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1

Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This paper discusses the approach and shows how it can be applied to investigate reliability issues in SoS.

Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

2009-01-01

2

Reflexions and gain ripple in TWT's  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of the electron beam in a TWT introduces additional internal reflexions that are not present in the cold tube, at the output, at the input, and at the attenuator. These additional reflexions, that we denote \\

S. O. Wallander

1972-01-01

3

Remesas personales desde y hacia Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Globalization, which involves progressive integration of countries’ economies, has resulted in an increasing number of people moving from one country to another, without losing their ties to their original home economies. Increasingly, immigrants are sending money to their home countries (remittances). These remittances have raised great interest in developing countries, not only because of their signifi cant volume and impact

Álvaro del Real; Alfredo Fuentes

2011-01-01

4

Confieso que Divulgo. Reflexiones y Experiencias de una Astrofísica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Este artículo presenta algunas reflexiones en torno a la popularización de la Ciencia, desarrolladas a lo largo de mi trayectoria profesional, un camino inacabado desde la intuición al oficio. Tras revisar las señas de identidad de la divulgación científica, se exponen ideas, experiencias y recursos, cribados por la práctica y su posterior análisis crítico. Se destacan las actividades relacionadas con la Astronomía, que se cuentan entre las más espectaculares y gratificantes. Confessions of a popularizer: This paper presents some author’s thoughts about scientific outreach, developed along her professional path, an unfinished way from intuition to trade. First, identity signs of outreach are revised; then, ideas, experiences and resources, sifted by practice and further critical analysis, are reviewed. Activities related to Astronomy, being one of the most spectacular and rewarding, are remarked 1

Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.

5

Software Reflexion Models: Bridging the Gap between Design and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artifacts constituting a software system often drift apart over time. We have developed the software reflexion model technique to help engineers perform various software engineering tasks by exploiting—rather than removing—the drift between design and implementation. More specifically, the technique helps an engineer compare artifacts by summarizing where one artifact (such as a design) is consistent with and inconsistent with

Gail C. Murphy; David Notkin; Kevin J. Sullivan

2001-01-01

6

Lopez de Penalver's Reflexiones : an economic and mathematical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juan Lopez de Penalver was an engineer and mathematician who trained in Spain, Central Europe and Paris. His Reflexiones sobre la variacion del precio del trigo (1812) contained three models of: (1) wages, wheat prices and mortality; (2) transport costs and location; and (3) constant relative prices, which were brought to an international readership in 1961. His complete works were

Ernest Lluch

2001-01-01

7

Die Polarisierung von Röntgenstrahlen durch Reflexion an Kristallen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird in einigen Fällen gezeigt, daß das an einem Kristall unter 900 nach der Braggschen Beziehung reflektierte Röntgenlicht praktisch vollständig polarisiert ist und daß bei Belichtung eines Kristalls mit linear polarisiertem Röntgenlicht keine Reflexion eintritt, falls die Richtung des reflektierten Strahles in die Schwingungsrichtung des polarisierten einfallenden Strahles fällt. Es lassen sich so Kristalle als Polarisatoren und Analysatoren

H. Mark; L. Szilard

1926-01-01

8

Geography of Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to explore the diverse geographic regions of Chile. How many kinds of terrain does Chile have? Please work with a partner to answer the following questions about each region in Chile, using the websites made available to you. Make sure you take advantage of these websites, because at the end of the lesson you will be completing a ...

Drummond, Ms.

2009-10-21

9

Direct simulation Monte Carlo of shock reflexion on a wedge with boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical investigation of pseudo-steady oblique shock wave reflexion by a wedge at low densities is presented. The real gas flow is simulated at the molecular level by a large number of model particles following their positions in phase space. A two dimensional computational model is used to generate the shock reflexion. Calculations are carried out for a shock Mach

F. Seiler; H. Oertel; B. Schmidt

1988-01-01

10

Astronomía Gamma desde El Leoncito  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La astronomía gamma, en el extremo de energías detectadas hasta el presente, se encuentra en desarrollo en muchas partes del mundo y proporciona resultados sorprendentes a medida que la tecnología avanza en el desarrollo de nuevos detectores. La técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica es la utilizada para la detección, mediante telescopios en tierra, del efecto secundario causado por la radiación gamma de muy altas energías (E ? TeV). Por medio de telescopios o arreglos de detectores y utilizando la técnica mencionada, se han podido detectar algunas fuentes puntuales de mucha importancia astrofísica como la Nebulosa del Cangrejo y la galaxia de núcleo activo Markarian 421. El sistema instalado en San Juan, en cooperación con el grupo de Radiación Gamma del Observatorio Whipple, está constituído por tres colectores de 1.5m que registran pulsos de luz generados por las cascadas de partículas producidas por rayos cósmicos de todo tipo al entrar en la atmósfera terrestre. El sistema opera por barrido en ascención recta de la fuente observada que, para esta etapa del experimento, es el Centro Galáctico. Esta fuente extensa es conocida como emisor gamma de energías inferiores al TeV y ha sido observada anteriormente en este rango de energía desde el hemisferio norte pero con elevaciones bajas, situación no óptima para este tipo de técnica. Se presentan los primeros resultados del análisis de los datos obtenidos observando la región del Centro Galáctico, luego de dos años de observaciones, así como una descripción de la técnica Cherenkov Atmosférica y del equipo utilizado en la experiencia.

Rovero, A. C.; Colombo, E.; Sahade, J.; Weekes, T. C.

11

Country Profiles, Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of Chile is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

Goldsmith, Alfredo; And Others

12

Highlights on DESD Progress to Date  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief report, delivered after the completion of the 1st year of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014), highlights the recent developments regarding the Decade (2005). It reports on the documents prepared, the regional and national launches of the Decade held so far and presents relevant…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

2007-01-01

13

The reflexion coefficient as a measure of transepithelial permeability in the isolated rabbit pancreas.  

PubMed Central

1. The reflexion coefficients of a number of non-electrolytes and electrolytes have been determined in the isolated rabbit pancreas. 2. The reflexion coefficients of the following non-electrolytes were: urea, -0.02; glycerol, 0.06; erythritol, 0.11; sorbitol, 0.41; mannitol, 0.42; arabinose, 0.72; xylose, 0.74, assuming a value of 1.00 for sucrose. 3. These values are equal within the experimental error to values previously obtained with a tracer technique for the same preparation, but they are significantly lower than those reported by other investigators for the isolated perfused cat pancreas. 4. Addition of 100 mM-sucrose to the bathing medium resulted in proportionally increased Na+ and K+ concentrations in the secreted fluid. The secreted fluid remained isotonic with the bathing medium under all circumstances. 5. Addition of 10(-5) M-carbachol to the bathing medium led to a reduction in the reflexion coefficient of sucrose from 1 to 0.85, but only when 25 mM-sucrose was used. 6. The reflexion coefficients of electrolytes were: NaCl, 0.50; KCl, 0.51; NaHCO3, 0.52 and choline chloride, 1.02. 7. It is concluded that the isolated rabbit pancreas is highly permeable, both to electrolytes and to small non-electrolytes, probably being more leaky than any other epithelium studied so far.

Bonting, S L; De Pont, J J; Fleuren-Jakobs, A M; Jansen, J W

1980-01-01

14

On the Oblique Reflexion and Transmission of Ocean Waves at Shore Fast Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is reported describing the oblique reflexion and penetration of ocean waves into shore fast sea ice. The arbitrary depth model allows all velocity potentials occurring in the open water region to be matched precisely to their counterparts in the ice-covered region. Matching is done using a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique which allows the complete solution to be

Colin Fox; Vernon A. Squire

1994-01-01

15

Chaiten Volcano, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On May 2, 2008 Chile's Chaiten Volcano erupted after 9,000 years of inactivity. Now, 4 weeks later, the eruption continues, with ash-, water-, and sulfur-laden plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers to the east and north over Chile and Argentina. On May 24, ASTER captured a day-night pair of thermal infrared images of the eruption, displayed here in enhanced, false colors. At the time of the daytime acquisition (left image) most of the plume appears dark blue because it is too thick for upwelling ground radiation to penetrate. At the edges it appears orange, indicating the presence of ash and sulfur dioxide. In the nighttime image (right), the plume is orange and red near the source, and becomes more yellow-orange further away from the vent. The possible cause is that ash is settling out of the plume further downwind, revealing the dominant presence of sulfur dioxide.

The images were acquired May 24, 2008, cover an area of 37 x 26.5 km, and are located near 42.7 degrees south latitude, 72.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

16

Chile Altiplano Unconformity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 10.5 by 11 km sub-area in northern Chile was acquired by ASTER on April 7, 2000. Dramatically displayed is a geological angular unconformity: a contact between layers of rock at different angles. On the right side of the image, Cretaceous sediments were tilted upward to an angle of about 50 degrees, then eroded. On this surface volcanic pyroclastic deposits were deposited as a flat sheet. The section of rocks has been eroding from the east, exposing the tilted and flat rock layers. The image is located at 24.8 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

17

Escondida Mine, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Click on image for larger version

This ASTER image covers 30 by 37 km in the Atacama Desert, Chile and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida Cu-Au-Ag open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and came on stream in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentration of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9 pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. This image is a conventional 3-2-1 RGB composite. Figure 1 displays SWIR bands 4-6-8 in RGB, and highlights lithologic and alteration differences of surface units. The image is located at 24.3 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2001-01-01

18

Escondida Mine, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Full resolution visible and near-infrared image (1.4 MB) Full resolution shortwave infrared image (1.6 MB) This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image covers 30 by 23 km (full images 30 x 37 km) in the Atacama Desert, Chile, and was acquired on April 23, 2000. The Escondida copper, gold, and silver open-pit mine is at an elevation of 3050 m, and began operations in 1990. Current capacity is 127,000 tons/day of ore; in 1999 production totaled 827,000 tons of copper, 150,000 ounces of gold, and 3.53 million ounces of silver. Primary concentrate of the ore is done on-site; the concentrate is then sent to the coast for further processing through a 170 km long, 9-inch pipe. Escondida is related geologically to three porphyry bodies intruded along the Chilean West Fissure Fault System. A high grade supergene cap overlies primary sulfide ore. The top image is a conventional 3-2-1 (near infrared, red, green) RGB composite. The bottom image displays shortwave infrared bands 4-6-8 (1.65um, 2.205um, 2.33um) in RGB, and highlights the different rock types present on the surface, as well as the changes caused by mining. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

2002-01-01

19

Pinochet Returns to Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A frail and ailing General Augusto Pinochet returned to Santiago this morning, after his release from a seventeen-month house arrest in the United Kingdom. Reflecting Pinochet's continuing popularity in military circles and the Army's power in Chile, his return was handled entirely by the Chilean army, which banned the media until shortly before Pinochet's plane landed. On Thursday, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw announced that, for medical reasons, Pinochet would not be extradited to Spain, where he was indicted for human rights abuses. The former dictator's health had considerably declined since his initial arrest in October 1998, and he was said to be suffering from brain damage, sparking concerns in some UK governmental circles that he might die on British soil before the extradition was resolved. While he has escaped prosecution in European courts, Pinochet still faces 59 civil lawsuits in his home country, although many observers doubt that any trial will take place. This decision has angered families of the General's victims and human rights activists, but the process has established one important legal precedent for future prosecutions of ex-dictators. In their March 1999 ruling, Britain's Law Lords determined that Pinochet was not automatically immune to prosecution for acts committed as a head of state. This reversal of the "sovereign immunity" claimed by many former dictators may pave the way to future prosecutions for human rights abuses.

De Nie, Michael W.

20

Chiliques volcano, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Size: 7.5 x 7.5 km (4.5 x 4.5 miles) Location: 23.6 deg. South lat., 67.6 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3, and thermal band 12 Original Data Resolution: 15 m and 90 m Date Acquired: January 6, 2002 and November 19, 2000

2002-01-01

21

Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

2010-03-30

22

Destruction in Downtown Concepcion, Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A masonry building in the downtown part of Concepcion, Chile partially collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Most modern buildings in Concepcion were undamaged during the earthquake due to the city's adoption of adequate building standards. However, many masonry buildings s...

2010-03-30

23

Caliciviruses and Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Chile  

PubMed Central

Human caliciviruses caused 45% of 55 gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring in Santiago, Chile, during 2000–2003. Outbreaks affected ?99 persons, occurred most commonly in the home, and were associated with seafood consumption. Thirteen outbreak strains sequenced were noroviruses, including 8 GII, 2 GI, and 3 belonging to a novel genogroup.

Vidal, Roberto; Solari, Veronica; Mamani, Nora; Jiang, Xi; Vollaire, Jimena; Roessler, Patricia; Prado, Valeria; Matson, David O.

2005-01-01

24

Caliciviruses and foodborne gastroenteritis, Chile.  

PubMed

Human caliciviruses caused 45% of 55 gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring in Santiago, Chile, during 2000-2003. Outbreaks affected ?99 persons, occurred most commonly in the home, and were associated with seafood consumption. Thirteen outbreak strains sequenced were noroviruses, including 8 GII, 2 GI, and 3 belonging to a novel genogroup. PMID:16022799

Vidal, Roberto; Solari, Veronica; Mamani, Nora; Jiang, Xi; Vollaire, Jimena; Roessler, Patricia; Prado, Valeria; Matson, David O; O'Ryan, Miguel L

2005-07-01

25

Tectonic Processes along the Chile Convergent Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chile subduction zone, spanning more than 3500 km, provides a unique setting for studying, along a single plate boundary,\\u000a the factors that govern tectonic processes at convergent margins. At large scale, the Chile trench is segmented by the subduction\\u000a of the Chile Rise, an active spreading center, and by the Juan Fernández hot spot ridge. In addition, the extreme

César R. Ranero; Roland von Huene; Wilhelm Weinrebe; Christian Reichert

26

[Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].  

PubMed

Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains. PMID:24878900

Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

2014-04-01

27

Celebrating Fifty Years of ESO in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO to set up a new observatory occurred on 6 November 2013. The anniversary was marked by a formal occasion in Santiago, more informal celebrations at all the ESO sites in Chile and by visits from two European astronauts. A round-up of the anniversary events is presented.

Comerón, F.; de Zeeuw, T.

2014-03-01

28

Expedition of Pulkovo Astronomers to Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief account of the history of the Pulkovo astronomers' expedition to Chile is given. The progress of its work during the 5 years (1962-1968) is described. A short review covering the history of the National Observatory of Chile is given (Part 2). The ...

M. S. Zverev

1971-01-01

29

Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

2014-01-01

30

Relations Between Chile and ESO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal questioning of ESO's privileges and immunities at the designated VLT site on the Paranal mountain south of the city of Antofagasta (see ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994), and also around the ownership of the land. ESO is now very worried about the timely completion of this 500 million DEM project. Unless a clarification of this problem is achieved as soon as possible, it is unlikely that the current plan for the construction of the VLT observatory at Paranal can be maintained. The ESO delegation expressed the opinion that these uncertainties must be removed, before the final negotiations about the above mentioned Treaty can proceed. RECEPTION BY THE PRESIDENT OF CHILE During its stay in Santiago, the ESO delegation was honoured to be received by the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz Tagle. ESO extended a warm invitation to the President to lay the cornerstone of the VLT observatory at Paranal later in 1994 at the appropriate moment. Twenty-five years ago, in 1969, the ESO La Silla observatory was inaugurated by his predecessor and father, Don Eduardo Frei Montalva. DECISIONS BY THE ESO COUNCIL The ESO delegation reported about the discussions in Santiago to the ESO Council, during its ordinary semi-annual session on June 7 - 8, 1994. The Council noted with satisfaction the clear attitude expressed by the Chilean Government, especially what concerns ESO's privileges and immunities in the host country. The ESO Council expects that the Chilean courts will also confirm these privileges and immunities. The ESO Council expressed the hope that it will now be possible to arrive at a resolution of the outstanding issues. However, in view of the increasingly tight VLT schedule - it is planned to ship the first VLT building to Paranal in the month of September this year - the Council was also much concerned about any further delays. Council requested the ESO management to ensure that the authorities of the member countries will be kept closely informed about the further developments during the coming months. The ESO Council Working Group on

1994-06-01

31

Chile?s Regional Arrangements and the Free Trade Agreement of the Americas: The Importance of Market Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

July 2001Among Chile?s bilateral regional agreements, only Chile?s agreements with ?Northern? partners provide enough market access to offset the costs to Chile of trade diversion. Because of preferential market access, however, ?additive regionalism? is likely to provide Chile with far more gains than the static welfare gains from unilateral free trade. At least one partner country loses from each of

David Tarr; Glenn Harrison; Thomas Rutherford

2001-01-01

32

LA TEORÍA DE EVOLUCIÓN DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA HOLÍSTICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente ensayo analiza las principales teorias evolutivas desde Darwin hasta la fecha, entre ellas la teoría de Lamark y la Teoría de la Quimiosintética, todas ellas con un sesgo fuertemente biologico, donde los cambios más decisivos en la homnización que se observan son: la adquisición de la postura erecta, que liberó sus extremidades anteriores y el desarrollo del cerebro,

Fredy Hardy Wompner Gallardo

2010-01-01

33

Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1995-04-01

34

Employment responses to international liberalization in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates employment patterns in Chile following a substantial trade liberalization. The paper examines patterns of job creation and job destruction and relates these patterns to firms' size and trade orientation.

James Levinsohn

1999-01-01

35

Heat flow and temperature gradients in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Conventional heat-flow measurements in Chile carried out by other workers are summarized. Between latitudes 26 – 29° S heat flow is consistently low (-2) excepting a site in the Andes slope (75.3 mWm-2). In Central Chile (33 °S) near Santiago, a value in the Andes (60.7 mWm-2) is lower than the value in the Santiago basin (78.7 mWm-2). Heat

Miguel Muñoz; Valiya Hamza

1993-01-01

36

Glacier Inventory: A Case in Semiarid Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Glaciers are the most important water reservoirs found in the Andes. While the scientific community has conducted more extensive\\u000a glaciological studies in southern Chile, it is only recently that attention has been focused on northern Chile. In the Chilean\\u000a “Norte Chico” region, where glaciation is restricted to the highest summits, the sparse glacier network provides the majority\\u000a of water to

Jorge Marín; José Araos

37

A unique collaboration in Chile.  

PubMed

The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs. PMID:12315985

1989-01-01

38

[Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].  

PubMed

Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile PMID:19301766

O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

2008-11-01

39

The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

2009-06-01

40

7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.  

...QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum ) may be imported into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions: (a)...

2014-01-01

41

7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum ) may be imported into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions: (a)...

2013-01-01

42

Pension Reform in Chile Revisited: What Has Been Learned?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes Chile’s pension reform of 1980, which replaced the existing pay-as-you-go public pension programs by a new funded pension program managed by private companies (the “AFP´s”). It comments on the main results of this reform so far, and identifies the current challenges faced by the country’s pension system. The paper also describes the changes introduced to Chile’s pension

Augusto Iglesias-Palau

2009-01-01

43

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Vegetables § 319.56-38 Citrus from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile, and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi...

2010-01-01

44

Local Earthquake Distribution Off Valparaiso, Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SPOC experiment was carried out as a combined on- \\/offshore experiment using FS SONNE (cruise SO 161) to investigate the effects of subducting seamounts and fracture zones on the seismicity and structure of the Central Chilean margin off Valparaiso, Chile. The working area is characterised by the ongoing subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate under the South American continent

P. O. Thierer; F. Tilmann; E. R. Flueh; H. Kopp; D. Comte

2003-01-01

45

Subduction erosion along the North Chile margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swathbathymetry off Antofagasta reveals many tectonic features of the north ChileTrench. Since sediment on the oceanic plate is only ?100 m thick, and since the continental slopeis essentially eroded crystalline crust, basement rock is commonly near the sea floor. Therefore,high resolution bathymetry is a good indicator of basement structure. The narrow shelf and upperslope are characterized by canyons crossed locally

R. von Huene; W Weinrebe; F Heeren

1999-01-01

46

Education of the Televiewer in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

Reyes, Miguel T.

47

Vibrio parahaemolyticus Diarrhea, Chile, 1998 and 2004  

PubMed Central

Analysis of clinical isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from outbreaks in Chile in the cities of Puerto Montt in 2004 and in Antofagasta in 1998 indicated that 23 of 24 isolates from Puerto Montt and 19 of 20 from Antofagasta belonged to the pandemic clonal complex that emerged in Southeast Asia in 1996.

Gonzalez-Escalona, Narjol; Cachicas, Viviana; Acevedo, Claudia; Rioseco, Maria L.; Vergara, Juan A.; Cabello, Felipe; Romero, Jaime

2005-01-01

48

Chile: When Tyrants Tremble: The Pinochet Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recent report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) reviews the Spanish effort to extradite and try General Pinochet and the repercussions in Chile, which is holding presidential elections in December 1999. The 57-page report also offers some background on Pinochet's regime and HRW's recommendations to the Chilean and US Governments. This report is offered by chapter in HTML format.

Brett, Sebastian.

49

Volunteer Outreach Activities at ESO Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO staff in Chile are often asked to disseminate astronomical knowledge to schools and to the general public. A significant number of volunteers are now involved in these activities and the most recent projects in low-income schools and neighbourhoods are described and possible perspectives discussed.

ESO-Chile Outreach Volunteer Team

2012-06-01

50

Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae

Daniel González-Acuña; Alberto A. Guglielmone

2005-01-01

51

Assessing the scientific strength of Chile.  

PubMed

We use analysis of co-citation and relative citation rates to assess the scientific strength of Chile as compared with other developing countries and to evaluate the potential for increased international collaboration between Chile and the United States in science and engineering. Co-citation is the citation of two scientific papers by a third paper. By examining frequency and patterns of co-citation, the intellectual structure and evolution of scientific disciplines and research specialties can be traced. Chile is especially "strong", as defined by the co-citation model we employ, in biomedicine and clinical medicine, and in astronomy. A relative citation rate is the ratio of the number of citations a paper receives to the average number of citations for all papers published in the same journal over time. Analysis of relative citation rates of papers published by authors with Chilean addresses show that Chilean physics, including earth and space sciences, is of unusually high quality, considerably higher than any other developing country and comparable to several industrialized countries. We conclude that Chile's scientific capacity is advanced enough to absorb and benefit significantly from strategic additions to the country's resources and capabilities for research. These would include increases in: exchanges of researchers in specific fields with U.S. and other Latin American academic, industrial, and government scientists and engineers; training at outstanding U.S. and Latin American institutions; laboratory equipment, computer time, communications links, and library materials; and funding from U.S. and international organizations. It is also apparent that Chile is strong enough in certain fields to cooperate with the U.S. in mutually beneficial international efforts. PMID:1845016

Brown, C G; Coward, H R; Stowe, R C

1991-01-01

52

Medical genetics and genetic counseling in chile.  

PubMed

In the South American Republic of Chile genetic counseling is not currently recognized as an independent clinical discipline, and in general is provided by physicians with training in clinical genetics. At present only one genetic counselor and 28 clinical geneticists practice in this country of over 16 million inhabitants. Pediatric dysmorphology constitutes the primary area of practice in clinical genetics. Although the country has a universal health care system and an adequate level of health care, genetic conditions are not considered a health care priority and there is a lack of clinical and laboratory resources designated for clinical genetics services. Multiple educational, cultural and financial barriers exist to the growth and development of genetic counseling services in Chile. However, during the last 10 years increased awareness of the importance of identifying individuals at risk for inherited cancer syndromes led to growing interest in the practice of cancer genetics. PMID:23744184

Margarit, Sonia B; Alvarado, Mónica; Alvarez, Karin; Lay-Son, Guillermo

2013-12-01

53

Geology of the Portrerillos District, Atacama, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geology of the Potrerillos porphyry copper district records the patterns of marine sedimentation, volcanism, igneous intrusion, and deformation in the Andes of northern Chile from Jurassic to Recent times. Pre-Jurassic granitic and metamorphic basement is overlain by marine sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age and continental volcanic rocks of Paleocene-Eocene age. Both the marine and continental volcanic

S. F. Olson

1984-01-01

54

The ozone hole over Punta Arenas, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three fundamental questions are addressed for the location of Punta Arenas (53.0°S, 70.9°W), Chile: Does the Antarctic ozone hole extend over the city? If so, at what height is most of the ozone depleted? And by how much does the UVB radiation increase under ozone hole conditions? It is shown that Punta Arenas is affected by the Antarctic ozone hole,

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff; C. A. R. Casiccia S; F. Zamorano B

1997-01-01

55

The ozone hole over Punta Arenas, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three fundamental questions are addressed for the location of Punta Arenas (53.0øS, 70.9øW), Chile: Does the Antarctic ozone hole extend over the city? If so, at what height is most of the ozone depleted? And by how much does the UVB radiation increase under ozone hole conditions? It is shown that Punta Arenas is affected by the Antarctic ozone hole,

V. W. J. H. Kirchhoff; C. A. R. Casiccia; F. Zamorano

1997-01-01

56

Tracking Our Progress: A Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the UN DESD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sustainability agenda is a concern of several UN agencies that appreciate how well-being, social justice, human development and the health of our planet are inextricably linked. This remit underpinned the launch of the UN Decade in Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) in 2005. As the DESD reaches its mid-point, mechanisms for assessing…

Tilbury, Daniella

2009-01-01

57

Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

1972-01-01

58

Motivación a la Donación de Órganos en Chile Motivation for Organ Donation in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palabras clave: Donación de órganos, rotación Varimax, análisis factorial, solidaridad. ABSTRACT. In this work the motivational and demotivational factors than influence the disposition to donate organs in Chile were determined. The survey instrument was a properly piloted and validated structured questionnaire. The population studied was in the 15 to 64 years old range, segmented by age and chosen randomly. A

Miguel A. Bustamante; Patricia I. Villarreal

2008-01-01

59

Tectonic movement in the chile trench.  

PubMed

An acoustic reflection profile across the Chile Trench off Valparaiso shows the trench floor to have a substantial sediment accumulation that is far from flat-lying. The morphology is transitional between the flat-lying sediment fill to the south (labeled a type I trench) and the bare V-notch character farther north (labeled type II). A sharp seaward slope break, downbowed reflectors, and a landward downthrown normal fault suggest that the oceanic lithosphere is failing in shear. This mode of failutre is more consistent with the observed features of trenches and Benioff zones than is the concept of bending and underthrusting. PMID:17798721

Lister, C R

1971-08-20

60

Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.  

PubMed Central

Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group.

Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

1975-01-01

61

77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION...preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program...program for implementing the U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement,...

2012-03-02

62

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Clementines, mandarins, and tangerines from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Clementines, mandarins, and tangerines from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38...Clementines, mandarins, and tangerines from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata ...be imported into the United States from Chile only under the following...

2009-01-01

63

Geology of the Portrerillos District, Atacama, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geology of the Potrerillos porphyry copper district records the patterns of marine sedimentation, volcanism, igneous intrusion, and deformation in the Andes of northern Chile from Jurassic to Recent times. Pre-Jurassic granitic and metamorphic basement is overlain by marine sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age and continental volcanic rocks of Paleocene-Eocene age. Both the marine and continental volcanic sequences are much thicker on the western side of the district and pinch out abruptly over the center of the district. Timing of reverse faulting is bracketed between 32 and 12 m.y.b.p. The Potrerillos district appears to lie near the eastern margin of a major fault-bounded depression in which volcanic rocks accumulated between Jurassic and Paleocene times. Most of the Eocene-Oligocene porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile occupy similar regional stratigraphic and volcanic settings, and are proximal to major high-angle faults. The geology of the Potrerillos area suggests that these faults may have been active as normal faults in Jurassic-Paleocene time, later guided the emplacement of porphyry plutons, and were subsequently reactivated in Miocene-Recent times.

Olson, S. F.

64

Elemental analysis of airborne particulates in Chile.  

PubMed

Aerosol samples collected in three characteristic Chilean cities-including urban and remote zones-have been analyzed by the PIXE spectroscopic technique. Elemental composition, total suspended particulate matter (TSP), particle size distribution, and the peculiar geographic and meteorological parameters have been included in this study. Santiago--the polluted capital of Chile--registered high TSP indexes and important amounts of hazardous elements in air such as S, V, Cr, Zn, Br and Pb. The atmosphere of Antofagasta city showed marine and mineral activity influence. Results from Chillán city are similar to those from rural environments. Protons and deuterons-provided by the isochronous cyclotron of the University of Chile-were used to excite X-ray radiation from the sample. Signals were processed by an energy dispersive detection system, including a cryogenic Si(Li) detector, electronic for pulse amplification and an analog to digital converter. The absolute elemental concentration of the particulate matter in air was obtained through a fundamental parameter equation. Samples consist of particulate material collected directly on Nuclepore filters or deposited over Kapton foils. Typical elements analyzed were Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Pb. PMID:15092200

Romo-Kröger, C M

1990-01-01

65

[Public financing of health research in Chile].  

PubMed

Background: In Chile, researchers can apply to public research funds through specific research projects and must compete with other professionals of other disciplines. Aim: To perform a critical assessment of the allocation of public funds for health research in Chile by a public institution called CONICYT. Material and Methods: A database was constructed with health projects financed by CONICYT, between 2002 and 2006. Projects were classified (according to their titles) in three methodological categories and nine topics. Age, gender and region where the main researcher is based, were also recorded. Results: 768 research projects were analyzed. Biomedical, clinical and public health research projects accounted for 66, 24 and 10% of allocated funds, respectively. Main researchers were female in 31 % of projects, their mean age was 52 years and 76% worked in the Metropolitan region. Conclusions: These results show that some objectives of the National Research System lead by CONICYT, such as using research as a tool for regional development and allocating funds for conditions with a large burden, are not been met. PMID:20361149

Paraje, Guillermo

2010-01-01

66

Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.  

PubMed

The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

2005-01-01

67

World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two case studies of adult education programs in Chile. Both case studies begin with a "face sheet" on which is recorded basic information about the program and the description. The first case study, prepared by Patricio Donoso, reports on Centro El Canelo de Nos, an inservice center for educators who work with Chile's most…

Donoso, Patricio; Gajardo, Marcela

68

An analysis of small business in Chile: a correlational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out to investigate small business success factors in Chile. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research on which this paper is based involves a survey correlational study involving a sample of 145 small business owners in Chile that replicates Lussier's success variables validated in the USA. Findings – The results of this research study show that there were

Robert N. Lussier; Claudia E. Halabí

2008-01-01

69

The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

Walter, Amy R.

2005-01-01

70

Fast Sea-Floor Spreading on the Chile Ridge.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The orientation and rate of spreading of the Chile Ridge is not well known owing to the paucity and poor orientation of the geophysical observations defining the ridge system. A recent profile crossing the Chile Ridge suggests that the half-spreading rate...

J. A. Grow J. D. Mudie K. D. Klitgord P. A. Larson

1973-01-01

71

Chile: Progress Stalled Setbacks in Freedom of Expression Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001, Human Rights Watch released this new report. "Chile: Progress Stalled Setbacks in Freedom of Expression Reform" examines the failure of the current democratic government of Chile to repeal repressive laws established and enforced under Pinochet, including laws that criminalize speech and make "contempt of authority" a crime against the state.

2001-01-01

72

[Ectoparasitosis of clinical importance in Chile].  

PubMed

Several parasitic diseases affect the skin and appendages in humans, the most common are head lice and scabies. Both diseases have worldwide distribution with geographical variations. In Chile, the reported prevalence of head lice is 20-25% and of scabies 1-5%. Other ectoparasites include fleas and mite, causing transient parasitosis related to human and animal contact. These parasites are associated with various factors such as poor personal hygiene, promiscuity, long hair, crowding, and sharing of combs, among others. Various effective pharmacological therapies are available, which base on several active compounds. Important therapeutic options include topical treatments with pyrethroids, lindane, crotamiton, and malathion as well as oral medications such as ivermectin, which is used in case of drug intolerance, poor treatment response, infections with multiple parasites or concomitant bacterial infections. For some drugs, resistance has been reported in patients received multiple dosis. PMID:22051621

Moreno M, Claudia

2011-10-01

73

Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile  

PubMed Central

We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient’s leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus–like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia.

Balcells, M. Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; Garcia, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddo, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.; Fuerst, Paul A.

2011-01-01

74

Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.  

PubMed

Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

2007-04-01

75

Exoplanet Surveys at Universidad de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and highlight the first results of the three main exoplanet surveys we are currently conducting at Universidad de Chile: CHEPS, Red Giant Exoplanets (radial velocity), and TraMoS (transit lightcurves). We have several interesting candidates at the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search (CHEPS) project, which is aimed at searching for the currently missing southern bright transiting planets at a few m/s radial velocity precision. Using the same technique, we are also characterizing the planetary population in a constrained sample of Red Giant stars. The Transit Monitoring from the South (TraMoS) project is aimed both at improving transit parameters and at detecting any kind of lightcurve variability from several known southern exoplanet systems.

Rojo, Patricio; Jenkins, James; Hoyer, Sergio; Jones, Matías

2014-04-01

76

Preliminary forecast model energy map - 2010 Chile event  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image show preliminary calculations for wave height resulting from the February 2010 tsunami generated by the 8.8 magnitude earthquake that struck just offshore of Maule, Chile on February 27, 2010.

Center, Noaa T.

77

Latin American Outlook April 1, 2000: Chile Moves On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2000 issue of Latin American Outlook from the AEI consists of the article "Chile Moves On," by Mark Folcoff. Latin American Outlook is a monthly newsletter on political and economic developments in Latin America.

Folcoff, Mark.

2000-01-01

78

Political justice under authoritarian regimes in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent military regimes of Argentina (1976-83), Brazil (1964-85), and Chile (1973-89) each dealt with opponents and dissidents in different ways. The institutional configurations--formal and informal rules governing the application of political \\

Anthony W. Pereira

2003-01-01

79

Opportunities for improving disaster management in Chile: a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to propose measures to improve management of rainfall-related disasters in Chile. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research was carried out as a case study in the semi-arid region of Chile where above-normal rainy events occur once or twice during some rainy seasons. Measures to improve management are suggested based on theory, field data, and community participation. The

Paulina Aldunce; Alejandro León

2007-01-01

80

Evolution of Peperomia ( Piperaceae ) in the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species ofPeperomia (Piperaceae) occur in the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile:P. berteroana, P. margaritifera, P. skottsbergii, andP. fernandeziana. The last species is found also in continental Chile, whereas the other three are endemic to the archipelago.Peperomia margaritifera is found only on the older island of Masatierra, whereasP. skottsbergii is confined to the younger island of Masafuera, andP. berteroana occurs on

Hugo Valdebenito; Tod F. Stuessy; Daniel J. Crawford; Silva O. Mario

1992-01-01

81

The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition, site installation was accomplished with special care. At each station a cavern was blasted into the bedrock up to 5 meters deep to ensure stable conditions for measurements. Currently five stations are additionally recording continuously GPS signals, another five are also recording meteorological data, and another seven are equipped with Magneto-Telluric (MT) probes (fluxgate magnetometers and electrode lines). It is planned to extend the multi-parameter observation to as many stations as possible. So far ten of the stations are sending continuous data via satellite links (VSAT) to the GEOFON data host at the GFZ. We will be reporting first results on seismicity, transient deformation and MT from the first two years of recording.

Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

2009-04-01

82

Subduction erosion along the North Chile margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swathbathymetry off Antofagasta reveals many tectonic features of the north ChileTrench. Since sediment on the oceanic plate is only ˜100 m thick, and since the continental slopeis essentially eroded crystalline crust, basement rock is commonly near the sea floor. Therefore,high resolution bathymetry is a good indicator of basement structure. The narrow shelf and upperslope are characterized by canyons crossed locally by extensional faults. Mejillones Ridge ispositioned anomalously seaward of the coastal Cordillera and its emergent crest forms theMejillones Peninsula. The flanks of this 100 km long uplifted feature are characterized by manynormal faults. Normal faults partition the middle slope into blocks obscured by a downslopemobile blanket of debris thick enough to mute all but the major basement structure. In the middleslope, coherent detached blocks disintegrate rapidly by mass wasting. The lower slope is slidedebris pushed into low ridges and troughs by the well developed subducting horst and grabentopography of the oceanic plate. Detritus and sediment moves downslope into graben, levels thesubducting plate, and is pushed up over small ridges. Sediment and debris piled against the base ofthe slope as the plates converge is underthrust with the subducting plate. Compressional featuresare confined to the lower quarter of the slope and are isolated from extension of the middle andupper slope. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Huene, R. von; Weinrebe, W.; Heeren, F.

1999-02-01

83

Family allowance and family planning in Chile.  

PubMed Central

Family allowances designed to promote maternal and child health and welfare could be self-defeating if they stimulated otherwise unwanted births, as often assumed. That assumption, with its public health and demographic implications, needs testing. An attempt to test it was made in Chile in 1969--1970 through interviews with 945 wives receiving an allowance and 690 non-recipients. Recipients practiced contraception significantly more than did non-recipients. This was not explained by wives' educational attainment or employment, the couples' earnings, or number of living children, but was associated with a 50 per cent greater utilization of professional prenatal care by recipients during the most recent pregnancy; women with such care (regardless of allowance status) were 75 per cent more likely than others to control their fertility. Prenatal care was probably sought more by recipients in part because an additional stipend was provided as soon as pregnancy was confirmed, usually at clinics with integrated family planning. Greater family income, attributable to the allowance, probably also contributed to the recipients' better prenatal attention and to contraceptive practice. Noteworthy, too, was the finding that with the number of living children controlled, contraceptive practice was significantly greater amoung couples who had never lost a child.

Plank, S J

1978-01-01

84

[Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

1985-03-01

85

Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.  

PubMed

It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. PMID:16163355

Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

2005-09-15

86

Injuries due to deliberate violence in Chile.  

PubMed

An analysis was made over a period of 6 months of the incidents involving deliberate violence as registered in 'Vicaria', the clinic for out-patients within the Cathedral of Santiago de Chile. A total of 236 victims of deliberate violence were observed. Men aged 15-24 years were found to be victims of deliberate violence most frequently. 'Under education' was the most frequently registered occupation for both sexes, and a large group of male victims were 'Unemployed'. 82% of the victims were men and 14% women, 1.5% were boys and 1.5% girls less than or equal to 14 years of age. None of the victims were alcohol intoxicated when arriving in the clinic. The incidents took place in streets for 81% of the male victims and 79% of the female victims, and in the majority of the cases the aggressor(s) was one (or several) police officer(s). Six percent of the female victims had been injured at home. There was no reporting of the aggressor being a relative or acquaintance. The most frequent type of violence was blunt violence from baton(s) (44%), while blunt violence without the use of instruments was reported less frequently (33%). The use of firearms was registered in 18% of the cases, and of sharp instruments, combustion, electro-shock and chain in 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.1% and 0.4% of the cases respectively. A total of 517 primary and secondary diagnoses were applied to the patients. Most of the victims (99%) had moderate or less serious lesions according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) (score less than or equal to 2). Twenty-four percent of the victims had more than 4 lesions, and 7% more than 10 lesions. The head/neck region and the trunk were affected with equal frequency, the frequency of injuries of the head/neck region being comparable with that observed among torture victims and in contrast to the pronounced predominance of injuries of the head/neck region observed in a Danish emergency ward study of deliberate violence. PMID:2376361

Aalund, O; Danielsen, L; Sanhueza, R O

1990-07-01

87

The ozone hole over Punta Arenas, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three fundamental questions are addressed for the location of Punta Arenas (53.0°S, 70.9°W), Chile: Does the Antarctic ozone hole extend over the city? If so, at what height is most of the ozone depleted? And by how much does the UVB radiation increase under ozone hole conditions? It is shown that Punta Arenas is affected by the Antarctic ozone hole, even though it is a considerable distance away from the pole. In comparison with the average global trend of -0.25% per year, the downward ozone trend at Punta Arenas is -0.5% per year (twice as large as the global average) and -1.2% per year (almost 5 times larger than the global average) using the monthly October averages. To obtain these figures, an ozone climatology of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data from 1979 to 1992 has been used. Observations of the ozone hole over Punta Arenas are described during the austral spring periods of 1992, 1993, and 1994. Systematic observations with a Brewer spectrophotometer have been made in order to measure the vertical column of ozone and the simultaneous variations in UVB radiation. In addition, the vertical distribution of ozone has been investigated during ozone hole conditions, by using ozone ECC (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) sondes launched on balloons, in order to determine at which height the ozone is reduced most. Using the 220 DU (Dobson Units) threshold as reference, we identified the ozone hole over Punta Arenas on five occasions during the 3 year period of these observations, September 1993, October 1992, 1994; and November 1993 and 1994. The vertical distribution of ozone during ozone hole conditions shows maximum ozone destruction efficiency near 15-17 km, where ozone nearly vanishes completely, on several occasions. The largest amount of ozone depletion, however, occurs above this height, just under and at the main ozone peak, where it may reach about 50%. The UVB radiation in small spectral bands may increase dramatically during ozone hole events; at 295-297 nm the observed factors of increase for Punta Arenas were between 10 and 38. The maximum integrated/weighted intensities in October, during hole events increased over background values between 2 and 3 times, which represent values near the local summer maximum but not yet beyond levels normally observed at low-latitude stations.

Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Casiccia S., C. A. R.; Zamorano B., F.

1997-04-01

88

Going beyond city boarders: the case of Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal cities interact in various ways with the adjacent ocean. Such interactions are of particular interest over central Chile where: 1) substantial emissions of oxidized sulfur in connection with copper smelting, power plants and possibly volcanic quasi permanent degassing occur; 2) upwelling results in hot spots of biogenic bromine and iodine; 3) substantial production of sea-salt aerosols takes place. These interactions may constitute an important constrain when defining policy measures for addressing air pollution in the most urbanized regions of Chile. This is because Chilean cities are applying curbing measures on a relatively fast pace, which may turn halogen chemistry relevant in the upcoming decades when defining appropriate measures for air pollution control and emission reductions of chemically active tracers. We overview these issues and look out for ways of addressing them in the framework of the recently awarded Center for Climate and Resilience Research in Chile.

Gallardo, L.

2013-05-01

89

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2010-01-01

90

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2009-04-01

91

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2009-01-01

92

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2010-04-01

93

U.S. Exports to Chile: A State-by-State Overview, 1987-1991.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introductory Note; Statistical Regions Used in the Report; Top State Exporters to Chile; States with Greatest Percentage Growth in Exports to Chile from 1987 to 1991; States with Greatest Dollar Growth in Exports to Chile from 1987 to 1991; Stat...

1993-01-01

94

The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

McEwan, Patrick J.

2013-01-01

95

Special Education for the Learning Disabled in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper focuses on the growth and development of special education for learning disabled children in Chile with particular emphasis on the contribution of child psychiatry and pediatric neurology departments of hospitals and the contribution of universities in training specialists. Initial sections provide a background on primary education in…

Bravo-Valdivieso, Luis

96

Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was con- ducted (n=830) to assess the proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with dif- ferent disease incidences and a high proportion of aborigi- nals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies

Marlis Täger Frey; Pablo C. Vial; Constanza H. Castillo; Paula M. Godoy; Brian Hjelle; Marcela G. Ferrés

97

The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

Berdichewsky, Bernardo

98

Characterisation of strains of infectious bronchitis virus isolated in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine isolates of infectious bronchitis (IB)?like viruses were made from 23 flocks (broilers or layers) in Chile experiencing the types of disease problems commonly associated with IBV. Their identity as IB viruses was confirmed. The histological changes they caused in tracheal organ cultures (OC) are described.Serum neutralisation tests performed in embryonated eggs (??method) suggested that four of the isolates were

Aida Cubillos; Jorge Ulloa; Victor Cubillos; Jane K. A. Cook

1991-01-01

99

Financial Innovation and Money Demand: Application to Chile and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reexamines one estimation of money demand equations using quarterly data for Chile and Mexico. The authors find no evidence of cointegration of traditional long-run money demand equations. In light of this evidence, they argue that there is an important permanent component of the demand for money not captured by traditional variables (interest rates and income). The authors call

Patricio Arrau; Jose De Gregorio

1993-01-01

100

Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

Montecinos, Carmen

2009-01-01

101

Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

2013-01-01

102

Children's Rights and Education in Argentina, Chile, and Spain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relates the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child to education policy by comparing policies in Argentina, Chile, and Spain. Uses case studies in these countries to propose a framework that reveals some possible obstacles to the implementation of children's rights. (SLD)

Poveda, David; Gomez, Viviana; Messina, Claudia

1999-01-01

103

Industry Sector Analysis - Cardiological and Cardiovascular Equipment (Chile) May 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chile's market for cardiological and cardiovascular equipment looks promising for the next two to three years. A number of current and proposed government programs call for large-scale purchases of modern equipment as part of an effort to upgrade intensiv...

C. Vidal

1994-01-01

104

School Choice in Chile: Two Decades of Educational Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines the decentralization and privatization of schools in Chile. It analyzes whether the introduction of market mechanisms in the supply of, and demand for, schools enhances educational performance. The text discusses the microeconomic assumptions underlying the proposition that elementary and secondary education could function as a…

Gauri, Varun

105

Policies for small and medium-sized enterprises in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, the Government of Chile began to pursue a new business development strategy. The Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Support Programme (Programa de Apoyo a la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa) provides for a number of instruments to correct market failures and improve the efficiency, productivity, competitiveness and international trading position of Chilean products made by these firms. The importance of

Cecilia Alarcón; Giovanni Stumpo

106

Restructuring Education through Economic Competition: The Case of Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early 1980s, Chile's military government introduced economic competition in the education system, despite further projected funding cuts. Although the market model aided private education and cost recovery, it increased inequity in education outcomes, hindered recruitment of career academicians, and reduced education's share of the GNP. (13…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto

1991-01-01

107

Carbon sink potential of radiata pine plantations in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The potential amount of carbon (C) accumulated in the bolewood of Pinus radiata plantations in Chile was determined using annual information about forest area by age class and administrative region of the country, and by subtracting that removed due to harvesting. A model was generated to estimate the uncertainty in the prediction of the amount of C, using probabilistic

MIGUEL ESPINOSA; EDUARDO ACUÑA; JORGE CANCINO; FERNANDO MUÑOZ; DAVID A. PERRY

2005-01-01

108

Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile-Comparison and Combination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observing sites at the east-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it increases the detection yield by 12-18%.

Fruth, T.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Dreyer, C.; Eigmüller, P.; Erikson, A.; Kabath, P.; Pasternacki, T.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R.; Abe, L.; Agabi, A.; Gonçalves, I.; Guillot, T.; Mékarnia, D.; Rivet, J.-P.; Crouzet, N.; Chini, R.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.

2014-02-01

109

Hydro or coal: Energy and the environment in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal and hydro will be the main sources of electric energy in Chile for the near future, given that natural gas from neighbouring Argentina is not longer available and LNG price projections leave it only as a backup fuel. The country has limited energy resources, importing more than 73% of its energy. Hydroelectric untapped resources are significant, but they are

Hugh Rudnick; Sebastian Mocarquer

2008-01-01

110

The Last Glaciation in Central Magellan Strait, Southernmost Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacial landforms and drift stratigraphy in central Magellan Strait, southernmost Chile, document repeated fluctuations during the last glacial cycle of outlet lobes from an ice cap centered over the southern Andes. The lobes developed comparatively low-gradient profiles because of low basal shear stresses over soft deformable beds and this made them sensitive to even small-scale changes in the mass balance.

Chalmers M. Clapperton; David E. Sugden; Darrell S. Kaufman; Robert D. McCulloch

1995-01-01

111

The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…

Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

2008-01-01

112

Fear of Sudden Stops: Lessons from Australia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American economies are exposed to substantial external vulnerability. Domestic imbalances and terms of trade shocks are often exacerbated by sudden stops of capital inflow. In this paper we explore ways of overcoming external vulnerability, drawing lessons from a detailed comparison of the response of Chile and Australia to recent external shocks and from Australia's historical experience. We argue that

Ricardo J Caballero; Kevin Cowan; Jonathan Kearns

2004-01-01

113

Fear of Sudden Stops: Lessons from Australia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin American economies are exposed to substantial external vulnerability. Domestic imbalances and terms of trade shocks are often exacerbated by sudden financial distress. This paper explores ways of overcoming external vulnerability, drawing lessons from a detailed comparison of the response of Chile and Australia to recent external shocks and from Australia`s historical experience. It is argued that, in order to

Ricardo J. Caballero; Kevin Cowan; Jonathan Kearns

2005-01-01

114

NEW CRETACEOUS AND EOCENE CALLIANASSOIDEA (THALASSINIDEA, DECAPODA) FROM ALGARROBO, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

New decapod crustacean fossils collected from Eocene rocks of Algarrobo, Chile, have yielded a new genus and species of callianassid, Melipal chilensis. The large sample size makes it possible to recognize marked sexual dimorphism of the major cheliped and pronounced heterochely in the new taxon. Cretaceous fossils from Algarrobo are referred to Protocallianassa saetosa (Forster and Stinnesbeck, 1987) new combination.

C. E. Schweitzer; R. M. Feldmann; A. Encinas; M. Suárez

2006-01-01

115

Cálculo del Stock de Capital para Chile 1985-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is to determine the Stock of Fixed Assets in Chile, consistent with the macroeconomic measurements of the System of National Accounts (SNA) of the United Nations. In agreement with the recommendations of revision 3 of the SNA, the Stock of Fixed Assets was determined, for the Chilean economy as a whole, at constant prices based

Ximena Aguilar; María Paz Collinao

2001-01-01

116

Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, ?3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep-sea chemically-reducing ecosystem (hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, oxygen minimum zones and large organic falls) have the potential to co-exist.

German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

2010-12-01

117

Weathering of Iron Meteorites from Monturaqui, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monturaqui is a meteorite crater, 370 m diameter, in the Andes Mountains, Chile. The impact apparently took place in upper tertiary or pleistocene, judging from the topography of the drainage gullies in the crater area [1]. The surface topography and the state of the corroded meteorite suggest, however, that the climate some time ago must have been more humid. Small fragments of severely corroded iron meteorites have been collected in the vicinity, 50-200 m from the crater rim. Fourteen fragments of iron shale have been examined in order to determine the corrosion products of an entirely disintegrated iron meteorite. Polished sections display some vugs and microporosities and are >99.9% oxidic. The non-oxidic parts are minute particles of taenite (38-42%wt. Ni), schreibersite, rabdite (42%wt. Ni, 0.13%wt. Co, 12.5%wt. P), and cohenite (microhardness 1100 +- 50). The overall morphology of the oxide shales, which sometimes are of breadcrust type, is that of a coarse octahedrite, probably of Group IA similar to the Canyon Diablo meteorite [2]. X-ray diffractometry on powder samples disclose goethite and maghemite, and occasionally peaks from lepidocrocite and reevesite were identified. Peaks from magnetite, akaganeite, and hematite were not identified. The mineralogy and oxidation state of Fe was also investigated by ^57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy. Spectra of a representative powder sample were obtained between 16 and 350 K. No indication of purely Fe(II)-containing compounds was present. Based on the identification of a component due to octahedrally coordinated Fe in magnetite (a mixed Fe(II)- Fe(III) site) a maximum of approximately 5 relative % of Fe(II) can be estimated. Consequently the determination of Fe in oxides by microprobe is reported as Fe(III). The dominating components in the Mossbauer spectra are due to maghemite and goethite, the latter exhibiting a wide variation in crystallite size as evidenced from the observed variation in blocking temperatures between 50 and 300 K. Based on fits of the spectrum obtained at 16 K the Fe is partitioned between maghemite and goethite in the ratio 55:45. The magnetic hyperfine fields are reduced in comparison to the pure oxides probably due to substitution in the lattice. The chemistry of the oxides was investigated by microprobe analysis including Fe2O3, NiO, CoO, SiO2, Al2O3, SO3, and Cl in the scheme. Based on 47 analyses a mean Fe2O3 content of 81.8%wt. with minimum and maximum contents of 73.8 and 97.0%wt., respectively. The NiO content varied from 1.7 to 5.3%wt. with a mean of 3.9%wt., and the CoO content varied from 0.2 to 0.8%wt. with a mean of 0.5%wt. Of the non-meteoritic derived elements small amounts of Al2O3 (0-0.21%wt.), SiO2 (0-4.0%wt.), Cl (0-0.2%wt.), and SO3 (0-0.3%wt.) were detected. The total of the analyses varied from 80.3 to 100.9%wt. with a mean of 87.9%wt. Despite the relative simple mineralogy it is not simple to relate the analyses to different mineralogies (or mixtures) because of the unknown porosity of the analysed points and the content of structural hydroxyls in goethite. However, point analyses having totals close to 100 may be considered to be dominated by relatively bulky aggregates of maghemite. These points are characterised by quite variable Fe/Ni weight ratios (between 15 and 25) being distinctly higher than the estimated average for the unweathered meteorite having an average value of 13. The values are also not significantly different from those calculated from all the analyses with a mean value of approximately 19. Thus a relative loss in Ni in all the oxide phases is evidenced. References: [1] Sanches J. and Cassidy W.(1966) JGR, 71, 4891-4895. [2] Buchwald V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, 1-3.

Bender Koch, C.; Buchwald, V. F.

1994-07-01

118

The 2008 Eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile and National Volcano-Monitoring Programs in the U.S. and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, began erupting on 2 May 2008. The eruption produced 3 Plinian eruption pulses between May 2 and 8. Between Plinian phases the volcano emitted a constant column of ash to approximately 10 km, gradually diminishing to approximately 3 km by the end of June. The eruption of Chaitén was remarkable on several counts--it was the first

J. W. Ewert; L. E. Lara; H. Moreno

2008-01-01

119

Conservation easements and mining: The case of Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Private protected areas (PPAs) are important designations with the potential to complement and improve public protected area (PA) networks in many countries. PPAs come in many forms and offer a wide variety of incentives, rights, responsibilities, and protections. One popular model, now being considered for adoption in Chile, is the conservation easement. In this article, we examine how well conservation easements would perform as PPA designations in countries such as Chile that have strong mining industries. Mining, and other concessions, in PAs is emerging as an important point of contention between conservation and development. PPA designations should be carefully designed to offer protections that conform to standards that will complement PA networks, that are perpetual, and that require a publically accountable and transparent process to overturn or modify.

Root-Bernstein, M.; Montecinos Carvajal, Y.; Ladle, R.; Jepson, P.; Jaksic, F.

2013-12-01

120

Social And Economic Correlates Of Induced Abortion In Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resumen  Desde 1962, se ha estado desarrollando un proyecto de investigación para estudiar el problema del aborto inducido y la planificación\\u000a de la familia en una de las cinco Areas en las cuales el Servicio Nacional de Salud divide la ciudad de Santiago. El proyecto\\u000a se dividió en un Estudio Piloto, que tenia por objetivoobtenerinformación sobre la incidencia del aborto inducido,

Requena B. Mariano

1965-01-01

121

Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.  

PubMed

We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4. PMID:21691853

Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

2011-10-01

122

A study of migration to Greater Santiago (Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resumen  Se presentan los resultados mas significativos de una encuesta realizada en el Gran Santiago (Chile) en 1962 por el Centro\\u000a Latinamericano de Demografia de las Naciones Unidas (CELADE). La población estudiada era por entonces de, aproximadamente,\\u000a 2.054.000 habitantes. Dieha investigación utilizó una muestra probabílistiea de poco más que 2.000 hogares familiares. Los\\u000a cuestionarios fueron diseñados para investigar características demoqráficas y

Juan C. Elizaga

1966-01-01

123

International comparison of platinum resistance thermometers between Chile and Ecuador  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An International Bilateral Comparison of Platinum Resistance Thermometers was performed between the National Metrology Institutes of Chile (LCPNT) and the Ecuadorian Standardization Institute of Ecuador (INEN), both represented by their National Laboratories of Temperature. This comparison was carried out in the range from -39 °C up to 232 °C. The final results obtained by each laboratory showed to be equivalent (EN < 1) in the measured temperature range.

Araya, M.; Almeida, D.

2013-09-01

124

An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Chile, 1997.  

PubMed Central

An outbreak of 25 cases of Andes virus-associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was recognized in southern Chile from July 1997 through January 1998. In addition to the HPS patients, three persons with mild hantaviral disease and one person with asymptomatic acute infection were identified. Epidemiologic studies suggested person-to-person transmission in two of three family clusters. Ecologic studies showed very high densities of several species of sigmodontine rodents in the area.

Toro, J.; Vega, J. D.; Khan, A. S.; Mills, J. N.; Padula, P.; Terry, W.; Yadon, Z.; Valderrama, R.; Ellis, B. A.; Pavletic, C.; Cerda, R.; Zaki, S.; Shieh, W. J.; Meyer, R.; Tapia, M.; Mansilla, C.; Baro, M.; Vergara, J. A.; Concha, M.; Calderon, G.; Enria, D.; Peters, C. J.; Ksiazek, T. G.

1998-01-01

125

Transportation in Developing Countries: Greenhouse Gas Scenarios for Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is a lightly populated country of 15 million that has undergone large economic transformations. Over the past 25 years, the economy has evolved from a slow-growing state-directed economy into a fast growing, market-oriented economy. Its South American neighbors are imitating this transformation. The changes have been especially great in the transport sector, with the private sector taking over many

Raúl ORyan; Daniel Sperling; Tom Turrentine; Mark Delucchii

2001-01-01

126

Novel Recombinant Norovirus Causing Outbreaks of Gastroenteritis in Santiago, Chile  

PubMed Central

Capsid and polymerase (RdRp) genes of 13 norovirus outbreak strains from Chile were compared. The genes sequences were discordant for five strains, and recombination was confirmed for two of them by amplification of a 1,360-bp gene segment containing a fragment of both genes. These strains belonged to a novel genogroup by RdRp sequence and to genogroup GII/3 by capsid sequence. Determining the clinical and epidemiological impact of human calicivirus recombination will require future studies.

Vidal, Roberto; Roessler, Patricia; Solari, Veronica; Vollaire, Jimena; Jiang, Xi; Matson, David O.; Mamani, Nora; Prado, Valeria; O'Ryan, Miguel L.

2006-01-01

127

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for establishing a new centre for observation in Chile - ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new centre for astronomical observation in Chile.

2002-12-01

128

Diet of the Humboldt penguin ( Spheniscus humboldti ) in northern and southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of the Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) was examined and compared in two colonies in Chile. Field work was conducted on Pan de Azúcar Island in northern Chile in the breeding season 1998\\/1999 and on the Puñihuil Islands in southern Chile over two successive breeding seasons during 1997\\/1998 and 1998\\/1999. Penguin diet was studied by stomach-pumping birds and analysed

C. Herling; B. M. Culik; J. C. Hennicke

2005-01-01

129

Seismic noise tomography in the Chile ridge subduction region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise recorded in the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) region to estimate interstation surface wave time-domain Green's functions, and then inverted traveltimes to obtain crustal surface wave velocity models. Interstation distances within the Chile Ridge Subduction Project (CRSP) temporary seismic network ranged from 40 to ~100 km. We selected 365 d, and cross-correlated and stacked 24 hr of vertical component data at 38 stations pairs, resulting in nominally 703 traveltimes along assumed-straight interstation paths. Velocities in 2-D cells of 30 km × 30 km were calculated using a linear least-squares inversion of the Rayleigh wave group velocity traveltimes. Furthermore we performed a Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion analysis to estimate the sensitivity of different period waves at depth and to calculate a 3-D shear velocity model of the Patagonian crust. The process was applied to cross correlation pairs determined in two period bands, 5-10 s, corresponding to shallow crustal velocities down to approximately 10 km depth, and 10-20 s, for velocities down to around 20 km. Our results show that cell velocities correlate well with known geological features. We find high-crustal velocities where the Patagonian Batholith outcrops or is likely present at depth, and low velocities correlate with the active volcanic arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone and the subducted Chile ridge in Taitao peninsula, where thermal activity of hot springs is present. High velocities in the mountainous portions of the southeastern study area appear to correlate with outcropping older metamorphic units. Low velocity in the east correlate with sequences of volcaniclastic deposits.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V. I.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

2010-09-01

130

[Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].  

PubMed

This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas. PMID:15231085

Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

2004-05-01

131

Experiences with the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002 the TIGO-project is located in Concepción, Chile. This observatory was designed developed during the 1990ties as a fundamental station for geodesy. This concept will be explained in detail because it is a precessor of the proposed observatory infrastructure for the Global Geodetic Observing System. After 11 years of operation for the international services of the IAG and the BIPM some technical, scientific and also cultural experiences with this project can be helpful to improve the global geodetic infrastructure in the Americas.

Hase, H.

2013-05-01

132

Surviving a Tsunami: Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report contains true stories that illustrate how to survive (and how not to survive) a tsunami. It is meant for people who live, work, or play along coasts that tsunamis may strike. The stories are personal accounts selected from interviews with people who survived a Pacific Ocean tsunami generated by the magnitude 9.5 earthquake that occurred along the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960. Important points include the necessity to heed all warnings (official and natural), head for higher ground, expect many waves, and not to attempt to recover personal belongings.

2011-04-08

133

Seasonality of conception in human populations in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonality of conceptions in human populations in Chile was studied for a period of 30 years (1945 1974). Clear seasonal conception courses exist in the country, exception made of the northern and southern extremes. Seasonal flux is concentrated mainly in January, but also secondary increases in April and June were observed. Along the 30-year period a general pattern of decreasing seasonality is observed. Conception is significantly related to temperature and photoperiod in this country, the maximum rates of conceptions being observed in coincidence with the maximum temperatures and photoperiods. Nonclimatic factors which may be affecting seasonality of conceptions are also discussed.

Hajek, E. R.; Gutiérrez, J. R.; Espinosa, G.

1981-12-01

134

[The contradictory requirements of university teaching in Chile].  

PubMed

Chile should become a member of the "society of knowledge". Therefore, undergraduate curricula of university careers should be revised, to offer shorter programs that prepare for a permanent training during the whole professional life. This proposal requires an agile academic team, endowed with the adequate methodological tools, but also a contingent of interested and motivated students with comprehension and expression skills and a study discipline. This article comments on the training deficiencies of students that are admitted to Chilean universities and the difficulties of university teachers to compensate this training deficiencies in order to teach their subjects in shorter lapses. PMID:18180844

Norero V, Colomba

2007-10-01

135

Novel recombinant norovirus causing outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Santiago, Chile.  

PubMed

Capsid and polymerase (RdRp) genes of 13 norovirus outbreak strains from Chile were compared. The genes sequences were discordant for five strains, and recombination was confirmed for two of them by amplification of a 1,360-bp gene segment containing a fragment of both genes. These strains belonged to a novel genogroup by RdRp sequence and to genogroup GII/3 by capsid sequence. Determining the clinical and epidemiological impact of human calicivirus recombination will require future studies. PMID:16757638

Vidal, Roberto; Roessler, Patricia; Solari, Verónica; Vollaire, Jimena; Jiang, Xi; Matson, David O; Mamani, Nora; Prado, Valeria; O'Ryan, Miguel L

2006-06-01

136

Electromagnetic study of the active continental margin in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotelluric and geomagnetic deep sounding measurements were carried out in the magmatic arc and forearc regions of northern Chile between 19.5° and 22°S to study the electrical conductivity structures of this active continental margin. The instruments used covered a very broad period range from 10 -4 s to approx. 2 × 10 4 s and thus enabled a resolution of deep as well as shallow structures. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of data from an east-west profile crossing Chile from the Pacific coast to the Western Cordillera at 20.5°S. A decomposition of the impedance tensors using the Groom-Bailey decomposition scheme shows that a two-dimensional interpretation is possible. The resulting regional strike direction is N9°W. Two-dimensional models were calculated in this coordinate frame and include the significant bathymetry of the trench as well as the topography of the Andes. The final model shows a generally high resistivity in the forearc and a very good conductor below the Precordillera. Unlike earlier models from areas further south, a good conductor is not observed below the magmatic arc itself. This correlates with the so-called Pica gap in the volcanic chain and a higher age of volcanic activity compared with adjacent areas.

Echternacht, Friedrich; Tauber, Sebastian; Eisel, Markus; Brasse, Heinrich; Schwarz, Gerhard; Haak, Volker

1997-06-01

137

An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

2012-08-01

138

A mechanism for enhanced upwelling off central Chile: Eddy advection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional numerical model is developed for the mid-Chile shelf and ocean circulation (30°S to 43°S). The model is forced with mean summertime wind stress and transports from a global model. Over the first 10 days, deep (250-300 m) Peru Undercurrent (PUC) water is upwelled to depths of 170-270 m. After this time, upwelling by the steady winds is largely shut down and a 55-km-diameter cyclonic eddy is found to grow in deep water off Punta Lavapie. The mechanism for eddy growth is identified to be baroclinic instability of an initial offshore meander of the equatorward Chile Coastal Current (CCC). Over a period of more than 100 days, the onshore arm of the deep-water eddy upwells PUC water to depths of 150 m toward the shelf. A shallow headland eddy then sweeps this PUC water to depths of less than 50 m and into the Gulf of Arauco. The net upwelling of 200 m is the largest found for the region. Observational evidence is cited for the existence of the deep-water cyclonic eddy over a period of 4 months. A spatially intermittent PUC is also found to lie below the CCC. In agreement with observational studies, the model also predicts the existence of an offshore branch of the CCC that is directed to the northwest.

Leth, Ole; Middleton, John F.

2004-12-01

139

Lower Triassic lacustrine sediments in La Coipa area, Atacama, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lower Triassic lacustrine sediments in an area of at least 300 km 2 at the La Coipa Mine area (26°50' S, 69°15' W), in northern Chile, indicate a large, actively subsiding lake, which was at one time evaporitic. This lake was surrounded by highlands dominated by outcrops of Late Paleozoic volcanic rocks and granitoids. An open lacustrine environment includes black hemipelagic shales with intercalated thin and medium-grained turbidites probably representing a channel-levee complex. The coarse-grained, lake margin sediments are dominated by debris-flow deposits and turbidites with intercalated black shales. These represent either the subaqueous part of a fan delta (formed during low-stand) or subaqueous talus (formed in a high stand). The Lower Triassic age, given by palynomorphs, represents the first documentation of strata of this age in Chile and apparently in the Andes. It indicates that basins of probable extensional origin were forming prior to the previously accepted Middle-Late Triassic age.

Suárez, M.; Bell, C. M.; Hutter, T.

1995-01-01

140

A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow. Earthquake-induced static seabed vertical displacement is used as an input boundary condition to the model. The model is hierarchically set up with three nested domain levels; with 250 domains in total covering the entire Chilean coast. Spatial grid-cell resolution is equal to the native SRTM resolution of approximately 90m. In addition to the stochastic events, the 1960 (M9.5) Valdivia and 2010 (M8.8) Maule earthquakes are modelled. The modelled tsunami inundation map for the 2010 Maule event is validated through comparison with real observations. The vulnerability component consists of an extensive damage curves database, including curves for buildings, contents and business interruption for 21 occupancies, 24 structural types and two secondary modifies such as building height and period of construction. The building damage curves are developed by use of load-based method in which the building's capacity to resist tsunami loads is treated as equivalent to the design earthquake load capacity. The contents damage and business interruption curves are developed by use of deductive approach i.e. HAZUS flood vulnerability and business function restoration models are adapted for detailed occupancies and then assigned to the dominant structural types in Chile. The vulnerability component is validated through model overall back testing by use of observed aggregated earthquake and tsunami losses for client portfolios for 2010 Maule earthquake.

Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

2014-05-01

141

Slip Distribution of the 2005 Mw 7.8 Tarapaca, Chile Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

On June 13, 2005, a large earthquake with a preliminary USGS moment magnitude of 7.8 struck the Tarapaca province in Chile. The initial USGS focal mechanism and Harvard CMT indicate that this was an approximately 115 km deep normal faulting event located over 200 km inland of the Peru-Chile trench. However, little else is known about the source mechanism of

S. E. Minson; M. Simons; D. V. Helmberger; D. Comte; R. Boroschek; C. Ji

2006-01-01

142

Structure and Neotectonics of the Southern Chile Forearc 35°S - 40°S  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Southern Chile Forearc exhibits an extreme level of neotectonic deformation. On-land studies have documented a pronounced segmentation in the region 36°S - 41°S. However, information on the seaward continuation of the individual segments towards the Chile Trench is rare, as direct observations end at the coastline and are replaced by a less dense set of marine geophysical data. In

Jacob Geersen; David Völker; Wilhelm Weinrebe; Sebastian Krastel-Gudegast; Jan H. Behrmann

2010-01-01

143

Report on National Policies on tobacco smoke-free environments in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence of smoking in Chile The findings of the surveys carried out by the National Drug Control Council (CONACE), which have been conducted every two years from 1994 to 2000, are the most reliable source of data on drug consumption in Chile.

2004-01-01

144

Regional Trading Arrangements for Chile: do the Results Differ with a Dynamic Model?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from our earlier multi-region trade model, we develop two new 24 sector small open economy (SOE) computable general equilibrium models (CGE) of Chile. One is comparative static and the other is dynamic. We evaluate the impact of Chile forming free trade agreements with either NAFTA or MERCOSUR. Our principal result is that the dynamic SOE model does not produce

Thomas F. Rutherford; David G. Tarr

2003-01-01

145

75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2009-0082] Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile AGENCY...of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean...regulations for recognition as a pest-free area for Medfly. EFFECTIVE DATE:...

2010-06-10

146

Forecasting the development of wine tourism: a case study in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The number of wine tourists in Chile is still small even though investment in infrastructure, like cellars and wine routes, has been made in the last five years. A question is important to be answered at this point: is there a market for wine tourism in Chile, did the industry overestimate its potential? The lack of historical data

Martin H. Kunc

2009-01-01

147

Chile: Climbing on Giants' Shoulders: Better Schools for all Chilean Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile has made impressive progress in educational attainment. Yet, despite recent improvements, outcomes, as measured by PISA results, still need to catch up with OECD standards and equity problems should be addressed. One decisive ingredient will be better teachers. Chile should aim to attract qualified individuals to the profession and bolster initiatives to improve initial teacher education and training. A

Nicola Brandt

2010-01-01

148

Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

Young, Nathan

2007-01-01

149

Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in…

Matear, Ann

2006-01-01

150

Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

Matear, Ann

2007-01-01

151

Curriculum Convergence in Chile: The Global and Local Context of Reforms in Curriculum Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 14 years since Chile's return to democracy, educational reform has figured prominently in the social policy agenda. As is true throughout Latin America, Chilean policy makers have placed the quality of educational opportunities among their main concerns. Having previously focused on the numerical expansion of enrollment, Chile's leadership…

Valverde, Gilbert A.

2004-01-01

152

The espinal: agroforestry systems of the mediterranean — type climate region of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Central Valley of Chile is largely occupied by a pseudo-savanna called espinal consisting of a single dominant tree species, Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol. (Leguminosae), and some 215 annuals, most of which were inadvertently introduced from the Mediterranean Basin. The probable origin and current distribution of the espino (Acacia caven) and the espinales in Chile are described. Predominant production systems

Carlos Ovalle; James Aronson; Alejandro Del Pozo; Julia Avendano

1990-01-01

153

Human bocavirus in children with acute gastroenteritis, Chile, 1985-2010.  

PubMed

We detected human bocavirus in 89 (19.3%) of 462 fecal samples collected during 3 periods from 1985 through 2010 from children <5 years of age in Chile who were hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Our findings confirm the long-term circulation of human bocavirus in Chile. PMID:24209884

Levican, Jorge; Navas, Esteban; Orizola, Joaquín; Avendaño, Luis Fidel; Gaggero, Aldo

2013-11-01

154

A new species of alucita L. (Lepidoptera: alucitidae) from northern Chile.  

PubMed

Male and female adults of a new species of Alucita L. (Lepidoptera: Alucitidae) are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley, northern Chile. Immature stages are associated with fruit of "chuve", Tecoma fulva (Cav.) D. Don. (Bignoniaceae). This is the first species of Alucitidae described from Chile. PMID:21437487

Vargas, H A

2011-01-01

155

Small scale mining in the area of the Choapa river, Central Chile: an environmental risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Choapa valley is typically for the northern part of Chile with agriculture based one hundred percent on irrigation influenced by serious variations of precepitation. It will also become one of the major copper mining districts of Chile due to the increase in production of the mine Los Pelambres. For a further development of the water resources esp. groundwater a

Michael Wrobel; Thomas R. Rüde; Stefan Wohnlich

156

Carlota, a new genus of Agrypnini from the Valdivian Forests of Chile (Elateridae, Agrypninae, Agrypnini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Carlota gen. n., with one included species C. coigue sp. n., is described and illustrated from the Valdivian forests of Chile. The relationships of this genus to other Agrypnini from Chile are discussed and generic key for Chilean Agrypninae genera is provided.

Arias-Bohart, Elizabeth T.

2014-01-01

157

Geomorphic surfaces and supergene enrichment in Northern Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supergene enrichment of porphyry copper deposits in the central Andes is thought to be closely correlated with periods of relatively humid climate and the formation of regionally extensive paleosurfaces (e.g. Mortimer, C. 1973) . In northern Chile, two such paleosurfaces have been proposed: the ca. 23 Ma Tarapaca paleosurface within the Coastal Cordillera, and the ca. 10 Ma Pacific paleosurface within the Longitudinal Valley. The Pacific paleosurface is regarded as a single stratigraphic horizon that formed due to either a marked increase in the aridity of the area (Galli-Oliver 1967), regional surface uplift that created a change in the locus of deposition (e.g. Mortimer and Rendic 1975), or a combination of the two. The formation of this surface has been associated with the timing of supergene enrichment throughout the northern Chile and southern Peru (Alpers and Brimhall 1988). Multispectral satellite mapping of the Pacific paleosurface in northern Chile using Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) imagery, combined with seismic data (Jordan et al. 2010) indicates that the Pacific paleosurface is not a single chronostratigraphic surface, as previously thought, but an amalgamation of surfaces that have both an erosional and depositional history. New in situ cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial boulders on the paleosurface is combined with previous data (Dunai et al. 2005, Kober et al. 2007 and Evenstar et al., 2009) giving ages ranging from ca. 23 Ma to <1 Ma, supporting a multiphase and much more continuous history. By combining these apparent exposure ages with regional geomorphology, underlying sedimentology, and seismic sections, the geomorphic evolution of the Longitudinal Valley can be constrained. The results show a complex interplay between uplift within the Coastal Cordillera and Precordillera in the south and a distinct change in depositional pattern towards the north. The Longitudinal Valley is increasingly incised to the north and drains into the Pacific Ocean above 19°30. The close temporal correlation between the formation of these paleosurfaces and supergene enrichment means that placing tighter constraints on their age and regional extent could help locate areas where the geneneration and preservation of supergene deposits is possible.

Evenstar, Laura; Mather, Anne; Stuart, Finlay; Cooper, Frances; Sparks, Steve

2014-05-01

158

Coastal Upwelling off Chile: Ocean Productivity and Surface Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal upwelling system of the Peru-Chile Current belongs to the most productive regions in the world oceans. In spite of this fact only very little is known about the sediment distribution in its southern part off the coast of Chile. To increase the knowledge about this region a multi-parameter study of the surface sediment distribution at over 100 sampling sites along the Chilean continental slope between 23°S and 45°S has been carried out. Detailed analyses of sedimentary data (TOC, carbonate, and biogenic opal contents, delta 15N) reveal a close relation to environmental conditions in the region. Coastal upwelling along the Chilean coast, centered around main upwelling centers such as off Antofagasta (23°S), off Lengua de Vaca (30°S), off Valparaiso (33°S), and off Concepci¢n (35-38°S), sustains the high productivity observed in satellite pigment data and in sediment data. However, the highest pigment concentrations are found south of 40°S where prevailing onshore winds of the Southern Westerlies generally prevent coastal upwelling. There, also highest estimated accumulation rates of organic carbon and biogenic opal at the sea floor are found. Thus, the general pattern of a southward increase of surface water productivity known from satellite data is closely reflected in the organic carbon, biogenic opal and ?15N data, although the observation of highest productivity south of the upwelling area is surprising. Probably, this high productivity in the south can be attributed to the advection of (macro-) nutrients by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, supplying so-called high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to the Chilean margin. Impinging on the Chilean margin these waters can take up micronutrients such as iron from the strong riverine input and from benthic exchange processes. The combination of macro- and micro-nutrients in this area most likely results in the high productivity of the area between 40°S and 45°S. From there these fertile waters are transported to the north by the Peru-Chile Current. Although the nutrients are kept in the system by coastal upwelling processes on their way north, total productivity is decreasing as the nutrients are gradually consumed on their way north and taken out of the system by sedimentation.

Hebbeln, D.; Lamy, F.

2002-12-01

159

77 FR 70874 - Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notification of the Next Meetings of the U.S.-Chile FTA Environmental Affairs Council and ECA...Notice of the next meeting of the U.S.-Chile Free Trade Agreement Environmental Affairs...providing notice that the United States and Chile intend to hold the sixth meeting of...

2012-11-27

160

Efectividad de un Programa de Promoción de Actividad Física (PPAF) desde los centros de atención primaria para aumentar los niveles de actividad física en población sedentaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducción. La inactividad física es un factor de riesgo modificable de desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas. La elevada proporción de adultos sedentarios que acuden a los Centros de Atención Primaria (CAP) justifica las intervenciones de promoción de Actividad Física (AF) desde este ámbito. Objetivo. Evaluar la efectividad de un Programa de Promoción de Actividad Física (PPAF) desde Atención Primaria (AP) para

Martin-Borràs Carme; Giné-Garriga Maria; Martín-Cantera Carlos; Puig-Ribera Anna; Duran-Bellido Eulàlia; Solà-Gonfaus Mercè; PPAF grupo

2002-01-01

161

Volcanological evolution of Paniri volcano, Central Andes, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC) is located between 21°45'S-22°15'S, in the Recent volcanic arc of Central Andes. This volcanic chain comprises several volcanic edifices and dacitic domes, with a total lenght of ~65 km. Volcanic structures distributed in SPLVC show a NW-SE trending orientation and have been been built over Miocene ignimbrite fields. Paniri volcano (5946 m a.s.l.) is a composite stratovolcano located in SPLVC, and distributes southwards San Pedro - San Pablo volcanic complex, at the northern side of Chao Dacite. In this work, the volcanological evolution of Paniri is presented. This volcanic edifice is constituted by two cones, generated during four stages. The first stage corresponds to the plateau-type stage consituted by extensive andesitic and basaltic-andesite lavas and scoria flows that overlie the ignimbritic basement of the volcano. Over these mafic flows, thick dacitic flows were erupted at the northern, southern and southwestern flank of the volcano. After this stage, the main edifice was constructed, presenting two stages: the Old and the Young Cone. The Old Cone Stage was built on the southern part of the volcano. It is constituted by andesitic-to-dacitic lavas and pyroclastic flows. After that, lavic and pyroclastic flows were erupted north of the Old Cone, generating the Young Cone Stage, corresponding to lavas and pyroclastic flows that overlay the previous Old Cone. Composition of the flows of this stage vary from basaltic-andesite to dacite. An 40Ar/39Ar radiometric measure from an basaltic-andesite lava flow of the Young Cone Stage gave a plateau age of 400±50 ka. Significant dissection by glacial erosion affect southern flank of old cone and diverse parts of young cone, being in the last less pervasive. Frontal and lateral morraines deposits are present in the related glacial valleys. The last stage in the evolution of this volcano corresponds to emision of andesitic flows, with autobreccia textures. These flows reach up to 7 km and come from the Young Cone summit, covering the lava flows erupted in the previous stage. Thus, according with the presented evolution, Paniri is similar to San Pedro, Cerro del León, and Toconce volcanoes, distributed in SPLVC. Stratigraphic relation, glacial erosion and radiometric dating indicate that this volcano is younger than Cerro del Leon and Toconce southwards, both showing a marked hydrothermal alteration (López et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2012), and older than Chao Dacite, and San Pedro - San Pablo volcanic complex. No historical activity have been observed for Paniri volcano. References López, C., Aguilera, F., Godoy, B., Wörner, G., y Kojima, S., 2012. Evolución del sitema volcánico Toconce (Región de Antofagasta, Chile) mediante interpretación fotogeológica, petrográfica y geoquímica. In XIII Congreso Geológico Chileno. 13 - 17 agosto, Antofagasta, Chile. Silva, F., Aguilera, F., Godoy, B., Wörner, G., y Kojima, S., 2012. Evolución del sitema volcánico Cerro del León (Región de Antofagasta, Chile) mediante interpretación fotogeológica, petrográfica y geoquímica. In XIII Congreso Geológico Chileno. 13 - 17 agosto, Antofagasta, Chile.

Lazcano, J.; Godoy, B.; Aguilera, F.; Wilke, H.

2012-12-01

162

Childbirth in Santiago de Chile: stratification, intervention, and child centeredness.  

PubMed

On the basis of ethnographic work with women from different economic and educational backgrounds in Santiago, I describe the experiences of labor and birth from the point of view of women's priorities, socioeconomic constraints, and relationships with the medical system. I specifically focus on their desires expressed during the late prenatal period and their narratives of the actual birth. Class and the differences in opportunities resulting from educational and class inequalities melt down into near invisibility as vulnerability rises and women become increasingly subjected to medical decision making. The long-standing Chilean focus on child centeredness, while shown to benefit bonding, can work to obliterate women's own desires and choices by encouraging them to "sacrifice their all" for the sake of the baby. This kind of sacrifice defines the meaning of the maternal body in Chile. I suggest further analysis of these factors is essential for an understanding of the hypermedicalized Chilean context. PMID:23259346

Murray, Marjorie

2012-09-01

163

Influence on UV Radiation by wildfire smoke in Valparaíso, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV absorption in Valparaíso, Chile, is analyzed during the passage of a smoke column from a nearby forest fire. Total solar absorption is measured, UVB and UVA radiation, UV nanometre to nanometre between 295 nm and 315 nm. With the purpose of seeing what factors intervene in this absorption, tropospheric ozone and PM10 particulate material are measured during the passage of this smoke column from the forest fire. In addition, considerations were made on the chemical compounds which are normally present during a forest fire such as, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, etc., depreciating their evidence that is the PM10 particulate material, which acts as a black body that is primarily responsible for the UV absorption. This affirmation is based on the fact that no absorption, which notoriously indicates some particular compound, was observed on the spectroradiometer register. All of the bands, nanometre to nanometre, showed the same behaviour, indicating the same type of absorption.

Da Silva, L.; Cortés, O.; Ossandón, Á.; Mera, E.

2012-02-01

164

How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?  

PubMed Central

In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented.

Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, Francois

2012-01-01

165

Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-silica rhyolite magma fuels Earth's largest and most explosive eruptions. Recurrence intervals for such highly explosive eruptions are in the 100- to 100,000-year time range, and there have been few direct observations of such eruptions and their immediate impacts. Consequently, there was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions [Naranjo and Stern, 2004semi; Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), 2008semi; Carn et al., 2009; Castro and Dingwell, 2009; Lara, 2009; Muñoz et al., 2009]. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which explosive activity waned and a new lava dome was extruded.

Pallister, John S.; Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Holitt, Richard P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Eichelberger, John C.; Luis, Lara; Moreno, Hugo; Muñoz, Jorge; Castro, Jonathan M.; Iroumé, Andrés; Andreoli, Andrea; Jones, Julia; Swanson, Fred; Crisafulli, Charlie

2010-01-01

166

1960 Chile - New estimate of polar motion excitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recent reanalysis of the International Latitude Serivce (ILS) polar motion data-day has been processed using Kalman filtering techniques to generate the polar motion excitation function over the time-span from 1960 to 1965. The resulting excitation function has been examined for the effects of 1960 Chile in an attempt to determine experimentally how large earthquake affect polar motion. The resulting upper bound of about 75 x 10 to the 22nd N-m for a 10-deg dip (about 36 x 10 to the 22nd N-m for 20-deg dip) is consistent with results obtained from previous seismic studies, including a recent normal mode excitation result. Following future great earthquakes, monitoring of polar motion by space-based techniques such as VLBI should continue at high temporal resolution for several weeks in order to directly measure the rheological parameters of the upper mantle.

Slade, M. A.; Yoder, C. F.

1989-01-01

167

Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile  

PubMed Central

Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities.

Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

2011-01-01

168

Modeling to Predict Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a life threatening disease transmitted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus in Chile. Hantavirus outbreaks are typically small and geographically confined. Several studies have estimated risk based on spatial and temporal distribution of cases in relation to climate and environmental variables, but few have considered climatological modeling of HPS incidence for monitoring and forecasting purposes. Methodology Monthly counts of confirmed HPS cases were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health for 2001–2012. There were an estimated 667 confirmed HPS cases. The data suggested a seasonal trend, which appeared to correlate with changes in climatological variables such as temperature, precipitation, and humidity. We considered several Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time-series models and regression models with ARIMA errors with one or a combination of these climate variables as covariates. We adopted an information-theoretic approach to model ranking and selection. Data from 2001–2009 were used in fitting and data from January 2010 to December 2012 were used for one-step-ahead predictions. Results We focused on six models. In a baseline model, future HPS cases were forecasted from previous incidence; the other models included climate variables as covariates. The baseline model had a Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) of 444.98, and the top ranked model, which included precipitation, had an AICc of 437.62. Although the AICc of the top ranked model only provided a 1.65% improvement to the baseline AICc, the empirical support was 39 times stronger relative to the baseline model. Conclusions Instead of choosing a single model, we present a set of candidate models that can be used in modeling and forecasting confirmed HPS cases in Chile. The models can be improved by using data at the regional level and easily extended to other countries with seasonal incidence of HPS.

Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Marathe, Madhav V.; Brownstein, John S.

2014-01-01

169

Site Response in the Bíobío Region, Chile Using the ? Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess local site response in the Bíobío region of Chile utilizing seismograms recorded by the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers during the aftershock sequence that followed the February 27, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake. The earthquakes were captured by over 70 QCN low-resolution (10, 12, and 14-bit) seismometers from March 1 to June 1, 2010. Site effects are caused by the local amplification (or deamplification) of seismic energy due to subsurface structures and geologic materials, which often result in spatially variable patterns of surface damage following an earthquake. In this study we estimate kappa, ?, which models the decay of the acceleration spectra to characterize strong ground motion at high frequencies (> 1 Hz). We calculated the Fourier spectra and ? for each station following the method of Douglas et al. (2010). During the aftershock deployment, the QCN network recorded over 229 earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 and greater. Of these recordings, we determine that 57 earthquakes (25%) have sufficient signal-to-noise quality for use in site response analysis, as determined by visual inspection. Preliminary results indicate ? values between 0.03 and 0.06, with an average value of 0.0407. These values suggest that the Bíobío region of Chile is sharply attenuating and likely consists of less competent rock, as expected. Preliminary results also suggest that kappa does not have a direct correlation with source-station distance; however, this relationship will be investigated more thoroughly as the additional earthquake records from more stations are analyzed. Further comparison of ? values between stations will also highlight the influence of local geology on observed seismic records at individual sites in the Bíobío region. As a result of the site response analysis, we highlight areas of the Bíobío region that may be more susceptible to greater ground shaking following future large earthquakes.

Liao, E. J.; Neighbors, C.; Cochran, E. S.; Chung, A. I.; Lawrence, J.; Belmonte, A.; Miller, M.; Sepulveda, H. H.

2011-12-01

170

Anisakid parasites in commercial hake ceviche in southern chile.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to determine the occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in hake ceviche sold in restaurants in Valdivia (39°48'S, 73°14'W) and Niebla (39°49'S, 73°22'W), Chile. Between August and November 2012, 78 portions of ceviche were collected (6 from each of the 13 restaurants that sell this product). Each portion was weighed and divided into approximately 30-g samples, which were placed in petri dishes with 0.15 M NaCl. All samples were manually shredded and then examined with a stereomicroscope. Muscles of 41 southern hake (Merluccius australis), a fish sold fresh in Valdivia, also were examined by candling to determine the presence of anisakid larvae. The presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in ceviche sold in Chile was identified for the first time. The pH of ceviche ranges from 4.1 to 4.8, which favors the presence of viable anisakid larvae that tolerate the acid pH similar to that found in the stomach of their mammalian host. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean density of anisakid larvae in ceviche were found between localities. Larvae were detected in ceviche from 3 of 6 restaurants in Valdivia and 4 of 7 restaurants in Niebla. Of the 78 examined portions of ceviche, 21.8% had larvae. The prevalence of viable larvae was 16.7 and 7.1% in the examined portions from Valdivia and Niebla, respectively. In the 41 hake muscle samples from Valdivia, the prevalence (4.9%), mean abundance (0.1), and mean density (0.03) was the same for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis larvae. No inspection processes or pretreatments are currently in place for raw fish to achieve safe conditions for ceviche in restaurants from Valdivia and Niebla. PMID:24988037

Torres-Frenzel, Pablo; Torres, Patricio

2014-07-01

171

Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Chile and ESO for Establishing a New Center for Observation in Chile - ALMA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 21, 2002, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Chile, Mrs. María Soledad Alvear and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , signed an Agreement that authorizes ESO to establish a new center for astronomical observation in Chile . This new center for astronomical observation will be for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) , the largest ground based astronomical project for the next decades. On this occasion, Minister Alvear stated that "we want to have ALMA working as soon as possible, which will constitute a pride not only to Chilean scientists but for the whole country and in particular, for the community of the Antofagasta Region" . ESO Director General Cesarsky said that "signing this agreement between the Government of Chile and ESO is a historical step in the astronomical collaboration between Chile and ESO and it will allow Chile to host, once again, a project of worldwide interest and impact" . ALMA is a joint project on equal basis between ESO and AUI (Associated Universities, Inc.). These organizations represent the scientific interests of Europe on one side and the United States with Canada on the other side. Chilean astronomers are closely involved with the project and 10% of the observing time will be reserved for Chilean science. ALMA will be built in the Andes, on the Plateau of Chajnantor (see the Chajnantor Photo Gallery ), 5000 metres above sea level and 60 km East of the town of San Pedro de Atacama. The array will be comprised of 64 antennas with unprecedent sensitivity and angular resolution that will allow studying the origin of galaxies, stars and planets, opening new horizons for astronomy, and being able to observe galaxies across the universe where stars are being formed. The agreement now signed between ESO and the Government of the Republic of Chile recognizes the interest that the ALMA Project has for Chile, as it will deepen and strengthen the cooperation in scientific and technological matters between the parties.

2002-10-01

172

Complexity in Size, Recurrence and Source of Historical Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32°- 35° S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.

Cisternas, M.

2013-05-01

173

Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today’s modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state.

de Jesus Luna-Ruiz, Jose; Gepts, Paul

2010-01-01

174

Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

175

Mercury contamination in chile: a chronicle of a problem foretold.  

PubMed

This review analyzes the effects of environmental mercury contamination in Chile. This contamination generates one of the most important environmental conflicts in the country in that it affects air, ground, and water (rivers and oceans), which are fundamental in maintaining natural biotic equilibrium and at the same time important for the nation's economy. Chile possesses extraordinarily wealthy mining resources between Regions I and IV that have developed into an extraction industry essential for the economy of the country. However, waste discharges from this production have created an environmental problem in that the majority of the mines are located in the Andes mountain range, or areas close by, and the water used in the extraction process is deposited into the rivers, significantly increasing the amount of chemical contamination. Therefore, the cities and downstream waters used in agriculture suffer the negative consequences of a natural resource that is becoming more and more scarce. In addition, minerals released from mills into the atmosphere are deposited onto the soil, drastically affecting the biological resources of these areas. One of these affected areas is the Metropolitan region, where one of the highest contamination levels of mercury in the country was found in one of its affluents due to industrial and domestic waste discharge. In a country that is only 200 km in width, the gathering of all these contaminants in the rivers results in a rapid flow to the ocean, thereby contaminating coastal waters and the biota. In general, this contamination has been detected in semiclosed bodies of water (bays). Between Regions VII and IX, the principal sources of mercury contamination are related to cellulose industrial sites (Regions VII and VIII) and, until the 1980s, the bleach-soda industry. The most important industrial and fishing activity is also found in this area. In San Vicente Bay, waste discharges released into the ocean include sewage, industrial residues, residues from fishing and mining industries, hydrocarbons, petrochemical derivatives, oils, and detergents. This combination of chemical assault makes the San Vicente Bay the most contaminated in the country and the area where the majority of mercury contamination studies have been carried out. Between Regions X and XII, mercury contamination is reduced due to decreased release of domestic residues, especially batteries and sanitary waste. Beginning with the decade of the 1990s, Chile made a great effort to decrease contamination through governmental organizations (CONAMA, SERNAGEOMIN, DGA, ECOMIN, SONAMI), nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), universities, government mining industries (CODELCO, ENAMI), and private mining industries (El Indio, La Escondida, La Candelaria, Fachinal, etc). These reduction efforts within the last 10 years exceed $900 million, and in the private mining sector alone more than 1,100 monitoring stations have been installed and more than 100,000 environmental measurements have been carried out each year. Furthermore, an important educational program on the use of mercury has been implemented in the small mining area to decrease contamination to the air, water, and soil. However, the consequences of mercury accumulation are seen in their damaging effects to the rivers that deliver water to crops and cities, in the bays where food is extracted, and in the air of some cities where there exist mills that release chemical substances into the atmosphere. PMID:15369320

Barrios-Guerra, Carlos A

2004-01-01

176

Easter Island, Chile Limited Surface Observations Climatic Summary (LISOCS). Parts A, C-F.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A statistical data summary of surface weather observation climatology for: Easter Island Chile. This summary is similar to the Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO), but is based on data collected from limited-duty weather obser...

1985-01-01

177

77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade...Administration (ITA) is organizing a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RE...Government support for Chile's renewable energy goals. The mission...

2012-10-18

178

A New Click Beetle Genus from Southern Chile: Llanquihue (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterinae, Pomachiliini)  

PubMed Central

Llanquihue, a new genus of Elateridae from Southern Chile, is here described and illustrated with 2 species: Llanquihue vittipennis (Candèze) new comb., and L. carlota sp. nov. The genus Llanquihue belongs to the subfamily Elaterinae and to the tribe Pomachiliini.

Arias, Elizabeth T.

2008-01-01

179

75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited (``Aberdeen...responsible for the overall management of the Chile Fund, and Aberdeen Asia...responsible for the overall management of the Australia Fund. Any other...

2010-03-09

180

A Study of Present and Needed Book Activities in National Development: Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report defines and describes the role of books in Chile; considers the place of textbooks in general basic education; comments on the various library programs; and discusses the library profession and suggests specific training activities to meet the ...

E. Brown R. Frase H. Lancour P. Watson

1967-01-01

181

Relative susceptibility of peach rootstocks to crown gall and Phytophthora root and crown rot in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

G. Guzmán, B.A. Latorre, R. Torres, and W.F. Wilcox. 2007. Relative susceptibility of peach rootstocks to crown gall and Phytophthora root and crown rot in Chile. Cien. Inv. Agr. 34(1):31-40. Crown gall (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and Phytophthora root and crown rot (PRCR), caused by P. cryptogea, are two major limiting factors affecting peach (Prunus persica) production in Chile. At present, Nemaguard

Gonzalo Guzman; Bernardo A. Latorre; Rene Torres; Wayne F. Wilcox

2007-01-01

182

Life Cycle Inventory of Pine and Eucalyptus Cellulose Production in Chile: Effect of Process Modifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This work reports the life cycle inventory (LCI) of cellulose production in Chile, following a cradle-to-gate approach. Primary\\u000a data have been used in this study, and cover 100% of pine and eucalyptus cellulose production capacity in Chile. Results show\\u000a that pine based cellulose presents greater chemical and environmental loads than eucalyptus. Most fossil energy consumption\\u000a takes place in raw materials

Patricia González; Mabel Vega; Claudio Zaror

183

Atacamite in the oxide zone of copper deposits in northern Chile: involvement of deep formation waters?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atacamite, a copper hydroxychloride, is an important constituent of supergene oxide zones of copper deposits in northern Chile,\\u000a whereas in similar deposits elsewhere, it is rare. In Chile, it has generally been assumed to be a primary constituent of\\u000a the supergene zones. There are two difficulties with this supposition. The first is that atacamite requires saline water for\\u000a its formation,

Eion M. Cameron; Matthew I. Leybourne; Carlos Palacios

2007-01-01

184

A strong-motion database from the Peru–Chile subduction zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquake hazard along the Peru–Chile subduction zone is amongst the highest in the world. The development of a database\\u000a of subduction-zone strong-motion recordings is, therefore, of great importance for ground-motion prediction in this region.\\u000a Accelerograms recorded by the different networks operators in Peru and Chile have been compiled and processed in a uniform\\u000a manner, and information on the source parameters

Maria C. Arango; Fleur O. Strasser; Julian J. Bommer; Ruben Boroschek; Diana Comte; Hernando Tavera

2011-01-01

185

Permanent deformation caused by subduction earthquakes in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are accompanied by coseismic and post-seismic rebound: blocks of crust on either side of the fault spring back to their initial, undeformed configuration. This rebound is well documented by space geodetic data, such as the Global Positioning System. Thus, all earthquake-induced deformation of the crust is considered non-permanent and is modelled as an elastic or visco-elastic process. Here, however, we show that earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in northern Chile caused the crust to deform permanently. We identify millimetre- to metre-scale tension cracks in the crust of the Atacama Desert and use cosmogenic nuclides to date the timing of crack formation. The cracks were formed by between 2,000 and 9,000 individual plate-boundary earthquakes that occurred in the past 0.8-1 million years. We show that up to 10% of the horizontal deformation generated during the earthquakes, recorded by Global Positioning System data and previously assumed to be recoverable, is permanent. Our data set provides a record of permanent strain in the shallow crust of the South American Plate. Although deformation of the deep crust may be predominantly elastic, we conclude that modelling of the earthquake cycle should also include a significant plastic component.

Baker, A.; Allmendinger, R. W.; Owen, L. A.; Rech, J. A.

2013-06-01

186

Interbasin underflow between closed Altiplano basins in Chile.  

PubMed

Interbasin ground water movement of 200 to 240 L/sec occurs as underflow beneath a mountainous surface water divide separating the topographically higher Salar de Michincha from the topographically lower Salar de Coposa internally drained basins in the Altiplano of northern Chile. Salt-encrusted flats (salars) and saline lakes occur on the lowest parts of the basin floors and comprise the principal evaporative discharge areas for the basins. Because a surface water divide separates the basins, surface water drainage boundaries do not coincide with ground water drainage boundaries. In the region, interbasin ground water movement is usually not recognized, but occurs for selected basins, and at places is an important component of ground water budgets. With increasing development of water for mining industry and potential exportation of ground water from the Altiplano for use at coastal cities, demonstration and quantification of interbasin movement is important for assessment of sustainable ground water development in a region of extreme aridity. Recognition and quantification of interbasin ground water underflow will assist in management of ground water resources in the arid Chilean Altiplano environment. PMID:12873015

Montgomery, Errol L; Rosko, Michael J; Castro, Santiago O; Keller, Barry R; Bevacqua, Paolo S

2003-01-01

187

Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences  

PubMed Central

Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal.

2013-01-01

188

Catastrophic debris avalanche deposit of Socompa volcano, northern Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Between 10,000 and 500 yr ago the Socompa volcano in northern Chile experienced a catastrophic collapse of a 70 deg sector of the original cone, causing a debris avalanche that descended nearly 3000 m vertically and traveled more than 35 km from the volcano. The deposits cover some 490 sq km and have a minimum volume of 15 cu km. Parts of the original cone slumped in a nearly coherent form and are now preserved as large blocks more than 400 m high. The primary avalanche traveled northwestward over sloping ground before coming to rest transiently, forming a prominent marginal ridge, and then slid away northeastward to form a secondary flow, overriding much of the primary avalanche deposit. Abundant, prismatic, jointed dacite blocks within the debris avalanche deposit and a thin, fine-grained pumiceous deposit beneath it suggest that the collapse was triggered by magmatic activity and may have been accompanied by a violent lateral blast. Collapse was followed by eruption of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and extrusion of voluminous dacite domes.

Francis, P. W.; Gardeweg, M.; Ramirez, C. F.; Rothery, D. A.

1985-01-01

189

Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitén volcano, Chile.  

PubMed

Rhyolite magma has fuelled some of the Earth's largest explosive volcanic eruptions. Our understanding of these events is incomplete, however, owing to the previous lack of directly observed eruptions. Chaitén volcano, in Chile's northern Patagonia, erupted rhyolite magma unexpectedly and explosively on 1 May 2008 (ref. 2). Chaitén residents felt earthquakes about 24 hours before ash fell in their town and the eruption escalated into a Plinian column. Although such brief seismic forewarning of a major explosive basaltic eruption has been documented, it is unprecedented for silicic magmas. As precursory volcanic unrest relates to magma migration from the storage region to the surface, the very short pre-eruptive warning at Chaitén probably reflects very rapid magma ascent through the sub-volcanic system. Here we present petrological and experimental data that indicate that the hydrous rhyolite magma at Chaitén ascended very rapidly, with velocities of the order of one metre per second. Such rapid ascent implies a transit time from storage depths greater than five kilometres to the near surface in about four hours. This result has implications for hazard mitigation because the rapidity of ascending rhyolite means that future eruptions may provide little warning. PMID:19812671

Castro, Jonathan M; Dingwell, Donald B

2009-10-01

190

Blood donation in Chile: Replacement and volunteer donors.  

PubMed

In recent years, the Chilean Health Ministry has developed a strategy in order to improve the safety and opportunity of the blood supply through the creation of a nationally co-ordinated blood transfusion service, centralizing collection management, production and testing in three Blood Centers along the country and promoting voluntary, regular, blood donation. In 2007, a comprehensive study of the situation of Blood Transfusion Services in Chile concluded that several critical factors make it difficult to achieve a safe and adequate access to blood and blood components in the country. For example there is a low donation rate (14.3/1000 inhabitants), very low percentage of voluntary donors (10%), excessive amount of blood banks collecting, processing and testing blood revealing an atomized non-centralized system, lack of a national IT system and insufficient national standards. There are two regions in the country, Bio Bio and Valparaíso, where Regional Blood Centers are located, that have put in place several strategies in order to obtain better results. PMID:19926303

Herrera, Claudia; Martínez, Cristina; Armanet, Leonor; Cárcamo, Amalia; Boye, Patricia; Lyng, Cecilia

2010-01-01

191

Pleistocene glaciation in the southern Lake District of Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relative-age criteria permit deposits of successive Andean glacier advances in the southern Lake District of Chile to be divided into four mappable drift sheets, the oldest two of which overlie Tertiary bedrock along the eastern flank of the Cordillera de la Costa. Only the youngest drift (Llanquihue) is datable by radiocarbon. During the most extensive ice advance of the last glaciation the Lago Llanquihue glacier was about 95 km long and reached an estimated maximum thickness of between 1000 and 1300 m. Glacier equilibrium lines at that time lay about 1000 m below their present level and rose eastward with a gradient of about 5 m/km. Successive ice advances in the Lago Llanquihue basin, which resulted in construction of end moraines and associated outwash plains beyond the lake margin, culminated sometime before about 20,000 yr ago and between 20,000 and 19,000 yr ago. A later readvance, inferred from the sedimentary record of lake-level fluctuations in the basin, had begun by about 15,000 yr ago and culminated shortly after 13,000 yr ago. A comparable, but less-closely dated, record of ice advances is found northwest of Seno Reloncaví and on Isla Chiloé. Deglaciation following the latest advance is likely to have been rapid, for the major glacier lobes fronted on deep water bodies that would have promoted extensive calving.

Porter, Stephen C.

1981-11-01

192

The health system in Chile: the nephrologist perspective.  

PubMed

Chile is a country with 17 million inhabitants, 13% of them living in rural areas, and with a per capita income of approximately US $14,500. Three percent of national income is assigned to the health budget, with a mixed public and private system, with guaranteed medical benefits from the state to cover chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal replacement therapy (RRT). Hemodialysis has reached in 2009 a prevalence of 857 patients per million population (pmp). Peritoneal dialysis is less developed, with a prevalence of 40 patients pmp. Both therapies show good quality indexes with a patient mortality rate close to 12% per year. A centralized national renal transplantation program registered 5,949 renal transplants performed up to 2009. Renal survival at 5 years is 86% for living and 76% for cadaveric donor transplants. Organ donation is relatively low with 7.1 cadaveric donors pmp in 2009, despite legal and educational strategies to increase it. Although the country demonstrates one of the highest standards for RRT indexes in Latin America, the proportion of resources invested makes it necessary to improve early diagnosis and renal prevention policies to avoid having the growing incidence of CKD constrain the national health budget. PMID:21360477

Ardiles, Leopoldo G; Poblete, Hugo; Ortiz, Mireya; Elgueta, Susana; Cusumano, Ana María; Vukusich, Antonio; Mezzano, Sergio

2011-01-01

193

Follow-up of women with ASCUS in Chile.  

PubMed

Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is a cytological report that creates a dilemma for the cytologist and the clinician because it does not necessarily represent a pathological entity. To clarify this paradox we propose research into the monitoring of cytological and histological results for a period of 3 years from a cohort of women treated in the Primary Care Health Services of Santiago, Chile, who have received a first Pap ASCUS results in 2005. In the cytological reports, the national nomenclature was used, which is equivalent to the Bethesda System 2001. By applying the selection criteria, a cohort of 154 women was formulated, whereby at the end of the monitoring period, we found: 2 women with invasive carcinoma (1.3%), 33 women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions HSIL (21.4%), 32 women with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions LSIL (20.8%), and 87 women with normal results (56.5%). The statistical analysis, by form of the tree of conditional probabilities, shows that when the 2nd smear is repeated within an accelerated time frame (2.7 months), it does not assist in elucidating this cytological entity, and should be repeated only after 6 months from the first ASCUS smear result. Thus, we found that one out of every two women showed no evidence of abnormal results throughout their cytological and histological monitoring. PMID:21416639

Fanny, López; Orlando, Quezada; Trinidad, Barrios; Estefanía, López

2011-04-01

194

Percepción de los Clientes Bancarios sobre las Acciones de Recuperación del Servicio en Chile Perception of the Retail Banking Customers Regarding the Service Recovery Efforts in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN. El artículo valida, desde el punto de vista de los clientes bancarios, seis acciones que los bancos deberían tomar para manejar los reclamos de los clientes. Ellas son la corrección de los errores, la indemnización, la atención a los consumidores, el tiempo que se demoran los bancos en dar una respuesta al reclamo y el tiempo y esfuerzo que

2008-01-01

195

Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy

2000-01-01

196

Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than 2 000 m2, the distribution exhibits a power-law behaviour with scaling exponent, ?, equal to -2.24. For comparison, we analysed the power-law behaviour of other earthquake-induced landslide inventories, obtaining similar results, although the geological and seismic conditions may have been very different (Buller, New Zealand, ? = -2.42; Iningahua, New Zealand, ? = -2.53; Northridge, USA, ? = -2.39; Chi-Chi, Taiwan, ? = -2.30; Wenchuan Earthquake, China, ? = -2.19). Volume estimates and slope stability modelling have been completed to characterize the phenomena and the possible triggering mechanisms. For volume estimate, we reconstructed the pre-failure surface for tens of landslides, in order to characterize the area-volume relationship. By using this relationship, we assigned a volume to all landslides of the inventory. The study area is subject to a high seismicity associated to earthquakes of different type: interplate (superficial and intermediate depth), subduction zone earthquakes, and earthquake along the Coastal Escarpment. By analysing the frequency size relationships for earthquake-induced landslides from literature, it is possible to observe that the higher the earthquake Magnitude, the higher the frequency density curve. To quantify this observation, we used the power-law relationships derived for each inventory to calculate the frequency density associated to selected areas, and we plotted these frequencies as a function of the magnitude of the respective earthquakes. By fitting these values, we derived the expected Magnitude required to generate the landslide distribution of the study area. In conclusion, we argue that the evolution of these landslides is controlled by: deep valley incision, canyon walls undercutting and lateral migration of the river controlled by valley flank instabilities, the Presence of weak lithologies and weak basal layers, the river incision debuttressing the slope toe and especially brings to daylighting the weak basal layers observed at some landslide sites, the possible deep groundwater flow above the deep imperm

Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

2014-05-01

197

Gas and aerosol emissions from Villarrica volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we report results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Villarrica volcano, Chile, in March 2009. A range of direct sampling and remote sensing techniques was employed to assess gas and aerosol emissions from the volcano, and extend the time series of measurements that have been made during recent years. Airborne traverses beneath the plume with an ultraviolet spectrometer yielded an average SO 2 flux of 3.7 kg s - 1 . This value is similar to previous measurements made at Villarrica during periods of quiescent activity. The composition of the plume was measured at the crater rim using electrochemical sensors and, for the first time, open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, yielding a composition of 90.5 mol% H 2O, 5.7% CO 2, 2.6% SO 2, 0.9% HCl, 0.3% HF and < 0.01% H 2S. Comparison with previous gas measurements made between 2000 and 2004 shows a correlation between increased SO 2/HCl ratios and periods of increased activity. Base-treated filter packs were also employed during our campaign, yielding molar ratios of HBr/SO 2 = 1.1 × 10 - 4 , HI/SO 2 = 1.4 × 10 - 5 and HNO 3/SO 2 = 1.1 × 10 -3 in the gas phase. Our data represent the most comprehensive gas inventory at Villarrica to date, and the first evaluation of HBr and HI emissions from a South American volcano. Sun photometry of the plume showed the near-source aerosol size distributions were bimodal with maxima at < 0.1 and ~ 1 ?m. These findings are consistent with results from analyses in 2003. Electron microscope analysis of particulate matter collected on filters showed an abundance of spherical micron-sized particles that are rich in Si, Mg and Al. Non-spherical, S-rich particles were also observed.

Sawyer, G. M.; Salerno, G. G.; Le Blond, J. S.; Martin, R. S.; Spampinato, L.; Roberts, T. J.; Mather, T. A.; Witt, M. L. I.; Tsanev, V. I.; Oppenheimer, C.

2011-06-01

198

Isotope hydrology of groundwaters in the Pampa del Tamarugal, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The water resources in northern Chile are extremely scarce and development is limited by this. This paper discusses the isotope hydrology of groundwaters in the Pampa del Tamarugal — an area of extreme aridity (rainfall < 1 mm/yr.) — whose groundwater resources are mined for the town of Iquique, as well as for industrial and agricultural purposes. The aim of the project was to obtain information on modern recharge and to delineate, if possible recharge environments. To obtain the necessary background information a precipitation survey in the high Andes, as well as spring- and surface-water studies were carried out. The results show that a well-defined meteoric water line exists where ? 2H = (7.8 ? 18O + 10.3)% , and altitude effects depend on air-mass movements and cannot be defined without a broader regional and detailed sampling programme. However, it is still possible to assign maximum altitudes of recharge to springs in the Andes and at the eastern border of the Pampa del Tamarugal. Comparison of these data with groundwater compositions show, that these groundwaters originate from infiltrating surface water rather than directly infiltrated precipitation. A dependence of individual groundwater systems on specific quebradas (river valleys) is recognized. However, low 14C activities indicate that most of the waters pumped today are fossil and at least several hundreds if not thousands of years old. Some minor subsurface recharge does occur at the foot of the Andes, especially at Pica where high-altitude waters discharge, but even there groundwater appears to be a diminishing resource.

Fritz, P.; Suzuki, O.; Silva, C.; Salati, E.

1981-09-01

199

Interferometric Radar Observations of Glaciar San Rafael, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interferometric radar observations of Glaciar San Rafael, Chile, were collected in October 1994 by NASA's Spaceborne Imaging Radar C (SIR-C) at both L- (24cm) and C-band frequency (5.6cm), with vertical transmit and receive polarization. The C-band data did not yield good geophysical products, because the temporal coherence of the signal was significantly reduced after 24h. The L-band data were, however, successfully employed to map the surface topography of the icefield with a 10m uncertainty in height, and measure ice velocity with a precision of 4 mm/d or 1.4 m/a. The corresponding error in strain rates is 0.05/a at a 30 m horizontal spacing. The one-dimensional interferometric velocities were subsequently converted to horizontal displacements by assuming a flow direction and complemented by feature-tracking results near the calving front. The results provide a comprehensive view of the ice-flow dynamics of Glaciar San Rafael. The glacier has a core of rapid flow, 4.5 km in width and 3.5 degrees in average slope,surrounded by slower moving ice, not by rock. Ice velocity is 2.6 m/d or 0.95 km/a near the equilibrium line altitude (1200m), increasing rapidly before the glacier enters the narrower terminal valley, to reach 17.5 m/d or 6.4 km/a at the calving front. Strain rates are dominated by lateral shearing at the glacier margins (0.4-0.7/a), except for the terminal-valley section, where longitudinal strain rates average close to 1/a. This spectacular longitudinal increase in ice velocity in the last few kilometers may be a fundamental feature of tidewater glaciers.

Rignot, Eric; Forster, Richard; Isacks, Bryan

1996-01-01

200

Mental health of indigenous school children in Northern Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety and depressive disorders occur in all stages of life and are the most common childhood disorders. However, only recently has attention been paid to mental health problems in indigenous children and studies of anxiety and depressive disorders in these children are still scarce. This study compares the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara and non-Aymara children. Among the Aymara children, the study examines the relations between these symptoms and the degree of involvement with Aymara culture. Methods We recruited 748 children aged 9 to 15 years from nine schools serving low socioeconomic classes in the city of Arica, in northern Chile. The children were equally divided between boys and girls and 37% of the children were Aymara. To evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms we used the Stress in Children (SiC) instrument and the Children Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), and used an instrument we developed to assess level of involvement in the Aymara culture. Results There was no significant difference between Aymara and non-Aymara children on any of the instrument scales. Dividing the Aymara children into high-involvement (n?=?89) and low-involvement (n?=?186) groups, the low-involvement group had significantly higher scores on the Hopelessness subscale of the CDI-S (p?=?0.02) and scores of marginally higher significance in overall Anxiety on the SiC (p?=?0.06). Conclusions Although Aymara children have migrated from the high Andean plateau to the city, this migration has not resulted in a greater presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Greater involvement with the Aymara culture may be a protective factor against anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara children. This point to an additional benefit of maintaining cultural traditions within this population.

2014-01-01

201

The Influence Of Earthquakes On Degassing At Villarrica Volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villarrica is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile and is presently characterized by continuous degassing, high-level seismicity and a persistent lava lake within its crater. Three stationary NOVAC-type scanning Mini-DOAS UV spectrometers for the quantification of SO2 fluxes were installed at the volcano in March 2009. Seismic stations used for this study include the OVDAS (Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur) volcano monitoring network, and 7 dedicated short period and broadband seismometers that were deployed in the region for more than one year. We have registered several cases of correlation between SO2 fluxes and seismic activity (LP events). Seismic events have in several cases been followed by an increase in degassing activity. The response seems to occur on two different time scales. Regional earthquake events in 2009 and 2010, and the 2011 Araucania event which occurred on January 2 and had a magnitude of 7.1, were followed by strongly increased degassing activity at Villarrica 2-4 days later, interpreted as due to increased bubble nucleation in the magmatic system at depth. The large Maule earthquake on February 27, 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 had little immediate effect, but was followed several weeks later by an immense increase in degassing activity of about one order of magnitude compared to the baseline level. We speculate that this was a result of changing stress fields in the lower crust and at mantle depths caused by the Maule event, possibly changing melting conditions temporarily. Numerical models based on seismic, petrologic and gas flux data are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the time-lag between seismicity and degassing. We thus aim at gaining insight into the interface between magmatic and volcano-tectonic processes, especially factors playing a role for the onset of volcanic unrest.

Hansteen, T. H.; Bredemeyer, S.; Garofalo, K.; Pena, P.; Rupke, L.; Mora Stock, C.; Dzierma, Y.; Rabbel, W.; Bataille, K.; Gil Cruz, F.

2011-12-01

202

[Alcohol use and self-reported violent events in Chile].  

PubMed

The objective is to examine the association between binge drinking and frequency of alcohol consumption during the last month with self-reported episodes of violence committed by people under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. We carried out a cross-sectional study that uses data from the National Survey on Drug Use on the General Population of Chile of 2010. A sample of 16,000 subjects, from 12 to 64 years of age (mean 35.8 years), representing a population of 9,536,602 individuals (49.5% men and 50.5% women) was used. The dependent variables were: being a victim of assault, aggression or sexual violence. The independent variables were: binge drinking (six or more drinks on one occasion at least once in the month) and the monthly frequency of alcohol consumption. The adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for men reporting binge drinking (vs. negative reporting) was of 1.85 (95% CI: 1.28 to 2.66) for assault, 2.0 for aggression (1.40 to 2.66), and 1.35 for sexual violence (0.43 to 4.23). Among women, the PR was 2.08 (0.97 to 4.50), 1.61 (0.78 to 3.35) and 1.37 times (0.48 to 3.91), respectively. Regarding the frequency of alcohol use, for each day a month of alcohol consumption the PR increases significantly for aggression among men and for the three victimization variables among women. Men and women who reported frequent alcohol consumption and/or binge drinking had significantly a higher prevalence of episodes of aggression, assault or sexual violence; compared to those who did not report these consumption patterns. PMID:24652398

Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Pizarro, Esteban; Luengo, Daniela; Soto-Brandt, Gonzalo

2014-01-01

203

Monitoring ultrafine particulate material in Santiago de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A monitoring campaign was performed in Santiago de Chile during a winter month of 2003 and 2006 (July) using several instruments to measure particulate material. For the first time, the size distribution of ultrafine particles was measured in Santiago, and an estimation of its sources was done by analyzing its temporal variation. The study was performed in three sites; one of them is located in the eastern part of Santiago, a sector with low particle concentration and about 100 m from a busy street. The other site is located in the western part, which is the sector that has the highest concentration of fine and coarse particle matter during winter, also located far from a street. The third site is located less than 5 m from the busiest street in Santiago. In all stations traffic is the dominating source for fine and ultrafine particles, however the size distribution in site near the street is peaked towards lower sizes. The size distribution measurements presented here indicate that aerosol dynamics play a more important role for the Santiago case as compared to cleaner cities in Europe. The size distribution in the sites far from streets during most of the day is peaked around 70 nm, indicating that there is a dominance of the soot mode over the nuclei mode. Changes in the particle size during different hours of the day reflect both variations in meteorological mixing conditions as well as effects of aerosol dynamic processes such as coagulation, condensation and dry deposition. A relative increase in the number of large particles (d > 70 nm), as compared to the number of smaller particles (d < 70 nm) is an indication of pollution transport with aged particles from other parts of the city.

Gramsch, E.; Gidhagen, L.; Oyola, P.; Artaxo, P.; Wahlin, P.

2007-05-01

204

Dutch Minister of Science Visits ESO Facilities in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, the Dutch Minister of Education, Culture and Science, who travelled to the Republic of Chile, arrived at the ESO Paranal Observatory on Friday afternoon, May 13, 2005. The Minister was accompanied, among others, by the Dutch Ambassador to Chile, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, and Mr. Cornelis van Bochove, the Dutch Director of Science. The distinguished visitors were able to acquaint themselves with one of the foremost European research facilities, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), during an overnight stay at this remote site, and later, with the next major world facility in sub-millimetre and millimetre astronomy, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). At Paranal, the guests were welcomed by the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky; the ESO Council President, Prof. Piet van der Kruit; the ESO Representative in Chile, Prof. Felix Mirabel; the Director of the La Silla Paranal Observatory, Dr. Jason Spyromilio; by one of the Dutch members of the ESO Council, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw; by the renowned astrophysicist from Leiden, Prof. Ewine van Dishoek, as well as by ESO staff members. The visitors were shown the various high-tech installations at the observatory, including many of the large, front-line VLT astronomical instruments that have been built in collaboration between ESO and European research institutes. Explanations were given by ESO astronomers and engineers and the Minister gained a good impression of the wide range of exciting research programmes that are carried out with the VLT. Having enjoyed the spectacular sunset over the Pacific Ocean from the Paranal deck, the Minister visited the VLT Control Room from where the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes and the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) are operated. Here, the Minister was invited to follow an observing sequence at the console of the Kueyen (UT2) and Melipal (UT3) telescopes. "I was very impressed, not just by the technology and the science, but most of all by all the people involved," expressed Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven during her visit. "An almost unique level of international cooperation is achieved at ESO, and everything is done by those who can do it best, irrespective of their country or institution. This spirit of excellence is an example for all Europe, notably for the new European Research Council." Catherine Cesarsky, ESO Director General, remarked that Dutch astronomers have been part of ESO from the beginning: "The Dutch astronomy community and industry play a major role in various aspects of the Very Large Telescope, and more particularly in its interferometric mode. With their long-based expertise in radio astronomy, Dutch astronomers greatly contribute in this field, and are now also playing a major role in the construction of ALMA. It is thus a particularly great pleasure to receive Her Excellency, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven." ESO PR Photo 16d/05 ESO PR Photo 16d/05 Dutch Minister Maria van der Hoeven at Chajnantor - I [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 480 pix - 207k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 959 pix - 617k] ESO PR Photo 16e/05 ESO PR Photo 16e/05 Dutch Minister Maria van der Hoeven at Chajnantor - II [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 605 pix - 179k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1210 pix - 522k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 16d/05: In front of the APEX antenna at Chajnantor. From left to right: Prof. Piet van der Kruit, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw, and Prof. Ewine van Dishoeck. ESO PR Photo 16e/05 shows the Delegation on the 5000m high Llano de Chajnantor plateau. From left to right: Dr. Leo Le Duc, Prof. Felix Mirabel, Prof. Tim de Zeeuw, Prof. Ewine van Dishoeck, Dr. Cornelius van Bochove, Mrs. Maria van der Hoeven, Mr. Hans van der Vlies, Dr. Joerg Eschwey, Mr. Hinkinus Nijenhuis, Prof. Piet van der Kruit, Mr. Hans van den Broek, and Mr. Eduardo Donoso. The delegation spent the night at the Observatory before heading further North in the Chilean Andes to San Pedro de Atacama and from there to the Operation Support Facility of the future ALMA Observatory. On Sunday, May 15, the delegation went to the 5000m Llano de

2005-05-01

205

Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile?  

PubMed Central

Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33°S) to Aysén (46°S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30°S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting ?0.6% seropositivity. We sequenced partial ANDV small (S) segment RNA from 6 HCPS patients and 32 rodents of four different species collected throughout the known range of hantavirus infection in Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single cosmopolitan lineage of ANDV Sout remains the sole etiologic agent for HCPS in Chile.

Medina, Rafael A.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.; Hjelle, Brian

2009-01-01

206

Ridge-trench collision in Archean and Post-Archean crustal growth: Evidence from southern Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of continental crust at convergent plate margins involves both continuous and episodic processes. Ridge-trench collision is one episodic process that can cause significant magmatic and tectonic effects on convergent plate margins. Because the sites of ridge collision (ridge-trench triple junctions) generally migrate along convergent plate boundaries, the effects of ridge collision will be highly diachronous in Andean-type orogenic belts and may not be adequately recognized in the geologic record. The Chile margin triple junction (CMTJ, 46 deg S), where the actively spreading Chile rise is colliding with the sediment-filled Peru-Chile trench, is geometrically and kinematically the simplest modern example of ridge collision. The south Chile margin illustrates the importance of the ridge-collision tectonic setting in crustal evolution at convergent margins. Similarities between ridge-collision features in southern Chile and features of Archean greenstone belts raise the question of the importance of ridge collision in Archean crustal growth. Archean plate tectonic processes were probably different than today; these differences may have affected the nature and importance of ridge collision during Archean crustal growth. In conclusion, it is suggested that smaller plates, greater ridge length, and/or faster spreading all point to the likelihood that ridge collision played a greater role in crustal growth and development of the greenstone-granite terranes during the Archean. However, the effects of modern ridge collision, and the processes involved, are not well enough known to develop specific models for the Archean ridge collison.

Nelson, E. P.; Forsythe, R. D.

1988-01-01

207

CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. METHODS CHILE uses a socio-ecological approach to improve dietary intake and increase physical activity. The intervention includes: a classroom curriculum; teacher and food service training; family engagement; grocery store participation; and health care provider support. RESULTS Lessons learned from CHILE include: the need to consider availability of recommended foods; the necessity of multiple training sessions for teachers and food service; the need to tailor the family events to local needs; consideration of the profit needs of grocery stores; and sensitivity to the time constraints of health care providers. CONCLUSIONS HS can play an important role in preventing obesity in children. CHILE is an example of a feasible intervention that addresses nutrition and physical activity for preschool children that can be incorporated into HS curricula and aligns with HS national performance standards.

Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

2012-01-01

208

Origins of The Paleolandslide of Tarapaca (north Chile, Andean Belt)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslides are an important and potentially rate-limiting process in the topographic evolution of active orogens like the Andean Belt. Various processes are responsi- ble for triggering landslides, including hillslope baselevel lowering, seismic events (Keefer, 1999); climate changes (Coriminas and Moya, 1999), anthropic effects (Sah and Mazari, 1998) and each of these triggers may be spatially heterogeneous in strength and effectiveness. Present work seeks to identify and constrain the domi- nant mechanism of a Tarapaca PaleoLandslide in order to determine the influence of the overall tectonic uplift of the Andean belt, and the seismicity of the area. The zone of interest is located near Iquique, along the Atacama Desert in the Tarapaca (N. Chile) domain (1955S, 6935W). The climate of the region became dry at 15 Ma (Gregory-Wodzicki, 2000) and remain today one of driest in the world. One of the most significant characteristic of the Atacama Desert landslides is to be located on the western limb of N-S trending flexures. At Tarapaca, the studied landslide is located on the front limb of a fault propagation anticline, the Moquella flexure, of Cenozoic age. The slope in this part increases weakly to reach a value close to 10 degrees. The main scarp of Tarapaca landslide has a length of ? 7 km and an elevation close to 200 m. This corresponds to the thickness of an ignimbritic formation which constitutes the load of the landslide. As in most of the Atacama desert, the lateral boundaries of the landslide are two antecedent paleorivers (Suca &Lataguella) which created free edges to the landslide and thus greatly facilitating landsliding. A smaller secondary landslide formed in the foot zone because of the local increase in the slope, which was responsible for the instability of the overlapping mass. The analysis of the safety factor and morphologic features shows that weathering, uplift, water pressure and load are not enough important for creating the slide. It is necessary to add one an important horizontal seismic acceleration and only in this case the landslide occurs.

Darrozes, J.; Pinto, L.; Ingles, J.; Soula, J.-C.; Maire, E.; Courjault-Radé, P.; Hérail, G.

209

Evidence of Subducting Seamounts in Copiapo, Northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Copiapo, northern Chile region (27-28.5°S) is located near the transition between normal subduction (that dips eastward with an angle of about 30°) and a subhorizontal subduction geometry. This change is well correlated with the end of the Quaternary volcanic chain, which is absent as far south as latitude 33°S. The Copiapó region is characterized by its ability of nucleate large interplate earthquakes; two historical earthquakes M>8.0 have been reported on 1819 (Mw=8.3) and 1922 (Mw=8.5), both with associated destructive tsunamis. Moreover, this region has also experienced at least two clear seismic swarms, one observed during July and August 1973, corresponding to an increase of earthquakes with magnitudes between 5.0 and 6.0 and the second was observed on April 2006, any of them was associated with a large earthquake. The seafloor morphology in the Copiapo area suggests the presence of seamounts that are being subducting in this region. In this work we procesing locally recorded data, that was used to determine a 3D body-wave velocity structure in the study area. The Vp, Vs, Vp/Vs anomalies are well correlated with the trace of the subducting seamount that can be observed with the high resolution bathymetry previously obtained, and with the area involved with both, the 1973 and the 2006 swarms. This is also in agreement with surface neotectonic results showing an extensional regime in this region. Therefore, the seismicity observed can be interpreted as the response of the overriding plate to the heterogeneities associated with the subducting seamounts. The presence of such heterogeneities does not necessarily lead to significant variations in the seismic coupling of the Copiapo region, because it would depend on the size of the subducted seamounts; they could be related to small earthquakes which rupture isolated unstable patches during the interseismic period. It is also interesting to note that the highest anomalies observed in the region coincide with the southern rupture end of the 1922 rupture area. Finally, the area that participated in the 1922 large earthquake and did not break with the1983 earthquake is an important seismic gap, where it is expected to have a large earthquake in the near future.

Pavez, C.; Ceballos, D.; Comte, D.

2011-12-01

210

Cristobalite in the 2011-13 Cordón Caulle Eruption (Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volcanic formation of cristobalite and other silica polymorphs is of great concern from a public health perspective, because they are known carcinogens and pose prominent respiratory hazards. Cristobalite is common in volcanic domes and other products, but its mode of formation is not completely understood. Firstly, it is enigmatic that the low-pressure stability field of cristobalite lies outside normal volcanic temperature conditions. Secondly, it is unclear if crystobalite forms by devitrification of volcanic glass, or by precipitation from a locally (e.g., immediately adjacent to porous networks) or deeply (e.g., from depth within the conduit) derived vapour phase, or by an intimate and necessary combination of both of these processes. The 2011-13 eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (Chile) has provided an excellent opportunity to track cristobalite formation during the full progression of a rhyolite eruption. The eruption included a short opening Plinian phase, a protracted period of hybrid explosive-effusive activity that included the emplacement of a compound obsidian flow, and the endogenous advance of the obsidian flow after the magma supply had been cut off. Together, these yield an ideal framework and sample suite for testing hypotheses of cristobalite formation, because samples were produced in different phases of the eruption, and were all collected very fresh with little to no alteration or devitrification. Immediately noteworthy is the presence of vapour phase crystallization products lining the vesicles in samples from the obsidian lava flow. Examination by SEM shows these precipitates to be rich in prismatic cristobalite. The relative proportions of vapour phase precipitates appears to be correlated to the degree of interconnectivity of the lava's vesicle network; where sheared, coalesced and collapsed vesicle networks show little-to-no vapour phase precipitates, and isolated vesicles show intensive vapour phase crystallization. Theses textures immediately argue for cristobalite formation from a Si-saturated vapour phase, and since the samples are derived from lava lobes far from the vent, argue that the vapour was locally derived from within the flow. Ongoing quantification using various analytical tools (?-cT; XRD; EBSD; ICPMS; SEM; EMPA; Cl-SEM) aim to pinpoint the timing and mechanisms of cristobalite formation during the progression of the Cordón Caulle eruption.

Schipper, C.; Castro, J. M.; Tuffen, H.

2013-12-01

211

Sub-slab mantle anisotropy beneath south-central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge of mantle flow in convergent margins is crucial to unravelling both the contemporary geodynamics and the past evolution of subduction zones. By analysing shear-wave splitting in both teleseismic and local arrivals, we can determine the relative contribution from different parts of the subduction zone to the total observed SKS splitting, providing us with a depth constraint on anisotropy. We use this methodology to determine the location, orientation and strength of seismic anisotropy in the south-central Chile subduction zone. Data come from the TIPTEQ network, deployed on the forearc during 2004-2005. We obtain 110 teleseismic SKS and 116 local good-quality shear-wave splitting measurements. SKS average delay times are 1.3 s and local S delay times are only 0.2 s. Weak shear-wave splitting from local phases is consistent with a shape preferred orientation (SPO) source in the upper crust. We infer that the bulk of shear-wave splitting is sourced either within or below the subducting Nazca slab. SKS splitting measurements exhibit an average north-easterly fast direction, with a strong degree of variation. Further investigation suggests a relationship between the measurement's fast direction and the incoming ray's back-azimuth. Finite-element geodynamic modelling is used to investigate the strain rate field and predicted LPO characteristics in the subduction zone. These models highlight a thick region of high strain rate and strong S-wave anisotropy, with plunging olivine a-axes, in the sub-slab asthenosphere. We forward model the sub-slab sourced splitting with a strongly anisotropic layer of thick asthenosphere, comprising an olivine a-axis oriented parallel to the direction of subduction. The subducting lithosphere is not thick enough to cause 1.2 s of splitting, therefore our results and subsequent models show that the Nazca slab is entraining the underlying asthenosphere; its flow causes it to be strongly anisotropic. Our observation has important implications for the controlling factors on sub-slab mantle flow and the movement of asthenospheric material within the Earth.

Hicks, Stephen P.; Nippress, Stuart E. J.; Rietbrock, Andreas

2012-12-01

212

Late Cenozoic Evolution of the Mejillones Peninsula, Northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mejillones Peninsula, located on the Pacific margin of Northern Chile, contains outer shelf, shelf and coastal terrace deposits that record the paleoceanographic, tectonic, and topographic evolution of the region. Preliminary micropaleontologic, geochemical, sedimentological and geochronological analyses of sedimentary sequences within the Tiburon Basin and uplifted coastal terraces of the Mejillones Peninsula together document Plio-Pleistocene sea-level cyclicity, as well as coeval changes in marine productivity, regional uplift, and displacement on local faults. The sedimentary succession within the Tiburon Basin can be subdivided into a lower set of diatomaceous sedimentary cycles containing thin phosphatic horizons, marine vertebrates and abundant planktonic and benthic foraminifera. Preliminary analyses of these sediments indicate an initial deep-water ( ˜500 meter) basin with high primary productivity related to upwelling of cold intermediate water interrupted by periods of little to no sediment input. This style of deposition was interrupted by an uplift event, probably involving vertical motion on the Mejillones Fault immediately to the west of the Tiburon Basin, which dominated the character of the upper set of sedimentary cycles and comprise coarse clastic sediments including vertebrate fossils, blocks up to boulder size, interpreted as detritus from the nearby fault scarp, and well-rounded pebbles derived from the interior of the Mejillones Peninsula. This switch from diatomaceous to clastic sedimentary cycles indicates abrupt (1) shallowing of the basin to shelfal (50-100 meters) to nearshore depths, (2) generation of significant local relief on the fault scarp, and (3) large-scale uplift and erosion of the Mejillones Peninsula. An Ar/Ar age of 2.8 +/- .04 Ma from an ash horizon near the top of the succession indicates a Pliocene age for the Tiburon succession, which is consistent with the foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the diatomaceous sequences. At least 10-12 coastal terraces occur within the Mejillones Peninsula, the highest of which can be traced to the margin of the Tiburon Basin and document contemporaneous subaerial exposure, uplift, and continuing sea-level cyclicity through the Quaternary.

Ishman, S. E.; Reilly, T. P.; Wilson, G. S.; Martinez-Pardo, R.; Pinter, N.; Wilke, H.; Chong, G.

2003-12-01

213

Dense Local Seismic Network at Villarrica Volcano (Southern Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villarrica volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Southern Andes. It has been presenting constant fumarole activity and seismicity since its last eruption in 1984-85. A local network was installed at Villarrica volcano (Southern Chile) during the first two weeks of March, 2012. In total, 75 DSS-Cube short-period stations (30 3-Component, 45 1-Component) were deployed at and around the volcano area, covering approx. 63 km x 55 km. The average station spacing is 1.5 km for stations inside the perimeter of the volcanic edifice, and 5km outside this perimeter. The network recorded ca. 94 volcano tectonic (VT) events located SSW, SSE and North of the crater, with clear P- and S-wave arrivals. Many others, ca.73 events, could be classified as 'hybrid' events (HB), which present high frequencies at the beginning of the signal, and a sharp and notorious S-wave at the crater stations, but a strong scattering, lower frequency content, and elongated coda on the stations along the volcanic edifice. This strong scattering effect is probably caused by the heterogeneous ash layers on the edifice structure. Few long period events (LP), with main frequencies between 2-4 Hz, were observed. From the tectonic regional events, three sets of events can be distinguished. One coming from the southern end of the focal plane of the Maule earthquake (2010), with S-P wave travel time difference of ca. 30 s or more. Another closer group with S-P wave travel time difference between 10 s and 20 s, and the last group with S-P wave travel time difference of 10 s or less. A cross-correlation analysis to the travel times of the regional events and a teleseismic event from Argentina was applied in order to determine the average velocity structure of the volcano, and obtained an average P-wave velocity of 3.6 km/s for the volcanic edifice inside a radius of 6.5 km, and 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area outside this radius. This model serves as a starting point for local earthquake tomography for exploring the inner structure of Villarrica volcano, for integrating the local model into a previously determined regional tomographic model (Dzierma et al., 2012), as well as for improving the location of the VT events.

Mora-Stock, C.; Thorwart, M.; Dzieran, L.; Rabbel, W.

2013-12-01

214

Meandering channels without vegetation: Examples from Nevada and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a study motivated by the occurrence of highly sinuous, actively migrating paleochannels on Mars. Highly sinuous, unconfined meanders require small aspect ratios, which in turn require cohesive channel banks. This cohesion is obtained most commonly by vegetation cover coupled with high suspended sediment loading. The dominant role of vegetation in meandering is reflected in the difficulty in creating highly sinuous channels in flume experiment without introduction of vegetation. The occurrence of strongly meandering channels on Mars suggests meanders can develop in the absence of vegetation. The main objective of our study is to understand the processes of meander evolution in non-vegetated surfaces. We have studied two terrestrial sites in which meandering channels form where vegetation is sparse and has little influence on bank erodibility or point-bar deposition, indicating that there must be other mechanisms creating bank cohesion. One mechanism is stabilization of point-bar deposits by mud drapes. The Quinn River in Nevada is a sinuous channel that flows through fine lacustrine sediments on the floor of paleolake Lahontan resulting in the river having both bed and bank composed of sediment containing least 40% silt/clay. In addition to abundant mud, high salt content of the river water encourages flocculation and settling of fine sediment; thus both high clay/silt content and salt work together at the Quinn River to maintain a small aspect ratio. In contrast to the Quinn River, meandering channels on alluvial fans in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile are deposited by flows originating from the foothills of the Andes Mountains where sediments are coarser and more variable in size. Like Quinn River both fine sediments and salts contribute to meandering. The bank cohesion is provided by mudflows or hyperconcentrated flows creating bank drapes as well as extensive overbank levees which harden to adobe-like consistency. The Atacama Desert is rich in precipitated salts forming salt crusted deposits, and because grains are coarser, we speculate that these salts may possibly be playing a much more direct role in providing the cohesion than they do in the Quinn River. We are using chemical analyses and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of sediment samples to investigate cementation mechanisms.

Matsubara, Y.; Howard, A. D.; Burr, D. M.; Williams, R. M.; Moore, J. M.

2012-12-01

215

[Reflexions about aging and work].  

PubMed

This qualitative research has the aim to know the meaning of the aging process in the work market referring to the aged people. Six aged persons have participated in this research. The data were collected through an interview and were analyzed using the technique of thematically analyze. Three analytical categories emerged: the meaning of aging/to be aged; the meaning of work; the meaning of aging in the work. Concluding, this paper reinforces the theory that the capitalist societies attach excessive value to the work in the human being life. When it isn't into the life--because of the retirement or the unemployment--it compromises the quality of aging/to be aged of the person, mainly if skills and (individual, social and economical) conditions will lack participation and priority to others activities and values in her/his life. PMID:20922292

de Souza, Rosangela Ferreira; Matias, Hernani Aparecido; Brêtas, Ana Cristina Passarella

2010-09-01

216

Shelf resonance and impact of near-field tsunami generated by the 2010 Chile earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 Chile earthquake of Mw 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in the near field that resulted in warnings across the Pacific. Numerical modeling shows trapping and amplification of the energy over the continental shelf and slope. A spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals resonance oscillations with periods up to 129 min along the central Chile coast. The temporal and spectral data provides an explanation for the long-period waves recorded by DART buoys and the prolonged wave activities and belated impacts reported by residents and survey teams. The present study of the 2010 Chile tsunami together with those of the 2006 Kuril and 2009 Samoa tsunamis has directly associated shelf resonance with impacts on insular and continental coasts and provided a tool to identify at-risk localities in tsunami hazard assessment.

Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai

2011-06-01

217

Design of a Teacher Professional Development Program for International Collaborative Astronomy Research in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed (but not yet implemented) a program where five US teachers will team with five Chilean teachers to conduct high-quality astronomical research in Chile that can be brought back to their classrooms and shared with their students. This project will introduce US teachers to four research projects at the Observatorio Cruz del Sur, one the largest municipal observatories in South America. The program would operate over the course of a year or more, with a month of observing and conducting research in Chile. The observatory is located in the small town of Combarbalá (Limari Province, IV Región de Coquimbo) in a region rich in archeological, historical, and cultural heritage. Teachers will use high-sensitivity digital detectors to take data through telescopes and with cameras as part of four research projects- light pollution research, digital photography of dark large areas of the sky using wide angle cameras, asteroid photometry, and exoplanet photometric studies. The project partners the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (Tucson, Arizona and La Serena, Chile), the Municipality of the town of Combarbalá, the National Observatory of Chile/University of Chile, and REUNA, an internet communication alliance that serves Chilean universities and observatories. Since the US teachers will have their astronomy classes running while they are in Chile, the teachers will be communicating with their classes on a regular basis. The teachers will also be providing long-term access to southern sky data for other teachers and students in the US while establishing the basis for long-term collaborative research. We expect the program to establish long-term international research collaborations among US and Chilean teachers and students.

Pompea, S. M.; Seguel, J.; Sparks, R.; Opazo, L.; Walker, C. E.

2011-12-01

218

Review of Coagulation Technology for Removal of Arsenic: Case of Chile  

PubMed Central

Coagulation technology has been used since 1970 in northern Chile for removing arsenic from drinking-water. This experience suggests that coagulation is an effective technology for the removal of arsenic. It is currently possible to reduce arsenic from 400 ?g/L to 10 ?g/L at a rate of 500 L/sec, assuming pH, oxidizing and coagulation agents are strictly controlled. The Chilean experience with the removal of arsenic demonstrates that the water matrix dictates the selection of the arsenic-removal process. This paper presents a summary of the process, concepts, and operational considerations for the use of coagulation technology for removal of arsenic in Chile.

2006-01-01

219

Identification of diverse Salmonella serotypes, virulotypes, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes in waterfowl from Chile.  

PubMed

Salmonella enterica is a pathogen with a wide host-range that presents great concern in developed and developing countries. To determine and characterize Salmonella strains found in Chile's waterfowl, we sampled 758 birds along 2000?km of the Chilean coast. In this sample, 46 isolates from 10 serotypes were detected, several with multidrug resistance phenotypes and different combinations of virulence-associated genes (virulotypes). These results suggest that Salmonella infection in waterfowl in Chile could have impacts on public and animal health. PMID:24107205

Fresno, Marcela; Barrera, Violeta; Gornall, Vanessa; Lillo, Pilar; Paredes, Natalia; Abalos, Pedro; Fernández, Alda; Retamal, Patricio

2013-12-01

220

Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) in Chile: a tentative diagnosis.  

PubMed

Three argasid tick larvae were collected on April 2, 2010, from a common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, captured in the Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar (26°09' S, 70°41' W), Region of Atacama, Chile. The larvae were diagnosed as Ornithodoros, and further comparative analysis showed them to be Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones or a species close to it. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences of Ornithodoros species plus four Argas species was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the larvae. This is the first finding of ticks parasitizing D. rotundus in Chile. PMID:23950013

Venzal, J; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, A; Guglielmone, A

2012-02-01

221

Efficacy of Lime, Biosolids, and Mycorrhiza for the Phytostabilization of Sulfidic Copper Tailings in Chile: A Greenhouse Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate abandonment of copper mine tailings under semiarid Mediterranean climate type conditions has posed important environmental risks in Chile due to wind and rain erosion. There are cost-effective technologies for tailings stabilization such as phytostabilization. However, this technology has not been used in Chile yet. This study evaluated in a greenhouse assay the efficacy of biosolids, lime, and a commercial

César Verdugo; Pablo Sánchez; Claudia Santibáñez; Paola Urrestarazu; Elena Bustamante; Yasna Silva; Denis Gourdon; Rosanna Ginocchio

2010-01-01

222

Post-Earthquake Reconnaissance Report on Transportation Infrastructure: Impact of the February 27, 2010, Offshore Maule Earthquake in Chile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the findings and lessons learned from the February 27, 2010, M8.8 offshore Maule earthquake in Chile. Fewer than 0.15 percent of the bridges in Chiles inventory, most built after 1995, collapsed or suffered damage that rendered them ...

D. Alzamora G. Chen I. Buckle J. Ger J. G. Arias T. Allen W. H. P. Yenp

2011-01-01

223

MORTALIDAD PERINATAL E INFANTIL Y EL BAJO PESO AL NACER EN CHILE Y CUBA EN EL PERIODO 1991-2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Objective. To compare perinatal and infant mortality rate and low birth weight between Chile and Cuba. Method. Fetal, early neonatal, perinatal and infant mortality rate for Chile and Cuba for the period between 1991 to 2001 were analyzed. The information was obtained from the National Vital Statistical Records from the respective countries. Pearson correlation, T student and Chi square

Luis Villarroel del P

2004-01-01

224

Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby AWS at Bahia Bahamondes we computed summer ablation for the summer seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Ablation at 45o m a.s.l. sums up to about 7 m in 1999/2000 and to 5.5 m in 2000/2001. This is in excellent accordance (+/-2%) with measurements at ablation stakes that have been drilled into the glacier on its ablation area. Surface velocity measured from the displacement of the ablation stakes is estimated to 62 m per year. A RADAR survey with ice penetrating RADAR conducted on the ablation area of Glaciar Lengua during the austral summer 2000/2001 reveals glacier depths between 120 m and 200 m ap- 1 proximately. The data sampled will allow to set up a model for mass flow and ablation at a cross-section of Glaciar Lengua at 450 m a.s.l. Glaciar Lengua has no accumu- lation area itself but obtains all of its ice mass through icefall from the heights of the GCN Ice Cap. Therefore, this model will be of fundamental importance to understand the glacial regime of the entire ice cap. 2

Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

225

High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic complex by the granite and we conclude that some parts of the mafic complex were emplaced before the granite. The well defined 206/238U-age for zircons and the slightly younger 40Ar/39Ar -ages for biotites of both rock suites show that emplacement and cooling of the Torres del Paine Intrusion took place in a relatively short time-frame. Halpern, 1973, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84/7: 2407-2422. Sanchez et.al., 2006. V SSAGI, Punta del Este, April 2006.

Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

2006-12-01

226

A comparative analysis of the attitudes toward women managers in China, Chile, and the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to determine if stereotypical perceptions of women as managers exist between men and women in three countries: the USA, China, and Chile. Based on the extant literature, hypotheses were developed and tested. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Participants in the study were students enrolled in degree programs. The data were collected from the USA, China,

Robert Scherer; Carol Sánchez; Lorena Pradenas Rojas; Víctor Parada Daza; Chi-en Hwang; Wu Yan

2011-01-01

227

Valoración de impactos socio- ambientales del arbolado urbano: una aplicación a la ciudad de Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santiago de Chile es tercero en la lista de ciudades más contaminadas de Latinoamérica, después de Ciudad de México y Sao Paulo, por lo cual la valoración ambiental y social del arbolado urbano en este contexto es de vital importancia. Los proyectos de arbolado urbano ya sea en calles, plazas, parques u otras áreas verdes tienen como propósito, por una

Carmen L. De la Maz; Claudia L. Cerd

2009-01-01

228

VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino) under intensive agronomic conditions in southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93%) confi rming their potential for these dry-lands.

Freddy MORA; Francisco TAPIA; Carlos Alberto SCAPIM; Elias Nunes MARTINS

2007-01-01

229

Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain.  

PubMed

Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the oils produced in Spain and Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin. PMID:21090684

García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón

2010-12-22

230

Landsat TM analysis of fracture patterns: a case study from the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cretaceous rocks on the continental margin of northern Chile record a complex geodynamic evolution. Cycles of transtensional and transpressional deformation and of extrusive and intrusive magmatism are linked to the development of crustal-scale lineaments. The Landsat Thematic Mapper is used here as a tool to define these structural features. Geocorrected data were digitally enhanced and lineaments plotted directly from a

D. P. Leech; N. S. Lucas; J. Grocott

2003-01-01

231

Paleoseismic inferences from a high-resolution marine sedimentary record in northern Chile (23°S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The active margin of northern Chile is characterized by strong seismic events which induce gravity instability for sedimentary sequences located along the outer forearc of the Andean range. Even though the narrow continental platform of this area limits the accumulation of marine sediments, a detailed paleoceanographic reconstruction, using high-resolution sedimentological and geochronological techniques, of a Holocene sedimentary sequence in Mejillones

Gabriel Vargas; Luc Ortlieb; Emmanuel Chapron; Jorge Valdes; Carlos Marquardt

2005-01-01

232

Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern Salar de Atacama Basin, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 90 Ma, the nonmarine Salar de Atacama Basin has been the largest, deepest, and most persistent sedimentary basin of northern Chile. Integration of 200 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection data with surface geological data clarifies Oligocene and Neogene evolution of the northern part of the basin. A normal fault with 6 ± 1 km of vertical separation controlled the

P. Pananont; C. Mpodozis; N. Blanco; T. E. Jordan; L. D. Brown

2004-01-01

233

New 40Ar\\/ 39Ar dates from the Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: Tectonic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atacama Fault Zone is a major Mesozoic structure that trends along the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. Part of the fault zone underwent a kinematic change from dip-slip to strike-slip displacement during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex intruded the fault zone during this change. New analyses of country rock protomylonites from the edge of the complex firmly

Jeff Wilson; R. David Dallmeyer; John Grocott

2000-01-01

234

Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern Salar de Atacama Basin, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 90 Ma, the nonmarine Salar de Atacama Basin has been the largest, deepest, and most persistent sedimentary basin of northern Chile. Integration of 200 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection data with surface geological data clarifies Oligocene and Neogene evolution of the northern part of the basin. A normal fault with 6 +\\/- 1 km of vertical separation controlled the

P. Pananont; C. Mpodozis; N. Blanco; T. E. Jordan; L. D. Brown

2004-01-01

235

Active faulting in northern Chile: ramp stacking and lateral decoupling along a subduction plate boundary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large features parallel to the coastline of northern Chile have long been suspected to be the sites of young or active deformation: (1) The 700-km long Coastal Scarp, with average height (above sea level) of about 1000 m; (2) The Atacama Fault zone, that stretches linearly for about 1100 km at an average distance of 30-50 km from the

Rolando Armijo; Ricardo Thiele

1990-01-01

236

Advanced Seismic Imaging of Subduction Related Structures at the North Chile Convergent Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of the CINCA project in 1995, the subducting Nazca plate offshore Chile between approximately 19°S and 26°S has been investigated. The aim of this study was to deliver improved images of the structures of the oceanic crust as well as of the subducting plate and the oceanic Moho. We processed two marine profiles crossing the trench using

C. Sick; S. Buske; S. Shapiro

2005-01-01

237

Styles of accretion along the oblique convergent margin of Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental margin of Southern Chile, between 50 to 58°S, is shaped by convergence processes between Antarctic and Scotia\\/South America plates which produce a narrow and elevated subduction complex. The plate boundary is roughly orthogonal to the slip vector to the north where the accretionary wedge is narrow and there is no evidence of a recent forearc basin. In this

M. F. Loreto; A. Polonia; L. Torelli; C. R. Ranero

2003-01-01

238

Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factor s that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC) as well as perce p - tions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural , political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected . The opinions of potential

Soledad Díaz; Ellen Hardy; Gloria Alvarado; Enrique Ezcurra

2003-01-01

239

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Breeding Turkeys, Valparaiso, Chile  

PubMed Central

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected in breeding turkeys on 2 farms in Valparaiso, Chile. Infection was associated with measurable declines in egg production and shell quality. Although the source of infection is not yet known, the outbreak was controlled, and the virus was eliminated from the birds.

Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Retamal, Patricio; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Rivera, Alejandro; Fuller, Jorge; Jara, Cecilia; Lecocq, Claudio; Rojas, Miriam; Garcia, Alfonso; Vasquez, Marcela; Agredo, Michel; Gutierrez, Cristian; Escobar, Hector; Fasce, Rodrigo; Mora, Judith; Garcia, Julio; Fernandez, Jorge; Ternicier, Claudio

2010-01-01

240

Glacial changes and glacier mass balance at Gran Campo Nevado, Chile during recent decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of the program Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) a glacier inventory of the Peninsula Muñoz Gamero in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S) has been generated using aerial photopgrahy and Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The Peninsula is partly covered by the ice cap of the Gran Campo Nevado (GCN), including several outlet glaciers plus some

C. Schneider; M. Schnirch; R. Kilian; C. Acuña; G. Casassa

2003-01-01

241

Rates of Influenza-like Illness and Winter School Breaks, Chile, 2004-2010.  

PubMed

To determine effects of school breaks on influenza virus transmission in the Southern Hemisphere, we analyzed 2004-2010 influenza-like-illness surveillance data from Chile. Winter breaks were significantly associated with a two-thirds temporary incidence reduction among schoolchildren, which supports use of school closure to temporarily reduce illness, especially among schoolchildren, in the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:24963800

Chowell, Gerardo; Towers, Sherry; Viboud, Cécile; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Sotomayor, Viviana

2014-07-01

242

A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile.  

PubMed

Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

2014-01-01

243

Urbanization in Chile. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile is unique in its geography and urban concentration, its political history and its present governmental structure. These features are examined in this survey report. Topics for discussion include: (1) The Instruments of Planning, (2) The Planning and Development Structure, (3) The Move to Integrated Economic Space, (4) The Chilean…

Robin, John P.; Terzo, Frederick C.

244

Copper bioavailability in a coastal environment of Northern Chile: Comparison of bioassay and analytical speciation approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated approach including chemical speciation analyses and microalgal bioassays was used to assess the impact of copper from copper mining on a coastal area in Northern Chile. Dissolved copper ranged from <1?gl?1 at reference sites to 48?gl?1 at sites close to the mine discharge. Dissolved copper at sites closest to the discharge always exceeded seawater complexing capacities determined by

J. L. Stauber; S. Andrade; M. Ramirez; M. Adams; J. A. Correa

2005-01-01

245

Plate Boundary Observatory Strain Recordings of the February 27, 2010, M8.8 Chile Tsunami  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the hours that followed the February 27, 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquake a tsunami swept across the Pacific Ocean causing alerts to be issued from Antarctica to Alaska. PBO borehole strainmeters, at Ucluelet, Bamfield and Port Alberni, on Vancouver Island, Canada, recorded the arrival of the tsunami along the British Columbia coastline. In this presentation we describe the nature of

Kathleen Hodgkinson; Dave Mencin; Adrian Borsa; Mike Jackson

2010-01-01

246

Fostering Innovation in Chile: OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 454  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A good framework for investment in innovation can contribute to increasing Chile's growth potential. Spending on R&D is currently low in relation to GDP and heavily reliant on government financing. Innovation activity in the business sector is also limited by insufficient seed and venture capital and human capital constraints. This is despite…

Benavente, Jose-Miguel; de Mello, Luiz; Mulder, Nanno

2005-01-01

247

Parental Attitude and Practice Regarding Physical Punishment of School Children in Santiago de Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes and practices regarding child physical punishment were surveyed in Santiago (Chile) with 423 parents from 2 public schools and 104 parents from a private Catholic school, 98 private school students in grades 7 and 8, and 84 state school students. Results showed a high prevalence of physical punishment and a high proportion of students…

Vargas, Nelson A.; And Others

1995-01-01

248

Amoebic gill disease (AGD) in Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) farmed in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between May and November 2007, three marine Atlantic salmon farms around Chiloé Island, Chile, reported mortalities in which affected fish presented with Caligus rogercresseyi infections and gross gill lesions characteristic of amoebic gill disease (AGD). Histological examination of the gills from affected fish confirmed the presence of AGD lesions. Trophozoites possessing one or more endosymbiotic Perkinsela amoeba-like organisms (PLOs) were

Patricio A. Bustos; Neil D. Young; Marco A. Rozas; Harry M. Bohle; Ricardo S. Ildefonso; Richard N. Morrison; Barbara F. Nowak

2011-01-01

249

RECRUITMENT OF THE SQUAT LOBSTER PLEURONCODES MONODON ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OFF CENTRAL CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A benthic megafaunal study off Concepcion Bay, central Chile (36°32'S, 73°W), provided abundance and bathymetric distribution data of the newly recruited squat lobster Pteuroncodes monodon (Decapoda, Galatheidae). The megafauna was surveyed 8 times between July 1991 and April 1992, with an Agassiz trawl at depths of 40, 64, and 96 m along a transect across the continental shelf. Recruits of

V. A. Gallardo; J. I. Canete; Ruben Roa; S. Enriquez-Brio; Mario Baltazar

1994-01-01

250

El Mercado de Transporte Aéreo: Lecciones para Chile de una Revisión de la Literatura  

Microsoft Academic Search

En la industria de transporte aéreo en Chile, existe hoy libre ingreso a los mercados, libertad de precios y una mínima intervención del estado. Sin embargo, la evolución de la industria ha generado discusión y preocupación pública en los últimos años respecto a qué tan competitivo es el mercado de transporte doméstico de pasajeros. Preocupaciones y discusiones de política pública

Claudio Agostini

2005-01-01

251

Feeding dynamics of Octopus mimus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in northern Chile waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural feeding of 485 Octopus mimus (164 to 3088 g) was studied in relation to the species' life cycle and environmental seasonal variations off the north of Chile from autumn 1991 to summer 1992. Analysis of digestive-tract contents revealed that O. mimus preyed upon 25 different prey items belonging to five zoological groups (Teleostei, Mollusca, Crustacea, Echinodermata and Polychaeta).

T. Cortez; B. G. Castro; A. Guerra

1995-01-01

252

Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…

Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

2011-01-01

253

JUMBO SQUID ( DOSIDICUS GIGAS ) BIOMASS OFF CENTRAL CHILE: EFFECTS ON CHILEAN HAKE ( MERLUCCIUS GAY I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) off central Chile (32 ?00'S-41 ?30'S) was estimated using data collected from July to November during 2005 and 2006 on board the commercial bottom trawl fleet, where D. gigas is part of the bycatch. A geostatistical approach was ap - plied to estimate the jumbo squid biomass in Chilean hake ( Merluccius gay i)

RUBEN ALARCÓN-MUÑOZ; LUIS CUBILLOS; CLAUDIO GATICA

2008-01-01

254

Socioeconomic School Segregation in a Market-Oriented Educational System. The Case of Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between…

Valenzuela, Juan Pablo; Bellei, Cristian; de los Ríos, Danae

2014-01-01

255

Increased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic in drinking water is an established cause of lung, bladder, and skin cancers in adults and may also cause adult kidney and liver cancers.Some evidence for these effects originated from region II of Chile, which had a period of elevated arsenic levels in drinking water, in particular from 1958 to 1970.This unique exposure scenario provides a rare opportunity to

Jane Liaw; Guillermo Marshall; Yan Yuan; Catterina Ferreccio; Craig Steinmaus; Allan H. Smith

256

A new click beetle genus from southern Chile: llanquihue (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterinae, Pomachiliini).  

PubMed

Llanquihue, a new genus of Elateridae from Southern Chile, is here described and illustrated with 2 species: Llanquihue vittipennis (Candèze) new comb., and L. carlota sp. nov. The genus Llanquihue belongs to the subfamily Elaterinae and to the tribe Pomachiliini. PMID:20233094

Arias, Elizabeth T

2008-01-01

257

Biotechnological approaches for table grape breeding: the experience of INIA-Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the world, table grape production represents 27% of the 750.000 hectares planted with this species. Global production reaches over 66 millions tons. In spite of the fact that table grape production in North and South America represents only 18% of the total world production, America accounts for almost 50% of the global exports. Main exporters are Chile and Italy,

Patrício Hinrichsen; Nilo Mejía; Humberto Prieto; Carlos Muñoz

258

Rethinking the Role of Elite Private Schools in a Neoliberal Era: An Example from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neoliberalism has brought a privatization trend that has deeply affected the structure of the educational system of countries. While public schools lag behind, new forms of private schooling have arisen creating different forms of inequality. Nonetheless, in Chile the major inequality exists between schools attended by low and middle income…

Fernandez, Eduardo Cavieres

2009-01-01

259

Enlightenment, Education, and the Republican Project: Chile's "Instituto Nacional" (1810-1830)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the establishment of the "Instituto Nacional de Chile" between 1810 and 1830 as a crucial element of a political and cultural project advanced from an enlightened and republican elite. Its early inception in 1813 resulted from the necessity of consolidating a republican order, as shown by the different projects between 1810…

Baeza Ruz, Andres

2010-01-01

260

Moral Dilemmas in Teaching Recent History Related to the Violation of Human Rights in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…

Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel

2009-01-01

261

Voicing Differences: Indigenous and Urban Radio in Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous cultures throughout the Americas and the rest of the world have to deal with problems of cultural assimilation, migration, and dissemination of their populations. Some of them, in countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria, have developed radio programming to maintain home languages; gain access to health, education, and employment…

Carcamo-Huechante, Luis E.; Legnani, Nicole Delia

2010-01-01

262

Christian Education in Chile: Is the Seventh-Day Adventist System at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diverse perspectives with respect to Christian Education constitute a potential path for misunderstanding and contradictions; this study considers this situation in the context of a Seventh-day Adventist Christian system with students and parents from different religious perspectives in Chile. The parents/sponsors of the eighth graders were…

Grajales G., Tevni; Leon V., Vicente H.; Elias, Galiya

2010-01-01

263

Comparing Protest Movements in Chile and California: Interculturality in an Internet Chat Exchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on an analysis of chat transcripts from an English-language telecollaboration project between students at universities in Chile and California. This research found that the richest intercultural interactions involved events that could not have been foreseen: the immigrant rights demonstrations in the USA and the massive student…

Menard-Warwick, Julia

2009-01-01

264

The Impact of School Choice and Public Policy on Segregation: Evidence from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates argue that vouchers can make improved educational opportunity available to disadvantaged students. Critics contend that vouchers increase the risk of stratification. Researchers have found that Chile's voucher program has lead to increased socioeconomic school segregation. What has been overlooked, however, is segregation between schools…

Elacqua, Gregory

2012-01-01

265

Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

2009-01-01

266

Exploring Quality of Life during the Transition from School to Work in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from Chile's national household survey (CASEN) for the years 1990-2003 reveal that the transition process from school to active working life has been postponed over the course of the 13 year period while its duration has steadily increased, resulting in a delayed integration into the labour force. This finding is consistent with experiences…

Jeria, Maria

2009-01-01

267

Reviews of National Policies for Education: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Chile 2013  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growth and diversity have characterised higher education in OECD countries for fifty years. Chile is no exception and has experienced dramatic increases in the number of students, the range of institutions and the programmes that they offer. But wider participation and diversification are only part of the story. Chilean society remains highly…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

2013-01-01

268

Daring To Change: The Potential of Intercultural Education in Aymara Communities in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates a teacher training project in Chile that was meant to change attitudes toward native culture among rural teachers in one Aymara school district serving approximately 200 children. Findings suggest that hegemonic barriers stand in the way of broadening the scope of intercultural education in plural, democratic societies.…

Arratia, Maria-Ines

1997-01-01

269

Causes of childhood blindness: Results from West Africa, South India and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using World Health Organization definitions of visual loss and a standardised methodology, 905 children were examined in Chile, West Africa and South India. Of these 806 (89%) suffered from blindness (BL) or severe visual impairment (SVI). Causes of SVI and BL were classified anatomically and aetiologically, and avoidable causes identified. In W. Africa (n=284) the major anatomical cause of SVI\\/BL

C E Gilbert; R Canovas; M Hagan; S Rao; A Foster

1993-01-01

270

Especies de vertebrados invasores en Chile y su control y monitoreo por agencias gubernamentales  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide an overview of the current status of vertebrate invasive species throughout Chile, updating information on terrestrial exotics and reporting for the first time the situation of exotic freshwater fishes. In addition, we document the legislation and programs that the Chilean government has implemented to limit the entry of exotics to the country or minimize their impact on native

J. AGUSTÍN IRIARTE; GABRIEL A. LOBOS; FABIÁN M. JAKSIC

271

Nomad rover field experiment, Atacama Desert, Chile 1. Science results overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nomad was deployed for a 45 day traverse in the Atacama Desert, Chile, during the summer of 1997. During this traverse, 1 week was devoted to science experiments. The goal of the science experiments was to test different planetary surface exploration strategies that included (1) a Mars mission simulation, (2) a science on the fly experiment, where the rover was

N. A. Cabrol; G. Thomas; B. Witzke; V. C. Gulick; R. Landheim; P. Lee; T. L. Roush; A. P. Zent; C. Herrera Lameli; A. Jensen Iglesia; M. Pereira Arrerondo; J. M. Dohm; R. Keaten; D. Wettergreen; M. H. Sims; K. Schwher; M. G. Bualat; H. J. Thomas; E. Zbinden; D. Christian; L. Pedersen; A. Bettis III

2001-01-01

272

Trade, Environment, and Public Health in Chile. Evidence from an Economywide Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper uses an empirical simulation model to examine links between trade policy, pollution and public health in Chile. Using a general equilibrium framework, we synthesize economic, engineering, and health data in a way that elucidates this complex relationship and can support more coherent policy in all three areas. The basic tool of analysis is a 75-sector calibrated general

John C. Beghin; Brad J. Bowland; Sebastien Dessus; David Roland-Holst; Dominique Van der Mensbrugghe

1999-01-01

273

The Evolution of Photochemical Smog in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November and December 1996 the PHOTOCHEMICAL CAMPAIGN took place in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile and covered a range of simultaneous measurements of meteorological parameters and air chemical compounds, including ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and online nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in the range of C4-C12. Measurements were obtained at a downtown site and a

Bernhard Rappenglück; Pedro Oyola; Ignacio Olaeta; Peter Fabian

2000-01-01

274

Ion Beam Facility at the University of Chile; Applications and Basic Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Chile are described at this work. Current activities are mainly focused on the application of the Ion Beam Analysis techniques for environmental, archaeological, and material science analysis. For instance, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is applied to measure thin gold

P. A. Miranda; J. R. Morales; S. Cancino; M. I. Dinator; N. Donoso; A. Sepúlveda; P. Ortiz; S. Rojas

2010-01-01

275

Women, Schooling, and Work in Chile: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In comparison to most developing nations, Chile enjoys a relatively high level of female participation in education and the labor force. This article analyzes this phenomenon by drawing data from an ongoing longitudinal study of Chilean youth. It offers some tentative explanations using both current and historical data. (Author/SJL)

Schiefelbein, Ernesto; Farrell, Joseph P.

1980-01-01

276

Education and Occupational Attainment in Chile: The Effects of Educational Quality, Attainment, and Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a longitudinal study are used to examine the role of education as a determinant of labor market entrance in Chile during the 1970s. Finds that the more powerful predictors of occupational attainment were educational variables rather than family social status, and educational quality variables rather than educational attainment or…

Schiefelbein, Ernesto; Farrell, Joseph P.

1984-01-01

277

ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

Howie, S. J.

2010-01-01

278

Phosphate geochemistry, mineralization processes, and Thioploca distribution in shelf sediments off central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments underlying the major costal upwelling systems of the world oceans are hot-spots of modern formation of hydroxyapatites, often associated with benthic communities of large, nitrate-accumulating sulfur bacteria. We studied the association between phosphate release, organic phosphorus mineralization, and occurrence of dense communities of the filamentous sulfur bacteria, Thioploca spp., on the continental shelf off central Chile during the austral

Lars Holmkvist; Esther T. Arning; Kathrin Küster-Heins; Verona Vandieken; Jörn Peckmann; Matthias Zabel; Bo Barker Jørgensen

2010-01-01

279

Non-Modal Melting of Target Rocks to Produce Impactite at Monturaqui Crater, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monturaqui (Chile) is a small young impact with five melt rock compositions: (1) bulk melt of plag. + quartz, (2) bulk melt of ignimbrite target rock, and (3) multi-component melts with iron-rich impactor, non-modal biotite melt, and target rock.

I. Ukstins Peate; C. Kloberdanz; D. W. Peate; L. Chung Wan; N. Cabrol; E. Grin; J. Piatek; G. Chong

2010-01-01

280

Post-depositional fracturing and subsidence of pumice flow deposits: Lascar Volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unconsolidated pyroclastic flow deposits of the 1993 eruption of Lascar Volcano, Chile, have, with time, become increasingly dissected by a network of deeply penetrating fractures. The fracture network comprises orthogonal sets of decimeter-wide linear voids that form a pseudo-polygonal grid visible on the deposit surface. In this work, we combine shallow surface geophysical imaging tools with remote sensing observations and

Patrick L. Whelley; J. Jay; E. S. Calder; M. E. Pritchard; N. J. Cassidy; S. Alcaraz; A. Pavez

2011-01-01

281

Discrimination and Victimization: Parade for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride, in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the population participating in the LGBT Pride Parade in Santiago, Chile, from discrimination and victimization standpoints. The sample consisted of 488 subjects older than 18 years (M = 25.1), who were interviewed during the 2007 event. For this purpose, a questionnaire from the Latin American Centre of Sexuality and Human Rights (CLAM) was adapted and administered. Approximately

Jaime Barrientos; Jimena Silva; Susan Catalan; Fabiola Gómez; Jimena Longueira

2010-01-01

282

Achievement versus Aptitude in College Admissions: A Cautionary Note Based on Evidence from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years there has been a debate over the alleged superiority of achievement tests over aptitude tests on the grounds that the first would be fairer for college admissions and less influenced by family background. The switch from aptitude tests to achievement tests in Chile presented a unique opportunity to examine this claim. Regression…

Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica; Cofre, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

283

Capital flows in Chile: from the tequila to the Asian crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America experienced sharp swings in net capital inflows in the last two decades, with significant effects on the domestic economy. Chile, in particular, recorded the highest rise in external debt in the years up to 1981, and in 1982 exhibited the sharpest drop in GDP (15 per cent) in all of Latin America. This took place in an already

Ricardo Ffrench-Davis; Manuel R. Agosin

1999-01-01

284

Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla  

Microsoft Academic Search

L. Böhm, N. Arismendi, and L. Ciampi. 2009. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36 (2): 249-258. The biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, was evaluated through the addition of organic amendments of dry and chopped leaves of Buddleja globosa, Drymis winteri, Eucalyptus globulus, Gevuina

Laura Böhm; Nolberto Arismendi; Luigi Ciampi

2009-01-01

285

Haematological and clinical biochemistry findings in captive juvenile guanacos ( Lama guanicoe Müller 1776) in central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to describe haematological and blood biochemistry findings of farmed guanacos in central Chile, in order to establish reference values for this species in captivity. Haematological and clinical biochemical measurements were performed on blood and plasma respectively, from 40 clinically healthy guanacos (20 females and 20 castrated males), aged between 2 and 3 years. The

B. Zapata; V. Fuentes; C. Bonacic; B. González; G. Villouta; F. Bas

2003-01-01

286

Rates of Influenza-like Illness and Winter School Breaks, Chile, 2004-2010  

PubMed Central

To determine effects of school breaks on influenza virus transmission in the Southern Hemisphere, we analyzed 2004–2010 influenza-like–illness surveillance data from Chile. Winter breaks were significantly associated with a two-thirds temporary incidence reduction among schoolchildren, which supports use of school closure to temporarily reduce illness, especially among schoolchildren, in the Southern Hemisphere.

Towers, Sherry; Viboud, Cecile; Fuentes, Rodrigo; Sotomayor, Viviana

2014-01-01

287

Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and alpacas ( Llama pacos) in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum samples from 408 sheep from different regions of Chile and 447 alpacas (Llama pacos) from the north of the country were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The indirect haemagglutination test (IHAT) was used in both species and the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) was also used on the sheep samples in order to compare the performance of the tests in

Texia Gorman; Juan Pablo Arancibia; Myriam Lorca; David Hird; Hector Alcaino

1999-01-01

288

Two new scorpion species of genus Brachistosternus (Scorpiones: Bothriuridae) from northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brachistosternus (Leptosternus) cepedai n. sp. and Brachistosternus (Leptosternus) coquimbo n. sp. are described from Coquimbo region, in northern Chile. Brachistosternus cepedai n. sp. occurs in coastal dunes and is closely related to Brachistosternus (L.) sciosciae Ojanguren-Affilastro, 2002. On the other hand, Brachistosternus coquimbo n. sp occurs at high altitudes in the Andes mountain chain and is related to Brachistosternus (L.)

ANDRÉS A. OJANGUREN-AFFILASTRO; PABLO AGUSTO; JAIME PIZARRO-ARAYA; CAMILO I. MATTONI

289

Glacier contribution to streamflow in two headwaters of the Huasco River, Dry Andes of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative assessment of glacier contribution to present-day streamflow is a prerequisite to the anticipation of climate change impact on water resources in the Dry Andes. In this paper we focus on two glaciated headwater catchments of the Huasco Basin (Chile, 29° S). The combination of glacier monitoring data for five glaciers (Toro 1, Toro 2, Esperanza, Guanaco, Estrecho and Ortigas)

S. Gascoin; C. Kinnard; R. Ponce; S. Lhermitte; S. MacDonell; A. Rabatel

2010-01-01

290

Effect of wildfire on soil physical and chemical properties in a Nothofagus glauca forest, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of a wildfire on soil chemical and physical properties in a Nothofagus glauca (Phil.) Krasser forest in the Coastal Mountain Range of south-central Chile were investigated. Response of the soil during the first two years following a wildfire was examined, where data from soil in a burned forest were compared to that in an adjacent, unburned stand. The effects

CREIGHTON M. LITTON; RÓMULO SANTELICES

2003-01-01

291

Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

292

Comparison of Educational Goals in Chile Before and After 1973. Working Paper Series, No. 28.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the educational goals in Chile before and after 1973 when the Chilean military led by Pinochet brutally eliminated the democratically elected government of Allende and the Unidad Popular. Reforms were initiated in 1967, 1968, 1969, and 1970, and at the time of the coup, were being implemented in all eight Chilean universities.…

Kirberg, Enrique

293

Private Education in Chile under the Military Regime (1973-1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the development of private education in Chile since the military coup of 1973, in the context of the military regime's neoconservative political and ideological aims. Despite these professed aims, copious evidence is presented to suggest that the need of an authoritarian state to maintain "national security" by suppressing all…

Magendzo, Abraham; And Others

294

Autosomal STR allele frequencies for the CODIS system from a large random population sample in Chile.  

PubMed

The thirteen autosomal STR loci of the CODIS system were typed from DNA of 732 unrelated male individuals sampled from different locations in Chile. This is the first report of allele frequencies for the thirteen STRs loci defined in the CODIS system from the Chilean population. PMID:21813345

Vergara, Ismael A; Villouta, Pamela; Herrera, Sandra; Melo, Francisco

2012-05-01

295

Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.  

PubMed

In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden. PMID:24346044

Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

2013-01-01

296

Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3]. We present new mapping, structural analysis, and geochronologic data from both the Limón Verde and the Belén metamorphic complexes and explore the relationship between these isolated outcrops and PCD formation in northern Chile. References: [1] Seedorff et al., 2008, Root Zones of Porphyry Systems: Extending the Porphyry Model to Depth, Ec. Geol., 103, 939-956. [2] Hervé et al., 2007, Metamorphic and Plutonic basement complexes, in: The Geology of Chile, Geol. Soc. Lond., 5-19. [3] Wörner et al., 2000, Precambrian and Early Paleozoic evolution of the Andean basement at Belen (northern Chile) and Cerro Uyarani (western Bolivia Altiplano), 13, 717-737.

Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

2014-05-01

297

Spatial and temporal relationships between granites and porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chile is the leading copper producing country in the world, hosting ~30% of known worldwide copper reserves. Subduction-related magmatism in Chile has been ongoing since at least Mesozoic time, with progressive inland migration of the magmatic arc from the Jurassic coast eastward to the active western cordillera in the high Andes. Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) in Chile are spatially and temporally related to emplacement of shallow, felsic to intermediate composition plutons that sourced the ore-forming magmas and mineralising fluids. However, not every such intrusion in Chile is associated with a mineralised deposit, suggesting that there are other controls on whether or not an intrusion hosts a PCD. Models for porphyry copper formation typically assume emplacement of these felsic to intermediate intrusions at shallow crustal levels (5-15 km depth) [1], but absolute constraints on emplacement depths for both mineralised and barren systems are lacking. In order to explore the relationship between granite emplacement depths and occurrences of PCDs in northern Chile, we have created a geospatial database that compares the age, geochemistry, and depth of mapped felsic to intermediate plutons (e.g. granites, tonalities, and diorites) with the locations of known PCDs, as well as major fault zones and volcanic centres. Emplacement depths have been calculated from published geochemical analyses using existing calibrations of the Al-in-hornblende barometer, which is widely used for calc-alkaline granitic rocks [2]. We are also developing a new experimental calibration of the barometer using a combination of piston cylinder experiments (5, 7, and 10 kbar), externally heated pressure vessel experiments (0.5-2 kbar), and electron microprobe analyses on a granitic sample of the Lluta batholith, collected in northern Chile. This improved Al-in-hornblende barometer, calibrated for shallow intrusions, will provide a viable alternative to estimating depths of PCD formation from fluid inclusions, which is often hampered by alternations between lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, the results of this study will be broadly applicable to investigating the potential links between intrusion depth, PCD formation, and parameters such as regional tectonic patterns and fluid/melt interactions. References: [1] Sillitoe, 2010, Porphyry Copper Systems, Ec. Geol., 105, 3-41. [2] Anderson et al., 2008, Thermometers and Thermobarometers in Granitic Systems, Rev. Min. Geochem., 69, 121-142.

Jiskoot, Courtney; Mutch, Euan; Cooper, Frances; Tattitch, Brian; Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Blundy, Jon

2014-05-01

298

Spatio-temporal variations of seismicity in the southern Peru and northern Chile seismic gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal variation of seismicity in the southern Peru and northern Chile seismic gaps is analyzed with teleseismic data ( m b ?5.5) between 1965 and 1991, to investigate whether these gaps present the precursory combination of compressional outer-rise and tensional downdip events observed in other subduction zones. In the outer-rise and the inner-trench (0 to 100 km distance from the trench) region, lower magnitude (5.0? m b <5.5) events were also studied. The results obtained show that the gaps in southern Peru and northern Chile do not present compressional outer-rise events. However, both gaps show a continuous, tensional downdip seismicity. For both regions, the change from compressional to tensional regime along the slab occurs at a distance of about 160 km from the trench, apparently associated with the coupled-uncoupled transition of the interplate contact zone. In southern Peru, an increase of compressional seismicity near the interplate zone and of tensional events (5.0? m b ?6.3) in the outer-rise and inner-trench regions is observed between 1987 and 1991. A similar distribution of seismicity in the outer-rise and inner-trench regions is observed with earthquakes ( m b <5.5). In northern Chile there is a relative absence of compressional activity ( m b ?5.5) near the interplate contact since the sequence of December 21, 1967. After that, only a cluster of low-magnitude compressional events has been located in the area 50 to 100 km from the trench. The compressional activity occurring near the interplate zone in both seismic gaps represents that a seismic preslip is occurring in and near the plate contact. Therefore, if this seismic preslip is associated with the maturity of the gap, the fact that it is larger in southern Peru than in northern Chile may reflect that the former gap is more mature than the latter. However, the more intense downdip tensional activity and the absence of compressional seismicity near the contact zone observed in northern Chile, may also be interpreted as evidence that northern Chile is seismically more mature than southern Peru. Therefore, the observed differences in the distribution of stresses and seismicity analyzed under simple models of stress accumulation and transfer in coupled subduction zones are not sufficient to assess the degree of maturity of a seismic gap.

Comte, Diana; Suárez, Gerardo

1993-06-01

299

The Cretaceous iron belt of northern Chile: role of oceanic plates, a superplume event, and a major shear zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cretaceous constitutes a turning point in the tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic history of Chile. The geological evidence indicates that a major change occurred in late Neocomian time when superplume emplacement (Mid-Pacific Superplume) and plate reorganization processes took place in the Pacific. The superplume event resulted in a major ridge-push force resulting in increased coupling between the subducting and overriding plates. This completely changed the tectonic setting of Chile ending the Early Cretaceous extensional period (aborted rifting in the back-arc basin), and increasing stress at a crustal scale. As a consequence, overpressurized dioritic magmas were pushed up mainly along the best possible structural path in northern Chile, i.e., the Atacama Fault Zone, eventually forming a +500-km-long belt of Kiruna-type iron deposits with reserves of ~2,000 Mt (60% Fe), a unique case in Chile's geological history.

Oyarzun, Roberto; Oyarzún, Jorge; Ménard, Jean Jacques; Lillo, Javier

2003-08-01

300

Mechanisms for Planetary Spherules Formation and Alteration: Salar Grande, Chile -- An Example of Volcanic\\/Aqueous Processes Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica nodules and hematite spherules are observed at Salar Grande and Monturaqui, Atacama Desert, Chile. The Planetary Spherules Project investigates formation, deposition and alteration processes as analogs to Gusev Crater and Meridiani, Mars.

I. Ukstins Peate; N. A. Cabrol; E. A. Grin; C. Dressing; T. Franklin; K. Parsons; J. L. Piatek; G. Chong

2009-01-01

301

Chile and the CGIAR (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research) Centers: A Study of Their Collaboration in Agricultural Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modern agricultural research is a relatively recent activity in Chile. Its origin and evolution are closely associated with North American aid programs, particularly those of the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1964, the Agricultural Research Institute (INIA) ...

E. Venezian

1987-01-01

302

76 FR 18511 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Figs From Chile into the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh figs from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: April 4, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

2011-04-04

303

76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: December 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

2011-12-16

304

Petroleum Resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the cou...

W. D. Dietzman N. R. Rafidi

1983-01-01

305

Aftershocks of Chile's earthquake for an ongoing, large-scale experimental evaluation.  

PubMed

Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in Chile, was directly affected by the earthquake. This article discusses (a) the factors the UBC team considered for deciding whether to put on hold or continue implementation and data collection for this experimental study; and (b) how the team reached consensus on those decisions. A lesson learned is that the use of an experimental design for UBC insured that the evaluation's internal validity was not compromised by the earthquake's consequences, although cohort comparisons were compromised. Other lessons can be transferred to other contexts where external shocks affect an ongoing experimental or quasi-experimental impact evaluation. PMID:21444300

Moreno, Lorenzo; Treviño, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquín; Godoy, Felipe; Del Río, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

2011-04-01

306

Variability of cadmium, copper and zinc levels in molluscs and associated sediments from Chile.  

PubMed

The concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in mussel and sediment samples collected together from eight different geographical coastal areas of Chile were determined. The mussels studied were 'Chorito Maico', 'Almejas' and 'Navajuelas Chilenas' (Perumytilus purpuratus, Semelle solida and Tagellus dombeii, respectively). Sampling was carried out in July and September 1992 and January and April 1993 (winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons in Chile, respectively). The metal levels in these mussels varied among species; there were several sites where the metal concentrations in molluscs approached or exceeded the criteria levels for Cd, Cu and Zn in shellfish products: 1, 10 and 50 ppm ww respectively, which are regarded as safe levels for human consumption. The results of metal levels in sediments showed two areas clearly polluted with Cu. Strong relationships between Cu concentrations in the three molluscs and sediments were found; weak correlations were observed for Zn in S. solida. PMID:15091389

De Gregori, I; Pinochet, H; Gras, N; Muñoz, L

1996-01-01

307

Plant science research productivity in Chile during the past 20 years.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to carry out a bibliometric analysis of the articles published in Chile during 1987-2006 that were categorized into the Plant Science discipline by ISI. The data was extracted from the Web of Science datábase, obtaining a total of 911 articles for analysis. Almost half of the articles were the outcome of an international collaboration, the United States being the country with more collaborative links with Chile within this discipline. A list was made with the 10 most-cited articles and 10 most frequently used journals. The analysis showed that almost 50% of the articles were concentrated in 10 different journals. The number of articles produced each year revealed a steady growth in scientific production since 1987. This is probably related to the progressive interaction between industry and public-research institutions. PMID:18949130

Krauskopf, Erwin

2008-01-01

308

A diverse assemblage of fossil hardwood from the Upper Tertiary (Miocene?) of the Arauco Peninsula, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicified woods of 10 dicotyledonous tree families of probably Miocene age from the Arauco Peninsula, central Chile are described and classified according to their anatomy. The diversity is surprisingly high, in that of the 19 samples analyzed, virtually every one could belong to a different species of tree or shrub. Almost all species document a damp climate, and most have related species living in the central zone of modern Chile. The samples were collected in a narrow zone on Punta El Fraile, west of the town of Arauco. The following families are based on woods from the Arauco Peninsula: Anacardiaceae, Boraginaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Monimiaceae, the first report of fossil Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, and Proteaceae. Their diagenetic history is connected to tuffaceous material and calcareous concretions.

Schöning, Meike; Bandel, Klaus

2004-09-01

309

From foundling homes to day care: a historical review of childcare in Chile.  

PubMed

This article discusses significant changes in childcare policy and practice in Chile. We distinguish four specific periods of childcare history: child abandonment and the creation of foundling homes in the 19th century; efforts to reduce infant mortality and the creation of the health care system in the first half of the 20th century; an increasing focus on inequality and poverty and the consequences for child development in the second half of the 20th century; and, finally, the current focus on children's social and emotional development. It is concluded that, although Chile has achieved infant mortality and malnutrition rates comparable to those of developed countries, the country bears the mark of a history of inequality and is still unable to fully guarantee the health of children from the poorest sectors of society. Recent initiatives seek to improve this situation and put a strong emphasis on the psychosocial condition of children and their families. PMID:24714937

Cárcamo, Rodrigo A; van der Veer, René; Vermeer, Harriet J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

2014-03-01

310

Levels and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Lenga Estuary, central Chile.  

PubMed

The Lenga Estuary is a small brackish wetland located southwest of San Vicente Bay, Region VIII, Chile. Surface sediment from nine sites in the estuary were analysed for PAHs and compared to Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG). Sediment samples were freeze dried and soxhlet extracted for 16 h using DCM. Identification and quantification was carried out by HPLC. Organic carbon was also determined. Results showed total PAH concentrations ranged from 290 to 6118 (2025 ± 1975)ng g(-1) d.w. (2025 ± 1975). Results for organic carbon percentages ranged from 1% to 7%. Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation (Pearson test) between organic carbon percentage PAHs. Comparison of contaminant levels and international Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG) (ERL and ER) suggested that sediment of the Lenga estuary did not show any ecotoxicological risk for benthic organisms where high levels of PAHs were detected. Monitoring of this and other contaminants is recommended in Chile. PMID:21612800

Pozo, Karla; Perra, Guido; Menchi, Valentina; Urrutia, Roberto; Parra, Oscar; Rudolph, Anny; Focardi, Silvano

2011-07-01

311

Triassic alluvial braidplain and braided river deposits of the La Ternera Formation, Atacama region, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The La Ternera Formation is a thick (>2,100 m) succession of terrigenous clastic sediments, with andesitic and basaltic intercalations, exposed in the Quebrada de Paipote area of the Atacama Region, northern Chile. The strata were deposited in an active rift basin during Late Triassic to (?) Early Jurassic times.The lower 1,000 m of the studied elastic succession comprises pebbly granule

C. M Bell; M Suárez

1995-01-01

312

Miocene–Quaternary structural evolution of the Uyuni–Atacama region, Andes of Chile and Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the Miocene–Quaternary geological–structural evolution of the region between the Salar de Uyuni and de Atacama, Andes of Chile and Bolivia. We recognized four main tectonic events based on fold geometry, fault kinematics and stratigraphic data. The oldest event, of Miocene age, is characterized by folding and reverse faulting of the sedimentary successions with an E–W direction of shortening

A. Tibaldi; C. Corazzato; A. Rovida

2009-01-01

313

Cu, Mn, and Ag mineralization in the Quebrada Marquesa Quadrangle, Chile: the Talcuna and Arqueros districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quebrada Marquesa Quadrangle in Chile exhibits a series of mineralizations comprising manto-type manganese and copper\\u000a deposits of Lower Cretaceous age, and copper and silver veins of Tertiary age. The deposits are hosted by volcanic and volcaniclastic\\u000a units of the Arqueros (Hauterivian-Barremian) and Quebrada Marquesa (Barremian-Albian) Formations. Three episodes of manganese\\u000a mineralization (Mn1-3) are recognized within the study area. Hydrothermal

R. Oyarzun; L. Ortega; J. Sierra; R. Lunar; J. Oyarzun

1998-01-01

314

Coastal deformation and great subduction earthquakes, Isla Santa María, Chile (37°S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isla Santa María at the active margin of south-central Chile is the result of earth- quake-related uplift and deformation in the forearc since at least late Pleistocene time. Field mapping, dating of key depositional horizons, and analysis of seismic-refl ection profi les reveal ongoing deformation in this sector of the Chilean forearc. The 30 km 2 island is located ~12

Daniel Melnick; Bodo Bookhagen; Helmut P. Echtler; Manfred R. Strecker

2006-01-01

315

The link between forearc tectonics and Pliocene–Quaternary deformation of the Coastal Cordillera, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pliocene–Quaternary tectonic extension has controlled the structural evolution of the outer forearc of northern Chile. Extensional deformation is documented by large-scale, mostly N–S-striking normal faults and open cracks that run along the forearc. The faults dip to the east and define half-graben geometries across the Coastal Cordillera (20°45?–23°30?S). Progressive trenchward tilting of the hangingwalls has produced internal unconformities within the

Gabriel González; José Cembrano; Daniel Carrizo; Alejandro Macci; Heinz Schneider

2003-01-01

316

Dates, rates and angles of faulting in the Peru-Chile Trench  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE high convergence rate between the Nazca Plate and the South American continent1 (10 cm yr-1) has been reported to result in rapid rates of vertical tectonism in the trench off northern Peru2,3. This paper presents additional evidence for recent, reverse faulting along the Peru-Chile Trench and new evidence for an older episode of normal faulting. We discuss the implications

Roger A. Prince

1978-01-01

317

Source characteristics of historic earthquakes along the central Chile subduction Askew et alzone  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have analyzed four large to great historic earthquakes that occurred along the central Chile subduction zone from north to south on November 11, 1922 (Ms=8.3), April 6, 1943 (Ms=7.9), December 1, 1928 (Ms=8.0) and January 25, 1939 (Ms=7.8). Waveform modeling and P-wave first motions indicate that the 1922, 1928 and 1943 earthquakes are shallow and consistent with underthrusting of

S. Beck; S. Barrientos; E. Kausel; M. Reyes

1998-01-01

318

Subduction Processes Off Chile: Preliminary Geophysical Results of Sonne Cruise So161(2+3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the scope of the multi-disciplinary SPOC project (Subduction Processes Off Chile) some 8.700 km were recently acquired using marine magnetic, gravity and swath bathymetric methods whereof 5.200 km were surveyed with multi-channel seismics, including three seismic lines with simultaneous onshore observations. The goal of the project is to identify the variety of subduction features and accompanying conditions along the

Chr. Reichert

2002-01-01

319

Structure and tectonics of the erosional convergent margin off Antofagasta, north Chile (23°30?S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subduction erosion has dominated the evolution of the north Chile convergent continental margin since at least the Mesozoic. We investigate the structure of the Antofagasta (23°S) sector of this margin along a transect using coincident wide-angle and near-vertical seismic profiling and gravity data. A 2-D velocity field of the overriding and subducting plates was obtained using joint refraction and reflection

Valentí Sallarès; César R. Ranero

2005-01-01

320

Structure and tectonics of the erosional convergent margin off Antofagasta, north Chile (23°30'S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subduction erosion has dominated the evolution of the north Chile convergent continental margin since at least the Mesozoic. We investigate the structure of the Antofagasta (23°S) sector of this margin along a transect using coincident wide-angle and near-vertical seismic profiling and gravity data. A 2-D velocity field of the overriding and subducting plates was obtained using joint refraction and reflection

Valentí Sallarès; César R. Ranero

2005-01-01

321

Measuring the onset of locking in the Peru-Chile trench with GPS and acoustic measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subduction zone off the west coast of South America marks the convergence of the oceanic Nazca plate and the continental South America plate. Nazca-South America convergence over the past 23 million years has created the 6-km-deep Peru-Chile trench, 150km offshore. High pressure between the plates creates a locked zone, leading to deformation of the overriding plate. The surface area

Katie Gagnon; C. David Chadwell; Edmundo Norabuena

2005-01-01

322

Anomalously nucleogenic neon in North Chile Ridge basalt glasses suggesting a previously degassed mantle source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh basalt glasses from the North Chile Ridge (NCR) in the southeastern Pacific have Ne isotopic compositions distinctly different from typical mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). In a three-isotope plot of 20Ne\\/22Ne vs. 21Ne\\/22Ne, the NCR data define a correlation line with a slope smaller than that of the MORB correlation line, i.e. their Ne composition is more nucleogenic than that

Samuel Niedermann; Wolfgang Bach

1998-01-01

323

The influence of maternal age, birth order and socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Chile.  

PubMed Central

In Chile between 1969 and 1974 the birth rate declined by 10 per cent and the infant mortality rate by 18.6 per cent. In 1974 there were proportionately fewer births at high birth order than in 1969. Such births carry significantly higher risk to the infant in both the neonatal and postneonatal period of life. Comparison of data from urban areas of high and low socioeconomic status yield similar findings.

Cabrera, R

1980-01-01

324

The formulation and commercialization of glulam pine tannin adhesives in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of fingerjointing and glulam industrial trials in Chile using a “honeymoon” fast-set adhesive system manufactured\\u000a using commercially-produced mildly-sulphited pine tannin extract are reported. The results obtained satisfy the relevant international\\u000a standards specifications and constitute the first occasion that a commercially produced pine tannin adhesive has been used\\u000a succesfully in industrial productions runs. This pine tannin adhesive is now

E. von Leyser; A. Pizzi

1990-01-01

325

Forearc structures and tectonics in the southern Peru—northern Chile Continental Margin  

Microsoft Academic Search

SeaMARC II side-scan images, bathymetry, and single-channel seismic reflection data along the southern Peru—northern Chile forearc area between 16° and 23° S reveal a complex region of morpho-structural, submarine drainage and depression patterns. In the subducting plate area, the NW—SE trending primary normal fault system represented by trench-paralleled scarps was incipiently formed as the Nazca Plate was bent in the

Chang Li

1995-01-01

326

Analysis and quantification of self-medication patterns of customers in community pharmacies in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Self-medication refers to using drugs which have not been prescribed, recommended or controlled by a licensed health care\\u000a specialist. Marketing, in Chile only admitted for over-the-counter medications, influences the practice of self-medication\\u000a and extends it to prescription drugs. Thus, a complex self-medication process is started, due to reuse of a previous prescription,\\u000a using drugs purchased directly at the pharmacy

Katherine Fuentes Albarrán; Lorenzo Villa Zapata

2008-01-01

327

Distribution and foraging behaviour of the Peruvian Booby ( Sula variegata ) off northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) is one of the most numerous guano bird species in the Humboldt Current. We used a combination of data logger deployment,\\u000a at-sea observations and colony-based work to investigate the foraging and diving behaviour, as well as the at-sea distribution\\u000a and food choice of Peruvian Boobies breeding at Isla Pajaros, northern central Chile. Birds foraged in

Katrin Ludynia; Stefan Garthe; Guillermo Luna-Jorquera

2010-01-01

328

Interseismic coupling, segmentation and mechanical behavior of the Central Chile subduction zone.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements carried out in Chile over the last two decades showed that an entire portion of the Nazca-South America subduction zone (38°S-24°S) was locked over this period of time. The induced accumulation of elastic deformation in the upper-plate was not released until the recent Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the southern part of this section. Locking or coupling between the two plates varies both with depth and along strike. Here we use our own GPS data (an updated solution of our extended network in central Chile), combined with other published data sets, to quantify the spatial variations of the coupling that prevailed before the Maule earthquake. Using a simple elastic model based on the back-slip assumption, we show that coupling variations on the subduction plane are sufficient to explain the observed surface deformation, with no need of a sliver in central Chile. We identify four segments characterized by higher coupling and separated by narrow areas of lower coupling. This segmentation is in good agreement with historical and recent seismicity in Chile. In particular, the La Serena Bay (30°S-28°S) where the locked zone vanishes is a stable boundary where historical events stopped. The Maule region that ruptured in feb. 27th of 2010 (Mw 8.8) from 38 S to 34 S, was characterized by a well developped fully locked zone that extents far indepth and narrows where the earthquake stopped propagating (San Antonio at 34°S and south of Arauco peninsula at 38°S). These narrow zones of lower coupling are often associated with irregular bathymetric or coastal features (fracture zones or peninsulas). Finally, coseismic and early post-seismic slip distribution of the Maule earthquake, occurring either in previously highly or weakly coupled zones, map a complex distribution of velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening patches on the subduction interface.

Métois, M.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.

2012-04-01

329

Harvesting and economic patterns in the artisanal Octopus mimus (Cephalopoda) fishery in a northern Chile cove  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze intra- and inter-annual harvesting and economic patterns of the cephalopod Octopus mimus (pulpo) artisanal fishery at Caleta Coloso cove, Antofagasta, northern Chile, between 1991 and 1996. Information was collected daily, from 25 hookah divers that manually harvest pulpo in the subtidal along 29km of coastline. Inter-annual fluctuations in catch, fishing effort, unit price and economic revenues increased from

Omar Defeo; Juan Carlos Castilla

1998-01-01

330

Development of a biofertilizer based on filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria for rice crops in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a biofertilizer based on filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria selected from\\u000a rice fields and to generate a technological package compatible with its use for the rice crop in Chile. Thirty-four Chilean\\u000a rice fields, located between Maule and BioBío regions, were sampled during the 1998\\/1999 and 1999\\/2000 growing seasons. A\\u000a total of 9 species and

Iris Pereira; Rodrigo Ortega; Leticia Barrientos; Mario Moya; Guissella Reyes; Victor Kramm

2009-01-01

331

Natural Resource Conservation and Technical Efficiency from Small-scale Farmers in Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates a stochastic production frontier to measure technical efficiency (TE) using farm-level survey data for a random sample of small-scale farmers in Central Chile. Socioeconomic and productive information was collected in season 2005\\/06 through a survey of 319 farmers in the Province of Linares. An important issue in the paper is the effect of adoption of soil and

Roberto Jara-Rojas; Boris E. Bravo-Ureta; Victor H. Moreira; Jose Diaz

2012-01-01

332

Avian gut-passage effects on seed germination of shrubland species in Mediterranean central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of avian gut-passage on seed germination are important to assess the effectiveness of frugivores in woodland regeneration,\\u000a particularly in biodiversity hotspots that have a high incidence of avian frugivory. We examined the effect of avian gut-passage\\u000a on seed germination in contrast to seeds that remain uneaten in five shrub species in Mediterranean central Chile and sought\\u000a to determine the

Sharon ReidJuan; Juan J. Armesto

2011-01-01

333

Mid-Holocene Climate and Culture Change in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty archaeological campsites intercalated between more than 30 debris flows caused by heavy rainfall events between 6200 and 310014C yr B.P. have recently been discovered at Quebrada Puripica in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. This record provides detailed information about extreme, short-lived climatic events during the hyperarid mid-Holocene period. For the first time, we found evidence of continuous human

Martin Grosjean; Lautaro Núñez; Isabel Cartajena; Bruno Messerli

1997-01-01

334

Alteration of the Subducting Oceanic Lithosphere at the Southern Chile Trench-Outer Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrothermal circulation and brittle faulting process within the oceanic lithosphere is usually confined to the upper crust for oceanic lithosphere created at intermediate-to-fast spreading rates. Lower crust and mantle, however, are relatively dry and undeformed. Recent studies at subduction zones suggest that hydration of the oceanic plate is most vigorous at the trench-outer rise where extensional bending-faulting affects the hydrogeology of the oceanic crust and mantle. To understand the degree of hydration, we studied the seismic velocity structure of the incoming Nazca plate offshore Southern Chile (~ 43° S) as part of the TIPTEQ (from The Incoming Plate to mega-Thrust EarthQuake processes) initiative. Seismic wide-angle and multichannel data are used to derive 2D velocity model using joint refraction and reflection travel time tomography. The ~ 250 km wide-angle seismic profile starts seaward of the trench axis on the 14.5 Ma old oceanic Nazca Plate, offshore of the rupture area of the Great 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw=9.5). The profile runs perpendicular to the Chile Ridge and parallel to the Chiloe and Guafo Fracture Zones. The velocity model derived from the tomography inversion consists of a ~ 5.5-km thick oceanic crust and shows P-wave velocities typical for mature fast-spreading structures in the seaward section of the profile, with uppermost mantle velocities as fast as ~ 8.3 km/s. Approaching the Chile trench, however, seismic velocities appear to be lower, suggesting a certain degree of hydration and alteration either in the oceanic crust and the uppermost mantle. The reduction of the velocities roughly starts at the outer rise and continues up to the trench, defining a clear low velocity zone. In addition, anomalous low heat flow values at the outer rise indicate an efficient inflow of cold seawater into the oceanic crust through a high basement outcrop.

Contreras-Reyes, E.; Grevemeyer, I.; Flueh, E.; Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.

2006-12-01

335

Ethnobotany of pre-altiplanic community in the Andes of northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of the surrounding environment and use of the flora by the inhabitants of Toconce, a Pre-Altiplanic community\\u000a in the Andes of northern Chile, were investigated. Six ecological units, which are given the local names of Pampa, Tolar,\\u000a Medano, Pajonal, Hoyada, and Paniso, are recognized by the people of Toconce on the basis of their different dominant plants,\\u000a geomorphology

Carlos Aldunate; Carolina Villagrán; Juan J. Armesto; Victoria Castro

1983-01-01

336

Greening of arid cities by residual water reuse: a multidisciplinary project in northern Chile.  

PubMed

This paper describes a project in northern Chile aimed to promote the development of appropriate green areas and gardens for arid regions under prevalent conditions of shortage of water and high salt content in soil and water. Field studies were conducted to test the suitability of selected salt-tolerant native and introduced plants for ornamental use. Plant growth, water and soil quality, marine spray, climate, wastewater treatment and irrigation operating problems were the subject of specific studies and discussion. PMID:12956591

Villanueva, Luis Cáceres; Delatorre, Jose; De la Riva, Fernando; Monardes, Vinka

2003-06-01

337

Geologic and metallogenic aspects concerning the Nahuelbuta mountains banded iron formation, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleozoic banded-iron-formation (BIF) deposits occur within the Nahuelbuta-Queule Complex (south central Chile) which hosts the following stratigraphic units: Cabo Tirúa (green schists, mica schists, and metacherts), Lleu-Lleu (iron-bearing metacherts, mica schists, and serpentinites), and Colcura (metagraywackes and metapelites). The lithological, structural, and geochemical characteristics of the Lleu-Lleu and Cabo Tirúa units indicate that they were part of a tectonic mélange

R. Oyarzún; H. Clemmey; S. Collao

1986-01-01

338

Ecological patterns in the Bromeliaceae of the lomas formations of Coastal Chile and Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of geographic distribution and physiological adaptations in theBromeliaceae of coastal Chile and Peru provide insights into the ecological patterns of habit selection and speciation. The hyperarid coastal Atacama and Peruvian Deserts along the Pacific coast of South America contain a surprisingly rich flora of bromeliad species. These include representatives of all threeBromeliaceae subfamilies: two terrestrialBromelioideae and two terrestialPitcairnioideae, all

Philip W. Rundel; Michael O. Dillon

1998-01-01

339

Health insurance selection in Chile: a cross-sectional and panel analysis.  

PubMed

In Chile, workers are mandated to choose either public or private health insurance coverage. Although private insurance premiums depend on health risk, public insurance premiums are solely linked to income. This structure implies that individuals with higher health risks may tend to avoid private insurance, leaving the public insurance system responsible for their care. This article attempts to explore the determinants of health insurance selection (private vs public) by individuals in Chile and to test empirically whether adverse selection indeed exists. We use panel data from Chile's 'Encuesta de Proteccion Social' survey, which allows us to control for a rich set of individual observed and unobserved characteristics using both a cross-sectional analysis and fixed-effect methods. Results suggest that age, sex, job type, income quintile and self-reported health are the most important factors in explaining the type of insurance selected by individuals. Asymmetry in insurance mobility caused by restrictions on pre-existing conditions may explain why specific illnesses have an unambiguous relationship with insurance selection. Empirical evidence tends to indicate that some sorting by health risk and income levels takes place in Chile. In addition, by covering a less healthy population with higher utilization of general health consultations, the public insurance system may be incurring disproportionate expenses. Results suggest that if decreasing segmentation and unequal access to health services are important policy objectives, special emphasis should be placed on asymmetries in the premium structure and inter-system mobility within the health care system. Preliminary analysis of the impact of the 'Garantias Explicitas de Salud' plan (explicit guarantees on health care plan) on insurance selection is also considered. PMID:23558960

Pardo, Cristian; Schott, Whitney

2014-05-01

340

Growth and carotenogenesis in eight strains of Dunaliella salina Teodoresco from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of growth and carotenogenesis in eight strains of the green algaDunaliella salina collected from salt ponds at Salar de Atacama (23° 30? S; 68° 15? W) and Antofagasta (23° 39? S; 70° 24? W), Chile and kept\\u000a in unialgal cultures at the Laboratorio Cultivo de Algas, University of Concepcion. The algae were grown in Erdschreiber medium

Ana S. Cifuentes; Mariela González; Marianela Conejeros; Victor Dellarossa; Oscar Parra

1992-01-01

341

Distribution and temporal variation of trace metal enrichment in surface sediments of San Jorge Bay, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu, Pb, and Hg concentrations were determined in surface sediment samples collected at three sites in San Jorge Bay, northern\\u000a Chile. This study aims to evaluate differences in their spatial distribution and temporal variability. The highest metal concentrations\\u000a were found at the site “Puerto”, where minerals (Cu and Pb) have been loaded for more than 60 years. On the other hand,

Jorge Valdés; Domingo Román; Marcos Guiñez; Lidia Rivera; Tomás Morales; Juan Ávila; Pedro Cortés

2010-01-01

342

Diversity of Bacteroidetes in high-altitude saline evaporitic basins in northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phylum Bacteroidetes represents one of the most abundant bacterial groups of marine and freshwater bacterioplankton. We investigated the diversity of Bacteroidetes in water and sediment samples from three evaporitic basins located in the highlands of northern Chile. We used both 16S rRNA gene clone libraries created with targeted Bacteroidetes-specific primers and separation of specifically amplified gene fragments by denaturing

Cristina Dorador; Daniela Meneses; Viviana Urtuvia; Cecilia Demergasso; Irma Vila; Karl-Paul Witzel; Johannes F. Imhoff

2009-01-01

343

Rise and fall of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O3:K6 in southern Chile.  

PubMed

Seafood consumption-related diarrhoea increased drastically in Chile when the pandemic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O3:K6 reached Region de Los Lagos, where most of Chile's seafood is produced. Outbreaks peaked in 2005 with 3725 clinical cases in this region and gradually decreased to fewer than 10 cases in 2010 and 2011. We show here that the pandemic strain concurrently vanished from mussels; we also report further environmental data. Integration of the 2010/2011 data with those obtained since 2004 suggests that after its arrival in southern Chile, the pandemic strain grew in mussels, likely facilitated by a minor rise in surface seawater temperature and by warming of the mussels in the intertidal region due to frequent sunny days. However, since these environmental parameters probably equally affected the pandemic strain and more than 30 V.?parahaemolyticus DNA restriction clusters that inhabit local shellfish, a selective effect of bacteriophages is proposed. Lytic bacteriophage VP93 may have favoured the growth of the pandemic strain versus similar phage-sensitive strains, as shown here in a particular case. However, the pandemic strain's decline may have been promoted by temperate phage VP58.5, which kills the pandemic strain and increases the UV sensitivity of lysogenized phage-resistant cells. PMID:23051148

García, Katherine; Bastías, Roberto; Higuera, Gastón; Torres, Rafael; Mellado, Alex; Uribe, Paulina; Espejo, Romilio T

2013-02-01

344

Ecology and geography of transmission of two bat-borne rabies lineages in Chile.  

PubMed

Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985-2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances. PMID:24349592

Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Pons, Daniel J; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2013-01-01

345

White rot Basidiomycetes isolated from Chiloé National Park in Los Lagos region, Chile.  

PubMed

Wood decomposition is an important component in forest ecosystems but information about the diversity of fungi causing decay is lacking. This is especially true for the temperate rain forests in Chile. These investigations show results of a biodiversity study of white-rot fungi in wood obtained from Chiloé National Park in Los Lagos region, Chile. Culturing from white-rotted wood followed by sequencing of the complete internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) or partial large subunit region of the rDNA, identified 12 different species in the Basidiomycota. All of these fungi were characterized as white rot fungi and were identified with a BLAST match of 97 % or greater to sequences in the GenBank database. Fungi obtained were species of Phlebia, Mycoacia, Hyphodontia, Bjerkandera, Phanerochaete, Stereum, Trametes, and Ceriporiopsis. This report identifies for the first time in Chile the species Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Hyphodontia radula, Phlebia radiata, Phanerochaete affinis, Peniophora cinerea, Stereum gausapatum, Phlebia setulosa and Phanerochaete sordida. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the type of decay caused by the fungi that were isolated and a combination of selective lignin degraders and simultaneous white rot fungi were found. Fungi that cause a selective degradation of lignin are of interest for bioprocessing technologies that require modification or degradation of lignin without cellulose removal. PMID:24068453

Ortiz, Rodrigo; Navarrete, José; Oviedo, Claudia; Párraga, Mario; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Blanchette, Robert A

2013-12-01

346

Ecology and Geography of Transmission of Two Bat-Borne Rabies Lineages in Chile  

PubMed Central

Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985–2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances.

Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Veronica; Pons, Daniel J.; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2013-01-01

347

Intragroup antigenic diversity of human respiratory syncytial virus (group A) isolated in Argentina and Chile.  

PubMed

The intragroup antigenic diversity of the G glycoprotein of 226 human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strains isolated in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Santiago (Chile) between 1995 and 2002 was evaluated by ELISA with a panel of 14 anti-G monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Out of 226 strains characterized, 172 (76%) belonged to group A and 54 (24%) to group B. Strains from both groups cocirculated throughout the study period in both countries, except in 1996, 2000, and 2002 when only group A strains were isolated. Within group A 23 different antigenic patterns were found as defined by the combination of reactivities with eight strain-specific anti-G MAbs. These antigenic patterns showed different behavior regarding their circulation. Some major patterns were observed in most years with variable proportions; other minor patterns were present in low proportions during 1 or 2 years and then were apparently replaced by new patterns. Some antigenic patterns occurred both in Argentina and Chile during the same epidemics. Since no strain-specific MAbs were available for group B, we could not evidence the antigenic variability within group B. These are the first data on antigenic characterization of HRSV strains isolated in Argentina and Chile. It is shown that the ELISA with MAbs directed against the G protein of RSV is a valuable tool. These results will also provide useful information for further studies to evaluate the antigenic variability of HRSV strains in relation with genetic characteristics. PMID:16121383

Galiano, Mónica C; Luchsinger, Vivian; Videla, Cristina M; De Souza, Leila; Puch, Silvia Sánchez; Palomo, Concepción; Ricarte, Carmen; Ebekian, Beatriz; Avendaño, Luis; Carballal, Guadalupe

2005-10-01

348

[How to implement Chile's new anti-tobacco law within the university].  

PubMed

On the 16th of May 2006, the Diario Oficial de la República de Chile (Official News of the Republic of Chile), published Law No. 20.105, which modified Law No. 19.419 regarding advertising and consumption of tobacco. Since it entered into force, different institutions and public spaces have had to enact its regulations. The purpose of this article is to share how the new anti-tobacco law is being implemented, with a health promotion angle, by the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (UC). As such, we highlight key findings from a review of the literature on the subject and describe the implementation strategies developed and substantiated in theory as well as by how they address the concerns of the university community. The main accomplishments of the anti-tobacco implementation were: reaching a compromise between the university directorate and the student leaders, who in turn motivated the student body to participate during the large-scale roll-out of the new law; the participation of all of the UC stakeholders; utilizing the varied methods of mass communication; and lastly, providing an opportunity for reflection and analysis for those directly affected: the smokers. The challenge is to evaluate the strategies implemented in the incorporation of the new Chilean anti-tobacco law. PMID:18510796

Cabieses, Baltica; Muñoz, Mónica; Zuzulich, Soledad; Contreras, Aixa

2008-05-01

349

Heat flow in the southern Chile forearc controlled by large-scale tectonic processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 33°S and 47°S, the southern Chile forearc is affected by the subduction of the aseismic Juan Fernandez Ridge, several major oceanic fracture zones on the subducting Nazca Plate, the active Chile Ridge spreading centre, and the underthrusting Antarctic Plate. The heat flow through the forearc was estimated using the depth of the bottom simulating reflector obtained from a comprehensive database of reflection seismic profiles. On the upper and middle continental slope along the whole forearc, heat flow is about 30-60 mW m-2, a range of values common for the continental basement and overlying slope sediments. The actively deforming accretionary wedge on the lower slope, however, in places shows heat flow reaching about 90 mW m-2. This indicates that advecting pore fluids from deeper in the subduction zone may transport a substantial part of the heat there. The large size of the anomalies suggests that fluid advection and outflow at the seafloor is overall diffuse, rather than being restricted to individual fault structures or mud volcanoes and mud mounds. One large area with very high heat flow is associated with a major tectonic feature. Thus, above the subducting Chile Ridge at 46°S, values of up to 280 mW m-2 indicate that the overriding South American Plate is effectively heated by subjacent zero-age oceanic plate material.

Villar-Muñoz, Lucia; Behrmann, Jan H.; Diaz-Naveas, Juan; Klaeschen, Dirk; Karstens, Jens

2014-06-01

350

Landscape Evolution Changes Along the Western Andean Mountain Front of Peru and Northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the along-strike changes in geomorphology on the western Andean mountain front of Peru and northern Chile, using the newly released SRTM 90 m digital topography. Strong contrasts in drainage systems and slope distributions occur along the mountain front between Lima, Peru and Santiago, Chile in concert with major latitudinal changes in climate. The climatic gradients appear to have been approximately stable since the middle Miocene. We link morphologies observed in satellite images, topography, topographically derived slope, and river networks to along-strike variations in erosional processes occurring along the climate gradient. The areas characterized below include: 1) between 12-15° S, a zone where landforms suggest the important role of local precipitation, 2) from 15-18° S the landforms are indicative of no significant local precipitation but significant stream power from upland regions, 3) from 18-25° S there is neither local precipitation nor appreciable stream power and 4) between 25-32° S where the influence of the westerly air masses gradually increases the amount of local precipitation falling on the western mountain front. Near Lima, on the western coast of Peru, the landscape is actively eroding with high median values of slope and well-developed drainage systems. We interpret this to signify that precipitation is delivered directly on the mountain front. The western mountain front of southwestern Peru contains possibly the greatest relief on earth. There, we see a bimodal slope distribution highlighting the steep slopes of the canyon networks and the low slopes of the smooth, low relief interfluve areas. The interfluves are little eroded geomorphic surfaces suggesting that precipitation rarely falls on the mountain front and that most of the water required to cut the deep canyons are derived from snow melt on the high elevations in the northernmost Altiplano. Channel profiles of the deeper canyons in this sector show that, relative to the interfluve, the river has cut back substantially into the Altiplano. A similarly smooth mountain front landscape with deeply incised canyons exists around the Arica bend in Northern Chile. However, these canyons are much smaller in drainage area and the depth of incision is much less. The channel profiles of the largest canyons in northern Chile have the same form as the interfluve, suggesting that the rivers are downcutting into the western slope but are not cutting back into the Altiplano. Slope distributions for the northern Chile region peak at approximately 3.5 degrees, the slope of the western monocline, and then fall off quickly towards higher slopes. The smooth slopes show a lack of fluvial dissection in northern Chile, which is most likely related to prolonged long-term aridity in this sector. In the north-central part of Chile, well-developed drainage systems and high median slope distributions return as the strength of the Westerlies increase towards the south.

Hoke, G. D.; Isacks, B. L.; Jordan, T. E.

2003-12-01

351

Large extensional shallow crustal aftershocks on previously unknown faults triggered by the 2010 Maule earthquake, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of central Chile was followed by thousands of aftershocks both near the plate interface and in the overriding continental crust. Here we report on a pair of large shallow crustal earthquakes (Mw 6.9 and 7.0) that occurred on 11 March 2010 within 15 minutes of each other near the town of Pichilemu, on the coast of the O'Higgins Region of Chile. Field and aerial reconnaissance following the events revealed no distinct surface rupture. We infer from InSAR data spanning both events that the ruptures occurred on a pair of NW-SE-trending normal faults, with the larger of the two events rupturing a mostly onshore fault dipping to the SW. The fault locations, dips and relative times of the two events are additionally constrained by locations of aftershock seismicity based on the International Maule Aftershock Dataset (IMAD). Consistent with field observations, the slip onshore is close to zero near the surface. Satellite radar data also reveal that significant aseismic afterslip occurred on the coseismic fault planes following the two earthquakes. Coulomb stress modelling indicates that the two faults were positively stressed by 13-35 bars as a result of slip on the subduction interface in the preceding megathrust event; in other words, the Pichilemu earthquakes should be considered stress-triggered aftershocks of the Maule earthquake. We discuss the implications of these post-megathrust normal faulting events for the regional stress field in this part of central Chile. Several recent shallow normal faulting earthquakes in the overriding plate following the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in Japan may be an analogue for the Pichilemu events, and we compare results inferred from InSAR/seismicity data for Japan.

Ryder, I. M.; Rietbrock, A.; Kelson, K. I.; Burgmann, R.

2011-12-01

352

Stakeholder participation within the public environmental system in Chile: major gaps between theory and practice.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. PMID:21641109

Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo

2011-10-01

353

[The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].  

PubMed

Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. PMID:23900377

Cabello C, Felipe

2013-04-01

354

Wheat flour fortification with folic acid: changes in neural tube defects rates in Chile.  

PubMed

In January 2000, Chilean Ministry of Health mandated the addition of folic acid (FA) to wheat flour in order to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). This policy resulted in significant increases in serum and red cell folate in women of fertile age 1 year after fortification. To evaluate the effect of wheat flour fortification on the prevalence of NTDs in Chile we designed a prospective hospital-based surveillance program to monitor the frequency of NTDs in all births (live and stillbirths) with birth weight?500?g at the nine public maternity hospitals of Santiago, Chile from 1999 to 2009. During the pre-fortification period (1999-2000) the NTD rate was 17.1/10,000 births in a total of 120,566 newborns. During the post-fortification period (2001-2009) the NTD rate decreased to 8.6/10,000 births in a total of 489,915 newborns, which translates into a rate reduction of 50% (RR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.42-0.59) for all NTDs. The rate reduction by type of NTD studied was: 50% in anencephaly (RR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.38-0.67), 42% in cephalocele (RR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37-0.89), and 52% in spina bifida (RR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.38-0.6). Rates showed significant reduction both in stillbirths and live births: 510.3 to 183.6/10,000 (RR=0.36; 95% CI: 0.25-0.53) and 13.3 to 7.5/10,000 (RR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68), respectively. In Chile, fortification of wheat flour with FA has proven to be an effective strategy for the primary prevention of NTDs. PMID:22711368

Cortés, Fanny; Mellado, C; Pardo, R A; Villarroel, L A; Hertrampf, E

2012-08-01

355

Interannual variability of the coastal fog at Fray Jorge relict forests in semiarid Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal mountains of semiarid Chile are punctuated by patches of fog-dependent evergreen forests. Fog episodes often occur when the prominent coastal topography intercepts a well developed deck of stratocumulus (Sc) off north central Chile. A 22-year record of ground-based fog observations at Fray Jorge Biosphere Reserve (FJBR, 30°S), atmospheric reanalysis and satellite derived low cloud amount are used to document the annual cycle and interannual variability of fog frequency there. The number of foggy days minimizes during austral winter and then increases rapidly to reach a maximum in spring (the growing season of FJBR trees). The mean annual cycle of the fog-frequency follows closely the annual cycle of the nearby marine Sc amount and lower tropospheric stability (LTS). The springtime fog frequency, nearby marine cloud amount and LTS are also well correlated at interannual timescales. Colder than normal sea surface temperatures and warmer than normal air temperatures aloft near 30°S strengthen the temperature inversion and lead to a more persistent cloud deck and higher than normal fog frequency at FJBR. La Niña years produce temperature anomalies very similar to the pattern described before and consequently they are associated with higher than normal springtime fog frequency at FJBR. Conversely, El Niño years are associated with less foggy conditions at FJBR. Interestingly, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related rainfall anomalies in north central Chile are opposite to ENSO-related anomalies in fog-frequency. We discuss the overall impact of ENSO in FJBR ecosystems as well as the prospects of FJBR in future climate scenarios driven by increased greenhouse gases.

Garreaud, René; Barichivich, Jonathan; Christie, Duncan A.; Maldonado, Antonio

2008-12-01

356

CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

2014-04-01

357

Complete nucleotide sequence analysis of a Dengue-1 virus isolated on Easter Island, Chile.  

PubMed

Dengue-1 viruses responsible for the dengue fever outbreak in Easter Island in 2002 were isolated from acute-phase sera of dengue fever patients. In order to analyze the complete genome sequence, we designed primers to amplify contiguous segments across the entire sequence of the viral genome. RT-PCR products obtained were cloned, and complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences were determined. This report constitutes the first complete genetic characterization of a DENV-1 isolate from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis shows that an Easter Island isolate is most closely related to Pacific DENV-1 genotype IV viruses. PMID:18815724

Cáceres, C; Yung, V; Araya, P; Tognarelli, J; Villagra, E; Vera, L; Fernández, J

2008-01-01

358

Comparative Study Of Focal Mechanisms In South Central Chile Before And After The 2010 Maule Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 February 2010, a Mw=8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of south central Chile rupturing nearly 500 km of the subduction zone plate interface. The earthquake also generated a tsunami and caused more than 500 fatalities. The largest earthquakes recorded have taken place along subduction margins (e.g. Chile 1960, 2010, Andaman-Sumatra 2004, Japan 2011) and understanding their rupture mechanisms and deformation regimes is therefore of vital importance. From November 2004 to October 2005, the TIPTEQ project ("From The Incoming Plate to megaThrust EarthQuake"; Rietbrock et al., 2007; Haberland et al., 2009) maintained a network of 120 seismic stations inland and 10 stations at sea between 37 and 39° lat. S., continuously-recording and monitoring the seismicity occurring in the area before the 2010 Maule earthquake. By using first motion polarities and moment tensor inversion we have computed and analyzed focal mechanisms for a subset of data from these records. We found thrust faulting along the subduction interface down to a depth of ~30 km, followed by a gap in the seismicity and then deeper earthquakes showing diverse faulting mechanisms more sparsely distributed within the subducting plate. We also see strike-slip crustal faulting occurring down to ~12 km depth within the area of the Lanalhue fault. The most striking observation is the presence of deep (40 km) normal faulting seismicity in the fore-arc, close to the trench. We have now started to analyze the International Maule Aftershocks Dataset (IMAD) of the 2010 earthquake in the southern rupture region. Again we observe thrust faulting in the subduction interface and a seismic gap between an upper and lower zone of seismicity along the interface. By comparison of the pre- and post-earthquake datasets we are investigating whether the Maule earthquake caused any changes in the style of deformation in this part of Chile. References Haberland, C., A. Rietbrock, D. Lange, K. Bataille, and T. Dahm (2009). Structure of the seismogenic zone of the southcentral Chilean margin revealed by local earthquake traveltime tomography, J. Geophys. Res., 114, B01317, doi:10.1029/2008JB005802. Rietbrock, A., C. Haberland, D. Lange, T. Dahm, A. Lodge, K. Bataille, F. Tilmann, E. Flueh, and TIPTEQ Research Group (2007). Studying the seismogenic coupling zone with a passive seismic array: The TIPTEQ experiment in Southern Chile, Geophys. Res. Abstracts, 9, 06466.

Agurto, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Ryder, I. M.; Haberland, C. A.

2011-12-01

359

Groundwater-sapping origin for the giant quebradas of northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northernmost Chile is home to a well-preserved disequilibrium landscape of great antiquity. Contrasting drainage patterns are developed on the western slope of the Altiplano plateau. The oldest of these patterns is a now-relict parallel-patterned drainage network. In places a younger pattern, comprising a series of deeply incised canyons, or quebradas, crosscuts the older parallel-patterned network. These canyons show strong evidence of a groundwater-sapping origin. We hypothesize that the initiation of the canyon network resulted from changes in the hydrological regime related to a drying out of climate of the forearc and to the uplift of the Altiplano plateau.

Hoke, Gregory D.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Yu, Jennifer S.

2004-07-01

360

Bacterial Community Structure in the Hyperarid Core of the Atacama Desert, Chile?  

PubMed Central

Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70°S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from each of the samples revealed that microbial communities from the extreme hyperarid core of the desert clustered separately from all of the remaining communities. Bands sequenced from DGGE profiles of two samples taken at a 22-month interval from this core region revealed the presence of similar populations dominated by bacteria from the Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes phyla.

Drees, Kevin P.; Neilson, Julia W.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Henderson, David A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

2006-01-01

361

Geophysical variables and behavior: LX. Lonquimay and Alhué, Chile: tension from volcanic and earthquake hazard.  

PubMed

This study assesses the effect of trait anxiety scores on subjects' responses to volcanic eruption hazard and earthquake hazard in Lonquimay and Alhué, respectively. Lonquimay is located in the southern Chilean Andes and Alhué is located in central Chile in the Coastal Range. The former was afflicted by a volcanic eruption which commenced on Christmas Day 1988 and the latter by an earthquake on March 3, 1985. Expectations of high damage and fear from a radio hazard prediction were associated with high trait-anxiety scores in the Alhué sample while positive adjustments to extenuate the hazard effect reached significance for the Lonquimay sample. PMID:2326130

Larraín, P; Simpson-Housley, P

1990-02-01

362

Effects of environmental alerts and pre-emergencies on pollutant concentrations in Santiago, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce air pollution levels in Santiago, Chile on days when the weather is expected to create poor ventilation conditions and increased air pollutant concentrations, the responsible authorities impose temporary restrictions on motor vehicles and certain industrial activities. We estimate the impact of these restrictions on the city's air quality using data collected by a network of monitoring stations. The estimates show that the restrictions do reduce the average concentrations of coarse and fine particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide (both gases are emitted mainly by vehicles). However, no significant changes were found in the sulfur dioxide concentrations, which are primarily the result of industrial processes.

Troncoso, Rodrigo; de Grange, Louis; Cifuentes, Luis A.

2012-12-01

363

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

SciTech Connect

Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

2011-06-01

364

Geochemical model of a magmatic–hydrothermal system at the Lastarria volcano, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lastarria volcano (25°10??S, 68°31??W; 5,697 m?above sea level), located in the Central Andes Volcanic Zone (northern Chile),\\u000a is characterized by four distinct fumarolic fields with outlet temperatures ranging between 80°C and 408°C as measured between\\u000a May 2006–March 2008 and April–June 2009. Fumarolic gasses contain significant concentrations of high temperature gas compounds\\u000a (i.e., SO2, HCl, HF, H2, and CO), and isotopic ratios

Felipe Aguilera; F. Tassi; T. Darrah; S. Moune; O. Vaselli

2011-01-01

365

Quantifying the variability in tectonic vs. magmatic extension at the Chile Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use multibeam bathymetry data to characterize the relative amount of tectonic versus magmatic extension along the Chile Rise. While previous studies of fault characterization at other individual ridge segments have indirectly inferred the relative fraction of extension taken up tectonically by normal faulting, (1-M), versus magmatically, M, by the accretion of new crust, there have been no systematic studies of variations along and across a series of adjacent ridge segments. The Chile Rise presents an excellent opportunity for empirical analysis; it has spread symmetrically and uniformly at an intermediate half-spreading rate of 31.3 km/Myr since ~6 Ma, displays clearly defined ridge segments orthogonal to spreading, and has a wide range of ridge segment lengths (15-140 km) and offset lengths (18-170 km). Axial bathymetry varies substantially along individual ridge segments, often exhibiting an "hourglass" shape morphology, with relatively wide, deep axial valleys near the transforms, and a shallower, narrower valley in the segment center. By identifying the tops and bottoms of fault scarps, and measuring fault throw along flow-lines across the selected ridge segments, fault heave is calculated at an assumed scarp angle, and (1-M) calculated from the slope of accumulated heave with distance. Multiple transects across each segment allow investigation of how (1-M), thus M, varies both across- and along-axis. Preliminary results for three segments show that (1-M) is positively correlated with ridge axis depth, tending to be greatest near segment ends (1-M = 0.2) and lowest near segment centers (1-M = 0.1). These segments show across-axis profiles of (1-M) that tend to have local minima in the axial valley, behave symmetrically near the segment center, and show asymmetries near transforms, with more tectonically accommodated extension on the inside corners of ridge-transform intersections. Fault spacing at these segments does not show a clear variation either along- or across-axis, or with (1-M). This result implies that variations in (1-M) are accommodated with a variation in strain accumulated along each fault, not in the number of faults, which, based on prior results of numerical models, suggests correlated changes in lithospheric structure. An along-axis variation in (1-M) is not detected on one of Chile Rise's shortest segments (~30 km); the morphology of this segment appears to be dominated by transform fault effects and, perhaps, detachment faulting. A more complete range of Chile Ridge segments will be analyzed, and comparisons with model predictions will be made to gain insight on inter- and along-segment variations in magma supply, lithospheric thickness, and thermal structure.

Howell, S. M.; Ito, G.; Martinez, F.; Behn, M. D.; Escartin, J.; Olive, J. L.

2013-12-01

366

Turbidite sequences in marine sediments off southern Chile ? records of Quaternary climate - tectonics interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active continental margin of South America is characterized by frequent, devastating and large-magnitude subduction earthquakes. In this environment the assessment of the history of major past earthquakes is hampered by the short historical and instrumental records. Here, we focus on marine turbidite records from offshore southern Chile that reflect the regional paleoseismic history of the forearc region since late Pleistocene time. The investigated records were retrieved from cores obtained from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), site 1232, and SONNE 50SL. The coring locations are at ~ 40ç and ~ 38çS lat, within the Peru-Chile trench, and are characterized by frequent interbedded strata of turbiditic and hemipelagic origin. Importantly, dated sections of the obtained cores indicate a recurrence time between 100 and 200 years for individual turbidite events. On the basis of the sedimentological characteristics and the nature of the active margin of southern Chile, we infer that the turbidites are seismogenic in origin, and represent paleo-earthquakes. However, the long-term changes in turbidite recurrence intervals also appear to be strongly influenced by climate and associated sea-level changes. For example, during the rising sea-level in the Holocene (ACHTUNG: es gab keine h?heren Meeresspiegel, sondern der Meeresspiegel ist seit 14 ka angestiegen) and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, recurrence of turbiditic layers is substantially higher, primarily reflecting a climate-induced reduction of sediment availability and enhanced slope stability (Dieser Satz ist inhaltlich nicht ganz klar). In addition, changes in the segmentation of tectonic uplift in the forearc and related drainage captures likely influenced the availability of sediment entering the marine realm, possibly determining the postglacial decrease in turbidite frequency. On the other hand, glacial turbidite recurrence times (including MIS 2, MIS 3, cold substages of MIS 5, and MIS 6), are within the same order of magnitude as earthquake recurrence intervals, derived from historical data and other terrestrial paleoseismic archives of the region. Only during these cold stages sediment availability and slope instability were pronounced enough to provide conditions conducive to a full record of the sequence of large earthquakes. Our data thus suggest that earthquake recurrence intervals on the order of 100 to 200 years are characteristic for southern Chile and were sustained during the last 140 kyrs.

Echtler, H. P.; Blumberg, S.; Lamy, F.; Arz, H.; Wiedicke, M.; Haug, G. H.; Oncken, O.

2007-12-01

367

New Mesotheriidae (Mammalia, Notoungulata, Typotheria), geochronology and tectonics of the Caragua area, northernmost Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few mammal fossils were known from the Altiplano or adjoining parts of northern Chile until recently. We report a partial mesotheriid palate from the vicinity of Caragua (Huaylas Formation) in northernmost Chile. The new material helps resolve contradictory taxonomic assignments (and age implications) of the two mesotheriid specimens previously reported from the area. Herein we refer all three mesotheriid specimens to a new taxon, Caraguatypotherium munozi, which is closely related to Plesiotypotherium, Typotheriopsis, Pseudotypotherium, and Mesotherium. This phylogenetic placement permits a revised biochronologic estimate of a post-Friasian/pre-Huayquerian (˜15-9 Ma) age for the Huaylas Formation, consistent with new radioisotopic dates from the upper Huaylas Formation and its bracketing stratigraphic units. Improved geochronologic control for the Huaylas Formation has important implications for the timing of tectonic events in the Precordillera/Altiplano of northern Chile. Structural, stratigraphic, and temporal data suggest the onset of rapid, progressive deformation shortly after the deposition of the older Zapahuira Formation, continuing at least partly through deposition of the Huaylas Formation. Deposition of the Huaylas Formation was short lived (between ˜10-12 Ma), possibly stemming from activity on the Copaquilla-Tignámar Fault in the eastern Precordillera. This deformation is associated with the development of the Oxaya Anticline and activity of the Ausipar Fault west of the study region on the frontal limb of the anticline in the westernmost Precordillera. Faulting and folding occurred rapidly, beginning at ˜11.4 Ma (shortly after deposition of the youngest extrusives of the Zapahuira Formation) and before ˜10.7 Ma (the age of the gently dipping horizons within the upper Huaylas Formation that overlie the mammal fossils and an intraformational unconformity). Mesotheriids are the only Tertiary fossil mammals known from the Precordillera of northernmost Chile thus far; the group is common and diverse in faunas from the Altiplano of Bolivia (and a fauna recently recovered from the Chilean Altiplano), in contrast to most higher-latitude and tropical assemblages. This distinctiveness indicates that intermediate latitudes may have been biogeographically distinct and served as a center of diversification for mesotheriids and other groups of indigenous South American mammals.

Flynn, John J.; Croft, Darin A.; Charrier, Reynaldo; Wyss, André R.; Hérail, Gérard; García, Marcelo

2005-05-01

368

Molecular epidemiology of hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Southern Chile.  

PubMed

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen of public health importance. In Chile, the Cordobes/Chilean clone was the predominant healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) clone in 1998. Since then, the molecular epidemiological surveillance of MRSA has not been performed in Southern Chile. We aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of HA-MRSA infections in Southern Chile to identify the MRSA clones involved, and their evolutionary relationships with epidemic international MRSA lineages. A total of 303 single inpatient isolates of S. aureus were collected in the Valdivia County Hospital (2007-2008), revealing 33% (100 MRSA/303) prevalence for HA-MRSA infections. The SCCmec types I and IV were identified in 97% and 3% of HA-MRSA, respectively. All isolates lacked the pvl genes. A random sample (n = 29) of all MRSA was studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), SCCmec subtyping, agr and spa typing, and virulence genes profiling. PFGE analysis revealed the predominance (89%, 26/29) of pulsotype A and three additional pulsotypes, designated H1, I33, and G1. Pulsotype A (ST5-SCCmecI-spa-t149) is clonally related to the Cordobes/Chilean clone. Pulsotype H1 (ST5-SCCmecIVNT-spa-t002) is genetically related to the Pediatric clone (ST5-SCCmecIV). Pulsotype I33 (ST5-SCCmecIVc-spa-t002) is clonally related by PFGE to the community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) clone spread in Argentina, I-ST5-IVa-PVL(+). The G1 pulsotype (ST8-SCCmecIVc-spa-t024) is clonally related to the epidemic USA300 CA-MRSA. Here, we demonstrate the stability of the Cordobes/Chilean clone over time as the major HA-MRSA clone in Southern Chile. The identification of two CA-MRSA clones might suggest that these clones have entered into the healthcare setting from the community. These results emphasize the importance of the local surveillance of MRSA infections in the community and hospital settings. PMID:23765159

Medina, G; Egea, A L; Otth, C; Otth, L; Fernández, H; Bocco, J L; Wilson, M; Sola, C

2013-12-01

369

The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging  

PubMed Central

Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population, making Chile an intriguing case study for examining the impact of these societal-level trends on the aging experience. This paper highlights essential characteristics of this country for understanding its emerging aging society. It reveals that there is a fundamental lack of adequate and depthful epidemiologic and country-specific research from which to fully understand the aging experience and guide new policies in support of health and well-being.

Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

2012-01-01

370

The Late Paleozoic evolution of the Gondwanaland continental margin in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic activity on the Gondwanaland continental margin in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina has been continuous from the early Paleozoic to the present. Paleozoic accretion resulted from the buildup of accretionary and magmatic arc complexes, and possibly from the addition of exotic terranes. Paleozoic strata between 25°S and 29°S in northern Chile comprise two north-south elongated strips separated by a 100-km-wide graben infilled with younger rocks. The western strip consists of deep-sea turbidites and basic lavas of the Devonian or Early Carboniferous Las Tórtolas Formation. Subduction of these rocks during Carboniferous times produced the Chañaral mélange in the area south of 26°30'S. The mélange probably resulted from intrastratal movements of partly consolidated strata within an accretionary wedge. Further tectonic deformation of both the turbidites and the mélange was produced by northeast directed subduction. The subduction complex is bounded to the east by the Atacama strike-slip fault system. To the east of the graben are relatively undeformed Early Carboniferous lacustrine sedimentary rocks of the Chinches Formation. These were deposited in a deep, elongated basin, possibly of pull-apart type resulting from strike-slip movement parallel to the coastline. Late Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic activity superimposed on both these sedimentary successions suggests seaward migration of the subduction zone. The development of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Andean complex, which overlies the Paleozoic rocks with a marked unconformity, was not accompanied by the accretion of a further subduction complex.

Bell, C. M.

371

Abrupt change in the dip of the subducting plate beneath north Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

No large tsunamigenic earthquake has occurred in north Chile since 1877 and the region has been largely recognized as a mature seismic gap. At the southern end of the seismic gap, the 2007 Mw7.7 Tocopilla earthquake ruptured the deeper seismogenic interface, whereas the coupled upper interface remained unbroken. Seismological studies onshore show a gently varying dip of 20° to 30° of the downgoing Nazca plate, which extends from the trench down to depths of 40-50km. Here, we study the lithospheric structure of the subduction zone of north Chile at about 22°S, using wide-angle seismic refraction and reflection data from land and sea, complemented by hypocentre data recorded during the 2007 Tocopilla aftershocks. Our data document an abrupt increase in the dip of the subducting plate, from less than 10° to about 22°, at a depth of approximately 20km. The distribution of the 2007 aftershocks indicates that the change in dip acted as a barrier for the propagation of the 2007 earthquake towards the trench, which, in turn, indicates that the subduction megathrust is not only segmented along the trench, but also in the direction of the dip. We propose that large-magnitude tsunamigenic earthquakes must cross the barrier and rupture the entire seismogenic zone.

Contreras-Reyes, E.; Jara, J.; Grevemeyer, I.; Ruiz, S.; Carrizo, D.

2012-05-01

372

Tsunami Inversion on 2010 Chile Earthquake with the Small Unit Tsunami Inverse Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the small unit tsunami inverse method (SUTIM) is developed to reconstruct the initial free-surface profile of a tsunami triggered by an earthquake event. The profile of the tsunami source can be treated as the seafloor vertical displacement which is important for understanding the characteristics of the earthquakes and local geology. The newly developed SUTIM is able to reproduce the initial free-surface displacement with a very fine resolution. The algorithm is speeded up by the Grid-Shifting method. A smoothing constrain is adopted as well to gain the accuracy. A series of performance tests and validations is presented in this paper. At the end, the SUTIM is used to study the 2010 Chile earthquake. The result is compared with the distribution of the aftershocks. Very good agreement can be seen in figure 1. The detailed discussion is presented in the full paper. Figure 1. The initial tsunami free-surface profile of 2010 Chile earthquake is obtained by using SUTIM. The big red circle shows the epicenter of the earthquake. The small black dots on the left show the aftershocks. The green triangles are the wave gauges. The color indicates the initial tsunami profile obtained from SUTIM. The contours on right plot show the water elevation from the Okada (1985) half-space semi-elastic model.

Wu, T.; He, D.

2010-12-01

373

Factors related to unmet oral health needs in older adults living in Chile.  

PubMed

To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of an ambulant population of older adults, living in the Maule Region, Chile, and provide descriptive information on its distribution by selected socio-demographic characteristics. The source of primary data was the Regional Oral Health Survey. A stratified random sample of 438 older adults, aged 65-74 years, living independently in the community was orally examined, and underwent an oral health interview. The sample was largely a dentate one (74.9%); with a mean DMFT score of 25.7 (s.d. 6.5) and an average number of missing teeth of 22.4 (s.d. 5.8). Dentate participants had 41% of their restorative care needs unmet, and 68.4% needed oral hygiene instruction plus removal of calculus on their teeth. Almost 30.1% required complex periodontal therapy. 21% of those fully edentulous were in need of full dentures. Comparing these findings with existing data on the oral health of older adults in Chile, participants in this study appear to have lower missing teeth scores and less need for complex periodontal treatment. Inequities were apparent in the proportion of unmet restorative and prosthetics needs. Community-based preventive care programs specifically tailored to older adults are needed to address this challenge. PMID:24556393

Mariño, Rodrigo; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

2014-01-01

374

Ion Beam Facility at the University of Chile; Applications and Basic Research  

SciTech Connect

The main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Chile are described at this work. Current activities are mainly focused on the application of the Ion Beam Analysis techniques for environmental, archaeological, and material science analysis. For instance, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is applied to measure thin gold film thickness which are used to determine their resistivity and other electrical properties. At this laboratory the Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) methodologies are extensively used for trace element analysis of urban aerosols (Santiago, Ciudad de Mexico). A similar study is being carried out at the Antarctica Peninsula. Characterization studies on obsidian and vitreous dacite samples using PIXE has been also perform allowing to match some of these artifacts with geological source sites in Chile.Basic physics research is being carried out by measuring low-energy cross section values for the reactions {sup 63}Cu(d,p){sup 64}Cu and {sup Nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga. Both radionuclide {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga are required for applications in medicine. Ongoing stopping power cross section measurements of proton and alphas on Pd, Cu, Bi and Mylar are briefly discussed.

Miranda, P. A.; Morales, J. R.; Cancino, S.; Dinator, M. I.; Donoso, N.; Sepulveda, A.; Ortiz, P.; Rojas, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile (Chile)

2010-08-04

375

Acoustics: A branch of engineering at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the 1960s, the first acousticians graduating at UACh had acquired an education in applied physics and musical arts, since there was no College of Engineering at that time. Initially, they had a (rather modest) four-year undergraduate program, and most of the faculty were not specialized teachers. The graduates from such a program received a sound engineering degree and they were skilled for jobs in the musical industry and sound reinforcement companies. In addition, they worked as sound engineers and producers. Later, because of the scientific, industrial and educational changes in Chile during the 1980s, the higher education system had massive changes that affected all of the undergraduate and graduate programs of the 61 universities in Chile. The UACh College of Engineering was officially founded in 1989. Then, acoustics as an area of expertise was included, widened and developed as an interdisciplinary subject. Currently, the undergraduate program in acoustics at UACh offers a degree in engineering sciences and a 6-year professional studies in Civil Engineering (Acoustics), having two main fields: Sound and Image, and Environment and Industry.

Poblete, Victor; Arenas, Jorge P.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

2002-11-01

376

Ion Beam Facility at the University of Chile; Applications and Basic Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Chile are described at this work. Current activities are mainly focused on the application of the Ion Beam Analysis techniques for environmental, archaeological, and material science analysis. For instance, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is applied to measure thin gold film thickness which are used to determine their resistivity and other electrical properties. At this laboratory the Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) methodologies are extensively used for trace element analysis of urban aerosols (Santiago, Ciudad de Mexico). A similar study is being carried out at the Antarctica Peninsula. Characterization studies on obsidian and vitreous dacite samples using PIXE has been also perform allowing to match some of these artifacts with geological source sites in Chile. Basic physics research is being carried out by measuring low-energy cross section values for the reactions 63Cu(d,p)64Cu and NatZn(p,x)67Ga. Both radionuclide 64Cu and 67Ga are required for applications in medicine. Ongoing stopping power cross section measurements of proton and alphas on Pd, Cu, Bi and Mylar are briefly discussed.

Miranda, P. A.; Morales, J. R.; Cancino, S.; Dinator, M. I.; Donoso, N.; Sepúlveda, A.; Ortiz, P.; Rojas, S.

2010-08-01

377

Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

Arismendi, Ivan;Penaluna, Brooke E.;Dunham, Jason;García de Leaniz, Carlos;Soto, Doris;Fleming, Ian A.;Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel;Gajardo, Gonzalo;Vargas, Pamela V.;León-Muñoz, Jorge

2014-01-01

378

Morphological and molecular analyses of larval trematodes in the intertidal bivalve Perumytilus purpuratus from central Chile.  

PubMed

The bivalve Perumytilus purpuratus is a common species that is widely distributed throughout rocky intertidal zones in Chile. This bivalve is the first intermediate host for three trematode species: one bucephalid (an undetermined species) and two fellodistomids (Proctoeces lintoni and one undetermined species). A few studies based on morphological comparisons, experimental infection and molecular analyses have been performed to ascertain the taxon (at least at the family level) to which these trematodes belong; yet, there remains no clarification about the specific identity of these trematodes. Therefore, in this study, we compared the V4 region nucleotide sequences of the 18S rRNA of these three sporocyst species, classified as morphotypes, found in P. purpuratus and nine adult trematode species from intertidal fishes that are likely definitive hosts for these parasites. The sequences from two of the sporocyst morphotypes matched with adult trematodes from the intertidal fish: type 1 sporocyst was similar to Prosorhynchoides carvajali (Bucephalidae), with a mean genetic divergence of 0.78%, and type 2 sporocyst was similar to Proctoeces sp. (but not P. lintoni), with 0% genetic divergence. The third species (type 3 sporocyst) was classified to the family Fellodistomidae; however, the sequence from this species differed greatly from the three other fellodistomid species documented in the marine fish of Chile and from other fellodistomids in public databases. Moreover, this morphotype has a particular cercarial morphology that greatly differs from other fellodistomid species described thus far. Therefore, this intriguing trematode remains a mystery. PMID:22989669

Muñoz, G; López, Z; Cárdenas, L

2013-09-01

379

When constitutional justice has the last word on health care: the case of Chile.  

PubMed

The Chilean health care system is in crisis. Since the recent ruling of the Constitutional Court that declared the risk rating (actuarial insurance) of private health insurers unconstitutional, all of the social actors related to health care have tried to agree on a legislative reform that would overcome the existing highly segmented and inequitable system, which is a legacy of Pinochet's dictatorship. Here we demonstrate how the social and political demands for legislative reform in the health care sector have been supported by the decisions of the courts. To achieve its goals of reducing equity gaps in health and ending the judicialization of health care (claims for protection represent almost 70% of total resources of the courts), the National Congress of Chile is trying to create a new national health insurance system that guarantees the right to a minimum level of health care. Part of this effort involves obtaining the constitutional approval of the courts. In Chile, justice has the final word on health care. PMID:24919310

Zúñiga Fajuri, Alejandra

2014-01-01

380

Symptoms of another life: time, possibility, and domestic relations in Chile's credit economy.  

PubMed

In this article, I explore the synergy and disjunctures of the consumer credit system and care for the mentally ill and addicted in the lifeworlds of the urban poor in Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the expansion of the credit system has had a double-edged effect on the poor. Although it produces perpetual indebtedness, it also is a resource amid unstable labor. Following an extended family over several years, this article examines how women take up credit through a wider field of domestic relations and institutions to care for kin with mental illness and addiction within the home. Such gestures of care enact a temporality of waiting, allowing different, but unpredictable, aspects of others to emerge. Through longitudinal ethnographic research with this family, I demonstrate both how possibility is actualized within the home as symptoms of illness and forms of domestic violence, and how a wider network of dependencies—from neighbors to lending institutions—shapes the temporality of relations within the home. Such a study of care in relation to the credit economy may offer other analytic perspectives on discourses of individualism, consumerism, and cost-effectiveness accompanying the expansion of consumer credit as they are absorbed into the everyday. PMID:21510328

Han, Clara

2011-01-01

381

Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.  

PubMed

The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings. PMID:24407313

Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

2014-04-01

382

[Gene geography of Chile: Regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions].  

PubMed

Background: The geographical distribution of genes plays a key role in genetic epidemiology. The Chilean population has three major stem groups (Native American, European and African). Aim: To estimate the regional rate of American, European and African admixture of the Chilean population. Subjects and Methods: Forty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) which exhibit substantially different frequencies between Amerindian populations (ancestry-informative markers or AIM´s), were genotyped in a sample of 923 Chilean participants to estimate individual genetic ancestry. Results: The American, European and African individual average admixture estimates for the 15 Chilean Regions were relatively homogeneous and not statistically different. However, higher American components were found in northern and southern Chile and higher European components were found in central Chile. A negative correlation between African admixture and latitude was observed. On the average, American and European genetic contributions were similar and significantly higher than the African contribution. Weighted mean American, European and African genetic contributions of 44.34% ± 3 9%, 51.85% ± 5.44% and 3.81% ± 0.45%, were estimated. Fifty two percent of subjects harbor African genes. Individuals with Aymara and Mapuche surnames have an American admixture of 58.64% and 68.33%, respectively. Conclusions: Half of the Chilean population harbors African genes. Participants with Aymara and Mapuche surnames had a higher American genetic contribution than the general Chilean population. These results confirm the usefulness of surnames as a frst approximation to determine genetic ancestry. PMID:25052264

Fuentes, Macarena; Pulgar, Iván; Gallo, Carla; Bortolini, María-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Bedoya, Gabriel; González-José, Rolando; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Rothhammer, Francisco

2014-03-01

383

Far-IR Measurements at Cerro Toco, Chile: FIRST, REFIR, and AERI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In mid-2009, the Radiative Heating in the Underexplored Bands Campaign II (RHUBC-II) was conducted from Cerro Toco, Chile, a high, dry, remote mountain plateau, 23degS , 67.8degW at 5.4km, in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. From this site, dominant IR water vapor absorption bands and continuum, saturated when viewed from the surface at lower altitudes, or in less dry locales, were investigated in detail, elucidating IR absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Three FTIR instruments were at the site, the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST), the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR), and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). In a side-by-side comparison, these measured atmospheric downwelling radiation, with overlapping spectral coverage from 5 to100um (2000 to 100/cm), and instrument spectral resolutions from 0.5 to 0.64/cm, unapodized. In addition to the FTIR and other ground-based IR and microwave instrumentation, pressure/temperature/relative humidity measuring sondes, for atmospheric profiles to 18km, were launched from the site several times a day. The derived water vapor profiles, determined at times matching the FTIR measurement times, were used to model atmospheric radiative transfer. Comparison of instrument data, all at the same spectral resolution, and model calculations, are presented along with a technique for determining adjustments to line-by-line calculation continuum models. This was a major objective of the campaign.

Cageao, Richard P.; Alford, J. Ashley; Johnson, David G.; Kratz, David P.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

2010-01-01

384

Upwelling and dissolved oxygen variability over the continental shelf off Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to the legendary upwelling that is present along the Peruvian and northern Chilean coasts, the coastal ocean off central Chile presents a highly seasonal upwelling regime that extends from early spring to mid fall. This region is also affected by a strong subsurface poleward flow, which transports southward low-oxygen water from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Coastal waters are highly productive due to upwelling, but the upwelled source waters are very low in oxygen and may produce hypoxia near the bottom over the continental shelf. The spatial structure and main scales of variability of the upwelling cells and dissolved oxygen are poorly understood off central Chile. One of the main limitations has been the lack of direct information. During the last years an observational program has been conducted over the relatively wide continental shelf off Concepción (36°30' S). This program has included ship-based (monthly) time-series, underwater glider observations and time-series based on moored sensors. Here, based on physical (temperature, salinity, pressure, velocity), biological (chlorophyll fluorescence) and chemical (dissolved oxygen) information, we analyze the main scales of time variability of the upwelling, the coastal currents and their impact on the dissolved oxygen. The cross-shelf structure of the upwelling region was sampled using underwater gliders capable of sampling the entire water column to a maximum of 1000 m and from near shore to 200 km offshore.

Pizarro, Oscar

2014-05-01

385

Antecedents and perspectives on the development of nuclear energy in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of activities and future prospects of nuclear energy in Chile is presented. It shows that the development of this sector is closely linked to the history of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, CCHEN, established in 1965. We can distinguish three stages in its development: the installation, culminating at the beginning of 1974 with the La Reina experimental nuclear reactor went critical. Then a phase of consolidation, which reduces the activity of scientific research and stresses the application, between the years 1974 and the end of the eighties, and finally the last twenty years, a stage of continuity marked by a loss of importance and leadership of the institution at the national level, despite having important specific initiatives in the 2000s, such as the successful development of fuel elements, the installation of a cyclotron that allows the execution of PET diagnosis for the first time in the country and the consolidation of a research laboratory on plasma and nuclear fusion. At present there is a consensus that nuclear sector in Chile needs to be placed in accordance with the development experienced by the country, and therefore requires a profound restructuring of the CCHEN, reviewing its vision, mission and work program. Here is a proposal in this regard.

Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

2014-05-01

386

Forest Volume and Biomass estimation from SAR/LIDAR/Optical Fusion in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reports on research to investigate ALOS/PALSAR L-band radar and optical time series data in conjunction with airborne lidar datasets to develop advanced data fusion algorithms for biomass and ecosystem structure measurements in support of the NASA DESDynI mission. The research is based on the acquisition of ALOS/PALSAR time series data beginning in 2007 and the timely confluence of these acquisitions with other highly relevant remote sensing and ground reference data sets in forested areas in Chile. Through collaboration with Digimapas Chile, the project has access to 75,000 km2 of 1-meter resolution full-waveform small footprint lidar (SFPL) data and 0.5 m resolution digital orthophoto imagery covering the commercial forests of Arauco, one of the largest cellulose producers in Latin America. Field inventory data from Arauco are used to test terrain and environmental influences on biomass estimation from empirical regression tree based data fusion approaches. The SAR data acquisitions available from PALSAR during the project time frame will span a five year period from 2007 to 2011, allowing investigations into how L-band time series data, similar to that expected from the DESDynI SAR (backscatter and interferometric coherence), can be used to build (1) the DESDynI biomass map product to be produced at the end of the “designed mission life” (i.e., 3 and/or 5/5+ years) and (2) annual maps of aboveground biomass change.

Kellndorfer, J. M.; Walker, W. S.; Goetz, S. J.; Cormier, T.; Kirsch, K.; Gonzalez, S.; Rombach, M.

2009-12-01

387

Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.  

PubMed

Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

2010-05-26

388

Boron exposure assessment using drinking water and urine in the North of Chile.  

PubMed

Boron is an essential trace element for plants and humans however it is still an open question what levels of boron are actually safe for humans. This study, conducted between 2006 and 2010, measured exposure levels of boron in drinking water and urine of volunteers in Arica, an area in the North of Chile with high levels of naturally occurring boron. Samples were taken of tap and bottled water (173 and 22, respectively), as well as urine from 22 volunteers, and subsequently analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Boron varied in public tap water from 0.22 to 11.3mgL(-1), with a median value of 2.9mgL(-1), while concentrations of boron in bottled water varied from 0.01 to 12.2mgL(-1). Neither tap nor bottled water samples had concentrations of boron within WHO recommended limits. The concentration of boron in urine varied between 0.45 and 17.4mgL(-1), with a median of 4.28mgL(-1) and was found to be correlated with tap water sampled from the homes of the volunteers (r=0.64). Authors highly recommend that in northern Chile - where levels of boron are naturally high - that the tap and bottled water supplies be monitored in order to protect public health and that regulatory standards also be established for boron in drinking water in order to limit exposure. PMID:21978616

Cortes, S; Reynaga-Delgado, E; Sancha, A M; Ferreccio, C

2011-12-01

389

Childhood Asthma and Allergies in Urban, Semiurban, and Rural Residential Sectors in Chile  

PubMed Central

While rural living protects from asthma and allergies in many countries, results are conflicting in Latin America. We studied the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in children from urban, semiurban, and rural sectors in south Chile. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in semiurban and rural sectors in the province of Valdivia (n = 559) using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) questionnaire. Results were compared to prevalence in urban Valdivia (n = 3105) by using data from ISAAC III study. Odds ratios (+95% confidence intervals) were calculated. No statistical significant differences were found for asthma ever and eczema symptoms stratified by residential sector, but a gradient could be shown for current asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with urban living having highest and rural living having lowest prevalence. Rural living was inversely associated in a statistical significant way with current asthma (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.9) and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7) in logistic regression analyses. Rural living seems to protect from asthma and respiratory allergies also in Chile, a South American country facing epidemiological transition. These data would be improved by clinical studies of allergic symptoms observed in studied sectors.

Boneberger, Anja; Calvo, Mario

2013-01-01

390

Childhood asthma and allergies in urban, semiurban, and rural residential sectors in Chile.  

PubMed

While rural living protects from asthma and allergies in many countries, results are conflicting in Latin America. We studied the prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in children from urban, semiurban, and rural sectors in south Chile. A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in semiurban and rural sectors in the province of Valdivia (n = 559) using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) questionnaire. Results were compared to prevalence in urban Valdivia (n = 3105) by using data from ISAAC III study. Odds ratios (+95% confidence intervals) were calculated. No statistical significant differences were found for asthma ever and eczema symptoms stratified by residential sector, but a gradient could be shown for current asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms with urban living having highest and rural living having lowest prevalence. Rural living was inversely associated in a statistical significant way with current asthma (OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9) and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7) in logistic regression analyses. Rural living seems to protect from asthma and respiratory allergies also in Chile, a South American country facing epidemiological transition. These data would be improved by clinical studies of allergic symptoms observed in studied sectors. PMID:23766726

Kausel, Leonie; Boneberger, Anja; Calvo, Mario; Radon, Katja

2013-01-01

391

Synthesis and establishment of Tuber melanosporum Vitt. ectomycorrhizae on two Nothofagus species in Chile.  

PubMed

Axenically germinated seedlings of two species of Southern beech (Nothofagus obliqua, N. glauca) from Chile were inoculated with spores of the Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum). Ectomycorrhizal development was monitored for 6 months in the greenhouse and compared to the performance of the natural host species Quercus ilex and Quercus robur. Seedling survival and mycorrhization showed major differences in both Nothofagus species: T. melanosporum readily formed ectomycorrhizae with seedlings of N. obliqua, although at a lower rate than with Q. ilex but at a proportion very similar to Q. robur; survival and colonization rates were high, and seedling growth was not visibly affected by the high soil pH required by T. melanosporum. In contrast, more than 50% of N. glauca seedlings died after inoculation, and mycorrhiza formation was very sparse. In both species, no colonization by adventive ectomycorrhizal fungi could be observed, whereas both species of Quercus showed minor colonization by another fungus, probably Inocybe or Hebeloma. Our results show that it is possible to infect N. obliqua with the Périgord black truffle under greenhouse conditions, which opens up the possibility of cultivating this truffle as a secondary crop during reforestation with N. obliqua in Chile. PMID:17598134

Pérez, Francisco; Palfner, Götz; Brunel, Nidia; Santelices, Rómulo

2007-10-01

392

Survey of organophosphorus pesticide residues in virgin olive oils produced in Chile.  

PubMed

Dimethoate, diazinon, parathion methyl, pirimiphos methyl, malathion, fenthion, chlorpyriphos, methidathion and azinphos methyl were determined in 71 olive oil samples produced in Chile from different varieties of olives (arbequina, frantoio, picual, lechino and blend) at three different harvest periods (2007, 2008 and 2009). The target pesticides were determined using a validated analytical method based on microwave-assisted liquid-liquid and solid-phase extraction with subsequent GC-FPD detection and GC-MS/MS for confirmation purposes. In 79% of the samples, five of the nine pesticides tested were detected with a frequency of one pesticide per sample. The highest detection rates were observed for the residues of chlorpyriphos and diazinon. The average concentration of chlorpyriphos, diazinon, azinphos methyl and methidathion were 0.084, 0.057, 0.024 and 0.010 µg g(-1), respectively. Higher contents of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) were found in regions where intensive agriculture is practiced. However, the levels of OPPs were reassuringly low and indicate that olive oil produced and exported from Chile does not currently represent any risk for consumers. PMID:24785499

Fuentes, Edwar; Báez, María E; Díaz, Juan

2010-01-01

393

Elemental composition of airborne particulate matter from Santiago City, Chile, 1976  

SciTech Connect

In Chile, the State Public Health Office (Ministerio de Salud Publica) is responsible for pollution control and for air quality. This office has been monitoring only toxic gases and total suspended particulate matter. The present work is the first study in Chile designed to determine trace elements and their concentrations in particulate matter in the air. By use of enrichment factors, 25 trace elements were classified according to natural or anthropogenic origin. There were two sampling periods: July (winter) and September (spring) 1976. Four sites were studied, located about 6 km north, south, west and east of downtown Santiago. The south, north and west sites are urban and 55 m above sea level. The east site is suburban and approximately 270 m higher than the others. Twenty-four-hour samples were collected on Whatman-41 cellulose filter paper, in a modified stainless steel Buchner funnel. Approximately 10 m/sup 3/ were used at the urban sites and 200 m/sup 3/ at the suburban site. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used as the analytical technique.

Prendez, M.; Ortiz, J.L.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

1984-01-01

394

Diversity of Bacteroidetes in high-altitude saline evaporitic basins in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phylum Bacteroidetes represents one of the most abundant bacterial groups of marine and freshwater bacterioplankton. We investigated the diversity of Bacteroidetes in water and sediment samples from three evaporitic basins located in the highlands of northern Chile. We used both 16S rRNA gene clone libraries created with targeted Bacteroidetes-specific primers and separation of specifically amplified gene fragments by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). DGGE analysis revealed a reduced richness of these organisms in samples from Salar de Huasco (two to four DGGE bands) increasing in Salar de Ascotán (two to seven DGGE bands) and Laguna Tebenquiche at Salar de Atacama (four to eight DGGE bands). Cluster analysis (WPGMA) of DGGE bands showed that bands from Salar de Huasco and Salar de Ascotán grouped together and samples from Salar de Atacama formed separate clusters in water and sediment samples, reflecting different Bacteroidetes communities between sites. Most of the sequences analyzed belonged to the family Flavobacteriaceae and clustered with the genera Psychroflexus, Gillisia, Maribacter, Muricauda, Flavobacterium, and Salegentibacter. The most abundant phylotype was highly related to Psychroflexus spp. and was recovered from all three study sites. The similarity of the analyzed sequences with their closest relatives in GenBank was typically <97% and notably lower when compared with type strains, demonstrating the unique character of these sequences. Culture efforts will be necessary to get a better description of the diversity of this group in saline evaporitic basins of northern Chile.

Dorador, Cristina; Meneses, Daniela; Urtuvia, Viviana; Demergasso, Cecilia; Vila, Irma; Witzel, Karl-Paul; Imhoff, Johannes F.

2009-06-01

395

Intrathermocline eddies in the coastal transition zone off central Chile (31-41°S)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The three-dimensional structure and the origin of mesoscale anticyclonic intrathermocline eddies (ITEs) in the coastal transition zone (CTZ) off central Chile (31-41°S) were analyzed through the combination of data from oceanographic cruises and satellite altimetry, and the application of an eddy-resolving primitive equation ocean model coupled with a numerical experiment using a passive tracer. In this region, ITEs are represented by subsurface lenses (˜100 km diameter; 500 m thickness or vertical extension) of nearly homogeneous salinity (>34.5) and oxygen-deficient (<1.0 mL L-1) waters, properties which are linked to the equatorial subsurface water mass (ESSW) transported poleward by the Peru-Chile undercurrent (PCUC) in the coastal band. At least five to seven ITEs were observed simultaneously in the area between 31° and 38°S during winter cruises in 1997 and 2009. Satellite data indicated that the ITEs identified from in situ data moved westward, each at a mean speed of ˜2 km d-1 and transported a total volume of ˜1 × 106 m3 s-1 (=1 Sv); the lifespan of each ITE ranged from a few months to 1 year. Model results indicate that ITEs become detached from the PCUC under summer upwelling conditions in the coastal zone.

Hormazabal, Samuel; Combes, Vincent; Morales, Carmen E.; Correa-Ramirez, Marco A.; Di Lorenzo, Emmanuel; Nuñez, Sergio

2013-10-01

396

SYMPTOMS OF ANOTHER LIFE: Time, Possibility, and Domestic Relations in Chile's Credit Economy  

PubMed Central

In this article, I explore the synergy and disjunctures of the consumer credit system and care for the mentally ill and addicted in the lifeworlds of the urban poor in Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the expansion of the credit system has had a double-edged effect on the poor. Although it produces perpetual indebtedness, it also is a resource amid unstable labor. Following an extended family over several years, this article examines how women take up credit through a wider field of domestic relations and institutions to care for kin with mental illness and addiction within the home. Such gestures of care enact a temporality of waiting, allowing different, but unpredictable, aspects of others to emerge. Through longitudinal ethnographic research with this family, I demonstrate both how possibility is actualized within the home as symptoms of illness and forms of domestic violence, and how a wider network of dependencies—from neighbors to lending institutions—shapes the temporality of relations within the home. Such a study of care in relation to the credit economy may offer other analytic perspectives on discourses of individualism, consumerism, and cost-effectiveness accompanying the expansion of consumer credit as they are absorbed into the everyday.

HAN, CLARA

2011-01-01

397

Enhancing Graduate Education and Research in Ocean Sciences at the Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) and in Chile: Cooperation Between UDEC and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA (WHOI) and the University of Concepcion, Chile (UDEC) entered into an MOU to enhance graduate education and research in ocean sciences in Chile and enhance research for understanding the Southeastern Pacific Ocean. The MOU was drafted and signed after exchange visits of faculty. The formulation of a five year program of activities included: exchange

J. Farrington; S. Pantoja

2007-01-01

398

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate,...

2013-04-01

399

ESTUDIO HISTOLÓGICO DE LA OVOGÉNESIS Y MADURACIÓN OVÁRICA EN OCTOPUS MIMUS (CEPHALOPODA: OCTOPODIDAE) DE LA II REGIÓN DE CHILE HISTOLOGICAL STUDY OF OOGENESIS AND OVARIC MATURATION IN OCTOPUS MIMUS (CEPHALOPODA: OCTOPODIDAE) FROM THE COAST OF THE II REGION, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ovarian samples of Octopus mimus, Gould, 1852, collected at the coast of Antofagasta, Chile, were processed by routine histological methods to analyze the general histology and dynamics of oogenesis. It was found that the oogenetic period corresponding to growth and follicular development comprises 13 intraovaric stages and that there is no interfollicular synchrony. Ovarian maturation consists of 9 stages, which

Alberto Olivares Paz; Mauricio Zamora Covarrubias

400

Tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Andes of northern Argentina and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two orogenic cycles, both with different evolution, are developed in the western margin of the South American continent in northern Argentina and Chile: the Paleozoic "Hercynic" cycle and the Meso-Cenozoic "Andean" cycle. The Hercynic cycle. A wide marine basin extending westward of the Cordillera Oriental which developed in Cambrian-Ordovician times marks the beginning of this cycle. In contrast to Peru and Bolivia where this basin developed between two Precambrian blocks, the western margin of this basin in northern Argentina and Chile is still unknown. The Ordovician sedimentation and accompanied volcanism ends with the Ocloyic deformation phase and its synkinematic granitic plutonism. Two basins were developed in the Silurian-Devonian separated by the Puna arc, uplifted during this ocloyic phase. The shallow-water marine terrigeneous sediments which were deposited in them were deformed by a new tectono-magmatic associated phase (Chanic phase). Carboniferous to Lower Permian marine carbonates were deposited west of the Puna arc and red beds east of it. Later on, during the Permian to Triassic, a magmatic belt was developed along the Cordillera Occidental. The rhyolites, ignimbrites and the granitic to granodioritic related intrusives are well represented in Chile. Although the overall geologic history of this period is known, many problems concerning its origin and relations to plate tectonics are still unsolved. The Andean cycle. During this cycle, a series of magmatic-arc systems related to the subduction of the Pacific crust was built up along the western margin of South America. Huge volumes of calc-alkaline lavas and related plutons were emplaced since the Jurassic, along belts parallel to the present coastline, showing a general eastward migration trend. Up to the Lower Cretaceous, an ensialic back-arc basin was formed east of this magmatic arc. Thousands of meters of marine and continental sediments were deposited in it. This basin disappeared during the Middle Cretaceous, probably as a result of the final opening of the Atlantic and the active westward movement of the South American Plate. Since Middle Cretaceous times, the magmatic-arc has been the fundamental paleogeographic element. The arc progressively migrated stepwise eastward, each step marked by a tectonic phase. Subduction-related crustal erosion could explain the lack of fore-arc petrotectonic assemblages. The eastward magmatic polarity which characterizes this section of the Andes, could also be explained by such a mechanism.

Coira, Beatríz; Davidson, John; Mpodozis, Constantino; Ramos, Victor

1982-11-01

401

Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991-2008. A descriptive epidemiological study  

PubMed Central

Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37?weeks, including the categories?Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid basis for planning interventions to reduce adverse perinatal outcomes. This epidemiological information also showed the need to assess several factors that could contribute to explain these trends, as the demographics changes, medical interventions and the increasing probability of survival of extremely and very preterm child.

2012-01-01

402

First molecular identification of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum plerocercoids from feral rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Chile.  

PubMed

Between April and June 2009, 1,075 feral rainbow trout from 10 different lakes involved with aquaculture activities in Los Lagos Region, Chile, were inspected for Diphyllobothrium species. All viscera and muscles of the fish were examined using stereomicroscopy; pyloric cecae and stomachs infected with plerocercoids were checked by histology and scanning electron microscopy. Plerocercoids of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum were confirmed by PCR and sequencing of COI and 18S rRNA + ITS1 + 5.8S rRNA + ITS2 genes for the first time in Chile. Overall prevalence of plerocercoids of D. dendriticum was 9.2% (99/1,075) in Los Lagos Region and 17.4% (99/570) for Chiloe Island. Plerocercoids were not detected in the continental lakes of the Los Lagos Region (Chapo, Rupanco, and Llanquihue). Tarahuín Lake exhibited a prevalence of 50.9% (81/159), Cucao Lake 5.1% (4/79), Natri Lake 4.7% (5/107), Huillinco Lake 3.6% (5/138), and San Antonio Lake 66.7% (4/6). Abundance was 1.1 plerocercoid larvae per fish (1,169 larvae/1,075 fish). All the plerocercoids were found encysted in the viscera of the fish. Plerocercoids were 10.9 ± 3 (7-16) mm long by 0.4 ± 0.2 (0.2-0.6) mm wide. The scolex was enlarged, with 2 bothria and a frontal pit. The body was covered with short capilliform filitriches, 4-6 mm long. The Chilean COI and 18SrRNA + ITS1 + 5.8SrRNA + ITS2 gene sequences indicated 96.34-96.52% and 99% similarity with D. dendriticum sequences, respectively. Diphyllobothrium dendriticum is reported for the first time in freshwater ecosystems as far as 43 ° S on Chiloe Island. These findings and previous reports of plerocercoids of Diphyllobothrium spp. in farmed rainbow trout at Tarahuín Lake support the putative life cycle of this parasite in lakes of southern Chile where there are aquaculture activities. PMID:22715967

Rozas, M; Bohle, H; Sandoval, A; Ildefonso, R; Navarrete, A; Bustos, P

2012-12-01

403

Hydrodynamics of tsunamis in subduction zones. The differences between the Chile 2010 and Japan 2011 tsunamis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunamis due to large earthquakes in subduction zones have different hydrodynamic behaviors, depending on the location, the bathymetry and the geometry of the rupture associated to the large earthquake. When the width of the rupture (related to the length of the tsunami) is larger than its distance to the shore, the hydrodynamics in the near zone is completely different than the alternate case. In the first case, the earthquake triggers a tsunami composed by one or a group of a few waves with a few minutes in between propagating from the rupture, which reach the coast a few minutes after the earthquake. In the second case, the earthquake triggers a deformation in the water surface which cannot create a complete tsunami wave; there is not enough distance to complete it. Then, a succession of secondary effects are triggered, which are composed by several floods, up to seven or eight, separated several minutes (up to forty or more) and propagate parallel to the coast, which can be even perpendicular to the coast. This case is still poorly understood, even it has been observed and described in the literature over the past three centuries. The difference in hydrodynamic behavior was evidenced in the tsunamis of February of 2010 in Chile and March of 2011 in Japan. In this work we show a theory, which has been validated by field observations and numerical simulations based only on the hydrodynamics of the area, that explains the phenomena and it has been extended to other historical tsunamis in Chile. The effects of the Chile 2010 tsunami in the near field zone were complex. The small township of Cobquecura, located at 20 km from the epicenter, did not suffer major damage from the tsunami. The major port zone of Talcahuano at 100 km from the epicenter, received four destructive waves every forty minutes approximately, and lasted three hours after the occurrence of the earthquake, while the bay of San Vicente, adjacent to the above, only suffered a minor, but abrupt, rise in the sea level about 20 minutes after the end of the earthquake. Flux in general was reported to be parallel to the coast, from the north. In the case of Japan 2012 tsunami, the first wave arrived to shore from 1 to 50 min after the earthquake, depending on the distance to the rupture. This first wave was in the order of a few centimeters. The maximum wave arrived from 30 minutes to two hours after the earthquake, with high waves larger than 3 m, with flux perpendicular/diagonal to the coast.

Monardez, P.; Salinas, R.; Comte, D.

2012-04-01

404

Economic effect of bovine abortion syndrome in commercial dairy herds in Southern Chile.  

PubMed

Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available yet. The aim of this study was to estimate the economic consequences of bovine abortion syndrome (BAS) in dairy cows from Chile. A stochastic model was proposed to evaluate the cost of an abortion on a yearly basis to include variability in cost and income by dairy and by year. The marginal total net revenue (?TNR) for a typical, lactation was obtained by the calculating the difference between total revenues (retail milk and calf sales) and total expenses (production cost (cows, feeding, labor, health) plus administrative and, general costs) for lactation with and without abortion. Production data were obtained from a retrospective study of 127 dairy herds located in southern Chile between 2000 and 2006. Milk production from cows with and without abortion was estimated by a mixed model using milk test day data. Production cost and prices paid to farmers were obtained from service company records (TODOAGRO S.A.). Cost and income value was corrected for inflation and expressed in the values from 2006. In addition, a separate analysis for different parities (1, 2, 3 or more) was performed. Distributions for the stochastic variables were obtained by fitting distributions from our database using @Risk. The stochastic variables included in the analysis were all related to income, feeding, depreciation, health, Artificial Insemination and general costs like fuel, salaries, taxes, etc. There was a high probability (89.20%) of a negative ?TNR in lactations with abortion for overall, parities, with a mean loss of $ -143.32. Stratifying by parity, the predicted mean of the distribution for ?TNR in each parity (1, 2, 3 or more) was also negative and the probability of a negative ?TNR was 89.40%, 95.30% and 97.00%, respectively, but differs between them (p<0.05). For parity 1, mean ?TNR was $ -120.92, parity 2 $ -116.35 and for parities ?3 it was $ -132.26 and the mean was statistically different from the others (p<0.05). The age of culled cows was the input variable most correlated with TNR and dairy production was the second. However, the sale price of milk resulted in a low correlation with abortion cost. PMID:20800301

Gädicke, P; Vidal, R; Monti, G

2010-10-01

405

Influence of native forest cover on water yield in southern Chile: a comparative study of small watersheeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we compare water yield in five small watersheds (surface area from 7 to 70 hectares) with different native forest cover, located in Southern Chile (39.5° Lat S). Forest covers include unmanaged second-growth forest of deciduous Nothofagus obliqua - Nothofagus nervosa (\\

Camila Alvarez-Garretón; James McPhee; Christian Little; Antonio Lara

2010-01-01

406

Effectiveness of conidia of Trichoderma harzianum produced by liquid fermentation against Botrytis bunch rot of table grape in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 100 isolates of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai were obtained from soil samples and from the phylloplane of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon), grape (Vitis vinifera), orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) in Chile. A subsample of 48 isolates were tested and found to be antagonistic to Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. on apple

B. A. Latorre; E. Agosín; R. San Martín; G. S. Vásquez

1997-01-01

407

Multiple Sulfate Isotopic Evidence on the Formation of Oxide Copper Ore at Spence, Atacama Desert, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, one of the world's richest metallogenic provinces, porphyry copper deposits are characterized by the unique occurrence of atacamite in their oxidized zones. The origin and formation of the oxide zone of these copper deposits is, however, controversial. It was proposed that Cl-rich deep formation water pumping-up events along faults by earthquakes, after onset

T. Sun; H. Bao; M. Reich; C. Palacios

2007-01-01

408

The emplacement of the granitic Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: the relationship between local and regional strain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coastal batholith of northern Chile grew under transtensional–extensional conditions that prevailed along the Andean margin during the Mesozoic. The batholith hosts the Atacama Fault Zone, a major arc-parallel fault system which was characterised by sinistral transtensional shearing during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex is a composite granitoid intrusion that was emplaced syntectonically along the Atacama Fault Zone

Jeff Wilson; John Grocott

1999-01-01

409

Late Cenozoic tectonics of the Coastal Cordillera of N Chile and implications for paleoclimate and interplate processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile is located in the hyperarid Atacama Desert and is situated over the interplate seismic zone of the Nazca-South America convergent plate boundary. The Coastal Cordillera is bounded to the west by a 1000 m high escarpment that plunges directly to the sea north of Iquique but to the south has a 1-5 km wide

R. W. Allmendinger; G. González; J. Yu; B. Isacks; G. Hoke

2003-01-01

410

The Cretaceous iron belt of northern Chile: role of oceanic plates, a superplume event, and a major shear zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cretaceous constitutes a turning point in the tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic history of Chile. The geological evidence indicates that a major change occurred in late Neocomian time when superplume emplacement (Mid-Pacific Superplume) and plate reorganization processes took place in the Pacific. The superplume event resulted in a major ridge-push force resulting in increased coupling between the subducting and overriding

Roberto Oyarzun; Jorge Oyarzán; Jean Jacques Ménard; Javier Lillo

2002-01-01

411

Different Patterns of Strain Accumulation Across a Subduction Earthquake Segment Boundary Located at Mejillones Peninsula, N-Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mejillones Peninsula of Northern Chile has been recognised as the surface expression of a major segment boundary for large subduction earthquakes. A sharp northern boundary of the 1995 rupture surface along the subduction interface is delineated underneath Mejillones Peninsula by the aftershock distribution. Additionally the b-value distribution on the fault plane defines a major asperity close to the segment boundary.

P. Victor; M. Sobiesiak; S. Nielsen

2006-01-01

412

Seismicity and stress distribution in the Copiapo, northern Chile subduction zone using combined on- and off-shore seismic observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historic, as well as teleseismically, and locally recorded seismicity of the subduction margin of Copiapo, northern Chile is analysed. An on- and off-shore temporary network was deployed during 2 months in the region in order to obtain a detailed definition of the Wadati–Benioff zone. An average dip angle of 20° along the subduction thrust interplate contact was determined; this value

Diana Comte; Henri Haessler; Louis Dorbath; Mario Pardo; Tony Monfret; Alain Lavenu; Bernard Pontoise; Yann Hello

2002-01-01

413

On the sudden disappearance of Egeria densa from a Ramsar wetland site of Southern Chile: A climatic event trigger model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary shallow lakes theory proposes that these ecosystems may experience abrupt regime shifts due to small changes in controlling variables or triggers. So far, these triggers have been related mostly to nutrients as the immediate driver. During May 2004 the río Cruces wetland, a Ramsar site located in Southern Chile, underwent a major regime shift, from a clear water state,

Víctor H. Marín; Antonio Tironi; Luisa E. Delgado; Manuel Contreras; Fernando Novoa; Marcela Torres-Gómez; René Garreaud; Irma Vila; Italo Serey

2009-01-01

414

Relation of Glucocorticosteroids and Testosterone to the Annual Cycle of Free-Living Degus in Semiarid Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated seasonal patterns of plasma glucocorticosteroids (GCs) in both sexes and testosterone (T) in males in relation to the annual cycle in central Chile of a natural population of the degu (Octodon degus), a caviomorph rodent. We wanted to find out which GCs are present in degus, whether their seasonal variation suggests suppressive or synergistic interrelationships with T, and

G. J. Kenagy; Claudio Veloso

1999-01-01

415

The 2009 Samoa and 2010 Chile tsunamis as observed in the ionosphere using GPS total electron content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following two recent seismic events: the Samoa earthquake of 29 September 2009 and the Chile earthquake of 27 February 2010. Both earthquakes produced ocean tsunamis that were destructive to coastal communities near the epicenters, and both

David A. Galvan; Attila Komjathy; Michael P. Hickey; Anthony J. Mannucci

2011-01-01

416

75 FR 5034 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...APHIS-2009-0082] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request...recognize additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis...regulations for recognition as pest-free areas. We are making that...

2010-02-01

417

Seasonal variations in the behavioural thermoregulation of roosting Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ) in north-central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the thermoregulatory behaviour (TRB) of roosting Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) in north central Chile during summer and winter, when ambient temperatures (T a) are most extreme. Each body posture was considered to represent a particular TRB, which was ranked in a sequence that reflected different degrees of thermal load and was assigned an arbitrary thermoregulatory score. During

Alejandro Simeone; Guillermo Luna-Jorquera; Rory P. Wilson

2004-01-01

418

Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

2007-01-01

419

Correlations between SO2 flux, seismicity, and outgassing activity at the open vent of Villarrica volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of the open vent activity of Villarrica volcano, Chile, were studied in detail by integrating visual observations of the lava lake, analysis of the seismic tremor, and measurements of SO2 flux. The outgassing activity comprises a persistent gas plume emission from the bottom of the crater as well as frequent explosive events. Three main styles of bubble bursting

José Luis Palma; Eliza S. Calder; Daniel Basualto; Stephen Blake; David A. Rothery

2008-01-01

420

“There are More Vets than Doctors in Chiloé”: Social and Community Impact of the Globalization of Aquaculture in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the complexities associated with globalization within the context of salmon farming in southern Chile, specifically whether the high levels of foreign investment and exponential growth in the industry have had a positive or negative impact on the people and communities of the archipelago of Chiloé. It is our argument that the responses to this issue require a

Lorna Read; Mauricio I. Caniggia

2002-01-01

421

Heat flow and bending-related faulting at subduction trenches: Case studies offshore of Nicaragua and Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed heat flow surveys on the oceanic trench slope offshore Nicaragua and Central Chile indicate heat flow values lower than the expected conductive lithospheric heat loss and lower than the global mean for crust of that age. Both areas are characterised by pervasive normal faults exposing basement in a setting affected by bending-related faulting due to plate subduction. The low

Ingo Grevemeyer; Norbert Kaul; Juan L. Diaz-Naveas; Heinrich W. Villinger; Cesar R. Ranero; Christian Reichert

2005-01-01

422

Six Countries, Six Health Reform Models? Health Care Reform in Chile, Israel, Singapore, Switzerland, Taiwan and The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research contribution presents a diagnosis of the health reform experience of six small and mid-sized industrial democracies: Chile, Israel, Singapore, Switzerland, Taiwan and The Netherlands during the last decades of the twentieth century. It addresses the following questions: why have these six countries, facing similar pressures to reform their health care systems, with similar options for government action, chosen

Kieke G. H. Okma; Tsung-mei Cheng; David Chinitz; Luca Crivelli; Meng-kin Lim; Hans Maarse; Maria Eliana Labra

2010-01-01

423

Low-temperature alteration of dredged volcanics from the Southern Chile Ridge: additional information about early stages of seafloor weathering  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of submarine volcanic rocks from the Southern Chile Ridge has been examined in order to investigate the early stages of low temperature alteration. Alteration in these samples proceeded as follows: (1) Fe-staining on sample surface and along fractures, (2) filling of vesicles with secondary material, (3) breakdown of glassy matrix, (4) breakdown of microcrystalline matrix, and (5) breakdown

Thomas Pichler; W. Ian Ridley; Eric Nelson

1999-01-01

424

Prediction of PM 2.5 concentrations several hours in advance using neural networks in Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hourly average concentrations of PM2.5 have been measured at a fixed point in the downtown area of Santiago, Chile. We have focused our attention on data for the months that register higher values, from May to September, on years 1994 and 1995. We show that it is possible to predict concentrations at any hour of the day, by fitting a

Patricio Pérez; Alex Trier; Jorge Reyes

2000-01-01

425

The Power of Chameleonic Ideas in the Policy Decision-Making Process: The Case of the "Students' Revolution" in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile is facing a major intellectual revolution: organised college students are arguing for the most significant educational reform since the period of dictatorship (1973-1990). Thousands of high-school and university students have refused to go to lessons since early June 2011, calling for better and more affordable education and an end to a…

Cabieses, Baltica; Espinoza, Manuel

2012-01-01

426

Indigenous Knowledge and Language: Decolonizing Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in a Mapuche Intercultural Bilingual Education Program in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article illustrates how Mapuche Indigenous knowledge (Kimun) and language (Mapudungun) incorporated into an Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE) program of a school within a Mapuche context in Chile creates decolonizing counter-hegemonic narratives as forms of culturally relevant pedagogy. Based on a six-month school ethnography, this…

Ortiz, Patricio R.

2009-01-01

427

Effects of vertebrate predation on a caviomorph rodent, the degu ( Octodon degus ), in a semiarid thorn scrub community in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of vertebrate predation have been monitored since 1989 on 16 replicated 0.56 ha study plots in a semiarid thorn scrub community in north-central Chile. Using fences of different heights with and without holes and suspended game netting to alter principal predator (foxes and raptors) and large rodent herbivore (Octodon degus) access, four grids each have been assigned to

P. L. Meserve; J. R. Gutiérrez; F. M. Jaksic

1993-01-01

428

Bringing water markets down to earth: The political economy of water rights in Chile, 1976–1995  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 15 years Chile has been the leading international example of pro-market policies for water resources, and its 1981 Water Code has recently been touted as a model for other countries to follow. Water markets are controversial in both theory and practice: their potential benefits include greater efficiency and flexibility of water use and less state intervention and expenditure; while

Carl J. Bauer

1997-01-01

429

Una Metodología para Ajustar y Compensar las Diferencias de Riesgo entre el Sistema Público y Privado de Salud en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el marco conceptual de seguros de salud y ajuste de riesgo y a la luz de la experiencia internacional en Fondos de Compensación de Riesgos, este documento explora el problema del «descreme» que afecta al sistema de seguros Chileno. Se presenta una metodología para estimar diferencias de riesgo entre el sector público y privado de salud en Chile y

Verónica Vargas; Camilo Cid; Mauricio Matus; Iris Delgado; José Miguel Sánchez; Beatriz Heyermann; José Angulo

430

Geological perspectives on the Monte Verde archeological site in Chile and pre-Clovis coastal migration in the Americas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discovery of the Monte Verde archeological site in Chile overturned the previous consensus that the first Americans into the New World from Asia were the makers of Clovis projectile points, and rejuvenated the hypothesis that migration through the Americas occurred largely on portions of the Pacific continental shelf exposed by Pleistocene drawdown in eustatic sea level. The postulate of travel

William R. Dickinson

2011-01-01

431

The Impact of Participation and Social Contacts on International Attitudes of Youth (The Case of Bolivia and Chile).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with high school seniors in Bolivia (n=1,100) and Chile (n=2,460) demonstrated that individuals with international contacts hold more positive attitudes toward others than those individuals without this type of exposure. The study examined the students' opinions about other countries of the Latin American region, opportunities for…

Menanteau-Horta, Dario

432

Children in Institutions: The Beginning of the End? The Cases of Italy, Spain, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Innocenti Insight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting the growing global consensus on the need to promote family-based alternatives to institutional care for children and adolescents, this report examines efforts to prevent the institutionalization of children in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Italy, and Spain, focusing on both public and private initiatives, as well as local and national…

Llorente, Maria Angeles Garcia; Charlebois, Laura Martinez-Mora; Ducci, Valerio; Farias, Ana Maria

433

Erosion, transport and segregation of pumice and lithic clasts in pyroclastic flows inferred from ignimbrite at Lascar Volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations have been made on the distribution of pumice and lithic clasts in the lithic rich Soncor ignimbrite (26.5ka) and the 1993 pumice flow deposits of Lascar Volcano, Chile. The Soncor ignimbrite shows three main lithofacies which grade into one another. Coarse lithic breccias range from matrix poor stratified varieties, irregular shaped sheets and elongate hummocks in proximal environments, to

E. S. Calder; R. S. J. Sparks; M. C. Gardeweg

2000-01-01

434

The Loss of Biodiversity as a Challenge for Sustainable Development: How Do Pupils in Chile and Germany Perceive Resource Dilemmas?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The topic of biodiversity is of high value for education for sustainable development as it reflects the interaction of ecological, economic and social issues particularly well. Especially in so-called biodiversity hotspots, among them Chile, natural resources are often depleted for economic interest which, in many cases, is required income.…

Menzel, Susanne; Bogeholz, Susanne

2009-01-01

435

Petroleum resources of South America: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an analysis of discovered crude oil reserves, undiscovered recoverable crude oil resources, and estimated annual oil field production. The countries analyzed are Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. All of the countries in this report have a history of petroleum exploration and development. Also, they maintain policies which support the search for, and exploitation of,

W. D. Dietzman; N. R. Rafidi

1983-01-01

436

Free gas at the base of the gas hydrate zone in the vicinity of the Chile triple junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Ocean Drilling Program Site 859 in the vicinity of the Chile triple junction, the source of the bottom simulating reflection (BSR) at the base of the gas hydrate layer has, for the first time, been logged to reveal the nature of the impedance contrasts producing the reflection. We estimate from the P-wave velocity (V[sub P]) that hydrate occupies no

Nathan L. B. Bangs; Dale S. Sawyer; Xenia Golovchenko

1993-01-01

437

Educating "Barbaros": Educational Policies on the Latin American Frontiers between Colonies and Independent Republics (Araucania, Southern Chile/Sonora, Mexico)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi-)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the…

Holck, Lasse; Saiz, Monika Contreras

2010-01-01

438

Educating Bárbaros: educational policies on the Latin American frontiers between colonies and independent republics (Araucania, Southern Chile\\/Sonora, Mexico)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares the methods and means employed by the state to enforce the education of (semi?)autonomous indigenous groups in southern Chile and northwestern Mexico (Sonora), border regions in the Latin American periphery, covering the transition from colonial times to the consolidation of independent republics until the middle of the nineteenth century. Parting from a theoretical interest in education as

Lasse Hölck; Mónika Contreras Saiz

2010-01-01

439

The ecological effects of mining discharges on subtidal habitats dominated by macroalgae in northern Chile: population and community level studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1996\\/97, a study was carried out to evaluate several variables related to the potential ecological effects of soluble copper and iron released as the result of direct dumping of mine tailing into the littoral zone of the Pacific Ocean off northern Chile. Variables studied included:

J. A. Vásquez; J. M. A. Vega; B. Matsuhiro; C. Urzüa

1999-01-01

440

Assessment of 21st Century ICT Skills in Chile: Test Design and Results from High School Level Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study that evaluates fifteen-year-old Chilean students Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. The paper presents an operational definition of ICT skills, an instrument measuring these skills as well as the students' results in the test. The definition of ICT skills used considers Chile's curricular framework,…

Claro, Magdalena; Preiss, David D.; San Martin, Ernesto; Jara, Ignacio; Hinostroza, J. Enrique; Valenzuela, Susana; Cortes, Flavio; Nussbaum, Miguel

2012-01-01

441

Implementing School-Based Merit Awards: Chile's Experience. Technical Notes. Country Studies: Education Reform and Management Publication Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile has introduced a system of merit awards to schools called the National System to Evaluate School Performance (SNED). This paper provides information on the characteristics of the SNED approach to providing incentives to improve the quality of education. Key features of the SNED system are as follows: Awards go to school establishments, not…

McMeekin, Robert W.

442

AILEM Programme: a long?term intervention to promote literacy learning in low?performing primary schools in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

After one year of implementation, this paper describes a programme designed to support literacy learning in low performing schools from poor sectors in Santiago, Chile. School?based intensive training on theory and practice of a literacy learning framework for classroom instruction and long?term support were used to impact the achievement of students from disadvantaged families in 16 kindergarten classrooms and 16

Malva Villalón Bravo; Margarita Silva; Tonia Razmilic; Stanley L. Swartz

2005-01-01

443

Evaluation of a School-Based Sex Education Program for Low Income Male High School Students in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…

Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines

2003-01-01

444

Evaluation of a school-based sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sex education program was evaluated in a vocational high school in Santiago, Chile, that caters to a population of low income students. The goals of the program were to delay the occurrence of sexual activity, promote a positive attitude towards abstinence in adolescence, and facilitate communication on sexual topics with adults. A cohort design with no treatment partitioning was

Mónica Silva; Inés Ross

2003-01-01

445

Sublimation on the glaciers of the upper Huasco valley, Chile, using eddy covariance data and energy balance modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the cold, arid glaciers of the Norte Chico region, Chile, sublimation plays an important role in mass loss from the glacier surface. The ratio of sublimation : melt on these glaciers dictates not only the amount of meltwater delivered to the watershed, but it also drives the development of morphological features on the glacier surface, such as penitentes. As

Shelley MacDonell; Nicolas Cullen; Lindsey Nicholson; Thomas Mölg; Christophe Kinnard

2010-01-01

446

Vulnerability of ground-nesting waterbirds to predation by invasive American mink in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological invasions constitute one of the most important threats to biodiversity. This is especially true for “naïve” birds that have evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators in island ecosystems. The American mink (Mustela vison) has recently established a feral population on Navarino Island (55°S), southern Chile, where it represents a new guild of terrestrial mammal predators. We investigated the

Elke Schüttler; Reinhard Klenke; Steven McGehee; Ricardo Rozzi; Kurt Jax

2009-01-01

447

Glacier changes on Sierra Velluda massif, Chile (37° S): mountain glaciers of an intensively-used mid-latitude landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The central-southern section of Chile is defined as one of the Latin American hot spots in the last IPCC Report due to the impact of glacier retreat on water resources, the transitional character of the climate, and its importance in terms of agricultural and forestry activities. In order to provide a better understanding of glacier behavior in this zone, this

A. Fernández; A. Santana; E. Jaque; C. Martínez; R. Sáez

2011-01-01

448

Selenium, zinc and copper plasma levels in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, in normal pregnancies and in healthy individuals, in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Low blood Se levels have been previously shown in normal pregnancies (third trimester) and significantly lower levels in patients with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), in Finland and in Chile, suggesting that a low or marginal dietary availability of Se may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a temporal

Humberto Reyes; María E. Báez; Manuel C. González; Ismael Hernández; Joaquín Palma; José Ribalta; Lorena Sandoval; Rodrigo Zapata

2000-01-01

449

Community Radio and Social Activism in Chile 1990–2007: Challenges for Grass Roots Voices During the Transition to Democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a mass democratic movement ended the 17 year Pinochet dictatorship in Chile in 1990, social activists saw community radio as an ideal medium for participatory democracy and for articulating grass roots needs and demands. However, the initial upsurge of grass roots radio activism was squelched by government delay in enacting enabling legislation. The provisions of the law that was

Rosalind Bresnahan

2007-01-01

450

New 40Ar/ 39Ar dates from the Las Tazas complex, northern Chile: Tectonic significance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Fault Zone is a major Mesozoic structure that trends along the Coastal Batholith of northern Chile. Part of the fault zone underwent a kinematic change from dip-slip to strike-slip displacement during the Early Cretaceous. The Las Tazas complex intruded the fault zone during this change. New analyses of country rock protomylonites from the edge of the complex firmly constrain the age of the change to 130 Ma and confirm that the complex was emplaced during active displacement along the fault zone. The intrusion heated its immediate country rocks and allowed localised ductile shearing during emplacement. Upper crustal intrusions like the Las Tazas complex are ideal targets for geochronological studies of major shear zones.

Wilson, Jeff; Dallmeyer, R. David; Grocott, John

2000-05-01

451

Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern Salar de Atacama Basin, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 90 Ma, the nonmarine Salar de Atacama Basin has been the largest, deepest, and most persistent sedimentary basin of northern Chile. Integration of 200 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection data with surface geological data clarifies Oligocene and Neogene evolution of the northern part of the basin. A normal fault with 6 ± 1 km of vertical separation controlled the western boundary of the basin during the accumulation of the Oligocene-lower Miocene Paciencia Group. The combination of this structure, a similar one in the Calama Basin, and regional structural data suggests that localized extension played an important role within a tectonic environment dominated by margin-perpendicular compression and margin-parallel strike-slip deformation. Seismic data substantiate the surface interpretation that much of the Cordillera de la Sal ridge resulted from diapiric flow of the Paciencia Group. Diapiric flow initiated during the late early Miocene or middle Miocene, associated with a deep reverse fault.

Pananont, P.; Mpodozis, C.; Blanco, N.; Jordan, T. E.; Brown, L. D.

2004-12-01

452

Determining the feasibility of establishing new multiple-use marine protected areas in Chile.  

PubMed

This paper evaluates the feasibility of establishing a multiple-use marine protected area. The methodology was applied to evaluate three proposed sites in Chile with diverse conservation needs, social stress and poverty levels, and different economic activities (small-scale fishing, heavy industry, and mining activities). We use two broad categories for the evaluation: socio-economic and political-institutional. The methodology uses a combination of secondary data with personal interviews, workshops, and focus groups with stakeholders (e.g., fishermen, unions, politicians, social organizations) from different political, social, and economic backgrounds to characterize current and potential natural and social resources and to evaluate in an ordinal scale the feasibility of establishing the protected area. The methodology allows us to correctly identify the challenges faced in each site and can be used to develop appropriate strategies for balancing economic, social, and environmental objectives. This methodology can be replicated to evaluate the feasibility of other marine or terrestrial protected areas. PMID:24213998

Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Simon, Jeanne W; Paz-Lerdón, Ximena

2013-12-01

453

A time series analysis of the rabies control programme in Chile.  

PubMed Central

The classical time series decomposition method was used to compare the temporal pattern of rabies in Chile before and after the implementation of the control programme. In the years 1950-60, a period without control measures, rabies showed an increasing trend, a seasonal excess of cases in November and December and a cyclic behaviour with outbreaks occurring every 5 years. During 1961-1970 and 1971-86, a 26-year period that includes two different phases of the rabies programme which started in 1961, there was a general decline in the incidence of rabies. The seasonality disappeared when the disease reached a low frequency level and the cyclical component was not evident.

Ernst, S. N.; Fabrega, F.

1989-01-01

454

[Barriers and facilitators to antenatal care in adolescents: results of a qualitative study in Chile].  

PubMed

Objective. Analyze barriers and facilitators of access to prenatal care in pregnant urban adolescents between 15-19 years of age in Santiago, Chile. Materials and methods. Qualitative study based on grounded theory with 17 adolescent mothers. Eleven semi-structured interviews and one focus group were conducted. Results. The denial and concealment of pregnancy is the main barrier to start the prenatal care in the "delayed access group". This group does not identify facilitators. For maintenance in antenatal care, all participants identified a support figure as a facilitator. Family and social vulnerabilities explain why some adolescents start the prenatal care late. Conclusion. The presence of facilitators is crucial for both, the timely entry and the maintenance in antenatal care because they reduce or nullify the effect of barriers. The health system must become a facilitator to accompany adolescents and promote a bond of trust and respect. PMID:24715010

Poffald, Lucy; Hirmas, Macarena; Aguilera, Ximena; Vega, Jeanette; González, María José; Sanhueza, Gabriel

2013-12-01

455

Aftershocks and Images of South Central Chile: Results from the Analysis of the IMAD Data Set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the Mw=8.8, Maule earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010, seismologists from France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States joined their Chilean colleagues to install seismic stations between 33-38.5S, from the coast to the foothills of the Andes to produce the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD) data set. These stations were deployed starting in mid-March with some stations pulled out in late September while others remained recording until the end of December of 2010. We used procedures developed by the USGS National Earthquake Information Center to generate earthquake locations, magnitudes, phase readings and regional moment tensors solutions. The catalog consists of some 44,000 events to approximately M2.0. We use the catalog locations and travel times as a starting point we use double difference techniques to investigate relative locations and earthquake clustering. We generated Receiver Functions (RFs) from teleseismic P and PP phases and construct common conversion point stacks to image the structure of the slab and forearc region down to a depth of ~120 km. The migrated RF image the oceanic slab Moho on several E-W and N-S profiles at 40 to 60 km depth beneath the array and several discontinuities above the slab in the forearc. We also image a prominent Ps conversion that we interpret as the continental Moho at ~35 km under the foothills of the Andes and decreasing to 25-30 km under the central valley of Chile. We observe a prominent Ps conversion at ~40-50 km depth on a NNE-SSW cross-section parallel to the strike of the slab that we interpret as the oceanic Moho in the down-going slab. We created an Ambient Noise Tomography image combining IMAD stations with other temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations in Chile and Argentina to obtain absolute shear velocities in the crust. Phase velocity maps between periods of 8 and 40 sec are inverted for a 3-D shear-wave velocity at 0.1° grid spacing. At shallow depths the basins in the backarc of the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina show clear low shear wave velocities. The Chile forearc has higher shear velocities (>3.8 km/s) at all depths between 32 and 38S. Much of the active arc shows lower shear wave velocities (<3.5 km/s) at mid and lower crustal depths consistent with warm temperatures. We used two spectral ratio methods to determine shear wave attenuation in the earthquake rupture zone. Both methods reveal diminution of the ratio of spectral amplitudes of P and S waves observed along a given source-station path. The first calculates 400 individual Qs values for the phase pair. In the second method, spectra of each of the 400 iterations are stacked, yielding a Qs value obtained from the slope of the composite spectrum. Preliminary measurements, deemed acceptable when the two methods agree, show a variation of Qs values from ~100 to 1000.

Roecker, S. W.; Beck, S. L.; Morell, M.; Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Meltzer, A.; Stachnik, J. C.; Russo, R. M.; Torpey, M.; Benz, H.

2013-05-01

456

The Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Cerro Pachon, Chile, first light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The University of Illinois has completed the Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Cerro Pachon, Chile (30.33 S;70.98 W, 2737 m). This facility will house a Na Wind/Temperature lidar, one of three such lidars supported by the NSF Consortium of Resonance and Rayleigh Lidar (CRRL) systems. Additionally, the facility contains airglow imagers and temperature mappers from Utah State University, an OH IR imager from The Aerospace Corporation, and airglow imagers and photometers as well as a meteor radar from the University of Illinois. The lidar has been upgraded to have 4 channels of receiver dedicated to make wind and temperature studies of the mesopause region, with a special configuration of receivers to measure vertical flux of horizontal momentum and heat. First light observations of atmospheric wave observations by lidar and airglow instrumentation are presented, where a mountainous wave source ‘hot spot’ has been previously reported.

Swenson, G. R.; Liu, A. Z.; Franke, S.; Carlson, C. G.; Mangognia, T.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P.; Hecht, J. H.; Rudy, R. J.

2009-12-01

457

Putting the market in its place: food security in three Mapuche communities in southern Chile.  

PubMed

This article analyzes the impact of state policies since the 1970s on household food security in several Mapuche communities in the Araucanía region of Chile (Region IX). The author highlights key transformations in the national economy and food system and endeavors to link those to local phenomena, in particular the absorption of the local livelihood strategies and food systems into capitalist markets and the high incidences of food insecurity. The article concludes that a reconceptualization of macroeconomic and indigenous policies are required to rebuild the material and social foundations of rural Mapuche communities that provide the bases from which their inhabitants can reconstruct a mutually beneficial relationship with the broader Chilean society and avert the continued acceleration of tension and violence. PMID:22069808

Clark, Timothy David

2011-01-01