Listeria Selective Agar Oxford Formulation. Isolates were classified as follow: serovar 1/2a (25 isolates), serovar 4b (20), serovar 1/2b (19), serovar 3b (7), serovar 1/2c (2), untypable (4). A high variety of phagovars was detected although 52% of strains was untypable. PMID:11759755

  18. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. PMID:23230344

  19. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, John S.; Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Holitt, Richard P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Eichelberger, John C.; Luis, Lara; Moreno, Hugo; Muñoz, Jorge; Castro, Jonathan M.; Iroumé, Andrés; Andreoli, Andrea; Jones, Julia; Swanson, Fred; Crisafulli, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    High-silica rhyolite magma fuels Earth's largest and most explosive eruptions. Recurrence intervals for such highly explosive eruptions are in the 100- to 100,000-year time range, and there have been few direct observations of such eruptions and their immediate impacts. Consequently, there was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions [Naranjo and Stern, 2004semi; Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), 2008semi; Carn et al., 2009; Castro and Dingwell, 2009; Lara, 2009; Muñoz et al., 2009]. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which explosive activity waned and a new lava dome was extruded.

  20. Site Response in the Bíobío Region, Chile Using the ? Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, E. J.; Neighbors, C.; Cochran, E. S.; Chung, A. I.; Lawrence, J.; Belmonte, A.; Miller, M.; Sepulveda, H. H.

    2011-12-01

    We assess local site response in the Bíobío region of Chile utilizing seismograms recorded by the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers during the aftershock sequence that followed the February 27, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake. The earthquakes were captured by over 70 QCN low-resolution (10, 12, and 14-bit) seismometers from March 1 to June 1, 2010. Site effects are caused by the local amplification (or deamplification) of seismic energy due to subsurface structures and geologic materials, which often result in spatially variable patterns of surface damage following an earthquake. In this study we estimate kappa, ?, which models the decay of the acceleration spectra to characterize strong ground motion at high frequencies (> 1 Hz). We calculated the Fourier spectra and ? for each station following the method of Douglas et al. (2010). During the aftershock deployment, the QCN network recorded over 229 earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 and greater. Of these recordings, we determine that 57 earthquakes (25%) have sufficient signal-to-noise quality for use in site response analysis, as determined by visual inspection. Preliminary results indicate ? values between 0.03 and 0.06, with an average value of 0.0407. These values suggest that the Bíobío region of Chile is sharply attenuating and likely consists of less competent rock, as expected. Preliminary results also suggest that kappa does not have a direct correlation with source-station distance; however, this relationship will be investigated more thoroughly as the additional earthquake records from more stations are analyzed. Further comparison of ? values between stations will also highlight the influence of local geology on observed seismic records at individual sites in the Bíobío region. As a result of the site response analysis, we highlight areas of the Bíobío region that may be more susceptible to greater ground shaking following future large earthquakes.

  1. Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Steubing, Bernhard; Böni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

    2010-03-01

    The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation. PMID:19793641

  2. A numerical study of the upwelling circulation off Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesias, Jorge M.

    The summer upwelling circulation off Central Chile between 34°--40°S is studied using the Princeton Ocean Circulation numerical model, implemented with realistic atmospheric forcings and bottom topography. The simulations are made for summers of years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sea surface temperature (SST) from the model results and satellite sensors (derived from NASA/NOAA Pathfinder Project datasets) are compared to determine regions where the numerical simulations more realistically represent the oceanic fields. The summer local winds are predominantly equatorward and fluctuate affected by the seasonal displacement of the Subtropical Anticyclone of the Southeast Pacific. The model ocean circulation shows the presence of a surface coastal equatorward jet flowing over a poleward undercurrent that spreads over the continental shelf and slope break. These currents resemble those historically observed off Central Chile, following a classical Ekman-geostrophy dynamics. The oceanic variability is strongly related to the variability of the local wind forcing, bottom relief, and coastline geometry. Strong wind fluctuations induce the formation of cyclonic/anticyclonic mesoscale eddies, favored by the separation of the equatorward jet from the coast, downstream of a prominent mid-domain cape. The flow variability between regions depends on the spatial variability of the wind forcing. The wind relaxation is larger in the southern regions, where the upwelling tends to disappear. In the northern areas, the separation of the jet and the formation of eddies induce a strong cross-shelf transport activity. Comparisons among SST fields for all years indicate that the model and satellite fields vary in similar patterns, especially in the northern coastal areas, and suggest that oceanic fields are largely affected by changes in local winds during El Nino events. During El Nino periods, the upwelling activity weakens due to a rapid decrease of the equatorward winds, and the passage of atmospheric storms that favours water downwelling and eddy formation processes.

  3. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications. PMID:24448862

  4. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  5. Modeling to Predict Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Marathe, Madhav V.; Brownstein, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a life threatening disease transmitted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus in Chile. Hantavirus outbreaks are typically small and geographically confined. Several studies have estimated risk based on spatial and temporal distribution of cases in relation to climate and environmental variables, but few have considered climatological modeling of HPS incidence for monitoring and forecasting purposes. Methodology Monthly counts of confirmed HPS cases were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health for 2001–2012. There were an estimated 667 confirmed HPS cases. The data suggested a seasonal trend, which appeared to correlate with changes in climatological variables such as temperature, precipitation, and humidity. We considered several Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time-series models and regression models with ARIMA errors with one or a combination of these climate variables as covariates. We adopted an information-theoretic approach to model ranking and selection. Data from 2001–2009 were used in fitting and data from January 2010 to December 2012 were used for one-step-ahead predictions. Results We focused on six models. In a baseline model, future HPS cases were forecasted from previous incidence; the other models included climate variables as covariates. The baseline model had a Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) of 444.98, and the top ranked model, which included precipitation, had an AICc of 437.62. Although the AICc of the top ranked model only provided a 1.65% improvement to the baseline AICc, the empirical support was 39 times stronger relative to the baseline model. Conclusions Instead of choosing a single model, we present a set of candidate models that can be used in modeling and forecasting confirmed HPS cases in Chile. The models can be improved by using data at the regional level and easily extended to other countries with seasonal incidence of HPS. PMID:24763320

  6. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of 33 Salmonella enterica Clinical and Wildlife Isolates from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc; Brown, Eric W.; Evans, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica causes health problem worldwide. The relationships among strains that are from the same serotype but different hosts, countries, and continents remain elusive. Few genome sequences are available from S. enterica isolates from South America. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of 33 strains from diverse sources isolated in Chile and determined that they were of different serotypes. These genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella strains from Chile and the rest of South America. PMID:25792040

  8. Protection of Existing and Potential Astronomical Sites in Chile - an Update.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Norman, D.; Schwarz, H.; Orellana, D.

    2002-12-01

    The IAU's Working Group on Controlling Light Pollution (iauwg) has declared Mauna Kea and a wide strip of Northern Chile between Antofagasta and Chajnanator as top priorities for its efforts to protect existing and potential sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres respectively. This report provides an update on the iauwg's co-ordinated efforts to protect areas around the major international optical observatories in Chile, as well as the "Chilean Special Zone" (CSZ) mentioned above. This zone is of current and potential interest for the installation of extremely large optical telescopes and includes the ALMA radio-astronomy site. The CSZ is potentially vulnerable to adverse effects of mining in the region. Progess has been made in demonstrating to local mining interests within the CSZ the economic advantages of quality lighting. Educational and outreach activities to a variety of target audiences are building on legislation covering dark skies - itself part of work by the Chilean government to protect the natural heritage of Chile. Substantial good will was generated by an international, bilingual conference held last March in Chile. Just in the region around AURA's Observatory in Chile (Gemini South, CTIO and SOAR), a portable planetarium has been used to reach out to over 600 teachers and 65,000 pupils in the RedLaSer schools network within the last three years. This has attracted the direct interest of Chile's Ministry of Education. Videoconferencing over Internet2 is being used for educational purposes between Chile and various sites in the US. The NSF- initiated Mamalluca municipal observatory now receives more visitors than all the international observatories in Chile combined and is the focus of an expanding local industry of astronomical eco-tourism. Most of this work was supported by funding from, or via, the US NSF through CTIO and Gemini, and from ESO, OCIW, CONAMA and the IDA.

  9. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean-born (with similar health needs, i.e. horizontal inequity). Factors associated with immigrants’ access to, and use of, healthcare were sex, urban/rural status, education and country of origin. Conclusion There were significant associations between SES, and access to and use of healthcare among immigrants in Chile and a higher prevalence of no health care provision entitlement among poor and disabled immigrants compared to the Chilean-born. Changing associations between access and use of healthcare and SES among immigrants in Chile over time may reflect changes in their socio-demographic composition or in the survey methodology between 2006 and 2009. Resumen Introducción La evidencia internacional indica menor acceso y uso de servicios de salud por parte de inmigrantes, pero sus factores desencadenantes varían significativamente dependiendo del contexto. Algunas investigaciones se han desarrollado en este tema en América Latina, desde una perspectiva cualitativa. Este estudio cuantitativo exploró el auto-reporte de acceso y uso de servicios de salud de inmigrantes en Chile y los comparó con la población chilena. Métodos Análisis secundario de datos de encuesta nacional CASEN 2006 y 2009. Inmigrantes fueron comparados con chilenos en características demográficas (edad, sexo, urbano/rural, composición del hogar, etnia), estatus socioeconómico (educación, ingreso, situación contractual), tipo de previsión (pública, privada, otra, ninguna), y uso de varios servicios de atención primaria. Análisis descriptivo, estratificado, y modelos de regresión ponderados para entender factores asociados al acceso y uso de servicios de salud en STATA 11.0. Resultados Se observó un aumento de reporte de inmigrantes y de la desigualdad en el ingreso de inmigrantes entre 2006 y 2009. Hubo una disminución en la tasa de inmigrantes sin previsión y un aumento en el acceso al sistema privado. Los inmigrantes usaron más frecuentemente la atención prenatal y ginecológica, y menos la atención del niño sano. No hubo diferencia en el uso de citología vaginal o el número total de atenciones recibidas en comparación con los chilenos. Los inmigrantes en el quintil inferior de ingresos reportaron 4 veces más la ausencia de prestación de salud que los chilenos (inequidad vertical). Similares resultados se observaron al comparar inmigrantes con discapacidad con chilenos con discapacidad (inequidad horizontal). Los factores asociados con el acceso y uso del servicio de salud por parte de los inmigrantes fueron el sexo, urbano/rural, educación y país de origen. Conclusión Se observó una asociación significativa entre estatus socioeconomico, migración y acceso y uso de asistencia sanitaria. Los resultados de este estudio pueden deberse a verdaderos cambios en la composición de los inmigrantes y sus patrones de uso del sistema de salud chileno, pero también pueden deberse a cambios en la metodología y recolección de datos entre encuestas 2006 y 2009. Este aspecto requiere mayor análisis y debate en la región. PMID:23158113

  10. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  11. CHILES Con Pol: An ultra-deep JVLA survey probing galaxy evolution and cosmic magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Momjian, Emmanuel; van Gorkom, Jacqueline; Rupen, Michael P.; Greiner, Maksim; Ensslin, Torsten A.; Bonzini, Margherita; Padovani, Paolo; Harrison, Ian; Brown, Michael L.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min S.; Maddox, Natasha; Stewart, Adam; Fender, Rob P.; Tremou, Evangelia; Chomiuk, Laura; Peters, Charee; Wilcots, Eric M.; Lazio, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We are undertaking a 1000 hour campaign with the Karl G. Jansky VLA to survey 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz. Our observations are part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an SKA-era sensitivity of 500 nJy per 4 arcsecond resolving beam, the deepest view of the radio sky yet. CHILES Con Pol will open new and fertile parameter space, with sensitivity to star formation rates of 10 Msun per year out to an unprecedented redshift of z=2, and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and sub-millimeter galaxies out to redshifts of z=8 and beyond. This rich resource will extend the utility of radio band studies beyond the usual radio quasar and radio galaxy populations, opening sensitivity to the starforming and radio-quiet AGN populations that form the bulk of extragalactic sources detected in the optical, X-ray, and infrared bands. In this talk I will outline the key science of CHILES Con Pol, including galaxy evolution and novel measurements of intergalactic magnetic fields. I will present initial results from the first 180 hours of the survey and describe our forthcoming Data Release 1. I invite the astronomical community to consider unique science that can be pursued with CHILES Con Pol radio data.

  12. Interprétation hydrogéologique de l'aquifère des bassins sud-rifains (Maroc) : apport de la sismique réflexionHydrogeological interpretation of the southern Rifean basins aquifer (Morocco): seismic reflexion contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouhri, Lahcen; Gorini, Christian; Lamouroux, Christian; Vachard, Daniel; Dakki, Mohammed

    2003-03-01

    The aquifer of the Rharb Basin is constituted by heterogeneous material. The seismic reflexion interpretation carried out in this area, highlighted a permeable device compartmentalized in raised and subsided blocks. Depressions identified in the northern and southernmost zones are characterized by Plio-Quaternary fillings that are favourable to the hydrogeological exploitation. Two mechanisms contribute to structure the Plio-Quaternary aquifer: the Hercynian reactivation in the southernmost part, and the gravitational mechanism of the Pre-Rifean nappe. The groundwater flow and the aquifer thickening are controlled by this reactivation.

  13. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

  14. Gas hydrates and possible environmental risks offshore South Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Cordero, I.; Tinivella, U.; Accaino, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Fanucci, F.; Reichert, C.

    2009-04-01

    Gas hydrates and free gas presence was detected within marine sediments, offshore South Chile, by using seismic analysis. We analysed dataset located offshore South Chile; in particular, two seismic lines were analysed. The first one is located in the northern sector offshore Arauco (38°S) and the second one located in the southern sector offshore Coyhaique (44°S).We used the pre-stack depth migration method (Kirchhoff algorithm) to obtain an accurate velocity model and the real geometry of the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), representing the base of the gas hydrate layer. The velocity was determined analysing iteratively the Common Image Gathers (CIGs) by using Seismic Unix and home code created ad hoc to convert the non-flatness of the reflections in the CIGs into velocity error. Moreover, we converted the final velocity model in terms of gas hydrate and free gas concentrations by using the modified Biot's theory, in which we compared the final velocity model with a theoretical model in absence of gas. Thus, the positive velocity anomalies were associated to gas hydrate presence, while the negative velocity anomalies were associated to free gas presence. In addition, the geothermal gradient was estimated by BSR and seafloor depths and relative BSR amplitude were calculated to correlate the hydrate/free gas concentration to the BSR characteristic. The velocity model allowed us to detect the hydrate layer above the bottom simulating reflector, and the free gas layer below it. The velocity field is affected by strong lateral variation, showing maximum and minimum values in the southern sector. In the southern sector, the highest gas hydrate and free gas concentrations are detected (23% and 2.4% of total volume respectively), even if the high velocity can be partially caused by overcompaction. Here, the BSR depth varies from 250 meter below seafloor (in the middle of the accretionary prism) to 130 meter below seafloor (in the structural high), reaching its maximum (330 m) in the fore-arc basin. This depth variability is partially due to the different water depth and partially to the variable geothermal gradient, from 35 to 95° C/km, caused by fluid migration that modifies the gas hydrate stability field. In the northern sector, the highest gas hydrate and free gas concentrations are of 7% and 0.2% of total volume respectively, and the geothermal gradient results quite uniform and equal to 30° C/km. Here, where the BSR is present, the BSR depth reaches 500 meters below seafloor. The higher BSR depth with respect to the southern sector can be justified by the high water depth and the presence of a lower geothermal gradient (about 30° C/km). So, the potentiality of southern margin of the Chile, from the gas hydrate point of view, is important in first approximation. Finally, it is worth to mention that, in our study area the presence of high amount of gas hydrate can involve environmental risks. For example a possible strong earthquake could generate anomalous sea waves, which represent important geohazard for human activities along the coasts. On the other hand, an earthquake can destabilise hydrates, amplifying the geohazard phenomena. Moreover, the high amount of the free gas, presumably in overpressure condition and present in correspondence of the structural high in the southern sector, could be abruptly released and trigger submarine slides toward the sides of the structural high, inducing hydrate instability. These scenarios should be taking in account in the environmental studies in this part of the Chilean margin.

  15. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

  16. Manuel de Espanol para Profesores del Cuerpo de Paz--Chile (Peace Corps Teacher's Manual for Spanish--Chile). Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanco, Patricia

    This teaching manual is designed for the Spanish language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Chile, and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It contains 12 topical lessons outlining targeted language and communication competencies, suggested classroom activities, phrase and vocabulary lists, grammar and usage…

  17. Hasty retreat of glaciers in the Palena province of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.; Mölg, N.; Bolch, T.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping glacier extent from optical satellite data has become a most efficient tool to create or update glacier inventories and determine glacier changes over time. A most valuable archive in this regard is the nearly 30-year time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data that is freely available (already orthorectified) for most regions in the world from the USGS. One region with a most dramatic glacier shrinkage and a missing systematic assessment of changes, is the Palena province in Chile, south of Puerto Montt. A major bottleneck for accurate determination of glacier changes in this region is related to the huge amounts of snow falling in this very maritime region, hiding the perimeter of glaciers throughout the year. Consequently, we found only three years with Landsat scenes that can be used to map glacier extent through time. We here present the results of a glacier change analysis from six Landsat scenes (path-rows 232-89/90) acquired in 1985, 2000 and 2011 covering the Palena district in Chile. Clean glacier ice was mapped automatically with a standard technique (TM3/TM band ratio) and manual editing was applied to remove wrongly classified lakes and to add debris-covered glacier parts. The digital elevation model (DEM) from SRTM was used to derive drainage divides, determine glacier specific topographic parameters, and analyse the area changes in regard to topography. The scene from 2000 has the best snow conditions and was used to eliminate seasonal snow in the other two scenes by digital combination of the binary glacier masks. The observed changes show a huge spatial variability with a strong dependence on elevation and glacier hypsometry. While small mountain glaciers at high elevations and steep slopes show virtually no change over the 26-year period, ice at low elevations from large valley glaciers shows a dramatic decline (area and thickness loss). Some glaciers retreated more than 3 km over this time period or even disappeared completely. Typically, these glaciers lost contact to the accumulation areas of tributaries and now consist of an ablation area only. Furthermore, numerous pro-glacial lakes formed or expanded rapidly, increasing the local hazard potential. On the other hand, some glaciers located on or near to (still active) volcanoes have also advanced in the same time period. Observed trends in temperature (decreasing) are in contrast to the observed strong glacier shrinkage.

  18. Magnitude Characterization Using Complex Networks in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, D.; Comte, D.; Munoz, V.

    2013-12-01

    Studies using complex networks are applied to many systems, like traffic, social networks, internet and earth science. In this work we make an analysis using complex networks applied to magnitude of seismicity in the central zone of Chile, we use the preferential attachment in order to construct a seismic network using local magnitudes and the hypocenters of a seismic data set in central Chile. In order to work with a complete catalogue in magnitude, the data associated with the linear part of the Gutenberg-Richter law, with magnitudes greater than 2.7, were taken. We then make a grid in space, so that each seismic event falls into a certain cell, depending on the location of its hypocenter. Now the network is constructed: the first node corresponds to the cell where the first seismic event occurs. The node has an associated number which is the magnitude of the event which occured in it, and a probability is assigned to the node. The probability is a nonlinear mapping of the magnitude (a Gaussian function was taken), so that nodes with lower magnitude events are more likely to be attached to. Each time a new node is added to the network, it is attached to the previous node which has the larger probability; the link is directed from the previous node to the new node. In this way, a directed network is constructed, with a ``preferential attachment''-like growth model, using the magnitudes as the parameter to determine the probability of attachment to future nodes. Several events could occur in the same node. In this case, the probability is calculated using the average of the magnitudes of the events occuring in that node. Once the directed network is finished, the corresponding undirected network is constructed, by making all links symmetric, and eliminating the loops which may appear when two events occur in the same cell. The resulting directed network is found to be scale free (with very low values of the power-law distribution exponent), whereas the undirected one turns out to have small world behavior. These results are compared with a second, ficticious network, constructed in the same way, but where each successive node is chosen randomly in the grid, and its associated probability is also random, but taken from a Gaussian distribution. We find that this also generates a scale free network, but not a small world one. These results show an interesting behavior, another evidence of the complex organization of seismicity.

  19. Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved," expressed Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven during her visit. "An almost unique level of international cooperation is achieved at ESO, and everything is done by those who can do it best, irrespective of their country or institution. This spirit of excellence is an example for all Europe, notably for the new European Research Council." Catherine Cesarsky, ESO Director General, remarked that Dutch astronomers have been part of ESO from the beginning: "The Dutch astronomy community and industry play a major role in various aspects of the Very Large Telescope, and more particularly in its interferometric mode. With their long-based expertise in radio astronomy, Dutch astronomers greatly contribute in this field, and are now also playing a major role in the construction of ALMA. It is thus a particularly great pleasure to receive Her Excellency, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven." ESO PR Photo 16d/05 ESO PR Photo 16d/05 Dutch Minister Maria van der Hoeven at Chajnantor - I [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 480 pix - 207k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 959 pix - 617k] ESO PR Photo 16e/05 ESO PR Photo 16e/05 Dutch Minister Maria van der Hoeven at Chajnantor - II [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 179k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1210 pix - 522k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 16d/05: In front of the APEX antenna at Chajnantor. From left to right: Prof. Piet van der Kruit, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw, and Prof. Ewine van Dishoeck. ESO PR Photo 16e/05 shows the Delegation on the 5000m high Llano de Chajnantor plateau. From left to right: Dr. Leo Le Duc, Prof. Felix Mirabel, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw, Prof. Ewine van Dishoeck, Dr. Cornelius van Bochove, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, Mr. Hans van der Vlies, Dr. Joerg Eschwey, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, Prof. Piet van der Kruit, Mr. Hans van den Broek, and Mr. Eduardo Donoso. The delegation spent the night at the Observatory before heading further North in the Chilean Andes to San Pedro de Atacama and from there to the Operation Support Facility of the future ALMA Observatory. On Sunday, May 15, the delegation went to the 5000m Llano de Chajnantor, the future site of the large array of 12m antennas that is being build there and should be completed by 2013. The Minister in particular could visit the 12m APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment) telescope and see the technical infrastructure. "I am fully confident that the worldwide cooperation in ALMA will be equally successful as the VLT, and I am convinced that the discoveries to be made here are meaningful for the Earth we live in", said Mrs. van der Hoeven. "History and future are coming together in the north of Chile, in a very special way," she added. "In the region of the ancient Atacamenos, scientists from all over the world are discovering more and more about the universe and the birth and death of stars. They even find new planets. They do that on Paranal with the VLT and soon will be doing that on the ALMA site." The Minister and her delegation left for Santiago in the afternoon.

  20. Water governance in Chile: Availability, management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Roberto; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Olivares, Claudio; Vera, Mauricio; Balocchi, Francisco; Pérez, Felipe; Vallejos, Carlos; Fuentes, Roberto; Abarza, Alejandro; Helwig, Bridget

    2014-11-01

    Chile has a unique geography that provides an extraordinary variety of climatic conditions and availability of water resources. The objective of this manuscript was to describe and analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, as well as the management of water resources, along a country with a narrow distance from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This presents challenges to water governance from data collection and analysis perspectives, and for administration of the resource. The Water Resources Directorate (Dirección General de Aguas, DGA), is the federal government organization in charge of the water resources of the country. The DGA and other relevant public and private institutions are examined in terms of competition and conflict resolution across different scales and levels of interaction associated with water resources governance. Both monitoring stations (rainfall, streamflow, water quality, groundwater, sediment and snowfall), and the Chilean management and legislation of water resources are also analyzed. Finally, the success (or lack) of the national administration to upgrade its monitoring stations and equalize water resources distribution throughout the country is discussed including the influence of climate change on data collection, and decision making across different scales of water governance.

  1. Late Holocene megathrust earthquakes in south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; Shennan, Ian; Gulliver, Pauline; Woodroffe, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    A lack of comprehensive understanding of the seismic hazards associated with a subduction zone can lead to inadequate anticipation of earthquake and tsunami magnitudes. Four hundred and fifty years of Chilean historical documents record the effects of numerous great earthquakes; however, with recurrence intervals between the largest megathrust earthquakes approaching 300 years, seismic hazard assessment requires longer chronologies. This research seeks to verify and extend historical records in south central Chile using a relative-sea level approach to palaeoseismology. Our quantitative, diatom-based approaches to relative sea-level reconstruction are successful in reconstructing the magnitude of coseismic deformation during recent, well documented Chilean earthquakes. The few disparities between my estimates and independent data highlight the possibility of shaking-induced sediment consolidation in tidal marshes. Following this encouraging confirmation of the approach, we quantify land-level changes in longer sedimentary records from the centre of the rupture zone of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. Here, laterally extensive marsh soils abruptly overlain by low intertidal sediments attest to the occurrence of four megathrust earthquakes. Sites preserve evidence of the 1960 and 1575 earthquakes and we constrain the timing of two predecessors to 1270 to 1410 and 1050 to 1200. The sediments and biostratigraphy lack evidence for the historically documented 1737 and 1837 earthquakes.

  2. Metagenomes of the Picoalga Bathycoccus from the Chile Coastal Upwelling

    PubMed Central

    Vaulot, Daniel; Lepère, Cécile; Toulza, Eve; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; Poulain, Julie; Gaboyer, Frédéric; Moreau, Hervé; Vandepoele, Klaas; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Gavory, Frederick; Piganeau, Gwenael

    2012-01-01

    Among small photosynthetic eukaryotes that play a key role in oceanic food webs, picoplanktonic Mamiellophyceae such as Bathycoccus, Micromonas, and Ostreococcus are particularly important in coastal regions. By using a combination of cell sorting by flow cytometry, whole genome amplification (WGA), and 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained metagenomic data for two natural picophytoplankton populations from the coastal upwelling waters off central Chile. About 60% of the reads of each sample could be mapped to the genome of Bathycoccus strain from the Mediterranean Sea (RCC1105), representing a total of 9 Mbp (sample T142) and 13 Mbp (sample T149) of non-redundant Bathycoccus genome sequences. WGA did not amplify all regions uniformly, resulting in unequal coverage along a given chromosome and between chromosomes. The identity at the DNA level between the metagenomes and the cultured genome was very high (96.3% identical bases for the three larger chromosomes over a 360 kbp alignment). At least two to three different genotypes seemed to be present in each natural sample based on read mapping to Bathycoccus RCC1105 genome. PMID:22745802

  3. Aerosol effects on the UV irradiance in Santiago de Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, R. R.; Seckmeyer, G.; Damiani, A.; Jorquera, J.; Carrasco, J.; Muñoz, R.; Da Silva, L.; Labbe, F.; Laroze, D.

    2014-11-01

    Santiago de Chile (33°27? S-70°41? W) is a mid-latitude city of 6 million inhabitants with a complicated surrounding topography. Aerosol extinction in Santiago is determined by the semi-arid local climate, the urban pollution, a regional subsidence thermal inversion layer, and the boundary-layer wind airflow. In this paper we report on spectral measurements of the surface irradiance (at 290-600 nm wavelength range) carried out during 2013 in the heart of the city by using a double monochromator-based spectroradiometer system. These measurements were used to assess the effect of local aerosols, paying particular attention to the ultraviolet (UV) range. We found that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) exhibited variations likely related to changes in the subsidence thermal inversion and in the boundary-layer winds. Although the AOD at 350 nm typically ranged from 0.2 to 0.3, peak values of about 0.7 were measured. The AOD diminished with the wavelength and typically ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 at 550 nm. Our AOD data were found to be consistent with measurements of the particulate matter (PM) mass concentration.

  4. [Dermatophyte infection and colonization in dogs from South Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Silva, Víctor; Thomson, Pamela; Maier, Liliana; Anticevic, Sonia

    2003-12-01

    Our main aim was to determine the dermatophyte infection and colonization prevalence in canines from South Santiago, Chile. We studied 241 dogs, 121 of them presented cutaneous lesions suggestive of dermatophytosis and the other 120 were free from lesions and were considered clinically healthy. Dermatophytes were isolated from the lesions of 48.8% of animals with cutaneous diseases and from 5% of healthy dogs. Microsporum canis was the principal species isolated with a frequency of 98.3% from dermatophytosis and from all healthy carriers. The direct microscopic test showed a sensibility of 85% with a positive and negative predictive value of 74 and 79%, respectively. The highest prevalence of dermatophytosis were detected in animals up to one year old (p <= 0.05) and in dogs with high level of irritation, scaly skin, itching and alopecia (p < or = 0.05). The lesions were detected more frequently in head-neck and anterior members (p < or = 0.05). This study shows some clinical characteristics and a frequency of dermatophytes in canines that can be interesting for laboratory professionals and veterinarians. PMID:15456352

  5. Incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in Valparaiso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan; Martinez, René; Niklander, Sven; Marshall, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background To determine the incidence and prevalence of salivary gland tumours in the province of Valparaíso, Chile. Material and Methods Retrospective review of salivary gland tumours diagnosed between the years 2000 and 2011 from four local pathology services. Information on demographics and histopathology were retrieved from the medical records. Results The study sample consisted of 279 salivary gland tumours. Prevalence and incidence rates per 100.000 persons were 15.4 and 2.51, respectively. Most of the neoplasms corresponded to benign tumours (70.3%). The most affected gland was the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumour (53.8%) and mucoepidermoid carcinoma was the most common malignant tumour (7.2%). Conclusions Salivary gland tumours are uncommon neoplasms that usually arise in the parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma were the most common benign and malignant tumours reported in this series. Key words:Salivary gland tumours, benign tumours, malignant tumours, salivary glands neoplasms, cancer, neoplasia. PMID:26034925

  6. Catastrophic debris avalanche deposit of Socompa volcano, northern Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Gardeweg, M.; Ramirez, C. F.; Rothery, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Between 10,000 and 500 yr ago the Socompa volcano in northern Chile experienced a catastrophic collapse of a 70 deg sector of the original cone, causing a debris avalanche that descended nearly 3000 m vertically and traveled more than 35 km from the volcano. The deposits cover some 490 sq km and have a minimum volume of 15 cu km. Parts of the original cone slumped in a nearly coherent form and are now preserved as large blocks more than 400 m high. The primary avalanche traveled northwestward over sloping ground before coming to rest transiently, forming a prominent marginal ridge, and then slid away northeastward to form a secondary flow, overriding much of the primary avalanche deposit. Abundant, prismatic, jointed dacite blocks within the debris avalanche deposit and a thin, fine-grained pumiceous deposit beneath it suggest that the collapse was triggered by magmatic activity and may have been accompanied by a violent lateral blast. Collapse was followed by eruption of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and extrusion of voluminous dacite domes.

  7. Interbasin underflow between closed Altiplano basins in Chile.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Errol L; Rosko, Michael J; Castro, Santiago O; Keller, Barry R; Bevacqua, Paolo S

    2003-01-01

    Interbasin ground water movement of 200 to 240 L/sec occurs as underflow beneath a mountainous surface water divide separating the topographically higher Salar de Michincha from the topographically lower Salar de Coposa internally drained basins in the Altiplano of northern Chile. Salt-encrusted flats (salars) and saline lakes occur on the lowest parts of the basin floors and comprise the principal evaporative discharge areas for the basins. Because a surface water divide separates the basins, surface water drainage boundaries do not coincide with ground water drainage boundaries. In the region, interbasin ground water movement is usually not recognized, but occurs for selected basins, and at places is an important component of ground water budgets. With increasing development of water for mining industry and potential exportation of ground water from the Altiplano for use at coastal cities, demonstration and quantification of interbasin movement is important for assessment of sustainable ground water development in a region of extreme aridity. Recognition and quantification of interbasin ground water underflow will assist in management of ground water resources in the arid Chilean Altiplano environment. PMID:12873015

  8. Plasma leptin and insulin levels in Aymara natives from Chile.

    PubMed

    Santos, J L; Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Calvillán, M; Carrasco, E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of plasma leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender, age and insulin levels in the native Aymara population. The Aymara natives live at high altitudes in isolated regions in the north of Chile, and they maintain distinctive genetic and cultural characteristics. Plasma leptin and insulin levels were correlated with body mass index (BMI), sex and age in a sample of 147 adult Aymara subjects who participated in a cross-sectional study. Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in leptin levels (dependent variable: natural log of leptin) by gender (p < 0.0001), and by BMI (p < 0.001), without significant statistical interaction between gender and BMI. The effect of age achieved statistical significance in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.02). Gender, BMI and insulin are independently associated with plasma leptin levels. On the other hand, the multivariate analysis of the plasma insulin concentration (dependent variable: natural log of insulin levels) shows that insulin is strongly associated with BMI (p < 0.0001), although non-statistically significant differences of insulin levels by sex (p = 0.07) or age (p = 0.9) were detected at alpha 0.05 level. Thus, in the special ecosystem where the Aymara population live, a strong and independent association between sex, obesity and insulin levels with plasma leptin levels has been detected. PMID:10834292

  9. Crustal structure in Chile and Okhotsk Sea regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenkova, N. I.; Pilipenko, V. N.; Verpakhovskaja, A. O.; Pavlenkova, G. A.; Filonenko, V. P.

    2009-07-01

    In the region of Chile the refraction and wide angle reflection migration, applied to CINCA seismic data, enable to reveal some new peculiarities of the crustal structure which do not agree with the simplified classical model of the oceanic lithosphere subduction. A fault zone separated the oceanic and continental crusts are imaged in the migration section. A subhorizontal detachment is found in the continental crust. In the Okhotsk Sea region the reinterpretation of the old DSS data shows a block structure of the crust and a complicated system of faults along the Kuril Islands and between the Sakhalin Island and the South-Okhotsk basin. The crustal type changes: the basin crust is of oceanic type whereas in all other parts of the Okhotsk Sea it is of continental or subcontinental types. The lower velocities are typical of the middle crust of the Ockotsk Sea but along both sides of the Kuril Islands high velocity bodies are intruded in the crust showing the process of crustal basification. In the uppermost mantle beneath the Sakhalin Island a reflected boundary dipping from the Moho to a depth of 50 km is revealed.

  10. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings. PMID:24366489

  11. [Differentiated perception of transgenic tomato sauce in the southern Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler Morales, B; Sepúlveda Bravo, O; Ruiz Fuentes, D; Denegri Coria, M

    2008-03-01

    The present study considers the debate generated in developed countries by genetically modified foods, the importance of this variable to consumers in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) when purchasing tomato sauce and different market segments were studied through a personal survey administered to 400 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was determined that the presence of genetic modification in food was generally more important than the brand and purchase price. Using cluster analysis, three segments were distinguished, with the most numerous (49.3%) placing the greatest importance on the presence of genetic modification (GM) in food and rejecting the transgenic product. The second group (39.4%) gave the greatest importance to the brand and preferred tomato sauce with genetically modified ingredients. The smallest segment (11.3%) placed the greatest value on price and preferred transgenic tomato sauce. The three segments prefer the national brand, reject the store brand and react positively to lower prices. The segment sensitive to the presence of GM in food comprised mainly those younger than 35 years of age, single and with no children. The absence of GM in food of vegetable origin is desirable for young consumers in the Araucanía Region, but a significant proportion accepts genetic modification in food (50.7%). PMID:18589572

  12. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. PMID:23617306

  13. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

    2002-05-24

    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  14. Tsunami risk zoning in south-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent 2010 Chilean tsunami revealed the need to optimize methodologies for assessing the risk of disaster. In this context, modern techniques and criteria for the evaluation of the tsunami phenomenon were applied in the coastal zone of south-central Chile as a specific methodology for the zoning of tsunami risk. This methodology allows the identification and validation of a scenario of tsunami hazard; the spatialization of factors that have an impact on the risk; and the zoning of the tsunami risk. For the hazard evaluation, different scenarios were modeled by means of numerical simulation techniques, selecting and validating the results that better fit with the observed tsunami data. Hydrodynamic parameters of the inundation as well as physical and socioeconomic vulnerability aspects were considered for the spatialization of the factors that affect the tsunami risk. The tsunami risk zoning was integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) by means of multicriteria evaluation (MCE). The results of the tsunami risk zoning show that the local characteristics and their location, together with the concentration of poverty levels, establish spatial differentiated risk levels. This information builds the basis for future applied studies in land use planning that tend to minimize the risk levels associated to the tsunami hazard. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

  15. Cohort Profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-01-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings [E-mail: hamigo@med.uchile.cl]. PMID:24366489

  16. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582

  17. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-01

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. PMID:25602438

  18. [Antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables cultivated in Chile].

    PubMed

    Araya, Héctor; Clavijo, Carolina; Herrera, Claudia

    2006-12-01

    The high prevalence of non transmissible chronic diseases (NCD) related to food consumption had increased the studies conducted to investigate the relationship between diet and health. A smaller incidence of NCD, with food patterns with high consumption of fruits and vegetables has been observed and chemical compounds of these foods have been one of the main subjects of the actual research in the reaqltion between food consumption and health. The effect of vegetable foods has been attributed to various nutrients and bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of vegetable foods cultivated in Chile, natural fruits and vegetables were analyzed according to the FRAP (ferric reducing activity power) method, reading to the 4 minutes. In vegetables, the values were between 0.002 and 1.91 milimoles of Fe/l00 g for cooked carrot and red pepper respectively. The values of the fruits ranged between 0.02 milimoles of Fe/100 g for the cucumber and 12.32 for maqui, the berries studies showed values between 3.10 for strawberry and 3.55 for wild blackberry. Lemmon and quince with 0.25 and 0.23 respectively are located in the intermediate level and the lowest values within the fruits corresponded to apple (fuji variety) and peaches. PMID:17425182

  19. Maternity protection vs. maternity rights for working women in Chile: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Herrera, Tania

    2012-12-01

    Maternity leave in Chile has been a social right since 1919, when the International Labour Organization set the first global standards. From its inception, Chile's labour legislation focused on protecting motherhood and the family. The length of maternity leave has been extended several times since then but its main aim remains the protection of infant health. In 1931, Chile's first Labour Code required anyone employing 20 or more women to provide day care services and facilitate childcare and paid breastfeeding time for all mothers of children under one. Labour laws began to play an important role in accommodating the care of infants within working conditions, though not always effectively. In spite of job protection during pregnancy and breastfeeding, women can be dismissed on grounds other than pregnancy. It was only under Salvador Allende and again in the past two decades that Chile has enfranchised women as holders of health rights. However, many unresolved tensions remain. Chile promotes motherhood, but often considers that working women who demand employment protection abuse the system. Motherhood is a magic wand that represents the selflessness of women, but society throws a blanket of mistrust over women who wish to exercise their maternity rights and to determine the number and spacing of their children. PMID:23245419

  20. Ridge-trench collision in Archean and Post-Archean crustal growth: Evidence from southern Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. P.; Forsythe, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    The growth of continental crust at convergent plate margins involves both continuous and episodic processes. Ridge-trench collision is one episodic process that can cause significant magmatic and tectonic effects on convergent plate margins. Because the sites of ridge collision (ridge-trench triple junctions) generally migrate along convergent plate boundaries, the effects of ridge collision will be highly diachronous in Andean-type orogenic belts and may not be adequately recognized in the geologic record. The Chile margin triple junction (CMTJ, 46 deg S), where the actively spreading Chile rise is colliding with the sediment-filled Peru-Chile trench, is geometrically and kinematically the simplest modern example of ridge collision. The south Chile margin illustrates the importance of the ridge-collision tectonic setting in crustal evolution at convergent margins. Similarities between ridge-collision features in southern Chile and features of Archean greenstone belts raise the question of the importance of ridge collision in Archean crustal growth. Archean plate tectonic processes were probably different than today; these differences may have affected the nature and importance of ridge collision during Archean crustal growth. In conclusion, it is suggested that smaller plates, greater ridge length, and/or faster spreading all point to the likelihood that ridge collision played a greater role in crustal growth and development of the greenstone-granite terranes during the Archean. However, the effects of modern ridge collision, and the processes involved, are not well enough known to develop specific models for the Archean ridge collison.

  1. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. METHODS CHILE uses a socio-ecological approach to improve dietary intake and increase physical activity. The intervention includes: a classroom curriculum; teacher and food service training; family engagement; grocery store participation; and health care provider support. RESULTS Lessons learned from CHILE include: the need to consider availability of recommended foods; the necessity of multiple training sessions for teachers and food service; the need to tailor the family events to local needs; consideration of the profit needs of grocery stores; and sensitivity to the time constraints of health care providers. CONCLUSIONS HS can play an important role in preventing obesity in children. CHILE is an example of a feasible intervention that addresses nutrition and physical activity for preschool children that can be incorporated into HS curricula and aligns with HS national performance standards. PMID:23343323

  2. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction..., International Trade Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador that will include the Trade Winds--The Americas business forum in Bogot , Colombia, May 19-21, 2014....

  3. Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only…

  4. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  5. Life Stories of Graduate Students in Chile and the United States: Becoming a Scientist from Childhood to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva Fernandez, Marta A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-national study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding about doctoral students in the United States and Chile and how their decisions to pursue a career in the life sciences field occurred throughout their lives. I interviewed 15 doctoral students from the Seven Lakes University (Chile) and 15 students from the…

  6. Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only…

  7. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  8. BABA and Phytophthora nicotianae Induce Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Stamler, Rio A; Holguin, Omar; Dungan, Barry; Schaub, Tanner; Sanogo, Soumaila; Goldberg, Natalie; Randall, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance in plants is a systemic response to certain microorganisms or chemicals that enhances basal defense responses during subsequent plant infection by pathogens. Inoculation of chile pepper with zoospores of non-host Phytophthora nicotianae or the chemical elicitor beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) significantly inhibited foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. Tissue extract analyses by GC/MS identified conserved change in certain metabolite concentrations following P. nicotianae or BABA treatment. Induced chile pepper plants had reduced concentrations of sucrose and TCA cycle intermediates and increased concentrations of specific hexose-phosphates, hexose-disaccharides and amino acids. Galactose, which increased significantly in induced chile pepper plants, was shown to inhibit growth of P. capsici in a plate assay. PMID:26020237

  9. BABA and Phytophthora nicotianae Induce Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    PubMed Central

    Stamler, Rio A.; Holguin, Omar; Dungan, Barry; Schaub, Tanner; Sanogo, Soumaila; Goldberg, Natalie; Randall, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance in plants is a systemic response to certain microorganisms or chemicals that enhances basal defense responses during subsequent plant infection by pathogens. Inoculation of chile pepper with zoospores of non-host Phytophthora nicotianae or the chemical elicitor beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) significantly inhibited foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. Tissue extract analyses by GC/MS identified conserved change in certain metabolite concentrations following P. nicotianae or BABA treatment. Induced chile pepper plants had reduced concentrations of sucrose and TCA cycle intermediates and increased concentrations of specific hexose-phosphates, hexose-disaccharides and amino acids. Galactose, which increased significantly in induced chile pepper plants, was shown to inhibit growth of P. capsici in a plate assay. PMID:26020237

  10. Design of a Teacher Professional Development Program for International Collaborative Astronomy Research in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Seguel, J.; Sparks, R.; Opazo, L.; Walker, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have designed (but not yet implemented) a program where five US teachers will team with five Chilean teachers to conduct high-quality astronomical research in Chile that can be brought back to their classrooms and shared with their students. This project will introduce US teachers to four research projects at the Observatorio Cruz del Sur, one the largest municipal observatories in South America. The program would operate over the course of a year or more, with a month of observing and conducting research in Chile. The observatory is located in the small town of Combarbalá (Limari Province, IV Región de Coquimbo) in a region rich in archeological, historical, and cultural heritage. Teachers will use high-sensitivity digital detectors to take data through telescopes and with cameras as part of four research projects- light pollution research, digital photography of dark large areas of the sky using wide angle cameras, asteroid photometry, and exoplanet photometric studies. The project partners the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (Tucson, Arizona and La Serena, Chile), the Municipality of the town of Combarbalá, the National Observatory of Chile/University of Chile, and REUNA, an internet communication alliance that serves Chilean universities and observatories. Since the US teachers will have their astronomy classes running while they are in Chile, the teachers will be communicating with their classes on a regular basis. The teachers will also be providing long-term access to southern sky data for other teachers and students in the US while establishing the basis for long-term collaborative research. We expect the program to establish long-term international research collaborations among US and Chilean teachers and students.

  11. Identification of diverse Salmonella Serotypes, Virulotypes, and Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Waterfowl From Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fresno, Marcela; Barrera, Violeta; Gornall, Vanessa; Lillo, Pilar; Paredes, Natalia; Abalos, Pedro; Fernández, Alda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella enterica is a pathogen with a wide host-range that presents great concern in developed and developing countries. To determine and characterize Salmonella strains found in Chile's waterfowl, we sampled 758 birds along 2000 km of the Chilean coast. In this sample, 46 isolates from 10 serotypes were detected, several with multidrug resistance phenotypes and different combinations of virulence-associated genes (virulotypes). These results suggest that Salmonella infection in waterfowl in Chile could have impacts on public and animal health. PMID:24107205

  12. Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) in Chile: a tentative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Venzal, J; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, A; Guglielmone, A

    2012-02-01

    Three argasid tick larvae were collected on April 2, 2010, from a common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, captured in the Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar (26°09' S, 70°41' W), Region of Atacama, Chile. The larvae were diagnosed as Ornithodoros, and further comparative analysis showed them to be Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones or a species close to it. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences of Ornithodoros species plus four Argas species was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the larvae. This is the first finding of ticks parasitizing D. rotundus in Chile. PMID:23950013

  13. Peru, Chile and Bolivia as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Areas of Peru (upper right), Chile (top center) and Bolivia as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft during its 35th revolution of the earth. Large body of water at lower right is Lake Titicaca. Smaller lake at left edge is Lake Poopo. Salar de Uyuni is large light-colored area at upper left. At bottom of picture is the snow-capped Cordillera Real range of the Andes mountains. Pacific coastline of Peru and Chile is at upper right. Range running parallel with coastline is the Cordillera Occidental.

  14. Protection of Northern Chile as an ICOMOS/IAU ``Window to the Universe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm G.

    2015-03-01

    Over the last two decades, La Serena's population has increased by about 70 percent. A site description of the AURA Observatory in Chile as a ``Window to the Universe`` is now available on the recently-launched UNESCO-IAU Astronomical Heritage Web Portal, www.astronomicalheritage.net This can serve as an example of possible material for the Chilean authorities, should they wish to propose the dark skies over much of northern Chile for protection as a World Scientific Heritage site. Some of the steps involved are discussed briefly here.

  15. Market for water rights in Chile: Major issues. World bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, M.R.; Quiroz, J.

    1995-09-01

    Many economists advocate the use of tradable water rights as the most efficient system for allocating scarce water resources among alternative economic uses. The paper reviews the major issues and controversies that have surrounded the practical implementation of this system in Chile. The paper contends that the system in Chile has worked reasonably well although some ammendments may be needed. Among other things, a more precise definition of non-consumptive rights is called for and transaction costs arising from incomplete legalization of water titles, lack of infrastructure, and free rider problems need to be reduced. However, fine tuning of the system, rather than drastic reform, seems the most advisable policy recommendation.

  16. Isotope hydrology of groundwaters in the Pampa del Tamarugal, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, P.; Suzuki, O.; Silva, C.; Salati, E.

    1981-09-01

    The water resources in northern Chile are extremely scarce and development is limited by this. This paper discusses the isotope hydrology of groundwaters in the Pampa del Tamarugal — an area of extreme aridity (rainfall < 1 mm/yr.) — whose groundwater resources are mined for the town of Iquique, as well as for industrial and agricultural purposes. The aim of the project was to obtain information on modern recharge and to delineate, if possible recharge environments. To obtain the necessary background information a precipitation survey in the high Andes, as well as spring- and surface-water studies were carried out. The results show that a well-defined meteoric water line exists where ? 2H = (7.8 ? 18O + 10.3)% , and altitude effects depend on air-mass movements and cannot be defined without a broader regional and detailed sampling programme. However, it is still possible to assign maximum altitudes of recharge to springs in the Andes and at the eastern border of the Pampa del Tamarugal. Comparison of these data with groundwater compositions show, that these groundwaters originate from infiltrating surface water rather than directly infiltrated precipitation. A dependence of individual groundwater systems on specific quebradas (river valleys) is recognized. However, low 14C activities indicate that most of the waters pumped today are fossil and at least several hundreds if not thousands of years old. Some minor subsurface recharge does occur at the foot of the Andes, especially at Pica where high-altitude waters discharge, but even there groundwater appears to be a diminishing resource.

  17. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents’ use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mother’s and father’s use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents’ use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add to the growing evidence concerning the negative consequences of corporal punishment for youth outcomes. PMID:22766372

  18. Tephrochronology of the southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, D. J.; Miranda, C. G.; Moreno, P. I.; Villa-Martínez, R.; Stern, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Correlations among and identification of the source volcanoes for over 60 Late Glacial and Holocene tephras preserved in eight lacustrine sediment cores taken from small lakes near Coyhaique, Chile (46° S), were made based on the stratigraphic position of the tephra in the cores, lithostratigraphic data (tephra layer thickness and grain size), and tephra petrochemistry (glass color and morphology, phenocryst phases, and bulk-tephra trace element contents determined by ICP-MS). The cores preserve a record of explosive eruptions, since ˜17,800 calibrated years before present (cal years BP), of the volcanoes of the southernmost Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SSVZ). The suggested source volcanoes for 55 of these tephras include Hudson (32 events), Mentolat (10 events), and either Macá or Cay or some of the many minor monogenetic eruptive centers (MECs; 13 events) in the area. Only four of these eruptions had been previously identified in tephra outcrops in the region, indicating the value of lake cores for identifying smaller eruptions in tephrochronologic studies. The tephra records preserved in these lake cores, combined with those in marine cores, which extend these records back to 20,000 cal years BP, prior to the Last Glacial Maximum, suggest that no significant temporal change in the frequency of explosive eruptions was associated with deglaciation. Over this time period, Hudson volcano, one of the largest and longest lived volcanoes in the Southern Andes, has had >55 eruptions (four of them were very large) and has produced >45 km3 of pyroclastic material, making it also one of the most active volcanoes in the SVZ in terms of both frequency and volume of explosive eruptions.

  19. Evolution of Irruputuncu volcano, Central Andes, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, I.; Roche, O.; Moune, S.; Aguilera, F.; Campos, E.; Pizarro, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Irruputuncu is an active volcano located in northern Chile within the Central Andean Volcanic Zone (CAVZ) and that has produced andesitic to trachy-andesitic magmas over the last ∼258 ± 49 ka. We report petrographical and geochemical data, new geochronological ages and for the first time a detailed geological map representing the eruptive products generated by the Irruputuncu volcano. The detailed study on the volcanic products allows us to establish a temporal evolution of the edifice. We propose that the Irruputuncu volcanic history can be divided in two stages, both dominated by effusive activity: Irruputuncu I and II. The oldest identified products that mark the beginning of Irruputuncu I are small-volume pyroclastic flow deposits generated during an explosive phase that may have been triggered by magma injection as suggested by mingling features in the clasts. This event was followed by generation of large lava flows and the edifice grew until destabilization of its SW flank through the generation of a debris avalanche, which ended Irruputuncu I. New effusive activity generated lavas flows to the NW at the beginning of Irruputuncu II. In the meantime, lava domes that grew in the summit were destabilized, as shown by two well-preserved block-and-ash flow deposits. The first phase of dome collapse, in particular, generated highly mobile pyroclastic flows that propagated up to ∼8 km from their source on gentle slopes as low as 11° in distal areas. The actual activity is characterized by deposition of sulfur and permanent gas emissions, producing a gas plume that reaches 200 m above the crater. The maximum volume of this volcanic system is of ∼4 km3, being one of the smallest active volcano of Central Andes.

  20. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valpara?´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  1. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

  2. Repeating Earthquakes in the Outer Rise Offshore Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann, F. J.; Grevemeyer, I.; Gossler, J.; Scherwath, M.; Flueh, E.; Hofmann, S.; Dahm, T.

    2005-12-01

    In December 2004-January 2005 two temporary arrays of ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones (Sonne cruise SO181) were recording the micro-earthquake activity of the outer rise region offshore Southern Chile. The southern array was located offshore the Chonos archipelago (45°S) on very young oceanic plate (6 Ma). No outer rise earthquakes are listed in the global catalogues for this region. The northern array is located off Chiloe island (43°S) on somewhat older plate (14 Ma). Several normal faulting events have occurred in this area in the last 30 years. Nevertheless, during the temporary deployment, the southern region was far more active with several hundred locatable events. Most events located in the crust and the uppermost 1-2~km of the mantle. In contrast, relatively few locatable events (<200) were recorded by the Northern array, with most events lying outside the array. The depth of the few events within the array places them well into the mantle, ~5km deeper than the deepest events in the south. The event set recorded by the southern array is remarkable in that a very high proportion (~0.35) of the events are repeating earthquakes, that is events with a high waveform similarity (correlation coeff. >0.9). They group into 41 clusters of various sizes, with the largest cluster consisting of 24 events. Recurrence times are highly irregular, with repeating earthquakes occasionally being separated by a few minutes only but some sequences stretching over the entire observational period. Repeating earthquakes have been associated with strong patches embedded within weak parts of a fault, with irregularities at the boundary between strong and weak parts, and with systematic changes in pore fluid pressure due to fluid diffusion. We will consider how far each of these models can describe the event sequences at the Outer Rise, where the dominant strain arises due to bending of the oceanic plate.

  3. Mental health of indigenous school children in Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depressive disorders occur in all stages of life and are the most common childhood disorders. However, only recently has attention been paid to mental health problems in indigenous children and studies of anxiety and depressive disorders in these children are still scarce. This study compares the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara and non-Aymara children. Among the Aymara children, the study examines the relations between these symptoms and the degree of involvement with Aymara culture. Methods We recruited 748 children aged 9 to 15 years from nine schools serving low socioeconomic classes in the city of Arica, in northern Chile. The children were equally divided between boys and girls and 37% of the children were Aymara. To evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms we used the Stress in Children (SiC) instrument and the Children Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), and used an instrument we developed to assess level of involvement in the Aymara culture. Results There was no significant difference between Aymara and non-Aymara children on any of the instrument scales. Dividing the Aymara children into high-involvement (n = 89) and low-involvement (n = 186) groups, the low-involvement group had significantly higher scores on the Hopelessness subscale of the CDI-S (p = 0.02) and scores of marginally higher significance in overall Anxiety on the SiC (p = 0.06). Conclusions Although Aymara children have migrated from the high Andean plateau to the city, this migration has not resulted in a greater presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Greater involvement with the Aymara culture may be a protective factor against anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara children. This point to an additional benefit of maintaining cultural traditions within this population. PMID:24438210

  4. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    The AURA Observatory (AURA-O) was the first of the major international observatories to be established in northern Chile to exploit the optimal astronomical conditions available there. The site was originally established in 1962 to host the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). It now hosts more than 20 operational telescopes, including some of the leading U.S. and international astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere, such as the Blanco 4m telescope on Cerro Tololo and the Gemini-South and SOAR telescopes on Cerro Pachón. Construction of the next generation facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), has recently begun on Cerro Pachón, while additional smaller telescopes continue to be added to the complement on Cerro Tololo.While the site has become a major platform for international astronomical facilities over the last 50 years, development in the region has led to an ever-increasing threat of light pollution around the site. AURA-O has worked closely with local, regional, and national authorities and institutions (in particular with the Chilean Ministries of Environment and Foreign Relations) in an effort to protect the site so that future generations of telescopes, as well as future generations of Chileans, can benefit from the dark skies in the region. We will summarize our efforts over the past 15 years to highlight the importance of dark sky protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  5. Simazine dynamics in a vineyard soil at Casablanca valley, Chile.

    PubMed

    Alister, Claudio; Lopez, Ramiro; Kogan, Marcelo

    2005-11-01

    Field dissipation, soil movement and laboratory leaching studies were performed to elucidate the effect of two rainfall amounts in the behaviour and environmental fate of simazine under climatic conditions at Casablanca Valley, Chile. Dissipation and soil movement were studied in a field vineyard with a sandy loam soil (Inceptisol; 74.08% sand; 14.87% silt and 11.04% clay). Simazine was applied to bare soil at 2.0 kg AI ha(-1), and its concentration was measured using immunoassay (ELISA) at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application under two rainfall amounts, natural field conditions (39 mm) and modified conditions (39 + 180 mm). Simazine leaching was studied using soil core PVC lysimeters (0.9 m height; 0.22 m diameter). Field dissipation data were adjusted with a bi-exponential model. Half-life (DT(50)) values varied between 31.3 (+/-2.5) and 19.0 (+/-4.2) days under natural and modified conditions, respectively. Simazine K(d) varied from 0.42 to 2.15 (K(oc) 32.6-216.2) in the soil profile. Simazine was detected at a 90-cm soil depth in concentrations of 0.0085 (+/-0.0043) mg kg(-1) and 0.0321 (+/-0.001) mg kg(-1) under field and modified conditions, respectively. The maximum simazine leachate concentrations were 0.013 (+/-0.00084) mg litre(-1) (0.012% of total applied simazine) and 0.0084 (+/-0.00082) mg litre(-1) (0.11% of total applied simazine) for field and modified conditions respectively. These data indicate that water quantity has a significant effect on the DT(50) and the amount of simazine that moved through the soil profile, but not on the soil depth reached by this herbicide. PMID:15977310

  6. Interferometric Radar Observations of Glaciar San Rafael, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, Eric; Forster, Richard; Isacks, Bryan

    1996-01-01

    Interferometric radar observations of Glaciar San Rafael, Chile, were collected in October 1994 by NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar C (SIR-C) at both L- (24cm) and C-band frequency (5.6cm), with vertical transmit and receive polarization. The C-band data did not yield good geophysical products, because the temporal coherence of the signal was significantly reduced after 24h. The L-band data were, however, successfully employed to map the surface topography of the icefield with a 10m uncertainty in height, and measure ice velocity with a precision of 4 mm/d or 1.4 m/a. The corresponding error in strain rates is 0.05/a at a 30 m horizontal spacing. The one-dimensional interferometric velocities were subsequently converted to horizontal displacements by assuming a flow direction and complemented by feature-tracking results near the calving front. The results provide a comprehensive view of the ice-flow dynamics of Glaciar San Rafael. The glacier has a core of rapid flow, 4.5 km in width and 3.5 degrees in average slope,surrounded by slower moving ice, not by rock. Ice velocity is 2.6 m/d or 0.95 km/a near the equilibrium line altitude (1200m), increasing rapidly before the glacier enters the narrower terminal valley, to reach 17.5 m/d or 6.4 km/a at the calving front. Strain rates are dominated by lateral shearing at the glacier margins (0.4-0.7/a), except for the terminal-valley section, where longitudinal strain rates average close to 1/a. This spectacular longitudinal increase in ice velocity in the last few kilometers may be a fundamental feature of tidewater glaciers.

  7. Geomorphological characterization of endorheic basins in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsaz, J.; Gironas, J. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative geomorphology regroups a large number of interesting tools to characterize natural basins across scales. The application of these tools to several river basins allows the description and comparison of geomorphological properties at different spatial scales as oppose to more traditional descriptors that are typically applied at a single scale, meaning the catchment scale. Most of the recent research using these quantitative geomorphological tools has focused on open catchments and no specific attention has been given to endorheic basins, and the possibility of having particular features that distinguish them from exorheic catchments. The main objective of our study is to characterize endorheic basins and investigate whether these special geomorphological features can be identified. Because scaling invariance is a widely observed and relatively well quantified property of open basins, it provides a suitable tool to characterize differences between the geomorphology of closed and open basins. Our investigation focuses on three closed basins located in northern Chile which describe well the diversity in the geomorphology and geology of this arid region. Results show that endhoreic basins exhibit different slope-area and flow paths sinuosity regimes compared to those observed in open basins. These differences are in agreement with the particular self-similar behavior across spatial scales of the Euclidean length of subcatchments, as well as the Hack's law and Horton's ratios. These regimes imply different physical processes inside the channel network regardless of the basin area, and they seem to be related to the endorheic character of these basins. The analysis of the probability density functions of contributing areas and lengths to the lower region shows that the hypothesis of self-similarity can also be applied to closed basins. Theoretical expressions for these distributions were derived and validated by the data. Future research will focus on (1) applying similar analyses in other locations and comparing the results, and (2) understanding and modeling the effects of groundwater in forming the landscape of these arid regions.

  8. Coastal lows and sulfur air pollution in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L.; Olivares, G.; Langner, J.; Aarhus, B.

    Air pollutants in Santiago (33.5°S, 70.8°W, 500 m a.s.l.), a city with 5 million inhabitants, located in a basin in Central Chile surrounded by the high Andes, frequently exceed air quality standards. This affects human health and it stresses vegetation. The most extreme winter and fall pollution events occur when the subsident regime of the Pacific high is further enhanced by coastal lows (CLs), which bring down the base of the subsidence inversion. Under these conditions, the air quality worsens significantly giving rise to acute air pollution episodes. We assess the ability of a regional transport/chemistry/deposition model (MATCH) coupled to a meteorological model (High Resolution Limited Area Model—HIRLAM) to simulate the evolution of oxidized sulfur (SO x) in connection with intensive CLs. We focus on SO x since it is an environmental issue of concern, and the emissions and concentrations of SO x have been regularly monitored making it easier to bracket model outputs for SO x than for other pollutants. Furthermore, the SO x emissions in the area are very large, i.e., about 0.4% of the global anthropogenic sources. Comparisons with observations indicate that the combination of HIRLAM and MATCH is a suitable tool for describing the regional patterns of dispersion associated with CLs. However, the low number and the limited geographical coverage of reliable air quality data preclude a complete evaluation of the model. Nevertheless, we show evidence of an enhanced contribution of the largest copper smelter in the area, i.e., Caletones, to the burden of SO x in the Santiago basin, especially in the form of sulfate associated to fine particles (diameters <2.5 ?m), during CLs. Further, we speculate that the Caletones plume may trigger or promote secondary aerosol formation during CLs in the Santiago basin.

  9. Observations of the 1995 ozone hole over Punta Arenas, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Sahai, Y.; Casiccia, C. A. R. S.; Zamorano, B. F.; Valderrama, V. V.

    1997-07-01

    We examine the appearance of the ozone hole over a populated area with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The largest population concentrations on the South American continent nearest the ozone hole region are Punta Arenas, Chile (53.0°S, 70.9°W) and Ushuaia, Argentina (54.5°S, 68.0°W), located close to the strait of Magallanes, opposite the Antarctic Peninsula. A special field mission was held in Punta Arenas, in September-October 1995 to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone during the appearance of the Antarctic ozone hole. Previous work has shown that the city of Punta Arenas is located at the edge of the hole area and is affected every year during a few days in the October period. The ozone trend near these locations is -0.5% per year using the yearly averages and -1.2% per year using the October means. This trend is 2 to 5 times larger than the global average. Several ozonesondes of the electrochemical concentration cell type were launched from Punta Arenas to determine the vertical distribution of ozone during "normal" and "perturbed" conditions. The ozone hole passed over Punta Arenas on October 12, 13 and 14, 1995. In addition to the sondes, which were launched once a day, ozone column amounts and UVB radiation were measured with a ground-based ozone Brewer spectrophotometer. The strongest ozone depletion over Punta Arenas in 1995 occurred on October 13, when the ozone column decreased from a "normal" value of about 325 Dobson Units (DU) to 200 DU; the vertical distribution of ozone on October 13 compared with October 6 shows depleted ozone roughly 50% less during hole conditions in the stratosphere. The UVB intensities have increased accordingly. The spectral ratio for October 13 to October 4 is 13 times larger at 297 nm.

  10. Achieving effective universal health coverage with equity: evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Patricia; Delgado, Iris; Kaufman, Jay S; Harper, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Chile's 'health guarantees' approach to providing universal and equitable coverage for quality healthcare in a dual public-private health system has generated global interest. The programme, called AUGE, defines legally enforceable rights to explicit healthcare benefits for priority health conditions, which incrementally covered 56 problems representing 75% of the disease burden between 2005 and 2009. It was accompanied by other health reform measures to increase public financing and public sector planning to secure the guarantees nationwide, as well as the state's stewardship role. We analysed data from household surveys conducted before and after the AUGE reform to estimate changes in levels of unmet health need, defined as the lack of a healthcare visit for a health problem occurring in the last 30 days, by age, sex, income, education, health insurance, residence and ethnicity; fitting logistic regression models and using predictive margins. The overall prevalence of unmet health need was much lower in 2009 (17.6%, 95% CI: 16.5%, 18.6%) than in 2000 (30.0%, 95% CI: 28.3%, 31.7%). Differences by income and education extremes and rural-urban residence disappeared. In 2009, people who had been in treatment for a condition covered by AUGE in the past year had a lower adjusted prevalence of unmet need for their recent problem (11.7%, 95% CI: 10.5%, 13.2%) than who had not (21.0%, 95% CI: 19.6%, 22.4%). Despite limitations including cross-sectional and self-reported data, our findings suggest that the Chilean health system has become more equitable and responsive to need. While these changes cannot be directly attributed to AUGE, they were coincident with the AUGE reforms. However, healthcare equity concerns are still present, relating to quality of care, health system barriers and differential access for health conditions that are not covered by AUGE. PMID:23921988

  11. Evolution of drug resistance in Salmonella panama isolates in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cordano, A M; Virgilio, R

    1996-01-01

    In a search for Salmonella isolates in the environment in Chile in 1975, drug-susceptible strains of Salmonella panama were recovered for the first time from river water and vegetables in the vicinity of Santiago. Two to 3 years later, antibiotic-resistant S. panama began to appear in a variety of sources (meat, animals, vegetables, etc.), giving rise to a human epidemic that involved the entire nation. Of 139 clinical isolates studied, 7 were drug susceptible, 11 were resistant only to nitrofurans, and 3 were streptomycin, spectinomycin, and nitrofuran resistant; none of these 21 isolates harbored plasmid DNA. Most isolates (n = 107) were resistant to nitrofurans (chromosomal) and to streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and mercuric and tellurite salts; this multidrug resistance was encoded on a 218-kb plasmid classified in a number of strains as being in the IncHI2 group. From 1982 to 1993, 11 isolates acquired an additional self-transferable plasmid coding for resistance to any one of ampicillin (61 kb), ampicillin and trimethoprim (65 kb), ampicillin, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and sulfonamides (71 kb), ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and tetracycline (120 kb), or a nontransferable plasmid of approximately 6 kb encoding resistance to ampicillin or kanamycin. With the exception of ampicillin or ampicillin and trimethoprim resistance, S. panama isolates from foodstuffs, mainly pork meat products, and animals had resistance patterns that were the same as those found in clinical specimens. Remarkably, strains from goats and goat cheese and from shellfish isolated in particular rural regions were either drug susceptible or resistant only to streptomycin-spectinomycin encoded on a mobile genetic element and to nitrofurans. The report describes the arrival of a susceptible S. panama strain, its spread all over the country, and the evolution of progressively complex resistance patterns. PMID:8834876

  12. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...As a result of the determinations by the Department of Commerce (the Department) and the International Trade Commission (ITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of dumping and of material injury to an industry in the......

  13. Privatization Reform and Inequality of Educational Opportunity: The Case of Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torche, Florencia

    2005-01-01

    Chile has experienced considerable educational expansion over the past few decades, as well as a privatization reform in 1981 that introduced full parental choice through a voucher system, in the context of a market-oriented transformation of the country. Using a cohort analysis of the 2001 Chilean Mobility Survey, this article examines trends in…

  14. Governmental Use of Cartoons in Chile as a Means of Informing and Persuading Voters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Jim

    In an electoral process in 1988 and 1989, voters replaced General Augusto Pinochet as leader of Chile. The use of political cartoons by both pro- and anti-Pinochet forces is explored in this paper. Cartoons have long been recognized as a form of mass communication. In the Chilean elections cartoons played an important role in the battle for the…

  15. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... institution (74 FR 50818, October 1, 2009) for each review was adequate and that the respondent interested... section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic... TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United...

  16. 75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... U.S.C. 1675(c)(5)(B) (75 FR 3756, January 22, 2010). Due to the closure of the Government during the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States...

  17. Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a "logic of induction" has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical…

  18. The Historical Development of Educational Assessment in Chile: 1810-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gysling, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the historical development of the state's actions in educational assessment in Chile from the nineteenth century to the present day, based on the analysis of governmental decrees and regulations related to assessment, and their variability over time. The research identifies six distinctive periods, each of which expresses a…

  19. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... apparent anomalies in U.S. import levels, and discuss the possible causes for these anomalies; in... apparent anomalies in U.S. export levels, and indicate the possible causes for these anomalies, taking into... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY:...

  20. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  1. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

  2. Mechanizing chile peppers: Challenges and advances in transitioning harvest of New Mexico's signature crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Mexican-type chile (Capsicum annuum L.), often referred to as 'Anaheim', is the signature crop of New Mexico. Both the red and green (fully sized, but physiologically immature) crops are integral to the state's culture and economy. Lack of a predictable labor supply and higher input costs have p...

  3. Threats and Opportunities of Science at a For-Profit University in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barandiaran, Javiera

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after pro-market policies were first adopted, how best to organize Chile's scientific enterprise remains as elusive as when universities were state-run and funded. This paper explores scientific research at a for-profit university, University Andres Bello, to ask if a new mode of knowledge production is in the making and with what…

  4. First report of root rot of Chicory caused by Phytophthora cryptogea in Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var sativum Bisch.), a relatively new high value crop in Chile, was introduced for commercial production of inulin. Inulins are polysaccharides extracted from chicory tap roots that are used in processed foods due to their beneficial gastrointestinal properties. Approxi...

  5. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of a solar saltern crystallizer pond at cáhuil lagoon, chile.

    PubMed

    Plominsky, Alvaro M; Delherbe, Nathalie; Ugalde, Juan A; Allen, Eric E; Blanchet, Marine; Ikeda, Priscila; Santibañez, Francisco; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ulloa, Osvaldo; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; von Dassow, Peter; Astorga, Marcia; Gálvez, María Jesús; González, María Lorena; Henríquez-Castillo, Carlos; Vaulot, Daniel; Lopes do Santos, Adriana; van den Engh, Gerrit; Gimpel, Carla; Bertoglio, Florencia; Delgado, Yolaine; Docmac, Felipe; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Narváez, Silvia; Sorroche, Fernando; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Trefault, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Cáhuil Lagoon in central Chile harbors distinct microbial communities in various solar salterns that are arranged as interconnected ponds with increasing salt concentrations. Here, we report the metagenome of the 3.0- to 0.2-µm fraction of the microbial community present in a crystallizer pond with 34% salinity. PMID:25395641

  6. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  7. [Geographic variation of the fox Lycalopex culpaeus (Mammalia, Canidae) in Chile: taxonomic implications].

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Jonathan A; D'Elía, Guillermo; Ortiz, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    We studied the geographic variation of skulls of Lycalopex culpaeus using qualitative and quantative analyses. The sampling area covered Chile, from its northern portion, to Tierra del Fuego and the neighbouring Hoste Island, as well as part of Argentina. Five subespecies are currently recognized from this large area. We found two morphotypes that are segregated geographically. Both groups mostly differ by morphometric attributes, followed by qualitative features. Specimens from northern Chile (Tarapacá and Antofagasta) have small skulls, short rostrum, a liriform sagital zone, and lack the interparietal crest. The second group is formed by specimens from north-western and central Argentina, central-south Chile, Patagonia, and the austral islands of Tierra del Fuego and Hoste. This group presents a strong sagital crest, large rostrum, and a large skull. Our results agree with observed patterns of mitochondrial DNA variation. We propose to retain the name L. c. andinus for the populations of northern Chile and to synonymize L. c. magellanicus, L. c. lycoides, and L. c. smithersi under L. c. culpaeus. PMID:19637719

  8. Carbon pools in an arid shrubland in Chile under natural and afforested conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semiarid regions comprise 41% of the continental area of Chile, but no estimates of carbon (C) pools have been reported for these areas. This study quantified the C pools of biomass, litter, and soil for natural compared to afforested (two-year-old Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L. Wendl.) sit...

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in feral american minks at the Maullin river, Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American mink (Neovison vison) is a widely distributed invasive species in southern Chile. Thirty four feral minks were trapped at two distinct sites (rural and peri-urban), diet analyzed, and Toxoplasma gondii exposure compared using PCR and specific antibodies. Serum samples were evaluated using a...

  10. Rates of influenza-like illness and winter school breaks, Chile, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Chowell, Gerardo; Towers, Sherry; Viboud, Cécile; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Sotomayor, Viviana

    2014-07-01

    To determine effects of school breaks on influenza virus transmission in the Southern Hemisphere, we analyzed 2004-2010 influenza-like-illness surveillance data from Chile. Winter breaks were significantly associated with a two-thirds temporary incidence reduction among schoolchildren, which supports use of school closure to temporarily reduce illness, especially among schoolchildren, in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:24963800

  11. Urbanization in Chile. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robin, John P.; Terzo, Frederick C.

    Chile is unique in its geography and urban concentration, its political history and its present governmental structure. These features are examined in this survey report. Topics for discussion include: (1) The Instruments of Planning, (2) The Planning and Development Structure, (3) The Move to Integrated Economic Space, (4) The Chilean…

  12. Canl to Curarrehue (Chile): A Journey in Alternative Development. Outdoor Education and Sustainable Development: Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rod

    1999-01-01

    The outdoor experience's core element of connection to the earth is a central feature of an environmental-education project in Canl forest sanctuary (Chile). Developed to provide integrated environmental and adventure-education experiences to forest visitors, the project expanded to train local youth as ecotourism guides and native-tree nursery…

  13. Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

  14. Moral Dilemmas in Teaching Recent History Related to the Violation of Human Rights in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…

  15. Evaluation of five green chile cultivars utilizing five different harvest mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High cost and unavailability of labor for hand harvest has resulted in domestic green chile production declining even as consumption grows. Mechanization is clearly necessary, but has resisted four decades of research and development. In these trials five picking mechanisms were tested in five cul...

  16. Mechanizing chile peppers: Challenges and advances in transitioning harvest of New Mexico’s signature crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New Mexican-type red and green chile (Capsicum annuum) is important to New Mexico’s identity and economy. Producers began experimenting with mechanical harvest in the mid-1960s, but efforts stalled in the 1970s. Adverse impact to production following the implementation of the North American Free Tra...

  17. Daring To Change: The Potential of Intercultural Education in Aymara Communities in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arratia, Maria-Ines

    1997-01-01

    Describes and evaluates a teacher training project in Chile that was meant to change attitudes toward native culture among rural teachers in one Aymara school district serving approximately 200 children. Findings suggest that hegemonic barriers stand in the way of broadening the scope of intercultural education in plural, democratic societies.…

  18. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  19. Air Pollution in São Paulo and Santiago de Chile: Sources and Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artaxo, P.; Castanho, A.; Oyolla, P.; Gramsch, E.; Martinez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious issue for millions in Latin America. São Paulo, Santiago de Chile, México City and many other large urban conglomerates. Fast industrialization, large population growth, emissions from the transportation sectors and many other issues are the cause for the air pollution in these mega cities. São Paulo, with 17 million people, 5.5 million vehicles and strong industry suffers from severe particulate matter and ozone exposure. Santiago de Chile with very unfavorable dispersion characteristics also has problems with PM10 and ozone. Health effects in these areas are a public health concern. In Sao Paulo alone, about 30,000 excess deaths are attributable to air pollution issues. There are also critical institutional issues in the São Paulo metropolitan area, which has 39 municipalities, as well as three other metropolitan areas within a 100-km radius. In Santiago de Chile, a dry climate makes ressuspended soil dust an important PM10 component, and vehicle emissions produces high concentration of secondary organic aerosols. Old diesel buses make black carbon concentrations very high in Santiago. We carried out extensive aerosol source apportionment studies for several years, using PIXE as trace element analysis technique and multivariate statistical analysis to separate and quantify aerosol sources in Santiago and Sao Paulo. We will present results from 5 years studies in both Santiago and Sao Paulo. Vehicles and soil dust dominates the picture, with a strong sulfate component in Santiago de Chile.

  20. Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dobson, Patrick

    2013-02-11

    Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed. Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums may be imported into the United...

  6. 76 FR 15225 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi... importation into the continental United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach... packinghouse inspections. This proposed rule would allow for the safe importation of fresh baby kiwi from...

  7. An Empirical Analysis of Primary and Secondary Pharmaceutical Patents in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Abud, María José; Hall, Bronwyn; Helmers, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patent filing strategies of foreign pharmaceutical companies in Chile distinguishing between “primary” (active ingredient) and “secondary” patents (patents on modified compounds, formulations, dosages, particular medical uses, etc.). There is prior evidence that secondary patents are used by pharmaceutical originator companies in the U.S. and Europe to extend patent protection on drugs in length and breadth. Using a novel dataset that comprises all drugs registered in Chile between 1991 and 2010 as well as the corresponding patents and trademarks, we find evidence that foreign originator companies pursue similar strategies in Chile. We find a primary to secondary patents ratio of 1:4 at the drug-level, which is comparable to the available evidence for Europe; most secondary patents are filed over several years following the original primary patent and after the protected active ingredient has obtained market approval in Chile. This points toward effective patent term extensions through secondary patents. Secondary patents dominate “older” therapeutic classes like anti-ulcer and anti-depressants. In contrast, newer areas like anti-virals and anti-neoplastics (anti-cancer) have a much larger share of primary patents. PMID:25915050

  8. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden. PMID:24346044

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Bacteriophage f18SE, Isolated in Chile.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Cristopher; Vasquez, Ignacio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Robeson, James; Santander, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage f18SE was isolated from poultry sewage in Olmue, Chile, and lytic activity was demonstrated against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and serovar Pullorum strains. This bacteriophage has a 41,868-bp double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) genome encoding 53 coding sequences (CDSs) and belongs to the family Siphoviridae, subfamily Jerseyvirinae. PMID:26450716

  10. Reflecting on the Japan-Chile Task-Based Telecollaboration Project for Beginner-Level Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, B. Greg

    2014-01-01

    Using O'Dowd and Ritter's (2006) Inventory of Reasons for Failed Communication in Telecollaborative Projects as a barometer, this article details the considerations and procedures followed in a task-based, asynchronous email telecollaboration project between EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners in Japan and Chile. In a climate…

  11. Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

  12. Targets, Threats and (dis)Trust: The Managerial Troika for Public School Principals in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montecinos, Carmen; Ahumada, Luis; Galdames, Sergio; Campos, Fabián; Leiva, Maria Verónica

    2015-01-01

    Public education in Chile has been steadily losing students as a result of the implementation, for the last 35 years, of a market model. In this paper we exemplify how a structural problem (public schools' declining enrollment) created by neoliberal educational policies is transformed into an individual problem to be managed by the public school…

  13. MASS SPECTRAL DETERMINATIONS OF THE FOLIC ACID CONTENT OF FORTIFIED BREADS FROM CHILE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty-four samples of fortified bread collected from bakeries from Santiago, Chile were assayed for their folic acid (FA) content using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A 13C-labeled analogue of FA was spiked into each sample as an internal standard and the analyte ...

  14. First Case of Human Rabies in Chile Caused by an Insectivorous Bat Virus Variant

    PubMed Central

    Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Chala, Evelyn; López, Luis R.

    2002-01-01

    The first human rabies case in Chile since 1972 occurred in March 1996 in a patient without history of known exposure. Antigenic and genetic characterization of the rabies isolate indicated that its reservoir was the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This is the first human rabies case caused by an insectivorous bat rabies virus variant reported in Latin America. PMID:11749754

  15. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  16. An empirical analysis of primary and secondary pharmaceutical patents in Chile.

    PubMed

    Abud, María José; Hall, Bronwyn; Helmers, Christian

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patent filing strategies of foreign pharmaceutical companies in Chile distinguishing between "primary" (active ingredient) and "secondary" patents (patents on modified compounds, formulations, dosages, particular medical uses, etc.). There is prior evidence that secondary patents are used by pharmaceutical originator companies in the U.S. and Europe to extend patent protection on drugs in length and breadth. Using a novel dataset that comprises all drugs registered in Chile between 1991 and 2010 as well as the corresponding patents and trademarks, we find evidence that foreign originator companies pursue similar strategies in Chile. We find a primary to secondary patents ratio of 1:4 at the drug-level, which is comparable to the available evidence for Europe; most secondary patents are filed over several years following the original primary patent and after the protected active ingredient has obtained market approval in Chile. This points toward effective patent term extensions through secondary patents. Secondary patents dominate "older" therapeutic classes like anti-ulcer and anti-depressants. In contrast, newer areas like anti-virals and anti-neoplastics (anti-cancer) have a much larger share of primary patents. PMID:25915050

  17. Spreading of the ocean floor: Undeformed sediments in the peru-chile trench

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, D. W.; Von Huene, R.; Ridlon, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    None of the expected stratigraphic and structural effects of a spreading sea floor have been imposed on the sedimentary fill of the Peru-Chile Trench. During at least the last several million years, and perhaps during much of the Cenozoic, the trench has not been affected by an oceanic crust thrusting under the continent.

  18. Fostering Innovation in Chile: OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 454

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavente, Jose-Miguel; de Mello, Luiz; Mulder, Nanno

    2005-01-01

    A good framework for investment in innovation can contribute to increasing Chile's growth potential. Spending on R&D is currently low in relation to GDP and heavily reliant on government financing. Innovation activity in the business sector is also limited by insufficient seed and venture capital and human capital constraints. This is despite…

  19. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... expense. The RE&EE trade policy mission will promote the competitiveness of U.S. wind, solar, geothermal... fraction of at least 2 GW of geothermal potential under development. Chile's solar potential is one of the... incentives could strongly catalyze additional development. Opportunities are expected in the wind,...

  20. Voicing Differences: Indigenous and Urban Radio in Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcamo-Huechante, Luis E.; Legnani, Nicole Delia

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous cultures throughout the Americas and the rest of the world have to deal with problems of cultural assimilation, migration, and dissemination of their populations. Some of them, in countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria, have developed radio programming to maintain home languages; gain access to health, education, and employment…

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Bacteriophage f18SE, Isolated in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Cristopher; Vasquez, Ignacio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Robeson, James

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage f18SE was isolated from poultry sewage in Olmue, Chile, and lytic activity was demonstrated against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and serovar Pullorum strains. This bacteriophage has a 41,868-bp double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) genome encoding 53 coding sequences (CDSs) and belongs to the family Siphoviridae, subfamily Jerseyvirinae. PMID:26450716

  2. Moral Dilemmas in Teaching Recent History Related to the Violation of Human Rights in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…

  3. Paulo Freire in Chile, 1964-1969: "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" in Its Sociopolitical Economic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holst, John D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, John Holst presents findings of his historical research on Paulo Freire's educational work in Chile from 1964 to 1969. Freire's "Education as the Practice of Freedom", which was written in 1965 from notes he brought from Brazil, was informed by a liberal developmentalist outlook. In contrast, his "Pedagogy of the Oppressed",…

  4. Christian Education in Chile: Is the Seventh-Day Adventist System at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grajales G., Tevni; Leon V., Vicente H.; Elias, Galiya

    2010-01-01

    Diverse perspectives with respect to Christian Education constitute a potential path for misunderstanding and contradictions; this study considers this situation in the context of a Seventh-day Adventist Christian system with students and parents from different religious perspectives in Chile. The parents/sponsors of the eighth graders were…

  5. Teacher Regulatory Forces and Accountability Policies in Chile: From Public Servants to Accountable Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    In the last four years teacher performance evaluation in Chile became a major policy issue involving teachers, politicians, the media, school management, and education authorities. The discussion highlighted the unresolved question of how to insure teaching quality and reduce incompetence in classrooms and schools to the benefit of pupil learning…

  6. Achievement versus Aptitude in College Admissions: A Cautionary Note Based on Evidence from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica; Cofre, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a debate over the alleged superiority of achievement tests over aptitude tests on the grounds that the first would be fairer for college admissions and less influenced by family background. The switch from aptitude tests to achievement tests in Chile presented a unique opportunity to examine this claim. Regression…

  7. Canl to Curarrehue (Chile): A Journey in Alternative Development. Outdoor Education and Sustainable Development: Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rod

    1999-01-01

    The outdoor experience's core element of connection to the earth is a central feature of an environmental-education project in Canl forest sanctuary (Chile). Developed to provide integrated environmental and adventure-education experiences to forest visitors, the project expanded to train local youth as ecotourism guides and native-tree nursery…

  8. ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

  9. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

  10. Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…

  11. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Chile 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Growth and diversity have characterised higher education in OECD countries for fifty years. Chile is no exception and has experienced dramatic increases in the number of students, the range of institutions and the programmes that they offer. But wider participation and diversification are only part of the story. Chilean society remains highly…

  12. First Case of a Human Being Bitten by a Water Boatman (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae) from Chile.

    PubMed

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Rojas-Porras, Nicolas A

    2016-01-01

    The first record of a water boatman (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae) biting humans is described. The case is from Chile, and the biting species was identified as Sigara trimaculata (Le Guillou, 1841). The possible causes of the bites are discussed. PMID:26474880

  13. Access to Higher Education in Chile: A Public vs. Private Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Oscar; González, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes how access to public and private institutions of higher education in Chile has changed as the post-secondary system has become increasingly privatized. It analyses access by young people to higher education from four perspectives: funding type (public/private), gender, family income level, and ethnicity. The study uses…

  14. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...), and (c) of this part, relating to the documentary requirements for goods entered under subheading...

  15. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...), and (c) of this part, relating to the documentary requirements for goods entered under subheading...

  16. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...), and (c) of this part, relating to the documentary requirements for goods entered under subheading...

  17. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strain from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Bruno S.; García, Patricia; Domínguez Yévenes, Mariana; Lima, Celia; Bello-Toledo, Helia; González-Rocha, Gerardo; Amyes, Sebastian G. B.

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii strain Ab5 was isolated in the year 2007 in Chile, being one of the first multidrug-resistant (MDR) cases reported in the country. Here, we present the very first draft genome sequence of an MDR Chilean strain, which shows the presence of diverse resistance and acquired virulence genes. PMID:26139713

  19. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered...” means restoration, addition, renovation, re-dyeing, cleaning, re-sterilizing, or other treatment...

  20. Access to Higher Education in Chile: A Public vs. Private Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Oscar; González, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes how access to public and private institutions of higher education in Chile has changed as the post-secondary system has become increasingly privatized. It analyses access by young people to higher education from four perspectives: funding type (public/private), gender, family income level, and ethnicity. The study uses…

  1. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  2. Rethinking the Role of Elite Private Schools in a Neoliberal Era: An Example from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Eduardo Cavieres

    2009-01-01

    Neoliberalism has brought a privatization trend that has deeply affected the structure of the educational system of countries. While public schools lag behind, new forms of private schooling have arisen creating different forms of inequality. Nonetheless, in Chile the major inequality exists between schools attended by low and middle income…

  3. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  4. Achievement versus Aptitude in College Admissions: A Cautionary Note Based on Evidence from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica; Cofre, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a debate over the alleged superiority of achievement tests over aptitude tests on the grounds that the first would be fairer for college admissions and less influenced by family background. The switch from aptitude tests to achievement tests in Chile presented a unique opportunity to examine this claim. Regression…

  5. Beyond the Test Score: A Mixed Methods Analysis of a College Access Intervention in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treviño, Ernesto; Scheele, Judith; Flores, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we examine the role of a college access intervention in the enrollment and persistence outcomes of low-income students in Chile modeled partially after a Texas admissions program. We find that, although students from the program have a mean cumulative GPA significantly lower than that of their…

  6. Getting Students to Read before Class: Innovation in a University in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinn, Noel F.; Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Reading before class has been demonstrated to improve student learning. This article describes the installation and effectiveness of a strategy to encourage student class preparation. The strategy, called the Class-to-Class Method, has been implemented in a large private university in Chile. The university hopes that this innovation will reduce…

  7. Threats and Opportunities of Science at a For-Profit University in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barandiaran, Javiera

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after pro-market policies were first adopted, how best to organize Chile's scientific enterprise remains as elusive as when universities were state-run and funded. This paper explores scientific research at a for-profit university, University Andres Bello, to ask if a new mode of knowledge production is in the making and with what…

  8. The Impact of School Choice and Public Policy on Segregation: Evidence from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Advocates argue that vouchers can make improved educational opportunity available to disadvantaged students. Critics contend that vouchers increase the risk of stratification. Researchers have found that Chile's voucher program has lead to increased socioeconomic school segregation. What has been overlooked, however, is segregation between schools…

  9. Parent's Defense of Their Children's Right to Education: Resistance Experiences against Public School Closings in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino-Yancovic, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This is a semi-ethnographic study of three schools that were closed in a marginal community in Santiago, Chile. The school closing process was violent with many social and psychological negative consequences for guardians and students. The guardians of the students of these schools decided to take over the schools and fight against the local…

  10. Voicing Differences: Indigenous and Urban Radio in Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carcamo-Huechante, Luis E.; Legnani, Nicole Delia

    2010-01-01

    Indigenous cultures throughout the Americas and the rest of the world have to deal with problems of cultural assimilation, migration, and dissemination of their populations. Some of them, in countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria, have developed radio programming to maintain home languages; gain access to health, education, and employment…

  11. School and Individual Factors That Contribute to the Achievement Gap in College Admissions Tests in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Mejias, Paulina

    2012-01-01

    In Chile, reports and research papers have shown that there is an achievement gap in college admissions tests mostly associated to students' gender, socioeconomic status and type of school attended. This gap represents a barrier for low-income and female students to access higher education, as well as for graduates of public schools. Prior…

  12. The Historical Development of Educational Assessment in Chile: 1810-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gysling, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the historical development of the state's actions in educational assessment in Chile from the nineteenth century to the present day, based on the analysis of governmental decrees and regulations related to assessment, and their variability over time. The research identifies six distinctive periods, each of which expresses a…

  13. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Chile 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Growth and diversity have characterised higher education in OECD countries for fifty years. Chile is no exception and has experienced dramatic increases in the number of students, the range of institutions and the programmes that they offer. But wider participation and diversification are only part of the story. Chilean society remains highly…

  14. Socioeconomic School Segregation in a Market-Oriented Educational System. The Case of Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Juan Pablo; Bellei, Cristian; de los Ríos, Danae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between…

  15. Comparing Protest Movements in Chile and California: Interculturality in an Internet Chat Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of chat transcripts from an English-language telecollaboration project between students at universities in Chile and California. This research found that the richest intercultural interactions involved events that could not have been foreseen: the immigrant rights demonstrations in the USA and the massive student…

  16. Propensity of University Students in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile to Create Enterprise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romani, Gianni; Didonet, Simone; Contuliano, Sue-Hellen; Portilla, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The authors aim to discuss the propensity or intention to create enterprise among university students in the region of Antofagasta, Chile, and to analyze the factors that influence the step from desire to intention. 681 students were surveyed. The data were analyzed by binary logistical regression. The results show that curriculum is among the…

  17. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  18. The Effects of Classroom Socioeconomic Composition on Student's Civic Knowledge in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collado, Diego; Lomos, Catalina; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    In Chile, the influence of the socioeconomic make-up of classrooms on achievement has been extensively studied in mathematics and language, but less in currently important non-traditional subjects such as civic knowledge. This paper analyses the effects of the socioeconomic composition of classrooms on students' civic knowledge achievement in…

  19. Determinants of Persistence and the Role of Financial Aid: Lessons from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, María Verónica; Catalán, Ximena; Kruger, Diana; Horn, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the determinants of persistence in the Chilean higher education system, considering academic and socio-demographic factors as well as the role of financial aid. The financial aid policy for students in Chile has undergone major changes over the last decade, which has allowed individuals from usually underrepresented income…

  20. The AURA Observatory in Chile - part of the IAU/UNESCO Extended Case Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm G.; Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    This talk discusses the Extended Case Study for AURA-O as a “Window to the Universe”http://www2.astronomicalheritage.net/index.php/show-entity=59&idsubentity=5That study was prepared in the context of supporting the desire to preserve humanity’s scientific/cultural heritage of outstanding, high-mountain, ground-based, observatory sites developed over the period 1870-2000. AURA-O includes the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO), established in 1962 as the first of the major international observatories to be installed in Chile. The future of AURA-O now includes the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).This Extended Case Study has provided the context for the development of possible initiatives to protect a variety of sites in Chile for their historical and scientific value to humanity. The dark skies and ideal weather patterns of northern Chile, along with its location in the southern hemisphere, have made this area of the world a major centre for astronomical facilities.While this talk will touch on the importance of dark skies as part of the Windows to the Universe concept, it is anticipated that others will be discussing (in FM2 and/or FM21) the current status and future plans (of the Chilean Government and the observatories) for protecting the dark skies of northern Chile.

  1. Erosion by pyroclastic flows on Lascar Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, R. S. J.; Gardeweg, M. C.; Calder, E. S.; Matthews, S. J.

    Pyroclastic flows generated in the 19-20 April 1993 eruption of Lascar Volcano, Chile, produced spectacular erosion features. Scree and talus were stripped from the channels and steep slopes on the flanks of the volcano. Exposed bedrock and boulders suffered severe abrasion, producing smoothed surfaces on coarse breccias and striations and percussion marks on bedrock and large boulders. Erosional furrows developed with wavelengths of 0.5-2m and depths of 0.1-0.3m. Furrows commonly nucleated downstream of large boulders or blocks, which are striated on the upstream side, and thereby produced crag-and-tail structures. Erosive features were produced where flows accelerated through topographic restrictions or where they moved over steep slopes. The pyroclastic flows are inferred to have segregated during movement into lithic-rich and pumice-rich parts. Lithic-rich deposits occur on slopes up to 14°, whereas pumice-rich deposits occur only on slopes less than 4°, and mainly at the margins and distal parts of the 1993 fan. The lithic-rich deposits contain large (up to 1m) lithic clasts eroded from the substrate and transported from the vent, whereas pumice-rich deposits contain only small (typically <2cm) lithic clasts. These observations suggest that lithic clasts segregated to the base of the flows and were responsible for much of the erosive phenomena. The erosive features, distribution of lithic clasts and deposit morphology indicate that the 1993 flows were highly concentrated avalanches dominated by particle interactions. In some places the flows slid over the bedrock causing abrasion and long striations which imply that large blocks were locked in fixed positions for periods of about 1s. However, shorter striae at different angles, impact marks, segregation of the deposits into pumice- and lithic-rich parts, and mixing of bedrock-derived lithic clasts throughout the deposits indicate that clasts often had some freedom of movement and that jostling of particles allowed internal mixing and density segregation to occur within the flows.

  2. Dense Local Seismic Network at Villarrica Volcano (Southern Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Stock, C.; Thorwart, M.; Dzieran, L.; Rabbel, W.

    2013-12-01

    Villarrica volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Southern Andes. It has been presenting constant fumarole activity and seismicity since its last eruption in 1984-85. A local network was installed at Villarrica volcano (Southern Chile) during the first two weeks of March, 2012. In total, 75 DSS-Cube short-period stations (30 3-Component, 45 1-Component) were deployed at and around the volcano area, covering approx. 63 km x 55 km. The average station spacing is 1.5 km for stations inside the perimeter of the volcanic edifice, and 5km outside this perimeter. The network recorded ca. 94 volcano tectonic (VT) events located SSW, SSE and North of the crater, with clear P- and S-wave arrivals. Many others, ca.73 events, could be classified as 'hybrid' events (HB), which present high frequencies at the beginning of the signal, and a sharp and notorious S-wave at the crater stations, but a strong scattering, lower frequency content, and elongated coda on the stations along the volcanic edifice. This strong scattering effect is probably caused by the heterogeneous ash layers on the edifice structure. Few long period events (LP), with main frequencies between 2-4 Hz, were observed. From the tectonic regional events, three sets of events can be distinguished. One coming from the southern end of the focal plane of the Maule earthquake (2010), with S-P wave travel time difference of ca. 30 s or more. Another closer group with S-P wave travel time difference between 10 s and 20 s, and the last group with S-P wave travel time difference of 10 s or less. A cross-correlation analysis to the travel times of the regional events and a teleseismic event from Argentina was applied in order to determine the average velocity structure of the volcano, and obtained an average P-wave velocity of 3.6 km/s for the volcanic edifice inside a radius of 6.5 km, and 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area outside this radius. This model serves as a starting point for local earthquake tomography for exploring the inner structure of Villarrica volcano, for integrating the local model into a previously determined regional tomographic model (Dzierma et al., 2012), as well as for improving the location of the VT events.

  3. Geyser Interaction: Two examples from El Tatio, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Saez, Carolina; Namiki, Atsuko; Manga, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Geysers are eruptive hot springs that episodically discharge steam, liquid water, and non-condensable gases. While hot springs are abundant in geothermal areas, geysers are uncommon and they require special conditions of water supply, heat flow, and fractures and/or porous rocks. Despite more than 200 years of study, there are still open questions about how and why geysers erupt: How is geyser cycle influenced by other adjacent and distant thermal sources? Are hot springs and geyser connected through permeable pathways? Why do only a few hot springs erupt as geysers? We conducted two week-long field studies of geyser interactions in the El Tatio geyser field, Chile during Oct. 2012 and Oct. 2014. We found two different cases: geyser-pool interaction and geyser-geyser interaction. In the first case, we documented how the water level of the pool varies as the geyser eruption evolves. Measured temperature in the geyser conduit has a repeatable pattern, when it reaches boiling the eruption occurs. In contrast, the temperature in the adjacent pool is constant and never reaches the boiling point, suggesting that heat is supplied only to the geyser conduit. Pressure in the geyser conduit and pool have a similar evolution over time so that the side pool acts as a barometer for the conduit. The geyser-geyser interaction was documented in 2014. A geyser with long eruption intervals (1-3 hours) changes the behavior of a short-interval geyser (c.a. 10 minutes). When the long-interval geyser erupts, the short-interval geyser stops erupting. When the eruption of the long-interval geyser becomes less vigorous, the short-interval geyser resumes its eruptions with shorter intervals. During the week of measurements in 2012, we did not observe the short-interval geyser erupting. At that time, the eruption of the long-interval geyser was regular (4 hours and 40 minutes, ref 1). We thus infer that the geyser-geyser interaction made the eruption cycle chaotic. Geyser-pool and geyser-geyser interactions imply hydrologic connectivity. These pathways may be complicated, and evolve over time. References (1) Namiki et al. 2014

  4. Cristobalite in the 2011-2012 Cordón Caulle eruption (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, C. Ian; Castro, Jonathan M.; Tuffen, Hugh; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Chappell, Debra; Pantoja, Andres E.; Simpson, Mark P.; Le Ru, Eric C.

    2015-05-01

    Cristobalite is a low-pressure high-temperature polymorph of SiO2 found in many volcanic rocks. Its volcanogenic formation has received attention because (1) pure particulate cristobalite can be toxic when inhaled, and its dispersal in volcanic ash is therefore a potential hazard; and (2) its nominal stability field is at temperatures higher than those of magmatic systems, making it an interesting example of metastable crystallization. We present analyses (by XRD, SEM, EPMA, Laser Raman, and synchrotron ?-cT) of representative rhyolitic pyroclasts and of samples from different facies of the compound lava flow from the 2011-2012 eruption of Cordón Caulle (Chile). Cristobalite was not detected in pyroclasts, negating any concern for respiratory hazards, but it makes up 0-23 wt% of lava samples, occurring as prismatic vapour-deposited crystals in vesicles and/or as a groundmass phase in microcrystalline samples. Textures of lava collected near the vent, which best represent those generated in the conduit, indicate that pore isolation promotes vapour deposition of cristobalite. Mass balance shows that the SiO2 deposited in isolated pore space can have originated from corrosion of the adjacent groundmass. Textures of lava collected down-flow were modified during transport in the insulated interior of the flow, where protracted cooling, additional vesiculation events, and shearing overprint original textures. In the most slowly cooled and intensely sheared samples from the core of the flow, nearly all original pore space is lost, and vapour-deposited cristobalite crystals are crushed and incorporated into the groundmass as the vesicles in which they formed collapse by strain and compaction of the surrounding matrix. Holocrystalline lava from the core of the flow achieves high mass concentrations of cristobalite as slow cooling allows extensive microlite crystallization and devitrification to form groundmass cristobalite. Vapour deposition and devitrification act concurrently but semi-independently. Both are promoted by slow cooling, and it is ultimately devitrification that most strongly contributes to total cristobalite content in a given flow facies. Our findings provide a new field context in which to address questions that have arisen from the study of cristobalite in dome eruptions, with insight afforded by the fundamentally different emplacement geometries of flows and domes.

  5. The Aftershock Analyses of 27 February 2010 Chile M=8.8 Mega Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.-S.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Gutscher, M.; Miller, M.; Gallardo, V.

    2012-04-01

    In 1960, the biggest earthquake (M=9.5), the human ever recorded event, occurred in south Chile. Subsequently several mega earthquake (M >8) occurred, including the M=8.8 earthquake in 2010. This reflects that an incomplete release of tectonic energy exists in the Chile subduction system. The west coast of Chile is a long convergence plate boundary between the Nazca and the South American plate. The Nazca Plate subducts beneath the South American Plate toward the northeast with a convergence rate of about 6.5 cm/year, accumulating the stress in the lower part of the subducted plate to some extent resulting in destructive ruptures. On 27 February 2010, the Maule mega earthquake (M=8.8) occurred offshore central Chile. The epicenter (35.9° S, 72.73° W) is located at 115 km, NE of Concepción, the second biggest city in Chile. The main shock was a thrust-type subduction earthquake where the Nazca Plate subducted into the South America Plate (the Chile subduction system). The focal depth of main shock is 35 km which caused more than 500-km long rupture in the accretionary prism and produced a destructive tsunami of more than 20 m. It killed several hundreds of people and damaged countless buildings. Even up to today, aftershocks and volcanic activities continue to occur in this region. During May-August of last year, we shipped 20 OBSs to Chile and conducted two aftershock surveys in the tsunami-affected area. The OBSs recorded more than 4,000 aftershock events, magnitude from M=6.0 to 1.0. Results show that the aftershock data were concentrated into two masses: the landward side of the paleo-accretionary prism and the seaward side of the subducting plate, leaving a "white zone" in the frontal accretionary prisms. Both data sets consistently indicate the same result. The angle between the paleo-accretionary prism and the subduction plate seems to be greater than that of the frontal-accretionary prism. We suggest that the greater of the splay fault angle the higher the risk for the occurrence of a destructive tsunami. Even though our study covered only a short period of aftershocks it appears to show shows important basic characteristics of the 2010 Maule mega event.

  6. Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3]. We present new mapping, structural analysis, and geochronologic data from both the Limón Verde and the Belén metamorphic complexes and explore the relationship between these isolated outcrops and PCD formation in northern Chile. References: [1] Seedorff et al., 2008, Root Zones of Porphyry Systems: Extending the Porphyry Model to Depth, Ec. Geol., 103, 939-956. [2] Hervé et al., 2007, Metamorphic and Plutonic basement complexes, in: The Geology of Chile, Geol. Soc. Lond., 5-19. [3] Wörner et al., 2000, Precambrian and Early Paleozoic evolution of the Andean basement at Belen (northern Chile) and Cerro Uyarani (western Bolivia Altiplano), 13, 717-737.

  7. Is Anisakis simplex s.l. a biological marker for stock identification of Strangomera bentincki from Chile?

    PubMed

    Oliva, M E

    2013-08-01

    The absence of the larval Anisakis simplex s. l. in samples from central Chile but heavy infections in fish from southern localities suggest the existence of two stocks of Strangomera bentincki, one closely associated with the central coast of Chile (landing port San Antonio and Talcahuano, c. 33° 30' S-36° 40' S) and the other associated with southern Chile (landing port Puerto Montt, c. 41° 30' S). Results confirm the usefulness of metazoan parasites, like A. simplex s. l. as biological markers. PMID:23902315

  8. What dynamics drive future wind scenarios for coastal upwelling off Peru and Chile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmadani, Ali; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Takahashi, Ken; Junquas, Clémentine

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of the Peru-Chile upwelling system (PCUS) are primarily driven by alongshore wind stress and curl, like in other eastern boundary upwelling systems. Previous studies have suggested that upwelling-favorable winds would increase under climate change, due to an enhancement of the thermally-driven cross-shore pressure gradient. Using an atmospheric model on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCUS, a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from a global coupled general circulation model (CGCM) is performed to investigate the processes leading to sea-surface wind changes. Downscaled winds associated with present climate show reasonably good agreement with climatological observations. Downscaled winds under climate change show a strengthening off central Chile south of 35°S (at 30°S-35°S) in austral summer (winter) and a weakening elsewhere. An alongshore momentum balance shows that the wind slowdown (strengthening) off Peru and northern Chile (off central Chile) is associated with a decrease (an increase) in the alongshore pressure gradient. Whereas the strengthening off Chile is likely due to the poleward displacement and intensification of the South Pacific Anticyclone, the slowdown off Peru may be associated with increased precipitation over the tropics and associated convective anomalies, as suggested by a vorticity budget analysis. On the other hand, an increase in the land-sea temperature difference is not found to drive similar changes in the cross-shore pressure gradient. Results from another atmospheric model with distinct CGCM forcing and climate scenarios suggest that projected wind changes off Peru are sensitive to concurrent changes in sea surface temperature and rainfall.

  9. The Evolution of Seabirds in the Humboldt Current: New Clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D.; Nielsen, Sven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Principal Findings Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. Conclusion/Significance The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current. PMID:24621560

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of planktonic archaeal abundance in the Humboldt Current System off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiñones, Renato A.; Levipan, Héctor A.; Urrutia, Homero

    2009-07-01

    The latest advances in the field of microbial ecology have shown that planktonic Archaea are one of the most abundant unicellular microorganisms of the oceans. However, no information is available on the contribution this group makes to the prokaryote assemblages that inhabit the eastern South Pacific Ocean. Here, we describe the relative abundance and vertical distribution of planktonic Archaea off northern and central-southern Chile. Data come from several cruises and a 45-month time series at a station located on the shelf off central-southern Chile. Both the taxonomic composition of the prokaryote community and its relative abundance were determined using quantitative dot blot 16S-rRNA hybridizations. Total Archaea in central-southern Chile made up 6-87% of the prokaryote rRNA in the water column and did not present evidence of any seasonal pattern. Crenarchaea were the most abundant archaeal group at this site and were significantly associated with the ammonium concentration ( r2=0.16, p=0.0003, n=80). Archaeal abundance in the time series was usually greater in the deeper layer (>50 m), with contributions reaching up to ˜90% of the prokaryote rRNA on certain occasions, and decreasing towards the surface. Important increments in the relative abundance of total Archaea were observed on given dates at the surface of the time-series station off central-southern Chile. Off northern Chile, total Archaea normally contributed from ˜10% to 50% of the prokaryote rRNA found between 10 and 1000 m, and were generally important in the mesopelagic realm. Our results indicate that Archaea constitute an important fraction of the prokaryote assemblage in the water column of the Humboldt Current System, especially in the oxygen minimum zone.

  11. Interactions Between Trypanosoma cruzi the Chagas Disease Parasite and Naturally Infected Wild Mepraia Vectors of Chile.

    PubMed

    Campos-Soto, Ricardo; Ortiz, Sylvia; Cordova, Ivan; Bruneau, Nicole; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Solari, Aldo

    2016-03-01

    Chagas disease, which ranks among the world's most neglected diseases, is a chronic, systemic, parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Mepraia species are the wild vectors of this parasite in Chile. Host-parasite interactions can occur at several levels, such as co-speciation and ecological host fitting, among others. Thus, we are exploring the interactions between T. cruzi circulating in naturally infected Mepraia species in all areas endemic of Chile. We evaluated T. cruzi infection rates of 27 different haplotypes of the wild Mepraia species and identified their parasite genotypes using minicircle PCR amplification and hybridization tests with genotype-specific DNA probes. Infection rates were lower in northern Chile where Mepraia gajardoi circulates (10-35%); in central Chile, Mepraia spinolai is most abundant, and infection rates varied in space and time (0-55%). T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI, TcII, TcV, and Tc VI were detected. Mixed infections with two or more DTUs are frequently found in highly infected insects. T. cruzi DTUs have distinct, but not exclusive, ecological and epidemiological associations with their hosts. T. cruzi infection rates of M. spinolai were higher than in M. gajardoi, but the presence of mixed infection with more than one T. cruzi DTU was the same. The same T. cruzi DTUs (TcI, TcII, TcV, and TcVI) were found circulating in both vector species, even though TcI was not equally distributed. These results suggest that T. cruzi DTUs are not associated with any of the two genetically related vector species nor with the geographic area. The T. cruzi vectors interactions are discussed in terms of old and recent events. By exploring T. cruzi DTUs present in Mepraia haplotypes and species from northern to central Chile, we open the analysis on these invertebrate host-parasite interactions. PMID:26771702

  12. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than 2 000 m2, the distribution exhibits a power-law behaviour with scaling exponent, β, equal to -2.24. For comparison, we analysed the power-law behaviour of other earthquake-induced landslide inventories, obtaining similar results, although the geological and seismic conditions may have been very different (Buller, New Zealand, β = -2.42; Iningahua, New Zealand, β = -2.53; Northridge, USA, β = -2.39; Chi-Chi, Taiwan, β = -2.30; Wenchuan Earthquake, China, β = -2.19). Volume estimates and slope stability modelling have been completed to characterize the phenomena and the possible triggering mechanisms. For volume estimate, we reconstructed the pre-failure surface for tens of landslides, in order to characterize the area-volume relationship. By using this relationship, we assigned a volume to all landslides of the inventory. The study area is subject to a high seismicity associated to earthquakes of different type: interplate (superficial and intermediate depth), subduction zone earthquakes, and earthquake along the Coastal Escarpment. By analysing the frequency size relationships for earthquake-induced landslides from literature, it is possible to observe that the higher the earthquake Magnitude, the higher the frequency density curve. To quantify this observation, we used the power-law relationships derived for each inventory to calculate the frequency density associated to selected areas, and we plotted these frequencies as a function of the magnitude of the respective earthquakes. By fitting these values, we derived the expected Magnitude required to generate the landslide distribution of the study area. In conclusion, we argue that the evolution of these landslides is controlled by: deep valley incision, canyon walls undercutting and lateral migration of the river controlled by valley flank instabilities, the Presence of weak lithologies and weak basal layers, the river incision debuttressing the slope toe and especially brings to daylighting the weak basal layers observed at some landslide sites, the possible deep groundwater flow above the deep impermeable formations and clay layers, the movement along sub-horizontal basal shear zones which can be locally extruded at the slope toe, the river damming because of the strong lateral components of displacement and successive reincision by the river with dam failure, the possible sequence of reactivations by reincision of the deposit, and the occurrence of high magnitude (8-9) earthquakes.

  13. Boulder transport by the 2010 Chile tsunami (Bucalemu, Central Chile): A quasi-experimental setting in a natural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiske, M.; Bahlburg, H.

    2010-12-01

    On 27th February, 2010, at 03:34 a.m. local time, a MW 8.8. earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile. The triggered tsunami affected the coast from Valparaiso in the north to Tirua, about 650 km further south. During our field survey which was conducted four weeks after the event, we studied erosional and depositional impact of the tsunami. The tsunami deposited fine grained sediments, such as sand layers or fine grained caps, often covering plants or pre-tsunami soil. Boulders were only available at two locations: Bucalemu and Isla Mocha. While Isla Mocha offered a natural setting, boulders in Bucalemu where artificially dumped close to the shore in order to construct a break water a few days before the tsunami hit. This coincidence made Bucalemu a perfect setting for studying boulder transport by a tsunami because (1) the pre-transport setting is well defined, (2) exact transport distances can be measured, and (3) flow depth of ca. 2 m and flow speed of at least 5.6 m/s are known from eyewitnesses accounts and video recordings. Additionally, the coastal plain of Bucalemu is crossed by a river and backflow followed the river bed so that no erosion or modification of the run up sediments occurred. The size of the artificially quarried boulders was restricted to max. 0.3 m3 and 720 kg, with the boulders having uniform triangular shapes. Calculations show that the tsunami would have been capable to transport even bigger boulders. A fining landward trend of boulder size is not present because of the narrow spectrum of boulder sizes available at this location. Boulders were probably transported by rolling or even saltation because of their relatively small weight and a flow speed of at least 5.6 m/s. The boulders are deposited in three groups in different distances to the pile where they originate from. A boulder free zone separates group I and II. Transition zones with only a few randomly scattered boulders are found in landward direction of group II and III. We interpret the arrangement of boulders as the result of a step by step transport by several waves of the tsunami wave train. Furthermore, the boulder groups are located in morphological depressions. Hence, the boulder distribution seems to be the result of both the number of individual waves of the tsunami wave train, their respective energies, and the local topography.

  14. The Cretaceous iron belt of northern Chile: role of oceanic plates, a superplume event, and a major shear zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzun, Roberto; Oyarzún, Jorge; Ménard, Jean Jacques; Lillo, Javier

    2003-08-01

    The Cretaceous constitutes a turning point in the tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic history of Chile. The geological evidence indicates that a major change occurred in late Neocomian time when superplume emplacement (Mid-Pacific Superplume) and plate reorganization processes took place in the Pacific. The superplume event resulted in a major ridge-push force resulting in increased coupling between the subducting and overriding plates. This completely changed the tectonic setting of Chile ending the Early Cretaceous extensional period (aborted rifting in the back-arc basin), and increasing stress at a crustal scale. As a consequence, overpressurized dioritic magmas were pushed up mainly along the best possible structural path in northern Chile, i.e., the Atacama Fault Zone, eventually forming a +500-km-long belt of Kiruna-type iron deposits with reserves of ~2,000 Mt (60% Fe), a unique case in Chile's geological history.

  15. A New Strewnfield of Splash-Form Impact Glasses in Atacama, Chile: A Mössbauer Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rochette, P.; Devouard, B.; Gattacceca, J.; Moustard, F.; Cournède, C.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, tektite-like glasses were discovered in the Atacama desert (Chile) and named atacamaites. The discovery of this new strewnfield allows us to extend the impact glass database and the understanding concerning these natural glasses.

  16. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... accordance with that process, we published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on August 11, 2011 (76 FR... weeds via the importation of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: December...

  17. Petrology and Magnetic Characterization of Molten Glass Samples Found at Northern Atacama Desert, Chile: Testing Their Impact Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, M.; Blanco, N.; Tomlinson, A.; Roperch, P.; Devouard, B.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of molten glass deposits in Northern Chile on 2011 is pointing to an impact origin after other possibilities have been ruled out. We'll present a better characterization of the mineralogy and textures of the glasses.

  18. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  19. Vent geometry detected from infrasound observation on Villaricca volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, A.; Johnson, J. B.; Sanderson, R. W.; Anderson, J.; Varley, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    Volcan Villarrica in the southern Andes, Chile, is an active stratovolcano that hosts a convecting lava lake in the summit crater. Activity is characterized by persistent degassing and bubble bursting at the surface of lava lake. Between the 21st and 23rd of Jan 2010 we recorded monotonic infrasound with a stable dominant frequency at 0.7 to 0.8 Hz. Associated video imagery of the active lava lake, taken by a camera suspended from a wire across the crater, showed active convection and degassing, but gas release events were not directly correlated with infrasound transients. Continuous monotonic infrasound strongly suggests a resonant phenomena associated with a stable conduit and vent system. In the present study we attempt to estimate the vent geometry of Villarrica volcano based on the observed infrasound. We deployed four stations consisting of infrasound microphones, audible microphone, three components seismometers and weather stations, two of which were on the eastern and western rim of the crater, while the other two were on the flanks of volcano 2.7 and 3.8 km NNW of the crater, respectively. Despite amplitude variations the observed waveforms were very well correlated among the four stations indicating sound originating in the crater. From our video image and the past studies we inferred a cavity between the lava lake and overhanging spatter roof with a skylight in its center. In this case Helmholtz resonance is plausible as the source of observed monotonic infrasound. An idealized Helmholtz resonance model is manifested by a simple harmonic motion of air pistoning within the skylight neck that separates the inner cavity from external atmosphere. The frequenc f is given by: f=(c/2π)(S/VL)1/2 where c is sound velocity, S is neck cross sectional area, L is neck length and V is cavity volume. In the present case L corresponds to skylight depth. In practice, an extra volume proportional to neck radius moves together with the air above and below the neck, known as an end effect. When L is small enough compared to cavity diameter the air piston length is approximated to be 1.7 times of neck radius. By considering the skylight as a thin circular hole with radius r, f should be given by: f=(c/2π)(πr2/1.7Vr)1/2=(c/2π)(πr/1.7V)1/2 By applying f=0.8 Hz, r=5 m and c=340 m/s we obtain the cavity volume to be 34000 m3. If the cavity diameter is the same as that of the solidified roof (50-60 m), the cavity depth is derived to be 17.2-12.0 m. Although cavity height has some uncertainty associated with presumed geometry of the skylight, it agrees well with observed video image analysis. Using video imagery we detected lava fragments falling from the edge of skylight onto lava lake in about 1.2 to 1.8 s. This corresponds to a free fall distance between 8 and 15 m if we ignore drag force from atmosphere. The good agreement of estimated cavity height also assures the thinness of skylight edge, i.e., skylight is not cylindrical.

  20. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby AWS at Bahia Bahamondes we computed summer ablation for the summer seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Ablation at 45o m a.s.l. sums up to about 7 m in 1999/2000 and to 5.5 m in 2000/2001. This is in excellent accordance (+/-2%) with measurements at ablation stakes that have been drilled into the glacier on its ablation area. Surface velocity measured from the displacement of the ablation stakes is estimated to 62 m per year. A RADAR survey with ice penetrating RADAR conducted on the ablation area of Glaciar Lengua during the austral summer 2000/2001 reveals glacier depths between 120 m and 200 m ap- 1 proximately. The data sampled will allow to set up a model for mass flow and ablation at a cross-section of Glaciar Lengua at 450 m a.s.l. Glaciar Lengua has no accumu- lation area itself but obtains all of its ice mass through icefall from the heights of the GCN Ice Cap. Therefore, this model will be of fundamental importance to understand the glacial regime of the entire ice cap. 2

  1. Field survey of the 1 April 2014 Iquique tsunami along the coasts of Chile and Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, M.; Fritz, H. M.

    2014-12-01

    On 1 April, 2014 a magnitude Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred off the coast of northern Chile less than 100 km NW of Iquique within a region of historic quiescence termed the northern Chile seismic gap. The ensuing tsunami inundation caused mostly minor damage centered in Iquique and neighbouring stretches of coastline. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1868 and 1877 tsunamis in the region along with the recent 2010 Maule tsunami, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were no tsunami victims, while a handful of fatalities were associated to the earthquake and the tsunami evacuation. The local scientist deployed in the morning hours to start the tsunami survey in Iquique on the day after the earthquake. The international scientist joined the local effort from April 6 to 11. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 700 km stretch of coastline from the Mejillones Peninsula (23.5° S) north of Antofagasta in Chile up to Vila Vila (18.1° S) in southern Peru. We surveyed 30 locations with differential GPS and laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked in the vicinity of Iquique exceeding 4 m in tsunami height. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of Chile and Peru both at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2014 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1868, 1877 and 2010 Chile tsunamis. Given the magnitude of the 1 April 2014 earthquake the tsunami could have been significantly larger. However the absence of a massive tsunami may mislead residents in the future to believe another minor tsunami may be generated after an earthquake of similar magnitude. Hence the April fool's day event poses significant challenges to community-based education. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

  2. A biometric and ecologic comparison between Artemia from Mexico and Chile

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Thalía B; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Castro, Jorge M; Castro, Germán M

    2006-01-01

    Background A preliminary biometric and ecologic database for the brine shrimp Artemia from Mexico and Chile is presented. The area abounds in small and seasonal ponds and large inland lakes, the latter mainly located in Mexico, although relatively large and isolated lakes are found in complex hydrological settings in pre-high plateau areas of Chile. This paper summarizes research efforts aimed at the localization, characterization, and evaluation of the aquaculture potential of Artemia populations in Mexico and Chile, which exhibit great habitat diversity (ponds, salterns, coastal lagoons, sea arms, coastal and inland lakes), contrasting weather conditions and different levels of isolation and human intervention. Results This study covered locations between 29° north latitude (Baja California, Mexico) to 50° south latitude (Puerto Natales, Chile). Biological characteristics considered are species name, reproductive mode, cyst diameter, chorion thickness, and nauplius length, whereas ecological data include pond size, pH, salinity, temperature, and water ionic composition. Artemia franciscana is the only species found in Mexico, it exists together with A. persimilis in Chile, though separated geographically. Ecological differences in habitat exist between both regions but also within countries, a pattern particularly clear with regard to water composition. Surprisingly, a Mexican (Cuatro Ciénegas, A. franciscana) and a Chilean location (Torres del Paine, A. persimilis) share habitat characteristics, at least for the period when data were collected. The discriminat analysis for cyst diameter and nauplius length shows that Artemia from only one location match in cyst diameter with those from San Francisco Bay (SFB) (Point Lobos), and one (Marquez) is far apart from SFB and all the others. The Chilean locations (Pampilla, Cejar, Cahuil, Llamara, Yape) share cyst diameter, but tend to differ from SFB. The remaining Mexican locations (Juchitan, Ohuira, Yavaros) are well separated from all the others. With regard to nauplii length, populations tend to distribute in a relatively random manner, being Marquez the location differing the most in cyst diameter from SFB. Conclusion This database will contribute to the knowledge of radiation centers and serves as a baseline for further biogeographic studies, population characterization, management, and monitoring of Artemia biodiversity. Likewise, the impact of colonization and translocations for aquaculture purposes can be better assessed with a baseline for reference. Mexico and Chile exemplify the need to increase and further integrate regional information to tackle fundamental problems underlying practical utilization of Artemia. PMID:17125517

  3. Spatial and temporal relationships between granites and porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiskoot, Courtney; Mutch, Euan; Cooper, Frances; Tattitch, Brian; Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Blundy, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Chile is the leading copper producing country in the world, hosting ~30% of known worldwide copper reserves. Subduction-related magmatism in Chile has been ongoing since at least Mesozoic time, with progressive inland migration of the magmatic arc from the Jurassic coast eastward to the active western cordillera in the high Andes. Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) in Chile are spatially and temporally related to emplacement of shallow, felsic to intermediate composition plutons that sourced the ore-forming magmas and mineralising fluids. However, not every such intrusion in Chile is associated with a mineralised deposit, suggesting that there are other controls on whether or not an intrusion hosts a PCD. Models for porphyry copper formation typically assume emplacement of these felsic to intermediate intrusions at shallow crustal levels (5-15 km depth) [1], but absolute constraints on emplacement depths for both mineralised and barren systems are lacking. In order to explore the relationship between granite emplacement depths and occurrences of PCDs in northern Chile, we have created a geospatial database that compares the age, geochemistry, and depth of mapped felsic to intermediate plutons (e.g. granites, tonalities, and diorites) with the locations of known PCDs, as well as major fault zones and volcanic centres. Emplacement depths have been calculated from published geochemical analyses using existing calibrations of the Al-in-hornblende barometer, which is widely used for calc-alkaline granitic rocks [2]. We are also developing a new experimental calibration of the barometer using a combination of piston cylinder experiments (5, 7, and 10 kbar), externally heated pressure vessel experiments (0.5-2 kbar), and electron microprobe analyses on a granitic sample of the Lluta batholith, collected in northern Chile. This improved Al-in-hornblende barometer, calibrated for shallow intrusions, will provide a viable alternative to estimating depths of PCD formation from fluid inclusions, which is often hampered by alternations between lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, the results of this study will be broadly applicable to investigating the potential links between intrusion depth, PCD formation, and parameters such as regional tectonic patterns and fluid/melt interactions. References: [1] Sillitoe, 2010, Porphyry Copper Systems, Ec. Geol., 105, 3-41. [2] Anderson et al., 2008, Thermometers and Thermobarometers in Granitic Systems, Rev. Min. Geochem., 69, 121-142.

  4. The New Seismological Observation System in Chile and a Real time GPS Detection of the Displacement Associated with a M=7.7 Earthquake in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the occurrence of several high-impact earthquakes in Chile within the last few years, governmental authorities decided to improve the seismic monitoring capabilities in the country. Along these lines, in 2013 the University of Chile created the National Seismological Center, an agency that is the continuation of the Seismological Service. The Seismological Center at the University of Chile has been charged with the installation and robust operation of a network which includes three types of observations: acceleration, velocity and displacement. The complete observational system is based on the University´s backbone of more than 60 BB and strong motion instruments which include international collaborations with GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Germany), Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP, France) and Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS, USA). To this, 65 broadband, 65 strong-motion and 130 real-time dual-frequency GPS devices are being installed to complement the observational system. Additionally, 297 accelerometers distributed throughout the country will be connected to the main acquisition, processing and distribution system, which is also being upgraded by incorporating hardware virtualization capabilities. It is expected that most of the installation of the remote sensors is completed by the end of 2015. The GPS instruments will be deployed mainly along the coast every 40 or 50 km. Because a robust real-time communication is mandatory from each remote site, the preferred solution is radio link to concentration nodes where the signals (NMEA, including RTX, as well as other protocols such a BINEX, RCTM) can be uploaded to microwaves links or Vsat. Thirty one GPS stations have been deployed in the country, we expect to complete 30more installations this year. As a result of a trial experiment with RTX capabilities (clock and satellite corrections distributed via satellite) coastal horizontal displacements of up to 30 cm were observed in real time for the largest aftershock (Mw=7.7) of the April 1, Mw=8.2 earthquake in northern Chile. These signals are the example of an extraordinary tool to characterize the earthquake source within few minutes of its occurrence.

  5. Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rambla, Xavier

    2006-05-01

    The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a `logic of induction' has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical connection between the logic of induction and the mechanism of emulation, and the territorial aspects of educational inequalities. Emulation plays a main role inasmuch as the logic of induction leads targeted groups to compare their adverse situation with more privileged groups, which actually legitimizes inequalities. A brief statistical summary completes the study, showing that educational inequality has remained unchanged as far as urban-rural ratios (in Brazil and Chile) and regional disparities (in all three countries) are concerned.

  6. An inverted double seismic zone in chile: evidence of phase transformation in the subducted slab.

    PubMed

    Comte, D; Suárez, G

    1994-01-14

    Data from two microseismic field experiments in northern Chile revealed an elongated cluster of earthquakes in the subducted Nazca plate at a depth of about 100 kilometers in which down-dip tensional events were consistently shallower than a family of compressional earthquakes. This double seismic zone shows a distribution of stresses of opposite polarity relative to that observed in other double seismic zones in the world. The distribution of stresses in northern Chile supports the notion that at depths of between 90 to 150 kilometers, the basalt to eclogite transformation of the subducting oceanic crust induces tensional deformation in the upper part of the subducted slab and compressional deformation in the underlying mantle. PMID:17839180

  7. An enigmatic plant-eating theropod from the Late Jurassic period of Chile.

    PubMed

    Novas, Fernando E; Salgado, Leonardo; Suárez, Manuel; Agnolín, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Chimento, Nicolás R; de la Cruz, Rita; Isasi, Marcelo P; Vargas, Alexander O; Rubilar-Rogers, David

    2015-06-18

    Theropod dinosaurs were the dominant predators in most Mesozoic era terrestrial ecosystems. Early theropod evolution is currently interpreted as the diversification of various carnivorous and cursorial taxa, whereas the acquisition of herbivorism, together with the secondary loss of cursorial adaptations, occurred much later among advanced coelurosaurian theropods. A new, bizarre herbivorous basal tetanuran from the Upper Jurassic of Chile challenges this conception. The new dinosaur was discovered at Aysén, a fossil locality in the Upper Jurassic Toqui Formation of southern Chile (General Carrera Lake). The site yielded abundant and exquisitely preserved three-dimensional skeletons of small archosaurs. Several articulated individuals of Chilesaurus at different ontogenetic stages have been collected, as well as less abundant basal crocodyliforms, and fragmentary remains of sauropod dinosaurs (diplodocids and titanosaurians). PMID:25915021

  8. [Skin diseases in human immunodeficiency virus positive children from Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Muñoz M, Paula; Gómez H, Oríetta; Luzoro V, Amaranta

    2008-08-01

    Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may develop severe, refractory mucocutaneous manifestations that may be the initiating symptom of HIV infection. In this study we examined the skin of all HIV positive children receiving medical care in the public health care system in Santiago, Chile. We detected mucocutaneous manifestations in 37/66 (56%) children from 7 months to 12 years of age. The most commonly encountered dermatologic manifestations were of infectious origin, mostly fungal (7.5%) and viral (7.5%) infections. With the increase in pediatric HIV patients worldwide, it is important to recognize skin manifestations of HIV positive children. This is the first published series of skin diseases in HIV positive children in Chile. PMID:18769774

  9. [Neighborhood Systematic Social Observation; The Case of Chile and its Perspectives for Social Work.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-12-01

    The study of neighborhood characteristics and their effects on individuals has become an area of increasing attention by scholars from various disciplines in developed countries. Although there are various methods to study neighborhoods and their impact on human populations, one of the most used is the Systematic Social Observation -Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios (OSV), in Spanish-because it allows the collection of information about various features of the physical, social, environmental and economic characteristics of neighborhoods. The purpose of this article is to (i) briefly present some research on neighborhood effects influential in the U.S., ii) describe how they Systematic Social Observation was designed and implemented in the city of Santiago, Chile, iii) discuss some facilitators and obstacles of the implementation process and, finally iv) list possible contributions and limitations this approach would offer the profession of social work in Chile. PMID:24791060

  10. [Isolation of Sporothrix pallida complex in clinical and environmental samples from Chile].

    PubMed

    Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo M; Vieille Oyarzo, Peggy I; Carvajal Silva, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    The isolation of S. pallida complex from medical samples and home garden soil of a patient in Chile is here in reported. Fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii complex can cause various infections. In Chile, the medical and environmental isolates of these this complex are rare. The aim of this study was to identify an unusual agent in a case of onychomycosis and to detect its presence in the patient's home garden. For this purpose, clinical samples were obtained by scraping the patient's subungueal first right toe nail as well as by taking soil samples from different areas of her home garden. Species identification was performed by morphophysiology and one of the strains isolated from the patient's toe nail was sent to CBS for molecular confirmation (14.062). S. pallida complex was identified both from the patient's toe nail and samples taken from her home garden. PMID:25576414

  11. Chile shadow report to the United Nations sheds light on women's rights.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    1999-07-01

    Three Chilean women's rights organizations and CRLP presented a Shadow Report to the UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The 25-page Shadow Report indicates in summary the disappointment of the Chilean women in their government. Although Chile has emerged from its history of military dictatorship and is taking its first steps toward returning to a democratic-style of government, the military and the Catholic Church still exert a very strong influence, especially when it comes to policy making. Chilean people especially women, continue to be tyrannized by repressive attitudes, laws, and policies. This tyrannization is exemplified by the rampant discrimination against women in the prisons and the punishment of those undergoing illegal abortions. In short, women have no rights in Chile, and the government has not done enough to eliminate discrimination against them. PMID:12346531

  12. Influence of Biological Factors on Connectivity Patterns for Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Garavelli, Lysel; Colas, François; Verley, Philippe; Kaplan, David Michael; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In marine benthic ecosystems, larval connectivity is a major process influencing the maintenance and distribution of invertebrate populations. Larval connectivity is a complex process to study as it is determined by several interacting factors. Here we use an individual-based, biophysical model, to disentangle the effects of such factors, namely larval vertical migration, larval growth, larval mortality, adults fecundity, and habitat availability, for the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile. Lower transport success and higher dispersal distances are observed including larval vertical migration in the model. We find an overall decrease in larval transport success to settlement areas from northern to southern Chile. This spatial gradient results from the combination of current direction and intensity, seawater temperature, and available habitat. From our simulated connectivity patterns we then identify subpopulations of loco along the Chilean coast, which could serve as a basis for spatial management of this resource in the future. PMID:26751574

  13. Influence of Biological Factors on Connectivity Patterns for Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Garavelli, Lysel; Colas, François; Verley, Philippe; Kaplan, David Michael; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Lett, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    In marine benthic ecosystems, larval connectivity is a major process influencing the maintenance and distribution of invertebrate populations. Larval connectivity is a complex process to study as it is determined by several interacting factors. Here we use an individual-based, biophysical model, to disentangle the effects of such factors, namely larval vertical migration, larval growth, larval mortality, adults fecundity, and habitat availability, for the marine gastropod Concholepas concholepas (loco) in Chile. Lower transport success and higher dispersal distances are observed including larval vertical migration in the model. We find an overall decrease in larval transport success to settlement areas from northern to southern Chile. This spatial gradient results from the combination of current direction and intensity, seawater temperature, and available habitat. From our simulated connectivity patterns we then identify subpopulations of loco along the Chilean coast, which could serve as a basis for spatial management of this resource in the future. PMID:26751574

  14. Microbial Colonization of the Salt Deposits in the Driest Place of the Atacama Desert (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stivaletta, Nunzia; Barbieri, Roberto; Billi, Daniela

    2012-06-01

    The Atacama Desert (Chile), one of the most arid places on Earth, shows hostile conditions for the development of epilithic microbial communities. In this study, we report the association of cyanobacteria ( Chroococcidiopsis sp.) and bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria and Beta-Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla inhabiting the near surface of salt (halite) deposits of the Salar Grande Basin, Atacama Desert (Chile). The halite deposits were investigated by using optical, confocal and field emission scanning electron microscopes, whereas culture-independent molecular techniques, 16S rDNA clone library, alongside RFLP analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were applied to investigate the bacterial diversity. These microbial communities are an example of life that has adapted to extreme environmental conditions caused by dryness, high irradiation, and metal concentrations. Their adaptation is, therefore, important in the investigation of the environmental conditions that might be expected for life outside of Earth.

  15. Variability of cadmium, copper and zinc levels in molluscs and associated sediments from Chile.

    PubMed

    De Gregori, I; Pinochet, H; Gras, N; Muñoz, L

    1996-01-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in mussel and sediment samples collected together from eight different geographical coastal areas of Chile were determined. The mussels studied were 'Chorito Maico', 'Almejas' and 'Navajuelas Chilenas' (Perumytilus purpuratus, Semelle solida and Tagellus dombeii, respectively). Sampling was carried out in July and September 1992 and January and April 1993 (winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons in Chile, respectively). The metal levels in these mussels varied among species; there were several sites where the metal concentrations in molluscs approached or exceeded the criteria levels for Cd, Cu and Zn in shellfish products: 1, 10 and 50 ppm ww respectively, which are regarded as safe levels for human consumption. The results of metal levels in sediments showed two areas clearly polluted with Cu. Strong relationships between Cu concentrations in the three molluscs and sediments were found; weak correlations were observed for Zn in S. solida. PMID:15091389

  16. Review of Coagulation Technology for Removal of Arsenic: Case of Chile

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Coagulation technology has been used since 1970 in northern Chile for removing arsenic from drinking-water. This experience suggests that coagulation is an effective technology for the removal of arsenic. It is currently possible to reduce arsenic from 400 ?g/L to 10 ?g/L at a rate of 500 L/sec, assuming pH, oxidizing and coagulation agents are strictly controlled. The Chilean experience with the removal of arsenic demonstrates that the water matrix dictates the selection of the arsenic-removal process. This paper presents a summary of the process, concepts, and operational considerations for the use of coagulation technology for removal of arsenic in Chile. PMID:17366767

  17. Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18°S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area.

  18. Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geographic variation in age, growth and size structure of Percilia irwini from south-central Chile.

    PubMed

    Aedo, J R; Belk, M C; Habit, E M

    2009-01-01

    Percilia irwini from the Andalién and Biobío River basins of south-central Chile exhibited a mean age of 1.4 years with a maximum age of 4 years. Size at age differed among river zones and males were 10% larger than females at all ages. Compared to other locations, populations of P. irwini inhabiting areas subject to industrial and domestic effluents exhibited smaller size structure. PMID:20735539

  20. Electrical power systems (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama and Peru)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This 12-part set of reports contains market information on the following countries and topics: Brazil - potentiometers, steam turbines, gas turbines, electric generators; Chile - power systems; Colombia - electric generators; Dominican Republic - electric generators; Guatemala - power generation and distribution equipment, non-current carriers, electric generators, and turbines; Jamaica - power systems; Panama - power generation and control equipment; and Peru - power generation equipment. These reports have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. Iodine-129, iodine-127 and caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile.

    PubMed

    Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V

    2012-10-01

    Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41×1.5(±1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (109×1.5(±1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs. PMID:22484471

  2. Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant Effect and Chemical Composition of Propolis from the Región del Maule, Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Nina, Nélida; Quispe, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Theoduloz, Cristina; Feresín, Gabriela Egly; Lima, Beatriz; Leiva, Elba; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Propolis is commercialized in Chile as an antimicrobial agent. It is obtained mainly from central and southern Chile, but is used for the same purposes regardless of its origin. To compare the antimicrobial effect, the total phenolic (TP), the total flavonoid (TF) content and the phenolic composition, 19 samples were collected in the main production centers in the Región del Maule, Chile. Samples were extracted with MeOH and assessed for antimicrobial activity against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. TP and TF content, antioxidant activity by the DPPH, FRAP and TEAC methods were also determined. Sample composition was assessed by HPLD-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. Differential compounds in the samples were isolated and characterized. The antimicrobial effect of the samples showed MICs ranging from 31.5 to > 1000 µg/mL. Propolis from the central valley was more effective as antibacterial than those from the coastal area or Andean slopes. The samples considered of interest (MIC ? 62.5 µg/mL) showed effect on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., Yersinia enterocolitica and Salmonella enteritidis. Two new diarylheptanoids, a diterpene, the flavonoids pinocembrin and chrysin were isolated and elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric means. Some 29 compounds were dereplicated by HPLC-MS and tentatively identified, including nine flavones/flavonol derivatives, one flavanone, eight dihydroflavonols and nine phenyl-propanoids. Propolis from the Región del Maule showed large variation in antimicrobial effect, antioxidant activity and composition. So far the presence of diarylheptanoids in samples from the coastal area of central Chile can be considered as a marker of a new type of propolis. PMID:26457694

  3. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in Chile.

    PubMed

    Tapia, D; Eissler, Y; Torres, P; Jorquera, E; Espinoza, J C; Kuznar, J

    2015-10-27

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that is endemic to salmon farming in Chile and causes great economic losses to the industry. Here we compared different diagnostic methods to detect IPNV in field samples, including 3 real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assays, cell culture isolation, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Additionally, we performed a phylogenetic analysis to investigate the genogroups prevailing in Chile, as well as their geographic distribution and virulence. The 3 qRT-PCR assays used primers that targeted regions of the VP2 and VP1 genes of the virus and were tested in 46 samples, presenting a fair agreement within their results. All samples were positive for at least 2 of the qRT-PCR assays, 29 were positive for cell culture, and 23 for IFAT, showing less sensitivity for these latter 2 methods. For the phylogenetic analysis, portions of 1180 and 523 bp of the VP2 region of segment A were amplified by RT-PCR, sequenced and compared with sequences from reference strains and from isolates reported by previous studies carried out in Chile. Most of the sequenced isolates belonged to genogroup 5 (European origin), and 5 were classified within genogroup 1 (American origin). Chilean isolates formed clusters within each of the genogroups found, evidencing a clear differentiation from the reference strains. To our knowledge, this is the most extensive study completed for IPNV in Chile, covering isolates from sea- and freshwater salmon farms and showing a high prevalence of this virus in the country. PMID:26503771

  4. Continuing Megathrust Earthquake Potential in northern Chile after the 2014 Iquique Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, G. P.; Herman, M. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Furlong, K. P.; Riquelme, S.; Benz, H.; Bergman, E.; Barrientos, S. E.; Earle, P. S.; Samsonov, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    The seismic gap theory, which identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison to other portions of a fault, has successfully explained past earthquakes and is useful for qualitatively describing where future large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile, which until recently had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M~8.8 event in 1877. On April 1 2014, a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this northern Chile seismic gap, offshore of the city of Iquique; the size and spatial extent of the rupture indicate it was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Here, we present a rapid assessment of the seismotectonics of the March-April 2014 seismic sequence offshore northern Chile, including analyses of earthquake (fore- and aftershock) relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations, and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer calculations over the duration of the sequence. This ensemble of information allows us to place the current sequence within the context of historic seismicity in the region, and to assess areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results indicate that while accumulated strain has been released for a portion of the northern Chile seismic gap, significant sections have not ruptured in almost 150 years. These observations suggest that large-to-great sized megathrust earthquakes will occur north and south of the 2014 Iquique sequence sooner than might be expected had the 2014 events ruptured the entire seismic gap.

  5. Thestral incognitus, a new genus and species of Pentatomidae from Chile (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Carpocorini).

    PubMed

    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Rider, David A

    2014-01-01

    Thestral incognitus, new genus and species of Pentatomidae (Pentatominae: Carpocorini) is described from central Chile. The relationships among this new genus and other South American genera are discussed.  Also, similarities are noted between Thestral and the Australian genus Poecilotoma. Poecilotoma is tentatively placed in the Carpocorini. A key to aid in the recognition of the genera of Chilean Carpocorini is provided. PMID:25543797

  6. Two new species of the ladybird beetle Hong ?lipi?ski from Chile (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Microweiseinae).

    PubMed

    González, Guillermo; Escalona, Hermes E

    2013-01-01

    The ladybird beetle genus Hong ?lipi?ski was previously known from a single female specimen from a subtropical forest in South East Queensland, Australia. Hong guerreroi sp. nov. and H. slipinskii sp. nov. from a temperate forests of Central and Southern Chile are described and illustrated. A key for the species of the genus and complementary characters, including the first description of males, are provided. PMID:24758818

  7. Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in size and is centered at 46.6 degrees south latitude, 73.8 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The top image is a digital elevation model of the scene, where color and saturation represent terrain height (between 0 meters and 2,000 meters or up to 6,500 feet) and brightness represents radar backscatter. Low elevations are shown in blue and high elevations are shown in pink. The digital elevation map of the glacier surface has a horizontal resolution of 15 meters (50 feet) and a vertical resolution of 10 meters (30 feet). High-resolution maps like these acquired over several years would allow scientists to calculate directly long-term changes in the mass of the glacier. The bottom image is a map of ice motion parallel to the radar look direction only, which is from the top of the image. Purple indicates ice motion away from the radar at more than 6 centimeters per day; dark blue is ice motion toward or away at less than 6 cm per day; light blue is motion toward the radar of 6 cm to 20 cm (about 2 to 8 inches) per day; green is motion toward the radar of 20 cm to 45 cm (about 8 to 18 inches) per day; yellow is 45 cm to 85 cm (about 18 to 33 inches) per day; orange is 85 cm to 180 cm (about 33 to 71 inches) per day; red is greater than 180 cm (71 inches) per day. The velocity estimates are accurate to within 5 millimeters per day. The largest velocities are recorded on the San Rafael Glacier in agreement with previous work. Other outlet glaciers exhibit ice velocities of less than 1 meter per day. Several kilometers before its terminus, (left of center) the velocity of the San Rafael Glacier exceeds 10 meters (32 feet) per day, and ice motion cannot be estimated from the data. There, a revisit time interval of less than 12 hours would have been necessary to estimate ice motion from interferometry data. The results however demonstrate that the radar interferometry technique permits the monitoring of glacier characteristics unattainable by any other means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's

  8. Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in size and is centered at 46.6 degrees south latitude, 73.8 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The top image is a digital elevation model of the scene, where color and saturation represent terrain height (between 0 meters and 2,000 meters or up to 6,500 feet) and brightness represents radar backscatter. Low elevations are shown in blue and high elevations are shown in pink. The digital elevation map of the glacier surface has a horizontal resolution of 15 meters (50 feet) and a vertical resolution of 10 meters (30 feet). High-resolution maps like these acquired over several years would allow scientists to calculate directly long-term changes in the mass of the glacier. The bottom image is a map of ice motion parallel to the radar look direction only, which is from the top of the image. Purple indicates ice motion away from the radar at more than 6 centimeters per day; dark blue is ice motion toward or away at less than 6 cm per day; light blue is motion toward the radar of 6 cm to 20 cm (about 2 to 8 inches) per day; green is motion toward the radar of 20 cm to 45 cm (about 8 to 18 inches) per day; yellow is 45 cm to 85 cm (about 18 to 33 inches) per day; orange is 85 cm to 180 cm (about 33 to 71 inches) per day; red is greater than 180 cm (71 inches) per day. The velocity estimates are accurate to within 5 millimeters per day. The largest velocities are recorded on the San Rafael Glacier in agreement with previous work. Other outlet glaciers exhibit ice velocities of less than 1 meter per day. Several kilometers before its terminus, (left of center) the velocity of the San Rafael Glacier exceeds 10 meters (32 feet) per day, and ice motion cannot be estimated from the data. There, a revisit time interval of less than 12 hours would have been necessary to estimate ice motion from interferometry data. The results however demonstrate that the radar interferometry technique permits the monitoring of glacier characteristics unattainable by any other means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm), and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes that are caused by nature and those changes that are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  9. Genetic structure and clonal diversity of an introduced pest in Chile, the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, C C; Simon, J-C; Le Gallic, J-F; Prunier-Leterme, N; Briones, L M; Dedryver, C-A; Niemeyer, H M

    2005-07-01

    In Chile, the aphid Sitobion avenae is of recent introduction, lives on cultivated and wild Poaceae, and is thought to reproduce by permanent parthenogenesis. In order to study the genetic variability and population structure of this species, five microsatellite loci were typed from individual aphids collected from different cultivated and wild host plants, from different geographical zones, and years. Chilean populations showed a high degree of heterozygosity and a low genetic variability across regions and years, with four predominant genotypes representing nearly 90% of the sample. This pattern of low clonal diversity and high heterozygosity was interpreted as the result of recent founder events from a few asexually reproducing genotypes. Most geographical and temporal variation observed in the genetic composition resulted from fluctuations of a few predominant clones. In addition, comparisons of the genotypes found in Chile with those described in earlier surveys of S. avenae populations in Western Europe led us to identify 'superclones' with large geographical distribution and high ecological success, and to make a preliminary exploration of the putative origin(s) of S. avenae individuals introduced to Chile. PMID:15931255

  10. Heat flow in the southern Chile forearc controlled by large-scale tectonic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar-Muñoz, Lucia; Behrmann, Jan H.; Diaz-Naveas, Juan; Klaeschen, Dirk; Karstens, Jens

    2014-06-01

    Between 33°S and 47°S, the southern Chile forearc is affected by the subduction of the aseismic Juan Fernandez Ridge, several major oceanic fracture zones on the subducting Nazca Plate, the active Chile Ridge spreading centre, and the underthrusting Antarctic Plate. The heat flow through the forearc was estimated using the depth of the bottom simulating reflector obtained from a comprehensive database of reflection seismic profiles. On the upper and middle continental slope along the whole forearc, heat flow is about 30-60 mW m-2, a range of values common for the continental basement and overlying slope sediments. The actively deforming accretionary wedge on the lower slope, however, in places shows heat flow reaching about 90 mW m-2. This indicates that advecting pore fluids from deeper in the subduction zone may transport a substantial part of the heat there. The large size of the anomalies suggests that fluid advection and outflow at the seafloor is overall diffuse, rather than being restricted to individual fault structures or mud volcanoes and mud mounds. One large area with very high heat flow is associated with a major tectonic feature. Thus, above the subducting Chile Ridge at 46°S, values of up to 280 mW m-2 indicate that the overriding South American Plate is effectively heated by subjacent zero-age oceanic plate material.

  11. Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

  12. Ecology and Geography of Transmission of Two Bat-Borne Rabies Lineages in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Pons, Daniel J.; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985–2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances. PMID:24349592

  13. Anthropogenic and natural contributions to the Southeast Pacific precipitation decline and recent megadrought in central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisier, Juan P.; Rondanelli, Roberto; Garreaud, René D.; Muñoz, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Within large uncertainties in the precipitation response to greenhouse gas forcing, the Southeast Pacific drying stands out as a robust signature within climate models. A precipitation decline, of consistent direction but of larger amplitude than obtained in simulations with historical climate forcing, has been observed in central Chile since the late 1970s. To attribute the causes of this trend, we analyze local rain gauge data and contrast them to a large ensemble of both fully coupled and sea surface temperature-forced simulations. We show that in concomitance with large-scale circulation changes, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation explains about half of the precipitation trend observed in central Chile. The remaining fraction is unlikely to be driven exclusively by natural phenomena but rather consistent with the simulated regional effect of anthropogenic climate change. We particularly estimate that a quarter of the rainfall deficit affecting this region since 2010 is of anthropogenic origin. An increased persistence and recurrence of droughts in central Chile emerges then as a realistic scenario under the current socioeconomic pathway.

  14. Intermittent noninvasive ventilation at San José Hospital in Chile: report of a German donation.

    PubMed

    Arellano Maric, M P; Roldán Toledo, R; Huttmann, S E; Storre, J H; Windisch, W

    2015-03-01

    Home mechanical ventilation is currently expanding in Chile, but its application along the country is hindered by financial and geographical reasons. In 2006 the San José Hospital in Santiago de Chile developed a non-invasive ventilation (NIV) center as a strategy to overcome the limitations of ventilator availability from public resources. Since then, this center provides intermittent diurnal sessions of NIV to patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure. In 2013, a collaboratory work between the Chilean doctors, the German Interdisciplinary Society of Home Mechanical Ventilation (DIGAB = Deutsche Interdisziplinäre Gesellschaft für Außerklinische Beatmung) and the German non-invasive (NIV) home care provider "Heinen und Löwenstein" organized a donation of 100 second-hand ventilators (BiPAP Synchrony; Respironics, USA) including masks and tubing systems, which were provided by Heinen und Löwenstein. The ventilator devices arrived in Santiago in January 2014. Since then, the following initiatives have been launched: 1) the establishment of a domiciliary mechanical ventilation program independent of governmental founding, 2) NIV setting-titration, 3) renewal of ventilators at the hospital's intermittent NIV unit. Future goals are the establishment of a rehabilitation unit with concomitant NIV therapy and a clinical research program. Therefore, the German donation of ventilators and equipment has a reported impact on the development of NIV in Chile. PMID:25629262

  15. Health care privatization in Latin America: comparing divergent privatization approaches in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A

    2014-08-01

    The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. PMID:24842976

  16. [Shortening undergraduate medical training: now and for all medical schools in Chile?].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, undergraduate medical education starts after High School, it lasts seven years, with the final two dedicated to a rotary internship, taking to an M.D. degree that allows the graduate to enter working activities. The country needs more M.D.s in primary care, but there is also a shortage of specialists, mainly out of the main cities. In recent decades, post graduate programs leading to specialty titles have become competitively adopted by a large proportion of medical graduates. This is the case at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, stimulating its faculties and medical students to develop a collaborative review of their teaching programs, leading to a curricular reform with a new graduate profile and a new curriculum oriented to learning objectives, that will allow to obtain the M.D. degree in six instead of seven years of undergraduate education. This new program awakened expectations in other universities in Chile, that will have to face the attraction of this shortened program for future candidates to enter medical schools. However, any shortening of medical school careers should first consider the local conditions in quality of applicants, number of accepted students, the training of teachers in integrated teaching programs, the availability of adequate campuses. Furthermore, for students with different academic backgrounds and diverse personal and familial interests, the seven years programs may still be necessary to gain the expertise required to become medical doctors. PMID:26998976

  17. Thickness of the subducting Nazca lithosphere in northern Chile as seen by S receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Forough; Asch, Günter; Kind, Rainer; Oncken, Onno; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Barrientos, Sergio; Salazar Reinoso, Pablo

    2010-05-01

    Installation of observatories in northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta), the IPGP (Paris), and the GFZ Potsdam. Currently we operate 15 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers. One GEOFON station operated since 2001 completes our dataset in northern Chile. We combined here two methods (P and S receiver function) to have the best vertical as well as horizontal coverage of the area and map the geometry of the subducting Nazca plate. Our high resolution results image the penetration of the Moho of the subducting Nazca plate at depths ranging from 35 km beneath the Coastal Cordillera to an average depth of 80 km beneath the Longitudinal Valley and about 100 km beneath the Precordillera. We found a significant variation in the dip of the subducting Nazca plate obtained from stations located in the northern part (over latitude of 21 deg. South) compared to those located below this latitude. The shape of the Nazca plate shows a shallow dip beneath the southern part and becomes steeper and deeper beneath the northern part of the area, which is coherent with the intermediate seismicity. On the basis of our P and S receiver functions, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary of the subducting Nazca plate is at 80 km depth beneath the Coastal Cordillera and dips to a depth of about 120 km beneath the Longitudinal Valley. It becomes 150 km underneath the Precordillera.

  18. Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Bossert, Thomas J.; Larrañaga, Osvaldo; Giedion, Ursula; Arbelaez, José Jesus; Bowser, Diana M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. METHODS: The "decision space" approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. FINDINGS: Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some specific policy mechanisms, can improve equity of resource allocation. In these countries, equitable levels of per capita financial allocations at the municipal level were achieved through different forms of decentralization--the use of allocation formulae, adequate local funding choices and horizontal equity funds. Findings on equity of utilization of services were less consistent, but they did show that increased levels of funding were associated with increased utilization. This suggests that improved equity of funding over time might reduce inequities of service utilization. CONCLUSION: Decentralization can contribute to, or at least maintain, equitable allocation of health resources among municipalities of different incomes. PMID:12751417

  19. Magnitude and impact from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami in the coast of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, M.; Haro, J.

    2011-12-01

    The giant earthquake (Mw 9) that occurred on the 11th of March 2011 in Japan generated a tsunami that propagated around the Pacific Ocean. The first waves arrived to the Chilean coast twenty one hours later. The Japanese tsunami was recorded instrumentally in Chile by means of the network of sea level stations and Chile DART buoy, nevertheless its real magnitude and impact was empirical observed on numerous coastal settlements where inundation and minor damage were reported. We began a post tsunami survey a week after the event, visiting the main affected areas. For two months we traveled approximately 2700 km along the coast, between Arica (18.4° S) and Chiloe (41.9° S). Using surveying equipment such as total stations, geodesic GPS and laser rangefinders, we measured the height of the tsunami wave along the coast. Using the testimony of people, videos, and marks left by the main tsunami flow on harbors, piers, houses and buildings as indicators of water level, evidence of the effect of the tsunami on the coastline was exhaustively recorded. The maximum tsunami heights were recorded in Dichato (36.5° S) reaching almost 5 meters. Complementing the field data, we characterized the tide gauge records and compared the heights of 2011 Tohoku tsunami in Chile, with the behavior of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean tsunamis. This allows us to discriminate the local influences of coastal morphology independently of the tsunami origin. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

  20. Ecology and geography of transmission of two bat-borne rabies lineages in Chile.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Pons, Daniel J; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985-2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances. PMID:24349592

  1. Spatial and temporal trends of bat-borne rabies in Chile.

    PubMed

    Escobar, L E; Restif, O; Yung, V; Favi, M; Pons, D J; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-05-01

    In Chile, while dog rabies has decreased markedly over the last 30 years, bat rabies is still reported frequently. In order to shed new light on the spatiotemporal trends of these reports, we analysed active and passive data from years 1985 and 2012, which included 61 076 samples from 289 counties of Chile. We found that from 1994 to 2012, more than 15 000 bat samples were submitted for diagnostics through passive surveillance, 9·5% of which tested positive for rabies. By contrast, the prevalence of infection was only ~0·4% among the nearly 12 000 bat samples submitted through active surveillance. We found that the prevalence of dog rabies dropped steadily over the same period, with just a single confirmed case since 1998. None of the 928 samples from wild animals, other than bats, were positive for rabies. Although there has been only one confirmed case of human rabies in Chile since 1985, and a single confirmed case in a dog since 1998, bats remain a reservoir for rabies viruses. While active surveillance indicates that rabies prevalence is low in bat colonies, the high proportion of positive bats submitted through passive surveillance is a concern. To prevent human rabies, local public health agencies should increase research on the basic ecology of bats and the role of stray dogs and cats as potential rabies amplifiers. PMID:25166219

  2. Postseismic viscoelastic stress changes following the 1960 M9.5 Chile earthquake: Implications for its relationship with the 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, M.; Lin, J.

    2010-12-01

    We investigate viscoelastic deformation and the associated Coulomb stress changes following the 22 May 1960 M9.5 Chile earthquake with particular focus on its relationship to the 27 Feb. 2010 M8.8 earthquake offshore Maule, Chile. The hypocenter of the 2010 quake is found to be located within a zone of coseismic Coulomb stress increases caused by the 1960 mainshock according to models of Lin & Stein (JGR, 2004). We use a stratified viscoelastic rheology model and calculate the 3D viscoelastic flow and stress changes using the spherical VISCO1D code of Politz (BSSA, 1992). Viscoelastic deformation is assumed to be dominant in an asthenospheric mantle layer of relatively low viscosity at the depths between about 100 to 670 km. This low-viscosity asthenospheric layer is sandwiched between an elastic lithospheric lid, within which the earthquake rupture zone lies, and deeper mantle of relatively high viscosity. We find that following the 1960 quake, creep processes within the low-viscosity asthenospheric layer causes a transfer of stresses to the lithospheric lid. As a result, the Coulomb failure stress at the future hypocenter of the 2010 earthquake is calculated to have increased with time for all models examined, approaching a steady-state level. The time period required to reach the steady-state stress level is less for lower values of the assumed viscosity of the asthenospheric layer.

  3. Reflexion Laws In Atoms Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    This poster presents a first analysis of the laws of reflection of cold atoms by an evanescent wave atomic mirror. We demonstrate that when the laser beam is tuned to the blue of the atomic transition, i.e, for a positive frequency detuning compared to the frequency resonance Δ = ωL-ωa, there is a reflection without a contact with the surface of the prism (no adsorption). The condition for an internal total reflection is θ>θc = arcsin (1/n) where θ is the incidence angle of the laser wave on the internal face of the prism and n is its refraction index. The evanescent wave is parallel to the surface and propagates over few wavelengths only for θ = θc. The atomic trajectory is such as the incidence angle φi is different from the reflection angle φr (non respect of the first law of reflection in photonic optics). We'll have to demonstrate the reflection law in atom optics and give numerical examples as an illustration [1]. At its interaction with the evanescent wave, the atom is submitted to a pressure radiation force Fx parallel to the surface of separation which communicates a quantity of motion in the direction of the x axis. It is also submitted to a dipolar force Fy perpendicular to the separation surface responsible of the repulsion of cold atoms in the case where we neglect the Van der Waals forces. We define R as the ratio of two forces Fx and Fy. Their expressions, function of the detuning, are given by the Ehrenfest theorem and the Bloch equations [2]. When the ratio R tends towards zero (spontaneous emission negligible for a detuning important compared to natural linewidth of the excited state), the first law of Descartes reflection is thus satisfied idem φi = φr Thus, it is simple to demonstrate that the atomic trajectories obey to the general reflection law: tg φr = tg φi-2R where R is independent of the spatial component. Its expression is given by the ratio of the velocity transfers Δvx to Δvy. The case of retro-reflection seen in quasi normal incidence and for values of the ratio R different from zero (φi = -φr) is also examined. In the case where the value of the ratio R is non null, we may demonstrate that the incidence plan is different from the reflection plan (second law of Descartes reflection).

  4. The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

    2011-12-01

    On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Tsunami propagation in the Pacific Ocean is simulated using the benchmarked tsunami model MOST (Titov and Gonzalez, 1997; Titov and Synolakis, 1998). For initial conditions the inversion model of Lorito et al. (2011) is utilized. The model results highlight the directivity of the highest tsunami waves towards Juan Fernández and Easter Island during the transoceanic propagation. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

  5. Geological Manifestations of Ridge Collision: Evidence from the Golfo de Penas-Taitao Basin, Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Randall; Nelson, Eric

    1985-08-01

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in the southern Andes adjacent to the intersection of the Chile Rise with the Peru-Chile Trench (ANT-NAZ-SAM triple junction) have revealed a number of features and a Neogene geologic history that are unique along the Pacific margin of South America. This history includes (1) development of a Tertiary-Quaternary marine basin with up to 3 km of sediment infill (Golfo de Penas-Taitao basin, GTB), (2) disruption of the region by a series of faults with both normal and strike slip movements, and (3) localization of silicic, near-trench volcanism and epizonal plutonism and related hydrothermal activity. The northern portion of the GTB began to subside in the Late Miocene (possibly earlier), and has subsequently been deformed, uplifted, and exposed. Gravity and seismic reflection data suggest that the basin continues offshore where it is still actively subsiding today (Golfo de Penas). Subsidence and uplift have thus occurred diachronously in the region, although it is unclear when subsidence began in the Golfo de Penas. Tectonic disruption of the region is likely related to the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault (LOF), a major, NS-trending, crustal shear zone that curves westward and terminates in the Golfo de Penas. The LOF has both down-to-the-west and right lateral offset and separates the main Andean Cordillera on the east from a large crustal block (the Chiloe block) on the west. We hypothesize that the GTB has developed as a pull-apart basin in response to northward movement of the Chiloe block along the LOF. We propose a dynamic model whereby a stress gradient that decreases longitudinally away from the Chile Rise/Peru-Chile Trench intersection is set up because the youngest, most buoyant, oceanic lithosphere is being subducted at the triple junction. The Chile Rise is viewed as a type of indenter which is acting to drive the Chiloe block northward in front of the northward-migrating triple junction. This model explains the unique set of geologic features found in the region, and suggests that ridge-trench interactions may be an important factor in orogenesis at active continental margins.

  6. [Undergraduate and postgraduate studies in the biological sciences in Chile (1985)].

    PubMed

    Niemeyer, H

    1986-01-01

    A study group of scientists was convened by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biological Society of Chile) and the Regional Program for Graduate Training in Biological Sciences, PNUD-Unesco, RLA 78/024, to assess undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences in Chile. The group presented this report at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society. Discussion centered on the features that should characterize the studies leading to the academic degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Magíster (Master) and Doctor (Ph. D) in Sciences, and also on the qualifications that the universities should satisfy in order to grant them. After analyzing the present situation of undergraduate and graduate studies in Biological Sciences in Chilean universities, the group made the following main suggestions: 1. It is recommended that Chilean universities agree on a 4-year plan for the Licenciado degree, without the requirement of a thesis. The importance of providing the students with good laboratory exercises and field experience and with the opportunity to perform short research projects is stressed. In addition, a sound theoretical training on mathematics, physics and chemistry in the education of a modern Biologist is important. Licenciate studies ought to be the basis for professional careers and the universities should offer to the Licenciados free access to their professional schools. 2. It is considered appropriate for Chile and its universities to develop graduate programs in those disciplines that have reached a level of excellence. To accomplish this aim, adequate finance of the universities is necessary to permit them to provide the essential facilities for doing research, and to create a wide system of fellowships for graduate students. Direct government support for research and graduate student fellowships is requested. 3. Research experience of the kind needed for the preparation of a doctoral thesis is recommended as the academic level appropriate for those engaged in teaching undergraduate students in sciences. Teachers in graduate programs should be qualified active researchers. 4. The creation is proposed of a Consejo Nacional de Universidades (National Council of Universities), to be autonomous and composed primarily of outstanding scientists. One of the main functions of this Council would be to licence universities to grant undergraduate and graduate academic degrees in science. 5. The Sociedad de Biología de Chile must maintain an interest in the evaluation of undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences. PMID:3448995

  7. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  8. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population, making Chile an intriguing case study for examining the impact of these societal-level trends on the aging experience. This paper highlights essential characteristics of this country for understanding its emerging aging society. It reveals that there is a fundamental lack of adequate and depthful epidemiologic and country-specific research from which to fully understand the aging experience and guide new policies in support of health and well-being. PMID:22534464

  9. Vertebrate fossils and trace fossils in Upper Jurassic-Lower cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, C. M.; Suárez, M.

    Pterosaur, dinosaur, and crocodile bones are recorded here for the first time in Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region east of Copiapó, Chile. Trace fossils produced by vertebrate animals include the footprints of theropod dinosaurs and the depressions of sandstone laminae interpreted as burrows and foot impressions. The fossils occur in the 1500-meter-thick Quebrada Monardes Formation, which consists predominantly of the aeolian and alluvial deposits of a semi-arid terrestrial environment. Vertebrate fossils are very rare in Chile. Dinosaur bones and footprints have previously been recorded at only seven locations, and pterosaur remains at only one location. The newly discovered dinosaur bones are the oldest to be described in Chile.

  10. Late Quaternary aridity changes on the southern hemisphere inferred from the marine sediment record off Namibia and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, J.-B. W.; Lamy, F.

    2003-04-01

    The grain-size distributions of the terrigenous fraction of two deep-sea sediment cores from the SE Atlantic (offshore Namibia) and from the SE Pacific (offshore northern Chile) are unmixed into subpopulations and are interpreted as coarse aeolian dust, fine aeolian dust and fluvial mud. The downcore ratios of the proportions aeolian dust and fluvial mud are interpreted as paleo-continental aridity records of southwestern Africa and northern Chile. The two records show a relatively wet Last Glacial Maximum compared to a relatively dry Holocene. The changes in continental aridity in southwestern Africa and northern Chile are related to changes in the latitudinal position of the moisture-bearing Southern Westerlies, most probably driven by the sea-ice extent around Antarctica.

  11. Temporal Evolution of a Seismic Swarm at Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The increasing seismic activity in the area of the Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located on the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto (OVSP), a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area, and more than 400.000 events have been recorded since November 2013. The largest and most recent swarm has a daily average of 3894 events between March and the 12th of December 2014. Currently a seismic network of 13 short- and broad-band stations (5 Colombian, 8 Ecuadorian) was deployed in this area. High quality epicenters of seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0, RMS<0.75 s, Gap < 180° and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Fifteen events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 including an event that occurred on October 20, 2014. This event had a local magnitude of 5.7 and an oblique (strike-slip with some thrusting) focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. However, events with moderate to large magnitudes (above 3.0) contain pronounced very-long-period components. Position time series recorded by a dual-frequency GPS receiver at the SE flank of Chiles show a slight departure from the normal tectonic trend beginning with the appearance of the last seismic swarm on or around September 30, 2014. This trend is subsequently punctuated by a sharp deformation transient related to the coseismic displacement of the October 20 event. After more than a year of very anomalous seismic activity and concurrent minor deformation, no evidence of surficial volcanic activity has been documented.

  12. Imaging the Crust and Upper Mantle of Northern Chile Using Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Rodzianko, A.; Roecker, S. W.; Sobiesiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Northern Chile is recognized as a seismic gap along the interplate contact, associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American plate. In March 2014, part of this region near the town of Pisagua experienced anomalous seismic activity, which motivated the deployment of 26 broadband seismometers by ONEMI-CSN (Oficina Nacional de Emergencia del Ministerio del Interior y Centro Sismológico Nacional) just prior to and following the magnitude 8.2 April 1st earthquake. Incoming data from those stations, supplemented by data from 14 broadband permanent stations of the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) and 9 temporary Iquique Local Network (ILN) stations operating through 2012-2013 are analyzed to create a 3D elastic shear-wave velocity model of the upper 40 km beneath northern Chile using ambient noise tomography. The vertical component of continuous ambient noise is whitened and cross-correlated between 202 station pairs to construct empirical Green's functions (EGFs) of Rayleigh waves. EGFs with signal-to-noise ratios above 2.0 dB are used to recover group and phase velocities of the fundamental mode between 5 and 40 second periods. The resulting group and phase velocity maps are inverted on a grid with concentrated spacing in the area surrounding Iquique (with a dense network of stations) to generate a 3D shear wave velocity model. The model shows that the upper 40 km beneath this area are characterized by stark contrasts in shear wave velocities marking the major faults, going from 2.5 km/s to 4 km/s in some areas. The shear wavespeeds range between 2-5 km/s throughout the model.

  13. Air contaminant statistical distributions with application to PM10 in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Carolina; Leiva, Víctor; Cavieres, M Fernanda; Sanhueza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The use of statistical distributions to predict air quality is valuable for determining the impact of air chemical contaminants on human health. Concentrations of air pollutants are treated as random variables that can be modeled by a statistical distribution that is positively skewed and starts from zero. The type of distribution selected for analyzing air pollution data and its associated parameters depend on factors such as emission source and local meteorology and topography. International environmental guideline use appropriate distributions to compute exceedance probabilities and percentiles for setting administrative targets and issuing environmental alerts. The distribution bears a relationship to the normal distribution, and there are theoretical - and physical-based mechanistic arguments that support its use when analyzing air-pollutant data. Others distribution have also been used to model air population data, such as the beta, exponential, gamma, Johnson, log-logistic, Pearson, and Weibull distribution. One model also developed from physical-mechanistic considerations that has received considerable interest in recent year is the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. This distribution has theoretical arguments and properties similar to those of the log-normal distribution, which renders it useful for modeling air contamination data. In this review, we have addressed the range of common atmospheric contaminants and the health effects they cause. We have also reviewed the statistical distributions that have been use to model air quality, after which we have detailed the problem of air contamination in Santiago, Chile. We have illustrated a methodology that is based on the Birnbaum-Saunders distributions to analyze air contamination data from Santiago, Chile. Finally, in the conclusions, we have provided a list of synoptic statements designed to help readers understand the significance of air pollution in Chile, and in Santiago, in particular, but that can be useful to other cites and countries. PMID:23149810

  14. [The University of Chile School of medicine : 170 years serving the country].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejandro

    2003-04-01

    The first course on Medical Sciences in Chile was inaugurated in 1833, being its director William C Blest, MD, an Irish physician graduated in Edinburgh University. Therefore, Dr. Blest can be considered the founder of Chilean formal medical education. When the University of Chile was established (in 1842), among its five initial Faculties was included Medicine, on the basis of the Medical Sciences course created ten years before. By then, the medical profession was not yet socially reputed and the initial years of the Faculty were difficult. During the 19th Century and until the second decade of the 20th century, this was the only medical school in the country. Its development was slow but sustained, reaching its apogee in the middle of the 20th Century, when it had outstanding clinical and basic sciences teachers and investigators. Clinical research, postgraduate teaching and medical specialization had a great development during that period. Nowadays, it is a complex Faculty that teaches eight health sciences courses leading to different professional titles, gives higher academic degrees in biomedicine and public health and certifies different medical specialties. It has a modern, well equipped library and a unique Museum of Medicine. Besides the traditional Departments in Medical Faculties, it has Departments of Medical Teaching, Bioethics and Medical Humanities. It provides continuing medical education programs and distance teaching has recently experienced a great development. The community is also favored with specific teaching programs. The academic promotion of its faculty members is based in a strict evaluation. During its existence, the Faculty has graduated a large number of physicians and other health care professionals. Our country should be grateful to the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, in its 170th birthday, for its outstanding contribution to the development, welfare and happiness of Chilean society. PMID:12870228

  15. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. PMID:23900377

  16. Interannual variability of the coastal fog at Fray Jorge relict forests in semiarid Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, René; Barichivich, Jonathan; Christie, Duncan A.; Maldonado, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    The coastal mountains of semiarid Chile are punctuated by patches of fog-dependent evergreen forests. Fog episodes often occur when the prominent coastal topography intercepts a well developed deck of stratocumulus (Sc) off north central Chile. A 22-year record of ground-based fog observations at Fray Jorge Biosphere Reserve (FJBR, 30°S), atmospheric reanalysis and satellite derived low cloud amount are used to document the annual cycle and interannual variability of fog frequency there. The number of foggy days minimizes during austral winter and then increases rapidly to reach a maximum in spring (the growing season of FJBR trees). The mean annual cycle of the fog-frequency follows closely the annual cycle of the nearby marine Sc amount and lower tropospheric stability (LTS). The springtime fog frequency, nearby marine cloud amount and LTS are also well correlated at interannual timescales. Colder than normal sea surface temperatures and warmer than normal air temperatures aloft near 30°S strengthen the temperature inversion and lead to a more persistent cloud deck and higher than normal fog frequency at FJBR. La Niña years produce temperature anomalies very similar to the pattern described before and consequently they are associated with higher than normal springtime fog frequency at FJBR. Conversely, El Niño years are associated with less foggy conditions at FJBR. Interestingly, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related rainfall anomalies in north central Chile are opposite to ENSO-related anomalies in fog-frequency. We discuss the overall impact of ENSO in FJBR ecosystems as well as the prospects of FJBR in future climate scenarios driven by increased greenhouse gases.

  17. Stakeholder participation within the public environmental system in Chile: major gaps between theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo

    2011-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. PMID:21641109

  18. Influence of crustal thickening on arc magmatism:, Nevados de Payachata volcanic region, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Nancy J.; Davidson, Jon P.; Wörner, Gerhard; Harmon, Russell S.; Moorbath, Stephen; Lopez-Escobar, Leopoldo

    1993-05-01

    Neogene through Pleistocene lava flows of the Nevados de Payachata region (lat 18°S) on the Altiplano of northern Chile fall into two discrete chemical groups defined by age and incompatible element concentrations. The Neogene suite (10.5-6.6 Ma) has trace element concentrations comparable to arc magmas erupted on thin crust in central Chile. Pleistocene lava flows (0.29-0 Ma) are enriched in incompatible elements relative to Neogene samples but have similar Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic ratios. Incompatible element enrichment in mafic rocks reflects deep-crustal or subcrustal processes. Neogene volcanism in northern Chile immediately followed a period of intense crustal thickening. Uplift rates accelerated at ˜15 Ma, indicating that the "thin-crust"-type Neogene magmas actually traversed a thickened crust. The isotopic and trace element relations are the result of contamination of mantle-derived basalts in an upwardly growing lower-crustal interaction zone, defined to be the part of the lower crust at or above its solidus. Because the lower crust reaches postorogenic thermal equilibrium slowly, the lower-crustal interaction zone during Neogene magmatism had essentially the same thickness as it did prior to deformation. Thermal relaxation of the lower crust after thickening produced an upwardly growing column of crust near its solidus. Only 15 m.y. after crustal thickening did ascending, mantle-derived mafic magmas encounter previously unmelted, fertile crust near its solidus in the upper fringes of the interaction zone. Here the magmas were contaminated with incompatible element-enriched crustal melts, forming the parental magmas for the Pleistocene suite.

  19. Paleomagnetic constraints on syn and post-mineralization deformation of major porphyry copper deposits in chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roperch, P.; Astudillo, N.; Townley, B.; Ramirez, L. E.

    2003-04-01

    In Chile porphyry copper deposits are found mainly within three distinct provinces. The oldest deposits are located in the late Jurassic Early Cretaceous volcanic rocks of the Coastal Cordillera. Eocene giant deposits are found in a restricted north-south belt within the Domeyko Cordillera of Northern Chile in the latitude range of 21-26^oS while the youngest late Miocene-Pliocene copper ores are located within the Andean Cordillera of central Chile (29-34^oS). Paleomagnetic studies were carried out to characterize the magnetic properties of the mineralized bodies and better constrain the interpretation of prospection-related aeromagnetic data. Despite structural and magnetic complexities, interpretable remanent magnetizations acquired during the mineralization processes provide a unique marker of syn or post-mineralization tectonics. We report paleomagnetic results for three distinct deposits. In the El Teniente giant porphyry copper deposit of Pliocene age, characteristic magnetizations show insignificant rotations or tilts. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data do not show evidence for a significant tectonic strain associated with the ore emplacement process. The Chuquicamata deposit of Eocene age is cut longitudinally by a major N-S fault, the west fissure fault. A nearly 130^o counterclockwise rotation can be recognized in the non-mineralized Fortuna granodiorite pluton to the west of the fault. Paleomagnetic results within the mineralized rocks do not show evidence for such large rotations. AMS data showing 20 to 30% of anisotropy demonstrate the importance of the tectonic strain associated with emplacement of this major porphyry copper deposit. Large clockwise rotations (about 45^o) are observed at the Mantos Blancos copper deposit in the Coastal Cordillera. Preliminary paleomagnetic results in mineralized rocks and non-mineralized crosscutting dikes indicate suggest that Mantos Blancos was rotated as a whole during early tertiary Andean deformation. These three examples demonstrate that paleomagnetism is an appropriate tool to better decipher the complex structural history of most Andean porphyry copper deposits.

  20. Characterization Of Station Quality From The CHILE RAMP Deployment - Direct Burial Sensor Installation And Its Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Slad, G.

    2010-12-01

    IRIS PASSCAL supported a NSF-funded project to collect an open community dataset from a portable seismograph deployment following the magnitude 8.8 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 (an experiment of the Rapid Array Mobilization Program - RAMP). In part, due to logistical constraints, the broadband sensors (Guralp CMG3T) for this deployment were buried directly in soil. Direct burial refers to installation of a broadband sensor in a small hand-dug hole, encased in plastic bags, and ideally backfilled with well tamped and dampened sand. Field conditions did not provide ideal installations in all cases. Because of the variability in actual installation practices, the Chile RAMP data provide an opportunity to examine the impact of several factors on the direct burial data quality. Using McNamara and Boaz (2005) PQLX statistical analysis software, which calculates the power spectral density (PSD) and plots the probability density function (PDF)(McNamara and Buland, 2004), we characterize the background seismic noise levels and signal quality for 58 directly buried installations at the Chile RAMP. Data return and data quality during the deployment (April -September 2010) will be evaluated considering a variety of parameters including installation technique, site characteristics, and equipment performance. Preliminary results using data from two service runs (April - June), suggest variation in the data quality and recovery due to slightly different installation practices and/or possibly environmental factors. We seek to evaluate and characterize parameters that affect the resulting data recovery and their quality; this study is an important test case for future PASSCAL and RAMP installations. If possible we would like to compare data from other local networks to identify distinctive characteristics from different installation set-ups.

  1. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Blin, Aurélie; Le Goff, Isabelle; Desneux, Nicolas; Reyes, Maritza; Tabone, Elisabeth; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Niño, Laura; Lombaert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule. PMID:25667134

  2. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Blin, Aurélie; Le Goff, Isabelle; Desneux, Nicolas; Reyes, Maritza; Tabone, Elisabeth; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Niño, Laura; Lombaert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule. PMID:25667134

  3. Dog ownership, abundance and potential for bat-borne rabies spillover in Chile.

    PubMed

    Astorga, F; Escobar, L E; Poo-Muñoz, D A; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral infectious disease that affects all mammals, including humans. Factors associated with the incidence of rabies include the presence and density of susceptible hosts and potential reservoirs. Currently, Chile is declared free of canine-related rabies, but there is an overpopulation of dogs within the country and an emergence of rabies in bats. Our objectives are to determine potential areas for bat-borne rabies spillover into dog populations expressed as a risk map, and to explore some key features of dog ownership, abundance, and management in Chile. For the risk map, our variables included a dog density surface (dog/km(2)) and a distribution model of bat-borne rabies presence. From literature review, we obtained dog data from 112 municipalities, which represent 33% of the total municipalities (339). At country level, based on previous studies the median human per dog ratio was 4.8, with 64% of houses containing at least one dog, and a median of 0.9 dog per house. We estimate a national median of 5.3 dog/km(2), and a median of 3680 dogs by municipality, from which we estimate a total population of 3.5×10(6) owned dogs. The antirabies vaccination presented a median of 21% of dogs by municipality, and 29% are unrestricted to some degree. Human per dog ratio have a significant (but weak) negative association with human density. Unrestricted dogs have a negative association with human density and income, and a positive association with the number of dogs per house. Considering dog density by municipality, and areas of potential bat-borne rabies occurrence, we found that 163 (?48%) of Chilean municipalities are at risk of rabies spillover from bats to dogs. Risk areas are concentrated in urban settlements, including Santiago, Chile's capital. To validate the risk map, we included cases of rabies in dogs from the last 27 years; all fell within high-risk areas of our map, confirming the assertive risk prediction. Our results suggest that the use of dog population parameters may be informative to determine risk areas for bat-rabies spillover events. In addition, we confirm that dog abundance is a neglected and emerging public health concern in Chile, particularly within urban areas, which deserves prompt intervention. PMID:25656549

  4. Turbidite sequences in marine sediments off southern Chile ? records of Quaternary climate - tectonics interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echtler, H. P.; Blumberg, S.; Lamy, F.; Arz, H.; Wiedicke, M.; Haug, G. H.; Oncken, O.

    2007-12-01

    The active continental margin of South America is characterized by frequent, devastating and large-magnitude subduction earthquakes. In this environment the assessment of the history of major past earthquakes is hampered by the short historical and instrumental records. Here, we focus on marine turbidite records from offshore southern Chile that reflect the regional paleoseismic history of the forearc region since late Pleistocene time. The investigated records were retrieved from cores obtained from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), site 1232, and SONNE 50SL. The coring locations are at ~ 40ç and ~ 38çS lat, within the Peru-Chile trench, and are characterized by frequent interbedded strata of turbiditic and hemipelagic origin. Importantly, dated sections of the obtained cores indicate a recurrence time between 100 and 200 years for individual turbidite events. On the basis of the sedimentological characteristics and the nature of the active margin of southern Chile, we infer that the turbidites are seismogenic in origin, and represent paleo-earthquakes. However, the long-term changes in turbidite recurrence intervals also appear to be strongly influenced by climate and associated sea-level changes. For example, during the rising sea-level in the Holocene (ACHTUNG: es gab keine h?heren Meeresspiegel, sondern der Meeresspiegel ist seit 14 ka angestiegen) and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, recurrence of turbiditic layers is substantially higher, primarily reflecting a climate-induced reduction of sediment availability and enhanced slope stability (Dieser Satz ist inhaltlich nicht ganz klar). In addition, changes in the segmentation of tectonic uplift in the forearc and related drainage captures likely influenced the availability of sediment entering the marine realm, possibly determining the postglacial decrease in turbidite frequency. On the other hand, glacial turbidite recurrence times (including MIS 2, MIS 3, cold substages of MIS 5, and MIS 6), are within the same order of magnitude as earthquake recurrence intervals, derived from historical data and other terrestrial paleoseismic archives of the region. Only during these cold stages sediment availability and slope instability were pronounced enough to provide conditions conducive to a full record of the sequence of large earthquakes. Our data thus suggest that earthquake recurrence intervals on the order of 100 to 200 years are characteristic for southern Chile and were sustained during the last 140 kyrs.

  5. Studies on sexual compatibility between Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) from Chile and the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dieter G.

    1988-09-01

    Clonal isolates of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales) originating from Naples (Mediterranean Sea) and southern Chile were compared in laboratory culture studies. The two isolates showed distinctly different morphological characters, but very similar details of life history and sexual reproduction. Gametes are sexually compatible; hybrid zygotes are formed and sporophytes develop, which are fertile on the basis of mitotic spores. However, unilocular sporangia were abortive, indicating segregational sterility caused by chromosomal mismatch during meiosis. Although the biological species concept in a strict sense does not apply, and appreciable morphological variability exists in this cosmopolitan taxon, local populations are considered as representatives of the same species.

  6. Sea surface thermal structure associated to the small pelagic fish resources distribution in Central Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Yanez, E.; Barbieri, M.A.; Catasti, V.

    1997-06-01

    A survey study was conducted to assess the possibility of introducing the use of sea surface temperatures (SST), obtained from NOAA satellite data, for the small pelagic fisheries resources in Central Chile. Relationships between species yields and thermics gradients (GRT) were found significant. Jack mackerel (Trachuru murphyi) yields were largely related with a strong thermal gradient next to oceanic waters, while anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and common sardine (Clupea bentincki) yields were mainly associated to the development of coastal upwelling events. It is concluded that the use of SST-NOAA images can play an important role in fleet operations, particularly in the case of the kind of boats considered in this paper.

  7. The Mw 8.1 2014 Iquique, Chile, seismic sequence: a tale of foreshocks and aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesca, S.; Grigoli, F.; Heimann, S.; Dahm, T.; Kriegerowski, M.; Sobiesiak, M.; Tassara, C.; Olcay, M.

    2016-03-01

    The 2014 April 1, Mw 8.1 Iquique (Chile) earthquake struck in the Northern Chile seismic gap. With a rupture length of less than 200 km, it left unbroken large segments of the former gap. Early studies were able to model the main rupture features but results are ambiguous with respect to the role of aseismic slip and left open questions on the remaining hazard at the Northern Chile gap. A striking observation of the 2014 earthquake has been its extensive preparation phase, with more than 1300 events with magnitude above ML 3, occurring during the 15 months preceding the main shock. Increasing seismicity rates and observed peak magnitudes accompanied the last three weeks before the main shock. Thanks to the large data sets of regional recordings, we assess the precursor activity, compare foreshocks and aftershocks and model rupture preparation and rupture effects. To tackle inversion challenges for moderate events with an asymmetric network geometry, we use full waveforms techniques to locate events, map the seismicity rate and derive source parameters, obtaining moment tensors for more than 300 events (magnitudes Mw 4.0-8.1) in the period 2013 January 1-2014 April 30. This unique data set of fore- and aftershocks is investigated to distinguish rupture process models and models of strain and stress rotation during an earthquake. Results indicate that the spatial distributions of foreshocks delineated the shallower part of the rupture areas of the main shock and its largest aftershock, well matching the spatial extension of the aftershocks cloud. Most moment tensors correspond to almost pure double couple thrust mechanisms, consistent with the slab orientation. Whereas no significant differences are observed among thrust mechanisms in different areas, nor among thrust foreshocks and aftershocks, the early aftershock sequence is characterized by the presence of normal fault mechanisms, striking parallel to the trench but dipping westward. These events likely occurred in the shallow wedge structure close to the slab interface and are consequence of the increased extensional stress in this region after the largest events. The overall stress inversion result suggests a minor stress rotation after the main shock, but a significant release of the deviatoric stress. The temporal change in the distribution of focal mechanisms can also be explained in terms of the spatial heterogeneity of the stress field: under such interpretation, the potential of a large megathrust earthquake breaking a larger segment offshore Northern Chile remains high.

  8. New Mesotheriidae (Mammalia, Notoungulata, Typotheria), geochronology and tectonics of the Caragua area, northernmost Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, John J.; Croft, Darin A.; Charrier, Reynaldo; Wyss, André R.; Hérail, Gérard; García, Marcelo

    2005-05-01

    Few mammal fossils were known from the Altiplano or adjoining parts of northern Chile until recently. We report a partial mesotheriid palate from the vicinity of Caragua (Huaylas Formation) in northernmost Chile. The new material helps resolve contradictory taxonomic assignments (and age implications) of the two mesotheriid specimens previously reported from the area. Herein we refer all three mesotheriid specimens to a new taxon, Caraguatypotherium munozi, which is closely related to Plesiotypotherium, Typotheriopsis, Pseudotypotherium, and Mesotherium. This phylogenetic placement permits a revised biochronologic estimate of a post-Friasian/pre-Huayquerian (˜15-9 Ma) age for the Huaylas Formation, consistent with new radioisotopic dates from the upper Huaylas Formation and its bracketing stratigraphic units. Improved geochronologic control for the Huaylas Formation has important implications for the timing of tectonic events in the Precordillera/Altiplano of northern Chile. Structural, stratigraphic, and temporal data suggest the onset of rapid, progressive deformation shortly after the deposition of the older Zapahuira Formation, continuing at least partly through deposition of the Huaylas Formation. Deposition of the Huaylas Formation was short lived (between ˜10-12 Ma), possibly stemming from activity on the Copaquilla-Tignámar Fault in the eastern Precordillera. This deformation is associated with the development of the Oxaya Anticline and activity of the Ausipar Fault west of the study region on the frontal limb of the anticline in the westernmost Precordillera. Faulting and folding occurred rapidly, beginning at ˜11.4 Ma (shortly after deposition of the youngest extrusives of the Zapahuira Formation) and before ˜10.7 Ma (the age of the gently dipping horizons within the upper Huaylas Formation that overlie the mammal fossils and an intraformational unconformity). Mesotheriids are the only Tertiary fossil mammals known from the Precordillera of northernmost Chile thus far; the group is common and diverse in faunas from the Altiplano of Bolivia (and a fauna recently recovered from the Chilean Altiplano), in contrast to most higher-latitude and tropical assemblages. This distinctiveness indicates that intermediate latitudes may have been biogeographically distinct and served as a center of diversification for mesotheriids and other groups of indigenous South American mammals.

  9. Chemical Fingerprinting of Explosive Eruptions from Mocho-Choshuenco Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawson, H. L.; Naranjo, J. A.; Smith, V.; Fontijn, K.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.; Moreno-Roa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Mocho-Choshuenco (39°55'S 72°2'W) is a poorly studied volcanic complex in southern Chile. Previous work on the volcanic deposits identified three post-glacial (<17 ka) explosive eruptions with volumes ?1km3. We have re-examined the field stratigraphy and carried out extensive geochemical analyses on the deposits to fingerprint and correlate the deposits to establish a detailed, high-resolution, post-glacial explosive history of the volcano. This new data indicates that there have been four large (volume ?1km3) explosive eruptions, 12 more minor events from the main edifice, and over 40 minor scoria cone eruptions from the flanks of the volcano. No other volcano in southern Chile is known to have had as many large eruptions in the Holocene, indicating that Mocho-Choshuenco is potentially one of the most hazardous volcanoes in southern Chile.The eruption history of the volcanoes in southern Chile is largely based on field observations. However, tephra deposits are not well preserved in this region, making field mapping difficult and therefore a detailed record of the frequency and magnitude of the Mocho-Choshuenco eruptions is lacking. This work used detailed geochemistry of units within numerous outcrops (ca. 400) both proximally and distally around the volcano to correlate the units and assemble a detailed stratigraphy for the volcano. Since many of the deposits were weathered, and many others were microlite-rich, we could not rely on glass chemistry alone to correlate sequences and hence also used Fe-Ti oxide compositions. This research has generated a large geochemical dataset of the compositions of tephra from the region (>2500 glass and >2800 Fe-Ti oxide analyses), which can now be used to correlate Mocho-Choshuenco tephra layers in the region. Chronological constraints of these units mean that these tephra layers can be used to constrain the eruptive history at other volcanoes in the region. Tephrochronology is also being used to improve the age models of lake cores, which are being used to explore earthquake frequency and the relationship between eruption frequency and climate.

  10. Bacterial community structure in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drees, Kevin P.; Neilson, Julia W.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Henderson, David A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

    2006-01-01

    Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70 degrees S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from each of the samples revealed that microbial communities from the extreme hyperarid core of the desert clustered separately from all of the remaining communities. Bands sequenced from DGGE profiles of two samples taken at a 22-month interval from this core region revealed the presence of similar populations dominated by bacteria from the Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes phyla.

  11. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period. PMID:26285776

  12. More Trees, More Poverty? The Socioeconomic Effects of Tree Plantations in Chile, 2001-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Krister; Lawrence, Duncan; Zavaleta, Jennifer; Guariguata, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Tree plantations play a controversial role in many nations' efforts to balance goals for economic development, ecological conservation, and social justice. This paper seeks to contribute to this debate by analyzing the socioeconomic impact of such plantations. We focus our study on Chile, a country that has experienced extraordinary growth of industrial tree plantations. Our analysis draws on a unique dataset with longitudinal observations collected in 180 municipal territories during 2001-2011. Employing panel data regression techniques, we find that growth in plantation area is associated with higher than average rates of poverty during this period.

  13. Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

  14. Spoc-experiment: Wide-angle Profiling and Seismological Network Off Central Chile (october - December 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierer, P. O.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Tilmann, F.; Gaedicke, C.; Schreckenberger, B.

    The main goal of the RV SONNE cruise 161 SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile), Leg 1 and 4, was to investigate the effects of subducting aseismic ridges and frac- ture zones on the seismicity and structure of the Central Chilean Margin. Scientists from GEOMAR (Kiel), BGR (Hannover), FU Berlin (SFB 267), Universidad de Chile (Santiago) and Instituto Costaricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica) participated in data acquisition and analysis. The SPOC experiment consists of four consecutive legs off Valparaiso, Central Chile. During Leg 1 (October), an array of 23 ocean bottom hydrophons and seismome- ters (OBH/S) was deployed to register local earthquakes. In December (Leg 4), the network was recovered and a total of 125 OBH/S locations were occupied on five wide-angle profiles. They recorded more than 10.000 airgun shots, fired by an airgun array of 20 guns with a total volume of 50 liters. In addition, the wide-angle seis- mic lines were extended by land-based seismometers, operated by the Universidad de Chile, Santiago. Furthermore gravity, magnetics and high resolution bathymetry (SIMRADTM) and sediment echo-sound data (PARASOUNDTM) were recorded. On Legs 2 and 3, the BGR carried out a multi-channel reflection (MCS) seismic survey. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that a considerable number of local earthquakes has been recorded by the passive seismological network. Preliminary location of the hypocenters yield earthquake depths predominantly between 15 and 30 km. Many events registered by the local seismological network have been relocated~10 km west- wards of the previous land-based locations, which might indicate a bias in the existing catalogues. Wide-angle record sections of high quality were obtained, for all profiles shot. Mantle phases over offsets of more than 120 km were recorded by many stations. The pre- liminary velocity depth model derived for a profile striking E-W at 31a S across the subduction zone resolved the lateral transition on the continental slope between ac- creted sediments (vp=4-6 km/s) and the continental backstop (vp=5.5-5.8 km/s) in the subsurface. The two profiles crossing the O'Higgins Seamount and Guyot indicate a Moho depression of about 4 km resulting in a Moho depth of 13-14 km which could be described as a typical hotspot-related crustal thickness anomaly as it is characterized 1 for seamount chains. The collected data will provide new insight into the structure and geometry of sub- ducting aseismic ridges and fracture zones at convergent margins, and their effect on seismicity. 2

  15. The Aysen (Southern Chile) 2007 Seismic Swarm: Volcanic or Tectonic Origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Gallego, A.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V.; Murdie, R.; Vandecar, J.

    2007-05-01

    The Aysen seismic swarm began January 23, 2007, with a magnitude 5.2 (USGS) earthquake and, after an apparent decrease in activity, continued with a magnitude 5.6 event on February 26. The swarm is characterized by numerous felt earthquakes of small to moderate magnitude, located at crustal depths beneath the Aysen Canal, a prominent fiord of the Chilean littoral. The region is characterized by the subduction of an active oceanic spreading ridge: the Chile Ridge, the divergent Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary, is currently subducting beneath continental South America along the Chile Trench at approximately 46.5°S, forming a plate triple junction in the vicinity of the Taitao Peninsula, somewhat south and west of the swarm. Also, the Liquine-Ofqui dextral strike- slip fault traverses the Aysen Canal in the vicinity of the swarm. This fault has been interpreted as a 1000 km long dextral intra-arc strike-slip fault zone, consisting of two major strands which extend north from the Chile Margin triple junction. The Liquiñe-Ofqui system is marked by several pull-apart basins along its trace through the area. Seismic activity along the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone has been poorly studied to date, largely because teleseismic events clearly related to the fault have been few, and southern hemisphere seismic stations are lacking. However, we deployed a dense temporary broad-band seismic network both onland and on the islands in the Aysen region, which allowed us to capture the initial phases of the swarm on some 20 stations, and to determine the background seismicity patterns in this area for the two years preceding the swarm. The swarm could be caused by several processes: the spatial and depth distribution of the events suggests that they are well correlated with reactivation of the southern end of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault, as defined by geologic studies and onshore gravity data collected in southern Chile. The swarm may be related to formation of new volcanic center between Volcan Hudson (last erupted 1991) and Volcan Maca. Given uncertainties in the event locations, the 2007 seismic swarm could also result from a combination of tectonic motions on the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system and magmatic arc activity. The two earthquakes with magnitudes over 5 and the numerous felt earthquake of the swarm clearly indicate that seismic hazard estimations in this previously quiescent region must be re-estimated.

  16. Effects of environmental alerts and pre-emergencies on pollutant concentrations in Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troncoso, Rodrigo; de Grange, Louis; Cifuentes, Luis A.

    2012-12-01

    To reduce air pollution levels in Santiago, Chile on days when the weather is expected to create poor ventilation conditions and increased air pollutant concentrations, the responsible authorities impose temporary restrictions on motor vehicles and certain industrial activities. We estimate the impact of these restrictions on the city's air quality using data collected by a network of monitoring stations. The estimates show that the restrictions do reduce the average concentrations of coarse and fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide (both gases are emitted mainly by vehicles). However, no significant changes were found in the sulfur dioxide concentrations, which are primarily the result of industrial processes.

  17. Radiocarbon and DNA evidence for a pre-Columbian introduction of Polynesian chickens to Chile

    PubMed Central

    Storey, Alice A.; Ramírez, José Miguel; Quiroz, Daniel; Burley, David V.; Addison, David J.; Walter, Richard; Anderson, Atholl J.; Hunt, Terry L.; Athens, J. Stephen; Huynen, Leon; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Two issues long debated among Pacific and American prehistorians are (i) whether there was a pre-Columbian introduction of chicken (Gallus gallus) to the Americas and (ii) whether Polynesian contact with South America might be identified archaeologically, through the recovery of remains of unquestionable Polynesian origin. We present a radiocarbon date and an ancient DNA sequence from a single chicken bone recovered from the archaeological site of El Arenal-1, on the Arauco Peninsula, Chile. These results not only provide firm evidence for the pre-Columbian introduction of chickens to the Americas, but strongly suggest that it was a Polynesian introduction. PMID:17556540

  18. Proxy-based reconstructions of earthquakes and tsunamis over the past millennia, Quidico, central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, I.; Ely, L. L.; Horton, B.; Dura, T.; Cisternas, M.

    2013-12-01

    We utilized geomorphic, sedimentological, and stratigraphic methods to describe the relative magnitude of historic tsunamis and better understand the paleoseismic history at Quidico, Chile (38.1° S, 73.2° W). The study site lies within the transition zone between two major subduction-zone earthquake events during the observational period: the great 1960 Mw 9.5 earthquake to the south and the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake to the north. Despite Chile's growing need to continue to refine earthquake and tsunami hazards, there are few studies aimed at quantifying the geologic impact of earthquake-rupture overlap through time in this region. A combination of pits, cores, and riverbank exposures provide stratigraphic evidence of 5, laterally-continuous sand layers within the Quidico River floodplain. The sand units display landward thinning and disappear completely from the stratigraphy approximately 1 km inland from the coast, characteristic of tsunami deposits. All of the sand units have similar grain-size distribution, ranging from 70-120 ?m, which contrasts with the broader, bimodal distribution of grain size (10-450 ?m) from an eolian dune at the site and the coarser grain size (155-430 ?m) of the local beach sand. Intervening sediment layers consists of organic-rich silts and peat. AMS radiocarbon dates of Scirpus seeds found in peat directly below each sand layer indicate deposition of the sand layers has occurred within the past 800 years. The surficial sand layer (? 2 cm thick) is identified as the deposit from the 2010 tsunami. 137Cs measurements taken above, within, and below the second sand unit (4-7 cm) confirmed 14C results that this layer was deposited by the 1960 tsunami. Preliminary microfossil analysis indicates a slightly more marine diatom assemblage in the 1960 sand layer than in the organic-rich silt units above and below it, indicating a marine incursion. Lithology of the sand layers will further constrain their provenance. Comparison of the chronology of these deposits with the 500-year record of historical earthquakes in this region of Chile will be used to identify which tsunami events are preserved in the stratigraphy at Quidico. This information will help characterize the relative magnitude, preservation pattern, and history of past tsunamis within this transition zone. Correlating this record with additional geologic studies and historic accounts of earthquakes and tsunamis throughout the region will collectively advance our understanding of potential seismic hazards in south-central Chile.

  19. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Jiménez, Jaime E

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60% of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats. PMID:25113741

  20. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Jiménez, Jaime E.

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

  1. FEATURE OF THE 3 MARCH 1985 CHILE EARTHQUAKE - POSSIBLE TERRAIN AMPLIFICATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents results of site-response experiments performed five months after the M//s equals 7. 8 Central Chile Earthquake of 3 March 1985. The objectives of the experiments performed are to identify amplification due to topography and geology. Topographical amplification at Canal Beagle, a subdivision of Vina del Mar, was hypothesized immediately after the main event, when extensive damage was observed on the ridges of Canal Beagle. Spectral ratios determined from aftershock data obtained from a temporary dense array are used to show that there was substantial amplification of motions at the ridges of Canal Beagle.

  2. The Triassic Santa Juana Formation at the lower Biobío River, south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sven N.

    2005-09-01

    A sequence of Triassic rocks is exposed near the town of Concepción, Chile. These clastic strata are interpreted as the deposits of rivers, lakes, playas, and alluvial fans. The deposits comprise conglomerates, arkosic sandstones, and sand-, silt- and mudstones. Four facies associations comprising eight sedimentary facies can be distinguished. Plant fossils from the sedimentary sequence of the Santa Juana Formation indicate a Carnian age. The flora includes ferns ( Gleichenites, Cladophlebis, Dictyophyllum, Thaumatopteris, Asterotheca, Saportaea) and seed ferns ( Kurtziana, Antevsia, Dicroidium), ginkgophytes ( Sphenobaiera), cycads ( Pseudoctenis), conifers ( Heidiphyllum, Telemachus, Rissikia), and gymnosperms of uncertain affinities ( Linguifolium, Gontriglossa). Two new species are presented: Pseudoctenis santajuanensis and Gontriglossa reinerae.

  3. Religion and intimate partner violence in Chile: macro- and micro-level influences.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Evelyn L; Lehrer, Vivian L; Krauss, Ramona C

    2009-09-01

    The Catholic Church has had a strong influence on the Chilean legal and social landscape in ways that have adversely affected victims of intimate partner violence; e.g., it succeeded until just five years ago in blocking efforts to legalize divorce. At the same time, quantitative studies based on survey data from the United States and other countries show a generally favorable influence of religion on health and many other domains of life, including intimate partner violence. The present study explores the puzzle posed by these seemingly opposing macro- and micro-level forces. Results based on data from the 2005 Survey of Student Well-Being, a questionnaire on gender-based violence administered to students at a large public university in Chile, show that moderate or low levels of religiosity are associated with reduced vulnerability to violence, but high levels are not. This non-linearity sheds light on the puzzle, because at the macro level the religious views shaping Chile's legal and social environment have been extreme. PMID:19856701

  4. Site effect evaluation in the basin of Santiago de Chile using ambient noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnefoy-Claudet, Sylvette; Baize, Stéphane; Bonilla, Luis Fabian; Berge-Thierry, Catherine; Pasten, Cesar; Campos, Jaime; Volant, Philippe; Verdugo, Ramon

    2009-03-01

    We performed extensive ambient vibration measurements in the basin of Santiago de Chile (Chile), and we look for testing the reliability of the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V) as a tool to provide qualitative and quantitative information of site effects in complex geological media. The interpretation of the H/V data was carried out conformably to the SESAME project consensus criteria and outlines three major patterns: (1) clear peaked H/V curves related to sharp underground velocity contrast; (2) H/V peak of low amplitude and flat curve related to weak contrast and (3) broad H/V peak indicating the presence of strong lateral variations of underground structure. H/V measurements, however, reveal a discrepancy between the computed soil resonance frequencies and the expected building resonance, therefore not leading to a straight interpretation of the intensity distribution derived from observed damage to one storey houses in Santiago after the 1985 Valparaiso earthquake. Indeed, the H/V technique mostly maps the first fundamental frequency; however, it fails to show higher resonance modes. In the case of the city of Santiago, this method works well for assessing the seismic hazard for high-rise buildings, but is questionable for smaller structures as is the case of a great percentage of constructions in the city.

  5. Symptoms of another life: time, possibility, and domestic relations in Chile's credit economy.

    PubMed

    Han, Clara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I explore the synergy and disjunctures of the consumer credit system and care for the mentally ill and addicted in the lifeworlds of the urban poor in Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the expansion of the credit system has had a double-edged effect on the poor. Although it produces perpetual indebtedness, it also is a resource amid unstable labor. Following an extended family over several years, this article examines how women take up credit through a wider field of domestic relations and institutions to care for kin with mental illness and addiction within the home. Such gestures of care enact a temporality of waiting, allowing different, but unpredictable, aspects of others to emerge. Through longitudinal ethnographic research with this family, I demonstrate both how possibility is actualized within the home as symptoms of illness and forms of domestic violence, and how a wider network of dependencies—from neighbors to lending institutions—shapes the temporality of relations within the home. Such a study of care in relation to the credit economy may offer other analytic perspectives on discourses of individualism, consumerism, and cost-effectiveness accompanying the expansion of consumer credit as they are absorbed into the everyday. PMID:21510328

  6. [Structure of human resources in a public hospital in Chile: an experience in introducing changes].

    PubMed

    Artaza Barrios, O; Montt Vidal, J; Vásquez Leichtle, C

    1997-11-01

    This article discusses the structural and operational reform process that took place beginning in 1994 in Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, a tertiary pediatric care facility run by Oriente Metropolitan Health Center in Santiago, Chile. The formation of the Chilean health care system is briefly outlined, along with the changes brought about by the military government in 1979 and other transformations introduced by the first democratic government in 1990 and by the second one, in 1994. In spite of Chile's favorable health indicators and of the current government's desire to establish equitable services and to launch a decentralized system, the health care system that was fundamentally modeled in the fifties and sixties has failed to respond successfully to the demographic transition and to the population's new epidemiologic profile. One of the main problems is that services at the secondary and tertiary levels lack what is necessary to respond to the demand. Under a new leadership with an interest in modern administrative methods, clinical services at Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital were restructured with new departments and units, a study of the organizational climate was carried out, the entire staff was intensively trained so as to generate a spirit of involvement and a new vision of the hospital's mission and teamwork, and a strategic plan was drawn up that is still being implemented. PMID:9441021

  7. Survey of organophosphorus pesticide residues in virgin olive oils produced in Chile.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Díaz, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Dimethoate, diazinon, parathion methyl, pirimiphos methyl, malathion, fenthion, chlorpyriphos, methidathion and azinphos methyl were determined in 71 olive oil samples produced in Chile from different varieties of olives (arbequina, frantoio, picual, lechino and blend) at three different harvest periods (2007, 2008 and 2009). The target pesticides were determined using a validated analytical method based on microwave-assisted liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction with subsequent GC-FPD detection and GC-MS/MS for confirmation purposes. In 79% of the samples, five of the nine pesticides tested were detected with a frequency of one pesticide per sample. The highest detection rates were observed for the residues of chlorpyriphos and diazinon. The average concentration of chlorpyriphos, diazinon, azinphos methyl and methidathion were 0.084, 0.057, 0.024 and 0.010 µg g(-1), respectively. Higher contents of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were found in regions where intensive agriculture is practiced. However, the levels of OPPs were reassuringly low and indicate that olive oil produced and exported from Chile does not currently represent any risk for consumers. PMID:24785499

  8. Ion Beam Facility at the University of Chile; Applications and Basic Research

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, P. A.; Morales, J. R.; Cancino, S.; Dinator, M. I.; Donoso, N.; Sepulveda, A.; Ortiz, P.; Rojas, S.

    2010-08-04

    The main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Chile are described at this work. Current activities are mainly focused on the application of the Ion Beam Analysis techniques for environmental, archaeological, and material science analysis. For instance, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is applied to measure thin gold film thickness which are used to determine their resistivity and other electrical properties. At this laboratory the Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) methodologies are extensively used for trace element analysis of urban aerosols (Santiago, Ciudad de Mexico). A similar study is being carried out at the Antarctica Peninsula. Characterization studies on obsidian and vitreous dacite samples using PIXE has been also perform allowing to match some of these artifacts with geological source sites in Chile.Basic physics research is being carried out by measuring low-energy cross section values for the reactions {sup 63}Cu(d,p){sup 64}Cu and {sup Nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga. Both radionuclide {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga are required for applications in medicine. Ongoing stopping power cross section measurements of proton and alphas on Pd, Cu, Bi and Mylar are briefly discussed.

  9. When constitutional justice has the last word on health care: the case of Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The Chilean health care system is in crisis. Since the recent ruling of the Constitutional Court that declared the risk rating (actuarial insurance) of private health insurers unconstitutional, all of the social actors related to health care have tried to agree on a legislative reform that would overcome the existing highly segmented and inequitable system, which is a legacy of Pinochet's dictatorship. Here we demonstrate how the social and political demands for legislative reform in the health care sector have been supported by the decisions of the courts. To achieve its goals of reducing equity gaps in health and ending the judicialization of health care (claims for protection represent almost 70% of total resources of the courts), the National Congress of Chile is trying to create a new national health insurance system that guarantees the right to a minimum level of health care. Part of this effort involves obtaining the constitutional approval of the courts. In Chile, justice has the final word on health care. PMID:24919310

  10. Tsunami Inversion on 2010 Chile Earthquake with the Small Unit Tsunami Inverse Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T.; He, D.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the small unit tsunami inverse method (SUTIM) is developed to reconstruct the initial free-surface profile of a tsunami triggered by an earthquake event. The profile of the tsunami source can be treated as the seafloor vertical displacement which is important for understanding the characteristics of the earthquakes and local geology. The newly developed SUTIM is able to reproduce the initial free-surface displacement with a very fine resolution. The algorithm is speeded up by the Grid-Shifting method. A smoothing constrain is adopted as well to gain the accuracy. A series of performance tests and validations is presented in this paper. At the end, the SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks. Very good agreement can be seen in figure 1. The detailed discussion is presented in the full paper. Figure 1. The initial tsunami free-surface profile of 2010 Chile earthquake is obtained by using SUTIM. The big red circle shows the epicenter of the earthquake. The small black dots on the left show the aftershocks. The green triangles are the wave gauges. The color indicates the initial tsunami profile obtained from SUTIM. The contours on right plot show the water elevation from the Okada (1985) half-space semi-elastic model.

  11. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

  12. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  13. Not all fish are equal: functional biodiversity of cartilaginous fishes (Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, C; Vargas-Caro, C; Bennett, M B

    2014-11-01

    A review of the primary literature on the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras), together with new information suggests that 106 species occur in Chilean waters, comprising 58 sharks, 30 skates, 13 rays and five chimaeras. The presence of 93 species was confirmed, although 30 species were encountered rarely, through validated catch records and sightings made in artisanal and commercial fisheries and on specific research cruises. Overall, only 63 species appear to have a range distribution that normally includes Chilean waters. Actual reliable records of occurrence are lacking for 13 species. Chile has a cartilaginous fish fauna that is relatively impoverished compared with the global species inventory, but conservative compared with countries in South America with warm-temperate waters. The region of highest species richness occurs in the mid-Chilean latitudes of c. 30-40° S. This region represents a transition zone with a mix of species related to both the warm-temperate Peruvian province to the north and cold-temperate Magellan province to the south. This study provides clarification of species occurrence and the functional biodiversity of Chile's cartilaginous fish fauna. PMID:25263288

  14. Comparison of soil microbial communities inhabiting vineyards and native sclerophyllous forests in central Chile.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Luis E; Godoy, Karina; Manzano, Marlene; Marquet, Pablo A; Barbosa, Olga

    2015-09-01

    Natural ecosystems provide services to agriculture such as pest control, soil nutrients, and key microbial components. These services and others in turn provide essential elements that fuel biomass productivity. Responsible agricultural management and conservation of natural habitats can enhance these ecosystem services. Vineyards are currently driving land-use changes in many Mediterranean ecosystems. These land-use changes could have important effects on the supporting ecosystems services related to the soil properties and the microbial communities associated with forests and vineyard soils. Here, we explore soil bacterial and fungal communities present in sclerophyllous forests and organic vineyards from three different wine growing areas in central Chile. We employed terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) to describe the soil microbial communities inhabiting native forests and vineyards in central Chile. We found that the bacterial community changed between the sampled growing areas; however, the fungal community did not differ. At the local scale, our findings show that fungal communities differed between habitats because fungi species might be more sensitive to land-use change compared to bacterial species, as bacterial communities did not change between forests and vineyards. We discuss these findings based on the sensitivity of microbial communities to soil properties and land-use change. Finally, we focus our conclusions on the importance of naturally derived ecosystem services to vineyards. PMID:26445647

  15. Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-09-01

    In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile. PMID:23183564

  16. Identification and genetic characterization of Piscirickettsia salmonis in native fish from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Lynch, Sergio; Olmos, Paola; Vargas, Augusto; Figueroa, Jaime; González-Stegmaier, Roxana; Enríquez, Ricardo; Romero, Alex

    2015-08-20

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiological agent of piscirickettsiosis, a severe disease causing high mortalities in salmonids. This bacterium has been previously identified and isolated in all cultivated salmonids in Chile and worldwide, including Salmo salar, Oncorhynchus kisutch, and O. mykiss, in addition to being found in non-salmonid species such as Dicentrarchus labrax and Atractoscion nobilis. In this study, the 16S rRNA gene and intergenic spacer ITS-1 of P. salmonis were amplified by PCR from DNA samples extracted from the native Chilean fish species Eleginops maclovinus, Odontesthes regia, Sebastes capensis, and Salilota australis. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequences from O. regia demonstrated a close phylogenetic relationship with the 16S rRNA gene in the Chilean EM-90 strain. The 16S rRNA sequences from E. maclovinus, S. capensis, and S. australis were related to the Chilean LF-89 sequence and Scottish strains. To confirm these findings, analysis of P. salmonis ITS-1 sequences obtained from the 4 sampled native species demonstrated a high degree of identity and a close phylogenetic relationship with Chilean P. salmonis sequences, including LF-89 and EM-90. These results suggest a strong relationship between the nucleotide sequences from the 16S rRNA and ITS-1 genes amplified from native fish with those sequences described in the first P. salmonis strains to be identified and isolated in Chile. PMID:26290508

  17. Mean glandular dose in six digital mammography services in Santiago, Chile: preliminary reference levels.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Do Socorro; Dantas, Marcelino; Duran, Maria Paz; Ubeda, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate mean glandular dose levels (DG) in six digital mammography systems in Santiago, Chile, and to propose preliminary reference levels to execute mammography in Chile. The study was carried out assessing two direct digital systems and four computer-based radiography (CR) systems. Estimates of DG were calculated for different thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate according to the quality control protocol in digital mammography of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. DG values ranged between 0.64 and 7.26 mGy for a range of 20- to 70-mm thickness, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of DG was higher than the acceptable dose level and 100 % of DG was higher than the desirable level. It is therefore necessary to optimise doses. The initial proposal to establish dose reference levels for DG would range between 0.90 and 6.40 mGy for a thickness range of 20 to 70 mm. PMID:25833896

  18. Lung cancer mortality trends in Chile and six-year projections using Bayesian dynamic linear models.

    PubMed

    Torres-Avilés, Francisco; Moraga, Tomás; Núñez, Loreto; Icaza, Gloria

    2015-09-01

    The objectives were to analyze lung cancer mortality trends in Chile from 1990 to 2009, and to project the rates six years forward. Lung cancer mortality data were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health. To obtain mortality rates, population projections were used, based on the 2002 National Census. Rates were adjusted using the world standard population as reference. Bayesian dynamic linear models were fitted to estimate trends from 1990 to 2009 and to obtain projections for 2010-2015. During the period under study, there was a 19.9% reduction in the lung cancer mortality rate in men. In women, there was increase of 28.4%. The second-order model showed a better fit for men, and the first-order model a better fit for women. Between 2010 and 2015 the downward trend continued in men, while a trend to stabilization was projected for lung cancer mortality in women in Chile. This analytical approach could be useful implement surveillance systems for chronic non-communicable disease and to evaluate preventive strategies. PMID:26578021

  19. Upwelling and dissolved oxygen variability over the continental shelf off Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-05-01

    In contrast to the legendary upwelling that is present along the Peruvian and northern Chilean coasts, the coastal ocean off central Chile presents a highly seasonal upwelling regime that extends from early spring to mid fall. This region is also affected by a strong subsurface poleward flow, which transports southward low-oxygen water from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Coastal waters are highly productive due to upwelling, but the upwelled source waters are very low in oxygen and may produce hypoxia near the bottom over the continental shelf. The spatial structure and main scales of variability of the upwelling cells and dissolved oxygen are poorly understood off central Chile. One of the main limitations has been the lack of direct information. During the last years an observational program has been conducted over the relatively wide continental shelf off Concepción (36°30' S). This program has included ship-based (monthly) time-series, underwater glider observations and time-series based on moored sensors. Here, based on physical (temperature, salinity, pressure, velocity), biological (chlorophyll fluorescence) and chemical (dissolved oxygen) information, we analyze the main scales of time variability of the upwelling, the coastal currents and their impact on the dissolved oxygen. The cross-shelf structure of the upwelling region was sampled using underwater gliders capable of sampling the entire water column to a maximum of 1000 m and from near shore to 200 km offshore.

  20. Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings. PMID:24407313

  1. Gastrointestinal and external parasites of Enicognathus ferrugineus and Enicognathus leptorhynchus (Aves, Psittacidae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Valdebenito, José Osvaldo; Moreno, Lucila; Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos; Kinsella, John Mike; Mironov, Sergey; Cicchino, Armando; Troncoso, Ignacio; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Parasite species are important components of biodiversity, as they provide valuable information about host health, evolutionary relationships, population structures, trophic interactions, the existence of environmental stresses, and climatic conditions. With the aim of describing the parasites associated with parrots of the genus Enicognathus Gray 1840 from central Chile, thirteen austral parakeets, Enicognathus ferrugineus, and five slender-billed parakeets, E. leptorhynchus, were examined between September 2007 and March 2014. The prevalence of ectoparasites and endoparasites was 88.9% and 22.2%, respectively. On eleven of the E. ferrugineus (84.6%) analyzed, and on all of the E. leptorhynchus analyzed (100%), five feather mite species (Pararalichus hastifolia, Genoprotolichus major, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp.) were collected. On ten E. ferrugineus (76.9%) and two E. leptorhynchus (40%), the chewing lice Heteromenopon macrurum, Psittacobrossus patagoni, and Paragoniocotes enicognathidis were collected. The nematode Capillaria plagiaticia was collected from three E. ferrugineus (23.1%), and the nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita was found in one E. leptorhynchus (20%). The presence of C. plagiaticia, Protonyssus sp., Fainalges sp., and Eurydiscalges sp. from the two Enicognathus spp. are new records for Chile and represent new parasite-host associations. PMID:26648008

  2. Clones identification of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile by using PCR-RAPDs technique.

    PubMed

    Toral Ibañez, Manuel; Caru, Margarita; Herrera, Miguel A; Gonzalez, Luis; Martin, Luis M; Miranda, Jorge; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M

    2009-02-01

    A protocol of polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNAs (PCR-RAPDs) was established to analyse the gene diversity and genotype identification for clones of Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. in Chile. Ten (out of 34) clones from introduction trial located in Voipir-Villarrica, Chile, were studied. The PCR-RAPDs technique and a modified hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) protocol were used for genomic DNA extraction. The PCR tests were carried out employing 10-mer random primers. The amplification products were detected by electrophoresis in agarose gels. Forty nine polymorphic bands were obtained with the selected primers (BG04, BF07, BF12, BF13, and BF14) and were ordered according to their molecular size. The genetic similarity between samples was calculated by the Jaccard index and a dendrogram was constructed using a cluster analysis of unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Of the primers tested, 5 (out of 60) RAPD primers were selected for their reproducibility and high polymorphism. A total of 49 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 252 bands. The genetic similarity analysis demonstrates an extensive genetic variability between the tested clones and the dendrogram depicts the genetic relationships among the clones, suggesting a geographic relationship. The results indicate that the RAPD markers permitted the identification of the assayed clones, although they are derived from the same geographic origin. PMID:19235269

  3. Boron exposure assessment using drinking water and urine in the North of Chile.

    PubMed

    Cortes, S; Reynaga-Delgado, E; Sancha, A M; Ferreccio, C

    2011-12-01

    Boron is an essential trace element for plants and humans however it is still an open question what levels of boron are actually safe for humans. This study, conducted between 2006 and 2010, measured exposure levels of boron in drinking water and urine of volunteers in Arica, an area in the North of Chile with high levels of naturally occurring boron. Samples were taken of tap and bottled water (173 and 22, respectively), as well as urine from 22 volunteers, and subsequently analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron varied in public tap water from 0.22 to 11.3mgL(-1), with a median value of 2.9mgL(-1), while concentrations of boron in bottled water varied from 0.01 to 12.2mgL(-1). Neither tap nor bottled water samples had concentrations of boron within WHO recommended limits. The concentration of boron in urine varied between 0.45 and 17.4mgL(-1), with a median of 4.28mgL(-1) and was found to be correlated with tap water sampled from the homes of the volunteers (r=0.64). Authors highly recommend that in northern Chile - where levels of boron are naturally high - that the tap and bottled water supplies be monitored in order to protect public health and that regulatory standards also be established for boron in drinking water in order to limit exposure. PMID:21978616

  4. Testing for Changes in Crustal Velocity at the Tocopilla Earthquake, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, T.; Asch, G.; Kind, R.

    2011-12-01

    We use two different techniques to investigate the region between Antofagasta and Arica in northern Chile for crustal velocity changes. Data are taken from the 19 broadband stations of the IPOC project (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) operating partly since 2006 by GFZ and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the neighborhood of the seismic stations an M7.0 earthquake occurred near Tocopilla on 14 November 2007. Other studies have shown that in the course of such earthquakes seismic velocities may be changing (e.g. Brenguier et al. 2008). The first method is testing for phase shifts in receiver functions. To avoid varying travel paths of different events we compare events located in small source regions. Although temporal variations have been found in receiver functions for the Parkfield M6.0 and San Simeon M6.5 earthquakes (Audet 2006) we cannot find any variations exceeding the noise level of our dataset at the time of the M7.0 earthquake near Tocopilla. Therefore the data is analyzed with the help of cross-correlation technique of ambient seismic noise (Bensen et al. 2007). Compared to the first method it has the advantage of regularly available correlation functions (e.g. 1 per day). We report on first results.

  5. Antecedents and perspectives on the development of nuclear energy in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    A review of activities and future prospects of nuclear energy in Chile is presented. It shows that the development of this sector is closely linked to the history of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, CCHEN, established in 1965. We can distinguish three stages in its development: the installation, culminating at the beginning of 1974 with the La Reina experimental nuclear reactor went critical. Then a phase of consolidation, which reduces the activity of scientific research and stresses the application, between the years 1974 and the end of the eighties, and finally the last twenty years, a stage of continuity marked by a loss of importance and leadership of the institution at the national level, despite having important specific initiatives in the 2000s, such as the successful development of fuel elements, the installation of a cyclotron that allows the execution of PET diagnosis for the first time in the country and the consolidation of a research laboratory on plasma and nuclear fusion. At present there is a consensus that nuclear sector in Chile needs to be placed in accordance with the development experienced by the country, and therefore requires a profound restructuring of the CCHEN, reviewing its vision, mission and work program. Here is a proposal in this regard.

  6. [Injudicious and excessive use of antibiotics: public health and salmon aquaculture in Chile].

    PubMed

    Millanao B, Ana; Barrientos H, Marcela; Gómez C, Carolina; Tomova, Alexandra; Buschmann, Alejandro; Dölz, Humberto; Cabello, Felipe C

    2011-01-01

    Salmon aquaculture was one of the major growing and exporting industries in Chile. Its development was accompanied by an increasing and excessive use of large amounts of antimicrobials, such as quinolones, tetracyclines and florfenicol. The examination of the sanitary conditions in the industry as part of a more general investigation into the uncontrolled and extensive dissemination of the ISA virus epizootic in 2008, found numerous and wide-ranging shortcomings and limitations in management of preventive fish health. There was a growing industrial use of large amounts of antimicrobials as an attempt at prophylaxis of bacterial infections resulting from widespread unsanitary and unhealthy fish rearing conditions. As might be expected, these attempts were unsuccessful and this heavy antimicrobial use failed to prevent viral and parasitic epizootics. Comparative analysis of the amounts of antimicrobials, especially quinolones, consumed in salmon aquaculture and in human medicine in Chile robustly suggests that the most important selective pressure for antibiotic resistant bacteria in the country will be excessive antibiotic use in this industry. This excessive use will facilitate selection of resistant bacteria and resistance genes in water environments. The commonality of antibiotic resistance genes and the mobilome between environmental aquatic bacteria, fish pathogens and pathogens of terrestrial animals and humans suggests that horizontal gene transfer occurs between the resistome of these apparently independent and isolated bacterial populations. Thus, excessive antibiotic use in the marine environment in aquaculture is not innocuous and can potentially negatively affect therapy of bacterial infections of humans and terrestrial animals. PMID:21526325

  7. Acoustics: A branch of engineering at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, Victor; Arenas, Jorge P.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

    2002-11-01

    At the end of the 1960s, the first acousticians graduating at UACh had acquired an education in applied physics and musical arts, since there was no College of Engineering at that time. Initially, they had a (rather modest) four-year undergraduate program, and most of the faculty were not specialized teachers. The graduates from such a program received a sound engineering degree and they were skilled for jobs in the musical industry and sound reinforcement companies. In addition, they worked as sound engineers and producers. Later, because of the scientific, industrial and educational changes in Chile during the 1980s, the higher education system had massive changes that affected all of the undergraduate and graduate programs of the 61 universities in Chile. The UACh College of Engineering was officially founded in 1989. Then, acoustics as an area of expertise was included, widened and developed as an interdisciplinary subject. Currently, the undergraduate program in acoustics at UACh offers a degree in engineering sciences and a 6-year professional studies in Civil Engineering (Acoustics), having two main fields: Sound and Image, and Environment and Industry.

  8. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965

  9. Recent Advances in the National Seismographic Network of Chile: GPS as Tsunami Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Major plans were devised in 2007 for the establishment of a new National Seismographic Network for Chile comprising the existing academic instruments together with additional instruments to be acquired. In the meantime, a network of 10 observatories has been implemented by IRIS jointly with Chilean efforts. The Government approved funding in several stages allowing the acquisition of 65 broad-band stations, 297 strong motion instruments and about 130 dual-frequency devices. The 65 broad-band sites also house accelerometers and GPS devices transmitting in robust real-time links to a Central Data Processing in Santiago. Of the 297 strong motion instruments, distributed along the country with concentrated nests in large cities, it is envisioned that only a percentage will have robust communication capabilities; the rest will be connected with 3G (or 4G) means utilizing local providers. Another suit of 60-70 GPS devices will be installed along the coast, around 40-50 km from each other covering the Chilean portion of the Nazca-South America plate interaction, considered as the most seismically active segment of the country. International collaboration efforts to include real-time transmission and processing of the GPS data will complement the existing automatic seismic system. It is expected that this complementary design will not only allow rapid preliminary estimation of hypocentral parameters but also rupture location and extension as well as displacement distribution on the causative fault, essential ingredients to assess the tsunamigenic potential of large thrust-type earthquakes in Chile.

  10. Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Herman, Matthew W.; Barnhart, William D.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Riquelme, Sebástian; Benz, Harley M.; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul S.; Samsonov, Sergey

    2014-08-01

    The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile, which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M ~8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March-April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence.

  11. Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Gavin P; Herman, Matthew W; Barnhart, William D; Furlong, Kevin P; Riquelme, Sebástian; Benz, Harley M; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul S; Samsonov, Sergey

    2014-08-21

    The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile, which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M ?8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March-April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence. PMID:25119028

  12. Women's opinions on the legalisation of abortion in Chile 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tia; Infante Erazo, Mariela; Hurtado Pinochet, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Chile is one of only four countries in the world where there is no explicit legal exception to prohibitions on abortion, and where the criminalisation of abortion endangers women's health and may be misaligned with public opinion. In this study we explored attitudes towards the legalisation of abortion and differences in levels of support across time. Among Chilean women in 2009 and 2013, we examined: (1) an additive index indicating support for legalisation of abortion in several situations and (2) support for each situation separately. We investigated the demographic characteristics associated with support for legalisation using multivariate regression. Over 70% of women supported the legalisation of abortion in cases of risk to the woman's life, rape and foetal malformation, and support was higher in 2013 compared to 2009 (β = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.44). Women with increasing education and those attending church services less frequently were more likely to support the legalisation of abortion (β = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.43), while those affiliated to a religion other than Catholicism (β =  - 0.32; 95% CI:  - 0.48,  - 0.16) were less likely to do so. Our study is the first to examine public opinions on abortion in Chile and differences in levels of support across time periods. Results indicate that current policies may not reflect trends in public opinion. PMID:25703034

  13. Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Herman, Matthew W.; Barnhart, William D.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Riquelme, Sebástian; Benz, Harley M.; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul; Samsonov, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M ~8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March–April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence.

  14. Highest redshift neutral hydrogen image in emission: A CHILES detection of a starbursting spiral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ximena; Van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Gim, Hansung; Yun, Min Su; Momjian, Emmanuel; CHILES Team

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of galaxy evolution still has many uncertainties associated with the details of gas accretion, processing, and removal across cosmic time. The next generation of radio telescopes will image the neutral hydrogen in galaxies over large volumes at high redshifts, which will provide key insights into these processes. We are conducting the COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES) with the VLA, which is the first survey to simultaneously observe HI from z=0 to z=0.5. The full survey consists of 1002 hours of observing time, giving us the sensitivity to image HI in 300 galaxies in the COSMOS field. Here, we report the highest redshift HI detection to date, the LIRG COSMOS J100054.83+023126.2 at z=0.376 with the first 178 hours of CHILES data. While the optical image shows it to be a large undisturbed spiral, the HI distribution is very extended and offset from the optical center. This could be evidence for interactions with companions or accretion fueling the starburst. In addition, we present follow-up LMT CO observations that reveal it to be gas-rich in molecular hydrogen. This is the first study of the HI and CO for a galaxy beyond the local Universe, which will enable us to start exploring the ISM of LIRGs at higher redshift.

  15. From state terrorism to state errorism: post-Pinochet Chile's long search for truth and justice.

    PubMed

    Wyndham, Marivic; Read, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Patio 29 lies in the northern sector of Santiago's General Cemetery. To the naked eye, it is a grim unweeded field of some twelve hundred rusted tin crosses. But to the families of the 1,197 detained-disappeared during Augusto Pinochet's brutal dictatorship, Patio 29 is both a site of horror and a site of hope. Its story begins in September-December 1973 when 320 early victims of the repression were brought there in makeshift wooden crates that held as many as three bodies each, and buried in unmarked graves. A few years later, two hundred of those graves were exhumed by the military, and the remains presumably cremated. For another decade, the mass grave remained silent, yielding few of its secrets to the families' demands to know: Where are they? Today, nineteen years into the so-called transition to democracy, Patio 29--the most important single finding in relation to Chile's detained-disappeared-still refuses to reveal the identities of those victims, pressing upon the government of Michelle Bachelet a new question: Who are they? First state terror, now state error have conspired to make Patio 29 one of Chile's principal horror-cum-hopescapes. PMID:20503913

  16. Synthesis and establishment of Tuber melanosporum Vitt. ectomycorrhizae on two Nothofagus species in Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Francisco; Palfner, Götz; Brunel, Nidia; Santelices, Rómulo

    2007-10-01

    Axenically germinated seedlings of two species of Southern beech (Nothofagus obliqua, N. glauca) from Chile were inoculated with spores of the Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum). Ectomycorrhizal development was monitored for 6 months in the greenhouse and compared to the performance of the natural host species Quercus ilex and Quercus robur. Seedling survival and mycorrhization showed major differences in both Nothofagus species: T. melanosporum readily formed ectomycorrhizae with seedlings of N. obliqua, although at a lower rate than with Q. ilex but at a proportion very similar to Q. robur; survival and colonization rates were high, and seedling growth was not visibly affected by the high soil pH required by T. melanosporum. In contrast, more than 50% of N. glauca seedlings died after inoculation, and mycorrhiza formation was very sparse. In both species, no colonization by adventive ectomycorrhizal fungi could be observed, whereas both species of Quercus showed minor colonization by another fungus, probably Inocybe or Hebeloma. Our results show that it is possible to infect N. obliqua with the Périgord black truffle under greenhouse conditions, which opens up the possibility of cultivating this truffle as a secondary crop during reforestation with N. obliqua in Chile. PMID:17598134

  17. Tidal Variation in Non Volcanic Seismic Tremor Activity at the Chile Triple Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V. I.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    We present evidence that non volcanic seismic tremor detected at Chile Ridge Subduction Project (CRSP) seismic network correlates with the semidiurnal (M2) tidal amplitude variation, enhanced by the lunar monthly (Mm) orbital cycle. Tremors were detected at 14 broadband seismic stations in the Los Chonos Archipelago and Taitao Peninsula by two methods: simple visual inspection of correlated tremor on seismograms at CRSP stations, and an automated search of the tremor frequency band (5-10 Hz). The two methods yield similar results. Analysis of two years of data (2005-2006) reveals a positive correlation (R = 0.76) between daily tremor duration and daily tidal variations, with a lag of 2.5 days between maximum tidal amplitude difference and tremor activity. The 28 day tidal cycle is produced by conjunction (New Moon), generating the highest and lowest tide amplitudes of the orbital cycle. Gravitational traction due to tidal acceleration is maximum near the latitude of the study region, and is enhanced by the ocean loading. At least two hypotheses could explain the correlation: stress cycling on the subducted Taitao and Darwin transform faults due to solid earth tide and ocean loading, leading to tremor generation; or enhanced hydrothermal activity during fluid release in the subducted Chile ridge structure.

  18. The effects of NO3(-) supply on Mazzaella laminarioides (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Barahona, Tamara; Plastino, Estela M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of nitrate supply on growth, pigments, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), C:N ratios and carrageenan yield were investigated in Mazzaella laminarioides cultivated under solar radiation. This species is economically important in southern Chile where an increase of nitrogen in coastal waters is expected as a consequence of salmon aquaculture activity. Apical segments were cultivated in enriched seawater with five different NO3(-) concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.18, 0.38 and 0.75 mm) during 18 days. Although phycoerythrin and phycocyanin content, as well as C:N ratios, were reduced in the control treatment (without NO3(-) supply), when compared to NO3(-) treatments, total MAA concentration, carrageenan yield and growth rates were similar in all tested conditions. Nevertheless, during the experiment, an important synthesis of mycosporine-glycine took place in a nitrate concentration-dependent manner, with accumulation being saturated around 0.18 mm of nitrate. These results indicate that exposure to high NO3(-) concentration of more than 100 times the values observed in the nature did not impair the photoprotection system, as determined by MAAs, nor did it have a deleterious effect on growth or carrageenan yield of M. laminarioides, a late successional species from Chile. PMID:25214037

  19. Far-IR Measurements at Cerro Toco, Chile: FIRST, REFIR, and AERI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, Richard P.; Alford, J. Ashley; Johnson, David G.; Kratz, David P.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    In mid-2009, the Radiative Heating in the Underexplored Bands Campaign II (RHUBC-II) was conducted from Cerro Toco, Chile, a high, dry, remote mountain plateau, 23degS , 67.8degW at 5.4km, in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. From this site, dominant IR water vapor absorption bands and continuum, saturated when viewed from the surface at lower altitudes, or in less dry locales, were investigated in detail, elucidating IR absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Three FTIR instruments were at the site, the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST), the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR), and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). In a side-by-side comparison, these measured atmospheric downwelling radiation, with overlapping spectral coverage from 5 to100um (2000 to 100/cm), and instrument spectral resolutions from 0.5 to 0.64/cm, unapodized. In addition to the FTIR and other ground-based IR and microwave instrumentation, pressure/temperature/relative humidity measuring sondes, for atmospheric profiles to 18km, were launched from the site several times a day. The derived water vapor profiles, determined at times matching the FTIR measurement times, were used to model atmospheric radiative transfer. Comparison of instrument data, all at the same spectral resolution, and model calculations, are presented along with a technique for determining adjustments to line-by-line calculation continuum models. This was a major objective of the campaign.

  20. Parasite richness in fish larvae from the nearshore waters of central and northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Gabriela; Landaeta, Mauricio F; Palacios-Fuentes, Pamela; Lopez, Zambra; Gonzalez, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we determine the presence of parasites in fish larvae collected from nearshore waters along the northern and central coast of Chile. The parasites were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level based on morphological and molecular analyses. The fish sample was composed of 5 574 fish larvae. Of these, 3% harboured only larval ectoparasitic copepods whereas no endoparasites were found in the 1 141 fish evaluated for this group of parasites. The parasitic copepods collected were initially classified as 'morphotypes' according to differences in morphological characteristics. They were then analysed using molecular techniques based on the 28S and COI genes. Seven morphotypes of parasitic copepods (mostly at chalimus stages) were recognised: two of the morphotypes belonged to Pennellidae Burmeister, 1835, three to Caligidae Burmeister, 1835 and two were not identified. Only five morphotypes of copepods were analysed using molecular sequences, which confirmed the existence of six species: two pennellids of the genus Trifur Wilson, 1917 and two caligids of the genus Caligus Müller, 1785, plus two additional species that were morphologically different from these taxa. The pennellids were present in several fish species, being generally more prevalent than the caligids, in both the central and northern localities of Chile. Multispecies infections in larval fish were infrequent (< 1%). We conclude that fish larvae were rich in parasites, considering that these hosts exhibited small body sizes and were very young. We suggest that fish larvae could play a role, as intermediate hosts, in the life cycle of the parasitic copepods found. PMID:26040465