Sample records for chile reflexiones desde

  1. Desde Chile

    E-print Network

    Noguera, Hé ctor; Hurtado, Marí a de la Luz; Meza, Gustavo

    1983-10-01

    FALL 1983 65 Desde Chile• . . Héctor Noguera, María de la Luz Hurtado, y Gustavo Meza En los últimos años, la dramaturgia chilena ha retomado vitalidad, siendo uno de los lugares privilegiados donde se realiza una reflexión crítica acerca de la.... El Teatro Nacional de la Universidad de Chile presenta, por su parte, Mama Rosa de Fernando Debesa, y el Teatro de Comediantes con el Teatro Pedro de la Barra llevan casi un año exhibiendo La remolienda de Alejandro Sieveking. Isidora Aguirre...

  2. Chile.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038

  3. Chile.

    PubMed

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the Allende government resulted in enormous fiscal deficits, economic recession, inflation, and severe decline in the gross domestic product. In 1982 the government devalued the peso and agreed to the International Monetary Fund's 2-year austerity program to lower the $20.5 billion national debt. In 1987 the gross domestic product was $18.4 billion, $1465 per capita; the annual real growth rate was 5.4%, and inflation had fallen from an annual rate of over 1000% to 21.5%. 245 Chilean pesos equal US1$. Chile's chief export is copper ($2.2 billion in 1987), of which Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter. Chile also exports gold, silver, iron ore, molybdenum, iodine, and nitrates. Chile has 20% of the world's copper reserves and 33% of the world's lithium. 21% of Chile's gross domestic product consists of textiles, metal manufacturing, food processing, pulp, paper, and wood products; and 10% consists of agricultural produce. Relations with the United States deteriorated after the 1976 murder in Washington, DC, of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier. Arms and security assistance to Chile were banned, and in 1981 the US Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps ceased operations in Chile. PMID:12177976

  4. Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

    2009-01-01

    Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This paper discusses the approach and shows how it can be applied to investigate reliability issues in SoS.

  5. Innovación conducida por la utilidad (ICU). Reflexiones desde las ciencias de la vida

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio Lorca

    2011-01-01

    El abordaje interdisciplinar de los problemas es hoy esencial para desarrollar la nueva ciencia. Ese es el caso de las grandes convergencias de tecnologías que caracterizarán al Siglo XXI, como la conocida NBIC(Nano, Bio, Info y Cognos) o la GRIN (Genómica, robótica, infonomía y nanotecnología). Estamos rediseñando artificialmente sistemas tremendamente complejos mediante la manipulación de los principios elementales encontrados, que

  6. Central Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  7. Die Polarisierung von Röntgenstrahlen durch Reflexion an Kristallen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mark; L. Szilard

    1926-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Es wird in einigen Fällen gezeigt, daß das an einem Kristall unter 900 nach der Braggschen Beziehung reflektierte Röntgenlicht praktisch vollständig polarisiert ist und daß bei Belichtung eines Kristalls mit linear polarisiertem Röntgenlicht keine Reflexion eintritt, falls die Richtung des reflektierten Strahles in die Schwingungsrichtung des polarisierten einfallenden Strahles fällt. Es lassen sich so Kristalle als Polarisatoren und Analysatoren

  8. Geography of Chile

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Drummond

    2009-10-21

    Today you are going to explore the diverse geographic regions of Chile. How many kinds of terrain does Chile have? Please work with a partner to answer the following questions about each region in Chile, using the websites made available to you. Make sure you take advantage of these websites, because at the end of the lesson you will be completing a ...

  9. Actividad Solar Desde EL Espacio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se describen los principales descubrimientos realizados por los arti+iciales con instrumentos dedicados a la observaci6n del Sol, durante los dos ultimos ciclos de su acti vi dad. La observaci6n el espacio ha permitido cubrir todas las zonas del espectro no observables desde tierra1 desde el ultravioleta hasta la radiaci6n gamma. Se hace referencia, en particular, a los resultados producidos por los dos grandes observatorios: el Skylab y el SMM. Este ultimo incluy6 un conjunto de instrumentos especialmente coordinados para observar en detalle las fulguraciones solares. Es un resumen para astr6nomos no especializados en la fisica solar, en el que se muestra que la gran riqueza del material observacional acumulado ha resuelto problemas preexistentes y, al mismo tiempo, ha abierto numerosos interrogantes a los que se buscar respuesta con la instrumentaci6n en desarrollo. Finalmente, se mencionan las caracteristicas de los proyectados para la pr6xima decada. : The main discoveries performed by artificial satellites instrumented for the observation of the Sun, during the last two cycles of its activity, are described. The space observations allowed of almost all the spectral regions which are not observable from the ground, from the ultraviolet to the gamma radiation. In particular, we ref er' to the two large solar space observatories: the Skylab and the SMM. The last one included a set 0+ coordinated instruments to observe in detail the solar flares. This is a summary for astronomers not dedicated to solar physics, where we show that the of observational material have solv# d many of the preexistent problems but, at the ame time, it opened many new questions to which the improved instrumentation will try to answer. , the characteristics of the satellites planned the next decade are mentioned. Key : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-CORONA - SUN-X-RAYS

  10. Chile [control education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cipriano; G. Gonzalez

    1996-01-01

    The first courses in automatic control in Chile were given in the 1960s. The article sketches the stucture of the Chilean educational system then describes how control education has developed and what is now taught there

  11. Die Wellenmaschine - Grundlagen der Wellenausbreitung, Dispersion, Reflexion, Simulation

    E-print Network

    Kuepper, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Shive wave machines have found their place in physics courses for many years now. They are used to demonstrate the propagation, interference and reflection of waves. Physical quantities like frequency, wavelength and phase speed are usually only determined experimentally. This article shows - starting from the wave machine's mechanical characteristics - how to calculate these physical quantities. Absorbers are also briefly described in this article. They can be used to prevent reflection at the end of the apparatus. A nice(-looking) project for computer programming courses is to simulate wave machines and to display an animated representation of the simulation results. Details on the development of such software are summarized at the end of this article. ----- Wellenmaschinen werden seit vielen Jahren im Physikunterricht eingesetzt, um die Ausbreitung, \\"Uberlagerung und Reflexion von Wellen anschaulich vorzuf\\"uhren. Physikalische Gr\\"o{\\ss}en wie Schwingungsfrequenz, Wellenl\\"ange und Phasengeschwindigkeit ...

  12. UNA DÉCADA DE METAS DE INFLACIÓN EN CHILE: DESARROLLOS, LECCIONES Y DESAFÍOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. INTRODUCCIÓN Desde hace más de un siglo, Chile ha experimentado con la mayoría de los regímenes monetarios y cambiarios posibles. Las experiencias de tipo de cambio fijo usualmente han terminado en ataques especulativos, debido a políticas inconsistentes o a shocks externos, provocando fuertes costos reales y mayor volatilidad cambiaria. Al igual que en muchos otros países, la política fiscal

  13. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    PubMed

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  14. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT�LICA DE CHILE TEMAS DE LA AGENDA P�BLICA VICERRECTORÍA DE COMUNICACIONES Y ASUNTOS P�BLICOS Seguridad energética en Chile: dilemas, oportunidades y peligros HUGH RUDNICK VAN CAT�LICA DE CHILE DIRECCI�N DE ASUNTOS P�BLICOS · NOVIEMBRE DE 2006 #12;1PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT�LICA DE

  15. New protests in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malcolm Coad

    1982-01-01

    Chile's military regime in 1982 celebrated its ninth anniversary to the accompaniment of the most widespread and publicly expressed opposition since the coup of 11 September 1973. The collapse of its much-vaunted ‘economic miracle’ … most painfully demonstrated by devastated national industries, an unemployment rate of 25%, and a foreign debt estimated by some economists as the highest per capita

  16. Desde la Protesta a la Propuesta: Gender politics in transition in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Matear

    1996-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, the major political debates on Latin America revolved around the transitions from military to civilian regimes and the nature of the emerging democracies. The ‘women question’ occupied a prominent position in those debates because of the central role which women had played in the opposition movements and Latin American feminists’ analyses of gender oppression within a global

  17. Chile Declassification Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As reported in the July 13, 1999 Scout Report for Social Sciences, several US Government agencies recently began to declassify documents related to events in Chile from 1973 to 1978, widely regarded as the most repressive period of General Augusto Pinochet's reign. Since then, the US State Department has made available the full text (heavily censored in some instances) of over 4,000 documents at its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Electronic Reading Room.

  18. On the Oblique Reflexion and Transmission of Ocean Waves at Shore Fast Sea Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Fox; Vernon A. Squire

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is reported describing the oblique reflexion and penetration of ocean waves into shore fast sea ice. The arbitrary depth model allows all velocity potentials occurring in the open water region to be matched precisely to their counterparts in the ice-covered region. Matching is done using a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique which allows the complete solution to be

  19. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  20. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  1. Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    On May 2, 2008 Chile's Chaiten Volcano erupted after 9,000 years of inactivity. Now, 4 weeks later, the eruption continues, with ash-, water-, and sulfur-laden plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers to the east and north over Chile and Argentina. On May 24, ASTER captured a day-night pair of thermal infrared images of the eruption, displayed here in enhanced, false colors. At the time of the daytime acquisition (left image) most of the plume appears dark blue because it is too thick for upwelling ground radiation to penetrate. At the edges it appears orange, indicating the presence of ash and sulfur dioxide. In the nighttime image (right), the plume is orange and red near the source, and becomes more yellow-orange further away from the vent. The possible cause is that ash is settling out of the plume further downwind, revealing the dominant presence of sulfur dioxide.

    The images were acquired May 24, 2008, cover an area of 37 x 26.5 km, and are located near 42.7 degrees south latitude, 72.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. CIA Activities in Chile

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    After withholding information for 27 years, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has acknowledged its deep involvement in General Augusto Pinochet's regime in a declassified report released and placed online on September 19. Among other things, the report reveals that the head of Chile's secret police was a paid CIA asset, that the CIA was well aware of the efforts to track and kill political opponents, and that the agency supported the kidnapping and murder of the Chilean commander-in-chief, Gen. Rene Schneider in October 1970 after he refused to support the overthrow of President Allende. The full text of the report is available in HTML format at the CIA site. The National Security Archive (last mentioned in the July 21, 2000 Scout Report), which has long stood in the vanguard of efforts to declassify documents related to US involvement in Chile, has posted digital images of the report and two supporting documents. The first of these is the text of the Hinchey amendment to the 2000 Intelligence Authorization Act, which forced this disclosure. The second is a heavily excised CIA report from 1976 on the assassination of former Chilean Ambassador Orlando Letelier and his 25-year old American associate Ronni Karpen Moffitt in Washington DC.

  3. TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick Escuela de Ingenier'a Pontificia Universidad Cat--lica de Chile Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago, Chile I INTRODUCTION Transmission open access is receiving developed (Chile, Great Britain, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, Peroe, Colombia) [4]. The concept used

  4. The Reflexion of High-Frequency Sound in a Liquid Sphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Burridge

    1962-01-01

    A spherically symmetric source of high-frequency sound is situated within a liquid sphere. Certain approximations are made to the boundary values of the velocity potential representing once-reflected sound. These approximations are used in Green's formula to calculate this once-reflected field when it strikes the surface again at its second reflexion. This method is shown to agree with the results in

  5. Algunas Reflexiones sobre el Rol que Deberia Cumplir la Informatica en la Escuela

    E-print Network

    De Nápoli, Pablo Luis

    a docentes, responsables de las pol´iticas educativas y p´ublico en general. 1. ¿Por qu´e la inform´aticaAlgunas Reflexiones sobre el Rol que Deber´ia Cumplir la Inform´atica en la Escuela Pablo L. De N´iculo, motivado por algunas discusiones en las que he participado sobre la inform´atica en la escuela; y en

  6. LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N 65 LA RAO REFLEXION ASSISTEE PAR ORDINATEUR

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    155 LE BULLETIN DE L'EPI N° 65 LA RAO LA RAO REFLEXION ASSISTEE PAR ORDINATEUR Nicole RICHE montrent pas l'épingle à cheveu qu'il faut parcourir. TRAVAUX PRATIQUES DE RAO S�RIE 3 : LA RAO ET L'APPRENTISSAGE Les activités qualifiées de RAO se proposent justement de permettre au jugement, à la réflexion de s

  7. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA AUMENTO DEL RENDIMIENTO EN UN. Santiago de Chile, 2002 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de

  8. Chile’s dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  9. [Chile: Standing up again].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more. PMID:20556326

  10. Country watch: Chile.

    PubMed

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented. PMID:12347181

  11. Pinochet Returns to Chile

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    A frail and ailing General Augusto Pinochet returned to Santiago this morning, after his release from a seventeen-month house arrest in the United Kingdom. Reflecting Pinochet's continuing popularity in military circles and the Army's power in Chile, his return was handled entirely by the Chilean army, which banned the media until shortly before Pinochet's plane landed. On Thursday, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw announced that, for medical reasons, Pinochet would not be extradited to Spain, where he was indicted for human rights abuses. The former dictator's health had considerably declined since his initial arrest in October 1998, and he was said to be suffering from brain damage, sparking concerns in some UK governmental circles that he might die on British soil before the extradition was resolved. While he has escaped prosecution in European courts, Pinochet still faces 59 civil lawsuits in his home country, although many observers doubt that any trial will take place. This decision has angered families of the General's victims and human rights activists, but the process has established one important legal precedent for future prosecutions of ex-dictators. In their March 1999 ruling, Britain's Law Lords determined that Pinochet was not automatically immune to prosecution for acts committed as a head of state. This reversal of the "sovereign immunity" claimed by many former dictators may pave the way to future prosecutions for human rights abuses.

  12. Nestor Becerra Yoma, Juan Hood Llanos, Carlos Busso Recabarren* University of Chile, Santiago, Chile

    E-print Network

    Busso, Carlos

    1 Nestor Becerra Yoma, Juan Hood Llanos, Carlos Busso Recabarren* University of Chile, Santiago, Chile * Nestor Becerra Yoma, Juan Hood Llanos and Carlos Busso Recabarren are with the Electrical Engineering Department, University of Chile, Av. Tupper 2007, P.O.Box 412-3, Santiago, CHILE. E

  13. Patagonia Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.

    This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  14. Temporada teatral en Chile: 1985

    E-print Network

    Bravo-Elizondo, Pedro

    1986-10-01

    FALL 1986 85 Temporada teatral en Chile: 1985 Pedro Bravo-Elizondo Sin pretender dárnosla de brujos o gitanos, decíamos en nuestro comen tario final de la Temporada 1984, "El teatro en Chile goza de buena salud. Si algo huele mal, es otro... elemento ajeno a él." Ese elemento extraño es la política entronizada en el arte. Jaime Miranda, con Regreso sin causa, recibió el premio del Círculo de Críticos Teatrales 1984 y además el Premio Municipal de Literatura. El día de la entrega del...

  15. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Jiménez

    1993-01-01

    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid

  16. Territorial Information Management in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo BARRIGA; Álvaro MEDINA

    Chile, through its National Territorial Information System (SNIT, its acronym in Spanish), is currently making institutional efforts to consolidate its Geospatial Data Infrastructure. These efforts are supported by a Policy initiative based on the principles of transparency, institutional cooperation, decentralization and deconcentration and by the active participation of the Administrative Regions and the efficient and effective use of resources involved

  17. Ingresos y Microempresarias en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin Huaita; Patricio VAlenzuela

    2005-01-01

    Utilizando los datos de la encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica CASEN 2000, este trabajo evalúa el impacto en la generación de ingresos de una mujer que logra convertirse en microempresaria en Chile, basándose en técnicas paramétricas y no paramétricas. Los resultados son robustos con ambas metodologías y van en apoyo de la formación de microempresas dirigidas por mujeres al encontrar un

  18. Overhauling Chile's Long Distance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Eric; Amestica, Fernando H.

    1970-01-01

    When Chile modernized its system of long distance telephone communications, it found it had to do the same for training practices. To do so it relied heavily on United States and Canadian training technology. Three charts (training system, budgets 1966-68, course design). (LY)

  19. Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

  20. Caliciviruses and Foodborne Gastroenteritis, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Roberto; Solari, Veronica; Mamani, Nora; Jiang, Xi; Vollaire, Jimena; Roessler, Patricia; Prado, Valeria; Matson, David O.

    2005-01-01

    Human caliciviruses caused 45% of 55 gastroenteritis outbreaks occurring in Santiago, Chile, during 2000–2003. Outbreaks affected ?99 persons, occurred most commonly in the home, and were associated with seafood consumption. Thirteen outbreak strains sequenced were noroviruses, including 8 GII, 2 GI, and 3 belonging to a novel genogroup. PMID:16022799

  1. Destruction in Downtown Concepcion, Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A masonry building in the downtown part of Concepcion, Chile partially collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Most modern buildings in Concepcion were undamaged during the earthquake due to the city's adoption of adequate building standards. However, many masonry buildings s...

  2. In situ monitoring of lepidocrocite bio-reduction and magnetite formation by reflexion1 Mssbauer spectroscopy2

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 In situ monitoring of lepidocrocite bio-reduction and magnetite formation by reflexion1 Mössbauer II) was used to monitor in situ the12 mineralogical transformation of lepidocrocite (-Fe used in this study could be21 replicated in field experiments when assessing the formation of magnetite

  3. [Chile: social protection in health].

    PubMed

    Urriola, Rafael

    2006-10-01

    This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile's experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal) coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE). Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile's public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65) have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States. PMID:17316485

  4. UNIVERSIDAD DE CONCEPCIN -CHILE FACULTAD DE INGENIERA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    UNIVERSIDAD DE CONCEPCI�N - CHILE FACULTAD DE INGENIERÍA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA INDUSTRIAL ANÁLISIS DE LA DINÁMICA FUNCIONAL DEL SISTEMA DE INNOVACI�N TECNOL�GICA EN CHILE PARA EL DESARROLLO DE LA RESUMEN Análisis de la Dinámica Funcional del Sistema de Innovación Tecnológica en Chile para el

  5. Tips on Studying Abroad at Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile in Chile

    E-print Network

    Li, Mo

    Tips on Studying Abroad at Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile in Chile Want to know what it and answers). · (Another view): I spoke Spanish well before going to Chile, but my level of Spanish is still, technology, political science, mathematics and engineering classes. · It is possible to do an internship

  6. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA "CONEXI�N DE ENERGÍAS RENOVABLES Santiago de Chile, 2011 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de

  7. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA SUBASTAS DE ENERGÍA EL�CTRICA EN;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA SUBASTAS DE ENERGÍA EL�CTRICA EN CHILE

  8. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ASPECTOS TÃ?CNICO ECONÃ?MICOS PARA Santiago de Chile, 2011 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de

  9. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA INTERCONEXIÃ?N DE SISTEMAS ELÃ?CTRICOS RUDNICK V.D.W. Santiago de Chile, 2005 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

  10. Rainfall erosivity in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Carlos A.; Vidal, Karim L.

    2011-11-01

    SummaryOne of the most widely used indicators of potential water erosion risk is the rainfall-runoff erosivity factor ( R) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). R is traditionally determined by calculating a long-term average of the annual sum of the product of a storm's kinetic energy ( E) and its maximum 30-min intensity ( I30), known as the EI30. The original method used to calculate EI30 requires pluviograph records for at most 30-min time intervals. Such high resolution data is difficult to obtain in many parts of the world, and processing it is laborious and time-consuming. In Chile, even though there is a well-distributed rain gauge network, there is no systematic characterization of the territory in terms of rainfall erosivity. This study presents a rainfall erosivity map for most of the cultivated land in the country. R values were calculated by the prescribed method for 16 stations with continuous graphical record rain gauges in Central Chile. The stations were distributed along 800 km (north-south), and spanned a precipitation gradient of 140-2200 mm yr -1. More than 270 years of data were used, and 5400 storms were analyzed. Additionally, 241 spatially distributed R values were generated by using an empirical procedure based on annual rainfall. Point estimates generated by both methods were interpolated by using kriging to create a map of rainfall erosivity for Central Chile. The results show that the empirical procedure used in this study predicted the annual rainfall erosivity well (model efficiency = 0.88). Also, an increment in the rainfall erosivities was found as a result of the rainfall depths, a regional feature determined by elevation and increasing with latitude from north to south. R values in the study area range from 90 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the north up to 7375 MJ mm ha -1 h -1 yr -1 in the southern area, at the foothills of the Andes Mountains. Although the map and the estimates could be improved in the future by generating additional data points, the erosivity map should prove to be a good tool for land-use planners in Chile and other areas with similar rainfall characteristics.

  11. Chile Pepper Response to Nitrogen Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2008, we evaluated the effects of N fertilization (6 N rates) on chile pepper fresh yield and biomass accumulation following two years of continuous corn production. A polymer-coated urea, ESN® (Environmentally Smart Nitrogen), N fertilizer source was used. Fresh chile pepper yields increased ...

  12. SISTEMA FINANCIERO Y CRECIMIENTO ECONÓMICO EN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Hernández; Fernando Parro

    Este trabajo presenta una breve descripción del grado de desarrollo de los mercados financieros en Chile, en comparación con otros países. Luego de resumir las principales reformas financieras imple- mentadas en el país en las últimas décadas, se destacan las fortalezas y debilidades más importantes de los mercados financieros en Chile. A continuación se analizan los problemas urgentes, en particular

  13. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  14. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  15. An Energy Overview of Chile

    SciTech Connect

    anon.

    2003-10-20

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Chile. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

  16. 2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barientos, Sergio

    2010-05-01

    The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since 1906? Since the number of M>7.0 aftershocks has been low, does the distribution of large-magnitude aftershocks differ from previous events of this size? What is the origin of the extensional-type aftershocks at shallow depths within the upper plate? The international seismological community (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.A.) in collaboration with the Chilean seismological community responded with a total of 140 portable seismic stations to deploy in order to record aftershocks. This combined with the Chilean permanent seismic network, in the area results in 180 stations now in operation recording continuous at 100 cps. The seismic equipment is a mix of accelerometers, short -period and broadband seismic sensors deployed along the entire length of the aftershock zone that will record the aftershock sequence for three to six months. The collected seismic data will be merged and archived to produce an international data set open to the entire seismological community immediately after archiving. Each international group will submit their data as soon as possible in standard (mini seed) format with accompanying meta data to the IRIS DMC where the data will be merged into a combined data set and available to individuals and other data centers. This will be by far the best-recorded aftershock sequence of a large megathrust earthquake. This outstanding international collaboration will provide an open data set for this important earthquake as well as provide a model for future aftershock deployments around the world.

  17. YIELD AND QUALITY OF MACHINE-HARVESTED RED CHILE PEPPERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chile peppers (capsicum annuum L.) are a major crop in the southwestern United States. Several chile types are grown regionally, including long, green chile for fresh market and canning; dried, red chile for pungent powder, paprika and oleoresin; jalopenos; and cayenne peppers. During the last dec...

  18. SISTEMA DE TRANSMISI PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    SISTEMA DE TRANSMISI PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA METODOLOGÍA DE de Chile, Abril de 2011 © 2011, Daniel Raimundo Charlín Dussaillant AD CATOLICA DE CHILE METODOLOGÍA Daniel Raimundo Charlín Dussaillant #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

  19. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA EL�CTRICA Chile, 2001 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE Santiago de Chile, 2001 #12;ii En reconocimiento: A mis padres, Julio y Yamille, por haberme educado y

  20. 1CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE FRONTIER FORESTS

    E-print Network

    1CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE CHILE´S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING forests & people http://pdf.wri.org/gfw_chile_full.pdf #12;2 CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL Austral of Chile 2002 All right reserved. ISBN 1-56973-495-x Library of Congress Control Number

  1. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA derechos de una empresa de distribución en Chile. b)La tarifa de la distribución en Chile ¿remunera procesos tarifarios de Perú y Bolivia con el de Chile. Pregunta 2.-Cálculo del Valor Agregado de

  2. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

  3. LA ECUACION DE HAMILTONJACOBI: UNA PERSPECTIVA DESDE LA MECANICA GEOMETRICA

    E-print Network

    Tradacete, Pedro

    LA ECUACI´ON DE HAMILTON­JACOBI: UNA PERSPECTIVA DESDE LA MEC´ANICA GEOM´ETRICA XAVIER GR`ACIA Dep`acia (UPC, Barcelona) Ecuaci´on de Hamilton­Jacobi y mec´anica geom´etrica 1 / 29 #12;La perspectiva de la mec´anica geom´etrica Mec´anica anal´itica y geometr´ia diferencial est´an estrechamente relacionadas

  4. The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Chile-based staff of the NAOJ Chile

    E-print Network

    Ito, Atsushi

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Chile-based staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory. 1. Vacant post: one Associate Professor 2. (1) Division to belong to: NAOJ Chile Observatory (2) Duty station: Chile 3. Field of specialty: radio astronomy 4. Duties

  5. The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Chile-based staff of the NAOJ Chile

    E-print Network

    Ito, Atsushi

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Chile-based staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory. 1. Vacant post: one assistant professor 2. (1) Division to belong to: NAOJ Chile Observatory (2) Duty station: Chile 3. Field of specialty: radio astronomy 4. Duties

  6. Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile Departamento de Ingeniera Elctrica

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica Hugh Rudnick Seminario ¿Está Chile preparado para el retail en energía eléctrica? Santiago de Chile, 16 de Marzo 2006 #12 Universidad Católica de Chile Santiago, Chile h.rudnick@ieee.org www.ing.puc.cl/power/ Versión definitiva en

  7. REFLEXIONES PRELIMINARES SOBRE UNA APLICACIÓN CIENTÍFICO-MÉDICA DE ACTUALIDAD: LA CLONACIÓN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Antonio Arranz; Xavier Ariza; Encarnació Riudor; Lluis Vilar; Jordi Salvadó; Núria Galofré; Susana Vendrell; Josep María Esquirol

    2003-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo afronta el nuevo reto que la tecnociencia médica ha abierto: la posibilidad de clonación terapéutica o reproductiva. En el presente trabajo se aborda, clara y esquemáticamente, la terminología científico-médica, desde los conceptos de reproducción sexual o asexual hasta la endonucleación, pasando por los conceptos de embrión gamético, somático, de cultivo y células madres, para ir realizando un

  8. Desigualdad Educacional en Chile: Geografía y Dependencia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dante Contreras; Víctor Macías

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses parametric and semiparametric techniques to examine educational inequality by geographical areas in Chile. The differences in achievement are also investigated across school types administration (public, private subsidized and private fee

  9. Universidad de Chile Facultad de Artes

    E-print Network

    Rapaport, Iván

    Universidad de Chile Facultad de Artes Postítulo en Arte Terapia social y acercar a los estudiantes con diversas realidades comunitarias apoyando directamente el trabajo de diversas organizaciones sociales. En el año 2012, esta

  10. Studying Volcaniclastic Deposits Northern Patagonia, Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS research hydrologist Tom Pierson, working with geologists from SERNAGEOMIN (Chile's geological survey), examines lahar and volcanic flood deposits along Rio Chaitén, approximately 8 km downstream of Chaitén volcano. The rhyolite volcano's current eruptive phase began in May, 2008,...

  11. Employment responses to international liberalization in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Levinsohn

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates employment patterns in Chile following a substantial trade liberalization. The paper examines patterns of job creation and job destruction and relates these patterns to firms' size and trade orientation.

  12. Poltica energtica y visin de futuro en Chile: Rol de las redesen Chile: Rol de las redes

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Política energética y visión de futuro en Chile: Rol de las redesen Chile: Rol de las redes;La metodología de expansión de la transmisión en aplicación en Chile no está reconociendo y en Chile. Exponer los desafíos presentes en el proceso de expansión del sistema troncal en Chile

  13. A unique collaboration in Chile.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    The Chilean Red Cross Society and the family planning association--APROFA, International Planned Parenthood Federation's affiliate, are joining forces to help prevent the spread of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. APROFA established a working group to study the knowledge, attitudes, and sexual behavior of students at the National Training Institute, INACAP. 7000 students were sampled in 11 Chilean cities. The study found that 36% of the females, and 77% of males were sexually active before the age of 20. Nearly 1/2 of the women and 1/5 of the men did not know that condoms could protect them against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and pregnancy. APROFA designed a program to increase students knowledge of AIDS, reduce promiscuity and increase knowledge of and use of condoms. In October, 1988 an educational package distributed, consisting of a training manual, slides, educational booklets, a poster, and a video of 3 films. It has proved so successful that APROFA has adapted it for community groups, educational institutions, and its youth program. APROFA/Red Cross nurses and Red Cross volunteers have participated in workshops and training with the package. The Red Cross has organized AIDS-related activities in Chile since 1986, including education campaigns, information for blood donors, and a telephone hotline to provide AIDS counseling. Goals are to target more poor areas and groups outside of society's mainstream in the next year for sex education and information on STDs. PMID:12315985

  14. Aftershocks of Chile’s Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lorenzo Moreno; Ernesto Treviño; Hirokazu Yoshikawa; Susana Mendive; Joaquín Reyes; Felipe Godoy; Francisca Del Río; Catherine Snow; Diana Leyva; Clara Barata; MaryCatherine Arbour; Andrea Rolla

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in Chile, was directly affected by

  15. Changes in spectral reflexions from the iridophores of the neon tetra.

    PubMed Central

    Lythgoe, J N; Shand, J

    1982-01-01

    1. The iridescent stripe of the freshwater teleost, the neon tetra, changes from green in the daytime to violet-blue at night. 2. Spectral reflectance measurements were used to follow these colour changes. 3. Light causes a shift in reflectance to longer wavelengths in living fish and in isolated tissue from the lateral stripe. The change is reversed in darkness. 4. The spectral reflectance shifts to longer wavelengths when the fish is disturbed in darkness. No such colour changes were seen in fishes kept alive in 10(-4) M-reserpine. 5. Hypotonic Ringer solution causes a reflectance shift to longer wavelengths and hypertonic solution causes a shift to shorter wavelengths. 6. The iridescent reflexions from the lateral stripe which is continued across the iris originate from iridophores in the dermis. These iridophores contain regular stacks of broad, double-sided hexagonal plates that are about 10 nm thick. Each plate is contained within a pouch in the cytoplasm and is separated from its neighbour by approximately one quarter the wavelength of light. 7. A distinction is drawn between the physiologically active iridophores in the lateral stripe and iris that have broad hexagonal crystal plates which are very thin and the physiologically inactive iridophores that are also found in the iris, but in addition are found on the flanks below the lateral stripe, and on the head. These iridophores contain hexagonal crystals that are usually narrower than the active type, but are about 60-100 nm thick. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 5 PMID:7108777

  16. Reflexion on a method for Archaeology of technical machine: a multi-competences experience on roman wooden force pump of Perigueux

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Reflexion on a method for Archaeology of technical machine: a multi-competences experience will present the different sides of the multi-expertise for this archaeology and experimental archaeology validation. Keywords: Wooden Pump, archaeology virtual to real reconstruction, archaeology multi

  17. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Mir, S.A.; Cruz, P.F.; Rivera, J.D.; Jorquera, O.H.

    1994-12-31

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future.

  18. Analysis of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D J; Corbus, D; Holz, R [and others

    1996-06-01

    Chile recently began a major rural electrification program to electrify those 240,000 families (about half of the rural people) who lack electricity access. In this paper, we discuss a pilot project to electrify three remote villages in Chile`s Region IX using wind/genset/battery hybrids. The intent of this project is to demonstrate the reliability and cost-effectiveness of wind/genset/battery hybrids and to encourage replication of these types of systems in Chile`s electrification program. For each village, electricity connections are planned for several residences, and also schools, health posts, community centers, or chapels. Projected average daily loads are small, ranging from 4 to 10 kWh. Using the optimization program HOMER and the simulation program Hybrid2, we evaluated options to maximize technical performance, minimize costs, and gain experience with a variety of systems and components. We find that wind/genset/battery hybrids will be able to provide cost-effective, reliable power for these sites. More importantly, their inherent flexibility allows for variations in load and resource without greatly affecting the cost of energy.

  19. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA MECANICA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA MECANICA MERCADOS ENERGETICOS 2010 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE INDICE I. Introducción Social........................................ 6 1.4. Características Particulares de la Externalidad del

  20. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA MECANISMOS DE SUBASTAS PARA LA;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA MECANISMOS DE SUBASTAS PARA LA CONTRATACIÃ?N DE

  1. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA GESTION DE LA DEMANDA ORIENTADA A LA CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA GESTION DE LA DEMANDA ORIENTADA A LA OPTIMIZACION DE ACTIVOS: APROXIMACION

  2. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ANÁLISIS DE LA CREACI�N DE UN FONDO #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ANÁLISIS DE LA CREACI�N DE UN FONDO

  3. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ANÁLISIS DE ESTRATEGIAS DE INVERSI�N CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ANÁLISIS DE ESTRATEGIAS DE INVERSI�N EN GENERACI�N EN MERCADOS COMPETITIVOS

  4. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA MANUAL PARA LA MODELACIÃ?N FINANCIERA CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA MANUAL PARA LA MODELACIÃ?N FINANCIERA DE ACTIVOS DE GENERACIÃ?N

  5. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA NUEVOS SISTEMAS DE MEDICI�N EN EL, Pablo Aliro Rámila García #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA NUEVOS

  6. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA INVERSIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE EN CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA INVERSIONES BAJO INCERTIDUMBRE EN GENERACIÃ?N ELÃ?CTRICA: APLICACIÃ?N

  7. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA SISTEMA DE MONITOREO DE BATERÍAS EN UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica SISTEMA DE MONITOREO

  8. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA INTERCONEXI�N SIC-SING Y EMISIONES 2012, Hernán Felipe Ulloa Barrera #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

  9. Las Trans: Negotiating Gender, Personhood, and Citizenship in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sydney A. Hare

    2012-01-01

    “Las Trans,” a group of male-to-female transgender residents living in Arica, Chile, challenge the strict dual-sex, dual-gender system of Chile’s family-oriented society. Chile presents an especially interesting case when analyzing the social position of sexual minorities due to the country’s historically strong ties to the Catholic Church, and, on a political level, the experience of 17 years of dictatorship during

  10. Strengthening Regulation in Chile: The Case of Network Industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Galetovic; Luiz de Mello

    2005-01-01

    Chile’s regulatory framework is working reasonably well. The country’s structural reforms since the 1980s, with the privatisation of utilities and deregulation of product and labour markets, have improved resource allocation and increased the population’s access to basic services, while calling for a comprehensive upgrading of regulatory institutions. At the same time, public-private partnerships (PPPs) are contributing to closing Chile’s infrastructure

  11. SOCIAL SECURITY REFORM and LABOR MARKETS: THE CASE OF CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SEBASTIAN EDWARDS

    In 1981, Chile reformed its social security system. An inefficient and insolvent pay-as- you-go regime was replaced by system based on individual retirement accounts. Over the years Chile's reform has been widely praised, and has been carefully studied by policy makers throughout the world. In this paper we focus on a neglected aspect of Chile's social security reform: its impact

  12. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT�LICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERÍA EL COMERCIALIZADOR COMO AGENTE DE en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK Santiago de Chile, Junio, 2006 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT�LICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERÍA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica EL

  13. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DETERMINACI�N T�CNICA ECON�MICA DE Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, Marzo, 2007 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de

  14. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA LONG RUN EFFICIENCY OF PRICE in Engineering Advisor: HUGH RUDNICK Santiago de Chile, (June, 2012) 2012, Heinz Müller, Alexander Galetovic, Cristian Muñoz, Hugh Rudnick. #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA LONG RUN

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Fresh pomegranates from Chile. 319.56-56 Section 319.56-56...319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

  16. 1CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE FRONTIER FORESTS

    E-print Network

    1CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE CHILE´S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING forests & people #12;2 CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE REPORT PRODUCTION Institute Comité Nacional Pro Defensa de la Fauna y Flora University Austral of Chile 2002 All right

  17. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DESARROLLO DE INVERSIONES EN Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, Abril 2008 ©2008, José Manuel González Aguirre #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Fresh pomegranates from Chile. 319.56-56 Section 319.56-56...319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

  19. SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION?

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    SECOND GENERATION REFORMS IN CHILE, POWER EXCHANGE MODEL. THE SOLUTION? David Watts Paulo Atienza Hugh Rudnick Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Católica de Chile. Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago, Chile. (e-mail: dwatts@ing.puc.cl). ABSTRACT Many countries have decided to restructure

  20. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ANALISIS COMPARATIVO DE LA de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK V.D.W. Santiago de Chile, 1998 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería

  1. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA Chile con el de California y con el de Colombia b) Explique lo que significan servicios secundarios o generación en Chile. ¿Que pasa si no se cumplen los supuestos de este principio? d)¿Cuáles son las

  2. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA)Explique supuestos de un mercado eléctrico de competencia perfecta. Discuta si se cumplen estas condiciones en Chile un generador en Chile y cuáles son los precios de venta en cada una? ¿En cuáles de estos precios

  3. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ELECTRIC DEMAND OF THE COPPER MINING of Master of Science in Engineering Advisor: GUSTAVO LAGOS CRUZ-COKE Santiago de Chile, March 13th 2008 University of Chile. To Sara Pimentel from COCHILCO, Jorge Venegas from CDEC-SING, Marcelo Velasco from IM2

  4. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF COMPETITION la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, (Agosto, 2013) 2013, Pablo Varas #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA EMPIRICAL STUDIES

  5. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA CÁLCULO DE UN ÍNDICE DE Diploma en Ingeniería Eléctrica Profesor Supervisor: JOS� PEDRO PRINA Santiago de Chile, 2001 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial y de

  6. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA PODER DE MERCADO Y MECANISMOS DE de Chile, agosto, 2013 2013, Vicente Alberto Camino Valdivia #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA PODER DE MERCADO Y MECANISMOS DE REGULACIÃ?N MEDIOAMBIENTAL EN EL SECTOR

  7. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA medias es tan distinto al base? b) En Chile hay potencial de generación eléctrica no convencional ley. 3.- Transmisión a) En Chile, Perú y Bolivia se define el concepto de Sistema Económicamente

  8. UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FSICAS Y MATEMTICAS

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS Y MATEMÁTICAS DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA;UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS Y MATEMÁTICAS DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA INDUSTRIAL PAGO POR PARA OPTAR AL TÍTULO DE INGENIERO CIVIL INDUSTRIAL SANTIAGO DE CHILE MAYO 2006 #12;1 Resumen Las

  9. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT�LICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERÍA INSERCI�N DE GENERADORES DE ENERGÍA Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, Agosto, 2007 © 2007, Ricardo Alberto Mohr Rioseco #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT�LICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERÍA

  10. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA rentabilidad del negocio. Discuta. f) Ciertos actores del mercado eléctrico en Chile no requieren concesión del mercado de generación en Chile. Explique. ¿Cuál es la importancia de una adecuada determinación

  11. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA PLANIFICACION DE REDES DE RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, diciembre, 2007 © 2007, Alejandro Andrés Navarro Espinosa #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA PLANIFICACION DE REDES DE DISTRIBUCION

  12. PO TIFICIA U IVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PO TIFICIA U IVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica IEE3372 ­ Mercados Eléctricos ER C en Chile a la Práctica Profesor: Hugh Rudnick Van De Wyngard ..............................................................................................8 3 Estado Actual de las ERNC en Chile

  13. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA CVAR CONSTRAINED PLANNING RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, October, 2014. MMXIV, Andrés Ricardo Inzunza Besio #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA CVAR CONSTRAINED PLANNING OF RENEWABLE

  14. Gender relations, authoritarianism and democratization in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Matear

    1999-01-01

    This article takes Chile as a case study to examine how the women's movement, the non?governmental sector and the state have worked together to design policies for the prevention of domestic violence, and to transform the culture of authoritarianism which remains an integral part of gender relations within the state and in society. It conceptualizes the linkages between gender relations,

  15. Rubber finger stripper harvester for green chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest mechanization as a system requires modifying or creating new components including cultivars, production practices, and harvest, transportation and processing plant machinery. New Mexican chile is one of the last segments of the pepper industry to still rely on hand labor. This paper reports ...

  16. Earthquake-Ready High Rise in Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A well-engineered high rise apartment and two-story building in Talca, Chile suffered no evident damage, though much of the city was affected by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Many buildings in this city were constructed with adobe or masonry and suffered major collapse. These undamaged buil...

  17. Sistema de protección social Chile Solidario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo

    2006-01-01

    Esta presentación fue comisionada por la Red de Reducción de la Pobreza y Protección Social del Diálogo Regional de Política para la Reunión Subregional de los Países Andinos celebrada los días 28 y 29 de agosto de 2006 en Colombia. El documento presenta el programa Chile Solidario, un sistema de protección social dirigido a las personas y familias en situación

  18. Diffusion of Technical Agricultural Information in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Marion Ray

    This study examined current thought concerning the role of mass communication in economic development in developing nations; analyzed existing efforts to diffuse agricultural technology in Chile; assessed the effectiveness of various approaches; and tested the effects (primarily on knowledge levels) of an experimental technical information service…

  19. Education of the Televiewer in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel T.

    This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

  20. Alternation in Interaction MIT & U. Chile

    E-print Network

    Sundaram, Ravi

    Alternation in Interaction M. Kiwi MIT & U. Chile C. Lundy AT&T A. Russell z MIT D. Spielmanx MIT R. The rst team of provers tries to convince V that ! is in L, for some pre-speci ed word ! and language L

  1. The ecological footprint of Santiago de Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathis Wackernagel

    1998-01-01

    In the case of Santiago de Chile, this paper explains how the ecological footprint of a city can be calculated and how this footprint can be compared with the biological capacity available for human use. As ecological footprints provide an easily communicable way of measuring the ecological bottom?line condition for sustainability, it is a useful tool for promoting a sustainable

  2. Chile: When Tyrants Tremble: The Pinochet Case

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brett, Sebastian.

    This recent report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) reviews the Spanish effort to extradite and try General Pinochet and the repercussions in Chile, which is holding presidential elections in December 1999. The 57-page report also offers some background on Pinochet's regime and HRW's recommendations to the Chilean and US Governments. This report is offered by chapter in HTML format.

  3. Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Diamond

    1993-01-01

    In Chile, all covered workers must place 10% of monthly earnings in a savings account with a highly regulated intermediary that manages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to

  4. Nutrition transition in Chile: determinants and consequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Albala; Fernando Vio; Juliana Kain; Ricardo Uauy

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyse the determinants and consequences of the nutrition transition in Chile and describe the related health promotion policies. Design and setting: This is a descriptive, population-based study including data on demographic, diet, nutrition and biomedical related variables. Data came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the National Institute of Statistics (INE),

  5. Assessing the scientific strength of Chile.

    PubMed

    Brown, C G; Coward, H R; Stowe, R C

    1991-01-01

    We use analysis of co-citation and relative citation rates to assess the scientific strength of Chile as compared with other developing countries and to evaluate the potential for increased international collaboration between Chile and the United States in science and engineering. Co-citation is the citation of two scientific papers by a third paper. By examining frequency and patterns of co-citation, the intellectual structure and evolution of scientific disciplines and research specialties can be traced. Chile is especially "strong", as defined by the co-citation model we employ, in biomedicine and clinical medicine, and in astronomy. A relative citation rate is the ratio of the number of citations a paper receives to the average number of citations for all papers published in the same journal over time. Analysis of relative citation rates of papers published by authors with Chilean addresses show that Chilean physics, including earth and space sciences, is of unusually high quality, considerably higher than any other developing country and comparable to several industrialized countries. We conclude that Chile's scientific capacity is advanced enough to absorb and benefit significantly from strategic additions to the country's resources and capabilities for research. These would include increases in: exchanges of researchers in specific fields with U.S. and other Latin American academic, industrial, and government scientists and engineers; training at outstanding U.S. and Latin American institutions; laboratory equipment, computer time, communications links, and library materials; and funding from U.S. and international organizations. It is also apparent that Chile is strong enough in certain fields to cooperate with the U.S. in mutually beneficial international efforts. PMID:1845016

  6. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo paprika Mexicano.

    PubMed

    Kitis, G; Cruz Zaragoza, E; Furetta, C

    2005-08-01

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi(3)O(8)) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi(3)O(8)) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1 Gy--10 kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain--single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 degrees C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika. PMID:15921917

  7. [Current status of medical education in Chile].

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The Chilean Academy of Medicine published a "Report on the Current Status of Medical Education in Chile". This report reviews the history of medical education in this country and its close relationship with the Health Care System, public and private; highlights the main changes that took place during the last 25 years in superior and medical education; provides information on the 26 currently existing Medical Schools; refers to the availability of medical doctors and specialists; discusses the mechanisms that control the quality of institutions involved and their programs; and summarizes the results of the Annual National Medical Examination. The members of the Committee on Superior Education of the Academy provided a critical analysis of medical education in Chile and recommendations on how to improve it. PMID:19701563

  8. Bioethics in Chile: present and future status.

    PubMed

    Lolas, F

    1990-01-01

    Chile's health system has been evolving rapidly in recent years. Among other things, profit-making enterprises have assumed a growing role, medical care has become increasingly technical, and the importance of less highly trained health workers has grown. Also, the assigned role of the Chilean Medical Association in deciding matters of medical misconduct has diminished, while that of the courts has grown; the nature of the doctor-patient relationship has changed; and clear divergences between medical ethics codes, laws, and prevailing social practices have emerged. Within this context, bioethics has come to be regarded as a necessary element in the teaching and practice of medicine. So while this discipline has not yet become fully institutionalized in Chile, it seems likely to play a growing role in dealing with the aforementioned changes and could make a substantial contribution toward solution of associated problems in the future. PMID:2073566

  9. CIA, State, NSC Documents Declassified on Chile

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Security Archive (NSA) has posted a selection of recently declassified documents regarding the tyrannical regime of General Augusto Pinochet in Chile (see the October 20, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). The nine salient documents -- released by the US State Department, the National Security Council (NSC), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) -- cover the bloodiest years of Pinochet's reign, 1973 to 1978. This fall, thousands of top secret US documents related to Pinochet's Chile are expected to be publicly released, and the NSA plans to digitize selected documents for its Website. In addition to the nine documents included in the new release, the NSA also provides access to several previously declassified documents about Pinochet and his 1973 coup.

  10. Is public infrastructure productive? Evidence from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Albala-Bertrand; E. C. Mamatzakis

    2001-01-01

    This study assesses the extent to which public infrastructures have contributed to output in the Chilean economy over the period 1960-1995. For the long-run, it uses a vector error correction model for cointegration tests, while for the short-run, it resorts to the use of impulse response functions and variance decompositions. The results appear to show that public infrastructures in Chile

  11. Landslide hazards in Santiago, Chile: An overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERGIO A. SEPÚLVEDA; SOFÍA REBOLLEDO; MARISOL LARA; CRISTÓBAL PADILLA

    Santiago, the capital city of Chile, is the country's largest city, with a population of over 5 million people. It is located in a depression between the Coastal Range and the Andes Main Range. The city is placed on fluvial and alluvial sediments and varies in altitude between 500 and ca. 1,000 m a.s.l. The eastern fringe of the urban

  12. Geology of the Portrerillos District, Atacama, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Olson

    1984-01-01

    The geology of the Potrerillos porphyry copper district records the patterns of marine sedimentation, volcanism, igneous intrusion, and deformation in the Andes of northern Chile from Jurassic to Recent times. Pre-Jurassic granitic and metamorphic basement is overlain by marine sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age and continental volcanic rocks of Paleocene-Eocene age. Both the marine and continental volcanic

  13. Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1945, No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebaugh, Cameron D.

    1945-01-01

    Chile is a republic 2,630 miles long, extending along the western coast of South America from Peru to the southernmost tip of the continent. In width it averages about 110 miles, with snow-capped, volcano-studded Andes in the East, a low coastal range along the Pacific and a string of valleys and plains in between. It is estimated that 5,000…

  14. [Medical subspecialties in Chile: current status].

    PubMed

    Oyonarte, M

    1996-04-01

    There is no reliable registry of medical subspecialists in Chile According to the records of the Autonomous National Corporation for Certification of Medical Specialties (CONACEM), the largest number of certifications is in internal medicine (n = 681), followed by cardiology (n = 153), respiratory medicine (n = 106), gastroenterology (n = 93), endocrinology (n = 77), rheumatology (n = 55), hematology (n = 50) nephrology (n = 50), and infections diseases (n = 31). Over 55% of those certified in internal medicine and 70% of those certified in medical subspecialties (except nephrology) live in the metropolitan area of Santiago. Almost 80% of university-trained internists have received their training at the University of Chile (1952-1995), whereas 52% of university-trained subspecialists have been trained at the Catholic University of Chile. A sizeable number of nonofficial specialist-training programs are conducted at some universities at variance with their own official training policies. In internal medicine, a larger number of specialists have been trained by the universities than are certified by CONACEM, whereas the converse is true for medical subspecialists. More than 80% of the internists in Chile work for the Ministry of Health, who cares for 70% of the country's population. The best internist: population ratio is in Arica and Valdivia, and the poorest one in Arauco and in Viña del Mar/Quillota. According to estimations done by the Santiago Medical Society (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine) and its subspecialty affiliate societies, an adequate proportion of internists would be 1 for every 10,000 inhabitants, and for subspecialists, 1 for every 100,000 inhabitants. More information is needed about the ideal number of specialists and subspecialists required, and about their ideal distribution throughout the country. CONACEM needs to be strengthened, the universities should be able to certify non-university training centers, and the migration of subspecialists out of Santiago should be encouraged. PMID:9110492

  15. Paleoseismic inferences from a high-resolution marine sedimentary record in northern Chile (238S)

    E-print Network

    Gilli, Adrian

    Paleoseismic inferences from a high-resolution marine sedimentary record in northern Chile (238S a Departamento de Geologi´a, Universidad de Chile, Plaza Ercilla 803, Santiago, Chile b UMR-CNRS 5805 EPOC 170, Antofagasta, Chile f SERNAGEOMIN, Avenida Santa Mari´a 0104, Providencia, Santiago, Chile

  16. [Who finances medical research in Chile?].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Goic, A

    1995-10-01

    To identify those institutions granting medical research in Chile, every issue of Revista Médica de Chile published between 1987 and 1994 was reviewed, under the assumption that a vast majority (over 70%) of papers released by Chilean authors in topics of internal medicine and related subspecialties would have been submitted for publication in this journal. This assumption was based in the solid prestige of Revista Médica de Chile among Chilean physicians and investigators: it is one of the oldest medical journals in the world (founded in 1872) and its inclusion in the most important international indexes (e.g. Index Medicus, Current Contents) qualifies it in the "mainstream literature". Papers classified as "Original Articles", "Clinical Experiences", "Review Articles", "Public Health", "Case Reports", "Clinical Laboratory", "Special Articles" and "Medical Education" were screened for acknowledgment of financial support beyond the resources needed for routine clinical work. Among 1,528 manuscripts published, 344 were "Original Articles" and 61.3% of them acknowledged special financial support. Five hundred and one manuscripts were "Clinical Experiences" and 21.5% of them received special financial support; similar proportions were detected in "Review Articles" and "Public Health" topics. The institution ranked as providing support most often was the "Fondo Nacional de Ciencias y Tecnología" (FONDECYT), a governmental fund that assigns resources to research in all areas of science and technology through a peer-reviewed nationwide annual contest. FONDECYT was identified as provider of financial support to 45.2% of the "Original Articles" and "Clinical Experiences"; Chilean universities were mentioned by 33.6% and other entities (including pharmaceutical companies, other national and foreign organizations) by 23.1%. The University of Chile was the main Chilean university mentioned in the acknowledgments. The proportion of papers receiving special financial support was lower in Revista Médica de Chile than in three leading journals from developed countries (70% of Articles published in Annals of Internal Medicine, 74% in Lancet and 78% in The New England Journal of Medicine) but this proportion has been steadily increasing since 1987. The increase has been due only to FONDECYT and it would be unreasonable to expect that this institution will maintain such an expansion indefinitely. Therefore, Chilean investigators should attract more resources from the universities, the pharmaceutical companies and other non-governmental institutions. PMID:8733315

  17. Intergenerational income and educational mobility in urban Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Núñez; Leslie Miranda

    This paper provides evidence on the degree and patterns of intergenerational income and educational mobility in urban Chile. We find intergenerational income elasticities for Greater Santiago in Chile in the range of 0.52 to 0.54. This is lower than recent nation-wide elasticities for Chile of about 0.6-0.7, but still stands as fairly high in comparison with the comparable international evidence.

  18. Chile post energas fsiles Hugh Rudnick Van De Wyngard

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Chile post energías fósiles Hugh Rudnick Van De Wyngard Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile II Congreso del Futuro 1719 enero 2013 #12;2 Takeaways / ¿Qué se llevan? El mundo, y Chile en particular, está consciente de los impactos negativos medioambientales de

  19. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA señales entrega la tarificación en dos partes del sistema de tarificación de la transmisión en Chile? ¿Qué transmisión en Chile seguía (antes de la ley corta) un esquema de mercado. En Argentina se tenía un esquema

  20. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT�LICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERÍA ASIGNACI�N DE COSTOS DE LA EXPANSI�N RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, Diciembre, 2007 © 2007, Wilmer Andrés Tabraj Arias #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT�LICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERÍA ASIGNACI�N DE COSTOS DE LA EXPANSI�N DE LA

  1. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA de la transmisión en Chile seguía (antes de la ley corta) un esquema de mercado. En Argentina se tarificación en dos partes del sistema de tarificación de la transmisión en Chile? ¿Qué son las dos partes y

  2. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA ley corta. c) La expansión de la transmisión en Chile seguía (antes de la ley corta) un esquema de Agregado de Distribución (VAD) del 2000 en Chile modificó el tratamiento del área típica que se había

  3. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA generador en Chile y cuáles son los precios de venta en cada una? c)La Comisión Nacional de Energía entrega)¿Cuáles son las diferencias esenciales entre los dos organismos de coordinación de Chile y Argentina: el CDEC

  4. Outlook of the Officers: Military Thought in Chile, 1960-1990

    E-print Network

    Bawden, John Richard

    2009-01-01

    Intellectuals and Higher Education in Chile, 1973-1993. ”education and oversaw the public sector expansion so characteristic of Chile’Chile’s soldiers as ‘vertebral columns’ of national sovereignty who contributed to civic education

  5. Regulatory Science in a Developing State: Environmental Politics in Chile, 1980-2010

    E-print Network

    Barandiaran, Javiera

    2013-01-01

    in Chile; OLCA still stages regular protests outsideChile’s limits to growth; even with environmental approval projects lack legitimacy and protestsChile and Argentina. The scientists and their corporate sponsors met great protest.

  6. Dando Vuelta el Año: Seasonality, Neoliberalism, and Personhood in Chile's Aconcagua Valley

    E-print Network

    Radovic Fanta, Jelena

    2012-01-01

    in southern Chile and in Santiago erupted in protests andProtest, Environmental Conflict and Social Movement Linkage in Chile."Chile over the past year (such as the widely covered student movement, environmental protests,

  7. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States...the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010...concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission...

  8. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic...preserved mushrooms (mushrooms) from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic...antidumping duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the PRC, pursuant...

  9. 75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ...Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations...duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be...2010), entitled Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia:...

  10. 75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY...duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...duty orders on preserved mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would...

  11. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ...Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION...preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program...program for implementing the U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement,...

  12. The Seismogenic Coupling Zone in Central Chile - Amphibious Experiments SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Krawczyk; M. Stiller; J. Mechie; S. Lueth; P. Wigger; O. Oncken; C. Reichert; K. Bataille

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with

  13. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.

    PubMed

    Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

    1975-06-01

    Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

  14. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

    1975-01-01

    Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

  15. Ecotypic differentiation of Medicago polymorpha in Sardinia and Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Del Pozo; C. Porqueddu; C. Ovalle

    SUMMARY - Burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.) is commonly found in Sardinia and in Chile throughout a wide range of Mediterranean type climates. In Sardinia it is part of the native flora at altitudes ranging between 0 and 1000 m a.s.l., with annual rainfall ranging between 500 and 1100 mm. In Chile, burr medic is naturalized and distributed in a

  16. Lessons from the deregulation transition in Chile's local telephony market

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo D. Paredes

    2005-01-01

    There is no experience in the world where entry to local telephony has been as significant as in Chile. This paper addresses two related questions: (i) whether the local telephony segment in Chile is competitive enough so as to deregulate rates and (ii) whether competition thus far achieved could be at risk in the case where asymmetric regulation is ended.

  17. The Golden Period For Growth In Chile: Explanations And Forecasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Gallego Y; Norman Loayza O

    2002-01-01

    Economic growth in Chile since the mid 1980s has been remarkable for its high level and persistence. This paper explores the factors behind the high growth rates of the past 15 years and analyzes the extent to which they can be sustained in the future. The first part of the paper presents some stylized facts about growth in Chile. Taken

  18. Broad Roads in a Thin Country: Infrastructure Concessions in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Hinojosa

    2000-01-01

    Lessons learned from Chile's highly successful experience in introducing private capital into the transport infrastructure sector.To increase investment in infrastructure, in the early 1990s Chile's government introduced private capital into the transport infrastructure sector, covering roads and highways, bridges, tunnels, and airports. The chosen mechanism: a concession scheme through which private firms would finance and build a given project and

  19. Mapuche Protest, Environmental Conflict and Social Movement Linkage in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Carruthers; Patricia Rodriguez

    2009-01-01

    This article chronicles the promise and limitations of social movement networks as mechanisms of political voice in Mapuche Chile. Although protest has largely fallen from favour in post-authoritarian Chile, environmental conflicts have shaken the southern territories of the Mapuche Indians since redemocratisation. State promises of indigenous recognition and state access have clashed headlong with ambitious regional development priorities in hydropower

  20. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  1. Education for development under the skies of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, Cecilia; Fischer, Olaf

    2015-03-01

    We report on an educational program initiated in Chile in the year 2010 on the frame of an excellence research and graduate exchange program between the University of Heidelberg and the Pontfica Catlica University in Chile, funded by the German International Exchange Office (DAAD).

  2. Coastal Upwelling off Chile: Ocean Productivity and Surface Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hebbeln; F. Lamy

    2002-01-01

    The coastal upwelling system of the Peru-Chile Current belongs to the most productive regions in the world oceans. In spite of this fact only very little is known about the sediment distribution in its southern part off the coast of Chile. To increase the knowledge about this region a multi-parameter study of the surface sediment distribution at over 100 sampling

  3. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  4. Report on the ESO Fellows Days in Chile 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, M.; Emsellem, E.

    2012-03-01

    The 2011 ESO Fellows Days were held in Chile and brought together over 30 ESO Fellows from Garching and Chile. As well as presentations of research and social activities, the Fellows Days included a visit to San Pedro de Atacama and the ALMA site.

  5. Factors influencing vegetation cover change in Mediterranean Central Chile (19752008)

    E-print Network

    Rey Benayas, José María

    Factors influencing vegetation cover change in Mediterranean Central Chile (1975­2008) Jennifer J that influence forest and shrubland loss and regeneration and their underlying drivers? Location: Central Chile biophysical and socioeconomic factors influence vegetation cover change and the underlying social, political

  6. World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donoso, Patricio; Gajardo, Marcela

    This document contains two case studies of adult education programs in Chile. Both case studies begin with a "face sheet" on which is recorded basic information about the program and the description. The first case study, prepared by Patricio Donoso, reports on Centro El Canelo de Nos, an inservice center for educators who work with Chile's most…

  7. Chile: Progress Stalled Setbacks in Freedom of Expression Reform

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    In March 2001, Human Rights Watch released this new report. "Chile: Progress Stalled Setbacks in Freedom of Expression Reform" examines the failure of the current democratic government of Chile to repeal repressive laws established and enforced under Pinochet, including laws that criminalize speech and make "contempt of authority" a crime against the state.

  8. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT ´OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIER´IA MEDICI ´ON DEL IMPACTO DE LA ALEJANDRO URZ ´UA M. #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT ´OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIER´IA MEDICI ´ON DEL

  9. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Hearne; K. William Easter

    1997-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limarí, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limarí valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993,

  10. Seismic folding in coastal south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vita-Finzi, C.; Mann, C. D.

    1994-06-01

    The great (M(sub w) = 9.3) Valficia earthquake of May 21-22 1960, was associated with ground deformation over a distance of over 800 km parallel to the Peru-Chile trench. Downwarping by as much as 2.3 m affected a belt averaging a width of 100 km which was bordered by a major upwarped zone in the west, where uplift locally attained 5.7 m, and a minor upwarped zone in hte east. The deformation has been explained by thin viscous sheet models or by dislocation models involving predominatntly dip-slip movement on thrust faults. We show that it can be modeled by elastic buckling o the overriding South Amercian plate without the need to invoke specific fault geometries. The proposed buckling mechanism accounts for both zones of upwarping and for the exceptionally rapid uplift experienced by Mocha Island to the west. Moreover, elastic relaxation provides a simple explanation for the postseismic revovery reproted by observers at several sites. It is also consistent with the results obtained by C-14 dating of fossil shorelines wihtin and outside the area affected by the 1960 events, which show that central and northern Chile has undergone little uplift during the last 30,000 years despite convergence between the South American and Nazca plates at over 90 mm/yr, although the presence of numerous older shorelines shows that coastal uplift was very active earlier in the Cenozoic.

  11. HIV Issues and Mapuches in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs. PMID:18457766

  12. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  13. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  14. The Politics of Space and Culture in Santiago, Chile’s Street Markets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Stillerman

    2006-01-01

    Recent discussions of contentious politics have focused on struggles in and over space and place. This article builds upon\\u000a these concerns by using ethnographic, interview, and documentary data to analyze the spatial politics of street market vendors\\u000a in Santiago, Chile. Drawing upon Lefebvre’s concepts of perceived, conceived, and lived space as well as ideas drawn from\\u000a research on space and

  15. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-06-01

    ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the ceremony, along with ambassadors in Chile of ESO members States, and representatives of the Chilean government and the scientific community. To review the impact of the numerous projects financed over the last decade, ESO presented the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", based on the reports of the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile fund. Since the beginning, the ESO-Chile fund has granted over 2.5 million euros to finance post-doc and astronomy professors for main Chilean universities, development of research infrastructure, organisation of scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers, and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In addition to the 400,000 euros given annually by ESO to the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, around 550,000 euros are granted every year to finance regional collaboration programmes, fellowships for students in Chilean universities, and the development of radio astronomy through the ALMA-Chile Committee. In total, apart form the 10 percent of the observing time at all ESO telescopes, ESO contributes annually with 950,000 euros for the promotion of astronomy and scientific culture in Chile. The growth of astronomy and related sciences in Chile in the last years has been outstanding. According to a study by the Chilean Academy of Science in 2005, the number of astronomers has doubled over the last 20 years and there has been an 8-fold increase in the number of scientific publications. It is gratifying to see that 100 percent of the observing time granted by international observatories in Chile is actually used by the national community. The same study stated that astronomy could be the first scientific discipline in Chile with the standards of a developed country, with additional benefits in terms of technological improvement and growth of human resources. The English edition of the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe" is available here. The Spanish edition can be downloaded here.

  16. Endemic scrub typhus-like illness, Chile.

    PubMed

    Balcells, M Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; García, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddó, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Kelly, Daryl J; Richards, Allen L; Fuerst, Paul A

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient's leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus-like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia. PMID:21888791

  17. Endemic Scrub Typhus–like Illness, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Balcells, M. Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; García, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddó, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.; Fuerst, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient’s leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus–like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia. PMID:21888791

  18. Exoplanet Surveys at Universidad de Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Patricio; Jenkins, James; Hoyer, Sergio; Jones, Matías

    2014-04-01

    We present and highlight the first results of the three main exoplanet surveys we are currently conducting at Universidad de Chile: CHEPS, Red Giant Exoplanets (radial velocity), and TraMoS (transit lightcurves). We have several interesting candidates at the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search (CHEPS) project, which is aimed at searching for the currently missing southern bright transiting planets at a few m/s radial velocity precision. Using the same technique, we are also characterizing the planetary population in a constrained sample of Red Giant stars. The Transit Monitoring from the South (TraMoS) project is aimed both at improving transit parameters and at detecting any kind of lightcurve variability from several known southern exoplanet systems.

  19. A Structural Analysis of Chile's Long-Term Growth: History, Prospects and Policy Implications*

    E-print Network

    A Structural Analysis of Chile's Long-Term Growth: History, Prospects and Policy Implications for the Government of Chile. We thank Eduardo Aninat, Javier Etcheverry, Alejandro Foxley, Guillermo Larrain, Manuel Catolica de Chile. *** Harvard University. #12;2 A Structural Analysis of Chile's Long-Term Growth: History

  20. Prospects for Photovoltaics in Sunny and Arid Regions: A Solar Grand Plan for Chile

    E-print Network

    Prospects for Photovoltaics in Sunny and Arid Regions: A Solar Grand Plan for Chile Part I National Laboratory, 3Fundación Chile, 4University of Antofagasta, 5Solar Energy Research Center (SERC-Chile) #12;Chile: The Atacama Solar Resource Capacity: 4.6 GW Load: 15.4 TWh 50 MW 99 MW Station Horizontal

  1. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA propósitos específicos Flujo de Potencia de M. Pajan (en página http://www.ing.puc.cl/~power/education/Education

  2. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA programa GOL, sus archivos de datos y las instrucciones de uso de la siguiente página Web: http://www.ing.puc.cl/~power/education/education

  3. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA ELECTRICA se entregarán a través de la página Web http://www.ing.puc.cl/power/education/education.htm PROBLEMA

  4. Latin American Outlook April 1, 2000: Chile Moves On

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Folcoff, Mark.

    2000-01-01

    The April 2000 issue of Latin American Outlook from the AEI consists of the article "Chile Moves On," by Mark Folcoff. Latin American Outlook is a monthly newsletter on political and economic developments in Latin America.

  5. Preliminary forecast model energy map - 2010 Chile event

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOAA Tsunami Warning Center

    This image show preliminary calculations for wave height resulting from the February 2010 tsunami generated by the 8.8 magnitude earthquake that struck just offshore of Maule, Chile on February 27, 2010.

  6. Household treatment for "chile burns" of the hands.

    PubMed

    Jones, L A; Tandberg, D; Troutman, W G

    1987-01-01

    In New Mexico, chile peppers (Capsicum annum) are prepared by roasting and manually removing the skin from the fruit. Peeling is often done barehanded and may cause prolonged burning pain, irritation, and erythema but not vesication. In a survey of elderly Hispanic women, treatment with oils or cool tap water were frequently used home remedies. Twenty female subjects immersed their hands in a standardized slurry of green chile for 40 minutes, afterwards one hand was placed in cool tap water and the other in vegetable oil for a total of 75 minutes. Pain was scored using a visual analog scale while the hands were immersed in the chile slurry, test baths, and after drying. The difference in pain score was calculated for each subject. Analysis was by pooled regression. Cool tap water immersion initially provided more relief while vegetable oil provided better long-term relief from the pain of "chile burns". PMID:3441015

  7. Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries

    E-print Network

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

  8. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA LICITACIONES DE ENERGÍA EL�CTRICA ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica LICITACIONES DE ENERGÍA EL�CTRICA RODRIGO

  9. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ALMACENAMIENTO DE ENERGÍA POR BOMBEO ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ALMACENAMIENTO DE ENERGÍA POR BOMBEO (HYDRO-PUMPED STORAGE) EN EL MARCO REGULATORIO

  10. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: EFECTOS EN LA INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: EFECTOS EN LA GENERACI�N HIDROEL�CTRICA EN

  11. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA MECANISMOS PARA LA INVERSI�N Y INGENIERIA MECANISMOS PARA LA INVERSI�N Y REMUNERACI�N DE LA TRANSMISI�N DE ENERGÍA EL�CTRICA JUAN DAVID

  12. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DISEÃ?O Y CONSTRUCCIÃ?N DE CONVERSOR INGENIERIA Departamento de (departamento) DISEÃ?O Y CONSTRUCCIÃ?N DE CONVERSOR DC-DC PARA CONTROL DE

  13. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA AUMENTO DE EFICIENCIA DE CENTRALES INGENIERIA AUMENTO DE EFICIENCIA DE CENTRALES TERMOEL�CTRICAS Y NUCLEARES USANDO ENERGÍA OC�ANO T�RMICA

  14. Electricity Reform in Chile: Lessons for Developing Countries

    E-print Network

    Pollitt, Michael G.

    2006-03-14

    Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of itselectricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina hashad a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. This paper traces...

  15. Currents in the deep ocean off Chile (30°S)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Shaffer; Sergio Salinas; Oscar Pizarro; Andres Vega; Samuel Hormazabal

    1995-01-01

    Results are reported from the first recording current meter observations in the eastern boundary current system off Chile. Currents at 100 m and 3400 m were observed for a 4–6 month period during the austral spring-summer-fall period of 1991–1992 at a deep ocean site 150 km off the Chilean coast and 70 km seaward of the axis of the Peru-Chile

  16. Opportunities for improving disaster management in Chile: a case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulina Aldunce; Alejandro León

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper seeks to propose measures to improve management of rainfall-related disasters in Chile. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research was carried out as a case study in the semi-arid region of Chile where above-normal rainy events occur once or twice during some rainy seasons. Measures to improve management are suggested based on theory, field data, and community participation. The

  17. Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile Tsunami

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hermann M. Fritz; Catherine M. Petroff; Patricio A. Catalán; Rodrigo Cienfuegos; Patricio Winckler; Nikos Kalligeris; Robert Weiss; Sergio E. Barrientos; Gianina Meneses; Carolina Valderas-Bermejo; Carl Ebeling; Athanassios Papadopoulos; Manuel Contreras; Rafael Almar; Juan Carlos Dominguez; Costas E. Synolakis

    On 27 February 2010, a magnitude M\\u000a w = 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile’s Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life. Ancestral tsunami\\u000a knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously\\u000a evacuate after the earthquake. Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds. The international tsunami

  18. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

  19. After the Coup: Four Dramatic Versions of Allende's Chile

    E-print Network

    Layera, Ramó n

    1978-10-01

    -going American student of Spanish literature doing his research in Chile months before the coup. In spite of its direct connection with recent Chilean history, Pequenos animales abatidos does not suffer from the familiar slice-of-life syndrome. Sieveking... Vodanovic," pp. 232-254, in "Contemporary Spanish American Drama of Denunciation and Social Protest: The Case of Argentina and Chile." Unpub. Ph.D. diss., State University of New York at Binghamton, 1977. 6. See Ramón Layera, "Translating Latin American...

  20. Catastrophic influences on the vegetation of the Valdivian Andes, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas T. Veblen; David H. Ashton

    1978-01-01

    Summary  In association with a devastating earthquake in 1960, thousands of debris avalanches, landslides, and mudflows occurred in\\u000a the Andes of south-central Chile. Catastrophic mass movements associated with seismic activity have affected the Andes of\\u000a south-central Chile several times in the past 400 years and have profoundly influenced the regional vegetation.\\u000a \\u000a The most widespread forest types in the Andean Cordillera of

  1. Becoming Mapuche: Person and Ritual in Indigenous Chile

    E-print Network

    Metz, Brent

    2011-01-01

    KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Becoming Mapuche: Person and Ritual in Indigenous Chile 2011 Reviewed by Brent Metz This work has been made available by the University of Kansas Libraries’ Office of Scholarly Communication... and Copyright. This is the author’s accepted manuscript, post peer-review. The original published version is available from the following URL. 2012 Becoming Mapuche: Person and Ritual in Indigenous Chile, by Magnus Course. University of Illinois Press...

  2. Cuerpo, educacin y liderazgo poltico: una mirada desde el gnero y

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    , education and political leadership: a gender and feminist perspective #12;Sara Poggio y María Amelia Viteri Bodies, education and political leadership: a gender and feminist perspective #12;Índice Prólogo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Carolina Páez Vacas What, no tie? Political campaigns, gender, and leadership in Chile

  3. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index. Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  4. ENSO influence on precipitation in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, H. H.; Nordemann, D.; Rigozo, N.; Prestes, A.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.

    The influence of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon on precipitation in Chile is analyzed using precipitation data recorded in various Chilean cities at latitudes varying from 29°S to 53°S, for time intervals between 56 and 128 years. Spectral analysis was performed using Morlet wavelet transform. Among the twelve cities object of this study seven towns present higher precipitation associated to El Niño 7 yr periodicities. These periodicities were found between 1910 and 1920 at Valparaíso (32°S), Punta Angeles (33°S), Santiago (33°S) and Valdívia (39°S). For Punta Arenas (53°S), Isla Guafo (43°S) and Puerto Aysen (45°S) these periodicities were more intense in the intervals 1922-1940, 1940-1950 and 1952-1963, respectively. Between 1910 and 1920 there occurred eight El Niño events; three of them were strong episodes (1911, 1912, 1917) and three others were moderate, short and more localized, (1910, 1914 and 1915). Between 1922 and 1940 there occurred eight events: two very strong episodes (1925 and 1926), two strong episodes (1932 and 1940) and one moderate episode (1939). Between 1940 and 1950, three events occurred: one strong (1941) and one moderate (1943). Between 1952 and 1963, three events occurred: two strong episodes (1957 and 1958) and one moderate episode (1953). Periodicities between 2 and 4 yr were found in eight cities and periodicities between 4 and 6 yr were found in five cities analyzed.

  5. [Housedust mites in Punta Arenas city, Chile].

    PubMed

    Franjola, R; Rosinelli, D

    1999-01-01

    In medicine, the importance of mites in house dust gains importance from day to day. The close relation between these arthropods and man is the cause of a series of health problems such as allergic asthma, rhinitis and/or dermatitis. House dust samples were collected between January and December 1991 in Punta Arenas, city, Chile. Samples were processed by the Artigas and Casanueva (1983) technique, modified by Muñoz et al. (1983). The isolated specimens were subsequently identified using the Artigas and Casnueva (1983) pictorial key. Of the 134 samples study, 29.1% presented one or more mite species. A total of 13 species were classified. Eight of them were registered for the city of Punta Arenas for the first time. Average weight of the dust analysed was 8.4 g. Mites were found from 0.2 g. onwards. A total of 1768 specimens was collected. The species more representative were: Blomia tjibodas (30.1%), Glycyphagus destructor (22.5%) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (10.8%). The seasons that presented the higher proportions of mites were autumn (39.4%) and spring (37.1%). PMID:10883495

  6. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

    2005-09-15

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. PMID:16163355

  7. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  8. Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

  9. De la hegemonía a la multipolaridad en el comercio internacional desde la posguerra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemente Forero; Adolfo Hernández

    1987-01-01

    El presente artículo se propone interpretar los cambios que en el curso de la posguerra han sufrido las participaciones de unos cuantos países y grupos de países en el comercio mundial desde la posguerra. Algunas de éstas se han mantenido relativamente estables; otras han experimentado variaciones abruptas, lo que plantea interrogantes acerca de tres cuestiones cruciales de la economía mundial:

  10. SYMPTOMS OF ANOTHER LIFE: Time, Possibility, and Domestic Relations in Chile’s Credit Economy

    PubMed Central

    HAN, CLARA

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I explore the synergy and disjunctures of the consumer credit system and care for the mentally ill and addicted in the lifeworlds of the urban poor in Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the expansion of the credit system has had a double-edged effect on the poor. Although it produces perpetual indebtedness, it also is a resource amid unstable labor. Following an extended family over several years, this article examines how women take up credit through a wider field of domestic relations and institutions to care for kin with mental illness and addiction within the home. Such gestures of care enact a temporality of waiting, allowing different, but unpredictable, aspects of others to emerge. Through longitudinal ethnographic research with this family, I demonstrate both how possibility is actualized within the home as symptoms of illness and forms of domestic violence, and how a wider network of dependencies—from neighbors to lending institutions—shapes the temporality of relations within the home. Such a study of care in relation to the credit economy may offer other analytic perspectives on discourses of individualism, consumerism, and cost-effectiveness accompanying the expansion of consumer credit as they are absorbed into the everyday. PMID:21510328

  11. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  12. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient for a community that has doubled. Likewise, even 50% of the productivity corresponds to regional centres, only 35% of projects coming from FONDECYT are awarded to the regions (away from the metropolitan region). Regarding experimental Physics, this represents 20% of the community in both, researchers and productivity of the community. However, in the regular FONDECYT contest in 2005, only 2 projects (10%) were awarded in experimental Physics, which is undoubtedly insufficient. The study also includes a brief analysis according to social appraisal of Physics, dissemination activities to other areas of national living, and relation of Physics with the productive sector. Finally, some recommendations are made: - To create a special fund for experimental Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. Complementarily, experimental Physics should be one of the priority areas for the technological and scientific development of the country. - To duplicate the amount assigned to Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. - To create a system that allows increasing the salaries of the researchers in Physics so they could be assimilated to other professional salaries in our country or at an international level. Not only demands must be globalized but also the benefits.

  13. Glacier inventory of the upper Huasco valley, Norte Chico, Chile: glacier characteristics, glacier change and comparison with

    E-print Network

    Rabatel, Antoine

    Glacier inventory of the upper Huasco valley, Norte Chico, Chile: glacier characteristics, glacier Chile, Portugal 84, Casilla 3387, Santiago, Chile ABSTRACT. Results of a new glacier inventory identified, and glaciers with surface areas glacierized area and 3% of the water

  14. [Penicillin Production in Chile between 1944 and 1954].

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Cecilia; Parada, Mirtha

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production in Chile was a pioneering development; however there is not much information to learn about it. The Chilean Institute for Bacteriology (Instituto Bacteriológico de Chile) produced penicillin between 1944 and 1973. The stage starting in 1953 is better known since there was an agreement with United Nations. Our research focused on building a story about production between 1944 and 1954 based on archival information and the national and international historic context. Our results place Chile amongst the pioneer countries in the successful industrialization of the drug. Our conclusions are that this was a proper industrial production as opposite to a pilot plant - a name commonly used to call the early factory. We explain the production plant trajectory by making relations between technological change and governance. Finally, we believe the later expansion of the plant, in the context of the agreement with the United Nations, took place under unpromising governance conditions, which called for passive innovation and technology management. PMID:25860052

  15. Going beyond city boarders: the case of Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal cities interact in various ways with the adjacent ocean. Such interactions are of particular interest over central Chile where: 1) substantial emissions of oxidized sulfur in connection with copper smelting, power plants and possibly volcanic quasi permanent degassing occur; 2) upwelling results in hot spots of biogenic bromine and iodine; 3) substantial production of sea-salt aerosols takes place. These interactions may constitute an important constrain when defining policy measures for addressing air pollution in the most urbanized regions of Chile. This is because Chilean cities are applying curbing measures on a relatively fast pace, which may turn halogen chemistry relevant in the upcoming decades when defining appropriate measures for air pollution control and emission reductions of chemically active tracers. We overview these issues and look out for ways of addressing them in the framework of the recently awarded Center for Climate and Resilience Research in Chile.

  16. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one thousand aftershocks during the following week using waveform cross-correlation and the double-difference algorithm. Aftershocks reveal that rupture during this earthquake was confined to the deeper part (35 - 55 km depth) of the seismogenic coupling zone, except near the Mejillones peninsula that marks rupture termination in the south. Here earthquake activity reaches to depths of 20 km and even shallower, possibly indicating upper plate activation. The sequence also features an M 6.8 earthquake that broke the oceanic slab on an almost vertical plane at the down-dip end of the megathrust rupture. Confrontation with the aftershock distribution of the 1995 M 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake on the adjoining southern segment reveals an intriguing mirror symmetry with an axis crossing the Mejillones peninsula, emphasizing the penisula's significance as a segment boundary. Since then activity inside the remaining seismic gap to the north picked up with three earthquakes exceeding magnitude 6, maybe heralding the next great rupture.

  17. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the...order would supersede a prior order issued to the Australia Fund. DATES: Filing Dates: The...

  18. Last date modified 1/11/13 Location and Institution CHILE -SANTIAGO

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    Last date modified 1/11/13 Location and Institution CHILE - SANTIAGO UNIVERSIDAD: March - July Course Subjects Courses are offered in Economics and Business, Social in Chile. You must apply as soon as possible once accepted. Documents must

  19. Evolucin del desarrollo y del costo de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el mundo y en Chile

    E-print Network

    Rudnick, Hugh

    Evolución del desarrollo y del costo de los sistemas fotovoltaicos en el mundo y en Chile Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Escuela de Ingeniería Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica IEE3372............................................................................................ 28 SMA Solar Technology

  20. The ozone hole over Punta Arenas, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Casiccia S., C. A. R.; Zamorano B., F.

    1997-04-01

    Three fundamental questions are addressed for the location of Punta Arenas (53.0°S, 70.9°W), Chile: Does the Antarctic ozone hole extend over the city? If so, at what height is most of the ozone depleted? And by how much does the UVB radiation increase under ozone hole conditions? It is shown that Punta Arenas is affected by the Antarctic ozone hole, even though it is a considerable distance away from the pole. In comparison with the average global trend of -0.25% per year, the downward ozone trend at Punta Arenas is -0.5% per year (twice as large as the global average) and -1.2% per year (almost 5 times larger than the global average) using the monthly October averages. To obtain these figures, an ozone climatology of TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) data from 1979 to 1992 has been used. Observations of the ozone hole over Punta Arenas are described during the austral spring periods of 1992, 1993, and 1994. Systematic observations with a Brewer spectrophotometer have been made in order to measure the vertical column of ozone and the simultaneous variations in UVB radiation. In addition, the vertical distribution of ozone has been investigated during ozone hole conditions, by using ozone ECC (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) sondes launched on balloons, in order to determine at which height the ozone is reduced most. Using the 220 DU (Dobson Units) threshold as reference, we identified the ozone hole over Punta Arenas on five occasions during the 3 year period of these observations, September 1993, October 1992, 1994; and November 1993 and 1994. The vertical distribution of ozone during ozone hole conditions shows maximum ozone destruction efficiency near 15-17 km, where ozone nearly vanishes completely, on several occasions. The largest amount of ozone depletion, however, occurs above this height, just under and at the main ozone peak, where it may reach about 50%. The UVB radiation in small spectral bands may increase dramatically during ozone hole events; at 295-297 nm the observed factors of increase for Punta Arenas were between 10 and 38. The maximum integrated/weighted intensities in October, during hole events increased over background values between 2 and 3 times, which represent values near the local summer maximum but not yet beyond levels normally observed at low-latitude stations.

  1. Managing human resources in the Latin American context: the case of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregorio Perez Arrau; Elaine Eades; John Wilson

    2012-01-01

    In this article several aspects of human resource management (HRM) in Chile will be examined. Initially Chile will be analysed in the context of Latin American culture and history, as it shares a number of common features with the rest of the countries of the region. Secondly, the arrival of HRM to Chile is explored, as well as how it

  2. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  3. NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 1 NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY

  4. CHILE: LA TRANSFORMACIN DEL ESPACIO PBLICO A TRAVS DE LA MOVILIZACIN SOCIAL1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CHILE: LA TRANSFORMACIÓN DEL ESPACIO PÚBLICO A TRAVÉS DE LA MOVILIZACIÓN SOCIAL1 Nathalie Goldstein movimientos sociales del IV Congreso CEISAL, Toulouse 2010. 2 Arquitecta Universidad de Chile, profesora M.2 Resumen: En Chile las ciudades se van construyendo sin tomar en cuenta a sus habitantes. La

  5. Big Blue in the Bottomless Pit: The Early Years of IBM Chile

    E-print Network

    Medina, Eden

    Big Blue in the Bottomless Pit: The Early Years of IBM Chile Eden Medina Indiana University In examining the history of IBM in Chile, this article asks how IBM came to dominate Chile's computer market, journalists, and historians of business, technology, and com- puting have all made important contributions

  6. Occurrence of sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Chile (redescription of Iguanodonichnus frenki)

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Occurrence of sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Chile (redescription studied Upper Jurassic dinosaur unit in South America, the Ban~os del Flaco Formation, Chile. Keywords: Chile; Dinosaur footprints; Parabrontopodus; Sauropod; Upper Jurassic Resu´men En el presente

  7. ANÁLISIS PRELIMINAR DE COMPUESTOS FENÓLICOS Y CAPSAICINOIDES EN VARIEDADES DE CHILE CON DIFERENTE CAPACIDAD PUNGENTE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvador Horacio; Guzmán Maldonado; Irineo Torres Pacheco; Mario González Chavira; María Alejandra; Mora Avilés; Guadalupe Herrera Hernández; David Hernández López

    El chile jalapeño provoca un alto nivel de irritación a diferentes niveles del tracto estomacal en comparación con el chile habanero. A pesar de que el chile habanero presenta una mayor capacidad pungente, no es irritante. A la fecha se desconoce la naturaleza de los compuestos responsables de este efecto. En el presente trabajo se reporta el análisis preliminar de

  8. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

  9. Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile

    E-print Network

    Madariaga, Raúl

    Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile A. Gardi,1,2 A. Lemoine,1,3 R Chile, where an exceptional series of more than 12 earthquakes of magnitudes from 6 to 7.6 has occurred. Madariaga, and J. Campos (2006), Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile, J

  10. Ionospheric density variations recorded before the 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake in Chile

    E-print Network

    Santolik, Ondrej

    Ionospheric density variations recorded before the 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake in Chile D. Písa,1,2,3 M spacecraft in the vicinity of a very powerful earthquake in Chile. This earthquake of moment magnitude 8. Santolík (2011), Ionospheric density variations recorded before the 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake in Chile, J

  11. Andean Geology 40 (2): 359-391. May, 2013 Andean Geology formerly Revista Geolgica de Chile

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Andean Geology 40 (2): 359-391. May, 2013 Andean Geology formerly Revista Geológica de Chile www: Chaitén Volcano, Chile Frederick J. Swanson1 , Julia A. Jones2 , Charles M. Crisafulli3 , Antonio Lara4 1. ccrisafulli@fs.fed.us 4 Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56-53... § 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56-53... § 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

  16. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

  20. Seasonal dynamics of the near-surface alongshore flow off central Chile

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Seasonal dynamics of the near-surface alongshore flow off central Chile Catalina Aguirre,1 Ã?scar-surface circulation off central Chile was analyzed using satellite altimetry and an oceanic model. To evaluate), Seasonal dynamics of the near-surface alongshore flow off central Chile, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C01006, doi

  1. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

  2. The 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake: Downdip rupture limit revealed by space geodesy

    E-print Network

    Vernon, Frank

    The 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake: Downdip rupture limit revealed by space geodesy Xiaopeng Tong,1 with the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. The ALOS interferograms reveal a sharp transition in fringe. (2010), The 2010 Maule, Chile earth- quake: Downdip rupture limit revealed by space geodesy, Geo- phys

  3. Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake

    E-print Network

    Vernon, Frank

    Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile of southern Chile ruptured a 600 km length of subduction zone. In this paper, we make two independent estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip

  4. Distribution of slip from 11 Mw > 6 earthquakes in the northern Chile subduction zone

    E-print Network

    Simons, Mark

    Distribution of slip from 11 Mw > 6 earthquakes in the northern Chile subduction zone M. E in northern Chile (23°­25°S) between the years 1993 and 2000. We invert body wave waveforms and geodetic data. Simons (2006), Distribution of slip from 11 Mw > 6 earthquakes in the northern Chile subduction zone, J

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56-53... § 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

  6. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

  7. Social housing policies under changing framework condi-tions in Santiago de Chile

    E-print Network

    Borsdorf, Axel

    Social housing policies under changing framework condi- tions in Santiago de Chile Axel Borsdorf, Rodrigo Hidalgo & Hugo Zunino Social housing in Chile and its capital Santiago has a chequered history, segregation, new poverty, Santiago de Chile Soziale Wohnbaupolitik unter wechselnden Rahmenbedingungen

  8. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean-born (with similar health needs, i.e. horizontal inequity). Factors associated with immigrants’ access to, and use of, healthcare were sex, urban/rural status, education and country of origin. Conclusion There were significant associations between SES, and access to and use of healthcare among immigrants in Chile and a higher prevalence of no health care provision entitlement among poor and disabled immigrants compared to the Chilean-born. Changing associations between access and use of healthcare and SES among immigrants in Chile over time may reflect changes in their socio-demographic composition or in the survey methodology between 2006 and 2009. Resumen Introducción La evidencia internacional indica menor acceso y uso de servicios de salud por parte de inmigrantes, pero sus factores desencadenantes varían significativamente dependiendo del contexto. Algunas investigaciones se han desarrollado en este tema en América Latina, desde una perspectiva cualitativa. Este estudio cuantitativo exploró el auto-reporte de acceso y uso de servicios de salud de inmigrantes en Chile y los comparó con la población chilena. Métodos Análisis secundario de datos de encuesta nacional CASEN 2006 y 2009. Inmigrantes fueron comparados con chilenos en características demográficas (edad, sexo, urbano/rural, composición del hogar, etnia), estatus socioeconómico (educación, ingreso, situación contractual), tipo de previsión (pública, privada, otra, ninguna), y uso de varios servicios de atención primaria. Análisis descriptivo, estratificado, y modelos de regresión ponderados para entender factores asociados al acceso y uso de servicios de salud en STATA 11.0. Resultados Se observó un aumento de reporte de inmigrantes y de la desigualdad en el ingreso de inmigrantes entre 2006 y 2009. Hubo una disminución en la tasa de inmigrantes sin previsión y un aumento en el acceso al sistema privado. Los inmigrantes usaron más frecuentemente la atención prenatal y ginec

  9. Policies for small and medium-sized enterprises in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecilia Alarcón; Giovanni Stumpo

    In 1991, the Government of Chile began to pursue a new business development strategy. The Small and Medium-sized Enterprise Support Programme (Programa de Apoyo a la Pequeña y Mediana Empresa) provides for a number of instruments to correct market failures and improve the efficiency, productivity, competitiveness and international trading position of Chilean products made by these firms. The importance of

  10. Pattern of glacial—interglacial vegetation in subtropical Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Heusser

    1994-01-01

    Pleistocene vegetation in the Mediterranean climate region of subtropical Chile during >40,000 yr of the last glaciation stands in contrast with vegetation of the past 10,000 yr of the present interglaciation. During the last ice age, open woodland of southern beech (Nothofagus dombeyi and N. obliqua types) and Andean podocarp (Prumnopitys andina) mixed with grasses and composites, was established on

  11. Quaternary Pollen Record from Laguna De Tagua Tagua, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calvin J. Heusser

    1983-01-01

    Pollen of southern beech and podocarp at Laguna de Tagua Tagua during the late Pleistocene indicates that cooler and more humid intervals were a feature of Ice Age climate at this subtropical latitude in Chile. The influence of the southern westerlies may have been greater at this time, and the effect of the Pacific anticyclone was apparently weakened. The climate

  12. Building Blocks for a Better Functioning Housing Market in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aida Caldera Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Chile has made good progress in improving housing conditions, but still around 10% of the population lives in either overcrowded houses, or of inadequate quality and\\/or with poor access to basic services. Improving further housing conditions of the poor is important for curbing poverty and reducing inequality. First, better targeting of housing subsidies will be essential to free resources for

  13. SEGURIDAD ENERGETICASEGURIDAD ENERGETICA UN DESAFIO PARA CHILEUN DESAFIO PARA CHILE

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Universidad Católica de Chile Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica Hugh Rudnick 24 Noviembre 2006 #12;2 Tabla Producto Geográfico Bruto versus Consumo Energético (Fuente: CNE y Banco Central) Desarrollo económico y con petróleo a EEUU en relación a Israel el año 1970 ·Venezuela utilizando energía para influir en

  14. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Sánchez; Álvaro Salinas; Jordan Harris

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries have developed their educational systems by integrating ICT were analyzed, including

  15. Reducing Poverty in Chile: Cash Transfers and Better Jobs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Brandt

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding impressive progress, poverty and inequality remain high in Chile in OECD comparison, and the tax-benefit system does little to improve on this. The government plans to introduce a new cash transfer for the poor, the Ingreso Ético Familiar. This is a welcome initiative. However, the transfer will be modest by OECD standards, at least initially, and it will be

  16. The Golden Period for Growth in Chile. Explanations and Forecasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Gallego; Norman Loayza

    2002-01-01

    Economic growth in Chile since the mid 1980s has been remarkable for its high level and persistence. This paper attempts to shed light on the factors behind it and analyze the extent to which they can be sustained in the future. The first part of the paper presents some stylized facts. Taken together, they suggest that the jump in growth

  17. Healthcare Accessibility Shortfalls and Hospital Infrastructures In Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Mainardi

    2009-01-01

    To measure healthcare accessibility, a previous study formulated a stochastic cost frontier model, and applied it to distances of communal centres from nearest emergency hospitals in Chile. Based on a larger set of variables, this study re-estimates the distance threshold, and tests alternative specifications and distribution assumptions over the period 2000-05. Complementing the analysis, ordered probit regressions help examine the

  18. Franchising of infrastructure concessions in Chile: A Policy Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2000-01-01

    This report describes and evaluates the present state of the Chilean infrastructure concessions program. This program is leading to a complete upgrade of Chile's highway system and has been recently extended to seaports. The main principles underlying the economics of franchising are examined and used to evaluate the programof privatizations of highways and seaports. Compared with experiences in other countries,

  19. Network liberalization and developing countries: The case of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Stehmann

    1995-01-01

    The opening of Chile's telecommunications infrastructure to private and foreign investment has led to a rapid modernization of the network and to improvements in universal service. In 1994 all remaining regulatory entry barriers to the local, long-distance and international markets were removed for both service providers and network operators. Full digitization of switches and specific characteristics of the Chilean network

  20. Mirando el Desarrollo Económico de Chile: Una Comparación Internacional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Fuentes

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relative position of Chile in time and compared with other emerging and industrial economies, through various economic development indicators, particularly over the past two decades. It provides a descriptive analysis, without exploring causalities or testing hypotheses on the economic growth of the country. This analysis reveals the strengths and weaknesses that serve as the base for

  1. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN PERIPHERAL VERSUS CORE REGIONS: LESSONS FROM CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Ernesto Amorós; Christian Felzensztein; Eli Gimmon

    2010-01-01

    Governmental policies in many countries are designed to boost and support entrepreneurship in peripheral regions (Lerner 2009). This paper analyzes the perceptions about entrepreneurship framework conditions (Levie & Autio 2008) at regional level in Chile. We applied one of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s methodologies, the National Experts Survey, to a sample of 695 key informants in eight regions of which

  2. Intergenerational Mobility of Income and Schooling: Chile 1996-2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Celhay; Claudia Sanhueza; Jose R. Zubizarreta

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyze intergenerational income and schooling mobility during the 1996-2006 decade in Chile. Using the countries most extended household panel survey, we overcome some of the limitations of the previous Chilean studies by using observed income data for both parents and children, as opposed to observed income data only for children and income data that is generated

  3. MBA Education in Latin America: The Case of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José L. Contreras; Erich Spencer Ruff

    2002-01-01

    Recent economic growth in Chile has created a need for qualified business professionals who are capable of making important business decisions in an increasingly globalized and competitive environment where cultural pluralism and uncertain conditions abound. In this article, the authors discuss the MBA programs of three prominent Chilean universities that have set out to meet the demand for qualified business

  4. The Educational Transition and Decreasing Wage Inequality in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Eberhard; Eduardo Engel

    The wage of the 90th (richest) percentile of the wage distribution in Chile increased faster than the median wage and the wage of the 10th percentile between 1975 and 1990. By contrast, from 1990 onwards the wage of the 10th percentile and the median wage grew faster than the 90th percentile. This is one of many ndings showing that wage

  5. The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

    2008-01-01

    Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private…

  6. The Evaluation of Education in Chile: Two Opposing Approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Inzunza Higueras

    2009-01-01

    Summary The case of Chile seems to be one of those most affected by the bursting in of neoliberalism worldwide. Due to the imposition by force, the Chilean education model lived through a series of transformations, which lead to a betrayal of its republican history, as seen in the privatization of education services and the way the right to education

  7. Art in Social Movements: Shantytown Women's Protest in Pinochet's Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Adams

    2002-01-01

    How social movements use art is an understudied question in the social movements literature. Ethnographic research on the use of art by the prodemocracy movement in Pinochet's Chile suggests that art plays a very important role in social movements, which use it for framing, to attract resources, to communicate information about themselves, to foster useful emotions, and as a symbol

  8. Popular Education for Peasant Communities in Chile. Chapter 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infante R., Isabel; Letelier G., Eugenia

    The rural population of Chile has been served poorly by the formal educational system, rural educational attainment lags behind that of urban areas, and outmigration and alienation of rural youth are high. In the past decade, popular education has attempted to educate rural people and put them in control of their destinies by drawing on popular…

  9. Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Salazar; R. C. Saldana

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002–2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between

  10. An index of sustainable economic welfare (ISEW) for Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz E. Castaneda; Silvia Tiezzi

    1999-01-01

    Chile has experienced a period of strong economic growth. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has doubled in the past 12 years, however, income inequality remains relatively the same as in the 1960s. The economic growth is primarily attributed to the exports of natural resources, which accounts for 80% of total exports. However, the GDP fails to account for the loss

  11. Pablo Valdes-Donoso DVM (University of Chile), MPVM (UCD).

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    and justification of measures to prevent, control and eradicate population diseases. Keywords: animal health with factors, such as the environmental health, the interphase among humans, domestic and wildlife animals) 2010 Surveillance and Control of Sea Lice in Chile, estimation of sample size to bimonthly monitoring

  12. School Choice in Chile: Two Decades of Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauri, Varun

    This book examines the decentralization and privatization of schools in Chile. It analyzes whether the introduction of market mechanisms in the supply of, and demand for, schools enhances educational performance. The text discusses the microeconomic assumptions underlying the proposition that elementary and secondary education could function as a…

  13. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  14. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA. PMID:24861179

  15. Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 Clonal Complex, Chile 2012

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Pamela; Del Canto, Felipe; Seoane, Mabel; Ibarz-Pavón, Ana B.; Barra, Gisselle; Pidal, Paola; Díaz, Janepsy; Hormazábal, Juan C.; Valenzuela, María T.

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis was the main cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Chile during 2012. The case-fatality rate for this disease was higher than in previous years. Genotyping of meningococci isolated from case-patients identified the hypervirulent lineage W:P1.5,2:ST-11, which contained allele 22 of the fHbp gene. PMID:25625322

  16. Good Cops: Institutional roots of police honesty in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo A. Wagner

    Having a honest police is a really important public good. However, it is very hard to implement. This paper explores a functional and honest police force - Carabineros de Chile - to understand how incentives and organizational aspects shape the behavior of the street level cop. This organization attracts more educated people, trains them longer and gives police- men more

  17. International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic…

  18. Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    7 th ISE & 8 th HIC Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN OPEN-CHANNEL NETWORKS channels which are specific eco-systems for many reasons. Firstly, they have to fulfill hydraulic, artificial channels have a relatively simple geometry and their hydraulic variables are easier to monitor

  19. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung

  20. Inequality, Poverty and Social Policy: Recent Trends in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osvaldo Larrañaga

    2009-01-01

    This report aims to outline the main trends in income distribution and poverty in Chile, as well as the role of social policy in these areas. The report includes five sections. First, it discusses recent trends in income inequality and poverty, including a brief overview of the data available in the country. Second, it describes the country’s social protection programs,

  1. XXV CONGRESO LATINOAMERICANO DE HIDRULICA SANTAGO, CHILE, AGOSTO 2014

    E-print Network

    COMPARATIVO DE LA DINÁMICA DE SWASH ALTAMENTE ENERG�TICO EN UNA PLAYA DISIPATIVA (MATAQUITO, CHILE) Y swash. Esta técnica permite medir el impacto de ola tras ola sobre la morfología de la playa a alta frecuencia temporal (T ~ evento de swash). Resultados preliminares muestran grandes diferencias en la

  2. [The 140th anniversary of Revista Médica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Reyes, B Humberto; Andresen, H Max; Palma, H Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Revista Médica de Chile was founded in 1872 and thus is one of the oldest medical journals being published since the 19th Century. The sponsoring institution--"Sociedad Médica de Santiago", founded in 1869--initially was the only scientific society in Chile, gathering medical doctors from every existing specialty. With the splitting of independent organizations representing specific specialties, including subspecial-ties of internal medicine, Sociedad Médica de Santiago focused its scope of action to become the "Chilean Society of Internal Medicine". Its official journal -Revista Médica de Chile--is currently a general and internal medicine journal that also publishes articles on scientific and technological advances in many fields of medicine and health sciences. While initially all authors were Chilean, the journal is now open to submissions from abroad and since the year 2000 articles are published in English when the local language of authors is not Spanish. The number of articles received determines an increasing administrative and editorial burden and, together with the high cost of publishing, will require changes in publication policies. The journal will participate in continuing medical education programs as soon as reaccreditation of medical specialties becomes officially organized in Chile. PMID:22552549

  3. Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

  4. PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA PLANIFICACI�N DE LA EXPANSI�N DE LA ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica PLANIFICACI�N DE LA EXPANSI�N DE LA TRANSMISI�N

  5. Soil Testing and Plant Analysis Relationships for Irrigated Chile Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Babcock; J. C. Silvertooth

    2012-01-01

    In a field study of irrigated chile (Capsicum annum L.) production in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico from 2008 through 2009, soil and tissue test samples were analyzed for a spectrum of plant nutrients at 16 different sites, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and boron (B). The objectives were to evaluate soil and

  6. Determinantes de la mortalidad de la población en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Galleguillos; María Isabel Sierralta

    El objetivo de esta investigación es encontrar aquellas variables determinantes del nivel de mortalidad de la población en Chile. Se plantea como hipótesis la existencia de variables distintas a las de atención médica, que afectan en conjunto con éstas, la tasa de mortalidad. El modelo econométrico formulado, utiliza datos de las 13 regiones del país para el período 1976-1984. Se

  7. Consistent CMT solutions before the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoshan Wang; Guiling Diao; Xiangdong Feng; Yaqiong Yang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we define the angle between P, B, and T axes of focal mechanisms and three stress axes of tectonic stress field as the consistent parameter, to research the dynamic changes of stress field in earthquake preparation area before great earthquake. We mainly studied the change of the consistent parameter before the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake using the

  8. Recalibrando la medición del balance estructural en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Marcel; Mabel Cabezas; Bernardita Piedrabuena

    2012-01-01

    El presente resumen de políticas realiza una revisión sistemática de la metodología de estimación del Balance Estructural (BE) en Chile. Esta revisión no sólo recapitula y evalúa la justificación de la metodología de cálculo del BE actual o las pasadas, sino que explora diversas alternativas de mejoramiento, en la perspectiva de elevar la calidad, transparencia y estabilidad del BE como

  9. Monitoring marine life from space - Envisat experience in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristina Rodriguez; Christian Haag; Maurizio Fea; Héctor Gutierrez

    2006-01-01

    The use of satellite data, primarily from instruments aboard ESA's Envisat, together with in situ sea measurements, provide a powerful tool for monitoring the environmental conditions of coastal waters and the health of southern oceans. Ocean monitoring by satellite remote sensing to protect public health and the fishing industry started in southern Chile in 2002. Last year, a major advance

  10. Impacts of forest management certification in Argentina and Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederick Cubbage; Diana Diaz; Pablo Yapura; Francis Dube

    2010-01-01

    Individuals at ten firms in Argentina and Chile that had received Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) or Sistema Chileno de Certificación Forestal (CERTFOR) forest management certification were interviewed to determine the management, environmental, social, and economic impacts of certification. All firms improved many practices in forest management, environmental protection, community relations, public affairs, economic, and environmental management systems in order to

  11. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  12. The Last Glaciation in Central Magellan Strait, Southernmost Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chalmers M. Clapperton; David E. Sugden; Darrell S. Kaufman; Robert D. McCulloch

    1995-01-01

    Glacial landforms and drift stratigraphy in central Magellan Strait, southernmost Chile, document repeated fluctuations during the last glacial cycle of outlet lobes from an ice cap centered over the southern Andes. The lobes developed comparatively low-gradient profiles because of low basal shear stresses over soft deformable beds and this made them sensitive to even small-scale changes in the mass balance.

  13. Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

  14. Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulo Artaxo; Pedro Oyola; Roberto Martinez

    1999-01-01

    Santiago de Chile, São Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las

  15. Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabalin, Cristian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

  16. The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Gruber

    1997-01-01

    The author provides new evidence on the incidence of payroll taxation by examining the experience of Chile before and after the privatization of its Social Security system. This policy change led to a sharp exogenous reduction in the payroll tax burden on Chilean firms; on average, payroll tax rates fell by 25 percent over six years. Using data from a

  17. The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

  18. Taxes and income distribution in Chile: some unpleasant redistributive arithmetic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo M. R. A. Engel; Alexander Galetovic; Claudio E. Raddatz

    1999-01-01

    This paper quantifies the direct impact of taxes on income distribution at the household level in Chile and estimates the distributional effect of several changes in the tax structure. We find that income distributions before and after taxes are very similar (Gini coefficients of 0.488 and 0.496, respectively). Moreover, radical modifications of the tax structure, such as raising the value

  19. Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montecinos, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

  20. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

    2010-12-01

    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, ?3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep-sea chemically-reducing ecosystem (hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, oxygen minimum zones and large organic falls) have the potential to co-exist.

  1. Image of the seismogenic coupling zone in Central Chile: The amphibious experiment SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Krawczyk; M. Stiller; S. Lüth; J. Mechie

    2003-01-01

    Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with

  2. Abstract-Chile has had a successful experience of over 20 years of applying benchmark price regulation to its

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Abstract- Chile has had a successful experience of over 20 years of applying benchmark price]. The experience in stimulating cost reductions has been positive, as illustrated in the case of Chile [2], where Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago, Chile (e-mail: h.rudnick@ieee.org). S. Mocarquer is with Systep

  3. The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory

    E-print Network

    Ito, Atsushi

    of the NAOJ Chile Observatory: 1. Title and number: one professor 2. 1) Project to belong to: NAOJ Chile Observatory, 2) Duty station: Santiago, Chile 3. Field of specialty: radio astronomy 4. Duties and responsibilities: This position is for a person who is based at the Santiago Office of NAOJ Chile Observatory

  4. REVISTA FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA, U.T.A. (CHILE), VOL. 4, 1997 RECONFIGURATION OF ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    REVISTA FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA, U.T.A. (CHILE), VOL. 4, 1997 RECONFIGURATION OF ELECTRIC Ingeniería Eléctrica, Pontiflcia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago, Chile 2 Departamento de Electrónica, Universidad de Tarapacá, Casilla 6-D, Arica, Chile INTRODUCTION Between 30 and 40

  5. New L Chondrites from Antofagasta, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez de Los Rios, E.

    1992-07-01

    Desert regions can be productive meteorite recovery locations because of low humidity, minimal ground cover and, in favorable situations, high prevailing winds to deflate surfaces. For these reasons we have made reconnaissance searches of a particularly arid Atacama Desert tract between Antofagasta and Mejillones, Chile (approx. 23 degrees 15'S, 70 degrees 30'W). One of us (EMR) had previously collected new ordinary chondrites from this same area, which has been named Pampa (a), (b), (c), and (e). The Pampa de Agua Blanca (PAB) chondrite is also apparently from this same area. In our brief 1991 reconnaissance we found additional specimens of (a) and (c). All of these meteorites have been found as multiple stones, necessitating pairing studies. Consequently, we examined our finds (a, b, c, and e), borrowed specimens from the Field Museum (a, b, PAB) and Robert Haag (c), and have performed the first detailed studies of the Pampa meteorites. Here we summarize results of these studies. Shock levels refer to the classification developed by Stoffler et al. (1991). PAMPA (a): This weathered meteorite is represented by several partially fusion-crusted fragments with a combined mass of approximately 380 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section, although some chondrule fragments are present; considerable recrystallization is evident and plagioclase (Ab(sub)80Or5-Ab(sub)83Or(sub)5) is present as clear grains. Diopside and hydroxylapatite are also present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.4% mean deviation-PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (a) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA (b): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with a combined weight of approximately 10 kg. We examined thin sections from four individual stones of (b). A few distinct barred chondrules are evident in thin section, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)74.8 mean, 0.9 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, minor mosaicism and very rare (<25%) planar deformation features. We classify Pampa (b) as L4/5, shock level 4. PAMPA (c): This is a highly weathered, desert-varnished meteorite represented by numerous stones with a combined weight of approximately 25 kg. We examined sections from three stones of (c); the most notable feature of the meteorite is considerable darkening. Metal is almost entirely weathered. A few distinct barred and excentroradial chondrules are evident, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.3 mean, 0.8 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, mosaicism, planar deformation features, and melt veins and pockets. Some turbid glass is present. We classify Pampa (c) as L4, shock level 6. The classification of Pampa (c) given in the Meteoritical Bulletin (Graham, 1989) (L6) is incorrect. PAMPA (e): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with an unknown total mass. No distinct chondrules are present in the single thin section available to us. Considerable recrystallization is evident, and clear plagioclase grains are present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.07 PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (e) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA de AGUA BLANCA: This is a weathered meteorite represented by specimens totaling 10 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.2 mean, 0.2 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, minor mosaicism and very rare (<25%) planar deformation features. Clear plagioclase (Ab(sub)76Or(sub)8-Ab(sub)84Or(sub)5) grains are present. We classify Pampa de Agua Blanca as L6, shock level 4. We conclude by noting that the Atacama Desert in general, and the Antofagasta area in particular, appears to be a fruitful region for future meteorite searches. We note with curiosity that all chondrites found to date in the Antofogasta-Mejillones area have been of the L persuasion. METEORITE OLIVINE (Fo) PYROXENE (En) GLASS? SHOCK CLASS. MEAN PMD CaO MEAN PMD Pampa (a) L6 75.0 0.4 <=0.05 77.2 0.7 NO 1 Pampa (b) L

  6. Weathering of Iron Meteorites from Monturaqui, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender Koch, C.; Buchwald, V. F.

    1994-07-01

    Monturaqui is a meteorite crater, 370 m diameter, in the Andes Mountains, Chile. The impact apparently took place in upper tertiary or pleistocene, judging from the topography of the drainage gullies in the crater area [1]. The surface topography and the state of the corroded meteorite suggest, however, that the climate some time ago must have been more humid. Small fragments of severely corroded iron meteorites have been collected in the vicinity, 50-200 m from the crater rim. Fourteen fragments of iron shale have been examined in order to determine the corrosion products of an entirely disintegrated iron meteorite. Polished sections display some vugs and microporosities and are >99.9% oxidic. The non-oxidic parts are minute particles of taenite (38-42%wt. Ni), schreibersite, rabdite (42%wt. Ni, 0.13%wt. Co, 12.5%wt. P), and cohenite (microhardness 1100 +- 50). The overall morphology of the oxide shales, which sometimes are of breadcrust type, is that of a coarse octahedrite, probably of Group IA similar to the Canyon Diablo meteorite [2]. X-ray diffractometry on powder samples disclose goethite and maghemite, and occasionally peaks from lepidocrocite and reevesite were identified. Peaks from magnetite, akaganeite, and hematite were not identified. The mineralogy and oxidation state of Fe was also investigated by ^57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy. Spectra of a representative powder sample were obtained between 16 and 350 K. No indication of purely Fe(II)-containing compounds was present. Based on the identification of a component due to octahedrally coordinated Fe in magnetite (a mixed Fe(II)- Fe(III) site) a maximum of approximately 5 relative % of Fe(II) can be estimated. Consequently the determination of Fe in oxides by microprobe is reported as Fe(III). The dominating components in the Mossbauer spectra are due to maghemite and goethite, the latter exhibiting a wide variation in crystallite size as evidenced from the observed variation in blocking temperatures between 50 and 300 K. Based on fits of the spectrum obtained at 16 K the Fe is partitioned between maghemite and goethite in the ratio 55:45. The magnetic hyperfine fields are reduced in comparison to the pure oxides probably due to substitution in the lattice. The chemistry of the oxides was investigated by microprobe analysis including Fe2O3, NiO, CoO, SiO2, Al2O3, SO3, and Cl in the scheme. Based on 47 analyses a mean Fe2O3 content of 81.8%wt. with minimum and maximum contents of 73.8 and 97.0%wt., respectively. The NiO content varied from 1.7 to 5.3%wt. with a mean of 3.9%wt., and the CoO content varied from 0.2 to 0.8%wt. with a mean of 0.5%wt. Of the non-meteoritic derived elements small amounts of Al2O3 (0-0.21%wt.), SiO2 (0-4.0%wt.), Cl (0-0.2%wt.), and SO3 (0-0.3%wt.) were detected. The total of the analyses varied from 80.3 to 100.9%wt. with a mean of 87.9%wt. Despite the relative simple mineralogy it is not simple to relate the analyses to different mineralogies (or mixtures) because of the unknown porosity of the analysed points and the content of structural hydroxyls in goethite. However, point analyses having totals close to 100 may be considered to be dominated by relatively bulky aggregates of maghemite. These points are characterised by quite variable Fe/Ni weight ratios (between 15 and 25) being distinctly higher than the estimated average for the unweathered meteorite having an average value of 13. The values are also not significantly different from those calculated from all the analyses with a mean value of approximately 19. Thus a relative loss in Ni in all the oxide phases is evidenced. References: [1] Sanches J. and Cassidy W.(1966) JGR, 71, 4891-4895. [2] Buchwald V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, 1-3.

  7. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

    1997-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

  8. Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.; Petroff, Catherine M.; Catalán, Patricio A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo; Winckler, Patricio; Kalligeris, Nikos; Weiss, Robert; Barrientos, Sergio E.; Meneses, Gianina; Valderas-Bermejo, Carolina; Ebeling, Carl; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Contreras, Manuel; Almar, Rafael; Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2011-11-01

    On 27 February 2010, a magnitude M w = 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life. Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake. Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event and surveyed 800 km of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín and the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Mocha, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter). The collected survey data include more than 400 tsunami flow depth, runup and coastal uplift measurements. The tsunami peaked with a localized runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución. The observed runup distributions exhibit significant variations on local and regional scales. Observations from the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis are compared.

  9. ["Revista Médica de Chile":120 years of continuous publication].

    PubMed

    Goic, A

    1992-12-01

    Revista Médica de Chile has been published monthly since its foundation in 1872. With the present issue, volume 120 is completed. It is the oldest medical journal in South America and the second in antiquity published in Spanish, after the Gaceta de México. It is ranked among the 28 older journals in the world, that were founded in the last century. The multiple aspects of Chilean medicine development are present in its pages. Revista Médica de Chile has been able to adapt to changes in medicine, improving its printing and design, adopting international regulations for periodic medical publications and, above all, making a strict selection of submitted papers using expert peer reviewers. The continuity in management and editorial policies has favored its progress and enhanced its educational role. PMID:1343372

  10. Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake.

    PubMed

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio

    2014-10-01

    Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time. PMID:25196338

  11. The 1882 transit of Venus - as seen from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    2004-04-01

    The forthcoming transit of Venus in front of the solar disk of June 8, 2004, serves as an opportunity to review the activities carried out by several astronomical expeditions to Chile during the most recent Venus transit of December 6, 1882. Astronomers from five nations set up stations in Santiago or Punta Arenas, and returned with data to determine new values for the solar parallax.

  12. International comparison of platinum resistance thermometers between Chile and Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Almeida, D.

    2013-09-01

    An International Bilateral Comparison of Platinum Resistance Thermometers was performed between the National Metrology Institutes of Chile (LCPNT) and the Ecuadorian Standardization Institute of Ecuador (INEN), both represented by their National Laboratories of Temperature. This comparison was carried out in the range from -39 °C up to 232 °C. The final results obtained by each laboratory showed to be equivalent (EN < 1) in the measured temperature range.

  13. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Muñoz Cifuentes; Peter H. Becker; Ute Sommer; Patricia Pacheco; Roberto Schlatter

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and

  14. Analyses of bottom simulating reflections offshore Arauco and Coyhaique (Chile)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan de la Cruz Vargas Cordero; Umberta Tinivella; Flavio Accaino; Maria Filomena Loreto; Francesco Fanucci; Christian Reichert

    2010-01-01

    Two seismic sections offshore Arauco and Coyhaique, Chile, have been analysed to better define the seismic character of hydrate-bearing\\u000a sediments. The velocity analysis was used to estimate the gas-phase concentration, which can serve to correlate hydrate presence\\u000a to the geological features. The velocity model allowed us to recognise the hydrate layer above the bottom simulating reflector\\u000a (BSR), and the free

  15. Gender Effects of Social Security Reform in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandra Cox Edwards

    2002-01-01

    In 1981 Chile replaced a mature government-run social security system that operated on a pay-as-you-go basis with a privately managed system based on individual retirement accounts. The new system is more fiscally sustainable because pension benefits are defined by contributions. The minimum pension guaranteed to beneficiaries with at least 20 years is funded from general taxes, preserving the tight matching

  16. Educational Change in Chile: Reform or Improvements? (1990–2007)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrice Avalos

    \\u000a Very soon after Michelle Bachelet, the new president of Chile, took office in 2006, secondary public school students went\\u000a out onto the streets to protest. Initially, their complaints had to do with specific issues such as free bus tickets on weekends,\\u000a but gradually the movement became a more serious call to improve education in the public school system including private

  17. Childhood nutrition in Chile: From deficit to excess

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliana Kain; Fernando Vio; Cecilia Albala

    1998-01-01

    Chile has undergone an epidemiological and nutritional transition. In children, there has been an important decline in the rates of nutritional deficit, measured as weight\\/height (W\\/H) and height\\/age (H\\/A) with a corresponding increase in the prevalences of overweight and obesity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze these changes and present the results to the institutions in charge of

  18. A study of migration to Greater Santiago (Chile)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan C. Elizaga

    1966-01-01

    \\u000a Resumen  Se presentan los resultados mas significativos de una encuesta realizada en el Gran Santiago (Chile) en 1962 por el Centro\\u000a Latinamericano de Demografia de las Naciones Unidas (CELADE). La población estudiada era por entonces de, aproximadamente,\\u000a 2.054.000 habitantes. Dieha investigación utilizó una muestra probabílistiea de poco más que 2.000 hogares familiares. Los\\u000a cuestionarios fueron diseñados para investigar características demoqráficas y

  19. Refractive error study in children: results from La Florida, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugenio Maul; Silviana Barroso; Sergio R. Munoz; Robert D. Sperduto; Leon B. Ellwein

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE:To assess the prevalence of refractive errors and vision impairment in school-age children in a suburban area (La Florida) of Santiago, Chile.METHODS:Random selection of geographically defined clusters was used to identify a representative sample of children 5 to 15 years of age. Children in the 26 selected clusters were enumerated through a door-to-door survey and invited to report to a

  20. mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.

    PubMed

    García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. PMID:16323203

  1. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them. PMID:19962642

  2. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Muñoz; Becker, Peter H; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g(-1) wet weight). The highest sumDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g(-1)). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g(-1)), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (sumOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepción Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile. PMID:12860109

  3. Chile's national nutritional supplementation program for older people: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Dangour, Alan D; Moreno, Ximena; Albala, Cecilia; Rivera-Marquez, Alberto; Lera, Lydia; Villalobos, Alicia; Morris, Saul S; Uauy, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    Demographic changes in developing countries have resulted in rapid increases in the size of the older population. As a result, health-care budgets face increasing costs associated with the declining health and function of older people. Some governments have responded to this situation by designing innovative programs aimed at older people. One such program, implemented by the government of Chile, distributes an instant food mix fortified with vitamins and minerals to all persons over 70 years old who are registered by the national health service. The national health service covers approximately 90% of the older population. The program specifically targets nutritional vulnerability and micronutrient deficiency, which are common among poor older people in Chile. We present here the findings of a one-year investigation into all aspects of Chile's program for the elderly. The research included in-depth interviews with policy makers and program implementers, focus group discussions with user groups, analysis of the micronutrient content of the nutritional supplement, and telephone interviews of a random sample of older people. The results demonstrate that there can be a considerable degree of self-targeting within national programs; programs need to be sufficiently flexible to permit periodic protocol change; user groups must be consulted both before and during program implementation; and the design of an effective program evaluation must be in place before program implementation. It is hoped that these results will be useful to policy makers and implementers planning programs aimed at improving the health and function of older people. PMID:16060220

  4. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of a perennial river canyon in the Ro Salado basin (22S) of Northern Chile

    E-print Network

    (22°S) of Northern Chile Claudio Latorre a,b,, Julio L. Betancourt c , Mary T.K. Arroyo b a Center Chile, Casilla 114-D, Santiago, Chile b Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity (IEB), Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago, Chile c Desert Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey and University

  5. Short-Period Rupture Process of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake in Chile

    E-print Network

    Madariaga, Raúl

    Short-Period Rupture Process of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake in Chile Sergio Ruiz,a), b) Raúl.1193/1.4000039] INTRODUCTION The Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake occurred in central Chile on 27 February 2010. With a rupture zone of about 500 km by 140 km, this is the largest event ever recorded instrumen- tally in Chile (no strong

  6. [Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

    2004-05-01

    This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas. PMID:15231085

  7. Physical Dating Violence Victimization in College Women in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Zhao, Zhenxiang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. Methods A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n?=?441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Results Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Conclusions The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of dating violence, HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs for adolescents and young adults. PMID:20350204

  8. Tectonic controls on the 1960 Chile megathrust-earthquake segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, D.; Moreno, M.,; Strecker, M. S.; Echtler, H. P.

    2009-04-01

    Understanding the principles that govern the triggering of great subduction earthquakes and the finite rupture length, and consequently earthquake magnitude, is of utmost importance for a better assessment of natural hazards at active plate margins. In principle, two major processes have been inferred to generate and control the magnitude of a giant subduction earthquake (M > 9): (1) the forearc of the upper plate has to accumulate enough elastic strain to rupture and cause fault slip, and (2) the rupture has to propagate for a length of hundreds of kilometers. The great 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw 9.5) corresponds to such a megathrust event that ruptured ~1000 km of the Nazca-South America plate boundary. Rupture started at 38.2S, adjacent to the Arauco peninsula, and propagated southward until it stalled in the vicinity of the Chile Triple Junction. We integrate geologic, geodetic, and seismologic data to propose three major factors that control rupture propagation and upper-plate contraction during the 1960 earthquake. These include: microplate behaviour of the Chiloe forearc block, subduction of trench sediments, and the geometry of the deep-reaching, inherited Lanalhue fault zone in the South American plate. The first two factors provide a mechanical homogeneity of the upper plate and plate interface, respectively, smoothing the plate interface and reducing seismic strength, ultimately facilitating rupture propagation over a great distance. The third aspect leads to stress concentration and enhanced upper-plate contraction along the Lanalhue fault and the southern Arauco peninsula, at the leading edge of the Chiloe microplate, where the 1960 earthquake sequence nucleated. The combination of these fortuitous factors is not unique. Forearc microplates associated with trench sediments and inherited deep-reaching faults are characteristic of other subduction zones that have generated Mw > 9 earthquakes. In addition to Chile, the Alaska, Sumatra, and Cascadia subduction margins are similar, suggesting unifying characteristics that are key to the generation of giant earthquakes.

  9. Spatial variability of atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Barra, Ricardo; Mendoza, Gonzalo; Montory, Monica; Oyiliagu, Catherine E.; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the spatial variability of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chilean atmosphere, XAD-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for 12 months (2006-2007) along three elevational gradients in Northern, Central and Southern Chile, for a total of 20 sampling sites, ranging in elevation from 10 to 4400 m and ranging over 26 degrees of latitude. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) had largely uniform air concentrations with latitude and altitude, and is therefore used to derive sampler specific sampling rates, that account for differences in uptake kinetics due to environmental factors such as altitude and temperature. Levels of pesticides in the atmosphere of Chile are very low and only ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, ?-endosulfan and chlorothalonil were present in all of the samples. The concentrations of these four pesticides in air decreased from North to South, with much steeper gradients for chlorothalonil and endosulfan. Chlorothalonil levels were greatly elevated in air samplers deployed in urban locations. Endosulfan concentrations in air tend to increase with elevation. Since endosulfan is particularly susceptible to mountain cold-trapping, such gradients may reflect the re-volatilization of endosulfan that had been preferentially deposited at higher altitudes. Alternatively, increasing endosulfan concentrations with elevation could be the result of transport to higher altitude sites from the other side of Andes. Airshed analysis indeed indicates that air masses originating outside of Chile have a higher influence on the higher elevation sites, especially along the Northern transect. Concentrations of four-ring PAHs ranged from 0.3 to 1300 pg m -3, with higher levels in air samplers deployed in urban areas and close to roads. PCB concentrations were low (0.7-27 pg m -3), with slightly higher levels of volatile congeners in two urban sampling sites in Concepcion and Arica. PCB-52 is the only congener present in all samples, with levels that are remarkably uniform across the country.

  10. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  11. 25 years of an integrated vaccination program in Chile.

    PubMed

    Borgoño, J M; Corey, G

    1978-01-01

    Various problems and subjects related to the long Chilean experience in vaccination programmes are reported. Emphasis is placed on proper administrative and planning steps in order to obtain the right epidemiological diagnosis, to develop the infrastructure of health, to support financially, to manage resources, to train personnel, to apply techniques and to evaluate periodically. The advantages of the integration of the programme in primary services are commented on. Epidemiological evaluation and surveillance are considered highly important in the successes obtained. The particular structure of health services in Chile has played a meaningful role in meeting public health requirements for the past 25 years, specifically with respect to vaccination programmes. PMID:753659

  12. Experiences with the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.

    2013-05-01

    Since 2002 the TIGO-project is located in Concepción, Chile. This observatory was designed developed during the 1990ties as a fundamental station for geodesy. This concept will be explained in detail because it is a precessor of the proposed observatory infrastructure for the Global Geodetic Observing System. After 11 years of operation for the international services of the IAG and the BIPM some technical, scientific and also cultural experiences with this project can be helpful to improve the global geodetic infrastructure in the Americas.

  13. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world’s only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated.

  14. [The Revista Médica de Chile. 100 years ago].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1990-01-01

    Manuel Barros Borgoño MD, Professor of Surgery who graduated in France (1879) was President of the Santiago Medical Society (1885), Dean of the Faculty of Medicine (1889-95) and Rector of the University of Chile (1901). He was a contributor of the Journal. As a prominent surgeon, he introduced different forms of anesthesia, like morphine and atropine, cocaine and methylchloride. He was an organizer of the first Chilean and the first Latin American Medical Congress. In the University he encouraged medical research and helped establish the basic role of the University as a leading institution in the nation. He died in 1903. PMID:2152709

  15. Chile: 16,000 Secret US Documents Declassified

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    On November 13, the National Security Archive (NSA) (last discussed in the October 6, 2000 Scout Report) announced the release of over "16,000 secret US records on the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile, and Washington's role in the violent overthrow of the Allende government and the advent of the military regime to power." Totalling more than 50,000 pages, the records include numerous controversial documents that the CIA had refused to release until they were pressured by the White House. The NSA has posted a selection of some of the key documents on its site. They are offered in .pdf format with a brief description.

  16. Surviving a Tsunami: Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report contains true stories that illustrate how to survive (and how not to survive) a tsunami. It is meant for people who live, work, or play along coasts that tsunamis may strike. The stories are personal accounts selected from interviews with people who survived a Pacific Ocean tsunami generated by the magnitude 9.5 earthquake that occurred along the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960. Important points include the necessity to heed all warnings (official and natural), head for higher ground, expect many waves, and not to attempt to recover personal belongings.

  17. Last Modified 10/24/13 Location and Institution CHILE-VALPARAISO: CULTURAL IDENTITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE and COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    Galles, David

    Last Modified 10/24/13 Location and Institution CHILE-VALPARAISO: CULTURAL IDENTITY, SOCIAL JUSTICE and COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT SCHOOL FOR INTERNATIONAL TRAINING (SIT) Program, Santiago, Temuco, Arica or another approved location in Chile. Students

  18. Cooperar para aprender. La cooperación en las redes sociales desde el enfoque de la teoría de la elección racional 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Ignacio Porras; Thomas Hardy

    El presente artículo se puede leer desde dos registros distintos, pero complementarios. Por un lado se trata de un primer intento de utilizar el análisis de un caso empírico para fijar las primeras bases de un modelo con el que explicar el comportamiento estratégico de los estudiantes que toman parte en procesos de educación en formato e-learning. El uso intensivo

  19. Por qu se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Abigail Fallot a,b,*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Título ¿Por qué se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Autores, France b CATIE, Programa cambio climático y cuencas, 30501 Turrialba, Costa Rica * Contacto: fallot de plantaciones de Jatropha curcas (Tempate) para biodiesel, analizamos el caso de Costa Rica donde

  20. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...APHIS-2009-0082] Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile AGENCY...area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean...regulations for recognition as a pest-free area for Medfly. EFFECTIVE DATE:...

  1. Carlota, a new genus of Agrypnini from the Valdivian Forests of Chile (Elateridae, Agrypninae, Agrypnini)

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Bohart, Elizabeth T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Carlota gen. n., with one included species C. coigue sp. n., is described and illustrated from the Valdivian forests of Chile. The relationships of this genus to other Agrypnini from Chile are discussed and generic key for Chilean Agrypninae genera is provided. PMID:25061355

  2. Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile David Watts a,b,*, Danilo Jara a

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Data Bank Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile David Watts a,b,*, Danilo Jara December 2010 Keywords: Wind Wind speed Energy Capacity factor Electricity Chile a b s t r a c t Bearing role in any future national energy generation matrix. With a view to understanding the local wind

  3. The privatisation of water and its impacts on settlement and traditional cultural practices in Northern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Maria Madaleno

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ecological and socio-economic aspects of water legislation in Chile. Following legislation that effectively privatised water in the desert and mountain fringes of northern Chile, local farmers that relied upon traditional methods of water management were seriously disadvantaged by legislation that allowed the allocation of scarce water resources to large mining companies. Although legislation exists to

  4. Observations and Modeling of the 27 February 2010 Tsunami in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Synolakis; H. M. Fritz; C. M. Petroff; P. A. Catalan; R. Cienfuegos; P. Winckler; N. Kalligeris; R. Weiss; G. Meneses; C. Valderas-Bermejo; C. W. Ebeling; A. Papadopoulos; M. Contreras; R. Almar; J. C. Dominguez; S. E. Barrientos

    2010-01-01

    On 27 February 2010, a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred just off the coast of Chile, 100km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The tsunami accounts for 124 victims out of about 500 fatalities. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event and tsunami

  5. Forecasting the development of wine tourism: a case study in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin H. Kunc

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The number of wine tourists in Chile is still small even though investment in infrastructure, like cellars and wine routes, has been made in the last five years. A question is important to be answered at this point: is there a market for wine tourism in Chile, did the industry overestimate its potential? The lack of historical data

  6. Implementing an Education and Outreach Program for the Gemini Observatory in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Beginning in 2001, the Gemini Observatory began the development of an innovative and aggressive education and outreach program at its Southern Hemisphere site in northern Chile. A principal focus of this effort is centered on local education and outreach to communities surrounding the observatory and its base facility in La Serena Chile. Programs are now established with local schools using

  7. On the Quality of Private and Public Education: the Case of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan-Pedro Garces

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, we intend to measure the contribution of different factors within the educational system that affect the quality of education. The purpose is to compare, in a completely dispassionate way, the academic achievements of public and private schools (mainly at the secondary level) in one country: Chile. We take Chile because it has the most extensive (voucher-type) program

  8. Equity in education in Chile: The tensions between policy and practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ann Matear

    2007-01-01

    The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines

  9. School Voucher Effects on Education and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from a Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sankar Mukhopadhyay; Petra E. Todd; David Bravo

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of school vouchers in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program 25 years ago. Chile has a relatively unregulated, decentralized, competitive market in primary and secondary education and therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how voucher programs affect school choice as well as long-term educational and labor market outcomes. This paper

  10. Delivering Cost-Efficient Public Services in Health Care, Education and Housing in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Moccero

    2008-01-01

    The Chilean authorities plan to raise budgetary allocations over the medium term for a variety of social programmes, including education, health care and housing. This incremental spending will need to be carried out in a cost-efficient manner to make sure that it yields commensurate improvements in social outcomes. Chile’s health indicators show that it fares relatively well in relation to

  11. Chile: Climbing on Giants' Shoulders: Better Schools for all Chilean Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Brandt

    2010-01-01

    Chile has made impressive progress in educational attainment. Yet, despite recent improvements, outcomes, as measured by PISA results, still need to catch up with OECD standards and equity problems should be addressed. One decisive ingredient will be better teachers. Chile should aim to attract qualified individuals to the profession and bolster initiatives to improve initial teacher education and training. A

  12. PERIDOMESTIC SMALL MAMMALS ASSOCIATED WITH CONFIRMED CASES OF HUMAN HANTAVIRUS DISEASE IN SOUTHCENTRAL CHILE

    E-print Network

    in several coun- tries.1,2 In the Americas, this disease is known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)3 excreta6 and secre- tions.7 The first case of HPS reported in Chile was in 1995, al- though it has been distributional range. The first confirmed human case of HPS reported in Chile was in Llanquihue Province (X

  13. Canker and twig dieback of blueberry caused by Pestalotiopsis spp. and a Truncatella sp. in Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has great economic importance in Chile, currently with about 8,500 ha being cultivated. Recently, the presence of canker and dieback symptoms has been observed along the productive blueberry zone of Chile extending from the V Region (32º49´ South lat.) in the north to the ...

  14. Pliocene near-trench magmatism in southern Chile: A possible manifestation of ridge collision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randall D. Forsythe; Eric P. Nelson; Michael J. Carr; Margaret E. Kaeding; Miguel Herve; Constantino Mpodozis; Jose Manuel Soffia; Salvador Harambour

    1986-01-01

    Eight shallow-level intrusions and an ophiolite complex have recently been discovered in a remote region along the Pacific coast of southern Chile known as the Taitao Peninsula. The magmatic rocks are found only 10 to 15 km from the buried extension of the Peru-Chile Trench. The ophiolite body includes serpentinized ultramaflc rocks, gabbro, dikes, and an interbedded sequence of volcanic

  15. Seeding date influence on camelina seed yield, yield components, and oil content in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisol Berti; Rosemarie Wilckens; Susana Fischer; Alejandro Solis; Burton Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) was introduced for the first time in Chile in 2008 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and also as high omega-3-containing seed oil for the salmon feed industry. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum seeding date to maximize camelina seed yield in South Central Chile. The experiment was conducted under dryland conditions

  16. How general are global trends in biotic homogenization? Floristic tracking in Chile, South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio A. Castro; Fabian M. Jaksic

    2008-01-01

    Aim To quantify the occurrence of floristic change in the vascular flora of Chile. We test whether continental areas have experienced floristic modification leading to either homogenization, differentiation or tracking. Methods On the basis of the geographical distribution of native (1806 species) and naturalized plants (552 species) in continental Chile, we quantified change between two floristic stages: (1) pre-European flora,

  17. Foliose and placodioid species of the lichen family Physciaceae in southernmost Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arve Elvebakk; Roland Moberg

    2002-01-01

    Abstract:Ten foliose and placodioid species of Physciaceae are reported from the National Park Torres del Paine and from other areas in southernmost Chile. Phaeophyscia constipata and Physconia perisidiosa are reported as new to the Southern Hemisphere, Phaeophyscia endococcina var. endococcina andPhaeorrhiza nimbosa as new to South America, and Dimelaena oreina and Physcia kalbii as new to Chile. The latter was

  18. LA IDEOLOGA DE LA INDEPENDENCIA DE CHILE Y EL DISCURSO DE LA REVOLUCIN FRANCESA

    E-print Network

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    - 103 - ARTÍCULOS LA IDEOLOGÍA DE LA INDEPENDENCIA DE CHILE Y EL DISCURSO DE LA REVOLUCIÓN FRANCESA concepciones del mundo, de la sociedad, de valores y sentimientos que se proyectan en una práctica social como Chile" que, junto con su vasta producción científica constituye la más alta expresión de la

  19. Políticas sociales para el crecimiento con equidad en Chile, 1990-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Pablo Arellano M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the social policies implemented in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990. Social policies during this period are characterized by their contribution to reduce poverty in half and by a significant increase in public resources to fund the social programmes. At the same time Chile had a fiscal policy that resulted in a significant fiscal surplus

  20. BASES CONCURSO / DESAFO PRO BONO Una Iniciativa de Fundacin Pro Bono Chile

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Felipe

    Chile dirigido a estudiantes de Derecho. Quienes deseen participar deberán presentar un proyecto socialBASES CONCURSO / DESAFÍO PRO BONO Una Iniciativa de Fundación Pro Bono Chile QUIENES DESEEN PARTICIPAR DEBERÁN PRESENTAR UN PROYECTO SOCIAL. El Desafío Pro Bono es un concurso de Fundación Pro Bono

  1. Querying Regular Graph Patterns PABLO BARCELO, Department of Computer Science, Universidad de Chile

    E-print Network

    Libkin, Leonid

    Chile LEONID LIBKIN, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh JUAN L. REUTTER, School of Informatics, University of Edinburgh and Department of Computer Science, PUC Chile Graph data appears [Leser 2005; Milo et al. 2002; Olken 2003], social networks [Ronen and Shmueli 2009; San Mart

  2. Socio-economic Segregation with (without) Competitive Education Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narodowski, Mariano; Nores, Milagros

    2002-01-01

    The view that competition initiatives in education, such as Chile's introduction of vouchers, promote socioeconomic segregation in schools is questioned. Chile and Argentina have faced very different decentralization reforms, carried out within different regulatory frameworks, but have arrived at similar situations in terms of schools'…

  3. A social disease\\/a social response: lessons in tuberculosis from early 20th century Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Joan E. Paluzzi

    2004-01-01

    During the 1930s, Chile reported the world's highest mortality rate due to tuberculosis. In this pre-antibiotic era, the attention of the biomedical community frequently turned to the underlying social inequalities and deficiencies that created conditions of heightened risk for Chile's rapidly expanding working class. With the recognition that crowded housing, chronic malnutrition and substandard working conditions fostered an environment in

  4. Curriculum Convergence in Chile: The Global and Local Context of Reforms in Curriculum Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Gilbert A.

    2004-01-01

    In the 14 years since Chile's return to democracy, educational reform has figured prominently in the social policy agenda. As is true throughout Latin America, Chilean policy makers have placed the quality of educational opportunities among their main concerns. Having previously focused on the numerical expansion of enrollment, Chile's leadership…

  5. Was there endogenous growth in Chile (1960-1998)? A test of the AK model *

    E-print Network

    Krivobokova, Tatyana

    Was there endogenous growth in Chile (1960-1998)? A test of the AK model * 1. Introduction 2 and human rights, social and political stability ...- is widely recognized, the 'key' question certainly or as neoclassical (transitional2 or steady state). Since Chile is often treated as a 'success story' (especially

  6. School Choice,Stratification,and Information on School Performance:Lessons from Chile

    E-print Network

    Biasutti, Michela

    - diture substantially. Despite these and other reforms, Chile has found it challenging to improve students, student protests resulted in renewed government commitments to address education quality. Additionally. Chile has been at the forefront of measuring, analyzing, and disseminating data on student achievement

  7. Comparing protest movements in Chile and California: interculturality in an Internet chat exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Menard-Warwick

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on an analysis of chat transcripts from an English-language telecollaboration project between students at universities in Chile and California. This research found that the richest intercultural interactions involved events that could not have been foreseen: the immigrant rights demonstrations in the USA and the massive student protests in Chile in May of 2006. Through a discursive

  8. The Southern Volcanic Zone in Chile: Calbuco Andesites Tiffany McKelvey

    E-print Network

    Sukop, Mike

    The Southern Volcanic Zone in Chile: Calbuco Andesites Tiffany McKelvey Off the coast of Chile by melting of the subducting Nazca Plate. Calbuco is one of two volcanoes in this area producing andesite rather than basalt. The andesites found at Calbuco are porphyritic and contain crustal xenoliths, which

  9. Outlook of the Officers: Military Thought in Chile, 1960-1990

    E-print Network

    Bawden, John Richard

    2009-01-01

    1906-2006. Santiago: Ediciones Centro de Estudios Bicentenario, San Francisco,San Francisco and Angel Soto, Un Siglo De Pensamiento Militar en Chile: El Memorial Del Ejército, 1906-San Francisco and Angel Soto, Un Siglo De Pensamiento Militar en Chile: El Memorial el Ejército, 1906-

  10. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF THE BARN OWL IN CENTRAL CHILE AND SOUTHERN SPAIN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    E-print Network

    Herrera, Carlos M.

    FEEDING ECOLOGY OF THE BARN OWL IN CENTRAL CHILE AND SOUTHERN SPAIN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY CARLOSM. HERREV&AND FABIANM. JAKSI·1 EstacidnBioldgicade Dogaria, Sevilla-12, Andalucia, Spain, and Instituto de of the Barn Owl (Tyro alba) in the mediterranean- climate areasof central Chile and southernSpain. In both

  11. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  12. The espinal: agroforestry systems of the mediterranean — type climate region of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Ovalle; James Aronson; Alejandro Del Pozo; Julia Avendano

    1990-01-01

    The Central Valley of Chile is largely occupied by a pseudo-savanna called espinal consisting of a single dominant tree species, Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol. (Leguminosae), and some 215 annuals, most of which were inadvertently introduced from the Mediterranean Basin. The probable origin and current distribution of the espino (Acacia caven) and the espinales in Chile are described. Predominant production systems

  13. Vocational Training in Chile: A Decentralized and Market Oriented System. Training Policy Study No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Eduardo Martinez

    From 1976 to 1983 major reforms were enacted in Chile in the vocational training systems, based on four principles: decentralization, integration, diversification, and participation. The vocational training system in Chile is a legally established, market-oriented system in which many private training agencies compete to sell their services to…

  14. A Decade Lost and Found: Mexico and Chile in the 1980s

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s. This paper analyzes four possible explanations for why Chile recovered much faster than Mexico did. Comparing data from the two countries allows us to rule out a monetarist explanation, an explanation based on falls in real wages and real exchange rates, and a debt overhang explanation. Using growth accounting,

  15. Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

  16. Major earthquakes and tsunamis in Chile during the period 1535 to 1955

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinna Lomnitz

    1970-01-01

    Eine Aufstellung der größeren Erdbeben Chiles (angenommene Stärke größer als 7,5) wird vorgelegt. Dieser Aufstellung liegt eine Lochkartenkartei chilenischer Erdbeben mit mehr als 15 000 Eintragungen zugrunde. Für jedes Beben werden die Auswirkungen einschließlich der Tsunami-Beobachtungen beschrieben und Schätzungen der Lage der Epizentren und der Stärke angegeben. Größere Erdbeben treten in Chile in nur wenigen Bebengebieten auf. Diese sind linear

  17. Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matear, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in…

  18. Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matear, Ann

    2007-01-01

    The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

  19. Interseismic strain accumulation measured by GPS1 in the seismic gap between Constitucin and Concepcin in Chile2

    E-print Network

    Vigny, Christophe

    and Concepción in Chile2 3 J.C. Ruegg 1 , A. Rudloff 2 , C. Vigny 2 , R. Madariaga 2 , J.B. Dechabalier 1 , J Departamento de Geofísica (DGF), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile9 4 Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria10 Abstract11 The Concepción-Constitución area [35-37°S] in South Central Chile is very likely

  20. revised version completed 19/04/2008 Upper plate deformation measured by GPS in the Coquimbo Gap, Chile.1

    E-print Network

    Vigny, Christophe

    , Chile.1 2 Christophe Vigny1 , Alain Rudloff1 , Jean-Claude Ruegg2 , Raul Madariaga1 , Jaime Campos3 Chile, Santiago, Chile.8 9 Abstract10 Since the M=7.3 Punitaqui earthquake in 1997, the area between 30 as high as 8 cm/yr in the N 78°E direction27 [DeMets et al., 1990, 1994]. In Chile, several studies have

  1. Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Coke, R; Moreno, R S

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the correlation between the ethnic structure and the prevalence of single gene defects in Chile. At present the Chilean population is approximately 64% white and 35% Amerindian with traces of other admixture. Fewer than 4% of the Chilean population are foreign born. Investigations indicate that all severe diseases and many others without impaired reproduction have mutation rates within the range of the white population. Classical ethnic diseases are very rare. Autosomal recessive disorders have a wide range of variability: cystic fibrosis has a low incidence and PKU has a similar incidence to English rates. Only 30% of the inborn errors of metabolism have been described in Chilean medical publications. In addition, no Chilean haemoglobin or haptoglobin variants have been described. Some rare inherited diseases in Chilean human isolates have been described, including achromatopsia, chondrocalcinosis, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and supernumerary nipples is the highest in the world and they are associated with aboriginal origin. Single gene defects in Chile are probably shaped by factors related to its ethnic population structure. These local rare single gene defects may be good markers of population admixture for genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:7815439

  2. Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

    2014-11-01

    This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

  3. [Equity in health and health technology assessment in Chile].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica

    2014-01-01

    Equity has been recognized as one of the driving principles of many health systems in the world. In Latin America, Chile has led the explicit inclusion of equity in their health policies, which is reflected in its recent health reform. On the other hand, Chile faces the challenge of defining and implementing a policy for health technology assessment (HTA), which should be consistent with the equity principles that underlie the Chilean national health system. This paper reviews the equity concept emphasizing the relevance of socioeconomic inequalities. Furthermore, it examines how international HTA agencies have explicitly included this element in the evaluation and decision processes. It presents the English case, which highlights the elements of procedural justice rather than adopting a normative position regarding equity. Finally, it examines the methods that have been developed aiming to make explicit consideration of equity in HTA. It concludes that the methodological development to incorporate equity elements with empirical basis is recent and limited. The consideration of equity is, in most of the cases, left to the instances of deliberative participation. PMID:24861180

  4. Late Quaternary tephrostratigraphy of southern Chile and Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Lachowycz, Stefan M.; Rawson, Harriet; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Naranjo, José A.; Moreno-Roa, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The Southern and Austral Volcanic Zones of the Andes comprise 74 volcanic centres with known post-glacial activity. At least 21 of these have had one or more large explosive eruptions in the late Quaternary, dispersing tephra over vast areas. These tephra layers therefore have great potential as tephrochronological marker horizons in palaeoenvironmental studies in southern Chile and Argentina, a region that is particularly useful to study climate dynamics of the southern hemisphere. However, to date tephrochronology has rarely been fully utilised in this region as a correlation and dating tool. Here we review the existing post-glacial tephrostratigraphic record of the Southern and Austral Volcanic Zones, and compile a database of known occurrences of tephra from these volcanoes in ice and lacustrine, marine, peat, and cave sediment records. We address the inconsistencies in and revisions of the tephrostratigraphies presented in prior literature, and discuss the challenges in correlating tephras and the limitations of the tephrostratigraphic record in this area. This study highlights the many gaps that still exist in our knowledge of the eruptive histories of these volcanoes, but also reveals the largely under-utilised potential of tephra as a correlation tool in this region. This is exemplified by the severe lack of adequate geochemical analysis of tephra layers preserved in many lacustrine and peat sediment sections, which are particularly important tephrostratigraphic records in southern Chile and Argentina due to the paucity of surface preservation.

  5. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  6. Astronomy Outreach Activities in Chile: IYA 2009 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.

  7. Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries. PMID:20945755

  8. Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

  9. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  10. A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow. Earthquake-induced static seabed vertical displacement is used as an input boundary condition to the model. The model is hierarchically set up with three nested domain levels; with 250 domains in total covering the entire Chilean coast. Spatial grid-cell resolution is equal to the native SRTM resolution of approximately 90m. In addition to the stochastic events, the 1960 (M9.5) Valdivia and 2010 (M8.8) Maule earthquakes are modelled. The modelled tsunami inundation map for the 2010 Maule event is validated through comparison with real observations. The vulnerability component consists of an extensive damage curves database, including curves for buildings, contents and business interruption for 21 occupancies, 24 structural types and two secondary modifies such as building height and period of construction. The building damage curves are developed by use of load-based method in which the building's capacity to resist tsunami loads is treated as equivalent to the design earthquake load capacity. The contents damage and business interruption curves are developed by use of deductive approach i.e. HAZUS flood vulnerability and business function restoration models are adapted for detailed occupancies and then assigned to the dominant structural types in Chile. The vulnerability component is validated through model overall back testing by use of observed aggregated earthquake and tsunami losses for client portfolios for 2010 Maule earthquake.

  11. ARC Scientist (5-year non-tenure-track Associate Professor or Assistant Professor), NAOJ Chile Observatory, stationed at Mitaka

    E-print Network

    Ito, Atsushi

    ARC Scientist (5-year non-tenure-track Associate Professor or Assistant Professor), NAOJ Chile-ARC) of the NAOJ Chile Observatory to enhance the system to support ALMA Science Operations. 1. Positions: ARC few positions in total) 2. (1) Division: NAOJ Chile Observatory, East Asian ARC (2) Duty station

  12. Toward understanding tectonic control on the Mw 8.8 2010 Maule Chile earthquake M. Moreno a,

    E-print Network

    Vigny, Christophe

    Toward understanding tectonic control on the Mw 8.8 2010 Maule Chile earthquake M. Moreno a, , D Potsdam, Germany c Universidad de Concepción, Chile d Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, China e Ohio, UK k Sogeti High Tech GmbH, Hamburg, Germany l University of Memphis, USA m Universidad de Chile

  13. ARC Scientist (5-year non-tenure-track Associate Professor or Assistant Professor), NAOJ Chile Observatory, stationed at Mitaka)

    E-print Network

    Ito, Atsushi

    ARC Scientist (5-year non-tenure-track Associate Professor or Assistant Professor), NAOJ Chile Center (EA-ARC) of the NAOJ Chile Observatory to enhance the system to support ALMA Science Operations. 1 Professor) (one position) 2. (1) Division: NAOJ Chile Observatory, East Asian ARC (2) Duty station: Mitaka

  14. A vegetation history from the arid prepuna of northern Chile (22^23S) over the last 13 500 years

    E-print Network

    A vegetation history from the arid prepuna of northern Chile (22^23S) over the last 13 500 years a Laboratorio de Palinolog|¤a, Departamento de Biolog|¤a, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nì unChile b Desert Laboratory, U.S. Geological Survey, 1675 W. Anklam Rd

  15. Geomorphic surfaces and supergene enrichment in Northern Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenstar, Laura; Mather, Anne; Stuart, Finlay; Cooper, Frances; Sparks, Steve

    2014-05-01

    Supergene enrichment of porphyry copper deposits in the central Andes is thought to be closely correlated with periods of relatively humid climate and the formation of regionally extensive paleosurfaces (e.g. Mortimer, C. 1973) . In northern Chile, two such paleosurfaces have been proposed: the ca. 23 Ma Tarapaca paleosurface within the Coastal Cordillera, and the ca. 10 Ma Pacific paleosurface within the Longitudinal Valley. The Pacific paleosurface is regarded as a single stratigraphic horizon that formed due to either a marked increase in the aridity of the area (Galli-Oliver 1967), regional surface uplift that created a change in the locus of deposition (e.g. Mortimer and Rendic 1975), or a combination of the two. The formation of this surface has been associated with the timing of supergene enrichment throughout the northern Chile and southern Peru (Alpers and Brimhall 1988). Multispectral satellite mapping of the Pacific paleosurface in northern Chile using Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) imagery, combined with seismic data (Jordan et al. 2010) indicates that the Pacific paleosurface is not a single chronostratigraphic surface, as previously thought, but an amalgamation of surfaces that have both an erosional and depositional history. New in situ cosmogenic exposure dating of alluvial boulders on the paleosurface is combined with previous data (Dunai et al. 2005, Kober et al. 2007 and Evenstar et al., 2009) giving ages ranging from ca. 23 Ma to <1 Ma, supporting a multiphase and much more continuous history. By combining these apparent exposure ages with regional geomorphology, underlying sedimentology, and seismic sections, the geomorphic evolution of the Longitudinal Valley can be constrained. The results show a complex interplay between uplift within the Coastal Cordillera and Precordillera in the south and a distinct change in depositional pattern towards the north. The Longitudinal Valley is increasingly incised to the north and drains into the Pacific Ocean above 19°30. The close temporal correlation between the formation of these paleosurfaces and supergene enrichment means that placing tighter constraints on their age and regional extent could help locate areas where the geneneration and preservation of supergene deposits is possible.

  16. IRIS Community Response to the Great Chile Earthquake of 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, A.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S.; Russo, R. M.; Simpson, D. W.; Barrientos, S. E.; Comte, D.; Pardo, M. H.; Ruiz, J.; Aranda, C.; Slad, G.; Greschke, B.; Barstow, N.; Bonnet, B.; Reusch, A. M.; Bataille, K.; Cabello, O.; Velasco, A. A.; Ebeling, C. W.; Tilmann, F.; Vilotte, J.; Rietbrock, A.; Heit, B.; Schurr, B.; Lange, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and the 2nd largest to be recorded by modern digital seismic networks. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of seismologists from Germany, France, the UK, and the US, working with seismologists in Chile, coordinated resources to deploy both broadband and short period seismometers and accelerometers above the rupture zone to capture aftershocks associated with this significant earthquake. The U.S. IRIS Community response involved deployment of 59 broadband and 4 combined broadband and accelerometer stations spanning the rupture region of the main shock from 33-38.5°S and from the coast to the Andean range front. Four of these stations were subsequently upgraded for real-time telemetry, and these data have been freely available from the IRIS DMC since shortly after they came online. Data recorded at these stations will be combined to produce an open international community data volume providing an unprecedented opportunity to investigate processes associated with great earthquakes and to image the anatomy of a subduction zone. Scientific objectives potentially attainable using this unique data set fall into two general categories: (1) rupture processes of megathrusts, and (2) active tectonics and dynamics of an oceanic-continental (Andean) margin. For example, the relatively dense station spacing - 30 km - of the IRIS CHAMP (Chile RAMP) broadband seismic network will facilitate investigation into the character of the aftershock zone in the low-slip regions of the main shock to determine if these regions are locked or creeping, and whether these states are governed by variations in temperature or fluid content. The dataset also offers opportunities to generate higher resolution images of the seismogenic zone, forearc wedge, and subducting slab, that can reveal the role that spatial changes in material properties play in seismogenesis and slab dynamics. We can take advantage of data collected before the event at collocated stations to investigate secular changes in the properties of the medium in the rupture zone or upper plate, which can further elucidate the role of fluids in the seismogenic zone.

  17. Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today’s modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state. PMID:21212817

  18. How was the UNAIDS drug access initiative implemented in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Champagne, François

    2012-01-01

    In 1997, UNAIDS decided to implement Drug Access Initiatives (DAI) in four different pilot-countries. We studied the implementation of the DAI in Chile as part of the evaluation program conducted by the ‘Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA’ (ANRS/France). The objective was to understand how the politico-organizational dynamic influenced the implementation process of the DAI. Approximately 50 semi-directed interviews and observation activities were conducted with the actors who participated in the implementation of the DAI or who played a role in the HIV/AIDS context. The program theory models were established and their evolution analyzed. This article offers an original analysis of an international HIV/AIDS drug access program that was put in place at a time when such programs were seen as a priority by international and governmental institutions. It also offers some insights for the creation of international projects that will be locally implemented. PMID:23230344

  19. Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pallister, John S.; Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Holitt, Richard P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Eichelberger, John C.; Luis, Lara; Moreno, Hugo; Muñoz, Jorge; Castro, Jonathan M.; Iroumé, Andrés; Andreoli, Andrea; Jones, Julia; Swanson, Fred; Crisafulli, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    High-silica rhyolite magma fuels Earth's largest and most explosive eruptions. Recurrence intervals for such highly explosive eruptions are in the 100- to 100,000-year time range, and there have been few direct observations of such eruptions and their immediate impacts. Consequently, there was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions [Naranjo and Stern, 2004semi; Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), 2008semi; Carn et al., 2009; Castro and Dingwell, 2009; Lara, 2009; Muñoz et al., 2009]. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which explosive activity waned and a new lava dome was extruded.

  20. Endohelminth parasites from salmonids in intensive culture from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Quintanilla, J C; Rozas, M; Miranda, P; Ibarra, R; San Martín, M F; Raddatz, B; Wolter, M; Villegas, A; Canobra, C; Hausdorf, M; Silva, R

    2010-06-01

    A total of 228 salmonids (90 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 48 Oncorhynchus kisutch, and 90 Salmo salar) from 8 intensive aquaculture centers in the south of Chile were examined for endohelminths parasites between December 2008 and May 2009. The body cavities of 2 O. mykiss were infected by Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1.0, mean abundance: 0.07) from the Lake Tarahuin hatchery on the south of Chiloé Island. Also, tetraphyllidean plerocercoids (prevalence: 3.3%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance: 0.03) and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium aduncum (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance 0.07) were observed in O. kisutch from a marine hatchery in Chiloé. The occurrences of Diphyllobothrium sp. in a lake and a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid from marine cultured salmonid in Chiloé are reported for first time. No muscular infection by helminths was recorded in the fish examined. PMID:20557217

  1. International comparison of platinum resistance thermometers between Chile and Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, M.; Almeida, D.

    2012-01-01

    An international bilateral comparison of platinum resistance thermometers was performed between the National Metrology Institutes of Chile (LCPNT-CESMEC) and the Ecuadorian Standardization Institute of Ecuador (INEN), both represented by their National Laboratories of Temperature. This comparison was carried out in the range from -39 °C up to 232 °C. The final results obtained by each laboratory showed to be equivalent (En < 1) over the measured temperature range. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report (as of 23 November 2012 this link is suppressed pending correction to the report). Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  3. Influence on UV Radiation by wildfire smoke in Valparaíso, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, L.; Cortés, O.; Ossandón, Á.; Mera, E.

    2012-02-01

    UV absorption in Valparaíso, Chile, is analyzed during the passage of a smoke column from a nearby forest fire. Total solar absorption is measured, UVB and UVA radiation, UV nanometre to nanometre between 295 nm and 315 nm. With the purpose of seeing what factors intervene in this absorption, tropospheric ozone and PM10 particulate material are measured during the passage of this smoke column from the forest fire. In addition, considerations were made on the chemical compounds which are normally present during a forest fire such as, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, etc., depreciating their evidence that is the PM10 particulate material, which acts as a black body that is primarily responsible for the UV absorption. This affirmation is based on the fact that no absorption, which notoriously indicates some particular compound, was observed on the spectroradiometer register. All of the bands, nanometre to nanometre, showed the same behaviour, indicating the same type of absorption.

  4. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995–2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate. PMID:25816116

  5. [A general practitioners' program for primary care in Chile].

    PubMed

    Bass, Germán Camilo

    2015-01-01

    The public health system in Chile does not have a comprehensive development policy for physician resources in primary care, so there is currently a significant deficit of hours for medical care. The article contains a proposal for a "General Program for Primary Care Physicians", which aims to reduce the gap of general practitioners and specialists in primary care. The program proposes to integrate newly graduated physicians to work in the public medical offices with the subsequent possibility of applying for a scholarship specialty, and consecutively a return period as a specialist in the public health network. The immediate implementation of this program is perfectly feasible given the current availability of doctors, over 1400 medical graduates from universities. PMID:25826371

  6. Nursing leadership in Chile: a concept in transition.

    PubMed

    Alarcon, Ana M; Astudillo, Paula R; Barrios, Sara A; Rivas, Edith E

    2002-10-01

    The purposes of this two-year research study were to uncover Chilean nurses' perspectives of the elements that comprise leadership, and to identify challenges faced by nurse leaders in modern health administration. The research question is, What are the structural components that define and characterize nursing leadership in Chile? Nine nurses from different professional backgrounds volunteered to take part in audiorecorded successive interviews. The research methodology was a kind of grounded theory. Findings suggest that leadership is characterized mainly by exerting a positive influence on others based on good communication, knowledge of management, and a futurist vision of the nursing profession. Crisis and transition in nursing leadership were associated with external and internal forces, such as reforms in healthcare organizations and changes in the nursing conceptual framework. PMID:12387232

  7. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2014-01-01

    Objective to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Method Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. Results among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. Conclusions the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses.

  8. Draft du 6 avril-2009, submitted (and rejected) to Advances in Space Research Chilean-French cGPS Operations along the Subduction Trench in Chile, South-1

    E-print Network

    Vigny, Christophe

    GPS Operations along the Subduction Trench in Chile, South-1 America2 3 Christophe Vigny1 , Anne Socquet2 , Alain Division Technique de l'INSU, Meudon, France11 4 Departamento de Geofísica (DGF), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.12 13 Abstract:14 The subduction in Chile is very active with in average a Mw 8 event every

  9. An intermediate-depth tensional earthquake (MW 5.7) and its aftershocks within the Nazca slab, central Chile: A reactivated outer rise fault?

    E-print Network

    Nolet, Guust

    , central Chile: A reactivated outer rise fault? Marianne Marot a, , Tony Monfret a , Mario Pardo b b Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad de Chile, Blanco encalada 2002, Santiago, Chile c pattern offshore central Chile and find a correlation with the strike of the seafloor spreading fabric

  10. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 14,PAGES 2743-2746, JULY 15,2001 Evidence for Earthquake Interaction in Central Chile'

    E-print Network

    Madariaga, Raúl

    Interaction in Central Chile' the July 1997-September 1998 Sequence Anne Lemoine,Rafil Madariaga Laboratoire,Universitad de Chile, Santiago, Chile Abstract. Seven Mw · 6 events occurred between July 1997 and January 1998 along the shallow dipping subduc- tion zone of Central Chile. We used body waveform mod- eling

  11. Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

  12. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer. PMID:11055628

  13. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  14. LA ESTACIN DE AFOROS DE PUENTE CASTILLA, DESDE 1970 MIDIENDO LAS DESCARGAS DEL ACUFERO DE LA VEGA DE

    E-print Network

    Castillo, Antonio

    LA ESTACI�N DE AFOROS DE PUENTE CASTILLA, DESDE 1970 MIDIENDO LAS DESCARGAS DEL ACUÍFERO DE LA VEGA importancia de la estación de aforos de Puente Castilla de la red oficial de la Confederación Hidrográfica del Granada, descargas, río Genil, Puente Castilla ABSTRACT In this paper is shown the strategic location

  15. Testing and Contrasting Road Safety Education, Deterrence, and Social Capital Theories: A Sociological Approach to the Understanding of Male Drink-Driving in Chile’s Metropolitan Region

    PubMed Central

    Nazif, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Three theories offer different explanations to the understanding of male drink-driving. In order to test road safety education, deterrence, and social capital theories, logistic regression analysis was applied to predict respondents’ statements of having or not having engaged in actual drink-driving (DD). Variable for road safety education theory was whether a driver had graduated from a professional driving school or not. Deterrence theory was operationalized with a variable of whether a driver had been issued a traffic ticket or not. Social capital theory was operationalized with two variables, having children or not and having religion identification or not. Since both variables ‘years of formal education’ and ‘years of driving experience’ have been reported to be correlated to alcohol consumption and DD respectively, these were introduced as controls. In order to assess the significance of each variable statistically, Wald tests were applied in seven models. Results indicate on the one hand that road safety education variable is not statistically significant; and on the other, deterrence theory variable and social capital theory variable ‘having children’ were both statistically significant at the level of .01. Findings are discussed in reference to Chile’s context. Data were taken from the “Road Users Attitudes and Behaviors towards Traffic Safety” survey from the National Commission of Road Safety of the Government of Chile (2005). The sample size was reported to be 2,118 (N of male drivers was 396). This survey was representative of Chile’s Metropolitan Region road users' population. PMID:22105406

  16. ESO Representative in Chile - Head of the Office for Science Santiago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Assignment: The ESO representative reports directly to the Director General for the ESO representation duties in Chile and regarding the science activities to the Head of Office for Science in Garching . The main task will be:

  17. 77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ...solar, geothermal, biomass, hydropower, waste-to-energy, smart grid, and...potential for renewable energy. By 2011, Chile...only about half its biomass potential and has...solar, geothermal, biomass, hydropower, and energy efficiency...

  18. The State Machine : politics, ideology, and computation in Chile, 1964-1973

    E-print Network

    Miller Medina, Jessica Eden

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation argues that Chile's history of computing is tightly interwoven with the history of the Chilean state. It begins by documenting the government use of mechanical tabulating machines during the 1920s and ...

  19. Multilevel modeling of social factors and preterm delivery in Santiago de Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay S Kaufman; Faustino T Alonso; Paulina Pino

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth before the 37th week of gestation (preterm birth) is an important cause of infant and neonatal mortality, but has been little studied outside of wealthy nations. Chile is an urbanized Latin American nation classified as \\

  20. Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

  1. Removal of Barriers to the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Chile

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Removal of Barriers to the Use of Renewable Energy Sources for Rural Electrification in Chile in Technology and Policy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology February 2003 © 2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology All rights reserved Signature of Author

  2. A new species of Periclista Konow (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae) associated with Nothofagus (Fagaceae) in Argentina and Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Periclista dapotoae Smith, n. sp., is described from Argentina and Chile and separated from the described species of Periclista from South America. It was reared from Nothofagus antarctica (Forst. F.) Oest (Fagaceae). Periclista leucoma (Spinola) is a new combination....

  3. Stochastic optimization of hydroelectric dam operations on the Biobio River in Chile

    E-print Network

    Burrall, Kristen M

    2009-01-01

    Growing electricity demand in Chile has prompted the proposal of new hydropower projects. In addition to evaluating new projects to satisfy demand, a holistic assessment of alternatives as well as potential gains from ...

  4. 75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ...INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the...

  5. Property values, housing subsidies and incentives : evidence from Chile's current housing policies

    E-print Network

    Razmilic Burgos, Slaven Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of low income housing subsidy programs currently operating in Chile. The use of detailed microdata allows a close assessment of the relationship between individual subsidy grants, ...

  6. Ideologies Regarding the Implementation of Foreign Language Policy in Chile: A Case Study 

    E-print Network

    Munoz, Valeria

    2010-11-11

    The Ministry of Education of Chile declared in 2003 the importance and the necessity of incorporating foreign language teaching to the public education after the educative reforms done in the 90s. The official Language ...

  7. Personal truths, shared equivocations : otherness, uniqueness, and social life among the Mapuche of Southern Chile 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez Galvez, Marcelo Ignacio; Galvez, Marcelo Ignacio Gonzalez

    2012-11-28

    Based upon thirteen months of ethnographic fieldwork among indigenous Mapuche people of southern Chile, this thesis explores two relational oppositions which are central concerns of both Mapuche people and the discipline ...

  8. Site effect evaluation in the basin of Santiago de Chile using ambient noise measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvette Bonnefoy-Claudet; Luis Fabian Bonilla; Catherine Berge-Thierry; Cesar Pasten; Jaime Campos; Philippe Volant; Ramon Verdugo

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY We performed extensive ambient vibration measurements in the basin of Santiago de Chile (Chile), and we look for testing the reliability of the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H\\/V ) as a tool to provide qualitative and quantitative information of site effects in complex geological media. The interpretation of the H\\/V data was carried out conformably to the SESAME

  9. POPULAR MOBILIZATION AND THE MILITARY REGIME IN CHILE: THE COMPLEXITIES OF THE INVISIBLE TRANSITION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Antonio Garretón

    1988-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper,attempts,an analysis of the popular,mobilizations,in Chile from the perspective,of the problem,of transition from a military regime,to democracy. It begins with some,general reflections on the role of social mobilizations under military regimes, distinguishing among various regime phases and types of mobilizations , and goes on to outline changing state\\/societal relations in Chile in the pre-1973 period,to provide the historical

  10. Gastrointestinal helminths of fish-eating birds from Chiloe Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Ruíz, E; Gesche, W; Montefusco, A

    1991-01-01

    Of four species of fish-eating birds from Chiloé Island (Chile), three were infected with eight species of helminths. Tetrabothrius sp. was found in Larus scoresbii. Tetrabothrius cylindraceus, Profilicollis antarcticus, Anomotaenia dominicanus, Stephanoprora denticulata, Capillaria sp. and P. antarcticus were found in Larus dominicanus. Contracaecum rudolphii and Corynosoma sp. infected Phalacrocorax olivaceus. With the exception of S. denticulata, C. rudolphii and Capillaria sp., the above helminths are reported for the first time from Chile. PMID:2023322

  11. BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE THORN-TAILED RAYADITO (FURNARIIDAE) IN SOUTH-TEMPERATE RAINFORESTS OF CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Moreno; Santiago Merino; Rodrigo A. Vásquez; Juan J. Armesto

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study of the breeding biology of the Thorn-tailed Rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda) in secondary forests on the continental island of Chiloe ´ (42 8 S), southern Chile. Rayaditos are small insectivorous furnariids inhabiting the south-temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. We followed the reproduction of rayadito pairs breeding in nest-boxes. Rayaditos build their nests mainly of rhizomes and

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of 33 Salmonella enterica Clinical and Wildlife Isolates from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc; Brown, Eric W.; Evans, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica causes health problem worldwide. The relationships among strains that are from the same serotype but different hosts, countries, and continents remain elusive. Few genome sequences are available from S. enterica isolates from South America. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of 33 strains from diverse sources isolated in Chile and determined that they were of different serotypes. These genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella strains from Chile and the rest of South America. PMID:25792040

  13. Interannual variability of the coastal fog at Fray Jorge relict forests in semiarid Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Garreaud; Jonathan Barichivich; Duncan A. Christie; Antonio Maldonado

    2008-01-01

    The coastal mountains of semiarid Chile are punctuated by patches of fog-dependent evergreen forests. Fog episodes often occur when the prominent coastal topography intercepts a well developed deck of stratocumulus (Sc) off north central Chile. A 22-year record of ground-based fog observations at Fray Jorge Biosphere Reserve (FJBR, 30°S), atmospheric reanalysis and satellite derived low cloud amount are used to

  14. A strong-motion database from the Peru–Chile subduction zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria C. Arango; Fleur O. Strasser; Julian J. Bommer; Ruben Boroschek; Diana Comte; Hernando Tavera

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake hazard along the Peru–Chile subduction zone is amongst the highest in the world. The development of a database\\u000a of subduction-zone strong-motion recordings is, therefore, of great importance for ground-motion prediction in this region.\\u000a Accelerograms recorded by the different networks operators in Peru and Chile have been compiled and processed in a uniform\\u000a manner, and information on the source parameters

  15. Can Schools Reduce the Indigenous Test Score Gap? Evidence from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. McEwan

    2008-01-01

    In Chile, indigenous students obtain lower test scores, on average, than non-indigenous students. Between two cohorts of eighth-graders in the late 1990s, the test score gap declined by 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviations. An Oaxaca decomposition and related descriptive evidence suggest that the most plausible explanation is related to Chile's large-scale school reforms that were targeted at low-achieving schools and

  16. Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick

    2013-02-11

    Helium isotope and stable isotope data from the El Tatio, Tinginguirica, Chillan, and Tolhuaca geothermal systems, Chile. Data from this submission are discussed in: Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

  17. Isolation of Arsenite-Oxidizing Bacteria from Arsenic-Enriched Sediments from Camarones River, Northern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Valenzuela; V. L. Campos; J. Yañez; C. A. Zaror; M. A. Mondaca

    2009-01-01

    In Northern Chile, high arsenic concentrations are found in natural water, both natural and anthropogenic sources, a significant\\u000a health risk. Nine bacterial strains were isolated from Camarones river sediments, located in Northern Chile, a river showing\\u000a arsenic concentrations up to 1,100 ?g\\/L. These strains were identified as Pseudomonas and they can oxidize arsenite (As(III))\\u000a to the less mobile arsenate (As(V)). The

  18. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period (2005--2009) for a network of permanent sample plots in Pinus radiata plantations in Chile. In 2009, we calculated LAI from ground measurements using LI-COR LAI-2000 and TRAC instruments on each one hectare plot. These values of LAI were regressed against Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Reduced Simple Ratio (RSR), derived from the TM 2009 data. Linear relationships were strong with R2 values of 0.65 for SR, 0.61 for NDVI and 0.67 for RSR. Using the RSR relationship, LAI values were estimated for the network of permanent sample plots of Pinus radiata plantations over the whole period. For project 3, we examined environmental factors affecting growth rates of Pinus radiata in Chile. Water availability (as affected by precipitation, soil water holding capacity, and potential evapotranspiration) appeared to be the factor most limiting to leaf area and growth. Maximum growing season temperature also negatively affected growth. Sites with highest productivities had the lowest annual water deficits and the most productive sites used water and light more efficiently. Good sites produced 1.6 as compared to 0.49 kg of wood per m3 of evapotranspired water for less productive sites. In addition, productive stands produced 0.5 as compared to 0.31 g of wood per MJ for less productive sites.

  19. Magnitude Characterization Using Complex Networks in Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasten, D.; Comte, D.; Munoz, V.

    2013-12-01

    Studies using complex networks are applied to many systems, like traffic, social networks, internet and earth science. In this work we make an analysis using complex networks applied to magnitude of seismicity in the central zone of Chile, we use the preferential attachment in order to construct a seismic network using local magnitudes and the hypocenters of a seismic data set in central Chile. In order to work with a complete catalogue in magnitude, the data associated with the linear part of the Gutenberg-Richter law, with magnitudes greater than 2.7, were taken. We then make a grid in space, so that each seismic event falls into a certain cell, depending on the location of its hypocenter. Now the network is constructed: the first node corresponds to the cell where the first seismic event occurs. The node has an associated number which is the magnitude of the event which occured in it, and a probability is assigned to the node. The probability is a nonlinear mapping of the magnitude (a Gaussian function was taken), so that nodes with lower magnitude events are more likely to be attached to. Each time a new node is added to the network, it is attached to the previous node which has the larger probability; the link is directed from the previous node to the new node. In this way, a directed network is constructed, with a ``preferential attachment''-like growth model, using the magnitudes as the parameter to determine the probability of attachment to future nodes. Several events could occur in the same node. In this case, the probability is calculated using the average of the magnitudes of the events occuring in that node. Once the directed network is finished, the corresponding undirected network is constructed, by making all links symmetric, and eliminating the loops which may appear when two events occur in the same cell. The resulting directed network is found to be scale free (with very low values of the power-law distribution exponent), whereas the undirected one turns out to have small world behavior. These results are compared with a second, ficticious network, constructed in the same way, but where each successive node is chosen randomly in the grid, and its associated probability is also random, but taken from a Gaussian distribution. We find that this also generates a scale free network, but not a small world one. These results show an interesting behavior, another evidence of the complex organization of seismicity.

  20. Hasty retreat of glaciers in the Palena province of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.; Mölg, N.; Bolch, T.

    2013-12-01

    Mapping glacier extent from optical satellite data has become a most efficient tool to create or update glacier inventories and determine glacier changes over time. A most valuable archive in this regard is the nearly 30-year time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data that is freely available (already orthorectified) for most regions in the world from the USGS. One region with a most dramatic glacier shrinkage and a missing systematic assessment of changes, is the Palena province in Chile, south of Puerto Montt. A major bottleneck for accurate determination of glacier changes in this region is related to the huge amounts of snow falling in this very maritime region, hiding the perimeter of glaciers throughout the year. Consequently, we found only three years with Landsat scenes that can be used to map glacier extent through time. We here present the results of a glacier change analysis from six Landsat scenes (path-rows 232-89/90) acquired in 1985, 2000 and 2011 covering the Palena district in Chile. Clean glacier ice was mapped automatically with a standard technique (TM3/TM band ratio) and manual editing was applied to remove wrongly classified lakes and to add debris-covered glacier parts. The digital elevation model (DEM) from SRTM was used to derive drainage divides, determine glacier specific topographic parameters, and analyse the area changes in regard to topography. The scene from 2000 has the best snow conditions and was used to eliminate seasonal snow in the other two scenes by digital combination of the binary glacier masks. The observed changes show a huge spatial variability with a strong dependence on elevation and glacier hypsometry. While small mountain glaciers at high elevations and steep slopes show virtually no change over the 26-year period, ice at low elevations from large valley glaciers shows a dramatic decline (area and thickness loss). Some glaciers retreated more than 3 km over this time period or even disappeared completely. Typically, these glaciers lost contact to the accumulation areas of tributaries and now consist of an ablation area only. Furthermore, numerous pro-glacial lakes formed or expanded rapidly, increasing the local hazard potential. On the other hand, some glaciers located on or near to (still active) volcanoes have also advanced in the same time period. Observed trends in temperature (decreasing) are in contrast to the observed strong glacier shrinkage.

  1. Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitén volcano, Chile.

    PubMed

    Castro, Jonathan M; Dingwell, Donald B

    2009-10-01

    Rhyolite magma has fuelled some of the Earth's largest explosive volcanic eruptions. Our understanding of these events is incomplete, however, owing to the previous lack of directly observed eruptions. Chaitén volcano, in Chile's northern Patagonia, erupted rhyolite magma unexpectedly and explosively on 1 May 2008 (ref. 2). Chaitén residents felt earthquakes about 24 hours before ash fell in their town and the eruption escalated into a Plinian column. Although such brief seismic forewarning of a major explosive basaltic eruption has been documented, it is unprecedented for silicic magmas. As precursory volcanic unrest relates to magma migration from the storage region to the surface, the very short pre-eruptive warning at Chaitén probably reflects very rapid magma ascent through the sub-volcanic system. Here we present petrological and experimental data that indicate that the hydrous rhyolite magma at Chaitén ascended very rapidly, with velocities of the order of one metre per second. Such rapid ascent implies a transit time from storage depths greater than five kilometres to the near surface in about four hours. This result has implications for hazard mitigation because the rapidity of ascending rhyolite means that future eruptions may provide little warning. PMID:19812671

  2. ESO Strategy to Promote Astronomy and Science Culture in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argandona, G.

    2006-08-01

    With three astronomical sites operating in Chile (La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor), the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, ESO, has developed multiple approaches to foster astronomy and science culture in the country, implemented both nationally and locally. At the national level, it was established an annual fund to provide grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. This has been complemented by multiple partnerships and formal collaborations with relevant actors, like the Chilean Ministry of Education, the National Science and Technology Commission (CONICYT), science museums and national mass media. At the local level, the education and outreach program includes traditional public visits to the observatories, support to science teaching at local schools, promotion of astronomy clubs, organisation of a mobile observatory, among other actions. An overview of these national and local projects will be given, along with a review of the development of Chilean astronomy in last years, including recent statistics on the number of professional astronomers, science productivity and percentage of access to international observatories by Chilean community.

  3. Tsunami risk zoning in south-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent 2010 Chilean tsunami revealed the need to optimize methodologies for assessing the risk of disaster. In this context, modern techniques and criteria for the evaluation of the tsunami phenomenon were applied in the coastal zone of south-central Chile as a specific methodology for the zoning of tsunami risk. This methodology allows the identification and validation of a scenario of tsunami hazard; the spatialization of factors that have an impact on the risk; and the zoning of the tsunami risk. For the hazard evaluation, different scenarios were modeled by means of numerical simulation techniques, selecting and validating the results that better fit with the observed tsunami data. Hydrodynamic parameters of the inundation as well as physical and socioeconomic vulnerability aspects were considered for the spatialization of the factors that affect the tsunami risk. The tsunami risk zoning was integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) by means of multicriteria evaluation (MCE). The results of the tsunami risk zoning show that the local characteristics and their location, together with the concentration of poverty levels, establish spatial differentiated risk levels. This information builds the basis for future applied studies in land use planning that tend to minimize the risk levels associated to the tsunami hazard. This research is supported by Fondecyt 11090210.

  4. Pleistocene glaciation in the southern Lake District of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Stephen C.

    1981-11-01

    Relative-age criteria permit deposits of successive Andean glacier advances in the southern Lake District of Chile to be divided into four mappable drift sheets, the oldest two of which overlie Tertiary bedrock along the eastern flank of the Cordillera de la Costa. Only the youngest drift (Llanquihue) is datable by radiocarbon. During the most extensive ice advance of the last glaciation the Lago Llanquihue glacier was about 95 km long and reached an estimated maximum thickness of between 1000 and 1300 m. Glacier equilibrium lines at that time lay about 1000 m below their present level and rose eastward with a gradient of about 5 m/km. Successive ice advances in the Lago Llanquihue basin, which resulted in construction of end moraines and associated outwash plains beyond the lake margin, culminated sometime before about 20,000 yr ago and between 20,000 and 19,000 yr ago. A later readvance, inferred from the sedimentary record of lake-level fluctuations in the basin, had begun by about 15,000 yr ago and culminated shortly after 13,000 yr ago. A comparable, but less-closely dated, record of ice advances is found northwest of Seno Reloncaví and on Isla Chiloé. Deglaciation following the latest advance is likely to have been rapid, for the major glacier lobes fronted on deep water bodies that would have promoted extensive calving.

  5. Caregiver perceptions of child nutritional status in Magallanes, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Parra, Sonia G.; Barbosa, Clarita; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify risk factors for childhood overweight and obesity and the accuracy of caregivers’ perceptions of their child’s nutritional status in the Magallanes region, Patagonia, Chile. Methods Heights and weights of children attending day care centers and elementary schools were collected and caregivers completed questionnaires regarding their child’s health and behavior. The child’s nutritional status was diagnosed using the 2006 WHO Child Growth Standards (for children under age 6) and the CDC 2000 Growth Charts (for children age 6 and older). Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors related to childhood overweight/obesity and weight underestimation by caregivers of overweight or obese children. Results Of the 795 children included in the study, 247 (31.1%) were overweight and 223 (28.1%) were obese. Risk factors for overweight/obesity included younger age and being perceived to eat more than normal by the caregiver. Caregivers were less likely to underestimate their child’s weight if the child was older or if the caregiver believed the child ate more than a normal amount. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Magallanes and the majority of caregivers underestimate the extent of the problem in their children. PMID:24548582

  6. [Differentiated perception of transgenic tomato sauce in the southern Chile].

    PubMed

    Schnettler Morales, B; Sepúlveda Bravo, O; Ruiz Fuentes, D; Denegri Coria, M

    2008-03-01

    The present study considers the debate generated in developed countries by genetically modified foods, the importance of this variable to consumers in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) when purchasing tomato sauce and different market segments were studied through a personal survey administered to 400 people. Using conjoint analysis, it was determined that the presence of genetic modification in food was generally more important than the brand and purchase price. Using cluster analysis, three segments were distinguished, with the most numerous (49.3%) placing the greatest importance on the presence of genetic modification (GM) in food and rejecting the transgenic product. The second group (39.4%) gave the greatest importance to the brand and preferred tomato sauce with genetically modified ingredients. The smallest segment (11.3%) placed the greatest value on price and preferred transgenic tomato sauce. The three segments prefer the national brand, reject the store brand and react positively to lower prices. The segment sensitive to the presence of GM in food comprised mainly those younger than 35 years of age, single and with no children. The absence of GM in food of vegetable origin is desirable for young consumers in the Araucanía Region, but a significant proportion accepts genetic modification in food (50.7%). PMID:18589572

  7. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. PMID:23617306

  8. Late Holocene megathrust earthquakes in south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Ed; Shennan, Ian; Gulliver, Pauline; Woodroffe, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    A lack of comprehensive understanding of the seismic hazards associated with a subduction zone can lead to inadequate anticipation of earthquake and tsunami magnitudes. Four hundred and fifty years of Chilean historical documents record the effects of numerous great earthquakes; however, with recurrence intervals between the largest megathrust earthquakes approaching 300 years, seismic hazard assessment requires longer chronologies. This research seeks to verify and extend historical records in south central Chile using a relative-sea level approach to palaeoseismology. Our quantitative, diatom-based approaches to relative sea-level reconstruction are successful in reconstructing the magnitude of coseismic deformation during recent, well documented Chilean earthquakes. The few disparities between my estimates and independent data highlight the possibility of shaking-induced sediment consolidation in tidal marshes. Following this encouraging confirmation of the approach, we quantify land-level changes in longer sedimentary records from the centre of the rupture zone of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. Here, laterally extensive marsh soils abruptly overlain by low intertidal sediments attest to the occurrence of four megathrust earthquakes. Sites preserve evidence of the 1960 and 1575 earthquakes and we constrain the timing of two predecessors to 1270 to 1410 and 1050 to 1200. The sediments and biostratigraphy lack evidence for the historically documented 1737 and 1837 earthquakes.

  9. Shared decision making in Chile: supportive policies and research initiatives.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Paulina; Cabieses, Báltica; Bustamante, Claudia; Campos, Solange; Stacey, Dawn

    2011-01-01

    WHAT ABOUT POLICY REGARDING SDM? Since 1999, there has been a small but growing interest by academics, the government, and society as a whole in strengthening patients' and professionals' involvement in shared decision making (SDM). Two governmental policy documents that indicate support for SDM are (1) Health Reform in 2003 and (2) Sanitary Objectives 2011-2020, which includes a brief section on client participation and SDM. WHAT ABOUT TOOLS - DECISION SUPPORT FOR PATIENTS? Research by Chilean academics has highlighted the patients' desire to participate in health decisions and effective approaches for enhancing health professionals' skills in interprofessional SDM; however, little has been done to support this need and the work is centralised in only one academic institution. Decision support tools and coaching interventions are limited to patients considering decisions about managing type 2 diabetes. WHAT ABOUT PROFESSIONAL INTEREST AND IMPLEMENTATION? Although there is increasing attention to studying patients' participation and involvement on their healthcare, little has been studied in relation to professionals' interest in SDM. As well, there are significant challenges for implementation of a country-wide SDM policy. WHAT DOES THE FUTURE LOOK LIKE? The future looks promising given the new health policies, local Chilean research projects, and international initiatives. Collaboration between health professionals, academics, and government policy makers, with public involvement needs to be strengthened in order to promote concrete strategies to implement SDM in Chile. PMID:21620317

  10. Avian Influenza in wild birds from Chile, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Pedersen, Janice; Jeria, Julissa; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; García, Alfonso; Vásquez, Marcela; Avalos, Patricia; Retamal, Patricio

    2015-03-01

    Aquatic and migratory birds, the main reservoir hosts of avian influenza viruses including those with high pathogenic potential, are the wildlife species with the highest risk for viral dissemination across countries and continents. In 2002, the Chilean poultry industry was affected with a highly pathogenic avian influenza strain, which created economic loss and triggered the establishment of a surveillance program in wild birds. This effort consisted of periodic samplings of sick or suspicious animals found along the coast and analyses with standardized techniques for detection of influenza A virus. The aim of this work is to report the detection of three avian influenza strains (H13N2, H5N9, H13N9) in gulls from Chile between 2007-2009, which nucleotide sequences showed highest similitudes to viruses detected in wild birds from North America. These results suggest a dissemination route for influenza viruses along the coasts of Americas. Migratory and synanthropic behaviors of birds included in this study support continued monitoring of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds in The Americas and the establishment of biosecurity practices in farms. PMID:25602438

  11. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

    2002-05-24

    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  12. Catastrophic debris avalanche deposit of Socompa volcano, northern Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, P. W.; Gardeweg, M.; Ramirez, C. F.; Rothery, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Between 10,000 and 500 yr ago the Socompa volcano in northern Chile experienced a catastrophic collapse of a 70 deg sector of the original cone, causing a debris avalanche that descended nearly 3000 m vertically and traveled more than 35 km from the volcano. The deposits cover some 490 sq km and have a minimum volume of 15 cu km. Parts of the original cone slumped in a nearly coherent form and are now preserved as large blocks more than 400 m high. The primary avalanche traveled northwestward over sloping ground before coming to rest transiently, forming a prominent marginal ridge, and then slid away northeastward to form a secondary flow, overriding much of the primary avalanche deposit. Abundant, prismatic, jointed dacite blocks within the debris avalanche deposit and a thin, fine-grained pumiceous deposit beneath it suggest that the collapse was triggered by magmatic activity and may have been accompanied by a violent lateral blast. Collapse was followed by eruption of pumiceous pyroclastic flows and extrusion of voluminous dacite domes.

  13. [Antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables cultivated in Chile].

    PubMed

    Araya, Héctor; Clavijo, Carolina; Herrera, Claudia

    2006-12-01

    The high prevalence of non transmissible chronic diseases (NCD) related to food consumption had increased the studies conducted to investigate the relationship between diet and health. A smaller incidence of NCD, with food patterns with high consumption of fruits and vegetables has been observed and chemical compounds of these foods have been one of the main subjects of the actual research in the reaqltion between food consumption and health. The effect of vegetable foods has been attributed to various nutrients and bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity. In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of vegetable foods cultivated in Chile, natural fruits and vegetables were analyzed according to the FRAP (ferric reducing activity power) method, reading to the 4 minutes. In vegetables, the values were between 0.002 and 1.91 milimoles of Fe/l00 g for cooked carrot and red pepper respectively. The values of the fruits ranged between 0.02 milimoles of Fe/100 g for the cucumber and 12.32 for maqui, the berries studies showed values between 3.10 for strawberry and 3.55 for wild blackberry. Lemmon and quince with 0.25 and 0.23 respectively are located in the intermediate level and the lowest values within the fruits corresponded to apple (fuji variety) and peaches. PMID:17425182

  14. Water governance in Chile: Availability, management and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Roberto; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Olivares, Claudio; Vera, Mauricio; Balocchi, Francisco; Pérez, Felipe; Vallejos, Carlos; Fuentes, Roberto; Abarza, Alejandro; Helwig, Bridget

    2014-11-01

    Chile has a unique geography that provides an extraordinary variety of climatic conditions and availability of water resources. The objective of this manuscript was to describe and analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, as well as the management of water resources, along a country with a narrow distance from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This presents challenges to water governance from data collection and analysis perspectives, and for administration of the resource. The Water Resources Directorate (Dirección General de Aguas, DGA), is the federal government organization in charge of the water resources of the country. The DGA and other relevant public and private institutions are examined in terms of competition and conflict resolution across different scales and levels of interaction associated with water resources governance. Both monitoring stations (rainfall, streamflow, water quality, groundwater, sediment and snowfall), and the Chilean management and legislation of water resources are also analyzed. Finally, the success (or lack) of the national administration to upgrade its monitoring stations and equalize water resources distribution throughout the country is discussed including the influence of climate change on data collection, and decision making across different scales of water governance.

  15. Antarctic icequakes triggered by the 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhigang; Walter, Jacob I.; Aster, Richard C.; Nyblade, Andrew; Wiens, Douglas A.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2014-09-01

    Seismic waves from distant, large earthquakes can almost instantaneously trigger shallow micro-earthquakes and deep tectonic tremor as they pass through Earth's crust. Such remotely triggered seismic activity mostly occurs in tectonically active regions. Triggered seismicity is generally considered to reflect shear failure on critically stressed fault planes and is thought to be driven by dynamic stress perturbations from both Love and Rayleigh types of surface seismic wave. Here we analyse seismic data from Antarctica in the six hours leading up to and following the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile. We identify many high-frequency seismic signals during the passage of the Rayleigh waves generated by the Maule earthquake, and interpret them as small icequakes triggered by the Rayleigh waves. The source locations of these triggered icequakes are difficult to determine owing to sparse seismic network coverage, but the triggered events generate surface waves, so are probably formed by near-surface sources. Our observations are consistent with tensile fracturing of near-surface ice or other brittle fracture events caused by changes in volumetric strain as the high-amplitude Rayleigh waves passed through. We conclude that cryospheric systems can be sensitive to large distant earthquakes.

  16. Resumen--Las recientes modificaciones legales al mercado de generacin elctrico en Chile, introducidas mediante las leyes N

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    1 Resumen-- Las recientes modificaciones legales al mercado de generación eléctrico en Chile inserción de sistemas de generación eólica en Chile. Se evalúa financieramente un proyecto de 8,5 MW, Chile se encuentra en un proceso de revisión de la política de neutralidad en el que se desenvuelven las

  17. Ral Zurita (Santiago de Chile, 1950) es una figura mayor de la poesa chilena. La imagen de fragilidad que

    E-print Network

    Escolano, Francisco

    Raúl Zurita (Santiago de Chile, 1950) es una figura mayor de la poesía chilena. La imagen de. José Carlos Rovira Colaboran: EMBAJADA DE CHILE #12;Un Creador nos introdUCe en sU mUndo segUnda sesión/Facultad de Le- tras/ Aula Magna. Interviene: D. Alejandro San Francisco, Agregado Cultural de Chile en España

  18. Hugh Rudnick*, Rodrigo Moreno#, Luiz Barroso& * Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, # Systep Ingeniera y Diseos, & PSR Inc.

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    1 Hugh Rudnick*, Rodrigo Moreno#, Luiz Barroso& * Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile: procesos de Chile y Brasil · Críticas y ámbitos de acción 4 · Revisión histórica · Esquemas de Subastas · Ejemplos: procesos de Chile y Brasil · Críticas y ámbitos de acción #12;5 · Electricidad definida como

  19. Influence of coastal upwelling and El Nin~oSouthern Oscillation on nearshore water along Baja California and Chile

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    California and Chile: Shore-based monitoring during 1997­­2000 Renee K. Takesue,1,2 Alexander van Geen,1 Jose and El Nin~o­Southern Oscillation (ENSO) off Baja California and Chile, nearshore salinity, cadmium (Cd forcing were observed at the southern tip of Baja California (23.3°N) and off central-southern Chile (36

  20. EVALUACIÓN GENÉTICA DE CLONES DE OLIVO EN EL DESIERTO DE ATACAMA, CHILE GENETIC EVALUATION OF OLIVE CLONES IN THE ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freddy Mora; Francisco Tapia; Antonio Ibacache; Elias Nunes-Martins; Carlos Alberto-Scapim

    El olivo (Olea europaea L.) es una especie económicamente im- portante para países con clima mediterráneo y ha sido una al- ternativa apropiada y útil para los sistemas agrícolas intensivos en las zonas áridas de Chile. Por este motivo, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar los componentes de varianza, heredabilidad en sentido amplio y la predicción de valores gené-

  1. LAS REGLAS DEL JUEGO POLÍTICO EN CHILE: INCENTIVOS Y RESTRICCIONES PARA LA GOBERNABILIDAD The rules of the political game in Chile: incentives and restrictions for governability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco MORENO

    2007-01-01

    The intention of this article is to explore the institutions and rules of the game that govern the behavior of and relations between Chilean political actors from a perspective of democratic governability. It examines the ways in which the institutions and rules of the game -both formal and informal- contribute positively or negatively to democratic governability in Chile. It first

  2. Evaluacion de la Interaccion Adulto-Nino en Aulas Pre-escolares de Concepcion, Chile. [Evaluation Adult-Child Interaction in Preschool Classrooms of Concepcion, Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathiesen De G., Maria Elena; Herrera G., Maria Olivia; Villalon B., Malva; Suzuky S., Emy

    2000-01-01

    Presents findings from investigation of the validity of the Arnett Caregiver Interaction Scale, CIS (1989), in preschools in Concepcion, Chile. Demonstrates the reliability and validity of the scale to evaluate the interaction of the childhood educator with young children, suggesting changes to the scale. Notes differences found for school type.…

  3. Manuel de Espanol para Profesores del Cuerpo de Paz--Chile (Peace Corps Teacher's Manual for Spanish--Chile). Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanco, Patricia

    This teaching manual is designed for the Spanish language training of Peace Corps volunteers serving in Chile, and focuses on daily communication skills needed in that context. It contains 12 topical lessons outlining targeted language and communication competencies, suggested classroom activities, phrase and vocabulary lists, grammar and usage…

  4. Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Rafael A.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.; Hjelle, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33°S) to Aysén (46°S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30°S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting ?0.6% seropositivity. We sequenced partial ANDV small (S) segment RNA from 6 HCPS patients and 32 rodents of four different species collected throughout the known range of hantavirus infection in Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single cosmopolitan lineage of ANDV Sout remains the sole etiologic agent for HCPS in Chile. PMID:19116256

  5. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than 2 000 m2, the distribution exhibits a power-law behaviour with scaling exponent, ?, equal to -2.24. For comparison, we analysed the power-law behaviour of other earthquake-induced landslide inventories, obtaining similar results, although the geological and seismic conditions may have been very different (Buller, New Zealand, ? = -2.42; Iningahua, New Zealand, ? = -2.53; Northridge, USA, ? = -2.39; Chi-Chi, Taiwan, ? = -2.30; Wenchuan Earthquake, China, ? = -2.19). Volume estimates and slope stability modelling have been completed to characterize the phenomena and the possible triggering mechanisms. For volume estimate, we reconstructed the pre-failure surface for tens of landslides, in order to characterize the area-volume relationship. By using this relationship, we assigned a volume to all landslides of the inventory. The study area is subject to a high seismicity associated to earthquakes of different type: interplate (superficial and intermediate depth), subduction zone earthquakes, and earthquake along the Coastal Escarpment. By analysing the frequency size relationships for earthquake-induced landslides from literature, it is possible to observe that the higher the earthquake Magnitude, the higher the frequency density curve. To quantify this observation, we used the power-law relationships derived for each inventory to calculate the frequency density associated to selected areas, and we plotted these frequencies as a function of the magnitude of the respective earthquakes. By fitting these values, we derived the expected Magnitude required to generate the landslide distribution of the study area. In conclusion, we argue that the evolution of these landslides is controlled by: deep valley incision, canyon walls undercutting and lateral migration of the river controlled by valley flank instabilities, the Presence of weak lithologies and weak basal layers, the river incision debuttressing the slope toe and especially brings to daylighting the weak basal layers observed at some landslide sites, the possible deep groundwater flow above the deep imperm

  6. Risk Adjustment and Primary Health Care in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Veronica; Wasem, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    Aim To offer a capitation formula with greater capacity for guiding resource spending on population with poorer health and lower socioeconomic status in the context of financing and equity in primary health care. Methods We collected two years of data on a sample of 10?000 individuals from a region in Chile, Valdivia and Temuco and evaluated three models to estimate utilization and expenditures per capita. The first model included age and sex; the second one included age, sex, and the presence of two key diagnoses; and the third model included age, sex, and the presence of seven key diagnoses. Regression results were evaluated by R2 and predictive ratios to select the best specifications. Results Per-capita expenditures by age and sex confirmed international trends, where children under five, women, and the elderly were the main users of primary health care services. Women sought health advice twice as much as men. Clear differences by socioeconomic status were observed for the indigent population aged ?65 years who under-utilized primary health care services. From the three models, major improvement in the predictive power occurred from the demographic (adjusted R2, 9%) to the demographic plus two diagnoses model (adjusted R2, 27%). Improvements were modest when five other diagnoses were added (adjusted R2, 28%). Conclusion The current formula that uses municipality’s financial power and geographic location of health centers to adjust capitation payments provides little incentive to appropriate care for the indigent and people with chronic conditions. A capitation payment that adjusts for age, sex, and the presence of diabetes and hypertension will better guide resource allocation to those with poorer health and lower socioeconomic status. PMID:16758525

  7. Achieving effective universal health coverage with equity: evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Patricia; Delgado, Iris; Kaufman, Jay S; Harper, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Chile's 'health guarantees' approach to providing universal and equitable coverage for quality healthcare in a dual public-private health system has generated global interest. The programme, called AUGE, defines legally enforceable rights to explicit healthcare benefits for priority health conditions, which incrementally covered 56 problems representing 75% of the disease burden between 2005 and 2009. It was accompanied by other health reform measures to increase public financing and public sector planning to secure the guarantees nationwide, as well as the state's stewardship role. We analysed data from household surveys conducted before and after the AUGE reform to estimate changes in levels of unmet health need, defined as the lack of a healthcare visit for a health problem occurring in the last 30 days, by age, sex, income, education, health insurance, residence and ethnicity; fitting logistic regression models and using predictive margins. The overall prevalence of unmet health need was much lower in 2009 (17.6%, 95% CI: 16.5%, 18.6%) than in 2000 (30.0%, 95% CI: 28.3%, 31.7%). Differences by income and education extremes and rural-urban residence disappeared. In 2009, people who had been in treatment for a condition covered by AUGE in the past year had a lower adjusted prevalence of unmet need for their recent problem (11.7%, 95% CI: 10.5%, 13.2%) than who had not (21.0%, 95% CI: 19.6%, 22.4%). Despite limitations including cross-sectional and self-reported data, our findings suggest that the Chilean health system has become more equitable and responsive to need. While these changes cannot be directly attributed to AUGE, they were coincident with the AUGE reforms. However, healthcare equity concerns are still present, relating to quality of care, health system barriers and differential access for health conditions that are not covered by AUGE. PMID:23921988

  8. Mental health of indigenous school children in Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depressive disorders occur in all stages of life and are the most common childhood disorders. However, only recently has attention been paid to mental health problems in indigenous children and studies of anxiety and depressive disorders in these children are still scarce. This study compares the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara and non-Aymara children. Among the Aymara children, the study examines the relations between these symptoms and the degree of involvement with Aymara culture. Methods We recruited 748 children aged 9 to 15 years from nine schools serving low socioeconomic classes in the city of Arica, in northern Chile. The children were equally divided between boys and girls and 37% of the children were Aymara. To evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms we used the Stress in Children (SiC) instrument and the Children Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), and used an instrument we developed to assess level of involvement in the Aymara culture. Results There was no significant difference between Aymara and non-Aymara children on any of the instrument scales. Dividing the Aymara children into high-involvement (n?=?89) and low-involvement (n?=?186) groups, the low-involvement group had significantly higher scores on the Hopelessness subscale of the CDI-S (p?=?0.02) and scores of marginally higher significance in overall Anxiety on the SiC (p?=?0.06). Conclusions Although Aymara children have migrated from the high Andean plateau to the city, this migration has not resulted in a greater presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Greater involvement with the Aymara culture may be a protective factor against anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara children. This point to an additional benefit of maintaining cultural traditions within this population. PMID:24438210

  9. Repeating Earthquakes in the Outer Rise Offshore Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmann, F. J.; Grevemeyer, I.; Gossler, J.; Scherwath, M.; Flueh, E.; Hofmann, S.; Dahm, T.

    2005-12-01

    In December 2004-January 2005 two temporary arrays of ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones (Sonne cruise SO181) were recording the micro-earthquake activity of the outer rise region offshore Southern Chile. The southern array was located offshore the Chonos archipelago (45°S) on very young oceanic plate (6 Ma). No outer rise earthquakes are listed in the global catalogues for this region. The northern array is located off Chiloe island (43°S) on somewhat older plate (14 Ma). Several normal faulting events have occurred in this area in the last 30 years. Nevertheless, during the temporary deployment, the southern region was far more active with several hundred locatable events. Most events located in the crust and the uppermost 1-2~km of the mantle. In contrast, relatively few locatable events (<200) were recorded by the Northern array, with most events lying outside the array. The depth of the few events within the array places them well into the mantle, ~5km deeper than the deepest events in the south. The event set recorded by the southern array is remarkable in that a very high proportion (~0.35) of the events are repeating earthquakes, that is events with a high waveform similarity (correlation coeff. >0.9). They group into 41 clusters of various sizes, with the largest cluster consisting of 24 events. Recurrence times are highly irregular, with repeating earthquakes occasionally being separated by a few minutes only but some sequences stretching over the entire observational period. Repeating earthquakes have been associated with strong patches embedded within weak parts of a fault, with irregularities at the boundary between strong and weak parts, and with systematic changes in pore fluid pressure due to fluid diffusion. We will consider how far each of these models can describe the event sequences at the Outer Rise, where the dominant strain arises due to bending of the oceanic plate.

  10. Geomorphological characterization of endorheic basins in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsaz, J.; Gironas, J. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative geomorphology regroups a large number of interesting tools to characterize natural basins across scales. The application of these tools to several river basins allows the description and comparison of geomorphological properties at different spatial scales as oppose to more traditional descriptors that are typically applied at a single scale, meaning the catchment scale. Most of the recent research using these quantitative geomorphological tools has focused on open catchments and no specific attention has been given to endorheic basins, and the possibility of having particular features that distinguish them from exorheic catchments. The main objective of our study is to characterize endorheic basins and investigate whether these special geomorphological features can be identified. Because scaling invariance is a widely observed and relatively well quantified property of open basins, it provides a suitable tool to characterize differences between the geomorphology of closed and open basins. Our investigation focuses on three closed basins located in northern Chile which describe well the diversity in the geomorphology and geology of this arid region. Results show that endhoreic basins exhibit different slope-area and flow paths sinuosity regimes compared to those observed in open basins. These differences are in agreement with the particular self-similar behavior across spatial scales of the Euclidean length of subcatchments, as well as the Hack's law and Horton's ratios. These regimes imply different physical processes inside the channel network regardless of the basin area, and they seem to be related to the endorheic character of these basins. The analysis of the probability density functions of contributing areas and lengths to the lower region shows that the hypothesis of self-similarity can also be applied to closed basins. Theoretical expressions for these distributions were derived and validated by the data. Future research will focus on (1) applying similar analyses in other locations and comparing the results, and (2) understanding and modeling the effects of groundwater in forming the landscape of these arid regions.

  11. Observations of the 1995 ozone hole over Punta Arenas, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Sahai, Y.; Casiccia, C. A. R. S.; Zamorano, B. F.; Valderrama, V. V.

    1997-07-01

    We examine the appearance of the ozone hole over a populated area with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The largest population concentrations on the South American continent nearest the ozone hole region are Punta Arenas, Chile (53.0°S, 70.9°W) and Ushuaia, Argentina (54.5°S, 68.0°W), located close to the strait of Magallanes, opposite the Antarctic Peninsula. A special field mission was held in Punta Arenas, in September-October 1995 to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone during the appearance of the Antarctic ozone hole. Previous work has shown that the city of Punta Arenas is located at the edge of the hole area and is affected every year during a few days in the October period. The ozone trend near these locations is -0.5% per year using the yearly averages and -1.2% per year using the October means. This trend is 2 to 5 times larger than the global average. Several ozonesondes of the electrochemical concentration cell type were launched from Punta Arenas to determine the vertical distribution of ozone during "normal" and "perturbed" conditions. The ozone hole passed over Punta Arenas on October 12, 13 and 14, 1995. In addition to the sondes, which were launched once a day, ozone column amounts and UVB radiation were measured with a ground-based ozone Brewer spectrophotometer. The strongest ozone depletion over Punta Arenas in 1995 occurred on October 13, when the ozone column decreased from a "normal" value of about 325 Dobson Units (DU) to 200 DU; the vertical distribution of ozone on October 13 compared with October 6 shows depleted ozone roughly 50% less during hole conditions in the stratosphere. The UVB intensities have increased accordingly. The spectral ratio for October 13 to October 4 is 13 times larger at 297 nm.

  12. Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

    2004-09-01

    Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valpara?´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

  13. The Dusty View of DI from ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Locurto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Rauer, H.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.

    Around the time of the impact of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission at comet 9P/Tempel 1, in total 6 telescopes with altogether 7 different instruments, located at the La Silla (LSO) and Paranal (VLT) Observatories of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, were used to characterize the dust properties before and after the event. The ejecta cloud expanded at an average speed of about 200 ms-1during the first hours after the event. It reached stagnation distance of 25000 km about 3 days after impact. The pre-impact dust jet and fan activity (`porcupine' pattern) remained undisturbed after impact. In our measurements the jet activity can be traced to a few 100 km nucleus distance. In total 9 comastructures are identified which may originate from at least 4 regions of enhanced dust emission on the nucleus - one of this region may in fact be multiple. No obvious signatures of a new active region created by DI are found. The overall dust production during the impact compares to about 5-10 h of normal activity. The global expansion geometry of the DI cloud is compatible with a majority of dust grains in the micron size range. Indications exist for asymmetric brightness and colour distributions of the dust in the ejecta cloud. The dust temperature rose from about 280-290 K before to 330 K one day after the event and fell to pre-impact level the day thereafter. The dust reflected sunlight was found to be linearly polarized at about 7.5% in the visible and near-IR, at constant level within about 4000 km from the nucleus. No circular polarization of the dust is detected.

  14. Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents’ use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mother’s and father’s use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents’ use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add to the growing evidence concerning the negative consequences of corporal punishment for youth outcomes. PMID:22766372

  15. Isotope hydrology of groundwaters in the Pampa del Tamarugal, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, P.; Suzuki, O.; Silva, C.; Salati, E.

    1981-09-01

    The water resources in northern Chile are extremely scarce and development is limited by this. This paper discusses the isotope hydrology of groundwaters in the Pampa del Tamarugal — an area of extreme aridity (rainfall < 1 mm/yr.) — whose groundwater resources are mined for the town of Iquique, as well as for industrial and agricultural purposes. The aim of the project was to obtain information on modern recharge and to delineate, if possible recharge environments. To obtain the necessary background information a precipitation survey in the high Andes, as well as spring- and surface-water studies were carried out. The results show that a well-defined meteoric water line exists where ? 2H = (7.8 ? 18O + 10.3)% , and altitude effects depend on air-mass movements and cannot be defined without a broader regional and detailed sampling programme. However, it is still possible to assign maximum altitudes of recharge to springs in the Andes and at the eastern border of the Pampa del Tamarugal. Comparison of these data with groundwater compositions show, that these groundwaters originate from infiltrating surface water rather than directly infiltrated precipitation. A dependence of individual groundwater systems on specific quebradas (river valleys) is recognized. However, low 14C activities indicate that most of the waters pumped today are fossil and at least several hundreds if not thousands of years old. Some minor subsurface recharge does occur at the foot of the Andes, especially at Pica where high-altitude waters discharge, but even there groundwater appears to be a diminishing resource.

  16. An urban photochemistry study in Santiago de Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, B.; Schmitz, R.; Bauerfeind, M.; Cereceda-Balic, F.; von Baer, D.; Jorquera, H.; Silva, Y.; Oyola, P.

    During spring time 2002 a field experiment was carried out in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile at three monitoring sites located along a SW-NE transect that represents upwind, downtown and downwind conditions, respectively. Three consecutive days (30 October-01 November 2002) reflecting different photochemical and meteorological conditions were selected. These days included two workdays and one holiday and thus the effect of different primary emissions could be investigated. A variety of trace gas measurements (O 3, NO x, CO, volatile organic compounds (VOC)) were obtained at these sites. Alkanes represent the largest VOC fraction at all sites, followed by aromatics and alkenes, the smallest fractions are represented by the alkynes or isoprene. Regarding reactivity ranking propene equivalent values show that during morning hours, alkenes are the most reactive compounds, at noon, aromatics are dominant, and in the afternoon isoprene becomes important. Alkanes do not contribute more than 20% to the total air mass reactivity despite being present at the higher concentration levels. Regarding liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) impacts, we find a threefold decrease of concentrations at the eastern side of the city—and no significant trend at Downtown Santiago—which we ascribe to a switch to natural gas in the higher income eastern side of town. The generation of ozone impacts above 50 ppbv is mainly due to anthropogenic traffic-related hydrocarbons. In addition, traffic emissions are contributing most to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). A model study was carried out, applying a Lagrange trajectory model coupled with photochemical and aerosol modules. The model results are in good agreement with the observations. Additionally, the relative contribution of the respective hydrocarbons to the ozone production in an air parcel along the trajectory was computed. The model also indicates SOA formation by means of oxidation of higher alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, the latter being the major contributors to those secondary pollutants.

  17. HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile.

    PubMed

    Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces, Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Amerindian Mapuche (Araucanians) are now living in Chile and Argentina at both sides of Andean Mountains. They are anthropologically and genetically different from southernmost South America Patagonian Amerindians. Most of the HLA alleles found in our Mapuche sample are frequent or very frequent in North and South America Amerindians: (1) Class I: A*02:01, A*03:01, A*68:01, B*39:09, B*51:01, (2) Class II: DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:02, DRB1*14:02, DRB1*16:02. One of the nine most frequent extended haplotypes seems to be from European origin, suggesting the existence of a degree of admixture with Europeans in our Mapuche sample. It has been calculated of about 11 % admixture. Three of the extended haplotypes are also found in other Amerindians and five of them are newly found in Mapuche Amerindians: A*68:01-B*39:09-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02; A*68:01-B*51:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*29:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01; A*02:01-B*15:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*33:01-B*14:02-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03. The medical importance of calculating HLA profile is discussed on the diagnostic (HLA and disease) and therapeutical bases of HLA pharmacogenomics and on the construction of a virtual transplantation HLA list profile. Also, anthropological conclusions are drawn. PMID:23666052

  18. Evolution of drug resistance in Salmonella panama isolates in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cordano, A M; Virgilio, R

    1996-01-01

    In a search for Salmonella isolates in the environment in Chile in 1975, drug-susceptible strains of Salmonella panama were recovered for the first time from river water and vegetables in the vicinity of Santiago. Two to 3 years later, antibiotic-resistant S. panama began to appear in a variety of sources (meat, animals, vegetables, etc.), giving rise to a human epidemic that involved the entire nation. Of 139 clinical isolates studied, 7 were drug susceptible, 11 were resistant only to nitrofurans, and 3 were streptomycin, spectinomycin, and nitrofuran resistant; none of these 21 isolates harbored plasmid DNA. Most isolates (n = 107) were resistant to nitrofurans (chromosomal) and to streptomycin, spectinomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and mercuric and tellurite salts; this multidrug resistance was encoded on a 218-kb plasmid classified in a number of strains as being in the IncHI2 group. From 1982 to 1993, 11 isolates acquired an additional self-transferable plasmid coding for resistance to any one of ampicillin (61 kb), ampicillin and trimethoprim (65 kb), ampicillin, trimethoprim, streptomycin, and sulfonamides (71 kb), ampicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, and tetracycline (120 kb), or a nontransferable plasmid of approximately 6 kb encoding resistance to ampicillin or kanamycin. With the exception of ampicillin or ampicillin and trimethoprim resistance, S. panama isolates from foodstuffs, mainly pork meat products, and animals had resistance patterns that were the same as those found in clinical specimens. Remarkably, strains from goats and goat cheese and from shellfish isolated in particular rural regions were either drug susceptible or resistant only to streptomycin-spectinomycin encoded on a mobile genetic element and to nitrofurans. The report describes the arrival of a susceptible S. panama strain, its spread all over the country, and the evolution of progressively complex resistance patterns. PMID:8834876

  19. Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1 km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

  20. Andes virus infections in the rodent reservoir and in humans vary across contrasting landscapes in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Pérez, Fernando; Palma, R. Eduardo; Hjelle, Brian; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging infectious disease first reported in Chile in 1995. Andes hantavirus (ANDV) is responsible for the more than 500 cases of HCPS reported in Chile. Previous work showed that ANDV is genetically differentiated in Chile across contrasting landscapes. To determine whether the reservoir rodent (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus) populations are also geographically segregated, we conducted range-wide spatial genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus in Chile using the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene. Given that landscape structure influences the incidence of hantavirus infections, we also tested 772 O. longicaudatus specimens for antibodies to ANDV captured during the period 2000 ? 2006. Population genetic analyses of O. longicaudatus are largely congruent with those reported for ANDV, with the host primarily differentiated according to three defined ecoregions, Mediterranean, Valdivian rain forest and North Patagonian rain forest. Significant differences in the relative prevalence of anti-ANDV antibodies in rodent samples also were found across the three ecoregions. We relate these results to the number of reported human HCPS cases in Chile, and discuss the importance of landscape differences in light of ANDV transmission to humans and among rodent populations. PMID:19632357

  1. Maternity protection vs. maternity rights for working women in Chile: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Herrera, Tania

    2012-12-01

    Maternity leave in Chile has been a social right since 1919, when the International Labour Organization set the first global standards. From its inception, Chile's labour legislation focused on protecting motherhood and the family. The length of maternity leave has been extended several times since then but its main aim remains the protection of infant health. In 1931, Chile's first Labour Code required anyone employing 20 or more women to provide day care services and facilitate childcare and paid breastfeeding time for all mothers of children under one. Labour laws began to play an important role in accommodating the care of infants within working conditions, though not always effectively. In spite of job protection during pregnancy and breastfeeding, women can be dismissed on grounds other than pregnancy. It was only under Salvador Allende and again in the past two decades that Chile has enfranchised women as holders of health rights. However, many unresolved tensions remain. Chile promotes motherhood, but often considers that working women who demand employment protection abuse the system. Motherhood is a magic wand that represents the selflessness of women, but society throws a blanket of mistrust over women who wish to exercise their maternity rights and to determine the number and spacing of their children. PMID:23245419

  2. A strong-motion database from the Peru-Chile subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, Maria C.; Strasser, Fleur O.; Bommer, Julian J.; Boroschek, Ruben; Comte, Diana; Tavera, Hernando

    2011-01-01

    Earthquake hazard along the Peru-Chile subduction zone is amongst the highest in the world. The development of a database of subduction-zone strong-motion recordings is, therefore, of great importance for ground-motion prediction in this region. Accelerograms recorded by the different networks operators in Peru and Chile have been compiled and processed in a uniform manner, and information on the source parameters of the causative earthquakes, fault-plane geometries and local site conditions at the recording stations has been collected and reviewed to obtain high-quality metadata. The compiled database consists of 98 triaxial ground-motion recordings from 15 subduction-type events with moment magnitudes ranging from 6.3 to 8.4, recorded at 59 different sites in Peru and Chile, between 1966 and 2007. While the database presented in this study is not sufficient for the derivation of a new predictive equation for ground motions from subduction events in the Peru-Chile region, it significantly expands the global database of strong-motion data and associated metadata that can be used in the derivation of predictive equations for subduction environments. Additionally, the compiled database will allow the assessment of existing predictive models for subduction-type events in terms of their suitability for the Peru-Chile region, which directly influences seismic hazard assessment in this region.

  3. Genetic diversity and structure in semiwild and domesticated chiles (Capsicum annuum; Solanaceae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Meléndez, Araceli; Morrell, Peter L; Roose, Mikeal L; Kim, Seung-Chul

    2009-06-01

    The chile of Mesoamerica, Capsicum annuum, is one of five domesticated chiles in the Americas. Among the chiles, it varies the most in size, form, and color of its fruits. Together with maize, C. annuum is one of the principal elements of the neotropical diets of Mesoamerican civilizations. Despite the great economic and cultural importance of C. annuum both worldwide and in Mexico, however, very little is known about its geographic origin and number of domestications. Here we sampled a total of 80 accessions from Mexico (58 semiwild and 22 domesticated) and examined nucleotide sequence diversity at three single- or low-copy nuclear loci, Dhn, G3pdh, and Waxy. Across the three loci, we found an average reduction of ca. 10% in the diversity of domesticates relative to semiwild chiles and geographic structure within Mexican populations. The Yucatan Peninsula contained a large number of haplotypes, many of which were unique, suggesting an important region of chile domestication and center of diversity. The present sampling of loci did not conclusively resolve the number and location of domestications, but several lines of evidence suggest multiple independent domestications from widely distributed progenitor populations. PMID:21628269

  4. Shelf resonance and impact of near-field tsunami generated by the 2010 Chile earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai

    2011-06-01

    The 2010 Chile earthquake of Mw 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in the near field that resulted in warnings across the Pacific. Numerical modeling shows trapping and amplification of the energy over the continental shelf and slope. A spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals resonance oscillations with periods up to 129 min along the central Chile coast. The temporal and spectral data provides an explanation for the long-period waves recorded by DART buoys and the prolonged wave activities and belated impacts reported by residents and survey teams. The present study of the 2010 Chile tsunami together with those of the 2006 Kuril and 2009 Samoa tsunamis has directly associated shelf resonance with impacts on insular and continental coasts and provided a tool to identify at-risk localities in tsunami hazard assessment.

  5. Design of a Teacher Professional Development Program for International Collaborative Astronomy Research in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.; Seguel, J.; Sparks, R.; Opazo, L.; Walker, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    We have designed (but not yet implemented) a program where five US teachers will team with five Chilean teachers to conduct high-quality astronomical research in Chile that can be brought back to their classrooms and shared with their students. This project will introduce US teachers to four research projects at the Observatorio Cruz del Sur, one the largest municipal observatories in South America. The program would operate over the course of a year or more, with a month of observing and conducting research in Chile. The observatory is located in the small town of Combarbalá (Limari Province, IV Región de Coquimbo) in a region rich in archeological, historical, and cultural heritage. Teachers will use high-sensitivity digital detectors to take data through telescopes and with cameras as part of four research projects- light pollution research, digital photography of dark large areas of the sky using wide angle cameras, asteroid photometry, and exoplanet photometric studies. The project partners the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (Tucson, Arizona and La Serena, Chile), the Municipality of the town of Combarbalá, the National Observatory of Chile/University of Chile, and REUNA, an internet communication alliance that serves Chilean universities and observatories. Since the US teachers will have their astronomy classes running while they are in Chile, the teachers will be communicating with their classes on a regular basis. The teachers will also be providing long-term access to southern sky data for other teachers and students in the US while establishing the basis for long-term collaborative research. We expect the program to establish long-term international research collaborations among US and Chilean teachers and students.

  6. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile AGENCY: Animal and...United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from...the importation of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. DATES: Effective Date:...

  7. The W-Phase and PTWC's Response to the Mw 8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010

    E-print Network

    Duputel, Zacharie

    The W-Phase and PTWC's Response to the Mw 8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010 Zacharie, California Institute Of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA. 3 NOAA NWS Pacific Tsunami Warning, Ewa Beach, HI, USA, broadband data streams from IRIS, USGS and other FDSN networks for the inversion. For the Mw 8.8 Chile

  8. U^Pb zircon chronostratigraphy of early-Pliocene ignimbrites from La Pacana, north Chile: implications for the formation

    E-print Network

    U^Pb zircon chronostratigraphy of early-Pliocene ignimbrites from La Pacana, north Chile of zircons from two consanguineous ignimbrites of contrasting composition, the high-silica rhyolitic Toconao and the overlying dacitic Atana ignimbrites, erupted from La Pacana caldera, north Chile, are presented

  9. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  10. Control of high oceanic features and subduction channel on earthquake ruptures along the Chile–Peru subduction zone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Contreras-Reyes; Daniel Carrizo

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the earthquake rupture behavior along the Chile–Peru subduction zone in terms of the buoyancy of the subducting high oceanic features (HOF's), and the effect of the interplay between HOF and subduction channel thickness on the degree of interplate coupling. We show a strong relation between subduction of HOF's and earthquake rupture segments along the Chile–Peru margin, elucidating how

  11. Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only…

  12. Life Stories of Graduate Students in Chile and the United States: Becoming a Scientist from Childhood to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva Fernandez, Marta A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-national study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding about doctoral students in the United States and Chile and how their decisions to pursue a career in the life sciences field occurred throughout their lives. I interviewed 15 doctoral students from the Seven Lakes University (Chile) and 15 students from the…

  13. Variation and persistence of the middle rocky intertidal community of central Chile, with and without human harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Durán; J. C. Castilla

    1989-01-01

    Humans are an important intertidal predator in central Chile. Following a five-year study we report on the effects of the exclusion of humans from the rocky intertidal at Las Cruces, central Chile. The middle intertidal of harvested and non-harvested areas diverged in species diversity and composition during the experiment. In harvested areas the middle intertidal rocky shore was dominated throughout

  14. Dense Local Seismic Network at Villarrica Volcano (Southern Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Stock, C.; Thorwart, M.; Dzieran, L.; Rabbel, W.

    2013-12-01

    Villarrica volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Southern Andes. It has been presenting constant fumarole activity and seismicity since its last eruption in 1984-85. A local network was installed at Villarrica volcano (Southern Chile) during the first two weeks of March, 2012. In total, 75 DSS-Cube short-period stations (30 3-Component, 45 1-Component) were deployed at and around the volcano area, covering approx. 63 km x 55 km. The average station spacing is 1.5 km for stations inside the perimeter of the volcanic edifice, and 5km outside this perimeter. The network recorded ca. 94 volcano tectonic (VT) events located SSW, SSE and North of the crater, with clear P- and S-wave arrivals. Many others, ca.73 events, could be classified as 'hybrid' events (HB), which present high frequencies at the beginning of the signal, and a sharp and notorious S-wave at the crater stations, but a strong scattering, lower frequency content, and elongated coda on the stations along the volcanic edifice. This strong scattering effect is probably caused by the heterogeneous ash layers on the edifice structure. Few long period events (LP), with main frequencies between 2-4 Hz, were observed. From the tectonic regional events, three sets of events can be distinguished. One coming from the southern end of the focal plane of the Maule earthquake (2010), with S-P wave travel time difference of ca. 30 s or more. Another closer group with S-P wave travel time difference between 10 s and 20 s, and the last group with S-P wave travel time difference of 10 s or less. A cross-correlation analysis to the travel times of the regional events and a teleseismic event from Argentina was applied in order to determine the average velocity structure of the volcano, and obtained an average P-wave velocity of 3.6 km/s for the volcanic edifice inside a radius of 6.5 km, and 4.1 km/s for the surrounding area outside this radius. This model serves as a starting point for local earthquake tomography for exploring the inner structure of Villarrica volcano, for integrating the local model into a previously determined regional tomographic model (Dzierma et al., 2012), as well as for improving the location of the VT events.

  15. Receptor modeling of ambient VOC at Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    Ambient VOC measured at a 1996 spring campaign at Santiago, Chile, have been analyzed using the receptor models UNMIX and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The ambient campaign took place at two sites: a downtown site, close to major traffic emissions, and a residential site, downwind of major industrial sources and highways. At the downtown site the following source apportionments estimates were obtained: fuel evaporation, 29.7±5.6%; gasoline exhaust, 22.0±3.4%; diesel exhaust, 18.1±2.9%; biogenic, LPG and evaporative emissions, 18.0±3.4%, unexplained: 12%. At the residential site, the following source apportionment was obtained: transported gasoline exhaust, 31.2±4.1%; local gasoline exhaust, 25.5±4.0%; evaporative losses, 11.7±2.8%; LPG losses, 11.0±2.5%; biogenic emissions, 7.7±1.7%; diesel exhaust, 6.2±1.5%; unexplained, 7.7%. Thus, near 70% of ambient VOC impacts at both sites are due to mobile sources. The receptor analyses produced source profiles that had distinctive, dominant compounds; in addition, source contributions exhibited diurnal profiles that were consistent with ambient temperature and wind speed data, and the expected activity patterns within the city. Typical errors in the source contributions vary between 15% for the larger sources—like gasoline exhaust—and 25% for the smaller sources—like biogenic emissions. It was found that the number of factors given by the UNMIX model was a good starting point to refine the solution using PMF. Both models showed good performance at discriminating between source profiles that had similar compositions in subsets of common species, but PMF was able to find better, cleaner source profiles that did UNMIX. At both monitoring sites LPG losses appear mixed in with other source profiles, and this feature could not be solved by adding more source profiles in the analyses; this was likely due to a lack of C 3 measurements needed to better resolve an LPG source profile.

  16. Meandering channels without vegetation: Examples from Nevada and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Y.; Howard, A. D.; Burr, D. M.; Williams, R. M.; Moore, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    We report on a study motivated by the occurrence of highly sinuous, actively migrating paleochannels on Mars. Highly sinuous, unconfined meanders require small aspect ratios, which in turn require cohesive channel banks. This cohesion is obtained most commonly by vegetation cover coupled with high suspended sediment loading. The dominant role of vegetation in meandering is reflected in the difficulty in creating highly sinuous channels in flume experiment without introduction of vegetation. The occurrence of strongly meandering channels on Mars suggests meanders can develop in the absence of vegetation. The main objective of our study is to understand the processes of meander evolution in non-vegetated surfaces. We have studied two terrestrial sites in which meandering channels form where vegetation is sparse and has little influence on bank erodibility or point-bar deposition, indicating that there must be other mechanisms creating bank cohesion. One mechanism is stabilization of point-bar deposits by mud drapes. The Quinn River in Nevada is a sinuous channel that flows through fine lacustrine sediments on the floor of paleolake Lahontan resulting in the river having both bed and bank composed of sediment containing least 40% silt/clay. In addition to abundant mud, high salt content of the river water encourages flocculation and settling of fine sediment; thus both high clay/silt content and salt work together at the Quinn River to maintain a small aspect ratio. In contrast to the Quinn River, meandering channels on alluvial fans in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile are deposited by flows originating from the foothills of the Andes Mountains where sediments are coarser and more variable in size. Like Quinn River both fine sediments and salts contribute to meandering. The bank cohesion is provided by mudflows or hyperconcentrated flows creating bank drapes as well as extensive overbank levees which harden to adobe-like consistency. The Atacama Desert is rich in precipitated salts forming salt crusted deposits, and because grains are coarser, we speculate that these salts may possibly be playing a much more direct role in providing the cohesion than they do in the Quinn River. We are using chemical analyses and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of sediment samples to investigate cementation mechanisms.

  17. Effect of chemical peeling on the processing quality of long-green mild chile (Capasicum annuum)

    E-print Network

    Tillman, Richard Erland

    1980-01-01

    EFFECT OF CHEMICAL PEELING ON THE PROCESSING QUALITY OF LONG-GREEN MILD CHILE (CAPAS ICUM ANNUUM) A Thesis by RICHARD ERLAND TILLMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AfM University 1n Partial fulf1llment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Food Sc1ence and Technology EFFECT OF CHEMICAL PEELING ON THE PROCESSING QUALITY OF LONG-GREEN MILD CHILE (CAPASICUM ANNUUM) A THESIS by RICHARD ERLAND TILLMAN Approved as to style...

  18. Protection of Northern Chile as an ICOMOS/IAU ``Window to the Universe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm G.

    2015-03-01

    Over the last two decades, La Serena's population has increased by about 70 percent. A site description of the AURA Observatory in Chile as a ``Window to the Universe`` is now available on the recently-launched UNESCO-IAU Astronomical Heritage Web Portal, www.astronomicalheritage.net This can serve as an example of possible material for the Chilean authorities, should they wish to propose the dark skies over much of northern Chile for protection as a World Scientific Heritage site. Some of the steps involved are discussed briefly here.

  19. Identification of diverse Salmonella Serotypes, Virulotypes, and Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Waterfowl From Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fresno, Marcela; Barrera, Violeta; Gornall, Vanessa; Lillo, Pilar; Paredes, Natalia; Abalos, Pedro; Fernández, Alda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella enterica is a pathogen with a wide host-range that presents great concern in developed and developing countries. To determine and characterize Salmonella strains found in Chile's waterfowl, we sampled 758 birds along 2000?km of the Chilean coast. In this sample, 46 isolates from 10 serotypes were detected, several with multidrug resistance phenotypes and different combinations of virulence-associated genes (virulotypes). These results suggest that Salmonella infection in waterfowl in Chile could have impacts on public and animal health. PMID:24107205

  20. Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) in Chile: a tentative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Venzal, J; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, A; Guglielmone, A

    2012-02-01

    Three argasid tick larvae were collected on April 2, 2010, from a common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, captured in the Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar (26°09' S, 70°41' W), Region of Atacama, Chile. The larvae were diagnosed as Ornithodoros, and further comparative analysis showed them to be Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones or a species close to it. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences of Ornithodoros species plus four Argas species was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the larvae. This is the first finding of ticks parasitizing D. rotundus in Chile. PMID:23950013