Sample records for chile reflexiones desde

  1. Chile.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038

  2. Chile.

    PubMed

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the Allende government resulted in enormous fiscal deficits, economic recession, inflation, and severe decline in the gross domestic product. In 1982 the government devalued the peso and agreed to the International Monetary Fund's 2-year austerity program to lower the $20.5 billion national debt. In 1987 the gross domestic product was $18.4 billion, $1465 per capita; the annual real growth rate was 5.4%, and inflation had fallen from an annual rate of over 1000% to 21.5%. 245 Chilean pesos equal US1$. Chile's chief export is copper ($2.2 billion in 1987), of which Chile is the world's largest producer and exporter. Chile also exports gold, silver, iron ore, molybdenum, iodine, and nitrates. Chile has 20% of the world's copper reserves and 33% of the world's lithium. 21% of Chile's gross domestic product consists of textiles, metal manufacturing, food processing, pulp, paper, and wood products; and 10% consists of agricultural produce. Relations with the United States deteriorated after the 1976 murder in Washington, DC, of former Chilean ambassador Orlando Letelier. Arms and security assistance to Chile were banned, and in 1981 the US Agency for International Development and the Peace Corps ceased operations in Chile. PMID:12177976

  3. Continuidad y cambio en un siglo de vivienda social en Chile (1892-1998). Reflexiones a partir del caso de la ciudad de Santiago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RODRIGO HIDALGO DATTWYLER

    This article attempts to explain the evolution of different housing policies and programs implemented in Chile since the late XIX century to our days. The approach applied stresses the territorial implications of' diverse social initiatives aimed to resolve pressing housing needs. In this framework, this communication gives special attention to those expresions that come up to being front the territorial

  4. Lectura, inteligencia emocional y sociedad: reflexiones desde el contexto informacional

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge del Castillo Guevara; Yohannis Martí Lahera

    An approach is made to a complex reality: reading. It is dealt with in the context of the post-industrial society. The contributions of reading and emotional intelligence to the construction of identity and culture are also exposed. Finally, the reading promotion activities are defined as well as their role in the library activity.

  5. Remesas personales desde y hacia Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Álvaro del Real; Alfredo Fuentes

    2011-01-01

    Globalization, which involves progressive integration of countries’ economies, has resulted in an increasing number of people moving from one country to another, without losing their ties to their original home economies. Increasingly, immigrants are sending money to their home countries (remittances). These remittances have raised great interest in developing countries, not only because of their signifi cant volume and impact

  6. Análisis Econónico de la política en educación superior en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo González

    2000-01-01

    El artículo presenta una descripción de las políticas, logros y problemas de la educación superior en Chile en los últimos veinte años. Desde los ochenta se ha fomentado el autofinanciamiento de la docencia, complementado con un sistema de crédito contingente a ingresos y un sistema de crédito privado con seguro público, que ha permitido que Chile sea uno de los

  7. Central Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  8. Universidad de Chile Chili | Chile

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    3545 Arts Electivo ¨Conflictos y Cambios Sociales¨ EMCP04-3 POL4XXX Arts Historia de las Instituciones Politicas y Administrativas de Chile HIS100-3 POL4XXX Arts Relaciones Internacionales REI400-1 POL2503 Arts Comportamiento Humano en la Organizacion COM300-1 CMN4XXX Arts Electivo ¨Economia Latinoamericana: la Experiencia

  9. Los derechos de los pacientes: algunas reflexiones desde la atención primaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Palacio

    2005-01-01

    The present article reviews legal coverage in Spain and the European Community of the European Letter of Patients’ Rights (Letter of Rome) and the Patients’ Decalogue of the Barcelona Declaration. Both these documents were drawn up by patients’ and citizens’ associations and mainly reflect on compliance with these rights in primary care.We review rights related to patient information and autonomy,

  10. Chile: Un caso poco frecuente de indisciplina fiscal (bailout) y endeudamiento encubierto en la educación municipal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Serrano; Heidi Berner

    2002-01-01

    Este estudio aborda el tema de la descentralización fiscal y las ocasiones por las que ocurre una situación de rescate financiero desde el nivel central del Estado hacia administraciones locales en Chile. No obstante un sistema de administración financiera que da garantías para una alta disciplina fiscal, en el caso de la administración de la educación municipal se han generado

  11. Ciudadanía y aprendizaje dialógico en los programas universitarios para mayores : reflexiones y experiencias desde la pedagogía crítica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Tejedor Mardomingo; Henar Rodríguez Navarro

    2008-01-01

    L’article que presentem a continuació és una reflexió i una proposta per treballar el concepte de ciutadania amb grups d’educació de persones adultes. Els programes universitaris per a adults grans se centren a construir condicions i estils de participació que ens permetin a les persones adultes no solament ser gestores dels nostres processos educatius, culturals i socials, sinó també, a

  12. La computadora como mediador simbolico de aprendizajes escolares. Análisis y reflexiones desde una lectura vigotskiana del problema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saada Bentolila; Patricia M. Clavijo

    This work aims at anlysing and reflecting on computers as symbolic mediators in the classroom. Taking into account the Vigotskian viewpoint about the essential role that schooling should have, i.e: \\

  13. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  14. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    PubMed

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  15. Popular Education in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Salomon; Vaccaro, Liliana

    1990-01-01

    Two articles ("Popular Education in Nongovernmental Organizations" by Magendzo and "Transference and Appropriation in Popular Education Interventions" by Vaccaro) provide a view of the Interdisciplinary Program for Research in Education's role as an organization sponsoring popular education programs and research in Chile and focus on one such…

  16. Die Wellenmaschine - Grundlagen der Wellenausbreitung, Dispersion, Reflexion, Simulation

    E-print Network

    Kuepper, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    Shive wave machines have found their place in physics courses for many years now. They are used to demonstrate the propagation, interference and reflection of waves. Physical quantities like frequency, wavelength and phase speed are usually only determined experimentally. This article shows - starting from the wave machine's mechanical characteristics - how to calculate these physical quantities. Absorbers are also briefly described in this article. They can be used to prevent reflection at the end of the apparatus. A nice(-looking) project for computer programming courses is to simulate wave machines and to display an animated representation of the simulation results. Details on the development of such software are summarized at the end of this article. ----- Wellenmaschinen werden seit vielen Jahren im Physikunterricht eingesetzt, um die Ausbreitung, \\"Uberlagerung und Reflexion von Wellen anschaulich vorzuf\\"uhren. Physikalische Gr\\"o{\\ss}en wie Schwingungsfrequenz, Wellenl\\"ange und Phasengeschwindigkeit ...

  17. Rule of Repression in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This report on the current condition of the Mapuche Indians of Chile is edited from a document on the "Situation of Human Rights in Chile" and details the repressive and inhumane treatment of the largest indigenous ethnic minority in the country. (Author/RTS)

  18. Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    On May 2, 2008 Chile's Chaiten Volcano erupted after 9,000 years of inactivity. Now, 4 weeks later, the eruption continues, with ash-, water-, and sulfur-laden plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers to the east and north over Chile and Argentina. On May 24, ASTER captured a day-night pair of thermal infrared images of the eruption, displayed here in enhanced, false colors. At the time of the daytime acquisition (left image) most of the plume appears dark blue because it is too thick for upwelling ground radiation to penetrate. At the edges it appears orange, indicating the presence of ash and sulfur dioxide. In the nighttime image (right), the plume is orange and red near the source, and becomes more yellow-orange further away from the vent. The possible cause is that ash is settling out of the plume further downwind, revealing the dominant presence of sulfur dioxide.

    The images were acquired May 24, 2008, cover an area of 37 x 26.5 km, and are located near 42.7 degrees south latitude, 72.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. 1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

  20. Fires in Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. On the Oblique Reflexion and Transmission of Ocean Waves at Shore Fast Sea Ice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin Fox; Vernon A. Squire

    1994-01-01

    A mathematical model is reported describing the oblique reflexion and penetration of ocean waves into shore fast sea ice. The arbitrary depth model allows all velocity potentials occurring in the open water region to be matched precisely to their counterparts in the ice-covered region. Matching is done using a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique which allows the complete solution to be

  2. Reflexion and Diffraction of Internal Waves analyzed with the Hilbert Transform

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reflexion and Diffraction of Internal Waves analyzed with the Hilbert Transform Matthieu J. Mercier) Abstract We apply the Hilbert transform to the physics of internal waves in two-dimensional fluids. Using this demodulation technique, we can discriminate internal waves propagating in different directions: this is very

  3. Chile’s dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  4. [Chile: Standing up again].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto

    2010-03-01

    One of the biggest earthquakes recorded in human history has recently devastated a large part of the Chilean territory and, followed by a Tsunami, destroyed cities, seaports, fishermen's coves, bridges, and countryside houses. This cataclysm affected a large proportion of our population, leaving homeless families, no working tools for work places, hospitals, schools, public buildings, museums. However, the loss of human Uves was small compared to similar disasters. It destroyed part of the national heritage as well as damaged people's living conditions. A national movement started immediately to help and recover, and international resources, both human and technological were also set in motion. As after previous earthquakes in Chile, young M.D.'s and medical students were organized in voluntary groups backed by institutions or by their own organizations and went from large cities as Santiago and others to provide medical and psychological care to those in most need. Young members and students of other health professions (nurses, physical therapists, etc.) were included in these groups or worked in their own ones. National and international experience indicates that the forthcoming months require special care of psychological reactions and sequel (posttraumatic stress symptoms) and health consequences after water pollution, restrictions in housing and deteriorated sanitary conditions. Nevertheless, our country will stand up once more. PMID:20556326

  5. Destruction in Downtown Concepcion, Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A masonry building in the downtown part of Concepcion, Chile partially collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Most modern buildings in Concepcion were undamaged during the earthquake due to the city's adoption of adequate building standards. However, many masonry buildings s...

  6. Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

  7. Patagonia Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.

    This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  8. UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FSICAS Y MATEMTICAS

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Juan

    UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS Y MATEMÁTICAS DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA;UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS Y MATEMÁTICAS DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA INDUSTRIAL PAGO POR

  9. Teatro en Chile, temporada 1984

    E-print Network

    Bravo-Elizondo, Pedro

    1985-10-01

    Santiago presentó Amadeus en la sala Claudio Arrau y para ello trajo desde Inglaterra al director Roger Williams. La duración de tres horas fue mantenida por los actores José Soza quien entregó un "Salieri sobresaliente. Su rol protagónico es rico en...

  10. FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE

    E-print Network

    Gavilan, Marcel G. Clerc

    FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE SOLUCIONES TIPO PARTÍCULA EN SISTEMAS EXTENDIDOS DANIEL ELIAS ESCAFF DIXON 2006 #12;FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE SOLUCIONES TIPO PARTÍCULA EN realice la Secundaria. En 1997 ingrese a la Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, de la Universidad

  11. BAT RABIES IN URBAN CENTERS IN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. de Mattos; Myriam Favi; Veronica Yung; Carlos Pavletic

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectiv- orous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed

  12. Crecimiento y Progreso Social en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Rodriguez Grossi; Eduardo Saavedra

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo describe la evolución reciente de los principales indicadores económicos para Chile y las reformas implementadas que largamente explican el desarrollo del país en las décadas recientes. Se muestra que Chile, de acuerdo a su crecimiento y situación social, puede clasificarse como un país con un alto crecimiento (para el concierto Latinoamericano), con fuerte impacto en reducir la pobreza

  13. Relations Between Chile and ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal questioning of ESO's privileges and immunities at the designated VLT site on the Paranal mountain south of the city of Antofagasta (see ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994), and also around the ownership of the land. ESO is now very worried about the timely completion of this 500 million DEM project. Unless a clarification of this problem is achieved as soon as possible, it is unlikely that the current plan for the construction of the VLT observatory at Paranal can be maintained. The ESO delegation expressed the opinion that these uncertainties must be removed, before the final negotiations about the above mentioned Treaty can proceed. RECEPTION BY THE PRESIDENT OF CHILE During its stay in Santiago, the ESO delegation was honoured to be received by the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz Tagle. ESO extended a warm invitation to the President to lay the cornerstone of the VLT observatory at Paranal later in 1994 at the appropriate moment. Twenty-five years ago, in 1969, the ESO La Silla observatory was inaugurated by his predecessor and father, Don Eduardo Frei Montalva. DECISIONS BY THE ESO COUNCIL The ESO delegation reported about the discussions in Santiago to the ESO Council, during its ordinary semi-annual session on June 7 - 8, 1994. The Council noted with satisfaction the clear attitude expressed by the Chilean Government, especially what concerns ESO's privileges and immunities in the host country. The ESO Council expects that the Chilean courts will also confirm these privileges and immunities. The ESO Council expressed the hope that it will now be possible to arrive at a resolution of the outstanding issues. However, in view of the increasingly tight VLT schedule - it is planned to ship the first VLT building to Paranal in the month of September this year - the Council was also much concerned about any further delays. Council requested the ESO management to ensure that the authorities of the member countries will be kept closely informed about the further developments during the coming months. The ESO Council Working Group on

  14. Desigualdad Educacional en Chile: Geografía y Dependencia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dante Contreras; Víctor Macías

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses parametric and semiparametric techniques to examine educational inequality by geographical areas in Chile. The differences in achievement are also investigated across school types administration (public, private subsidized and private fee

  15. [Papillomavirus and cervical cancer in Chile].

    PubMed

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Valenzuela, María Teresa

    2008-11-01

    Molecular, clinical and epidemiological studies have established beyond doubt that human papiloma viruses (HPV) cause cervical cancer. The virus is also associated with genital warts and other less common cancers in oropharynx, vulva, vagina and penis. Worldwide, VPH genotypes 16 and 18 are the most common high risk genotypes, detected in near 70% of women with cervical cancer. The discovery of a cause-effect relationship between several carcinogenic microorganisms and cancer open avenues for new diagnostic, treatment and prevention strategies. In this issue of Revista Médica de Chile, two papers on HPV are presented. Guzman and colleagues demonstrate that HPV can be detected in 66% to 77% of healthy male adolescents bypolymerase chain reaction and that positivity depends on the site of the penis that is sampled. These results support the role of male to female transmission of high risk HPVs in Chile and should lead to even more active educational campaigns. The second paper provides recommendations for HPV vaccine use in Chile, generated by the Immunization Advisory Committee of the Chilean Infectious Disease Society. To issue these recommendations, the Committee analyzes the epidemiological information available on HPV infection and cervical cancer in Chile, vaccine safety and effectiveness data, and describes cost-effectiveness studies. Taking into account that universal vaccination is controversial, the Committee favors vaccine use in Chile and it's incorporation into a national program. However, there is an indication that the country requires the implementation of an integrated surveillance approach including cross matching of data obtained from HPV genotype surveillance, monitoring of vaccination coverage, and surveillance of cervical cancer. The final decision of universal vaccine use in Chile should be based on a through analysis of information.ev Mid Chile PMID:19301766

  16. Final Reflexions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Massad; Neli Ortega; Laecio de Barros; Claudio Struchiner

    \\u000a In this book we pursued the challenge posed by the need to tame uncertainty in the context of medical and epidemiological\\u000a problems. The fact that epidemiology deals with population of individuals leads to uncertainties of different natures. In\\u000a fact, much ink has been spent on the speculations about the competitive or complementary role of probability and fuzzy logic\\u000a in dealing

  17. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carn, Simon A.; Zogorski, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  18. The Chile ridge: A tectonic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbens, S. F.; Cande, S. C.; Kovacs, L.; Parra, J. C.; Labrecque, J. L.; Vergara, H.

    1997-06-01

    A new Chile ridge tectonic framework is developed based on satellite altimetry data, shipboard geophysical data and, primarily, 38,500 km of magnetic data gathered on a joint U.S.-Chilean aeromagnetic survey. Eighteen active transforms with fossil fracture zones (FZs), including two complex systems (the Chile FZ and Valdivia FZ systems), have been mapped between the northern end of the Antarctic-Nazca plate boundary (Chile ridge) at 35°S and the Chile margin triple junction at 47°S. Chile ridge spreading rates from 23 Ma to Present have been determined and show slowdowns in spreading rates that correspond to times of ridge-trench collisions. The Valdivia FZ system, previously mapped as two FZs with an uncharted seismically active region between them, is now recognized to be a multiple-offset FZ system composed of six FZs separated by short ridge segments 22 to 27 km long. At chron 5A (˜12 Ma), the Chile ridge propagated from the Valdivia FZ system northward into the Nazca plate through crust formed 5 Myr earlier at the Pacific-Nazca ridge. Evidence for this propagation event includes the Friday and Crusoe troughs, located at discontinuities in the magnetic anomaly sequence and interpreted as pseudofaults. This propagation event led to the formation of the Friday microplate, which resulted in the transferal of crust from the Nazca plate to the Antarctic plate, and in a 500-km northward stepwise migration of the Pacific-Antarctic-Nazca triple junction. Rift propagation, microplate formation, microplate extinction, and stepwise triple junction migration are found to occur during large-scale plate motion changes and plate boundary changes in the southeast Pacific.

  19. SISTEMA DE INFORMACIÓN TURÍSTICO DESDE PRESUPUESTOS ECOLÓGICOS Y FOLKSONÓMICOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iraimi Bermúdez García; Ramón Antonio Rodríguez Piña; Renier Castillo García; Ines Maria Marrero Ramírez

    2009-01-01

    El reto de diseñar e implementar un Sistema de Información, -y de ahora en lo adelante SI-, no resulta un ejercicio simple. El tratamiento a la información desde las perspectivas de Producto y Proceso de Gestión, conlleva a confusión e incertidumbre. Al certero decir de Alfons Cornella ... “Las organizaciones deben entender mejor en qué consiste la información, y deben

  20. Responsabilidad social corporativa. Una visión desde la teoría económica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aleix Calveras; Juan José Ganuza

    2004-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es discutir y analizar el concepto de la responsabilidad social corporativa (RSC) desde la teoria económica. Para ello usamos un modelo sencillo que nos permite clarificar algunos aspectos del debate que rodea la RSC. Observamos como la motivación subyacente en las decisiones y estrategias empresariales juega un papel importante en el concepto de RSC; así,

  1. DIETS OF SYMPATRIC RAPTORS IN SOUTHERN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    AGUSTIN IRIARTE; WILLIAM L. FRANKLIN; WARREN E. JOHNSON

    1990-01-01

    We report on the diets of four sympatric raptor species in Torres del Paine National Park, Magallanes region, Chile. This assemblage includes some of the least-known raptors in southern South America. Two strigids, Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba), had the most generalized diets. The Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) preyed primarily on birds and lizards, and

  2. Desempleo e Inactividad Juvenil en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando Coloma; Bernardita Vial

    2003-01-01

    This article analyzes the occupational and educational choices among males in the 18-24 age group in Chile. The decision to work, for those who do not study, is analyzed jointly with the decision to study, in order to avoid selection bias. Results confirm

  3. Earthquake-Ready High Rise in Chile

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A well-engineered high rise apartment and two-story building in Talca, Chile suffered no evident damage, though much of the city was affected by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Many buildings in this city were constructed with adobe or masonry and suffered major collapse. These undamaged buil...

  4. Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Diamond

    1993-01-01

    In Chile, all covered workers must place 10% of monthly earnings in a savings account with a highly regulated intermediary that manages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to

  5. Bat rabies in urban centers in Chile.

    PubMed

    de Mattos, C A; Favi, M; Yung, V; Pavletic, C; de Mattos, C C

    2000-04-01

    One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the Chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reservoirs. No non-rabies lyssaviruses were found in this study. The Chilean samples were not related to viruses of the sylvatic cycle maintained by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. Five genetic variants were identified from insectivorous bats in Chile. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was identified as the reservoir for the rabies genetic variant most frequently isolated in the country between 1977 and 1998. The close association of a group of viruses obtained from a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Brazilian free-tailed bats, and a red bat (Lasiurus borealis) with viruses maintained by Lasiurus spp. in North America implicated species of this genus as the possible reservoirs of this particular genetic variant in Chile. Reservoirs for the other three variants remain unknown. PMID:10813604

  6. Education of the Televiewer in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Miguel T.

    This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

  7. Rubber finger stripper harvester for green chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvest mechanization as a system requires modifying or creating new components including cultivars, production practices, and harvest, transportation and processing plant machinery. New Mexican chile is one of the last segments of the pepper industry to still rely on hand labor. This paper reports ...

  8. Towards Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUAN M. BARRAGÁN; CONSUELO CASTRO; CLAUDIA ALVARADO

    2005-01-01

    The territorial (country-coast) and economic (capitalization of resources) characteristics of Chile make the country extremely dependent on the coastal zone and resources. The level and rate of economic growth achieved in recent decades make it advisable to pay special attention to the management of coastal resources. Considerable efforts have been made in recent years to improve the national system of

  9. REFLEXIONES PRELIMINARES SOBRE UNA APLICACIÓN CIENTÍFICO-MÉDICA DE ACTUALIDAD: LA CLONACIÓN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Antonio Arranz; Xavier Ariza; Encarnació Riudor; Lluis Vilar; Jordi Salvadó; Núria Galofré; Susana Vendrell; Josep María Esquirol

    2003-01-01

    Resumen: Este artículo afronta el nuevo reto que la tecnociencia médica ha abierto: la posibilidad de clonación terapéutica o reproductiva. En el presente trabajo se aborda, clara y esquemáticamente, la terminología científico-médica, desde los conceptos de reproducción sexual o asexual hasta la endonucleación, pasando por los conceptos de embrión gamético, somático, de cultivo y células madres, para ir realizando un

  10. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ...the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United States...the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July 15, 2010...concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission...

  11. Geology and Tectonics of the Chile Triple Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ODP Leg 141 Scientific Party

    The coast of southern Chile near 46°S latitude was the location of the Ocean Drilling Program's Leg 141, which occupied five sites (859-863) from November 11, 1991, to January 13, 1992 (Figure 1). The Chile Rise spreading ridge, one segment of the globe-circling, mid-ocean-ridge system, is being subducted beneath the Peru/Chile Trench convergent margin in this region. Three lithospheric plates are involved: The Antarctic Plate and the Nazca Plate are moving away from each other across the Chile Ridge extensional plate boundary, and the continental South American Plate is overriding both the Antarctic and the Nazca plates along the Peru/Chile Trench convergent plate margin. The Chile Margin Triple Junction exists where the three plates meet.

  12. Managing hazardous pollutants in Chile: arsenic.

    PubMed

    Sancha, Ana María; O'Ryan, Raul

    2008-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that faces the environmental challenge posed by extensive arsenic pollution, which exists in the northern part of the country. Chile has worked through various options to appropriately address the environmental challenge of arsenic pollution of water and air. Because of cost and other reasons, copying standards used elsewhere in the world was not an option for Chile. Approximately 1.8 million people, representing about 12% of the total population of the country, live in arsenic-contaminated areas. In these regions, air, water, and soil are contaminated with arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. For long periods, water consumed by the population contained arsenic levels that exceeded values recommended by the World Health Organization. Exposure to airborne arsenic also occurred near several large cities, as a consequence of both natural contamination and the intensive mining activity carried out in those areas. In rural areas, indigenous populations, who lack access to treated water, were also exposed to arsenic by consuming foods grown locally in arsenic-contaminated soils. Health effects in children and adults from arsenic exposure first appeared in the 1950s. Such effects included vascular, respiratory, and skin lesions from intake of high arsenic levels in drinking water. Methods to remove arsenic from water were evaluated, developed, and implemented that allowed significant reductions in exposure at a relatively low cost. Construction and operation of treatment plants to remove arsenic from water first began in the 1970s. Beginning in the 1990s, epidemiological studies showed that the rate of lung and bladder cancer in the arsenic-polluted area was considerably higher than mean cancer rates for the country. Cancer incidence was directly related to arsenic exposure. During the 1990s, international pressure and concern by Chile's Health Ministry prompted action to regulate arsenic emissions from copper smelters. A process began in which emission standards appropriate for Chile were set; this process included careful evaluation of risks versus mitigation costs for abatement options. Such options were developed and implemented. More recently, local communities have pressed for more significant reductions of arsenic in air and water. Considerable experience was gained with the arsenic experience on how to manage this type of hazardous pollutant, in a context of trade-offs among production, jobs, income, and health. In this review article, we cover arsenic levels in Chile's air, water, and soils and discuss health impacts and patterns of exposure. We also describe the process followed to set arsenic regulatory standards, as well as abatement options for air and water and the associated costs. PMID:19025095

  13. The Evolution of Evolutionary Thinking in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Medel

    2008-01-01

    The scientific study of evolution in Chile has experienced periods of diversification and stasis, depending upon the social\\u000a and political context at different times. In the eighteenth century, most of the natural history research consisted of systematics\\u000a and taxonomy and, as in most of South America, this task was performed mainly by natural historian theologists. Later, the\\u000a immigration of European

  14. Airborne fungi monitoring in Santiago, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ValeriaIbáñez Henríquez; GloriaRojas Villegas; JoanMariaRoure Nolla

    2001-01-01

    Fungal airborne spores were studied from September 1996throughout August 1997 in Santiago, Chile. Total concentrationsfluctuated between 308 and 10,334 spores\\/m3\\/day withan annual mean of 2,154 per m3, the highest dispersion beingduring April and May. Forty-five percent of total fungal content wasfound in autumn. Thirteen genera and 3 other spore types wereidentified. Cladosporium, the most abundant genera in ouratmosphere, contributed with

  15. [Alcoholism in Chile, 100 years ago].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1991-03-01

    Articles found in Revista Médica de Chile in 1891 criticize legal disposition favoring the wine industry to obtain tax money, in the face of a growing concern for alcoholism. Further articles in 1892 and presentations to the 1901 Latin American Medical Congress deal with the subject of alcoholism and propose public health action to fight against it, including the education of young school students. PMID:1842137

  16. HRM in Chile: the impact of organisational culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenny K. Rodriguez; Carlos F. Gomez

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to provide insight on the influence of organisational culture on human resource management (HRM) practices in Chile by exploring shared meanings (basic assumptions and beliefs) and organisational models that can be identified from activities, dynamics, social relationships and behaviours. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper is based on research conducted in Chile where a combination of self-completion

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND CURRENT STATUS OF ABALONE AQUACULTURE IN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERTO A. FLORES-AGUILAR; ALFONSO GUTIÉRREZ; ANDRÉS ELLWANGER; RICARDO SEARCY-BERNAL

    2007-01-01

    Abalone aquaculture is rapidly developing in Chile although this mollusc does not occur naturally in this country. The red abalone Haliotis rufescens was introduced in 1977 and the ezo abalone Haliotis discus hannai in 1982. After several years of research and development, the industry began in 1992 and Chile is currently the fifth producer of cultured abalone in the world

  18. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  19. Public Affairs Highlights in Chile: Achievements of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, V.; Mirabel, F.

    2005-03-01

    One of the priorities of ESO is to contribute to the academic, educational and cultural development in Chile, fostering excellent relationships with its people and government at all levels. Here we present three 2004 highlights of our extensive outreach programs in Chile.

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...one harvest season only. The NPPO of Chile will present a list of certified production...must be washed, rinsed in a potable water bath, washed with detergent with brushing... The fruit must be inspected in Chile at an APHIS-approved inspection...

  1. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  2. La atencion preescolar en Chile: desafios para la redemocratizacion (Preschool Care in Chile: Challenges for Redemocratization. Discussion Paper No. 13).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filp, Johanna; Undurrage, Consuelo

    This paper examines the current status of programs for preschool children in Chile. Section 1 of the paper provides an overview of the situation of preschool children in Chile. The country's population includes more than 1.6 million children between the ages of 0 and 5 years 11 months, and in urban areas, 18.4 percent of children between the ages…

  3. Extrasolar Planet Research at Universidad de Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Patricio; Hoyer, S.; Jenkins, J.; Jones, M.

    2010-10-01

    I will present the latest publications and current status on projects lead by researchers and doctoral candidates at Universidad de Chile in the area of extrasolar planets. Making use of the privileged access to world-class telescopes, the research efforts are focused in ground-based observations. Long- and short-term projects are currently underway: (1) exoplanetary atmospheric characterization, (2) monitoring of southern transiting planets searching for transit-timing variations, (3) the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar planet RV search (CHEPS), and (4) study of post main-sequence planetary hosts.

  4. Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

    1975-01-01

    Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

  5. Festival de Teatro en Iquique, Chile

    E-print Network

    Bravo-Elizondo, Pedro

    2002-04-01

    comentario periodístico iba más allá de celebrar el festival, al comentar que "Ojalá el próximo año se invite a compañías de los pueblos del interior y también de Arica hasta crear un evento con proyección nacional e internacional," lo que para una ciudad...SPRING 2002 133 Festival de Teatro en Iquique, Chile Pedro Bravo-Elizondo "Constituye un verdadero orgullo para la familia teatral revivir, en este evento, un rito de libertad creativa que surge con Luis Emilio Recabarren y su teatro obrero, y...

  6. HIV Issues and Mapuches in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Cabieses, Báltica; Araya, Alejandra; Matsumoto, Cristina; Miner, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Chile is a country with an incipient HIV epidemic. Just as in other countries, disadvantaged groups in Chile are contributing to the increased incidence of the disease. The Mapuche indigenous population is one such group that has been affected by the spread of HIV. However, no prevention programs are tailored to the culturally specific needs of this community. In recognition of this discrepancy, an academic-community partnership was formed to develop an HIV educational module for a Mapuche community. The module was developed for use as part of an already established health-related program. The aims of the module were to identify perceptions about HIV among Mapuches and present information specific to HIV and its prevention. Focus was placed on cultural sensitivity. A total of 16 Mapuches participated voluntarily and showed some knowledge regarding HIV, but they lacked an overall understanding as to how it is transmitted and why prevention strategies are effective. Continued collaboration between academia and affected communities as well as incorporating HIV information into established programs are effective strategies for delivering prevention information to disadvantaged populations and for further understanding their perceptions and health care needs. PMID:18457766

  7. Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

    1979-01-01

    Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

  8. Geology of the Portrerillos District, Atacama, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, S. F.

    The geology of the Potrerillos porphyry copper district records the patterns of marine sedimentation, volcanism, igneous intrusion, and deformation in the Andes of northern Chile from Jurassic to Recent times. Pre-Jurassic granitic and metamorphic basement is overlain by marine sedimentary and volcanic rocks of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous age and continental volcanic rocks of Paleocene-Eocene age. Both the marine and continental volcanic sequences are much thicker on the western side of the district and pinch out abruptly over the center of the district. Timing of reverse faulting is bracketed between 32 and 12 m.y.b.p. The Potrerillos district appears to lie near the eastern margin of a major fault-bounded depression in which volcanic rocks accumulated between Jurassic and Paleocene times. Most of the Eocene-Oligocene porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile occupy similar regional stratigraphic and volcanic settings, and are proximal to major high-angle faults. The geology of the Potrerillos area suggests that these faults may have been active as normal faults in Jurassic-Paleocene time, later guided the emplacement of porphyry plutons, and were subsequently reactivated in Miocene-Recent times.

  9. Identity Projects at Home and Labor From Abroad: The Market for Foreign Domestic Workers in Southern California and Santiago, Chile

    E-print Network

    Hill Maher, Kristen

    2003-01-01

    abroad than there are immigrants in Chile. Available recordsChile. In either case – whether the discourse rationalizes anti-immigrantimmigrants that made them especially appropriate for this role. On the other hand, like in Chile,

  10. Whitened geographies and education inequalities in southern Chile

    E-print Network

    Webb, Andrew; Radcliffe, Sarah A.

    2015-03-03

    to a European model of modernization and state building as a country “without Indians” (Mitnick 2004). As in Argentina and Uruguay, Chile viewed itself un-problematically as the inheritor of a whitened European ideal, whilst indigenous presence...

  11. Conducting a Teacher Professional Development Program in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, G. A.; Crosby, J. L.

    1998-07-01

    In January 1998, we directed a two-week laboratory-oriented teacher professional development program, "Curso Experimental de Quimica", for thirty-six high school chemistry teachers in Santiago, Chile. Participants earned a certificate of completion from the University of Chile. Our involvement began in 1996, when we presented a plenary lecture in science education at the XXII Latin American Congress of Chemistry in Concepcion, Chile. In that address, we discussed the philosophy and the operation of the Master of Arts in Chemistry Program1 that we were running in the State of Washington. The response to the presentation was enthusiastic, and eventually Hugo Zunino, the Dean of the School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Chile, visited us in Pullman to explore the idea of involving us in a teacher development initiative in Santiago.

  12. Institutional and Organizational Arrangements for Water Markets in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert R. Hearne

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. Market allocation in\\u000a Chile is possible, in part, because a system of transferable water-use rights was reestablished in 1981. These rights are\\u000a independent of land use and land ownership, thus trading of water rights is fairly unrestricted. The codification of these\\u000a water-use

  13. Currents in the deep ocean off Chile (30°S)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Shaffer; Sergio Salinas; Oscar Pizarro; Andres Vega; Samuel Hormazabal

    1995-01-01

    Results are reported from the first recording current meter observations in the eastern boundary current system off Chile. Currents at 100 m and 3400 m were observed for a 4–6 month period during the austral spring-summer-fall period of 1991–1992 at a deep ocean site 150 km off the Chilean coast and 70 km seaward of the axis of the Peru-Chile

  14. Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

  15. New records to Chile of the Family Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montiel, Américo; Hilbig, Brigitte; Rozbaczylo, Nicolás

    2002-05-01

    The Paraonidae are a polychaete family of small body size which have not been reported for Chile until recently. Mainly due to improved sample-processing methods, research campaigns carried out in 1994 and 1996 on three areas off southern Chile have yielded numerous records. Several species proved to be new to the Chilean polychaete fauna, including species that have been known previously only from Antarctic areas. These new records and range extensions are reported in this paper.

  16. [Hospitalization in Chile: a critical analysis].

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Kaempffer, A M

    1992-06-01

    Main features of hospital stay in Chile are analyzed with special regard to incidence, geographic, sex and age variations, main causes and trends observed in the last decades. The annual admission rate in 1989 was 107 per 1000, twice the overall Latin American rate. Wide variations are observed among geographical areas, with relatively low use of hospital beds in the capital city of Santiago. Hospital needs differ for men and women and according to age, being greater for infants, older people and women of childbearing age. Near two thirds of the needs are related to pregnancy. Admissions for traumatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary and gynecological problems are also frequent. Accidents are the main cause for hospital admission among males, while tumor is foremost among women. During the last 30 years the hospitalization rate has remained stable while the case fatality rate has decreased. Different factors influencing the frequency and features of hospital stay are discussed. PMID:1341808

  17. Privatization And Vouchers In Colombia And Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using empirical evidence, the author compares the two models along four evaluative dimensions: educational quality, segregation, choice and socialization. After weighing the successes and weaknesses of each system, he concludes that, among other characteristics, the most effective and equitable voucher model features: (a) a flexible interpretation of educational quality; (b) financial grants which target solely the poor; (c) vouchers which cover the entire cost of tuition; (d) open enrolment at participating schools; (e) the participation of both secular and religious private schools; (f) accessible and meaningful information to parents; and (g) strong systems of accountability.

  18. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  19. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

  20. Tracking Our Progress: A Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the UN DESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilbury, Daniella

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability agenda is a concern of several UN agencies that appreciate how well-being, social justice, human development and the health of our planet are inextricably linked. This remit underpinned the launch of the UN Decade in Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) in 2005. As the DESD reaches its mid-point, mechanisms for assessing…

  1. Outlook of the Officers: Military Thought in Chile, 1960-1990

    E-print Network

    Bawden, John Richard

    2009-01-01

    of Luis Corvalán and Salvador Allende.147. Figure 5.3, Luis Corvalán and Salvador Allende on EastLuis Corvalán Castillo, the serious, disciplined leader of Chile’s Moscow aligned Communist Party. Salvador

  2. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the...order would supersede a prior order issued to the Australia Fund. DATES: Filing Dates: The...

  3. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  4. Occurrence of sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Chile (redescription of Iguanodonichnus frenki)

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Occurrence of sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Chile (redescription studied Upper Jurassic dinosaur unit in South America, the Ban~os del Flaco Formation, Chile. Keywords: Chile; Dinosaur footprints; Parabrontopodus; Sauropod; Upper Jurassic Resu´men En el presente

  5. 75 FR 22369 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, India, Indonesia, and the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...Certain Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia and the...duty orders on mushrooms from Chile, India, Indonesia, and the...See Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...including but not limited to water, brine, butter or butter...

  6. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ...selected by the NPPO of Chile, and the fruit from...washed with soapy water and the collected...direction of the NPPO of Chile. These samples must...a liquid soap and water solution, washed...selected by the NPPO of Chile, and the fruit from...washed with soapy water and the...

  7. 76 FR 15225 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ...selected by the NPPO of Chile, and the fruit from...washed with soapy water and the collected...direction of the NPPO of Chile. These samples must...a liquid soap and water solution, washed...selected by the NPPO of Chile, and the fruit from...washed with soapy water and the...

  8. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...direction of the NPPO of Chile. These samples must undergo...with a liquid soap and water solution, washed with...selected by the NPPO of Chile, and the fruit from these...must be washed with soapy water and the collected filtrate...issued by the NPPO of Chile that contains an...

  9. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ...direction of the NPPO of Chile. These samples must undergo...with a liquid soap and water solution, washed with...selected by the NPPO of Chile, and the fruit from these...must be washed with soapy water and the collected filtrate...issued by the NPPO of Chile that contains an...

  10. [A personal view of endocrinology in Chile].

    PubMed

    Jadresic, Alfredo

    2005-06-01

    In a short historical review of the outstanding changes occurred in the whole of endocrinology and particularly in Chile over the last 60 years -with the background of an infant mortality drop from 200 per thousand in 1940 to 8 per thousand today and a mean life expectancy increase from 42 to 76 years- the author outlines major achievements in this country. He comments on the use in former days of biological tests on urine extract to measure hormones for diagnostic procedures replaced by hormone determinations in blood by radioimmunoassays; today's medication with synthetic hormones instead of opotherapeutic preparations obtained from organ extracts; the identification of new hormones, receptors and new knowledge that enables us to understand the role of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, the interaction of neurological, endocrine and immunological systems and the involvement of stress in various diseases. Finally the description of DNA and the international cooperative project to establish the human genome map with unpredictable potential applications in medicine. The author underlines the importance of collaborative work in all branches of medicine, often making cooperation more effective than competition. The enormous expansion of biological information demands that direct application of scientific knowledge to clinical medicine is prevented as being insufficient for an optimal clinical judgment, since a bio-psychosociological perspective of the patient and the doctor's clinical experience are essential factors in the doctor-patient relationship. PMID:16075140

  11. Equity in health care utilization in Chile.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile.The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992-2009 and the 2006 Satisfaction and Out-of-Pocket Payment Survey to assess equity in health care utilization using two different approaches. First, we used a two-part model to estimate factors associated with the utilization of health care. Second, we decomposed income-related inequalities in medical care use into contributions of need and non-need factors and estimated a horizontal inequity index.Findings of this empirical study include evidence of inequities in the Chilean health care system that are beneficial to the better-off. We also identified some key factors, including education and health care payment, which affect the utilization of health care services. Results of this study could help researchers and policy makers identify targets for improving equity in health care utilization and strengthening availability of health care services accordingly. PMID:23937894

  12. [A epistemometric view of some biological disciplines in Chile].

    PubMed

    Krauskopf, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    During the last decade the articles published by Chilean Research Centers grew 1,73 which compares to the 2.34 fold increase of mainstream research articles registered as a whole in Latin America. However, the relative impact of the Chilean publications surpassed that of Latin America. In Biological Sciences, traditionally the strongest research area within Chile, Latin America also shows a steeper slope of growth. Qualitatively, biological disciplines in Chile are comparable to those published in Latin America although in Chile there are specialties as Physiology that surpass the average world's impact. The scientometric data is consistent with the fall in individual grants that the Chilean Research Fund (FONDECYT) has been allocating during the last decade. PMID:12125212

  13. Stress reconstruction before and after 2010 Chile Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polets, Anastasia

    2014-05-01

    A catastrophic earthquake with magnitude Mw = 8.8 occurred off the coast of central Chile on 27 February 2010. Stress reconstruction of the earth's crust and upper mantle before and after this earthquake was performed on the basis of the cataclastic analysis method (MCA) and data on stress relief for Chile Earthquake. Researches allowed getting new data about features of tectonic stresses field before and after this earthquake. On the one hand, there are some extensive areas of stable behavior of stress tensor parameters, on the other hand - there are local areas where these parameters change anomaly fast. The main type of the stress state is horizontal compression. The type of stress tensor is a horizontal shift. The preparation area of the Chile earthquake is characterized by medium values of effective pressure. The work was supported by the grant of the President of the Russian Federation MK-1904.2013.5.

  14. Going beyond city boarders: the case of Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, L.

    2013-05-01

    Coastal cities interact in various ways with the adjacent ocean. Such interactions are of particular interest over central Chile where: 1) substantial emissions of oxidized sulfur in connection with copper smelting, power plants and possibly volcanic quasi permanent degassing occur; 2) upwelling results in hot spots of biogenic bromine and iodine; 3) substantial production of sea-salt aerosols takes place. These interactions may constitute an important constrain when defining policy measures for addressing air pollution in the most urbanized regions of Chile. This is because Chilean cities are applying curbing measures on a relatively fast pace, which may turn halogen chemistry relevant in the upcoming decades when defining appropriate measures for air pollution control and emission reductions of chemically active tracers. We overview these issues and look out for ways of addressing them in the framework of the recently awarded Center for Climate and Resilience Research in Chile.

  15. ["Revista Médica de Chile": 120 years (July 1872-July 1992)].

    PubMed

    Costa-Casaretto, C

    1992-07-01

    The "Revista Medica de Chile" founded in 1872 is the second oldest medical journal in Latin America after the "Gaceta Medica de Mexico" (1864). Among medical journals in the world it is placed 24. It has been published monthly without interruption, except for the period January through December 1891, due to the revolution taking place at that time. The first Editor was German Schneider, a German physician from Bonn who came to Chile in 1850 with the immigrants that settled in the South. PMID:1341830

  16. The last glacial-Holocene transition in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Bennett, K D; Haberle, S G; Lumley, S H

    2000-10-13

    Warming at the last glacial termination in the North Atlantic region was interrupted by a period of renewed glacial activity during the Younger Dryas chronozone (YDC). The underlying mechanism of this cooling remains elusive, but hypotheses turn on whether it was a global or a North Atlantic phenomenon. Chronological, sedimentological, and palaeoecological records from sediments of small lakes in oceanic southern Chile demonstrate that there was no YDC cooling in southern Chile. It is therefore likely that there was little or no cooling in southern Pacific surface waters and hence that YDC cooling in the North Atlantic was a regional, rather than global, phenomenon. PMID:11030648

  17. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient for a community that has doubled. Likewise, even 50% of the productivity corresponds to regional centres, only 35% of projects coming from FONDECYT are awarded to the regions (away from the metropolitan region). Regarding experimental Physics, this represents 20% of the community in both, researchers and productivity of the community. However, in the regular FONDECYT contest in 2005, only 2 projects (10%) were awarded in experimental Physics, which is undoubtedly insufficient. The study also includes a brief analysis according to social appraisal of Physics, dissemination activities to other areas of national living, and relation of Physics with the productive sector. Finally, some recommendations are made: - To create a special fund for experimental Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. Complementarily, experimental Physics should be one of the priority areas for the technological and scientific development of the country. - To duplicate the amount assigned to Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. - To create a system that allows increasing the salaries of the researchers in Physics so they could be assimilated to other professional salaries in our country or at an international level. Not only demands must be globalized but also the benefits.

  18. The Seismogenic Coupling Zone in Central Chile - Amphibious Experiments SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, C. M.; Stiller, M.; Mechie, J.; Lueth, S.; Wigger, P.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Bataille, K.

    2003-12-01

    Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with an onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment between 36\\deg and 39\\deg S, crossing the rupture area of the 1960 Chile earthquake. The campaign comprised: (1) a 2-D wide-angle component recording chemical shots and airgun pulses along three consecutive E-W onshore profiles; (2) a seismic reflection experiment in the onshore-offshore transition; and (3) a 3-D component which recorded both active and passive sources. Offshore, the upper plate is split into many segments with pronounced forearc basins and a narrow accretionary wedge. A thick subduction channel seems to cause a non-frontally accreting subduction mode. Along the westernmost part of the southernmost E-W refraction seismic line, the profile spread of the active reflection seismic survey at 38\\deg 15' S was 54 km long, and also recorded the airgun shots of the marine profile with the first 18 km of its spread. Different mainly eastward dipping reflection bands are observed. Between 5-25 km depth the internal structure of the Palaeozoic accretionary wedge is described. Reflections between 16-42 km correlate with Wadati-Benioff seismicity and are interpreted as imaging the top of the downgoing plate. In the central part of the profile a break in reflectivity located below the axis of the coastal cordillera more or less coincides with the intersection between the oceanic plate and the continental Moho. This break in reflectivity also approximately correlates with the downdip end of the seismogenic plate interface as defined by geodetic modelling. These new seismic data provide the geometry of the subduction zone in the area, and hence we suggest the relocation of the 1960 Chile earthquake at 73\\deg 05' W.

  19. Local Earthquake Distribution Off Valparaiso, Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierer, P. O.; Tilmann, F.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Comte, D.

    2003-04-01

    The SPOC experiment was carried out as a combined on- /offshore experiment using FS SONNE (cruise SO 161) to investigate the effects of subducting seamounts and fracture zones on the seismicity and structure of the Central Chilean margin off Valparaiso, Chile. The working area is characterised by the ongoing subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate under the South American continent and shows highly segmentation. North of Valparaiso the subduction angle is very low (flat slab) and we observe only minor sediment input into the trench. In contrast we observe a steep dip angle and high sedimentation rates in the south. Segment boundaries commonly coincide with e.g. bathymetric highs as in this case the Juan Fernandez Ridge which interrupts the lateral, south-north going material flow along the trench. Local earthquake monitoring was carried out for a period of ten weeks using two marine subarrays totally comprising 23 ocean bottom instruments (OBH and OBS). Seismological land data from the Central Chilean Network (CCN) and a number of temporary land stations supplement the marine data set. We present results of about 600 hypocenter determinations detected on the marine OBH/S recordings and the temporary land stations. The hypocenter distribution shows a considerable seismic activity below the upper part of the continental margin. Due to the geometry of the arrays which focus on the transitional domain of the slope we can map the seaward termination of the seismogenic zone using a compilation of both data sets. The southern marine subarray registered a swarm of shallow earthquakes, located on top of the already subducted Topocalma Knoll. A relation to this seamount subduction is strongly indicated. Next to the Juan Fernandez Seamount on the outer rise, we observe considerable seismic activity.

  20. Farmacovigilancia en medicina veterinaria: una perspectiva desde el punto de vista internacional y situación actual en Chile Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine: an international perspective and the current situation in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    aDepartamento de Ciencias

    SUMMARY Pharmacovigilance is an activity that involves the detection and evaluation of adverse drug reactions. These are unintended and harmful reactions which occur at doses that are normally used in animals for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or treatment of diseases or the modification of physiological function. Pharmacovigilance programs for human and veterinary medicine have been established by the United States of

  1. Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean-born (with similar health needs, i.e. horizontal inequity). Factors associated with immigrants’ access to, and use of, healthcare were sex, urban/rural status, education and country of origin. Conclusion There were significant associations between SES, and access to and use of healthcare among immigrants in Chile and a higher prevalence of no health care provision entitlement among poor and disabled immigrants compared to the Chilean-born. Changing associations between access and use of healthcare and SES among immigrants in Chile over time may reflect changes in their socio-demographic composition or in the survey methodology between 2006 and 2009. Resumen Introducción La evidencia internacional indica menor acceso y uso de servicios de salud por parte de inmigrantes, pero sus factores desencadenantes varían significativamente dependiendo del contexto. Algunas investigaciones se han desarrollado en este tema en América Latina, desde una perspectiva cualitativa. Este estudio cuantitativo exploró el auto-reporte de acceso y uso de servicios de salud de inmigrantes en Chile y los comparó con la población chilena. Métodos Análisis secundario de datos de encuesta nacional CASEN 2006 y 2009. Inmigrantes fueron comparados con chilenos en características demográficas (edad, sexo, urbano/rural, composición del hogar, etnia), estatus socioeconómico (educación, ingreso, situación contractual), tipo de previsión (pública, privada, otra, ninguna), y uso de varios servicios de atención primaria. Análisis descriptivo, estratificado, y modelos de regresión ponderados para entender factores asociados al acceso y uso de servicios de salud en STATA 11.0. Resultados Se observó un aumento de reporte de inmigrantes y de la desigualdad en el ingreso de inmigrantes entre 2006 y 2009. Hubo una disminución en la tasa de inmigrantes sin previsión y un aumento en el acceso al sistema privado. Los inmigrantes usaron más frecuentemente la atención prenatal y ginec

  2. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  3. Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    7 th ISE & 8 th HIC Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN OPEN-CHANNEL NETWORKS channels which are specific eco-systems for many reasons. Firstly, they have to fulfill hydraulic, artificial channels have a relatively simple geometry and their hydraulic variables are easier to monitor

  4. Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 Clonal Complex, Chile 2012

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Pamela; Del Canto, Felipe; Seoane, Mabel; Ibarz-Pavón, Ana B.; Barra, Gisselle; Pidal, Paola; Díaz, Janepsy; Hormazábal, Juan C.; Valenzuela, María T.

    2015-01-01

    Serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis was the main cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Chile during 2012. The case-fatality rate for this disease was higher than in previous years. Genotyping of meningococci isolated from case-patients identified the hypervirulent lineage W:P1.5,2:ST-11, which contained allele 22 of the fHbp gene. PMID:25625322

  5. ¡Hasta La Victoria!: Murals and Resistance in Santiago, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Rolston

    2011-01-01

    The article considers in detail mural painting in Santiago, Chile. It examines the history of mural painting, from the early days of support for Salvador Allende's attempt to combat inequality and provide for the basic needs of all citizens, through the repression of the military dictatorship, to the reemergence of the phenomenon in the transition to democracy and up to

  6. Curva de Beveridge, Vacantes y Desempleo: Chile 1986-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dolly Bellani V; Pablo García S; Ernesto Pastén H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide a vacancyindex for Chile for the period 1986 to the second quarter of 2002. This index is calculated using the number of jobs offered in newspapers’ advertisements of the 5 main urban areas. This information, in addition with employment and labor force data, is used to draw and estimate a Beveridge Curve (CB). We used

  7. The Araucanian Indian in Chile. IWGIA Document 20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berdichewsky, Bernardo

    One of the larger of the native peoples of South America, the Araucanians include different ethnic subgroups, some of which are now extinct. Once geographically spread extensively over the southern cone of South America, at present they are reduced to only two closely related groups: (1) the Mapuche of southern Chile, the largest one; and (2) the…

  8. Capacidad antioxidante de frutas y verduras cultivados en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudia Herrera

    SUMMARY. Antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables cultivated in Chile. The high prevalence of non transmissible chronic diseases (NCD) related to food consumption had increased the studies conducted to investigate the relationship between diet and health. A smaller incidence of NCD, with food patterns with high consumption of fruits and vegetables has been observed and chemical compounds of these foods

  9. The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Gruber

    1997-01-01

    The author provides new evidence on the incidence of payroll taxation by examining the experience of Chile before and after the privatization of its Social Security system. This policy change led to a sharp exogenous reduction in the payroll tax burden on Chilean firms; on average, payroll tax rates fell by 25 percent over six years. Using data from a

  10. 69 FR 41915 - Classical Swine Fever Status of Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-07-13

    ...94 [Docket No. 03-009-2] Classical Swine Fever Status of Chile AGENCY: Animal...regions we recognize as free of classical swine fever (CSF). We are taking this action...African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and swine vesicular...

  11. 68 FR 64274 - Classical Swine Fever Status of Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-11-13

    ...94 [Docket No. 03-009-1] Classical Swine Fever Status of Chile AGENCY: Animal...regions we recognize as free of classical swine fever (CSF). We are proposing this...foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, classical swine fever (CSF), and...

  12. Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria in Fish from the Concepción Bay, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D Miranda; R Zemelman

    2001-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria from commercial demersal and pelagic fish captured in the Concepción Bay, Chile were investigated. Viable counts of antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from gill and intestinal content samples showed high frequencies of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline, while the proportion of chloramphenicol resistance was rather low. A high incidence of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline and nitrofurantoin,

  13. Chile: Trade Performance,Trade Liberalization, and Competitiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brieuc Monfort

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the evolution of Chile's trade between 1990 and 2007, studying in particular the impact of trade liberalization in addition to traditional price and demand determinants. The results show that export and import flows are mainly responsive to external and domestic demand, and less so to relative prices, although there is a small impact on imports. In addition,

  14. The Drought-Stress Transcriptome of Chile Pepper

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chile pepper is an economically important crop in semi-arid subtropical regions of Mexico and the Southwestern United States. Because these areas are often water limited and high thermal stress environments, significant decreases in yield are routine. The identification of genetic factors controllin...

  15. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  16. The United States' FTAs with Chile and Singapore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Shelburne

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Chile and Singapore. The structures of the agreements are explained, the existing economic conditions of the countries are examined, the bilateral trade pattern between these nations and the United States is provided, a summary of the major existing trade barriers facing each country is detailed, and the likely economic and employment

  17. THE UNITED STATES' FTAS WITH CHILE AND SINGAPORE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Shelburne

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the U.S. Free Trade Agreements with Chile and Singapore. The structures of the agreements are explained, the existing economic conditions of the countries are examined, the bilateral trade pattern between these nations and the United States is provided, a summary of the major existing trade barriers facing each country is detailed, and the likely economic and employment

  18. VESSEL COLLISION WITH A LARGE WHALE OFF SOUTHERN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Brownell; Barbara Galletti Vernazzani; Carole A. Carlson

    A cruise vessel, Radiance of the Seas (Radiance), with a length of 293 m, docked in Puerto Montt, Chile at 0800 on 30 January 2009. The Radiance, owned by Royal Caribbean International, departed from Punta Arenas at 19:00 on 27 January. It probably traveled south in the Magallanes Straits and then north until it departed the Straits through the Sarmiento

  19. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA. PMID:24861179

  20. National Television of Chile--New headquarters building acoustic projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huaquin, Mario

    2002-11-01

    In the last 15 years TV stations in Chile have been incorporating in their facilities architectural acoustic and noise control approaches. This has been necessary as much for the technological advance, as for the necessity to achieve a better quality of sound that the listeners receive. In 1998, the National Television of Chile, with the sponsorship of the College of Architects of Chile, requested preliminary architectural designs in order to enlarge and to renovate its headquarters buildings in Santiago, Chile in stages. The Acoustic Project has been developed in an integral way, with three fundamental disciplines: noise and noise control; Machine rooms; vibrations and vibration control; Buildings, engines; architectural acoustics and acoustic comfort; TV studios and technical rooms. This presentation describes the Acoustic Project, phases I (1999), and II (2002), how it was possible to establish a common language with architects and engineers and the different specialties, to apply acoustic criteria and standards, the theoretical development and the projected acoustic solutions. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  1. Arquitectura patrimonial de la región de La Araucanía, Chile Heritage architecture in the region of Araucania in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gonzalo Cerda Brintrup

    Hacia fines del siglo XIX la zona mapuche de La Araucanía, al sur de Chile, inicia un proceso de colonización con aproximadamente 10.000 colonos, entre los que se contaron alemanes, franceses, ingleses, suizos y españoles entre otros, lo que habría de expresarse en la arquitectura en una gran diversidad y heterogeneidad. Los colonos y también chilenos comienzan a dar fisonomía

  2. Altimeter observations of the Peru-Chile countercurrent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strub, P. Ted; Mesias, Jorge M.; James, Corinne

    1995-01-01

    Data from Geosat and TOPEX altimeters are used to infer the structure of the Peru-Chile Countercurrent, a jet that flows from at least as far north as 10 deg S (historical data suggest 7 deg S) to 35 deg - 40 deg S, maintaining its position between approximately 100-300 km offshore. Although the annual mean current cannot be determined from altimeter observations, the nearly antisymmetric patterns in spring and fall, combined with historical observations, suggest that the countercurrent is poleward at most times and is maximum in spring and minimum in fall. Previous studies have linked the offshore countercurrent at 7 deg S to the Equatorial Undercurrent west of the Galapagos Islands, suggesting that the countercurrent is part of a continuous flow that extends from the western equatorial Pacific to the region off Chile between 35 deg - 40 deg S.

  3. Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fernández; L. Vera; J. Tognarelli; R. Fasce; P. Araya; E. Villagra; O. Roos; J. Mora

    We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected\\u000a in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection\\u000a was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The

  4. Online Newspaper Coverage of Femicide in Chile and the US

    E-print Network

    Neira Mellado, Carola Paz

    2013-08-31

    Online Newspaper Coverage of Femicide in Chile and the US By ©2013 Carola Paz Neira Mellado Submitted to the graduate degree program in Communication Studies and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment... level on the individual’s process of categorization and at a macro level on the social norms and values that the individual ascribes. Frames work as organizational tools during the entire mass mediated communication process whether at the production...

  5. Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

    2011-10-01

    We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4. PMID:21691853

  6. A numerical study of the upwelling circulation off Central Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge M. Mesias

    2000-01-01

    The summer upwelling circulation off Central Chile between 34°--40°S is studied using the Princeton Ocean Circulation numerical model, implemented with realistic atmospheric forcings and bottom topography. The simulations are made for summers of years 1992, 1993, and 1994. Sea surface temperature (SST) from the model results and satellite sensors (derived from NASA\\/NOAA Pathfinder Project datasets) are compared to determine regions

  7. After the Coup: Four Dramatic Versions of Allende's Chile

    E-print Network

    Layera, Ramó n

    1978-10-01

    FALL 1978 39 After the Coup: Four Dramatic Versions of Allende's Chile RAMÓN LAYERA In his preface to Victor Torres' Una casa en Lota Alto (A House in Lota Alto, 1973) Augusto Boal, renowned Brazilian director, playwright and drama... plays written by Chilean playwrights about the Allende years illustrate the paradox inherent in Augusto Boal's proposition.1 Victor Torres' Una casa en Lota Alto, Sergio Vodanovic's Igual que antes {Same As Ever, 1972-73), Jorge Díaz' Mear contra el...

  8. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Antonietta Costa; Carney Matheson; Lucia Iachetta; Agustín Llagostera; Otto Appenzeller; Michael D. Petraglia

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundLeishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America.MethodologyWe discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections

  9. Water resources investigation program for Rio Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, John Ezra

    1969-01-01

    This report, prepared at the request of the Government of Chile under the auspices of the U. S. Agency for International Development (US AID), is based on a 2-month assignment (Oct. 22 to Dec. 31, 1969) of the author and outlines a program of water resources studies. The study program, if followed to its conclusion, will provide the basic hydrologic and hydrogeologic information and analysis essential for planning optimum future development and use of the water resources of the valley.

  10. mtDNA microevolution in Southern Chile's archipelagos.

    PubMed

    García, Federico; Moraga, Mauricio; Vera, Soledad; Henríquez, Hugo; Llop, Elena; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2006-03-01

    The genetic variability of four predominantly Indian populations of southern Chile's archipelagos was examined by determining the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA haplogroups that characterize the American Indian populations. Over 90% of the individuals analyzed presented Native American mtDNA haplogroups. By means of an unweighted group pair method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram, a principal component analysis (PCA) derived from a distance matrix of mtDNA, and the exact test of population differentiation, we are able to prove the existence of a North-South cline. The populations in the northern part of the archipelagos are genetically similar to the Huilliche tribe, while the groups from the South are most closely related to the Fueguino tribe from the extreme South of Chile, and secondarily to the Pehuenche and Mapuche, who are found to the North and East of Chiloé archipelago. These results are consistent with a colonization of the southern archipelagos from Tierra del Fuego. We evaluate the evolutionary relationships of the population of the Chiloé area to groups from other geographic areas of Chile, using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). Three Amerindian clusters are identified: one formed by the Aymará and Atacameño, a second by the Huilliche, and a third including the Mapuche, Pehuenche, and Fueguino tribes, and the population inhabiting the South of the Chiloé arcipelago. These groups exhibit a North-South gradient in the frequency of haplogroup B, confirmed by F(ST) tests. PMID:16323203

  11. Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.

  12. Teenage sexuality and rights in Chile: from denial to punishment.

    PubMed

    Casas, Lidia; Ahumada, Claudia

    2009-11-01

    While Chile sees itself as a country that has fully restored human rights since its return to democratic rule in 1990, the rights of teenagers to comprehensive sexuality education are still not being met. This paper reviews the recent history of sexuality education in Chile and related legislation, policies and programmes. It also reports a 2008 review of the bylaws of 189 randomly selected Chilean schools, which found that although such bylaws are mandatory, the absence of bylaws to prevent discrimination on grounds of pregnancy, HIV and sexuality was common. In relation to how sexual behaviour and discipline were addressed, bylaws that were non-compliant with the law were very common. Opposition to sexuality education in schools in Chile is predicated on the denial of teenage sexuality, and many schools punish sexual behaviour where transgression is perceived to have taken place. While the wider Chilean society has been moving towards greater recognition of individual autonomy and sexual diversity, this cultural shift has yet to be reflected in the government's political agenda, in spite of good intentions. Given this state of affairs, the Chilean polity needs to recognise its youth as having human rights, or will continue to fail in its commitment to them. PMID:19962642

  13. Arsenic exposure and its impact on health in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Sancha, Ana María

    2006-06-01

    The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were identified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early effects, observed in children and adults, such as vascular diseases (premature cardiac infarct), respiratory illnesses (bronchiectasis), and skin lesions have been described. Chronic effects, such as lung and bladder cancers, were reported 20 years after peak exposure and persisted 27 years after mitigation measures for removing arsenic from drinking surface water were initiated. Although the effects of arsenic are similar in different ethnic and cultural groups (e.g. Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Bangladeshi, American, and Taiwanese), variations could be explained by age at exposure, the dose received, smoking, and nutrition. Since health effects were observed at arsenic levels of 50 microg/L in drinking-water, it is advised that Chile follows the World Health Organization's recommendation of 10 microg/L. The Chilean experience in removal of arsenic suggests that it is feasible to reach this level using the conventional coagulation process. PMID:17195557

  14. La competitividad: aproximación conceptual desde la teoría del crecimiento y la geografía económica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Lotero Contreras; Ana Isabel Moreno Monroy; Mauricio Giovanni Valencia Amaya

    2005-01-01

    El documento revisa el concepto de competitividad desde diferentes enfoques, considerando, a su vez, los desarrollos y aportes de las teorías del comercio, el crecimiento y la geografía. De la revisión conceptual se concluye que la competitividad es tanto un asunto de productividad como de estructura, pero su significado varía según el grado de desarrollo de las economías. Por otra

  15. Sucesión en empresas familiares. Análisis desde la teoría de la agencia. Caso: Caldas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor Hernando Macías raMírez; DUVAN EMILIO RAMIREZ OSPINA

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo es resultado de la investigación titulada “La sucesión en las empresas de familia: un análisis desde la teoría de la agencia”, en el que se exponen los principales enfoques de la teoría de la agencia y su aplicación al caso de las empresas de familia; además se presentan los hallazgos relacionados con las prácticas para la sucesión en

  16. Surnames in Chile: a study of the population of Chile through isonymy.

    PubMed

    Barrai, I; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Dipierri, J; Alfaro, E; Acevedo, N; Mamolini, E; Sandri, M; Carrieri, A; Scapoli, C

    2012-03-01

    In Chile, the Hispanic dual surname system is used. To describe the isonymic structure of this country, the distribution of 16,277,255 surnames of 8,178,209 persons was studied in the 15 regions, the 54 provinces, and the 346 communes of the nation. The number of different surnames found was 72,667. Effective surname number (Fisher's ?) for the entire country was 309.0, the average for regions was 240.8 ± 17.6, for provinces 209.2 ± 8.9, and for communes 178.7 ± 4.7. These values display a variation of inbreeding between administrative levels in the Chilean population, which can be attributed to the 'Prefecture effect' of Nei and Imaizumi. Matrices of isonymic distances between units within administrative levels were tested for correlation with geographic distance. The correlations were highest for provinces (r = 0.630 ± 0.019 for Euclidean distance) and lowest for communes (r = 0.366 ± 0.009 for Lasker's). The geographical distribution of the first three-dimensions of the Euclidean distance matrix suggests that population diffusion may have taken place from the north of the country toward the center and south. The prevalence of European plus European-Amerindian (95.4%) over Amerindian ethnicity (4.6%, CIA World Factbook) is compatible with diffusion of Caucasian groups over a low-density area populated by indigenous groups. The significant excess of maternal over paternal indigenous surnames indicates some asymmetric mating between nonAmerindian and Amerindian Chileans. The available studies of Y-markers and mt-markers are in agreement with this asymmetry. In the present work, we investigate the Chilean population with the aim of detecting its structure through the study of isonymy (Crow and Mange,1965) in the three administrative levels of the nation, namely 15 regions, 54 provinces, and 346 communes. PMID:22271503

  17. Chile vivienda incremental: Una investigación del Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margarita Greene; Enrique González

    2012-01-01

    El presente informe responde al estudio Self-Help Housing and Incremental Housing: The Likely Directions for Future Housing Policy financiado por el Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo donde se tomó como caso de estudio la experiencia chilena de la vivienda incremental. El objetivo del estudio es aprender de la experiencia realizada para desde ahí ofrecer opciones estratégicas a los gobiernos que apoyen

  18. Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake

    E-print Network

    Vernon, Frank

    Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip to derive a spatially variable estimate of the change in static shear stress along the ruptured fault

  19. Carlota, a new genus of Agrypnini from the Valdivian Forests of Chile (Elateridae, Agrypninae, Agrypnini).

    PubMed

    Arias-Bohart, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    Carlota gen. n., with one included species C. coigue sp. n., is described and illustrated from the Valdivian forests of Chile. The relationships of this genus to other Agrypnini from Chile are discussed and generic key for Chilean Agrypninae genera is provided. PMID:25061355

  20. Local Seismicity And Seismo-Tectonic Structure Of The Aysén Region, Southern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Agurto; A. Rietbrock; K. Bataille; S. E. Barrientos; M. R. Miller

    2010-01-01

    The largest recorded earthquakes have all taken place along subduction margins (e.g. Chile, 1960; Andaman-Sumatra, 2004; Chile, 2010). A better understanding of the stress distribution involved in these tectonic environments could lead to better prediction of the occurrence and maximum possible magnitudes of earthquakes at given segments of a subduction zone. The study area of the present research, the Aysén

  1. POWER, NATURE AND NEOLIBERALISM: THE POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF WATER IN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Budds

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1990s, international water sector reforms have centred heavily on economic and market approaches. In regard to water resources management, tradable water rights have been promoted, often supported by the neoliberal model adopted in Chile. Chile's 1981 Water Code was reformed to comprise a system of water rights that could be freely traded with few restrictions. International financial institutions

  2. Percepción diferenciada de salsa de tomate transgénica en el sur de Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Schnettler Morales; O. Sepúlveda Bravo; D. Ruiz Fuentes; M. Denegri Coria

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY. Differentiated perception of transgenic tomato sau- ce in the southern Chile. The present study considers the debate generated in developed countries by genetically modified foods, the importance of this variable to consumers in Temuco (Araucanía Region, Chile) when purchasing tomato sauce and different market segments were studied through a personal survey administered to 400 people. Using conjoint analysis, it

  3. Foliose and placodioid species of the lichen family Physciaceae in southernmost Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arve Elvebakk; Roland Moberg

    2002-01-01

    Abstract:Ten foliose and placodioid species of Physciaceae are reported from the National Park Torres del Paine and from other areas in southernmost Chile. Phaeophyscia constipata and Physconia perisidiosa are reported as new to the Southern Hemisphere, Phaeophyscia endococcina var. endococcina andPhaeorrhiza nimbosa as new to South America, and Dimelaena oreina and Physcia kalbii as new to Chile. The latter was

  4. Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae): first distribution record from Chile and new host plant record.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A

    2007-01-01

    The presence of Megalorhipida leucodactyla (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Pterophoridae) in Chile is reported for the first time from the Azapa valley, northern Chile. In this locality, some immature stages of M. leucodactyla were found to be associated with Tessaria absinthioides (Hook. & Arn.) DC., Asteraceae, a new host plant record at the species, genus and family level for M. leucodactyla. PMID:17710334

  5. Major earthquakes and tsunamis in Chile during the period 1535 to 1955

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cinna Lomnitz

    1970-01-01

    Eine Aufstellung der größeren Erdbeben Chiles (angenommene Stärke größer als 7,5) wird vorgelegt. Dieser Aufstellung liegt eine Lochkartenkartei chilenischer Erdbeben mit mehr als 15 000 Eintragungen zugrunde. Für jedes Beben werden die Auswirkungen einschließlich der Tsunami-Beobachtungen beschrieben und Schätzungen der Lage der Epizentren und der Stärke angegeben. Größere Erdbeben treten in Chile in nur wenigen Bebengebieten auf. Diese sind linear

  6. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...APHIS-2009-0082] Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile AGENCY...of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean...regulations for recognition as a pest-free area for Medfly. EFFECTIVE DATE:...

  7. Performance Characteristics of the First, State-of-the-art Electric Vehicle Implemented in Chile

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Performance Characteristics of the First, State-of-the-art Electric Vehicle Implemented in Chile@ing.puc.cl *University of Concepción Abstract The first, state-of-the-art electric vehicle implemented in Chile to transform a conventional ICE truck to an electric vehicle. The vehicle used for this transformation

  8. Vocational Training in Chile: A Decentralized and Market Oriented System. Training Policy Study No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinoza, Eduardo Martinez

    From 1976 to 1983 major reforms were enacted in Chile in the vocational training systems, based on four principles: decentralization, integration, diversification, and participation. The vocational training system in Chile is a legally established, market-oriented system in which many private training agencies compete to sell their services to…

  9. MEDICIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD DE CAPTURA DE CARBONO EN BOSQUES NATIVOS Y PLANTACIONES DE CHILE.1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Gayoso Aguilar

    RESUMEN Chile, como muchas naciones ha considerado importante participar en las iniciativas para mitigar el efecto invernadero y a su vez ha visto en ello, la posibilidad para atraer recursos y financiamiento que permitan favorecer el desarrollo sostenible de áreas rurales, la conservación de bosques nativos y la incorporación de tecnologías de producción, ambientalmente más apropiadas. Si bien Chile está

  10. Políticas sociales para el crecimiento con equidad en Chile, 1990-2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Pablo Arellano M

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the social policies implemented in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990. Social policies during this period are characterized by their contribution to reduce poverty in half and by a significant increase in public resources to fund the social programmes. At the same time Chile had a fiscal policy that resulted in a significant fiscal surplus

  11. Social housing policies under changing framework condi-tions in Santiago de Chile

    E-print Network

    Borsdorf, Axel

    Lebensbedingungen, Kriminalität und Drogenkonsum gekennzeichnet ist. Vivienda Social bajo diferentes regímenes políticos en Santiago de Chile La vivienda social en Chile y en su capital Santiago, ha tenido una historia de vi- viendas irregulares disminuyeron considerablemente. La política de vivienda social fue

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION TO SANTIAGO DE CHILE)

    E-print Network

    Bertossi, Leopoldo

    ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION Chile and other cities in Chile, air pollution is a dramatic problem. An Environmental Information planning. Using a model-based EIS for air pollution it is possible (i) to study complex source

  13. Seeding date influence on camelina seed yield, yield components, and oil content in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisol Berti; Rosemarie Wilckens; Susana Fischer; Alejandro Solis; Burton Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) was introduced for the first time in Chile in 2008 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and also as high omega-3-containing seed oil for the salmon feed industry. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum seeding date to maximize camelina seed yield in South Central Chile. The experiment was conducted under dryland conditions

  14. How general are global trends in biotic homogenization? Floristic tracking in Chile, South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio A. Castro; Fabian M. Jaksic

    2008-01-01

    Aim To quantify the occurrence of floristic change in the vascular flora of Chile. We test whether continental areas have experienced floristic modification leading to either homogenization, differentiation or tracking. Methods On the basis of the geographical distribution of native (1806 species) and naturalized plants (552 species) in continental Chile, we quantified change between two floristic stages: (1) pre-European flora,

  15. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): Achievements, Open Questions and Strategies for the Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of…

  16. Ciudad y campo americanos vistos desde el Consejo de Indias en Madrid (1570-1650) Guillaume Gaudin

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ciudad y campo americanos vistos desde el Consejo de Indias en Madrid (1570-1650) Guillaume Gaudin://www.mundoagrario.unlp.edu.ar/ DOSSIER Ciudad y campo americanos vistos desde el Consejo de Indias en Madrid (1570-1650) Americans city and countryside seen from the Council of the Indies in Madrid (1570-1650) Guillaume Gaudin (*) Universidad de

  17. [Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].

    PubMed

    Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

    2004-05-01

    This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas. PMID:15231085

  18. Morphotectonic segmentation of an active forearc, 37° 41°S, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, Katrin; Strecker, Manfred R.; Echtler, Helmut P.

    2008-02-01

    Active forearc regions are characterized by seismo- and morphotectonic segments that record recurrent seismic activity and subduction-related tectonic deformation on different timescales. However, it is not well known on which timescales morphotectonic forearc segments retain their tectono-geomorphic identity, how they are related to earthquake-rupture zones, and what governs their long-term evolution. The forearc of the active convergent margin of south-central Chile (37°-41°S) is located within the rupture zone of the 1960 Chile Mw 9.6 megathrust earthquake. In this region, we combine geomorphological, sedimentologic, and morphometric DEM analysis with compiled structural and geophysical data to reconstruct the morphotectonic evolution of the forearc. The southern Chile forearc comprises three segments (Nahuelbuta, Toltén and Bueno segments) that record a differential structural and geomorphic evolution. Whereas the Toltén segment appears to be quasi-stable, the other two segments record pronounced ongoing Quaternary uplift. The Nahuelbuta and Bueno segments contain the N-S oriented Coastal Cordillera, characterized by numerous tectonically controlled drainage anomalies and evidence of sediment rerouting. The morphotectonic segmentation appears to have persisted over timescales of 10 5 to 10 6 years. Importantly, these segments do not correlate with earthquake-rupture zones that exhibit a short-term variability over 10 2 to 10 3 years. Thus, earthquake-rupture zones are transient, second-order phenomena, which do not determine the long-term morphotectonic forearc segmentation. Overall, the differential forearc evolution and segmentation is influenced by a complex interplay of inherited upper-plate structures and physical properties of the subducting oceanic Nazca plate.

  19. Hierarchical Reflexion Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rainer Koschke; Daniel Simon

    2003-01-01

    The reexion model originally proposed by Murphy and Notkin allows one to structurally validate a de- scriptive or prescriptive architecture model against a source model. First, the entities in the source model are mapped onto the architectural model, then discrep- ancies between the architecture model and source model are computed automatically. The original reexion model allows an analyst to specify

  20. Quaternary pollen record from laguna de tagua tagua, chile.

    PubMed

    Heusser, C J

    1983-03-25

    Pollen of southern beech and podocarp at Laguna de Tagua Tagua during the late Pleistocene indicates that cooler and more humid intervals were a feature of Ice Age climate at this subtropical latitude in Chile. The influence of the southern westerlies may have been greater at this time, and the effect of the Pacific anticyclone was apparently weakened. The climate today, wet in winter and dry in summer, supports broad sclerophyll vegetation that developed during the Holocene with the arrival of paleo-Indians and the extinction of mastodon and horse. PMID:17735194

  1. Increasing organ donation by presumed consent and allocation priority: Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2015-03-01

    Chile, a middle-income country, recently joined Israel and Singapore as the world's only countries to require reciprocity as a precondition for organ transplantation. The Chilean reform includes opt-out provisions designed to foster donation and priority for organ transplantation for registered people. Although the reform has had serious difficulties in achieving its mission, it can be reviewed by other countries that seek to address the serious shortage of organs. As increased organ donation can substantially enhance or save more lives, the effect on organ availability due to incentives arising from rules of preference should not be underestimated. PMID:25767299

  2. [Tinea nigra: a allochthonous case report in Chile].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Raúl; Sabatin, Natalia; Urrutia, Mauricio; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo

    2013-02-01

    Tinea nigra is a superficial mycosis caused by Hortaea werneckii. It is an infrequent asymptomatic infection that affects mainly human palms and soles, and it is mostly seen in tropical countries. It has not been reported in Chile yet. The clinical presentation is generally a single macule, not symptomatic, of brown color in palms and soles. We report a case of a Chilean woman that developed brown macules on both soles after travel to the United States and Central America. The diagnosis of Tinea nigra was confirmed by direct microscopic examination and mycological culture. She had a good response to treatment with oral itraconazol. PMID:23450418

  3. Panoramic View of the Andes Mountains, Chile and Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This panoramic view of the Andes Mountains of Chile and Argentina (24.5S, 69.5W) is dominated by the yellows and browns of the coastal Atacama Desert and the full width of the Andes altiplano, about 300 miles. Winter snow can be seen capping the 22,000 to 23,000 ft. peaks of the Andes. Wisps of cirrus clouds lie over the altiplano and offshore fog obscures the coast. In the distance, the low Chaco Plain appears green with pastures and agriculture.

  4. ESO-VLT instrumentation for site evaluation in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarazin, Marc S.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation is made of the technical choices pertinent to the selection of the ESO's Very Large Telescope site in northern Chile, in light of meteorological, acoustic radar, rawinsonde, microthermal sensor and optical seeing monitor data that will be collected in the coming years. Attention is given to large scale meteorological parameters, the features of the atmospheric boundary layer, the turbulence encountered in the 'ground layer' of the first 30 m above the ground, and the use of the path integral/differential Hartmann seeing monitor.

  5. Surviving a Tsunami: Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This report contains true stories that illustrate how to survive (and how not to survive) a tsunami. It is meant for people who live, work, or play along coasts that tsunamis may strike. The stories are personal accounts selected from interviews with people who survived a Pacific Ocean tsunami generated by the magnitude 9.5 earthquake that occurred along the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960. Important points include the necessity to heed all warnings (official and natural), head for higher ground, expect many waves, and not to attempt to recover personal belongings.

  6. Late Quaternary tephrostratigraphy of southern Chile and Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontijn, Karen; Lachowycz, Stefan M.; Rawson, Harriet; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Naranjo, José A.; Moreno-Roa, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The Southern and Austral Volcanic Zones of the Andes comprise 74 volcanic centres with known post-glacial activity. At least 21 of these have had one or more large explosive eruptions in the late Quaternary, dispersing tephra over vast areas. These tephra layers therefore have great potential as tephrochronological marker horizons in palaeoenvironmental studies in southern Chile and Argentina, a region that is particularly useful to study climate dynamics of the southern hemisphere. However, to date tephrochronology has rarely been fully utilised in this region as a correlation and dating tool. Here we review the existing post-glacial tephrostratigraphic record of the Southern and Austral Volcanic Zones, and compile a database of known occurrences of tephra from these volcanoes in ice and lacustrine, marine, peat, and cave sediment records. We address the inconsistencies in and revisions of the tephrostratigraphies presented in prior literature, and discuss the challenges in correlating tephras and the limitations of the tephrostratigraphic record in this area. This study highlights the many gaps that still exist in our knowledge of the eruptive histories of these volcanoes, but also reveals the largely under-utilised potential of tephra as a correlation tool in this region. This is exemplified by the severe lack of adequate geochemical analysis of tephra layers preserved in many lacustrine and peat sediment sections, which are particularly important tephrostratigraphic records in southern Chile and Argentina due to the paucity of surface preservation.

  7. Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos

    2010-09-01

    Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries. PMID:20945755

  8. [Revista Médica de Chile: a long and beautiful educational task].

    PubMed

    Goic, A

    1997-07-01

    Revista Médica de Chile is one of the oldest medical journals in the world. Since its foundation in 1972, it had an educational character. Its successive editors and members of editorial committees have been distinguished clinicians, investigators and teachers. The diffusion of this journal among physicians and students for more than a century, renders it as a pioneer form of continuous distance education and could be considered as a "silent and peaceful campus". Through the years, this journal has coped with the progress in medical and biological knowledge,the perfecting of graphic arts and editorial processes and the development of computing. It has improved its management and professionalized the editorial process. In the near future, this last aspect will need further improvements due to its increasing complexity. The journal adheres to international publication norms for scientific manuscripts and is connected to international associations of medical journal editors. The editors have assumed the professional and ethical responsibility of controlling that publications provide valid information in a language intelligible for most readers. This compromise implies an independent work and the rejection of any form of undue pressure. We can state that Revista Médica de Chile, as a whole, is a historical document and that its pages reflect the capacity and intelligence of several generations of Chilean physicians. PMID:9567376

  9. Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Coke, R; Moreno, R S

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the correlation between the ethnic structure and the prevalence of single gene defects in Chile. At present the Chilean population is approximately 64% white and 35% Amerindian with traces of other admixture. Fewer than 4% of the Chilean population are foreign born. Investigations indicate that all severe diseases and many others without impaired reproduction have mutation rates within the range of the white population. Classical ethnic diseases are very rare. Autosomal recessive disorders have a wide range of variability: cystic fibrosis has a low incidence and PKU has a similar incidence to English rates. Only 30% of the inborn errors of metabolism have been described in Chilean medical publications. In addition, no Chilean haemoglobin or haptoglobin variants have been described. Some rare inherited diseases in Chilean human isolates have been described, including achromatopsia, chondrocalcinosis, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The prevalence of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and supernumerary nipples is the highest in the world and they are associated with aboriginal origin. Single gene defects in Chile are probably shaped by factors related to its ethnic population structure. These local rare single gene defects may be good markers of population admixture for genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:7815439

  10. An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

    2012-08-01

    In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

  11. Challenges for psychiatric recruitment and training in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Benjamín; Rosel, Leonardo

    2013-08-01

    This paper aims to describe the current challenges to recruitment of psychiatrists in Chile, and investigate factors related to interest in psychiatry from medical students of the Chilean Biobío Region. An online survey was completed by 39 medical students currently performing the internship. This survey included questions regarding socio-demographic aspects, probability of choosing a medical speciality, influencing factors on the choice of the medical speciality, and personal features. Students were separated in two groups for the analysis based on their likelihood of choosing psychiatry as a career. A total of 35.9% of the respondents showed some degree of interest in psychiatry. Factors considered important by the respondents were academic opportunities, training vacancies, and balance between job and personal life. The low participation in the study does not allow the extrapolation of data to the national situation, and may represent response bias to those already interested in psychiatry as a career. However, Chile has an average psychiatrist rate per number of inhabitants for the region, but an uneven distribution of this resource. National policies must be focused on this issue in order to reduce the gap in mental healthcare. PMID:24032495

  12. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  13. Frequency Dispersion of the 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, H.; Wright, L.; Titov, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    On 1 April 2014, a Mw 8.2 earthquake struck off the coast of Iquique, Chile. A tsunami was triggered by this earthquake and caused flooding along the northern coast of Chile. Time series of water surface elevations were recorded at tide gauges and DART (Deep-ocean Assessment and Report of Tsunamis) tsunami sensors in the Pacific Ocean. By comparing the wave spectra of the Iquique event with those of other historical events in this region, we notice the former are characterized with significantly higher energy concentration in high-frequency wave modes. This is an indicator of strong frequency dispersion effects, which can quickly reduce the amplitudes of the leading waves in open ocean. These effects are demonstrated through numerical simulations with a weakly dispersive Boussinesq model. The oceanic propagation of this tsunami is also simulated with MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami), the numerical simulating tool of NO­AA's tsunami forecast system, termed SIFT (Short-term Inundation Forecasting of Tsunamis). Though MOST is based on the nonlinear shallow-water theory, the numerical dispersion introduced by its finite difference scheme can be manipulated to compensate the neglected physical frequency dispersion, and makes it applicable to dispersive wave propagations.

  14. A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow. Earthquake-induced static seabed vertical displacement is used as an input boundary condition to the model. The model is hierarchically set up with three nested domain levels; with 250 domains in total covering the entire Chilean coast. Spatial grid-cell resolution is equal to the native SRTM resolution of approximately 90m. In addition to the stochastic events, the 1960 (M9.5) Valdivia and 2010 (M8.8) Maule earthquakes are modelled. The modelled tsunami inundation map for the 2010 Maule event is validated through comparison with real observations. The vulnerability component consists of an extensive damage curves database, including curves for buildings, contents and business interruption for 21 occupancies, 24 structural types and two secondary modifies such as building height and period of construction. The building damage curves are developed by use of load-based method in which the building's capacity to resist tsunami loads is treated as equivalent to the design earthquake load capacity. The contents damage and business interruption curves are developed by use of deductive approach i.e. HAZUS flood vulnerability and business function restoration models are adapted for detailed occupancies and then assigned to the dominant structural types in Chile. The vulnerability component is validated through model overall back testing by use of observed aggregated earthquake and tsunami losses for client portfolios for 2010 Maule earthquake.

  15. Effects of school reformon education and labor market performance: Evidence from Chile’s universal voucher system

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, David; Mukhopadhyay, Sankar; Todd, Petra E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of school reform in Chile, which adopted a nationwide school voucher program along with school decentralization reforms in 1981. Since then, Chile has had a relatively unregulated, competitive market in primary and secondary education. It therefore provides a unique setting in which to study how these reforms affected school attainment and labor market outcomes. This paper develops and estimates a dynamic model of school attendance and work decisions using panel data from the 2002 and 2004 waves of the Encuesta de Protección Social survey. Some individuals in the sample completed their schooling before the voucher reforms were introduced, while others had the option of using the vouchers over part or all of their schooling careers. The impacts of the voucher reform are identified from differences in the schooling and work choices made and earnings returns received by similar aged individuals who were differentially exposed to the voucher system. Simulations based on the estimated model show that the voucher reform significantly increased the demand for private subsidized schools and decreased the demand for both public and nonsubsidized private schools. It increased high school (grades 9–12) graduation rates by 3.6 percentage points and the percentage completing at least two years of college by 2.6 percentage points. Individuals from poor and non-poor backgrounds on average experienced similar schooling attainment gains. The reform also increased lifetime utility and modestly reduced earnings inequality. PMID:22059095

  16. The Role of Initial Porosity in the Weathering Patterns of Ordinary Chondrites in Atacama Desert, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, E. M.; Gattacceca, J.; Munayco, P.; Munayco, J.; Uehara, M.; Scorzelli, R. B.; Rochette, P.; Jull, T.; Giscard, M.; D'Orazio, M.

    2013-09-01

    Weathering patterns from two different localities in Atacama Desert, northern Chile, differ from the ones found for other hot deserts. We present the results of an exhaustive study of ordinary chondrites found in several expeditions.

  17. The State Machine : politics, ideology, and computation in Chile, 1964-1973

    E-print Network

    Miller Medina, Jessica Eden

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation argues that Chile's history of computing is tightly interwoven with the history of the Chilean state. It begins by documenting the government use of mechanical tabulating machines during the 1920s and ...

  18. Stochastic optimization of hydroelectric dam operations on the Biobio River in Chile

    E-print Network

    Burrall, Kristen M

    2009-01-01

    Growing electricity demand in Chile has prompted the proposal of new hydropower projects. In addition to evaluating new projects to satisfy demand, a holistic assessment of alternatives as well as potential gains from ...

  19. LXXXII Encuentro Anual Somachi, 7-9 de Noviembre, Olmue Chile

    E-print Network

    Bürger, Raimund

    supported by CONICYT-Chile through FONDECYT postdoctorado No. 3120197, by project Inserci´on de Capital Humano Avanzado en la Academia No. 79112012, and DIUBB through project 120808 GI/EF, e-mail: vanaya

  20. Is Chile Complying with its Light Pollution Regulations? A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Schwarz, H. E.; Walker, A. R.

    2005-12-01

    Monte Patria is the first Municipality in Chile to comply fully with Supreme Decree 686, the Chilean, environmentally-based legislation governing exterior lighting in Northern Chile - the "norma luminica". "Before" and "after" photographs of Monte Patria were published in last June's issue of "Physics Today", in the context of the global effort to control light pollution. Some photographs of other Chilean towns have been obtained for this poster and for display at the International Dark Sky Association's stand at this meeting. Highlights include detailed midnight and dawn panoramas taken by us during October, 2005 - the month in which the six-year "grace period" for all external lighting in northern Chile's astronomically-sensitive 2nd, 3rd and 4th Regions was supposed to come into full compliance. It is clear that significant progress is being made. The chief obstacle has been financial. Large-scale changeout of street lighting requires an outlay of many millions of dollars from cash-strapped municipalities. Chile's central government has moved in to provide financing at the 80-100/% level in many cases. Once Chile's congressional elections are over, we will be able to judge the political will to complete the changeover. Various large mining operations are currently engaged in major lighting changeovers; such changes are especially important in the various mines that are directly visible from existing major observatories in Northern Chile. The importance to astronomy is that full compliance with DS686 will, on average, extend the potential useful life of all the major optical observatories in Northern Chile by several decades. Funding for the Office for the Protection of the Quality of the Skies of Chile (OPCC) is provided by the Chilean National Environment Committee (CONAMA), NOAO, Gemini, ESO and the Las Campanas Observatory of the Carnegie Institute of Washington.

  1. Crevasse detection in glaciers of southern Chile and Antarctica by means of ground penetrating radar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RODRIGO ZAMORA; GINO CASASSA; ANDRES RIVERA; FERNANDO ORDENES; GUILLERMO NEIRA; LUIS ARAYA; RONALD MELLA; CLAUDIO BUNSTER

    2007-01-01

    Detection of crevasses is critical for safe travelling on glaciers. Here we present the use of a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for crevasse detection. Experiments were made in temperate ice on Glaciar Mocho, Volcán Mocho- Choshuenco, southern Chile (39°25'S) and in cold ice in East Antarctica (87°30'S). In southern Chile the radar was hand-carried 1.2 m in front of the

  2. Protection of Existing and Potential Astronomical Sites in Chile - an Update.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Norman, D.; Schwarz, H.; Orellana, D.

    2002-12-01

    The IAU's Working Group on Controlling Light Pollution (iauwg) has declared Mauna Kea and a wide strip of Northern Chile between Antofagasta and Chajnanator as top priorities for its efforts to protect existing and potential sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres respectively. This report provides an update on the iauwg's co-ordinated efforts to protect areas around the major international optical observatories in Chile, as well as the "Chilean Special Zone" (CSZ) mentioned above. This zone is of current and potential interest for the installation of extremely large optical telescopes and includes the ALMA radio-astronomy site. The CSZ is potentially vulnerable to adverse effects of mining in the region. Progess has been made in demonstrating to local mining interests within the CSZ the economic advantages of quality lighting. Educational and outreach activities to a variety of target audiences are building on legislation covering dark skies - itself part of work by the Chilean government to protect the natural heritage of Chile. Substantial good will was generated by an international, bilingual conference held last March in Chile. Just in the region around AURA's Observatory in Chile (Gemini South, CTIO and SOAR), a portable planetarium has been used to reach out to over 600 teachers and 65,000 pupils in the RedLaSer schools network within the last three years. This has attracted the direct interest of Chile's Ministry of Education. Videoconferencing over Internet2 is being used for educational purposes between Chile and various sites in the US. The NSF- initiated Mamalluca municipal observatory now receives more visitors than all the international observatories in Chile combined and is the focus of an expanding local industry of astronomical eco-tourism. Most of this work was supported by funding from, or via, the US NSF through CTIO and Gemini, and from ESO, OCIW, CONAMA and the IDA.

  3. Wintertime Precipitation Episodes in Central Chile: Associated Meteorological Conditions and Orographic Influences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Falvey; René Garreaud

    2007-01-01

    Central Chile (32°-35°S) is a mountainous and densely populated strip of land between the South American Pacific coast and the main divide of the Andes, 5000 m in height. In this study, wintertime precipitation episodes in central Chile are characterized using precipitation gauge, river discharge, radio- sonde, and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM\\/I) passive microwave radiometer observations over a 10-yr

  4. Draft Genome Sequences of 33 Salmonella enterica Clinical and Wildlife Isolates from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Magaly; Allard, Marc; Brown, Eric W.; Evans, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica causes health problem worldwide. The relationships among strains that are from the same serotype but different hosts, countries, and continents remain elusive. Few genome sequences are available from S. enterica isolates from South America. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of 33 strains from diverse sources isolated in Chile and determined that they were of different serotypes. These genomes will improve phylogenetic analysis of Salmonella strains from Chile and the rest of South America. PMID:25792040

  5. Amphibious seismic survey images plate interface at 1960 Chile Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SPOC Team; Krawcyzk, C.

    The southern central Chilean margin at the site of the largest historically recorded earthquake in the Valdivia region, in 1960 (Mw = 9.5), is part of the 5000-km-long active subduction system whose geodynamic evolution is controversially debated and poorly understood. Covering the area between 36° and 40°S, the oceanic crust is segmented by prominent fracture zones. The offshore forearc and its onshore continuation show a complex image with segments of varying geophysical character, and several fault systems active during the past 24 m.y.In autumn 2001, the project SPOC was organized to study the Subduction Processes Off Chile, with a focus on the seismogenic coupling zone and the forearc. The acquired seismic data crossing the Chilean subduction system were gathered in a combined offshore-onshore survey and provide new insights into the lithospheric structure and evolution of active margins with insignificant frontal accretion.

  6. 1960 Chile - New estimate of polar motion excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slade, M. A.; Yoder, C. F.

    1989-01-01

    A recent reanalysis of the International Latitude Serivce (ILS) polar motion data-day has been processed using Kalman filtering techniques to generate the polar motion excitation function over the time-span from 1960 to 1965. The resulting excitation function has been examined for the effects of 1960 Chile in an attempt to determine experimentally how large earthquake affect polar motion. The resulting upper bound of about 75 x 10 to the 22nd N-m for a 10-deg dip (about 36 x 10 to the 22nd N-m for 20-deg dip) is consistent with results obtained from previous seismic studies, including a recent normal mode excitation result. Following future great earthquakes, monitoring of polar motion by space-based techniques such as VLBI should continue at high temporal resolution for several weeks in order to directly measure the rheological parameters of the upper mantle.

  7. [Revista Médica de Chile in the year 2012].

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-González, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaquín

    2013-08-01

    During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Médica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications. PMID:24448862

  8. Risk perception in a developing country: the case of Chile.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, Nicolás C; Cifuentes, Luis A

    2003-12-01

    In this work we characterize risk perception in Chile, based on the psychometric paradigm, exploring the difference between perceived social and personal risk. For this purpose, we conducted a survey including 54 hazards, 16 risk attributes, and 3 risk constructs. The survey, divided into four parts, was administered to 508 residents of Santiago, Chile. Using factor analysis, three main factors, which accounted for 80% of the sample's variance, were identified: factor 1, commonly called "Dread Risk" in the literature, explained 37% of variance; factor 2, "Unknown Risk," explained 28%; and factor 3, which we called "Personal Effect," explained 15% of the variance. On average, individuals perceived themselves as less exposed to risk and with more control and knowledge about them than the general population. OLS regression models were used to test the association of perceived risk with the three main factors. For social risk, factor 1 had the greatest explanatory power, while factor 2 had a negative sign. For personal risk, only factors 2 and 3 were significant, with factor 3 having the greatest explanatory power. Risk denial (defined as the difference between perceived personal and social risk) was associated with factors 1 and 2 only, with factor 2 having a negative sign. The difference between desired and actual regulation levels proved positive for all hazards, thus indicating that Chileans are dissatisfied with the current regulation level for all the hazards analyzed. The comparison of data at the aggregate and at the individual subject's level suggests that while the aggregate analysis overestimates the magnitude of the correlations it still reflects the tendency of the individual responses. PMID:14641900

  9. Modeling to Predict Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Marathe, Madhav V.; Brownstein, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a life threatening disease transmitted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus in Chile. Hantavirus outbreaks are typically small and geographically confined. Several studies have estimated risk based on spatial and temporal distribution of cases in relation to climate and environmental variables, but few have considered climatological modeling of HPS incidence for monitoring and forecasting purposes. Methodology Monthly counts of confirmed HPS cases were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health for 2001–2012. There were an estimated 667 confirmed HPS cases. The data suggested a seasonal trend, which appeared to correlate with changes in climatological variables such as temperature, precipitation, and humidity. We considered several Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time-series models and regression models with ARIMA errors with one or a combination of these climate variables as covariates. We adopted an information-theoretic approach to model ranking and selection. Data from 2001–2009 were used in fitting and data from January 2010 to December 2012 were used for one-step-ahead predictions. Results We focused on six models. In a baseline model, future HPS cases were forecasted from previous incidence; the other models included climate variables as covariates. The baseline model had a Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) of 444.98, and the top ranked model, which included precipitation, had an AICc of 437.62. Although the AICc of the top ranked model only provided a 1.65% improvement to the baseline AICc, the empirical support was 39 times stronger relative to the baseline model. Conclusions Instead of choosing a single model, we present a set of candidate models that can be used in modeling and forecasting confirmed HPS cases in Chile. The models can be improved by using data at the regional level and easily extended to other countries with seasonal incidence of HPS. PMID:24763320

  10. Ancient Leishmaniasis in a Highland Desert of Northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Maria Antonietta; Matheson, Carney; Iachetta, Lucia; Llagostera, Agustín; Appenzeller, Otto

    2009-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease endemic today in many areas of South America. Methodology We discovered morphologic and molecular evidence of ancient infections in 4 female skulls in the archaeological cemetery of Coyo Oriente, in the desert of San Pedro de Atacama, Northern Chile. The boney facial lesions visible in the skulls could have been caused by a number of chronic infections including chronic Leishmaniasis. This diagnosis was confirmed using PCR-sequenced analyses of bone fragments from the skulls of the affected individuals.Leishmaniasis is not normally found in the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile; where the harsh climate does not allow the parasite to complete its life cycle. The presence of Leishmaniasis in ancient skulls from the region implies infection by the protozoan in an endemic area–likely, in our subjects, to have been the lowlands of North-Eastern Argentina or in Southern Bolivia. Conclusions We propose that the presence of the disease in ancient times in the high altitude desert of San Pedro de Atacama is the result of an exogamic system of patrilocal marriages, where women from different cultures followed their husbands to their ancestral homes, allowing immigrant women, infected early in life, to be incorporated in the Atacama desert society before they became disfigured by the disease. The present globalization of goods and services and the extraordinary facile movement of people across borders and continents have lead to a resurgence of infectious diseases and re-emergence of infections such as Leishmaniasis. We show here that such factors were already present millennia ago, shaping demographic trends and the epidemiology of infections just as they do today. PMID:19746163

  11. Interprétation hydrogéologique de l'aquifère des bassins sud-rifains (Maroc) : apport de la sismique réflexionHydrogeological interpretation of the southern Rifean basins aquifer (Morocco): seismic reflexion contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouhri, Lahcen; Gorini, Christian; Lamouroux, Christian; Vachard, Daniel; Dakki, Mohammed

    2003-03-01

    The aquifer of the Rharb Basin is constituted by heterogeneous material. The seismic reflexion interpretation carried out in this area, highlighted a permeable device compartmentalized in raised and subsided blocks. Depressions identified in the northern and southernmost zones are characterized by Plio-Quaternary fillings that are favourable to the hydrogeological exploitation. Two mechanisms contribute to structure the Plio-Quaternary aquifer: the Hercynian reactivation in the southernmost part, and the gravitational mechanism of the Pre-Rifean nappe. The groundwater flow and the aquifer thickening are controlled by this reactivation.

  12. Crack formation on top of propagating reverse faults of the Chuculay Fault System, northern Chile: Insights from field data and numerical modelling

    E-print Network

    Vallée, Martin

    , Departamento de Geologi´a, Universidad de Chile, Plaza Ercilla 803, Santiago, Chile c Laboratoire des Me El Asnam, Algeria reverse-fault earthquake. In this case, extensional structures formed on top

  13. Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile?

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Rafael A.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.; Hjelle, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33°S) to Aysén (46°S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30°S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting ?0.6% seropositivity. We sequenced partial ANDV small (S) segment RNA from 6 HCPS patients and 32 rodents of four different species collected throughout the known range of hantavirus infection in Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single cosmopolitan lineage of ANDV Sout remains the sole etiologic agent for HCPS in Chile. PMID:19116256

  14. Gas hydrates and possible environmental risks offshore South Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Cordero, I.; Tinivella, U.; Accaino, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Fanucci, F.; Reichert, C.

    2009-04-01

    Gas hydrates and free gas presence was detected within marine sediments, offshore South Chile, by using seismic analysis. We analysed dataset located offshore South Chile; in particular, two seismic lines were analysed. The first one is located in the northern sector offshore Arauco (38°S) and the second one located in the southern sector offshore Coyhaique (44°S).We used the pre-stack depth migration method (Kirchhoff algorithm) to obtain an accurate velocity model and the real geometry of the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), representing the base of the gas hydrate layer. The velocity was determined analysing iteratively the Common Image Gathers (CIGs) by using Seismic Unix and home code created ad hoc to convert the non-flatness of the reflections in the CIGs into velocity error. Moreover, we converted the final velocity model in terms of gas hydrate and free gas concentrations by using the modified Biot's theory, in which we compared the final velocity model with a theoretical model in absence of gas. Thus, the positive velocity anomalies were associated to gas hydrate presence, while the negative velocity anomalies were associated to free gas presence. In addition, the geothermal gradient was estimated by BSR and seafloor depths and relative BSR amplitude were calculated to correlate the hydrate/free gas concentration to the BSR characteristic. The velocity model allowed us to detect the hydrate layer above the bottom simulating reflector, and the free gas layer below it. The velocity field is affected by strong lateral variation, showing maximum and minimum values in the southern sector. In the southern sector, the highest gas hydrate and free gas concentrations are detected (23% and 2.4% of total volume respectively), even if the high velocity can be partially caused by overcompaction. Here, the BSR depth varies from 250 meter below seafloor (in the middle of the accretionary prism) to 130 meter below seafloor (in the structural high), reaching its maximum (330 m) in the fore-arc basin. This depth variability is partially due to the different water depth and partially to the variable geothermal gradient, from 35 to 95° C/km, caused by fluid migration that modifies the gas hydrate stability field. In the northern sector, the highest gas hydrate and free gas concentrations are of 7% and 0.2% of total volume respectively, and the geothermal gradient results quite uniform and equal to 30° C/km. Here, where the BSR is present, the BSR depth reaches 500 meters below seafloor. The higher BSR depth with respect to the southern sector can be justified by the high water depth and the presence of a lower geothermal gradient (about 30° C/km). So, the potentiality of southern margin of the Chile, from the gas hydrate point of view, is important in first approximation. Finally, it is worth to mention that, in our study area the presence of high amount of gas hydrate can involve environmental risks. For example a possible strong earthquake could generate anomalous sea waves, which represent important geohazard for human activities along the coasts. On the other hand, an earthquake can destabilise hydrates, amplifying the geohazard phenomena. Moreover, the high amount of the free gas, presumably in overpressure condition and present in correspondence of the structural high in the southern sector, could be abruptly released and trigger submarine slides toward the sides of the structural high, inducing hydrate instability. These scenarios should be taking in account in the environmental studies in this part of the Chilean margin.

  15. Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): achievements, open questions and strategies for the way forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy

    2010-06-01

    This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of humankind. It suggests that, while there has been progress, much remains to be achieved. Several key challenges are identified. With regard to overcoming these obstacles, it focuses on macro-level strategies that would allow the development of environments in which actions can take root and grow so that the work of the DESD endures beyond the decade itself. Finally, it suggests that there are some opportunities that can be seized to make the task ahead easier to accomplish.

  16. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. METHODS CHILE uses a socio-ecological approach to improve dietary intake and increase physical activity. The intervention includes: a classroom curriculum; teacher and food service training; family engagement; grocery store participation; and health care provider support. RESULTS Lessons learned from CHILE include: the need to consider availability of recommended foods; the necessity of multiple training sessions for teachers and food service; the need to tailor the family events to local needs; consideration of the profit needs of grocery stores; and sensitivity to the time constraints of health care providers. CONCLUSIONS HS can play an important role in preventing obesity in children. CHILE is an example of a feasible intervention that addresses nutrition and physical activity for preschool children that can be incorporated into HS curricula and aligns with HS national performance standards. PMID:23343323

  17. Ridge-trench collision in Archean and Post-Archean crustal growth: Evidence from southern Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. P.; Forsythe, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    The growth of continental crust at convergent plate margins involves both continuous and episodic processes. Ridge-trench collision is one episodic process that can cause significant magmatic and tectonic effects on convergent plate margins. Because the sites of ridge collision (ridge-trench triple junctions) generally migrate along convergent plate boundaries, the effects of ridge collision will be highly diachronous in Andean-type orogenic belts and may not be adequately recognized in the geologic record. The Chile margin triple junction (CMTJ, 46 deg S), where the actively spreading Chile rise is colliding with the sediment-filled Peru-Chile trench, is geometrically and kinematically the simplest modern example of ridge collision. The south Chile margin illustrates the importance of the ridge-collision tectonic setting in crustal evolution at convergent margins. Similarities between ridge-collision features in southern Chile and features of Archean greenstone belts raise the question of the importance of ridge collision in Archean crustal growth. Archean plate tectonic processes were probably different than today; these differences may have affected the nature and importance of ridge collision during Archean crustal growth. In conclusion, it is suggested that smaller plates, greater ridge length, and/or faster spreading all point to the likelihood that ridge collision played a greater role in crustal growth and development of the greenstone-granite terranes during the Archean. However, the effects of modern ridge collision, and the processes involved, are not well enough known to develop specific models for the Archean ridge collison.

  18. Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernasconi, Andres

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only…

  19. Toward understanding tectonic control on the Mw 8.8 2010 Maule Chile earthquake M. Moreno a,

    E-print Network

    Vigny, Christophe

    Toward understanding tectonic control on the Mw 8.8 2010 Maule Chile earthquake M. Moreno a, , D Available online xxxx Editor: P. Shearer Keywords: GPS Chile Maule slip model FEM The Maule earthquake of 27 coseismic surface offsets as measured by survey and continuous GPS, both in near- and far- field regions

  20. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro ?-amylase inhibitory potential of tea infusions (Camellia sinensis) commercialized in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana María Quesille-Villalobos; Jorge Saavedra Torrico; Lena Gálvez Ranilla

    2012-01-01

    Chile is considered the largest tea consumer in America, so a broad variety of tea types and brands are available in Chilean markets. Thirty-four commercial teas (white, green, red, oolong, and black) commonly found in Chile were evaluated according to their phenolic profiles, antioxidant capacity, and in vitro inhibition against ?-amylase relevant for hyperglycemia control. Multivariate tools were used to evidence

  1. Survey of Solenopsis Fire Ants and Their Parasitoid Flies (Diptera: Phoridae: Pseudacteon ) in Central Chile and Central Western Argentina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis A. Calcaterra; Robert K. Vander Meer; James P. Pitts; Juan P. Livore; Neil D. Tsutsui

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Pseudacteon ßies (Diptera: Phoridae) are known to attack Þre ants (Solenopsis spp.) in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay, but none are known in Chile. Surveys were conducted in central Chile and at similar latitudes in western Argentina to detect the presence of Þre ants and parasitoid ßies and to determine their relationship. Flies and Þre ants were

  2. Observations of pCO2 in the coastal upwelling off Chile: Spatial and temporal extrapolation using satellite data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathalie Lefèvre; Jim Aiken; Jose Rutllant; Giovanni Daneri; Samantha Lavender; Tim Smyth

    2002-01-01

    Atmospheric and oceanic partial pressures of carbon dioxide and fluorescence were measured underway off the coast of northern Chile in January 1997. Seawater samples were taken for the analysis of nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations at 31 stations. The objectives were to improve the understanding of the biologically induced responses of upwelling processes off the coast of Chile and to assess

  3. A Geophysical Monitoring Experiment in the Subduction System of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, O.; Huebert, J.; Asch, G.

    2006-12-01

    Part of the multi-disiplinary TIPTEQ project (From The Incoming Plate to Mega Thrust Earthquake Processes) is a combined seismic-magnetotelluric-geodetic monitoring network. In the first phase, which started in November 2004, a network of three stations was installed in southern Chile, aligned along an EW profile extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the volcanic arc. The overall goal is to detect transient events which are related to the subduction system by means of recording and imaging the local and regional seismicity distribution and the long-term variability of geomagnetic transfer functions. Synchronous recordings of GPS and seismic broadband data (periods up to hours) will allow us to examine a wide spectrum of earthquake styles: between seismic (sudden-onset) rupture and continuous or a-seismic slip. Here, we present first results of the long term magnetotelluric (MT) experiment. The data were recorded in a standard 5 component MT setup using fluxgate magnetometers and non-polarizing Ag AgCl electrodes. Single site processing of the data results in apparent resistivity and phase curves in a period range between 10s and 10000s which are generally repeatable for each station. The influence of noise is evident showing great variability between individual time segments and across the station network. potsdam.de/pb3/pb31/projects/tipteq/

  4. Multiparameter Volcano Surveillance of Villarrica Volcano (South-Central Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, Kristin; Peña, Paola; Dzierma, Yvonne; Hansteen, Thor; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Gil, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Villarrica is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile and one of the few in the world known to have an active lava lake within its crater. This snow-covered volcano generates frequent strombolian eruptions and lava flows and, at times, the melting of snow can cause massive lahars. Besides this, continuous degassing and high-level seismicity are the most common types of activity recorded at the volcano. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving the persistent degassing and seismic activity at the volcano, we use a multiparameter approach based on the combined study of high time-resolved gas and seismic data. These data are respectively acquired by means of 3 stationary NOVAC-type scanning Mini-DOAS and 7 additional seismometers (short period and broad bands), installed at the volcano since March 2009, that complement the existing OVDAS (Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur) volcano monitoring network. On the basis of the combination of gas and seismological measurements we aim at gaining insight into volcano-magmatic processes, and factors playing a role on onset of volcanic unrest and eruptive activity. Since the gas monitoring network has been installed at the volcano a correlation between SO2 emissions and seismic activity (LP events) has been recognized. A possible role played by regional tectonics on detected changes in volcano degassing and seismicity, and consequently on the volcanic activity, is also investigated.

  5. Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. PMID:23617306

  6. Interbasin underflow between closed Altiplano basins in Chile.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Errol L; Rosko, Michael J; Castro, Santiago O; Keller, Barry R; Bevacqua, Paolo S

    2003-01-01

    Interbasin ground water movement of 200 to 240 L/sec occurs as underflow beneath a mountainous surface water divide separating the topographically higher Salar de Michincha from the topographically lower Salar de Coposa internally drained basins in the Altiplano of northern Chile. Salt-encrusted flats (salars) and saline lakes occur on the lowest parts of the basin floors and comprise the principal evaporative discharge areas for the basins. Because a surface water divide separates the basins, surface water drainage boundaries do not coincide with ground water drainage boundaries. In the region, interbasin ground water movement is usually not recognized, but occurs for selected basins, and at places is an important component of ground water budgets. With increasing development of water for mining industry and potential exportation of ground water from the Altiplano for use at coastal cities, demonstration and quantification of interbasin movement is important for assessment of sustainable ground water development in a region of extreme aridity. Recognition and quantification of interbasin ground water underflow will assist in management of ground water resources in the arid Chilean Altiplano environment. PMID:12873015

  7. Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile.

    PubMed

    Salazar, F J; Saldana, R C

    2007-12-01

    This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002-2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between sea and lake manure. Dry matter contents were low averaging c. 12-15%. Manures showed low OM contents with values

  8. BABA and Phytophthora nicotianae Induce Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Stamler, Rio A; Holguin, Omar; Dungan, Barry; Schaub, Tanner; Sanogo, Soumaila; Goldberg, Natalie; Randall, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance in plants is a systemic response to certain microorganisms or chemicals that enhances basal defense responses during subsequent plant infection by pathogens. Inoculation of chile pepper with zoospores of non-host Phytophthora nicotianae or the chemical elicitor beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) significantly inhibited foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. Tissue extract analyses by GC/MS identified conserved change in certain metabolite concentrations following P. nicotianae or BABA treatment. Induced chile pepper plants had reduced concentrations of sucrose and TCA cycle intermediates and increased concentrations of specific hexose-phosphates, hexose-disaccharides and amino acids. Galactose, which increased significantly in induced chile pepper plants, was shown to inhibit growth of P. capsici in a plate assay. PMID:26020237

  9. BABA and Phytophthora nicotianae Induce Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Chile Pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    PubMed Central

    Stamler, Rio A.; Holguin, Omar; Dungan, Barry; Schaub, Tanner; Sanogo, Soumaila; Goldberg, Natalie; Randall, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Induced resistance in plants is a systemic response to certain microorganisms or chemicals that enhances basal defense responses during subsequent plant infection by pathogens. Inoculation of chile pepper with zoospores of non-host Phytophthora nicotianae or the chemical elicitor beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) significantly inhibited foliar blight caused by Phytophthora capsici. Tissue extract analyses by GC/MS identified conserved change in certain metabolite concentrations following P. nicotianae or BABA treatment. Induced chile pepper plants had reduced concentrations of sucrose and TCA cycle intermediates and increased concentrations of specific hexose-phosphates, hexose-disaccharides and amino acids. Galactose, which increased significantly in induced chile pepper plants, was shown to inhibit growth of P. capsici in a plate assay. PMID:26020237

  10. STS-65 Earth observation of Northern Chile and Andes Mtns taken from OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Northern Chile and the Andes Mountains. This color photograph is a panoramic (southern view) that features Chile and the Andes Mountains of South America. The Atacama Desert, one of the driest regions on Earth, is clearly visible along the Chilean coast. In the near left foreground is the Salar de Arizaro. Salar Punta Negra in the center foreground appears to be partially filled with water. On the right side of the view, a coastal plateau rises from the Pacific Ocean and meets the Andes Mountains that appear as a backbone running north to south along the border of Chile and Argentina. In the distant left portion of the view can be seen the hazy Chaco Plains and Pampas.

  11. Shelf resonance and impact of near-field tsunami generated by the 2010 Chile earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai

    2011-06-01

    The 2010 Chile earthquake of Mw 8.8 generated a destructive tsunami in the near field that resulted in warnings across the Pacific. Numerical modeling shows trapping and amplification of the energy over the continental shelf and slope. A spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation reveals resonance oscillations with periods up to 129 min along the central Chile coast. The temporal and spectral data provides an explanation for the long-period waves recorded by DART buoys and the prolonged wave activities and belated impacts reported by residents and survey teams. The present study of the 2010 Chile tsunami together with those of the 2006 Kuril and 2009 Samoa tsunamis has directly associated shelf resonance with impacts on insular and continental coasts and provided a tool to identify at-risk localities in tsunami hazard assessment.

  12. El ALCA y el Consenso de Washington. Una mirada desde el comercio y la Teoría de las Relaciones Internacionales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gastón Acosta

    El trabajo intenta dar una aproximación a lo que ha sido el ALCA en términos de la política exterior comercial y económica de Estados Unidos hacia América Latina e intenta hacernos comprender cuales las consecuencias del Consenso de Washington para los países de este bloque desde una perspectiva comparada. El mismo comenzara con la siguiente hipótesis: ¿Puede la política exterior

  13. NECESIDADES DE FORMACIÓN DEL DOCENTE UNIVERSITARIO DEL CARIBE COLOMBIANO DE CIENCIAS ADMINISTRATIVAS ECONÓMICAS Y CONTABLES, DESDE LA COMPLEJIDAD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Enrique Rojas Chadid

    2010-01-01

    El escrito se propone mostrar las principales necesidades de formación del docente universitario del Caribe colombiano de ciencias administrativas económicas y contables, desde la complejidad, ya que la formación del docente universitario en la actualidad incluye en muy poca medida las ciencias de la complejidad lo que trae como consecuencia el refuerzo de una formación que privilegia el pensamiento lineal

  14. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

  15. Identification of diverse Salmonella Serotypes, Virulotypes, and Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Waterfowl From Chile

    PubMed Central

    Fresno, Marcela; Barrera, Violeta; Gornall, Vanessa; Lillo, Pilar; Paredes, Natalia; Abalos, Pedro; Fernández, Alda

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Salmonella enterica is a pathogen with a wide host-range that presents great concern in developed and developing countries. To determine and characterize Salmonella strains found in Chile's waterfowl, we sampled 758 birds along 2000?km of the Chilean coast. In this sample, 46 isolates from 10 serotypes were detected, several with multidrug resistance phenotypes and different combinations of virulence-associated genes (virulotypes). These results suggest that Salmonella infection in waterfowl in Chile could have impacts on public and animal health. PMID:24107205

  16. Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) in Chile: a tentative diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Venzal, J; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, A; Guglielmone, A

    2012-02-01

    Three argasid tick larvae were collected on April 2, 2010, from a common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, captured in the Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar (26°09' S, 70°41' W), Region of Atacama, Chile. The larvae were diagnosed as Ornithodoros, and further comparative analysis showed them to be Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones or a species close to it. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences of Ornithodoros species plus four Argas species was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the larvae. This is the first finding of ticks parasitizing D. rotundus in Chile. PMID:23950013

  17. Monitoring of geological activity on astronomical sites of the Canary Islands, Hawaii, and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eff-Darwich, Antonio; Garcia-Lorenzo, Begoña; Rodriguez-Losada, Jose A.; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Luis E.; de la Nuez, Julio; Romero-Ruiz, Maria C.

    2009-09-01

    Future large and extremely large ground-based telescopes will demand stable geological settings.Remote sensing could be an unvaluable tool to analyse the impact of geological activity at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile; the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones, Chile). In this sense, the extent of lava flows, eruptive clouds or ground deformation associated to seismic and/or volcanic activity could be analysed and characterised through remote sensing.

  18. Peru, Chile and Bolivia as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Areas of Peru (upper right), Chile (top center) and Bolivia as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft during its 35th revolution of the earth. Large body of water at lower right is Lake Titicaca. Smaller lake at left edge is Lake Poopo. Salar de Uyuni is large light-colored area at upper left. At bottom of picture is the snow-capped Cordillera Real range of the Andes mountains. Pacific coastline of Peru and Chile is at upper right. Range running parallel with coastline is the Cordillera Occidental.

  19. Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than 2 000 m2, the distribution exhibits a power-law behaviour with scaling exponent, ?, equal to -2.24. For comparison, we analysed the power-law behaviour of other earthquake-induced landslide inventories, obtaining similar results, although the geological and seismic conditions may have been very different (Buller, New Zealand, ? = -2.42; Iningahua, New Zealand, ? = -2.53; Northridge, USA, ? = -2.39; Chi-Chi, Taiwan, ? = -2.30; Wenchuan Earthquake, China, ? = -2.19). Volume estimates and slope stability modelling have been completed to characterize the phenomena and the possible triggering mechanisms. For volume estimate, we reconstructed the pre-failure surface for tens of landslides, in order to characterize the area-volume relationship. By using this relationship, we assigned a volume to all landslides of the inventory. The study area is subject to a high seismicity associated to earthquakes of different type: interplate (superficial and intermediate depth), subduction zone earthquakes, and earthquake along the Coastal Escarpment. By analysing the frequency size relationships for earthquake-induced landslides from literature, it is possible to observe that the higher the earthquake Magnitude, the higher the frequency density curve. To quantify this observation, we used the power-law relationships derived for each inventory to calculate the frequency density associated to selected areas, and we plotted these frequencies as a function of the magnitude of the respective earthquakes. By fitting these values, we derived the expected Magnitude required to generate the landslide distribution of the study area. In conclusion, we argue that the evolution of these landslides is controlled by: deep valley incision, canyon walls undercutting and lateral migration of the river controlled by valley flank instabilities, the Presence of weak lithologies and weak basal layers, the river incision debuttressing the slope toe and especially brings to daylighting the weak basal layers observed at some landslide sites, the possible deep groundwater flow above the deep imperm

  20. Segmentation of an Active Forearc Setting Chile (37°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehak, K.; Strecker, M.; Echtler, H.

    2006-12-01

    Many forearc-regions are characterized by seismo- and morphotectonic segments that may record recurring activity of large earthquakes in the past. Here, we investigate the forearc of the active convergent margin of south-central to southern Chile corresponding to the rupture zone of the Chilean 1960 megathrust earthquake. We apply geomorphological and sedimentological analyses, as well as compiled structural and geophysical data to reconstruct the morphotectonic evolution and segmentation of the active forearc setting, and in a further step, we evaluate the responsible driving forces. It is very important, from a landscape development as well as from an earthquake-hazard perspective, to understand the evolution of forearc segmentation. However, it is not well known on which timescales forearc segments retain their tectono-geomorphic identity, how they are related to earthquake rupture zones, and what may govern their long-term evolution. Our results document a pronounced segmentation of the southern Chilean forearc into three segments that had a semi-independent structural and geomorphic evolution. From north to south we call them Nahuelbuta, Toltén and Bueno segment. Whereas the Toltén segment appears to be quasi-stable, the other two segments record Quaternary uplift. The Nahuelbuta and Bueno segments are characterized by broad, N-S oriented antiformal structures with numerous anomalies in the highly dynamic fluvial network. Our inferred morphotectonic segmentation can be reproduced by structural, seismic as well as gravimetric data, and partly coincides with earthquake rupture zones. Apparently, this segmentation is persistent over time-scales of 104 to 106 years as opposed to transient earthquake rupture zones that exhibit short-term variability over 102 to 103 years. Finally, we propose that this differential forearc evolution is focussed by inherited upper plate structures, but appears to be ultimately controlled by subsequent physical changes in the highly inhomogeneous subducting plate, and rheological properties of the forearc.

  1. HLA genetic profile of Mapuche (Araucanian) Amerindians from Chile.

    PubMed

    Rey, Diego; Parga-Lozano, Carlos; Moscoso, Juan; Areces, Cristina; Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Mercedes; Fernández-Honrado, Mercedes; Abd-El-Fatah-Khalil, Sedeka; Alonso-Rubio, Javier; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Amerindian Mapuche (Araucanians) are now living in Chile and Argentina at both sides of Andean Mountains. They are anthropologically and genetically different from southernmost South America Patagonian Amerindians. Most of the HLA alleles found in our Mapuche sample are frequent or very frequent in North and South America Amerindians: (1) Class I: A*02:01, A*03:01, A*68:01, B*39:09, B*51:01, (2) Class II: DRB1*03:01, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*07:01, DRB1*08:02, DRB1*14:02, DRB1*16:02. One of the nine most frequent extended haplotypes seems to be from European origin, suggesting the existence of a degree of admixture with Europeans in our Mapuche sample. It has been calculated of about 11 % admixture. Three of the extended haplotypes are also found in other Amerindians and five of them are newly found in Mapuche Amerindians: A*68:01-B*39:09-DRB1*08:02-DQB1*04:02; A*68:01-B*51:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*29:01-B*08:01-DRB1*03:01-DQB1*02:01; A*02:01-B*15:01-DRB1*04:03-DQB1*03:02; A*33:01-B*14:02-DRB1*07:01-DQB1*03:03. The medical importance of calculating HLA profile is discussed on the diagnostic (HLA and disease) and therapeutical bases of HLA pharmacogenomics and on the construction of a virtual transplantation HLA list profile. Also, anthropological conclusions are drawn. PMID:23666052

  2. Achieving effective universal health coverage with equity: evidence from Chile.

    PubMed

    Frenz, Patricia; Delgado, Iris; Kaufman, Jay S; Harper, Sam

    2014-09-01

    Chile's 'health guarantees' approach to providing universal and equitable coverage for quality healthcare in a dual public-private health system has generated global interest. The programme, called AUGE, defines legally enforceable rights to explicit healthcare benefits for priority health conditions, which incrementally covered 56 problems representing 75% of the disease burden between 2005 and 2009. It was accompanied by other health reform measures to increase public financing and public sector planning to secure the guarantees nationwide, as well as the state's stewardship role. We analysed data from household surveys conducted before and after the AUGE reform to estimate changes in levels of unmet health need, defined as the lack of a healthcare visit for a health problem occurring in the last 30 days, by age, sex, income, education, health insurance, residence and ethnicity; fitting logistic regression models and using predictive margins. The overall prevalence of unmet health need was much lower in 2009 (17.6%, 95% CI: 16.5%, 18.6%) than in 2000 (30.0%, 95% CI: 28.3%, 31.7%). Differences by income and education extremes and rural-urban residence disappeared. In 2009, people who had been in treatment for a condition covered by AUGE in the past year had a lower adjusted prevalence of unmet need for their recent problem (11.7%, 95% CI: 10.5%, 13.2%) than who had not (21.0%, 95% CI: 19.6%, 22.4%). Despite limitations including cross-sectional and self-reported data, our findings suggest that the Chilean health system has become more equitable and responsive to need. While these changes cannot be directly attributed to AUGE, they were coincident with the AUGE reforms. However, healthcare equity concerns are still present, relating to quality of care, health system barriers and differential access for health conditions that are not covered by AUGE. PMID:23921988

  3. The Dusty View of DI from ESO Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Locurto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Rauer, H.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.

    Around the time of the impact of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission at comet 9P/Tempel 1, in total 6 telescopes with altogether 7 different instruments, located at the La Silla (LSO) and Paranal (VLT) Observatories of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, were used to characterize the dust properties before and after the event. The ejecta cloud expanded at an average speed of about 200 ms-1during the first hours after the event. It reached stagnation distance of 25000 km about 3 days after impact. The pre-impact dust jet and fan activity (`porcupine' pattern) remained undisturbed after impact. In our measurements the jet activity can be traced to a few 100 km nucleus distance. In total 9 comastructures are identified which may originate from at least 4 regions of enhanced dust emission on the nucleus - one of this region may in fact be multiple. No obvious signatures of a new active region created by DI are found. The overall dust production during the impact compares to about 5-10 h of normal activity. The global expansion geometry of the DI cloud is compatible with a majority of dust grains in the micron size range. Indications exist for asymmetric brightness and colour distributions of the dust in the ejecta cloud. The dust temperature rose from about 280-290 K before to 330 K one day after the event and fell to pre-impact level the day thereafter. The dust reflected sunlight was found to be linearly polarized at about 7.5% in the visible and near-IR, at constant level within about 4000 km from the nucleus. No circular polarization of the dust is detected.

  4. The Influence Of Earthquakes On Degassing At Villarrica Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Bredemeyer, S.; Garofalo, K.; Pena, P.; Rupke, L.; Mora Stock, C.; Dzierma, Y.; Rabbel, W.; Bataille, K.; Gil Cruz, F.

    2011-12-01

    Villarrica is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile and is presently characterized by continuous degassing, high-level seismicity and a persistent lava lake within its crater. Three stationary NOVAC-type scanning Mini-DOAS UV spectrometers for the quantification of SO2 fluxes were installed at the volcano in March 2009. Seismic stations used for this study include the OVDAS (Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur) volcano monitoring network, and 7 dedicated short period and broadband seismometers that were deployed in the region for more than one year. We have registered several cases of correlation between SO2 fluxes and seismic activity (LP events). Seismic events have in several cases been followed by an increase in degassing activity. The response seems to occur on two different time scales. Regional earthquake events in 2009 and 2010, and the 2011 Araucania event which occurred on January 2 and had a magnitude of 7.1, were followed by strongly increased degassing activity at Villarrica 2-4 days later, interpreted as due to increased bubble nucleation in the magmatic system at depth. The large Maule earthquake on February 27, 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 had little immediate effect, but was followed several weeks later by an immense increase in degassing activity of about one order of magnitude compared to the baseline level. We speculate that this was a result of changing stress fields in the lower crust and at mantle depths caused by the Maule event, possibly changing melting conditions temporarily. Numerical models based on seismic, petrologic and gas flux data are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the time-lag between seismicity and degassing. We thus aim at gaining insight into the interface between magmatic and volcano-tectonic processes, especially factors playing a role for the onset of volcanic unrest.

  5. Ultrastructure of Bonamia sp. in Ostrea chilensis in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lohrmann, K B; Hine, P M; Campalans, M

    2009-07-23

    Oyster Ostrea chilensis samples were collected from Quihua Island, Chile, in December 2003 and February 2005, and examined in May 2004, and March, April and July 2005, for an ultrastructural comparison of the Chilean Bonamia sp. with other Bonamia spp. Only uni-nucleate stages were encountered, except in the July sample. The Chilean parasite differs from B. perspora in the apparent lack of a plasmodial stage and of sporulation. It resembles B. ostreae in size, the low number of mitochondrial profiles, and the prevalence and mean number of lipid droplets. It differs from B. ostreae in the greater prevalence of nuclear membrane-bound Golgi (NM-BG), associated haplosporogenesis, and smaller size of haplosporosomes. The Chilean Bonamia sp. resembles B. exitiosa in the number of haplosporosomes, prevalence of lipid droplets, anastomosing endoplasmic reticulum and NM-BG, presence of circles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER), confronting cisternae (CC), and cylindrical CC (CCC). It also appears to have a similar developmental cycle to B. exitiosa with larger forms occurring in winter (August). The circles of sER, CC, and CCC have only been reported from B. exitiosa, and it appears that Chilean Bonamia sp. and B. exitiosa are more closely related than they are to B. perspora or B. ostreae. Similarities in ultrastructure and developmental stages between New Zealand and Chilean parasites suggest that the 2 species are related, and that the Chilean Bonamia sp. is either B. exitiosa, a sub-species of B. exitiosa, or a separate species closely related to B. exitiosa. PMID:19750808

  6. Simazine dynamics in a vineyard soil at Casablanca valley, Chile.

    PubMed

    Alister, Claudio; Lopez, Ramiro; Kogan, Marcelo

    2005-11-01

    Field dissipation, soil movement and laboratory leaching studies were performed to elucidate the effect of two rainfall amounts in the behaviour and environmental fate of simazine under climatic conditions at Casablanca Valley, Chile. Dissipation and soil movement were studied in a field vineyard with a sandy loam soil (Inceptisol; 74.08% sand; 14.87% silt and 11.04% clay). Simazine was applied to bare soil at 2.0 kg AI ha(-1), and its concentration was measured using immunoassay (ELISA) at 0, 10, 20, 40 and 90 days after application under two rainfall amounts, natural field conditions (39 mm) and modified conditions (39 + 180 mm). Simazine leaching was studied using soil core PVC lysimeters (0.9 m height; 0.22 m diameter). Field dissipation data were adjusted with a bi-exponential model. Half-life (DT(50)) values varied between 31.3 (+/-2.5) and 19.0 (+/-4.2) days under natural and modified conditions, respectively. Simazine K(d) varied from 0.42 to 2.15 (K(oc) 32.6-216.2) in the soil profile. Simazine was detected at a 90-cm soil depth in concentrations of 0.0085 (+/-0.0043) mg kg(-1) and 0.0321 (+/-0.001) mg kg(-1) under field and modified conditions, respectively. The maximum simazine leachate concentrations were 0.013 (+/-0.00084) mg litre(-1) (0.012% of total applied simazine) and 0.0084 (+/-0.00082) mg litre(-1) (0.11% of total applied simazine) for field and modified conditions respectively. These data indicate that water quantity has a significant effect on the DT(50) and the amount of simazine that moved through the soil profile, but not on the soil depth reached by this herbicide. PMID:15977310

  7. Syn-eruptive laccolith growth at Cordón Caulle, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Tuffen, H.; Schipper, C. I.; Wadsworth, F. B.

    2014-12-01

    The 4 June 2011 eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile was the largest event recorded that year, and marked just the second time a rhyolite eruption has been scientifically monitored. Ground-based and remote sensing observations (Terra SAR-X, Landsat 7) of this event indicate that a shallow magmatic intrusion occurred beneath the active vent in the second week of the eruption (~18-24 June) and lead to significant, localised uplift (10 to >200 m) and complex surface deformation across an area of about 2 km2. Shallow intrusion coincided with the first days of lava effusion, with effusion rates estimated at 20-80 m3s-1 and simultaneous pyroclastic venting producing 5-6 km-high ash plumes. Despite this contemporaneous, high magmatic flux out of the vent, the intrusion continued to grow, implying greater rates of magma input than eruption. High-resolution digital elevation data extracted from Pléiades satellite imagery in March 2014 along with detailed surface mapping of ground deformation patterns help determine the depth, form, and mechanism of intrusion. These data collectively indicate a laccolith-shaped body emplaced at a minimum depth of 300 m and with an asymmetrical form controlled by broad monoclines on the southern end and thrust and high-angle growth faults to the northern side. Structures such as these have long been recognized in dissected laccoliths in the southwestern U.S. and are interpreted here to indicate shallow magma emplacement involving: 1) firstly, the formation of a sill-shaped body, 2) lateral spreading of the sill to a critical width, and 3) upward bending of overburden and eventual failure along growth faults at the margins of the laccolith. A 2D mechanical model will be presented that determines the stress required to grow the laccolith, which in turn will provide an estimate of the magma overpressure in the shallow subsurface.

  8. De empresas y empresarios: reflexión en torno al sentido y significado de estos conceptos en la etimología y desde la teoría económica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Ricardo Gaviria Cock

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se indaga sobre el significado de los conceptos empresa y empresario desde un análisis léxico y etimológico en las lenguas española, francesa e inglesa por un lado, y, por el otro, desde el desarrollo teórico de dos de los más influyentes pensadores económicos en cuanto a la construcción de estos conceptos, Richard Cantillon y Joseph Schumpeter, cuyas

  9. Increased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    their water supply was supplemented in 1958 with water from rivers that contained arsenic at concen- trationsIncreased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile Jane, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, California Abstract Arsenic in drinking water

  10. Second Experiments in the Robotic Investigation of Life in the Atacama Desert of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wettergreen; Nathalie Cabrol; Vijayakumar Baskaran; F. Calderon; Stuart Heys; Dominic Jonak; Allan Lüders; David Pane; M. Smith; J. Teza; P. Tompkins; D. Villa; C. Williams; M. Wagner; A. Waggoner; S. Weinstein; W. Whittaker

    2005-01-01

    The Atacama Desert of northern Chile may be the most lifeless place on Earth, yet microorganisms do survive in some areas. The distribution and diversity of life in the Atacama remains unexplored and is the focus of the Life in the Atacama project. To conduct this investigation, survey traverses across the desert with biologic and geologic instruments will allow us

  11. A new click beetle genus from southern Chile: llanquihue (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterinae, Pomachiliini).

    PubMed

    Arias, Elizabeth T

    2008-01-01

    Llanquihue, a new genus of Elateridae from Southern Chile, is here described and illustrated with 2 species: Llanquihue vittipennis (Candèze) new comb., and L. carlota sp. nov. The genus Llanquihue belongs to the subfamily Elaterinae and to the tribe Pomachiliini. PMID:20233094

  12. First report of root rot of Chicory caused by Phytophthora cryptogea in Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var sativum Bisch.), a relatively new high value crop in Chile, was introduced for commercial production of inulin. Inulins are polysaccharides extracted from chicory tap roots that are used in processed foods due to their beneficial gastrointestinal properties. Approxi...

  13. A Snow Algal Community on Tyndall Glacier in the Southern Patagonia Icefield, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nozomu Takeuchi; Shiro Kohshima

    2004-01-01

    We quantitatively investigated a snow algal community on Tyndall Glacier of the Southern Patagonia Icefield, Chile, at an elevation from 300 to 1500 m a.s.l. We observed 7 species of snow and ice algae (Chlorophyta and cyanobacteria) on the glacier. These species were Mesotaenium (M.) berggrenii, Cylindrocystis (Cyl.) brebissonii, Ancylonema sp., Closterium sp., Chloromonas sp., Oscillatoriaceae cyanobacterium, and an unknown

  14. Government Concession Contracts in Chile: The Role of Competition in the Bidding Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo D. Paredes; Jose Miguel Sanchez

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 12 years, Chile has been very successful in attracting private participation in the provision of public infrastructure. Private capital has gone into road infrastructure, ports, and airports all over the country in the form of concessions. The aim of the 1991 Concession Law and that of the specific contracts associated with each project has been to provide

  15. Problems affecting nitrification in commercial RAS with fixed-bed biofilters for salmonids in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esteban J. M. Emparanza

    2009-01-01

    The present case study focused on the problems that affect the nitrification process at three commercial recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for salmonids with fixed-bed biofilters operating in Chile, where the main factors were found to be management problems: (1) large variations in daily feeding, which results in unstable nitrogenous compounds (TAN, NO2?, NO3?) concentration; (2) variable daily water exchange, producing

  16. Toxoplasma gondii in feral american minks at the Maullin river, Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    American mink (Neovison vison) is a widely distributed invasive species in southern Chile. Thirty four feral minks were trapped at two distinct sites (rural and peri-urban), diet analyzed, and Toxoplasma gondii exposure compared using PCR and specific antibodies. Serum samples were evaluated using a...

  17. Status of blue whales off Isla de Chiloe, Chile, during 2007 field season

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani; Carole A. Carlson; Elsa Cabrera

    Since 2004, a collaborative research program of the Alfaguara Project on blue whales off Isla de Chiloe, Chile, has produce important new information on present day conservation status of this population. This paper presents preliminary findings from 2007 and compares such data with that reported in previous years. Land-based monitoring in 2007 resulted in 36 days of observations with 262.85

  18. Skin lesions on blue whales off southern Chile: Possible conservation implications?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brownell Jr. Robert L; Carole A. Carlson; Barbara Galletti Vernazzani; Elsa Cabrera

    2007-01-01

    We report on three types of skin lesions in a population of blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, off the northwestern coast of Isla Grande de Chiloe, Chile. These lesions were: (1) cookie-cutter shark, Isistius brasilensis, bites, (2) vesicular or blister lesions, and (3) a tattoo-like skin disease. The presence of these lesions was determined by the examining photos collected in 2006

  19. THE FIRST REPORT OF PHORONIS SP. (PHORONIDA) IN RED ABALONE (HALIOTIS RUFESCENS) IN CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FABIÁN AVILÉS; NICOLÁS ROZBACZYLO; MARCOS GODOY; GERARDO MUÑOZ

    2007-01-01

    Various red abalone shells (Haliotis rufescens) taken from Chiloe´ , X Region, Chile, were examined revealing an enormous amount of vermiform organisms identified as phoronides (Phylum Phoronida) belonging to the genus Phoronis. These individuals have an extended vermiform body not divided into segments, but its upper extreme shows a crown of tentacles shaped in a circular ring (that is the

  20. Ground-based Millimeter-wave Observations of Water Vapor Emission (183 GHz) at Atacama, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kuwahara; A. Mizuno; T. Nagahama; H. Maezawa; A. Morihira; N. Toriyama; S. Murayama; M. Matsuura; T. Sugimoto; S. Asayama

    2006-01-01

    We report a ground-based mm-wave observation of the stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor in Atacama Chile in December 2005 Stratospheric water vapor is an important trace gas in the middle atmosphere because it is a source of odd hydrogen influencing ozone chemistry and is one of the greenhouse gases which affect the radiation balance in the middle atmosphere Previous observations

  1. Storage and eruption of near-liquidus rhyolite magma at Cordn Caulle, Chile Jonathan M. Castro

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Storage and eruption of near-liquidus rhyolite magma at Cordón Caulle, Chile Jonathan M. Castro C in that they have started with relatively short pre-eruptive warning and produced chemically homogeneous rhyolite in rhyolite magma produced in the most recent eruption of Cordón Caulle and we use these to infer magma

  2. Reforming water allocation policy through markets in tradable water rights: lessons from Chile, Mexico, and California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark W. Rosegrant

    1994-01-01

    Increasing water scarcity, rising costs of irrigation subsidies, and general economic liberalization are creating strong incentives for comprehensive water reform with establishment of tradable water rights and the development of markets in these rights. Experiences in Chile, Mexico, and California indicate that water allocation through markets in tradable water rights offers a viable approach to improving the efficiency of water

  3. Education in Translation: Being an Experiential Environmental Educator in Chile. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Alejandra

    1998-01-01

    A young woman educated in North America who came to Chile to teach experiential environmental education realized that she would have to reconcile her educational ideals with the reality of Chilean culture, which does not support questioning, critical thinking, gender equality, democratic participation, or self-directed learning--the underpinnings…

  4. Spreading of the ocean floor: Undeformed sediments in the peru-chile trench

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, D. W.; Von Huene, R.; Ridlon, J.B.

    1968-01-01

    None of the expected stratigraphic and structural effects of a spreading sea floor have been imposed on the sedimentary fill of the Peru-Chile Trench. During at least the last several million years, and perhaps during much of the Cenozoic, the trench has not been affected by an oceanic crust thrusting under the continent.

  5. Metal speciation and environmental impact on sandy beaches due to El Salvador copper mine, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Ramirez; Serena Massolo; Roberto Frache; Juan A. Correa

    2005-01-01

    Several coastal rocky shores in northern Chile have been affected by the discharges of copper mine tailings. The present study aims to analyze the chemical speciation of heavy metals in relation to the diversity of sessile species in the rocky intertidal benthic community on the northern Chilean coast, which is influenced by the presence of copper mine tailings.In particular, the

  6. Pedagogising poverty alleviation: a discourse analysis of educational and social policies in Argentina and Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Rambla; Antoni Veger

    2009-01-01

    For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it shows how they institutionalise strict surveillance, institutional denigration of

  7. Cost-effectiveness of a folic acid fortification program in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adolfo Llanos; Eva Hertrampf; Fanny Cortes; Andrea Pardo; Scott D. Grosse; Ricardo Uauy

    2007-01-01

    ObjectivePericonceptional intake of folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), a frequent birth defect that can cause significant infant mortality and disability. In Chile, fortification of wheat flour with folic acid has resulted in significant reduction in the risk of anencephaly and spina bifida. We investigated the cost-effectiveness implications of this policy.

  8. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep and alpacas ( Llama pacos) in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Texia Gorman; Juan Pablo Arancibia; Myriam Lorca; David Hird; Hector Alcaino

    1999-01-01

    Serum samples from 408 sheep from different regions of Chile and 447 alpacas (Llama pacos) from the north of the country were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies. The indirect haemagglutination test (IHAT) was used in both species and the indirect immunofluorescence test (IIFT) was also used on the sheep samples in order to compare the performance of the tests in

  9. Combined Liver and Kidney Transplantation in a Multicenter Transplantation Program in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Buckel; J. Morales; J. Brahm; M. F. A. Fierro; G. Silva; R. Segovia; J. Godoy; G. González; G. Smok; C. Herzog; M. T. Santander; L. Calabrán; M. Uribe

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionCombined liver and kidney transplantation (CLKT) is an exceptional therapeutic procedure limited to a few diseases with advanced compromise of these organs. Hyperoxaluria type I and polycystic disease are the most frequent indications. The aim of this article was to report our indications and results of CLKT in a multicenter transplantation program in Chile.

  10. Surviving a Tsunami--Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan Circular 1187

    E-print Network

    Surviving a Tsunami--Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan Circular 1187 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Prepared in cooperation of Japan, the Pacific Tsunami Museum, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration

  11. Threats and Opportunities of Science at a For-Profit University in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barandiaran, Javiera

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after pro-market policies were first adopted, how best to organize Chile's scientific enterprise remains as elusive as when universities were state-run and funded. This paper explores scientific research at a for-profit university, University Andres Bello, to ask if a new mode of knowledge production is in the making and with what…

  12. Trail Impacts and Trail Impact Management Related to Visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy A. Farrell; Jeffrey L. Marion

    2001-01-01

    Protected area visitation and ecotourism in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water, and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency

  13. NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    markets. Farmers became rather workers of a growing agro-industry. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) a highlyNEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA CONSERVATION OF QUINOA: A LESSON FOR STRENGTHENING AND DEVELOPING NEW PARTNERSHIPS Enrique A. MARTÍNEZ*, Didier

  14. Indigenous Schooling Grants in Chile: The Impacts of an Integrationist Affirmative Action Policy among Mapuche Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the extent to which indigenous grants administered to school pupils and university students in Chile can be considered affirmative action towards social justice. Drawing on Fraser's framework for parity of participation, I question whether the grants are able to provide both redistribution and recognition for indigenous…

  15. VIH y Alcohol en Arica, Chile: Percepciones de Portadores y Profesionales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Sessions

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigated the relationship between alcohol consumption and HIV in Arica, Chile. The objectives of this investigation were to understand the demographics of HIV positive Ariqueños who consume alcohol, and understand their perceptions of alcohol consumption with respect to whether they believed they had a drinking problem, whether they believed that the consumption of alcohol facilitated their contracting HIV,

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Strain from Chile

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Bruno S.; García, Patricia; Domínguez Yévenes, Mariana; Lima, Celia; Bello-Toledo, Helia; González-Rocha, Gerardo; Amyes, Sebastian G. B.

    2015-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii strain Ab5 was isolated in the year 2007 in Chile, being one of the first multidrug-resistant (MDR) cases reported in the country. Here, we present the very first draft genome sequence of an MDR Chilean strain, which shows the presence of diverse resistance and acquired virulence genes. PMID:26139713

  17. Effects of forest fragmentation on the beetle assemblage at the relict forest of Fray Jorge, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Barbosa; Pablo A. Marquet

    2002-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is recognized as one of the main factors associated with species extinction and is particularly acute in South American forest habitats. In this study, we examined the effects of forest fragmentation on the beetle assemblage at the relict temperate forest of Fray Jorge (Chile). We evaluated the following hypotheses: (1) there is a strong edge effect, so that

  18. Soil organic matter in the subsurface of the driest core of the Atacama Desert: Yungay, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. de La Rosa; P. Molina; R. Navarro-González; C. McKay

    2005-01-01

    The Atacama desert is one of the driest places on Earth. Geological studies indicate that the aridity in the region has prevailed for more than 10-15 millions years ago making it one of the oldest deserts in the world. The arid core of the Atacama Desert located in Yungay, Chile contains Mars-like soils that have undetectable bacterial populations, low organic

  19. Achievement versus Aptitude in College Admissions: A Cautionary Note Based on Evidence from Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica; Cofre, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a debate over the alleged superiority of achievement tests over aptitude tests on the grounds that the first would be fairer for college admissions and less influenced by family background. The switch from aptitude tests to achievement tests in Chile presented a unique opportunity to examine this claim. Regression…

  20. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Böhm; Nolberto Arismendi; Luigi Ciampi

    2009-01-01

    L. Böhm, N. Arismendi, and L. Ciampi. 2009. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla. Cien. Inv. Agr. 36 (2): 249-258. The biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, was evaluated through the addition of organic amendments of dry and chopped leaves of Buddleja globosa, Drymis winteri, Eucalyptus globulus, Gevuina

  1. Preliminary results of the 2001-2002 Gemini sodium monitoring campaign at Cerro Tololo, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Céline d'Orgeville; François J. Rigaut; Maxime Boccas; Christopher Dainty; Enrique Figueroa; Ralf Flicker; Brooke Gregory; Laurent Michaille; John C. Quartel; Andrei A. Tokovinin; Gelys Trancho; Nicholas J. Wooder

    2003-01-01

    In the near future several astronomical observatories in Chile are planning to use sodium laser guide stars to increase the sky coverage provided by their adaptive optics facilities. Knowledge of the mesospheric sodium layer behavior is crucial to predict the performance of future laser guide star adaptive optics systems. Whereas the sodium layer has been observed quite extensively at several

  2. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  3. First Case of Human Rabies in Chile Caused by an Insectivorous Bat Virus Variant

    PubMed Central

    Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Chala, Evelyn; López, Luis R.

    2002-01-01

    The first human rabies case in Chile since 1972 occurred in March 1996 in a patient without history of known exposure. Antigenic and genetic characterization of the rabies isolate indicated that its reservoir was the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This is the first human rabies case caused by an insectivorous bat rabies virus variant reported in Latin America. PMID:11749754

  4. Almerio B. Franca Petrobras-E&P-BC, Av. Chile 65, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil

    E-print Network

    Maynard, J. Barry

    AUTHORS Alme´rio B. Franc¸a Petrobra´s-E&P-BC, Av. Chile 65, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil Alme´rio B of glacially influenced deposits in the Gondwana of the Parana´ basin, southern Brazil. He joined Petrobra´s Paulipetro on the exploratory project of the Parana´ basin, finished in1984. Alme´rio returnedto Petrobra´s

  5. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Chile 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

    2013-01-01

    Growth and diversity have characterised higher education in OECD countries for fifty years. Chile is no exception and has experienced dramatic increases in the number of students, the range of institutions and the programmes that they offer. But wider participation and diversification are only part of the story. Chilean society remains highly…

  6. Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

  7. Copper bioavailability in a coastal environment of Northern Chile: Comparison of bioassay and analytical speciation approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Stauber; S. Andrade; M. Ramirez; M. Adams; J. A. Correa

    2005-01-01

    An integrated approach including chemical speciation analyses and microalgal bioassays was used to assess the impact of copper from copper mining on a coastal area in Northern Chile. Dissolved copper ranged from <1?gl?1 at reference sites to 48?gl?1 at sites close to the mine discharge. Dissolved copper at sites closest to the discharge always exceeded seawater complexing capacities determined by

  8. When the Earth Trembles in the Americas: The Experience of Haiti and Chile 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Vanholder; D. Borniche; S. Claus; R. Correa-Rotter; R. Crestani; M. C. Ferir; N. Gibney; A. Hurtado; V. A. Luyckx; D. Portilla; S. Rodriguez; M. S. Sever; J. Vanmassenhove; R. Wainstein

    2011-01-01

    The response of the nephrological community to the Haiti and Chile earthquakes which occurred in the first months of 2010 is described. In Haiti, renal support was organized by the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF) of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) in close collaboration with Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), and covered both patients with acute kidney injury (AKI)

  9. Moral Dilemmas in Teaching Recent History Related to the Violation of Human Rights in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…

  10. similar alien floras? A comparison between the mediterranean areas of central Chile and California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandra Jimenez; Lohengrin A. Cavieres; Alicia Marticorena; Ramiro O. Bustamante

    Aim Taxonomic comparisons of alien floras across climatically similar regions have been proposed as a powerful approach for increasing our understanding of plant invasions across scales. However, detailed comparisons between the alien biotas of climatically similar regions are scarce. This study aims to compare the taxonomic patterns of alien species richness in mediterranean- type climate areas of central Chile and

  11. Contributions to the Geology and Palaeontology of Chiloe Island, Southern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Watters; C. A. Fleming

    1972-01-01

    During the Royal Society Expedition to southern Chile in 1958 geological observations were made at Chepu and on the San Pedro tableland in the island of Chiloe. The island is composed of schist, Tertiary sediments, fluvioglacial deposits and volcanics. The schist, of uncertain age, forming the basement at Chiloe, is an extension of the schist of the coastal range of

  12. LA EDUCACIÓN EN CHILE: PERCEPCIONES DE LA OPINIÓN PÚBLICA Y DE EXPERTOS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violeta Arancibia

    1994-01-01

    En este estudio se analizan los resultados de la encuesta de opinión sobre educación básica y media en Chile realizada por Cep-Adimark. El trabajo considera, asimismo, las respuestas de un grupo de exper- tos en el área, a quienes se les aplicó el mismo cuestionario. Comenzando con la percepción que tiene la población respecto de cuáles serían los principales problemas

  13. Characterization of the pelagic shark-fin trade in north-central Chile by genetic identification

    E-print Network

    Characterization of the pelagic shark-fin trade in north-central Chile by genetic identification Ocean Drive, Dania Beach, Fl 33004, U.S.A. (Received 29 October 2007, Accepted 10 July 2008) Shark fins. In the widespread absence of shark landing records especially by species, monitoring the fin trade has been proposed

  14. Part II: Bilateral Consultative Arrangements South America United States-Chile Fisheries Cooperation Program

    E-print Network

    Part II: Bilateral Consultative Arrangements South America 127 United States-Chile Fisheries Program is a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries Service) and the Chilean Servicio Nacional de Pesca (SERNAPESCA) signed in 1995 and extended

  15. Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

  16. Socioeconomic School Segregation in a Market-Oriented Educational System. The Case of Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Juan Pablo; Bellei, Cristian; de los Ríos, Danae

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the socioeconomic status (SES) school segregation in Chile, whose educational system is regarded as an extreme case of a market-oriented education. The study estimated the magnitude and evolution of the SES segregation of schools at both national and local levels, and it studied the relationship between…

  17. Long-Term Stability of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Earthquake Rupture Zone: Evidence from Forearc Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, J. P.; Allmendinger, R. W.; Gonzalez, G.; Barnhart, W. D.; Scott, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    The April 1, 2014 MW=8.1 Iquique (Pisagua), Chile earthquake ruptured a ~250 km long segment of the Nazca-South America subduction zone that last hosted a major earthquake in 1877. Estimated slip up to 8-9 m was concentrated in a region southeast of the hypocenter, and overall, the slip distribution shows spatial correspondence with regions of asperities estimated from geologic data in northern Chile. Tens of thousands of open cracks throughout coastal regions of northern Chile, including several thousand that were freshly opened by the Pisagua earthquake sequence, preserve a record of coseismic stress throughout the past million years. Inversion of these inferred stress orientations for megathrust slip, representing a cumulative or average earthquake on the northern Chilean subduction zone, reveals two concentrations of slip: one coincident with the hypocenter and the other located close to the peak slip estimated from seismic waveform and geodetic inversions from the 2014 event. This suggests that the rupture of various asperities in northern Chile in earthquakes with a 125-150 year recurrence interval may occur repeatedly over neotectonic time scales. Geologic evidence of earthquake-related forearc deformation and the consistency in earthquake rupture patterns that it implies complement the growing body of geophysical data aimed at characterizing the spatiotemporal signatures of seismic cycle processes on the world's megathrusts.

  18. Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of a solar saltern crystallizer pond at cáhuil lagoon, chile.

    PubMed

    Plominsky, Alvaro M; Delherbe, Nathalie; Ugalde, Juan A; Allen, Eric E; Blanchet, Marine; Ikeda, Priscila; Santibañez, Francisco; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ulloa, Osvaldo; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; von Dassow, Peter; Astorga, Marcia; Gálvez, María Jesús; González, María Lorena; Henríquez-Castillo, Carlos; Vaulot, Daniel; Lopes do Santos, Adriana; van den Engh, Gerrit; Gimpel, Carla; Bertoglio, Florencia; Delgado, Yolaine; Docmac, Felipe; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Narváez, Silvia; Sorroche, Fernando; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Trefault, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Cáhuil Lagoon in central Chile harbors distinct microbial communities in various solar salterns that are arranged as interconnected ponds with increasing salt concentrations. Here, we report the metagenome of the 3.0- to 0.2-µm fraction of the microbial community present in a crystallizer pond with 34% salinity. PMID:25395641

  19. Metagenome Sequencing of the Microbial Community of a Solar Saltern Crystallizer Pond at Cáhuil Lagoon, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Plominsky, Alvaro M.; Delherbe, Nathalie; Ugalde, Juan A.; Allen, Eric E.; Blanchet, Marine; Ikeda, Priscila; Santibañez, Francisco; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ulloa, Osvaldo; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; von Dassow, Peter; Astorga, Marcia; Gálvez, María Jesús; González, María Lorena; Henríquez-Castillo, Carlos; Vaulot, Daniel; Lopes do Santos, Adriana; van den Engh, Gerrit; Gimpel, Carla; Bertoglio, Florencia; Delgado, Yolaine; Docmac, Felipe; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Narváez, Silvia; Sorroche, Fernando; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Cáhuil Lagoon in central Chile harbors distinct microbial communities in various solar salterns that are arranged as interconnected ponds with increasing salt concentrations. Here, we report the metagenome of the 3.0- to 0.2-µm fraction of the microbial community present in a crystallizer pond with 34% salinity. PMID:25395641

  20. Impact of atmospheric coastal jet off central Chile on sea surface temperature from satellite observations (20002007)

    E-print Network

    Impact of atmospheric coastal jet off central Chile on sea surface temperature from satellite of covariance analyses between wind stress and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, it is found that CJ of temperature resulting from Ekman transport, air-sea heat exchange, and Ekman-driven coastal divergence

  1. Diversity, phenomenology and epidemiology of epiphytism in farmed Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta) in northern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia I. Leonardi; Alicia B. Miravalles; Sylvain Faugeron; Verónica Flores; Jessica Beltrán; Juan A. Correa

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the most common epiphytes infecting the algal host Gracilaria chilensis on a farm in northern Chile. Simultaneously, the types of host–epiphyte interfaces were characterized and their relative abundance and temporal variability were monitored. Five types of anatomical relationships were detected. Infection type I included the epiphytes weakly attached to the surface of the host and not associated

  2. CHILE: LA TRANSFORMACIN DEL ESPACIO PBLICO A TRAVS DE LA MOVILIZACIN SOCIAL1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CHILE: LA TRANSFORMACI�N DEL ESPACIO P�BLICO A TRAV�S DE LA MOVILIZACI�N SOCIAL1 Nathalie Goldstein, logrando en varios casos ser actores activos de las definiciones de sus espacios públicos. PALABRAS CLAVES: PARTICIPACI�N CIUDADANA - MOVILIZACI�N SOCIAL - ESPACIO P�BLICO - EMPODERAMIENTO El tema de la "participación

  3. Canl to Curarrehue (Chile): A Journey in Alternative Development. Outdoor Education and Sustainable Development: Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rod

    1999-01-01

    The outdoor experience's core element of connection to the earth is a central feature of an environmental-education project in Canl forest sanctuary (Chile). Developed to provide integrated environmental and adventure-education experiences to forest visitors, the project expanded to train local youth as ecotourism guides and native-tree nursery…

  4. Non-biological fractionation of stable Ca isotopes in soils of the Atacama Desert, Chile

    E-print Network

    Amundson, Ronald

    Non-biological fractionation of stable Ca isotopes in soils of the Atacama Desert, Chile Stephanie elements over time, or (b) isotopic fractionation of all three elements during downward transport. We.4 in CaSO4. The overall depth trend in Ca isotopes is reproduced by a model of isotopic fractionation

  5. Segregación Residencial y trayectorias laborales de jefes de hogar en conjuntos de vivienda social en Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Flores; Guillermo Wormald; Francisco Sabatini

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the labor trajectories of heads of households from several social housing projects in the cities of Santiago, Talca and Concepcion in Chile. Using monthly records of employment\\/ unemployment between the late nineties and august 2006 we test for differences in a) the risk of losing or quitting a job, b) the risk of falling in long-term unemployment,

  6. Re-conceptualising strategic environmental assessment: theoretical overview and case study from Chile

    E-print Network

    Bina, Olivia Claudia

    2004-06-15

    in the leadership of CONAMA and other key organisations ... .......... 168 Table 6-a Social identities ...... ....... ... ..................................... ........ ........... .......... ......... .... 192 Table 6-b Main dates in the PMRH preparation... ') International Association for Impact Assessment Instrumentos de Planificacion Territorial Integrated Sustainability Appraisal Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo Ministerio de Obras Publicas, Transporte y Telecomunicaciones de Chile x n.a. NEPA NGO OECD...

  7. Trade, Environment, and Public Health in Chile. Evidence from an Economywide Model

    E-print Network

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    Trade, Environment, and Public Health in Chile. Evidence from an Economywide Model John Beghin Brad This paper uses an empirical simulation model to examine links between trade policy, pollution and public to atmospheric pollution and health status in the Santiago metropolitan area. The trade policy scenarios examined

  8. Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Dobson, Patrick

    Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

  9. Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

    2015-01-01

    In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

  10. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan Francisco; Catalán, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

  11. Genetic structure and clonal diversity of an introduced pest in Chile, the cereal aphid Sitobion avenae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C C Figueroa; J-C Simon; J-F Le Gallic; N Prunier-Leterme; L M Briones; C-A Dedryver; H M Niemeyer

    2005-01-01

    In Chile, the aphid Sitobion avenae is of recent introduction, lives on cultivated and wild Poaceae, and is thought to reproduce by permanent parthenogenesis. In order to study the genetic variability and population structure of this species, five microsatellite loci were typed from individual aphids collected from different cultivated and wild host plants, from different geographical zones, and years. Chilean

  12. Evaluation of Traffic Violation Behaviors and the Causal Attribution of Accidents in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilio Moyano-Díaz

    1997-01-01

    Traffic accidents constitute the fifth leading cause of death in Chile. This study measures attitudes toward 12 violation behaviors and compares causal attributions of accidents by participants versus experts. A survey containing 41 items was administered to 216 different drivers and pedestrians in the city of Santiago, assessing a judgment of seriousness for a group of violation behaviors and asking

  13. Potential links between porphyry copper deposits and exhumed metamorphic basement complexes in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Frances; Docherty, Alistair; Perkins, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) are typically associated with magmatic arcs in compressional subduction zone settings where thickened crust and fractionated calc-alkaline magmas produce favourable conditions for copper mineralisation. A classic example is the Eocene-Oligocene PCD belt of Chile, the world's leading copper producing country. In other parts of the world, older late Cretaceous to early Tertiary PCDs are found in regions of former subduction-related magmatism that have undergone subsequent post-orogenic crustal extension, such as the Basin and Range province of western North America, and the Eurasian Balkan-Carpathian-Dinaride belt. In the Basin and Range there is a striking correlation between the location of many PCDs and exhumed metamorphic core complexes (isolated remnants of the middle to lower crust exhumed during extensional normal faulting). This close spatial relationship raises questions about the links between the two. For example, are their exhumation histories related? Could the presence of impermeable metamorphic rocks at depth affect and localise mineralising fluids? In Chile there appears to be a similar spatial relationship between PCDs and isolated outcrops of exhumed metamorphic basement. In northern Chile, isolated exposures of high-grade metamorphic gneisses and amphibolites are thought to be exhumed remnants of the pre-subduction Proterozoic-Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana [2], although little is known about when they were exhumed and by what mechanism. For example, the Limón Verde metamorphic complex, exhumed from a depth of ca. 50 km, is situated adjacent to Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world. In northernmost Chile, another metamorphic exposure, the Belén complex, sits close to the Dos Hermanos PCD, a small deposit that is not actively mined. Comprising garnet-bearing gneisses and amphibolites, the Belén is thought to have been exhumed from a depth of ca. 25 km, but when and how is unclear [3]. We present new mapping, structural analysis, and geochronologic data from both the Limón Verde and the Belén metamorphic complexes and explore the relationship between these isolated outcrops and PCD formation in northern Chile. References: [1] Seedorff et al., 2008, Root Zones of Porphyry Systems: Extending the Porphyry Model to Depth, Ec. Geol., 103, 939-956. [2] Hervé et al., 2007, Metamorphic and Plutonic basement complexes, in: The Geology of Chile, Geol. Soc. Lond., 5-19. [3] Wörner et al., 2000, Precambrian and Early Paleozoic evolution of the Andean basement at Belen (northern Chile) and Cerro Uyarani (western Bolivia Altiplano), 13, 717-737.

  14. Geyser Interaction: Two examples from El Tatio, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Saez, Carolina; Namiki, Atsuko; Manga, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Geysers are eruptive hot springs that episodically discharge steam, liquid water, and non-condensable gases. While hot springs are abundant in geothermal areas, geysers are uncommon and they require special conditions of water supply, heat flow, and fractures and/or porous rocks. Despite more than 200 years of study, there are still open questions about how and why geysers erupt: How is geyser cycle influenced by other adjacent and distant thermal sources? Are hot springs and geyser connected through permeable pathways? Why do only a few hot springs erupt as geysers? We conducted two week-long field studies of geyser interactions in the El Tatio geyser field, Chile during Oct. 2012 and Oct. 2014. We found two different cases: geyser-pool interaction and geyser-geyser interaction. In the first case, we documented how the water level of the pool varies as the geyser eruption evolves. Measured temperature in the geyser conduit has a repeatable pattern, when it reaches boiling the eruption occurs. In contrast, the temperature in the adjacent pool is constant and never reaches the boiling point, suggesting that heat is supplied only to the geyser conduit. Pressure in the geyser conduit and pool have a similar evolution over time so that the side pool acts as a barometer for the conduit. The geyser-geyser interaction was documented in 2014. A geyser with long eruption intervals (1-3 hours) changes the behavior of a short-interval geyser (c.a. 10 minutes). When the long-interval geyser erupts, the short-interval geyser stops erupting. When the eruption of the long-interval geyser becomes less vigorous, the short-interval geyser resumes its eruptions with shorter intervals. During the week of measurements in 2012, we did not observe the short-interval geyser erupting. At that time, the eruption of the long-interval geyser was regular (4 hours and 40 minutes, ref 1). We thus infer that the geyser-geyser interaction made the eruption cycle chaotic. Geyser-pool and geyser-geyser interactions imply hydrologic connectivity. These pathways may be complicated, and evolve over time. References (1) Namiki et al. 2014

  15. A Study of the 2014 Pisagua, Chile Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crempien, J. G. F.; Ji, C.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 Pisagua, Chile earthquake sequence, which struck the famous northern Chilean seismic gap, started with a Mw 6.7 earthquake on March 16th. This was followed by a 15 day-long earthquake swarm, including multiple Mw>6 earthquakes migrating northward on the plate interface, eventually resulting in a Mw 8.1 megathrust on April 1st. This produced an energetic aftershock sequence with one Mw 7.7 aftershock occurring on April 3rd. We have studied this interesting earthquake sequence by jointly inverting teleseismic data as well as strong motion data from the IPOC/CSN network. The initial efforts focused on the kinematic rupture parameters of the Mw 6.7 foreshock, Mw 8.1 mainshock, and Mw 7.7 aftershock. Our results show that the Mw 6.7 foreshock was a shallow intraplate event with a major asperity at ~12 km depth. Although its rupture was entirely within the overriding plate, this event created a strong static Coulomb stress perturbation on the plate interface, with a maximum value of ~0.2 MPa. We find that the hypocenters of its two largest earthquakes, Mw 6.4 on March 17th and Mw 6.2 on March 23rd are both located right on the plate interface where the Coulomb stress was increased. The rupture of the Mw 8.1 mainshock, spanning about 120 km along strike, initially travels down dip, roughly N100°E, with an apparent speed of 2.5 km/s for the first 25 seconds. Between 25 and 40 seconds, the rupture travels mainly southward (~N150°E) with an apparent speed of ~3 km/s, and more than 50% of the total seismic moment release in two major asperities. The third stage of the earthquake took place between 40 and 70 seconds with the rupture propagating slowly (<2 km/s) towards the northern end of the coseismic rupture zone. The slip of the Mw 7.7 aftershock is heterogeneous, with three well-resolved asperities, visually complementary to the rupture of the mainshock. We also notice that the complex rupture patterns associated with this interesting earthquake sequence apparently correlate well with the local gravity anomaly and geological settings, which will be further explored.

  16. Receptor modeling of ambient VOC at Santiago, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Rappenglück, Bernhard

    Ambient VOC measured at a 1996 spring campaign at Santiago, Chile, have been analyzed using the receptor models UNMIX and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The ambient campaign took place at two sites: a downtown site, close to major traffic emissions, and a residential site, downwind of major industrial sources and highways. At the downtown site the following source apportionments estimates were obtained: fuel evaporation, 29.7±5.6%; gasoline exhaust, 22.0±3.4%; diesel exhaust, 18.1±2.9%; biogenic, LPG and evaporative emissions, 18.0±3.4%, unexplained: 12%. At the residential site, the following source apportionment was obtained: transported gasoline exhaust, 31.2±4.1%; local gasoline exhaust, 25.5±4.0%; evaporative losses, 11.7±2.8%; LPG losses, 11.0±2.5%; biogenic emissions, 7.7±1.7%; diesel exhaust, 6.2±1.5%; unexplained, 7.7%. Thus, near 70% of ambient VOC impacts at both sites are due to mobile sources. The receptor analyses produced source profiles that had distinctive, dominant compounds; in addition, source contributions exhibited diurnal profiles that were consistent with ambient temperature and wind speed data, and the expected activity patterns within the city. Typical errors in the source contributions vary between 15% for the larger sources—like gasoline exhaust—and 25% for the smaller sources—like biogenic emissions. It was found that the number of factors given by the UNMIX model was a good starting point to refine the solution using PMF. Both models showed good performance at discriminating between source profiles that had similar compositions in subsets of common species, but PMF was able to find better, cleaner source profiles that did UNMIX. At both monitoring sites LPG losses appear mixed in with other source profiles, and this feature could not be solved by adding more source profiles in the analyses; this was likely due to a lack of C 3 measurements needed to better resolve an LPG source profile.

  17. The Aftershock Analyses of the February 27 2010 Chile M=8.8 Mega Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H.; Miller, M.; Gallardo, V. A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Lin, J.; Lee, C.

    2011-12-01

    In February 27 2010, Chile mega earthquake (M=8.8) occurred at the Maule area in middle of Chile. The epicenter location is 115 km, NNE direction (35.9° S, 72.73° W) from Concepción, the second biggest city in Chile. The main shock, in which the focal depth is about 35 km, is a thrust - type subduction earthquake where the Nazca Plate subduct/collied into the South America Plate (the Chile subduction system). The main shock caused more than 500-km long rupture in the accretionary prism that produced a destructive tsunami. It killed many thousands of people and damaged more buildings. Even up to today, the aftershocks and volcanic activities still occur continuously in this region. In 1960, the biggest earthquake (M=9.5), the human ever recorded event, occurred in south Chile. This imply that an incomplete release of tectonic energy. In order to understand the processes, we have deployed 18 OBSs at 4 months after the main shock. We recorded a total of 23-day data (July 15 - August 8). In this study, we analyses the P-wave and S-wave arrivals. The events were relocated by using one-dimensional global velocity model (iasp91). An initial result shows that the events were divided into three groups, and each of these groups mainly occurred at a shallow depth of 20-40 km. We propose that the plates keep in colliding and compressing in which the accretionary prism is uplifted. The thrust faults were probably grown in its stress intensity. This may provide a clue for the possible source of the future earthquake and tsunami.

  18. Diversity patterns and composition of native and exotic floras in central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, Javier A.; Teillier, Sebastián; Castro, Sergio A.

    2011-03-01

    Floristic changes in the Mediterranean region of central Chile brought about by human impact appear to be shared with other climatic regions, although there is a notable absence of empirical studies and available quantitative evidence for the central Chile region. This study examines the cover, richness and composition of native and exotic plant species in a representative area of central Chile. Through floristic characterization of 33 sites sampled using 40 × 40 m plots distributed along transect on which the two farthest sites were separated by 50 km, the floristic richness and cover patterns, as well as the general land use characteristics were evaluated (native matorral, espinal, abandoned farming field, forest plantations, periurban sites, road sites, river bank, and burnt site). We recorded 327 species of plants; 213 species were native and 114 were exotic. The average number of species was heterogeneous in all sites, showing a greater relative native frequency in those sites with a lower level of anthropic intervention. Except for the matorral, the cover of exotic species was greater than that of native species. No relation was found between richness and cover in relation to the different types of land use. The relationship between cover of native and exotic was negative, although for richness did not show relationship. Results show that the exotic species are limited by resources, although they have not completely displaced the native species. The native and exotic floras respond to different spatial distribution patterns, so their presence makes it possible to establish two facts rarely quantified in central Chile: first, that the exotic flora replaces (but does not necessarily displace) the native flora, and second, that at the same time, because of its greater geographic ubiquity and the abundance levels that it achieves, it contributes to the taxonomic and physiognomic homogenization of central Chile.

  19. Health insurance selection in Chile: a cross-sectional and panel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, Cristian; Schott, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    In Chile, workers are mandated to choose either public or private health insurance coverage. Although private insurance premiums depend on health risk, public insurance premiums are solely linked to income. This structure implies that individuals with higher health risks may tend to avoid private insurance, leaving the public insurance system responsible for their care. This article attempts to explore the determinants of health insurance selection (private vs public) by individuals in Chile and to test empirically whether adverse selection indeed exists. We use panel data from Chile’s ‘Encuesta de Proteccion Social’ survey, which allows us to control for a rich set of individual observed and unobserved characteristics using both a cross-sectional analysis and fixed-effect methods. Results suggest that age, sex, job type, income quintile and self-reported health are the most important factors in explaining the type of insurance selected by individuals. Asymmetry in insurance mobility caused by restrictions on pre-existing conditions may explain why specific illnesses have an unambiguous relationship with insurance selection. Empirical evidence tends to indicate that some sorting by health risk and income levels takes place in Chile. In addition, by covering a less healthy population with higher utilization of general health consultations, the public insurance system may be incurring disproportionate expenses. Results suggest that if decreasing segmentation and unequal access to health services are important policy objectives, special emphasis should be placed on asymmetries in the premium structure and inter-system mobility within the health care system. Preliminary analysis of the impact of the ‘Garantias Explicitas de Salud’ plan (explicit guarantees on health care plan) on insurance selection is also considered. PMID:23558960

  20. 76 FR 18511 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Figs From Chile into the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh figs from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: April 4, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  1. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: December 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  2. EL SISTEMA DE VOUCHERS EN LA EDUCACIÓN: UNA REVISIÓN DE LA TEORÍA Y LA EVIDENCIA EMPÍRICA PARA CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Aedo; Claudio Sapelli

    En Chile el 90% de los niños cursa su educación básica y media en escuelas municipales o particulares financiadas parcial o totalmente con recursos públicos. Los recursos que reciben estas escuelas dependen del número de alumnos atendidos. Cada alumno es \\

  3. Of Pirates and Moneylenders: Product Market Competition and the Depth of Lending relationships in a rural market in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Conning

    2001-01-01

    It is often suggested that interlinked and monitored loan contract terms such as those used by trader-lenders in rural markets serve as collateral substitutes and therefore should benefit asset-poor borrowers in particular. Yet, empirically this is not always true. For example, most of the new monitored finance from contract farming firms and agro-industry traders during Chile’s recent agricultural boom went

  4. Energy and Mass Balance At Gran Campo Nevado, Patagonia, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Kilian, R.; Casassa, G.

    The Gran Campo Nevado (GCN) Ice Cap on Peninsula Muñoz Gamero, Chile, is lo- cated in the southernmost part of the Patagonian Andes at 53S. It comprises an ice cap and numerous outlet glaciers which mostly end in proglacial lakes at sea level. The total ice covered area sums up to approximately 250 km2. GCN forms the only major ice body between the Southern Patagonian Icefield and the Street of Magallan. Its almost unique location in the zone of the all-year westerlies makes it a region of key interest in terms of glacier and climate change studies of the westwind zone of the Southern Hemisphere. Mean annual temperature of approximately +5C at sea level and high precipitation of about 8.000 mm per year lead to an extreme turn-over of ice mass from the accumulation area of the GCN Ice Cap to the ablation areas of the outlet glaciers. Since October 1999 an automated weather station (AWS) is run continuously in the area at Bahia Bahamondes for monitoring climate parameters. From February to April 2000 an additional AWS was operated on Glaciar Lengua a small outlet glacier of GCN to the north-west. Ablation has been measured at stakes during the same pe- riod. The aim of this study, was to obtain point energy and mass balance on Glaciar Lengua. The work was conducted as part of the international and interdisciplinary working group SGran Campo NevadoT and supported by the German Research Foun- & cedil;dation (DFG). Energy balance was calculated using the bulk approach formulas and calibrated to the measured ablation. It turns out, that sensible heat transfer is the major contribution to the energy balance. Since high cloud cover rates prevail, air tempera- ture is the key factor for the energy balance of the glacier. Despite high rain fall rates, energy input from rain fall is of only minor importance to the overall energy balance. From the energy balance computed, it was possible to derive summer-time degree-day factors for Glaciar Lengua. With data from the nearby AWS at Bahia Bahamondes we computed summer ablation for the summer seasons of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Ablation at 45o m a.s.l. sums up to about 7 m in 1999/2000 and to 5.5 m in 2000/2001. This is in excellent accordance (+/-2%) with measurements at ablation stakes that have been drilled into the glacier on its ablation area. Surface velocity measured from the displacement of the ablation stakes is estimated to 62 m per year. A RADAR survey with ice penetrating RADAR conducted on the ablation area of Glaciar Lengua during the austral summer 2000/2001 reveals glacier depths between 120 m and 200 m ap- 1 proximately. The data sampled will allow to set up a model for mass flow and ablation at a cross-section of Glaciar Lengua at 450 m a.s.l. Glaciar Lengua has no accumu- lation area itself but obtains all of its ice mass through icefall from the heights of the GCN Ice Cap. Therefore, this model will be of fundamental importance to understand the glacial regime of the entire ice cap. 2

  5. Vent geometry detected from infrasound observation on Villaricca volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, A.; Johnson, J. B.; Sanderson, R. W.; Anderson, J.; Varley, N. R.

    2010-12-01

    Volcan Villarrica in the southern Andes, Chile, is an active stratovolcano that hosts a convecting lava lake in the summit crater. Activity is characterized by persistent degassing and bubble bursting at the surface of lava lake. Between the 21st and 23rd of Jan 2010 we recorded monotonic infrasound with a stable dominant frequency at 0.7 to 0.8 Hz. Associated video imagery of the active lava lake, taken by a camera suspended from a wire across the crater, showed active convection and degassing, but gas release events were not directly correlated with infrasound transients. Continuous monotonic infrasound strongly suggests a resonant phenomena associated with a stable conduit and vent system. In the present study we attempt to estimate the vent geometry of Villarrica volcano based on the observed infrasound. We deployed four stations consisting of infrasound microphones, audible microphone, three components seismometers and weather stations, two of which were on the eastern and western rim of the crater, while the other two were on the flanks of volcano 2.7 and 3.8 km NNW of the crater, respectively. Despite amplitude variations the observed waveforms were very well correlated among the four stations indicating sound originating in the crater. From our video image and the past studies we inferred a cavity between the lava lake and overhanging spatter roof with a skylight in its center. In this case Helmholtz resonance is plausible as the source of observed monotonic infrasound. An idealized Helmholtz resonance model is manifested by a simple harmonic motion of air pistoning within the skylight neck that separates the inner cavity from external atmosphere. The frequenc f is given by: f=(c/2?)(S/VL)1/2 where c is sound velocity, S is neck cross sectional area, L is neck length and V is cavity volume. In the present case L corresponds to skylight depth. In practice, an extra volume proportional to neck radius moves together with the air above and below the neck, known as an end effect. When L is small enough compared to cavity diameter the air piston length is approximated to be 1.7 times of neck radius. By considering the skylight as a thin circular hole with radius r, f should be given by: f=(c/2?)(?r2/1.7Vr)1/2=(c/2?)(?r/1.7V)1/2 By applying f=0.8 Hz, r=5 m and c=340 m/s we obtain the cavity volume to be 34000 m3. If the cavity diameter is the same as that of the solidified roof (50-60 m), the cavity depth is derived to be 17.2-12.0 m. Although cavity height has some uncertainty associated with presumed geometry of the skylight, it agrees well with observed video image analysis. Using video imagery we detected lava fragments falling from the edge of skylight onto lava lake in about 1.2 to 1.8 s. This corresponds to a free fall distance between 8 and 15 m if we ignore drag force from atmosphere. The good agreement of estimated cavity height also assures the thinness of skylight edge, i.e., skylight is not cylindrical.

  6. Superficial Crustal Seismicity In Northern Chile, and The Seismic Cycle On The Nazca Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinod, J.; Comte, D.; David, C.; Glass, B.; Correa, E.; Vallée, M.; Audin, L.; Hérail, G.; Farias, M.

    The only region in Chile where significant superficial continental crustal seismicity has been reported is the northernmost part of the country, above Iquique and Arica, where a permanent seismic network is operating since 1994. Data show that the crustal seismicity vanishes south of 19.7S. This region is located in front of the north Chile seismic gap, which is the only segment of the Nazca subduction zone that did not suffer any major earthquake in the last 100 years. The June 23, 2001, South Peru earthquake (Mw=8.4) filled the northern part of this seismic gap. Its occurrence has been followed by a strong increase of the superficial seismicity in the Precordillera and Western Cordillera of northern Chile. The stronger of those earthquakes (M=6.3), localized near Aroma (19.6S; 69.3W), consisted in the activation of a N10 dex- tral strike-slip fault located at the southern termination of the Moquella flexure. This flexure, however, did not accommodate significant displacements in the last 9 My. We estimate the Coulomb stress increase resulting from the occurrence of the June 23 earthquake to vary between 0.2 bars in the Arica Precodillera and 0.07 bars near Aroma, which is located at the southern end of the superficial seismic zone. The main directions of the stress tensor had been evaluated using the crustal microseismic events occurred in northern Chile before June 2001, and we check that the Peru earthquake resulted in an increase of the deviatoric stress. We suspect the present-day high level of crustal seismicity in northern Chile to be favored both by the occurrence of the Peru earthquake, and by the interseismic stresses that accumulate from 1877 on the locked segment of the Nazca subduction zone. The rupture of the subduction zone in northern Chile should result, indeed, in a drop of the Coulomb failure stress on the present-day activated faults. This particular situation may explain the occurrence of superficial seismicity in a region that did not suffer major deformation from the end of the Miocene.

  7. Evidence for earthquake interaction in central Chile: the July 1997-September 1998 Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Anne; Madariaga, Raùl; Campos, Jaime

    Seven Mw > 6 events occurred between July 1997 and January 1998 along the shallow dipping subduction zone of Central Chile. We used body waveform modeling and master event relocation to study them. During July 1997, typical shallow interplate thrust events located close from each other followed a southward migration path and were located close from each other. On 15 October, the largest shock of the series (Mw=7.1) occured at 68 km depth. From the directivity, we found that its rupture plane was almost vertical with a downward rupture. It was a down-dip compressional mechanism which is rare in Chile. Then, several thrust events occurred above it, along the plate interface. The rupture zones of the July 1997 events followed a cascade pattern with strong stress interaction. The slab push event of 15 October does not seem to have been triggered by static stress transfer from the July swarm.

  8. Exposure to larva migrans syndromes in squares and public parks of cities in Chile.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Rubén; Ueta, Marlene T; Castillo, Douglas; Muñoz, Victor; Schenone, Hugo

    2004-10-01

    Between November 2001 and December 2002, 600 dog fecal samples were collected in main squares and public parks of 13 cities in Chile, from the extreme north to the extreme south of the country. The samples were processed in the laboratory by centrifugal sedimentation and the Harada-Mori methods. T. canis eggs were found in 12 cities. Detection rates ranged from 1.9 to 12.5% with an average of 5.2%. Seven percent of the samples had eggs and 9.5% had rhabditoid and/or filariform larvae of Ancylostomatidae. Strongyloides stercoralis were not found. Squares and public parks in Chile pose a potential risk of exposure to visceral, ocular, and/or cutaneous larva migrans syndromes. PMID:15499446

  9. Environmental lithium exposure in the North of Chile--I. Natural water sources.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, L; Barton, S; Schull, W; Razmilic, B; Zumaeta, O; Young, A; Kamiya, Y; Hoskins, J; Ilgren, E

    2012-11-01

    Lithium as an essential element for human life is still a subject of controversy. However, it is accepted that it does have profound neurological effects and is a valuable treatment for bipolar disease. Generally, it occurs in barely trace amounts in groundwater with few major exceptions. One of these is the Northern area of Chile where all potable water and many of the food stuffs contain high levels of lithium; between 100 and 10,000 times higher than most rivers in North America. Inevitably, the local population has been exposed to these levels in their drinking water for as long as the region has been populated. The present report details lithium levels in all the surface water sources of Northern Chile with comparison to that elsewhere. The implications for the local population are discussed and their situation compared to those exposed to other sources of lithium pollution. PMID:22576983

  10. Microbial Colonization of the Salt Deposits in the Driest Place of the Atacama Desert (Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stivaletta, Nunzia; Barbieri, Roberto; Billi, Daniela

    2012-06-01

    The Atacama Desert (Chile), one of the most arid places on Earth, shows hostile conditions for the development of epilithic microbial communities. In this study, we report the association of cyanobacteria ( Chroococcidiopsis sp.) and bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria and Beta-Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla inhabiting the near surface of salt (halite) deposits of the Salar Grande Basin, Atacama Desert (Chile). The halite deposits were investigated by using optical, confocal and field emission scanning electron microscopes, whereas culture-independent molecular techniques, 16S rDNA clone library, alongside RFLP analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were applied to investigate the bacterial diversity. These microbial communities are an example of life that has adapted to extreme environmental conditions caused by dryness, high irradiation, and metal concentrations. Their adaptation is, therefore, important in the investigation of the environmental conditions that might be expected for life outside of Earth.

  11. [Detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from Easter Island-Chile].

    PubMed

    Collao, Ximena; Prado, Lorena; González, Christian; Vásquez, Ana; Araki, Romina; Henríquez, Tuki; Peña M, Cindy

    2015-02-01

    Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex (Culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. Main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, West Nile virus, yellow fever, among others. In continental Chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. However, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in Easter Island since 2002, as the presence of its vector Aedes aegypti. The aim of this study was: To determine diversity of flavivirus mosquitoes present in Easter Island. Thirty pools of mosquitoes collected in Hanga Roa were analyzed; a RT-PCR nested flavivirus was performed. Thirteen positive samples were detected and the amplification products were sequenced, identifying two specific flavivirus Insect, the Cell fusing agent virus and other related viruses Kamiti River. This is the first study in Chile showed the presence of flavivirus in vectors in Easter Island. PMID:25860055

  12. Estrogen pollution in a highly productive ecosystem off central-south Chile.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Angéline; Inostroza, Pedro A; Quiñones, Renato A

    2011-07-01

    While the presence of steroid estrogens in the environment has become a major environmental and health concern, their occurrence in coastal sediments remains poorly characterized. In this study, we measured the levels of three natural (estrone, 17?-estradiol, estriol) and one synthetic (17?-ethinylestradiol) estrogens in 54 coastal sediment samples collected from nine locations off central-southern Chile. Steroid estrogens were found in every sample. Remarkably high levels of 17?-ethinylestradiol were detected, reaching up to 48.14 ng/g dry weight. As a result, the global estrogenic loads were estimated to be high at all sites. Interestingly, they were found to correlate with the size of human populations served by sewage plants. Our study indicates that 17?-ethinylestradiol may accumulate in coastal sediments. The possible impact of this highly potent synthetic estrogen on the biota of the marine ecosystem off central-south Chile and on human health remains an open question. PMID:21530984

  13. Levels and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments from Lenga Estuary, central Chile.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Perra, Guido; Menchi, Valentina; Urrutia, Roberto; Parra, Oscar; Rudolph, Anny; Focardi, Silvano

    2011-07-01

    The Lenga Estuary is a small brackish wetland located southwest of San Vicente Bay, Region VIII, Chile. Surface sediment from nine sites in the estuary were analysed for PAHs and compared to Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG). Sediment samples were freeze dried and soxhlet extracted for 16 h using DCM. Identification and quantification was carried out by HPLC. Organic carbon was also determined. Results showed total PAH concentrations ranged from 290 to 6118 (2025 ± 1975)ng g(-1) d.w. (2025 ± 1975). Results for organic carbon percentages ranged from 1% to 7%. Statistical analysis showed a significant positive correlation (Pearson test) between organic carbon percentage PAHs. Comparison of contaminant levels and international Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQG) (ERL and ER) suggested that sediment of the Lenga estuary did not show any ecotoxicological risk for benthic organisms where high levels of PAHs were detected. Monitoring of this and other contaminants is recommended in Chile. PMID:21612800

  14. Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile).

    PubMed

    Chirinos, L; Rose, N L; Urrutia, R; Muñoz, P; Torrejón, F; Torres, L; Cruces, F; Araneda, A; Zaror, C

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobío Region, Chile (36 degrees 51' S, 73 degrees 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletué lake (38 degrees 41' S, 71 degrees 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the 210Pb technique. PMID:16226361

  15. An enigmatic plant-eating theropod from the Late Jurassic period of Chile.

    PubMed

    Novas, Fernando E; Salgado, Leonardo; Suárez, Manuel; Agnolín, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Chimento, Nicolás R; de la Cruz, Rita; Isasi, Marcelo P; Vargas, Alexander O; Rubilar-Rogers, David

    2015-06-18

    Theropod dinosaurs were the dominant predators in most Mesozoic era terrestrial ecosystems. Early theropod evolution is currently interpreted as the diversification of various carnivorous and cursorial taxa, whereas the acquisition of herbivorism, together with the secondary loss of cursorial adaptations, occurred much later among advanced coelurosaurian theropods. A new, bizarre herbivorous basal tetanuran from the Upper Jurassic of Chile challenges this conception. The new dinosaur was discovered at Aysén, a fossil locality in the Upper Jurassic Toqui Formation of southern Chile (General Carrera Lake). The site yielded abundant and exquisitely preserved three-dimensional skeletons of small archosaurs. Several articulated individuals of Chilesaurus at different ontogenetic stages have been collected, as well as less abundant basal crocodyliforms, and fragmentary remains of sauropod dinosaurs (diplodocids and titanosaurians). PMID:25915021

  16. Morphotectonic segmentation of an active forearc, 37°–41°S, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Rehak; Manfred R. Strecker; Helmut P. Echtler

    2008-01-01

    Active forearc regions are characterized by seismo- and morphotectonic segments that record recurrent seismic activity and subduction-related tectonic deformation on different timescales. However, it is not well known on which timescales morphotectonic forearc segments retain their tectono-geomorphic identity, how they are related to earthquake-rupture zones, and what governs their long-term evolution.The forearc of the active convergent margin of south-central Chile

  17. Ground-based millimeter-wave observations of water vapor emission (183 GHz) at Atacama, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kuwahara; A. Mizuno; T. Nagahama; H. Maezawa; A. Morihira; N. Toriyama; S. Murayama; M. Matsuura; T. Sugimoto; S. Asayama; N. Mizuno; T. Onishi; Y. Fukui

    2008-01-01

    We report the first results of ground-based millimeter-wave measurements of 183GHz atmospheric water vapor spectra from Atacama highland (4800malt.), Chile. The measurements were carried out in December 2005 by using a spectroscopic radiometer equipped with a superconductive heterodyne receiver. A conspicuous H2O spectrum at 183GHz was detected with an integration time of only 1.5min, and this is the first high

  18. The influence of maternal age, birth order and socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, R

    1980-01-01

    In Chile between 1969 and 1974 the birth rate declined by 10 per cent and the infant mortality rate by 18.6 per cent. In 1974 there were proportionately fewer births at high birth order than in 1969. Such births carry significantly higher risk to the infant in both the neonatal and postneonatal period of life. Comparison of data from urban areas of high and low socioeconomic status yield similar findings. PMID:7352614

  19. Arsenic enrichment in waters and sediments of the Rio Loa (Second Region, Chile)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Romero; H. Alonso; P. Campano; L. Fanfani; R. Cidu; C. Dadea; T. Keegan; I. Thornton; M. Farago

    2003-01-01

    The Second Region of Chile (126,500 km2) is extremely arid, with a dramatic scarcity of water. The only water resource for the population (about 420,000 habitants) and the mining industry (the most important economic activity in the region) is the 440 km long Rio Loa. Moreover, this is highly enriched in As. In order to assess As concentrations and sources,

  20. UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

    2008-01-01

    High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

  1. UVB effects on early developmental stages of commercially important macroalgae in southern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. P. Navarro; A. Mansilla; M. Palacios

    High levels of ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) could represent a danger to seaweeds by affecting their physiological processes\\u000a and development. The aim of this work was to study the effects of UVB radiation on early developmental stages of commercially\\u000a and ecologically important marine algal species in southern Chile, considering spores survival and embryos growth. Spores\\u000a of Mazzaella laminarioides, Gigartina skottsbergii, Sarcothalia

  2. New thermochronologic constraints on the evolution of the Zaldívar porphyry copper deposit, Northern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo Campos; Jan Wijbrans; Paul A. M. Andriessen

    2009-01-01

    Life spans and thermal evolution of hydrothermal systems are of fundamental metallogenic importance. We were able to establish\\u000a the chronology and cooling history of the Zaldívar porphyry copper deposit (Northern Chile) by applying a combination of different\\u000a isotopic dating methods in minerals with different closure temperatures, including 40Ar\\/39Ar geochronology and zircon fission track thermochronology, together with fluid inclusion thermometry and

  3. Comparative analysis of trophic structure of commercial fishery species off Central Chile in 1992 and 1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Neira; Hugo Arancibia; Luis Cubillos

    2004-01-01

    Trophic interactions and community structure of commercial fishery species off Central Chile (33°–39°S) were analyzed and compared for 1992 and 1998 by ecotrophic modelling, using the Ecopath modelling software. The model encompasses the fishery, pinnipeds (sea lions), small pelagic fish (anchovy, pilchard), medium-sized pelagic fish (horse mackerel), demersal fish (e.g. Chilean hake, black conger), benthic invertebrates (carrot prawn, yellow prawn),

  4. Stable isotope analysis reveals pelagic foraging by the Southern sea lion in central Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Hückstädt; C. P. Rojas; T. Antezana

    2007-01-01

    The diet of Southern sea lion Otaria flavescens is poorly known along the coast of central Chile (32°–39°S), where a population of about 17,300 individuals occurs, in an ecosystem that sustains one of the world's most important fishing industries. The primary objective of this study was to reconstruct the diet and estimate Trophic Positions (TPs) of sea lions and their

  5. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the oxygen-deficient waters off northern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Thamdrup; Tage Dalsgaard; Marlene Mark Jensen; Osvaldo Ulloa; Laura Farías; Ruben Escribano

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the pathways of N2 production in the oxygen-deficient water column of the eastern tropical South Pacific off Iquique, Chile, at 20uS, through short anoxic incubations with 15N-labelled nitrogen compounds. The location was characterized by steep chemical gradients, with oxygen decreasing to below detection at ,50-m depth, while nitrite reached 6 mmol L21 and ammonium was less than 50

  6. Two new species of the ladybird beetle Hong ?lipi?ski from Chile (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Microweiseinae).

    PubMed

    González, Guillermo; Escalona, Hermes E

    2013-01-01

    The ladybird beetle genus Hong ?lipi?ski was previously known from a single female specimen from a subtropical forest in South East Queensland, Australia. Hong guerreroi sp. nov. and H. slipinskii sp. nov. from a temperate forests of Central and Southern Chile are described and illustrated. A key for the species of the genus and complementary characters, including the first description of males, are provided. PMID:24758818

  7. Health insurance selection in Chile: a cross-sectional and panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Cristian; Schott, Whitney

    2014-05-01

    In Chile, workers are mandated to choose either public or private health insurance coverage. Although private insurance premiums depend on health risk, public insurance premiums are solely linked to income. This structure implies that individuals with higher health risks may tend to avoid private insurance, leaving the public insurance system responsible for their care. This article attempts to explore the determinants of health insurance selection (private vs public) by individuals in Chile and to test empirically whether adverse selection indeed exists. We use panel data from Chile's 'Encuesta de Proteccion Social' survey, which allows us to control for a rich set of individual observed and unobserved characteristics using both a cross-sectional analysis and fixed-effect methods. Results suggest that age, sex, job type, income quintile and self-reported health are the most important factors in explaining the type of insurance selected by individuals. Asymmetry in insurance mobility caused by restrictions on pre-existing conditions may explain why specific illnesses have an unambiguous relationship with insurance selection. Empirical evidence tends to indicate that some sorting by health risk and income levels takes place in Chile. In addition, by covering a less healthy population with higher utilization of general health consultations, the public insurance system may be incurring disproportionate expenses. Results suggest that if decreasing segmentation and unequal access to health services are important policy objectives, special emphasis should be placed on asymmetries in the premium structure and inter-system mobility within the health care system. Preliminary analysis of the impact of the 'Garantias Explicitas de Salud' plan (explicit guarantees on health care plan) on insurance selection is also considered. PMID:23558960

  8. Reproductive biology of Wahlenbergia (Campanulaceae) endemic to Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. J. Anderson; G. Bernardello; P. S. Lopez; D. J. Crawford; T. F. Stuessy

    2000-01-01

    The reproductive biology ofW. berteroi, W. fernandeziana, and a putative hybrid betweenW. fernandeziana andW. grahamiae, endemic to Robinson Crusoe Island (Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile) was studied. Flowers are hermaphroditic, protandrous, offer nectar, and exhibit secondary pollen presentation involving pollen collecting hairs on the style. These features imply allogamy and biotic pollination. However, male and female phases overlap and no effective

  9. A network analysis of plant–pollinator interactions in temperate rain forests of Chiloé Island, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Ramos-Jiliberto; Abraham A. Albornoz; Fernanda S. Valdovinos; Cecilia Smith-Ramírez; Matías Arim; Juan J. Armesto; Pablo A. Marquet

    2009-01-01

    This study characterizes the structure of a plant–pollinator network in a temperate rain forest of Chiloé Island, southern\\u000a Chile, where woody species are strongly dependent on biotic pollinators, and analyzes its robustness to the loss of participating\\u000a species. Degree distribution, nestedness, and expected species persistence were evaluated. In addition, we assessed the roles\\u000a of predefined subsets of plants (classified by

  10. Electrical power systems (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama and Peru)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This 12-part set of reports contains market information on the following countries and topics: Brazil - potentiometers, steam turbines, gas turbines, electric generators; Chile - power systems; Colombia - electric generators; Dominican Republic - electric generators; Guatemala - power generation and distribution equipment, non-current carriers, electric generators, and turbines; Jamaica - power systems; Panama - power generation and control equipment; and Peru - power generation equipment. These reports have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  11. Professional Development for Rural Teachers in Chile: What They Need and How Technology Can Help

    E-print Network

    Perez Guarda, Paola

    2014-05-15

    PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT FOR RURAL TEACHERS IN CHILE: WHAT THEY NEED AND HOW TECHNOLOGY CAN HELP A Dissertation by PAOLA ALEJANDRA PEREZ GUARDA Submitted to the Office of Graduate and Professional Studies of Texas A&M University... Major Subject: Educational Psychology Copyright 2014 Paola Alejandra Perez Guarda ii ABSTRACT This study adds to the body of knowledge about professional development for teachers. Professionally well-trained teachers will most likely transfer...

  12. The Political Economy of Chile's Fast Economic Growth: An Olsonian Interpretation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Hojman

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual framework inspired by MancurOlson's contributions to political economyis used to explain Chile's recent economicand political performance, with particularemphasis on the `hidden hand', politicalstability, rent-seeking, policy-makingquality, institutions, cultural attitudesand cultural change, fortunate historicalaccidents, critical masses, and virtuouscircles and other `positive loops'. Theanalysis combines very long-term withshort-term perspectives, examining the warof Arauco, Basque immigration, open economypolicies, families' educational investment,economic technocrats,

  13. Inbreeding and immigration in urban and rural zones of Chile, with an endogamy index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Lazo; C. Campusano; H. Figueroa; E. Zambra

    1978-01-01

    From ecclesiastical and civil data on consanguinity, age at marriage, and immigration in Chile from 186S to 1914, comparisons between urban and rural zones are made. A random mating deviation index is developed, and the values indicate deviation toward endogamy in both zones. These values show an inverse relation to those of the exogamy index developed by Freire?Maia and Freire?Maia

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotypes in chronic carriers in Santiago, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauricio Venegas; Gabriela Muñoz; Carmen Hurtado; Luis Alvarez; Marta Velasco; Rodrigo A. Villanueva; Javier Brahm

    2008-01-01

    The eight genotypes (designated A–H) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) display distinctive geographical distribution worldwide, with\\u000a genotypes A, D and F frequently detected in South America. To determine the prevalence of HBV genotypes in Santiago, Chile,\\u000a 131 samples from chronic carriers were used for PCR amplification, and genotyping was performed by RFLP. The results indicated\\u000a that genotype F was the

  15. Characterization and evolution of tropospheric plumes from Lascar and Villarrica volcanoes, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Mather; V. I. Tsanev; D. M. Pyle; A. J. S. McGonigle; C. Oppenheimer; A. G. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Direct sampling (filter pack and impactor) and remote sensing (ultraviolet spectroscopy and Sun photometry) of the plumes of Lascar and Villarrica volcanoes, Chile, reveal that both are significant and sustained emitters of SO2 (28 and 3.7 kg s?1, respectively), HCl (9.6 and 1.3 kg s?1, respectively), HF (4.5 and 0.3 kg s?1, respectively) and near-source sulfate aerosol (0.5 and 0.1

  16. Exotic Vertebrate Fauna in the Remote and Pristine SubAntarctic Cape Horn Archipelago, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher B. Anderson; Ricardo Rozzi; Juan C. Torres-Mura; Steven M. Mcgehee; Margaret F. Sherriffs; Elke Schüttler; Amy D. Rosemond

    2006-01-01

    Pristine wilderness is a scarce global resource, but exotic species are so common that they constitute a principal component\\u000a of worldwide ecological change. The relationship between these two topics, invasion and remoteness, was the impetus behind\\u000a five years of fieldwork aimed at identifying the assemblage and range of exotic vertebrates in Cape Horn, Chile, identified\\u000a as one of the world's

  17. Changes of macrobenthos composition under different ENSO cycle conditions on the continental shelf off central Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Javier Sellanes; Eduardo Quiroga; Carlos Neira; Dimitri Gutiérrez

    2007-01-01

    The course of environmental conditions and shelf macrobenthic communities off Central Chile (?36°S) during the strong 1997–98 El Niño (EN) event is compared with a subsequent and basically “normal” period (2002–2003). Changes in macrofaunal community, feeding mode structure, and biomass size spectra are contrasted over time with changes in oceanographic and sediment settings, in order to assess intra- and inter-annual

  18. Growth and carotenogenesis in eight strains of Dunaliella salina Teodoresco from Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana S. Cifuentes; Mariela González; Marianela Conejeros; Victor Dellarossa; Oscar Parra

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of growth and carotenogenesis in eight strains of the green algaDunaliella salina collected from salt ponds at Salar de Atacama (23° 30? S; 68° 15? W) and Antofagasta (23° 39? S; 70° 24? W), Chile and kept\\u000a in unialgal cultures at the Laboratorio Cultivo de Algas, University of Concepcion. The algae were grown in Erdschreiber medium

  19. Infrared sky noise survey. [over observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A 10 micron infrared sky noise survey, which was conducted during the period from June 1, 1970 to June 30, 1974, is reported along with associated electronics and recording equipment which was developed and deployed for periods up to 18 months at various potential or existing infrared observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile. The results of the data activity are given, and variables are defined which influence the intensity and duration of the sky noise.

  20. Air Pollution and Health Effects: A Study of Respiratory Illness Among Children in Santiago, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar Eskeland; Bart D. Ostro; Tarhan Feyzioglu; Jose Miguel Sanchez

    1998-01-01

    Environmental management has benefits, not just costs, and analysis can help focus efforts to get more benefits out of each dollar. Among children in Santiago, Chile, reduced concentrations of small dust particles (PM10) will reduce a range of symptoms, from coughs to bronchitis.Ostro, Eskeland, Feyzioglu, and Sanchez estimate dose-response functions for respiratory disease among children based on data from public

  1. [Universal screening program and early intervention (USPEI) in congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in Chile].

    PubMed

    Albertz, Nicolás; Cardemil, Felipe; Rahal, Maritza; Mansilla, Francisca; Cárdenas, Rodrigo; Zitko, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    Congenital hearing loss is the total or partial inability to hear sounds through the ears. It is the most common disability in newborns in Chile and worldwide, and is a permanent condition. The direct impact on children who are not adequately diagnosed is the alteration in acquisition of language and cognitive skills and a decline in their social and school insertion, jeopardizing their professional and potentially productive life. Universal screening programs for hearing loss are essential for the diagnosis, since 50% of infants with hearing loss have no known risk factor. Screening before one month of age, confirmation before 3 months, and effective intervention before 6 months, allows the development of these children as if they had normal hearing. In Chile there is a selective program of screening for infants aged less than 32 weeks or 1,500 grams, as part of Explicit Health Guarantees, but it covers only 0.9% of newborns per year. Therefore, a large majority of children remain without diagnosis. The aim of this review is to compare the situation in Chile with other countries, raising the need to move towards a universal neonatal hearing loss screening program, and propose necessary conditions in terms of justification and implementation of a universal screening public policy. PMID:24448863

  2. Interseismic strain accumulation in south central Chile from GPS measurements, 1996-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruegg, J. C.; Campos, J.; Madariaga, R.; Kausel, E.; de Chabalier, J. B.; Armijo, R.; Dimitrov, D.; Georgiev, I.; Barrientos, S.

    2002-06-01

    Two campaigns of Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements were carried out in the Concepción-Constitución area of Chile in 1996 and 1999. It is very likely that this area is a mature seismic gap, since no subduction earthquake has occurred there since 1835. In 1996, 32 sites were occupied in the range 35°S-37°S, between the Pacific coast of Chile and the Andes near the Chile-Argentina border. In 1999, the network was extended by the installation of 9 new points in the Arauco region whereas 13 points among the 1996 stations were reoccupied. The analysis of this campaign data set, together with the data recorded at eight continuous GPS sites (mostly IGS stations) in South America and surrounding regions, indicates a velocity of about 40 +/- 10 mm/yr in the direction N80-90°S for the coastal sites with respect to stable cratonic South America. This velocity decreases to about 20-25 mm/yr towards the Andes. We interpret this result as reflecting interseismic strain accumulation above the Nazca-South America subduction zone, due to a locked thrust zone extending down to about 60 km depth.

  3. The COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES): Probing HI Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Ximena; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Chiles Team

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (HI) is the most abundant element in the Universe, and surprisingly, we know very little about the neutral hydrogen beyond z~0.08. The recently upgraded VLA makes it now possible to image the HI in galaxies beyond the local Universe. We are using the broad bandwidth of the VLA to instantaneously probe HI from z=0 to z=0.5 in one pointing of the COSMOS field. Once CHILES is complete, we will have HI images of 300 galaxies across cosmic time in different environments. These images will have a spatial resolution of 0.5 kpc for nearby galaxies and 30 kpc at z~0.5, and a velocity resolution of 7 km/s. In preparation for CHILES, we carried out a pilot study that observed the same pointing out to z~0.2, and detected HI in 33 galaxies in our volume. I will describe the science goals of CHILES, what we learned from the pilot study, and present preliminary results for the first 200 hours of observations of the full survey. After 1002 hours of integration time, we will have high-resolution HI images that will help us understand galaxy evolution across cosmic time and test predictions made by cosmological simulations.

  4. Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

  5. Paleomagnetism of Cretaceous volcanic rocks from central Chile and implications for the tectonics of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Myrl E., Jr.; Drake, Robert E.; Butler, Robert F.

    1986-02-01

    The mean direction of remanent magnetization in well-dated, structurally and petrologically simple Cretaceous ash-flow tuffs from the central valley of Chile, near Santiago, indicates that the region has undergone a small (about 14°) clockwise rotation. Two other paleomagnetic studies on Cretaceous rocks from coastal Chile give a similar result. We tentatively attribute these rotations to dextral shear caused by oblique subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America. In contrast, Cretaceous rocks from Peru seem from paleomagnetic evidence to have been rotated counterclockwise relative to the stable interior of the continent. This sense of apparent rotation agrees with the sense of deflection of geologic trends from north-south to north-northwest at about the Peru-Chile border (the Arica deflection). On the basis of these observations, several authors have suggested that the Arica deflection is an orocline. However, uncertainty in all such paleomagnetic interpretations is introduced by what seems to be a very streaked distribution of Cretaceous reference poles from the South American craton. The cause of this streaking is not known. *Permanent address: Department of Geology, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225

  6. [A tribute to Germán Schneider, MD, first editor of Revista Médica de Chile].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H; Kauffmann, R; Andresen, M

    1997-07-01

    Germán Schneider was born in 1820 in Magdeburg, Germany, and graduated as M.D. at the University of Bonn. In 1848, caught by the political and intellectual reformist movement in Europe, he was exiled in Paris. As part of a large group of German immigrants, he arrived in Valdivia, Chile, in 1851. Later on he moved to Santiago and in 1871 he was nominated Professor of Clinical Medicine at the University of Chile school of Medicine. An active participant in the academic activities organized by Sociedad Médica de Santiago (a scientific society that evolved into the chilean Society of Internal Medicine) he was the leader of a six-men team who founded Revista Médica de Chile, in 1872. As first Editor of this medical journal, he established the basis for its continuous success and devotion to medical progress and education. Dr. Schneider died in 1884, leaving several distinguished pupils who followed his path, and a medical journal that now stands as one of the oldest in the world. PMID:9567378

  7. Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in size and is centered at 46.6 degrees south latitude, 73.8 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The top image is a digital elevation model of the scene, where color and saturation represent terrain height (between 0 meters and 2,000 meters or up to 6,500 feet) and brightness represents radar backscatter. Low elevations are shown in blue and high elevations are shown in pink. The digital elevation map of the glacier surface has a horizontal resolution of 15 meters (50 feet) and a vertical resolution of 10 meters (30 feet). High-resolution maps like these acquired over several years would allow scientists to calculate directly long-term changes in the mass of the glacier. The bottom image is a map of ice motion parallel to the radar look direction only, which is from the top of the image. Purple indicates ice motion away from the radar at more than 6 centimeters per day; dark blue is ice motion toward or away at less than 6 cm per day; light blue is motion toward the radar of 6 cm to 20 cm (about 2 to 8 inches) per day; green is motion toward the radar of 20 cm to 45 cm (about 8 to 18 inches) per day; yellow is 45 cm to 85 cm (about 18 to 33 inches) per day; orange is 85 cm to 180 cm (about 33 to 71 inches) per day; red is greater than 180 cm (71 inches) per day. The velocity estimates are accurate to within 5 millimeters per day. The largest velocities are recorded on the San Rafael Glacier in agreement with previous work. Other outlet glaciers exhibit ice velocities of less than 1 meter per day. Several kilometers before its terminus, (left of center) the velocity of the San Rafael Glacier exceeds 10 meters (32 feet) per day, and ice motion cannot be estimated from the data. There, a revisit time interval of less than 12 hours would have been necessary to estimate ice motion from interferometry data. The results however demonstrate that the radar interferometry technique permits the monitoring of glacier characteristics unattainable by any other means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's

  8. Local Seismicity And Seismo-Tectonic Structure Of The Aysén Region, Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agurto, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Bataille, K.; Barrientos, S. E.; Miller, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The largest recorded earthquakes have all taken place along subduction margins (e.g. Chile, 1960; Andaman-Sumatra, 2004; Chile, 2010). A better understanding of the stress distribution involved in these tectonic environments could lead to better prediction of the occurrence and maximum possible magnitudes of earthquakes at given segments of a subduction zone. The study area of the present research, the Aysén Region, is located at the southern end of the subduction zone between the Nazca and South American plates, in front of the area where the Chile Ridge is currently being subducted below the Chile triple junction. Another major tectonic feature in the Aysén Region is the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone, a +1000 km long strike-slip fault that accommodates part of the trench-parallel component of the oblique subduction between the Nazca and South American plates. On the 21st of April 2007, a Mw=6.2 earthquake shook the Aysén Fjord, Southern Chile, following a seismic sequence of more than three months in an unprecedented episode for this region characterized by null or low seismicity. In order to study the aftershocks' activity of this main event, we installed and kept a seismic network of 15 short-period stations in the area around for an interval of nearly seven months. We characterized the seismogenic structure of the zone by calculating a minimum 1-D local velocity model and obtaining precise hypocentres locations. We also calculated fault plane solutions based on first motion polarities and P/SV amplitude ratios. The P-wave velocity model shows velocities varying between 4.05 and 5.18 km/s for the upper 5 km and high Vp/Vs ratio suggesting possible fracturing and presence of fluids. The Moho discontinuity would be localized at ~23 km depth. Aftershock events are located mainly between 5 and 10 km depth and disposed in two alignments: a ~N-S-trending alignment that matches with the trace of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault and a NE-trending which could correspond to an structure not previously seen. Selected focal mechanisms show a strong strike-slip faulting which coincides with the nature of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault. We are currently analysing an archive of 509 local events recorded by a network of 20 short-period and 40 broadband seismometers between 2004 and 2005 in the whole Aysén Region. This dataset will allow us to test our velocity model, to extend our area of research to a regional context and, therefore, to describe the local seismicity and seismo-tectonic structure of the Aysén Region.

  9. Geological Manifestations of Ridge Collision: Evidence from the Golfo de Penas-Taitao Basin, Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Randall; Nelson, Eric

    1985-08-01

    Recent geological and geophysical studies in the southern Andes adjacent to the intersection of the Chile Rise with the Peru-Chile Trench (ANT-NAZ-SAM triple junction) have revealed a number of features and a Neogene geologic history that are unique along the Pacific margin of South America. This history includes (1) development of a Tertiary-Quaternary marine basin with up to 3 km of sediment infill (Golfo de Penas-Taitao basin, GTB), (2) disruption of the region by a series of faults with both normal and strike slip movements, and (3) localization of silicic, near-trench volcanism and epizonal plutonism and related hydrothermal activity. The northern portion of the GTB began to subside in the Late Miocene (possibly earlier), and has subsequently been deformed, uplifted, and exposed. Gravity and seismic reflection data suggest that the basin continues offshore where it is still actively subsiding today (Golfo de Penas). Subsidence and uplift have thus occurred diachronously in the region, although it is unclear when subsidence began in the Golfo de Penas. Tectonic disruption of the region is likely related to the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault (LOF), a major, NS-trending, crustal shear zone that curves westward and terminates in the Golfo de Penas. The LOF has both down-to-the-west and right lateral offset and separates the main Andean Cordillera on the east from a large crustal block (the Chiloe block) on the west. We hypothesize that the GTB has developed as a pull-apart basin in response to northward movement of the Chiloe block along the LOF. We propose a dynamic model whereby a stress gradient that decreases longitudinally away from the Chile Rise/Peru-Chile Trench intersection is set up because the youngest, most buoyant, oceanic lithosphere is being subducted at the triple junction. The Chile Rise is viewed as a type of indenter which is acting to drive the Chiloe block northward in front of the northward-migrating triple junction. This model explains the unique set of geologic features found in the region, and suggests that ridge-trench interactions may be an important factor in orogenesis at active continental margins.

  10. CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

  11. Poverty determinants of acute respiratory infections among Mapuche indigenous peoples in Chile's Ninth Region of Araucania, using GIS and spatial statistics to identify health disparities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Flavio Rojas

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This research concerns Araucanía, often called the Ninth Region, the poorest region of Chile where inequalities are most extreme. Araucanía hasn't enjoyed the economic success Chile achieved when the country returned to democracy in 1990. The Ninth Region also has the largest ethnic Mapuche population, located in rural areas and attached to small agricultural properties. Written and oral histories

  12. 19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate,...

  13. The 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and its aftershock sequence - A subduction zone earthquake at the edge of the northern Chile seimic gap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Eggert; M. Sobiesiak; M. Shirzaei

    2010-01-01

    On 14 November 2007 a large Mw 7.7 earthquake occurred in the region of Tocopilla in Northern Chile. The earthquake took place in the southern end of the Northern Chile seismic gap which is supposed to be at the end of its seismic cycle. Studying the event and its aftershock sequence will provide closer insight into the behavior of a

  14. Enhancing Graduate Education and Research in Ocean Sciences at the Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) and in Chile: Cooperation Between UDEC and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Farrington; S. Pantoja

    2007-01-01

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA (WHOI) and the University of Concepcion, Chile (UDEC) entered into an MOU to enhance graduate education and research in ocean sciences in Chile and enhance research for understanding the Southeastern Pacific Ocean. The MOU was drafted and signed after exchange visits of faculty. The formulation of a five year program of activities included: exchange

  15. The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Mitaka-based staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory

    E-print Network

    Ito, Atsushi

    The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Mitaka-based staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory: 1. Title and number: one associate professor 2. 1) Project to belong to: NAOJ Chile Observatory 2) Duty station: Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan 3. Field of specialty: radio

  16. Geophys. J. Int. (2002) 150, 362376 Co-seismic slip from the 1995 July 30 Mw = 8.1 Antofagasta, Chile,

    E-print Network

    2002-01-01

    with seismic results. Predictions of the satellite LOS displacement from a seismic inversion and a joint, Chile, earthquake as constrained by InSAR and GPS observations M. E. Pritchard,1 M. Simons,1 P. A. Rosen.1 Antofagasta, Chile, earthquake and invert for the distribution of slip along the co-seismic fault plane. Using

  17. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population, making Chile an intriguing case study for examining the impact of these societal-level trends on the aging experience. This paper highlights essential characteristics of this country for understanding its emerging aging society. It reveals that there is a fundamental lack of adequate and depthful epidemiologic and country-specific research from which to fully understand the aging experience and guide new policies in support of health and well-being. PMID:22534464

  18. A seismological study of the 1835 seismic gap in south-central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, J.; Hatzfeld, D.; Madariaga, R.; Lopez, G.; Kausel, E.; Zollo, A.; Iannacone, G.; Fromm, R.; Barrientos, S.; Lyon-Caen, H.

    2002-09-01

    We study the possible seismic gap in the Concepción-Constitución region of south-central Chile and the nature of the M=7.8 earthquake of January 1939. From 1 March to 31 May 1996 a seismic network of 26 short period digital instruments was deployed in this area. We located 379 hypocenters with rms travel time residuals of less than 0.50 s using an approximate velocity distribution. Using the VELEST program, we improved the velocity model and located 240 high precision hypocenters with residuals less than 0.2 s. The large majority of earthquakes occurred along the Wadati-Benioff zone along the upper part of the downgoing slab under central Chile. A few shallow events were recorded near the chain of active volcanos on the Andes; these events are similar to those of Las Melozas near Santiago. A few events took place at the boundary between the coastal ranges and the central valley. Well constrained fault plane solutions could be computed for 32 of the 240 well located events. Most of the earthquakes located on the Wadati-Benioff zone had "slab-pull" fault mechanism due to tensional stresses sub-parallel to the downgoing slab. This "slab-pull" mechanism is the same as that of eight earthquakes of magnitude around 6 that are listed in the CMT catalog of Harvard University for the period 1980-1998. This is also the mechanism inferred for the large 1939 Chilean earthquake. A very small number of events in the Benioff zone had "slab-push" mechanisms, that is events whose pressure axis is aligned with the slab. These events are found in double layered Wadati-Benioff zones, such as in northern Chile or Japan. Our spatial resolution is not good enough to detect the presence of a double layer, but we suspect there may be one.

  19. Wheat flour fortification with folic acid: changes in neural tube defects rates in Chile.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Fanny; Mellado, C; Pardo, R A; Villarroel, L A; Hertrampf, E

    2012-08-01

    In January 2000, Chilean Ministry of Health mandated the addition of folic acid (FA) to wheat flour in order to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). This policy resulted in significant increases in serum and red cell folate in women of fertile age 1 year after fortification. To evaluate the effect of wheat flour fortification on the prevalence of NTDs in Chile we designed a prospective hospital-based surveillance program to monitor the frequency of NTDs in all births (live and stillbirths) with birth weight?500?g at the nine public maternity hospitals of Santiago, Chile from 1999 to 2009. During the pre-fortification period (1999-2000) the NTD rate was 17.1/10,000 births in a total of 120,566 newborns. During the post-fortification period (2001-2009) the NTD rate decreased to 8.6/10,000 births in a total of 489,915 newborns, which translates into a rate reduction of 50% (RR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.42-0.59) for all NTDs. The rate reduction by type of NTD studied was: 50% in anencephaly (RR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.38-0.67), 42% in cephalocele (RR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.37-0.89), and 52% in spina bifida (RR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.38-0.6). Rates showed significant reduction both in stillbirths and live births: 510.3 to 183.6/10,000 (RR=0.36; 95% CI: 0.25-0.53) and 13.3 to 7.5/10,000 (RR=0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68), respectively. In Chile, fortification of wheat flour with FA has proven to be an effective strategy for the primary prevention of NTDs. PMID:22711368

  20. Holocene tephrostratigraphy of southern Chiloé Continental (Andean southern volcanic zone; ~43°S), Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachowycz, S.; Smith, V. C.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    The eruptive history of the volcanoes in the southern part of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (42.5-45°S) is very poorly constrained: only several late Quaternary eruptions have been identified, mostly from study of sparse roadcuts [1]. In this study, we further constrain the Holocene explosive eruption history around 43°S by identifying and analysing tephra layers preserved in a ~3.25m long peat core from Cuesta Moraga [2], ~35km east of Yanteles volcano. Cryptotephra was extracted following the method of [3], in addition to macrotephra; owing to the vicinity of the sampling site to the tephra sources, cryptotephra was found throughout the core stratigraphy, but was sufficiently variable in concentration that discrete layers were identifiable and attributed to specific eruptions. Chemical analysis of the glass by electron microprobe shows that the tephra layers originate from a number of volcanoes in the region. This new tephrostratigraphy improves our knowledge of the important history of explosive volcanism in this area, potentially tying the tephrostratigraphies of surrounding areas (e.g., [4]) and allowing improved evaluation of regional volcanic risk. [1] Naranjo, J.A.., and C. R. Stern, 2004. Holocene tephrochronology of the southernmost part (42°30'-45°S) of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone. Revista geológica de Chile, 31, pp. 225-240. [2] Heusser, C.J., et al., 1992. Paleoecology of late Quaterary deposits in Chiloé Continental, Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, 65, pp. 235-245. [3] Blockley, S.P.E., et al., 2005. A new and less destructive laboratory procedure for the physical separation of distal glass tephra shards from sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, pp. 1952-1960. [4] Watt, S.F.L., et al., 2011. Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean southern volcanic zone, ~42°S), southern Chile. Quaternary International, 246, pp. 324-343.

  1. Subduction Processes Off Chile: Preliminary Geophysical Results of Sonne Cruise So-161(2+3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, Chr.; Spoc Scientific Shipboard Party, The

    Within the scope of the multi-disciplinary SPOC project (Subduction Processes Off Chile) some 8.700 km were recently acquired using marine magnetic, gravity and swath bathymetric methods whereof 5.200 km were surveyed with multi-channel seismics, including three seismic lines with simultaneous onshore observations. The goal of the project is to identify the variety of subduction features and accompanying conditions along the Central Chile segment of the collision zone between the Nazca and S-American plates, i.e. between Coquimbo and Valdivia. An additional line was achieved just south of Chiloe Island entering the submerged Central Valley. The present status of data allows the following observations: the oceanic crust is seg- mented by features like the Juan Fernandez Ridge, the Mocha and Valdivia Fracture Zones, accumulations of seamounts and by distinct parallel fault patterns with various azimuths. From north to south the subduction-induced inclination of the oceanic crust toward the trench decreases while the trench proper widens and the margin slope an- gle increase significantly. In the north clearly extensional normal faulting occurs on the upper and middle slopes, very similar to that observed off North Chile where sub- duction erosion is active. While in the north no bottom simulating reflectors could be observed they occur in the south as local patches. The slope area in the south is over- printed by a faint lineation pattern with a dominant azimuth of some 120 degrees that neatly fits with a mapped pattern onshore with the same azimuth. The pronounced forearc basins in the south are often accompanied by outer arc highs and strikingly narrow accretionary wedges. The latter are in contrast with the high convergence rate of more than 8 cm/yr and the relatively thick trench filling of up to more than 2.000 m. Thus, a non-accretionary subduction type is suggested, here.

  2. Characterization Of Station Quality From The CHILE RAMP Deployment - Direct Burial Sensor Installation And Its Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, E. Y.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Barstow, N.; Slad, G.

    2010-12-01

    IRIS PASSCAL supported a NSF-funded project to collect an open community dataset from a portable seismograph deployment following the magnitude 8.8 earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 (an experiment of the Rapid Array Mobilization Program - RAMP). In part, due to logistical constraints, the broadband sensors (Guralp CMG3T) for this deployment were buried directly in soil. Direct burial refers to installation of a broadband sensor in a small hand-dug hole, encased in plastic bags, and ideally backfilled with well tamped and dampened sand. Field conditions did not provide ideal installations in all cases. Because of the variability in actual installation practices, the Chile RAMP data provide an opportunity to examine the impact of several factors on the direct burial data quality. Using McNamara and Boaz (2005) PQLX statistical analysis software, which calculates the power spectral density (PSD) and plots the probability density function (PDF)(McNamara and Buland, 2004), we characterize the background seismic noise levels and signal quality for 58 directly buried installations at the Chile RAMP. Data return and data quality during the deployment (April -September 2010) will be evaluated considering a variety of parameters including installation technique, site characteristics, and equipment performance. Preliminary results using data from two service runs (April - June), suggest variation in the data quality and recovery due to slightly different installation practices and/or possibly environmental factors. We seek to evaluate and characterize parameters that affect the resulting data recovery and their quality; this study is an important test case for future PASSCAL and RAMP installations. If possible we would like to compare data from other local networks to identify distinctive characteristics from different installation set-ups.

  3. Temporal Evolution of a Seismic Swarm at Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The increasing seismic activity in the area of the Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located on the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto (OVSP), a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area, and more than 400.000 events have been recorded since November 2013. The largest and most recent swarm has a daily average of 3894 events between March and the 12th of December 2014. Currently a seismic network of 13 short- and broad-band stations (5 Colombian, 8 Ecuadorian) was deployed in this area. High quality epicenters of seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0, RMS<0.75 s, Gap < 180° and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Fifteen events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 including an event that occurred on October 20, 2014. This event had a local magnitude of 5.7 and an oblique (strike-slip with some thrusting) focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. However, events with moderate to large magnitudes (above 3.0) contain pronounced very-long-period components. Position time series recorded by a dual-frequency GPS receiver at the SE flank of Chiles show a slight departure from the normal tectonic trend beginning with the appearance of the last seismic swarm on or around September 30, 2014. This trend is subsequently punctuated by a sharp deformation transient related to the coseismic displacement of the October 20 event. After more than a year of very anomalous seismic activity and concurrent minor deformation, no evidence of surficial volcanic activity has been documented.

  4. Widespread Effects on Aviation of the 2008 Eruption of Chaiten Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, M.; Benitez, C.; Andrioli, M.; Romero, R.; Casadevall, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 eruption of Chaiten in southern Chile was the first eruption to pose widespread hazards to aviation in southern South America since the VEI 5 eruption of Chile's Cerro Hudson in 1991. Five encounters of aircraft with volcanic-ash clouds occurred in the week following the start of the eruption on 2 May 2008; three of these encounters occurred at low altitudes (less than 2 km) near the airport in Bariloche about 225 km from the volcano and involved significant engine damage. An airline company in Argentina reported that turbine damage from one encounter cost USD 2.5 million to repair. Operations at 16 airports in Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay at distances up to 2300 km from Chaiten were disrupted by flight cancellations or airport closures. The airport in the town of Chaiten, located about 15 kilometers from the eruptive vent, was severely damaged by ash fall and secondary lahars and is closed for the duration. Bariloche airport was closed for nearly four weeks in May and June 2008, during the start of the region's busy ski season, because of continuing concerns about the possible presence of ash in the surrounding airspace. Cancellation of 158 flights to Bariloche in May resulted in loss to an airline of USD 0.7 million. From the beginning of the eruption, advisories to aviation about the presence of ash in the atmosphere were issued by the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), one of nine VAAC worldwide established by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Aviation meteorological offices and civil aviation agencies used the VAAC advisories as the basis for formal volcanic-ash warnings to airline operations centers, pilots, and air-traffic control centers. The Buenos Aires VAAC worked to improve its operational capabilities for ash-dispersion forecasting and also coordinated its advisories with the adjacent Toulouse VAAC when ash clouds moved into airspace over the Atlantic Ocean.

  5. The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Summer Student Programs in La Serena, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Smith, C.; Van Der Bliek, N. S.; James, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) offers positions for U.S. and Chilean student interns during the Chilean summer months of January-March (northern winter semester) at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. CTIO is part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) of the United States, focused on the development of astronomy in the southern hemisphere. Six undergraduate research assistantships are offered for U.S. physics and astronomy undergraduate students through the NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The CTIO-funded Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía (PIA) program is run concurrently with the REU program, and offers two research assistantships for Chilean undergraduate or 1st or 2nd year masters students, also at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. The CTIO REU and PIA programs provide exceptional opportunities for students considering a career in astronomy to engage in substantive research activities with scientists working at the forefront of contemporary astrophysics. Student participants work on specific research projects in close collaboration with members of the CTIO scientific and technical staff, such as galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing, supernovae, planetary nebulae, stellar populations, star clusters, star formation, variable stars and interstellar medium. The CTIO REU and PIA programs emphasize observational techniques and provide opportunities for direct observational experience using CTIO's state-of-the-art telescopes and instrumentation. The programs run for 10 weeks, from mid-January to the end of March. A two-night observing run on Cerro Tololo and a field trip to another observatory in Chile are included for students of both programs. These positions are full time, and those selected will receive a modest stipend and subsidized housing on the grounds of the offices of CTIO in La Serena, as well as travel costs to and from La Serena. In addition, the students have the opportunity attend the American Astronomical Society (AAS) winter meeting to present their research the year following the program.

  6. [The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].

    PubMed

    Cabello C, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. PMID:23900377

  7. The jack mackerel fishery and El Niño 1997 98 effects off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcos, Dagoberto F.; Cubillos, Luis A.; P. Núñez, Sergio

    The jack mackerel fishery is one of the most important resources on the South Eastern Pacific Ocean off Chile, with landings higher than 3 million tonnes between 1990 and 1996. During 1997-1998, remarkable changes occurred in the length structure of jack mackerel catches, as juveniles (<26 cm FL) dominated the fishing grounds. That was attributed to the environmental effects of the 1997-98 El Niño on the feeding grounds of the jack mackerel off central-southern Chile. Anomalous sea surface temperatures were first detected in June 1997 and persisted into 1998. The response of the incidence of juveniles lagged one year after the ENSO phenomenon affected central-southern Chile, whereas there was a direct relationship between the proportion of juveniles and the intrusion of the 15°C isotherm towards the south. This isotherm reached its most southerly distribution in 1997-98, as a consequence of the El Niño. Jack mackerel is an oceanic and highly migrating species, so we propose that El Niño conditions affected the migratory pathway of the juveniles. It is postulated that the restoration of the nursery habitat north of 30°S may be delayed by more than 3-4 years. New juveniles will dominate in northern areas in the short-term, whereas the juveniles that migrated to southern areas during 1997-1999 are not expected to return back north. At present, the real situation of the stock is far from certain, but we think that environmental impacts associated to the El Niño can not be overlooked when planning the management of the jack mackerel fishery.

  8. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Blin, Aurélie; Le Goff, Isabelle; Desneux, Nicolas; Reyes, Maritza; Tabone, Elisabeth; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Niño, Laura; Lombaert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule. PMID:25667134

  9. The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Guillemaud, Thomas; Blin, Aurélie; Le Goff, Isabelle; Desneux, Nicolas; Reyes, Maritza; Tabone, Elisabeth; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Niño, Laura; Lombaert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule. PMID:25667134

  10. Studies on sexual compatibility between Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) from Chile and the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dieter G.

    1988-09-01

    Clonal isolates of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales) originating from Naples (Mediterranean Sea) and southern Chile were compared in laboratory culture studies. The two isolates showed distinctly different morphological characters, but very similar details of life history and sexual reproduction. Gametes are sexually compatible; hybrid zygotes are formed and sporophytes develop, which are fertile on the basis of mitotic spores. However, unilocular sporangia were abortive, indicating segregational sterility caused by chromosomal mismatch during meiosis. Although the biological species concept in a strict sense does not apply, and appreciable morphological variability exists in this cosmopolitan taxon, local populations are considered as representatives of the same species.

  11. Medicinal plants of Chile: evaluation of their anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Orlando M; Maya, Juan D; Ferreira, Jorge; Christen, Philippe; San Martin, José; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Morello, Antonio; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    The extracts of several plants of Central Chile exhibited anti-Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes activity. Most active extracts were those obtained from Podanthus ovatifolius, Berberis microphylla, Kageneckia oblonga, and Drimys winteri. The active extract of Drimys winteri (IC50 51.2 microg/mL) was purified and three drimane sesquiterpenes were obtained: polygodial, drimenol, and isodrimenin. Isodrimenin and drimenol were found to be active against the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi with IC50 values of 27.9 and 25.1 microM, respectively. PMID:23923616

  12. A new freshwater snail (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Atacama Desert, northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Collado, Gonzalo A

    2015-01-01

    In the family Cochliopidae, Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 is the most speciose genus in South America, with about 90 species (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Cazzaniga 2011). A recent molecular and morphological analysis performed in northern Chile (Atacama Desert) showed that the previously undescribed springsnails from Aguada de Chorrillos belong to Heleobia (Collado et al. 2013). In this study I formally describe this new species. Although this paper does not treat morphology in detail, the anatomical characters, in combination with the previously published molecular data provides a strong basis for recognizing this population as a distinct species. PMID:25781755

  13. Bacterial community structure in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    PubMed

    Drees, Kevin P; Neilson, Julia W; Betancourt, Julio L; Quade, Jay; Henderson, David A; Pryor, Barry M; Maier, Raina M

    2006-12-01

    Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70 degrees S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from each of the samples revealed that microbial communities from the extreme hyperarid core of the desert clustered separately from all of the remaining communities. Bands sequenced from DGGE profiles of two samples taken at a 22-month interval from this core region revealed the presence of similar populations dominated by bacteria from the Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes phyla. PMID:17028238

  14. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) pictipennis: a new mosquito record from the Atacama region of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Leopoldo M; Rodriguez, Jose A; Bertugio, Mauricio C; Pecor, James E; Li, Cong; Wilkerson, Richard C

    2008-09-01

    We report the first collection of Anopheles pictipennis from northern Chile, particularly sectors of Totoral, Perales, Puerto Viejo, and Salinas in the Atacama region. Adults were captured using human bait, while larvae and pupae were collected from various habitats including ponds, puddles left by overflowing river water, edges along river banks, wells, irrigation ditches, and permanent and semipermanent ground water. Associated species were Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus and Ochlerotatus albifasciatus. The internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal DNA of An. pictipennis was sequenced. PMID:18939700

  15. Characteristics of the architecture and evolution of fossil accretionary systems in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, A. P.; Massonne, H. J.; Hervé, F.

    2009-04-01

    Along the Coastal Cordillera of Chile between the latitudes 30° and 55°S fossil accretionary systems have been developed at the passive margin of the microplate "Chilenia" after its collision with the western Gondwana margin. This evolution started in late Palaeozoic times in the north and during Mesozoic times in southern Chile. The areas of fossil accretionary systems in Chile provide an ideal laboratory for the study of deep-seated levels of accretionary systems which are essentially composed of continent-derived metagreywackes with intercalations of 10-15% of disrupted oceanic crust. Accretion started in central Chile before 320 Ma with frontal accretion within upper levels at 4-6 kbar, 250-300°C under a relatively high geotherm. Chevron folds of bedding planes and reverse faults were formed indicating subhorizontal shortening. Most dehydration at this level already occurred at 230-250°C causing weakening. Subhorizontal flow paths at maximum depth are proved by a near-isobaric prograde PT-path. At the same time, material more deeply subducted into the subduction channel was heated against a still hot mantle wedge at 12-16 kbar, 600-700°C and subsequently cooled at depth during subsequent underplating of material, following an anti-clockwise PT-path. Forced flow is the predominant mass flow process in the subduction channel, but very few material was later incorporated into the accretionary prism itself at higher levels. At about 310 Ma the accretion mode changed from frontal to basal accretion at 7-10 kbar, 350-400°C. This is due to continuous cooling of the accretionary system with dehydration and, thus, weakening occurring at 280-320°C under a lower geotherm. Deformation after accretion is represented by pronounced flattening which resulted in a penetrative subhorizontal transposition foliation by pressure solution processes. Static recrystallisation outlasted deformation during decompression with slight cooling. Although particle paths are mostly subvertical, they are partly subhorizontal after subduction to maximum depth. Exhumation rates were slow (around 0.5 mm/yr) with erosion as prime exhumation factor. Erosion at an axial rise balanced accretion at depth leading to recycling of material to the trench as well as filling of retrowedge basins. Accretion ended after about 100 million years. Mass flow cycles lasted between 50 and 100 million years.

  16. Effect of chemical peeling on the processing quality of long-green mild chile (Capasicum annuum) 

    E-print Network

    Tillman, Richard Erland

    1980-01-01

    emeroed from the other end of the drum. The skins of the roasted peppers were then squeezed off and the core and seed pulled out by hand. Sitting (1937) continued by stating this method results in a 40% or more waste in peel and core. He also mentioned...EFFECT OF CHEMICAL PEELING ON THE PROCESSING QUALITY OF LONG-GREEN MILD CHILE (CAPAS ICUM ANNUUM) A Thesis by RICHARD ERLAND TILLMAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AfM University 1n Partial fulf1llment of the requirement...

  17. Dog ownership, abundance and potential for bat-borne rabies spillover in Chile.

    PubMed

    Astorga, F; Escobar, L E; Poo-Muñoz, D A; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral infectious disease that affects all mammals, including humans. Factors associated with the incidence of rabies include the presence and density of susceptible hosts and potential reservoirs. Currently, Chile is declared free of canine-related rabies, but there is an overpopulation of dogs within the country and an emergence of rabies in bats. Our objectives are to determine potential areas for bat-borne rabies spillover into dog populations expressed as a risk map, and to explore some key features of dog ownership, abundance, and management in Chile. For the risk map, our variables included a dog density surface (dog/km(2)) and a distribution model of bat-borne rabies presence. From literature review, we obtained dog data from 112 municipalities, which represent 33% of the total municipalities (339). At country level, based on previous studies the median human per dog ratio was 4.8, with 64% of houses containing at least one dog, and a median of 0.9 dog per house. We estimate a national median of 5.3 dog/km(2), and a median of 3680 dogs by municipality, from which we estimate a total population of 3.5×10(6) owned dogs. The antirabies vaccination presented a median of 21% of dogs by municipality, and 29% are unrestricted to some degree. Human per dog ratio have a significant (but weak) negative association with human density. Unrestricted dogs have a negative association with human density and income, and a positive association with the number of dogs per house. Considering dog density by municipality, and areas of potential bat-borne rabies occurrence, we found that 163 (?48%) of Chilean municipalities are at risk of rabies spillover from bats to dogs. Risk areas are concentrated in urban settlements, including Santiago, Chile's capital. To validate the risk map, we included cases of rabies in dogs from the last 27 years; all fell within high-risk areas of our map, confirming the assertive risk prediction. Our results suggest that the use of dog population parameters may be informative to determine risk areas for bat-rabies spillover events. In addition, we confirm that dog abundance is a neglected and emerging public health concern in Chile, particularly within urban areas, which deserves prompt intervention. PMID:25656549

  18. New Mesotheriidae (Mammalia, Notoungulata, Typotheria), geochronology and tectonics of the Caragua area, northernmost Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, John J.; Croft, Darin A.; Charrier, Reynaldo; Wyss, André R.; Hérail, Gérard; García, Marcelo

    2005-05-01

    Few mammal fossils were known from the Altiplano or adjoining parts of northern Chile until recently. We report a partial mesotheriid palate from the vicinity of Caragua (Huaylas Formation) in northernmost Chile. The new material helps resolve contradictory taxonomic assignments (and age implications) of the two mesotheriid specimens previously reported from the area. Herein we refer all three mesotheriid specimens to a new taxon, Caraguatypotherium munozi, which is closely related to Plesiotypotherium, Typotheriopsis, Pseudotypotherium, and Mesotherium. This phylogenetic placement permits a revised biochronologic estimate of a post-Friasian/pre-Huayquerian (˜15-9 Ma) age for the Huaylas Formation, consistent with new radioisotopic dates from the upper Huaylas Formation and its bracketing stratigraphic units. Improved geochronologic control for the Huaylas Formation has important implications for the timing of tectonic events in the Precordillera/Altiplano of northern Chile. Structural, stratigraphic, and temporal data suggest the onset of rapid, progressive deformation shortly after the deposition of the older Zapahuira Formation, continuing at least partly through deposition of the Huaylas Formation. Deposition of the Huaylas Formation was short lived (between ˜10-12 Ma), possibly stemming from activity on the Copaquilla-Tignámar Fault in the eastern Precordillera. This deformation is associated with the development of the Oxaya Anticline and activity of the Ausipar Fault west of the study region on the frontal limb of the anticline in the westernmost Precordillera. Faulting and folding occurred rapidly, beginning at ˜11.4 Ma (shortly after deposition of the youngest extrusives of the Zapahuira Formation) and before ˜10.7 Ma (the age of the gently dipping horizons within the upper Huaylas Formation that overlie the mammal fossils and an intraformational unconformity). Mesotheriids are the only Tertiary fossil mammals known from the Precordillera of northernmost Chile thus far; the group is common and diverse in faunas from the Altiplano of Bolivia (and a fauna recently recovered from the Chilean Altiplano), in contrast to most higher-latitude and tropical assemblages. This distinctiveness indicates that intermediate latitudes may have been biogeographically distinct and served as a center of diversification for mesotheriids and other groups of indigenous South American mammals.

  19. Bacterial community structure in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drees, Kevin P.; Neilson, Julia W.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Henderson, David A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

    2006-01-01

    Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70 degrees S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from each of the samples revealed that microbial communities from the extreme hyperarid core of the desert clustered separately from all of the remaining communities. Bands sequenced from DGGE profiles of two samples taken at a 22-month interval from this core region revealed the presence of similar populations dominated by bacteria from the Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes phyla.

  20. Chemical Fingerprinting of Explosive Eruptions from Mocho-Choshuenco Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawson, H. L.; Naranjo, J. A.; Smith, V.; Fontijn, K.; Pyle, D. M.; Mather, T. A.; Moreno-Roa, H.

    2014-12-01

    Mocho-Choshuenco (39°55'S 72°2'W) is a poorly studied volcanic complex in southern Chile. Previous work on the volcanic deposits identified three post-glacial (<17 ka) explosive eruptions with volumes ?1km3. We have re-examined the field stratigraphy and carried out extensive geochemical analyses on the deposits to fingerprint and correlate the deposits to establish a detailed, high-resolution, post-glacial explosive history of the volcano. This new data indicates that there have been four large (volume ?1km3) explosive eruptions, 12 more minor events from the main edifice, and over 40 minor scoria cone eruptions from the flanks of the volcano. No other volcano in southern Chile is known to have had as many large eruptions in the Holocene, indicating that Mocho-Choshuenco is potentially one of the most hazardous volcanoes in southern Chile.The eruption history of the volcanoes in southern Chile is largely based on field observations. However, tephra deposits are not well preserved in this region, making field mapping difficult and therefore a detailed record of the frequency and magnitude of the Mocho-Choshuenco eruptions is lacking. This work used detailed geochemistry of units within numerous outcrops (ca. 400) both proximally and distally around the volcano to correlate the units and assemble a detailed stratigraphy for the volcano. Since many of the deposits were weathered, and many others were microlite-rich, we could not rely on glass chemistry alone to correlate sequences and hence also used Fe-Ti oxide compositions. This research has generated a large geochemical dataset of the compositions of tephra from the region (>2500 glass and >2800 Fe-Ti oxide analyses), which can now be used to correlate Mocho-Choshuenco tephra layers in the region. Chronological constraints of these units mean that these tephra layers can be used to constrain the eruptive history at other volcanoes in the region. Tephrochronology is also being used to improve the age models of lake cores, which are being used to explore earthquake frequency and the relationship between eruption frequency and climate.

  1. Spoc-experiment: Wide-angle Profiling and Seismological Network Off Central Chile (october - December 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierer, P. O.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Tilmann, F.; Gaedicke, C.; Schreckenberger, B.

    The main goal of the RV SONNE cruise 161 SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile), Leg 1 and 4, was to investigate the effects of subducting aseismic ridges and frac- ture zones on the seismicity and structure of the Central Chilean Margin. Scientists from GEOMAR (Kiel), BGR (Hannover), FU Berlin (SFB 267), Universidad de Chile (Santiago) and Instituto Costaricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica) participated in data acquisition and analysis. The SPOC experiment consists of four consecutive legs off Valparaiso, Central Chile. During Leg 1 (October), an array of 23 ocean bottom hydrophons and seismome- ters (OBH/S) was deployed to register local earthquakes. In December (Leg 4), the network was recovered and a total of 125 OBH/S locations were occupied on five wide-angle profiles. They recorded more than 10.000 airgun shots, fired by an airgun array of 20 guns with a total volume of 50 liters. In addition, the wide-angle seis- mic lines were extended by land-based seismometers, operated by the Universidad de Chile, Santiago. Furthermore gravity, magnetics and high resolution bathymetry (SIMRADTM) and sediment echo-sound data (PARASOUNDTM) were recorded. On Legs 2 and 3, the BGR carried out a multi-channel reflection (MCS) seismic survey. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that a considerable number of local earthquakes has been recorded by the passive seismological network. Preliminary location of the hypocenters yield earthquake depths predominantly between 15 and 30 km. Many events registered by the local seismological network have been relocated~10 km west- wards of the previous land-based locations, which might indicate a bias in the existing catalogues. Wide-angle record sections of high quality were obtained, for all profiles shot. Mantle phases over offsets of more than 120 km were recorded by many stations. The pre- liminary velocity depth model derived for a profile striking E-W at 31a S across the subduction zone resolved the lateral transition on the continental slope between ac- creted sediments (vp=4-6 km/s) and the continental backstop (vp=5.5-5.8 km/s) in the subsurface. The two profiles crossing the O'Higgins Seamount and Guyot indicate a Moho depression of about 4 km resulting in a Moho depth of 13-14 km which could be described as a typical hotspot-related crustal thickness anomaly as it is characterized 1 for seamount chains. The collected data will provide new insight into the structure and geometry of sub- ducting aseismic ridges and fracture zones at convergent margins, and their effect on seismicity. 2

  2. Iron-bearing minerals in ashes emanated from Osorno volcano, in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Escudey, Mauricio; Förster, Juan Enrique; Pizarro, Carmen; Ardisson, José Domingos; Barral, Uidemar Morais; Pereira, Márcio César; Fabris, José Domingos

    2014-01-01

    A sample of volcanic ashes emanated from the Osorno volcano, southern Chile, was characterized with X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, in an attempt to identify the iron-bearing minerals of that geologically recent magmatic deposit. X-ray patterns indicated that the sample is mainly constituted of anorthite, Fe-diopside-type and Ca-magnetite. The crystallographic structures of these dominant iron minerals are proposed on basis of their chemical composition and corresponding Mössbauer data to support models refined by fitting powder X-ray diffraction data with the Rietveld algorithm.

  3. "Geographical randomization" and "social exploitation" in clinical research: world trials in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Bicudo, Edison

    2011-05-01

    In the discussion of global clinical trials, two ideas are frequently advanced. Firstly, it is sometimes articulated that companies can displace clinical protocols between countries quite easily (what I propose to call "geographical randomization"). The second idea conveys that global trials lead to the exploitation of poor regions and poor people ("social exploitation"). By analyzing the context of Santiago, the capital city of Chile, I argue that, although these ideas are not myths, they cannot capture the whole complexity of global trials. On the one hand, geographical factors restrain the mobility of the clinical trials industry. On the other, studies tend to be concentrated in wealthier areas with more affluent people. PMID:21493119

  4. Sea surface thermal structure associated to the small pelagic fish resources distribution in Central Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Yanez, E.; Barbieri, M.A.; Catasti, V. [Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso (Chile)

    1997-06-01

    A survey study was conducted to assess the possibility of introducing the use of sea surface temperatures (SST), obtained from NOAA satellite data, for the small pelagic fisheries resources in Central Chile. Relationships between species yields and thermics gradients (GRT) were found significant. Jack mackerel (Trachuru murphyi) yields were largely related with a strong thermal gradient next to oceanic waters, while anchovy (Engraulis ringens) and common sardine (Clupea bentincki) yields were mainly associated to the development of coastal upwelling events. It is concluded that the use of SST-NOAA images can play an important role in fleet operations, particularly in the case of the kind of boats considered in this paper.

  5. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Jiménez, Jaime E

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60% of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats. PMID:25113741

  6. Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in Southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Jiménez, Jaime E.

    2014-10-01

    Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

  7. ABUSO SEXUAL INTRAFAMILIAR: PREVALENCIA Y CARACTERÍSTICAS EN JÓVENES DE 3º MEDIO DE LICEOS MUNICIPALIZADOS DE CHILLÁN, CHILE INTRA-FAMILY SEXUAL ABUSE: PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS IN CHILDREN OF 3RD GRADE IN MUNICIPAL HIGH SCHOOLS IN CHILLAN, CHILE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOSE LUIS YSERN DE ARCE; PATRICIA ALEJANDRA; BECERRA AGUAYO

    Sexual abuse, as a social phenomenon, has been little studied, but people have begun to recognize its occurence and they admit that a great majority of cases takes place within the same family (about 70%), and also that approximately 75% of the cases are not reported. (Ministry of Health, Chile, 1998). Sexual abuse is a complex phenomenon caused by many

  8. Leaf morphological and genetic divergence in populations of Drimys (Winteraceae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Jara-Arancio, P; Carmona, M R; Correa, C; Squeo, F A; Arancio, G

    2012-01-01

    The genus Drimys is distributed in Chile from semi-arid zones to sub-Antarctic forests; there are three species of this tree, D. andina, D. confertifolia and D. winteri, the latter with varieties chilensis and winteri. Northern populations are found in small disjunct natural refuges, specifically mountain cloud forests and the bottom of ravines. The size and continuity of populations are greater in the south, where wetter conditions prevail. Morphological differences between populations have been observed, particularly between the northern populations of Fray Jorge and Talinay. This observation, led to the following questions: a) what is the level of morphological and genetic divergence among the populations of Drimys in Chile? and b) do the populations from Fray Jorge/Talinay, currently classified as D. winteri var. chilensis, differ genetically from the other populations of this variety? To answer these questions, we collected leaf samples from 37 populations of all Chilean Drimys, performed leaf morphology analysis and estimated genetic divergence using RAPD markers. We found a high degree of leaf morphological and genetic divergence between the populations of Fray Jorge/Talinay and the other Chilean species of Drimys. The morphological and genetic divergence among varieties of D. winteri was greater than that among the species of Drimys, which may indicate problems with their taxonomic classification. PMID:22370890

  9. Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.

    PubMed

    Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

    2012-09-01

    In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile. PMID:23183564

  10. Ocular and dermatologic health effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure from the ozone hole in southern Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Schein, O D; Vicencio, C; Muñoz, B; Gelatt, K N; Duncan, D D; Nethercott, J; Honeyman, J; Koren, H S; West, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study sought to investigate numerous reports emanating from Punta Arenas, Chile (population 110,000, latitude 53 degrees S), that associated acute ocular and dermatologic disease in humans and animals with excess ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure in the setting of the thinning of the ozone column. METHODS. Ophthalmologic and dermatologic records in Punta Arenas were systematically reviewed to enumerate sentinel diagnoses potentially associated with UV-B exposure, ocular examinations on representative animal populations were performed, and the ambient UV-B exposure in the region during the time of maximal thinning was estimated. RESULTS. No increase in patient visits or conditions attributable to UV-B exposure was seen for periods of known ozone depletion compared with control periods. Although ambient UV-B exposure was 1.6 to 2.3 times the habitual exposure on individual days, this excess exposure conferred only a 1% increase in annual exposure on the region. CONCLUSION. This study does not support existing lay reports of ocular and dermatologic disease in humans and animals that had been associated with the ozone hole over southern Chile. PMID:7702120

  11. Promotion and prevention within a decentralized framework: changing health care in Brazil and Chile.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sarah; Cohn, Amélia; Ducci, Maria E; Fernándes, Lucília; Smyth, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    The study aims to define configurations of factors from local, regional and national levels that, within a context of decentralized health systems, enable or hinder change towards a health care model of promotion and disease prevention as advocated in current Latin American public health discourse. The project made in-depth case studies of prevention and promotion activities in eight local health systems in rural and urban Brazil and Chile allowing three levels of comparison: national, regional and local. The data are based on interviews, secondary sources, policy documentation and observations. The results are summarized as pathways through configurations of factors leading to what are termed active and basic degrees of activity related to disease prevention and health promotion at the local level. The results raise considerations for policy-makers at each of the three levels of health systems regarding vertical and horizontal system structures, relationships to local government, management options and human resource incentives. The findings from this study can serve as a guide or menu of issues to consider in the implementation of new models of health care provision, not only in Brazil and Chile, but also elsewhere in Latin America and more widely in the world. PMID:18229884

  12. When constitutional justice has the last word on health care: the case of Chile.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The Chilean health care system is in crisis. Since the recent ruling of the Constitutional Court that declared the risk rating (actuarial insurance) of private health insurers unconstitutional, all of the social actors related to health care have tried to agree on a legislative reform that would overcome the existing highly segmented and inequitable system, which is a legacy of Pinochet's dictatorship. Here we demonstrate how the social and political demands for legislative reform in the health care sector have been supported by the decisions of the courts. To achieve its goals of reducing equity gaps in health and ending the judicialization of health care (claims for protection represent almost 70% of total resources of the courts), the National Congress of Chile is trying to create a new national health insurance system that guarantees the right to a minimum level of health care. Part of this effort involves obtaining the constitutional approval of the courts. In Chile, justice has the final word on health care. PMID:24919310

  13. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity in rural Mapuche population from Chile.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Carrasco, E; Santos, J L; Calvillán, M; Larenas, G; Albala, C

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and obesity in the Mapuche natives from rural areas in Chile. This cross-sectional study involved men (n = 95) and women (n = 224) older than 20 y from an aboriginal ethnic group (Mapuches), residing in rural communities from the south of Chile. Prevalence of Type 2 diabetes and IGT was calculated according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data on age, degree of ancestral purity, obesity, and hypertension were also obtained. The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in rural Mapuche natives was estimated as 3.2% (95% CI: 0.7--9.0) in men and 4.5% (95% CI: 2.2--8.1) in women. The overall prevalence of obesity was 56.1% (95% CI: 50.5--61.6): 40.0% (95% CI: 30.1--40.8) in men and 62.9% (95% CI: 56.3--69.3) in women (P value < 0.001). These data suggest that the prevalence of obesity and Type 2 diabetes has been increasing during recent years in the Mapuche communities. The prevalence estimated in this study is higher than that reported 15 y ago. This suggests an important role of lifestyle changes as a possible explanation for epidemiologic transition. PMID:11312066

  14. Women's opinions on the legalisation of abortion in Chile 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tia; Infante Erazo, Mariela; Hurtado Pinochet, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Chile is one of only four countries in the world where there is no explicit legal exception to prohibitions on abortion, and where the criminalisation of abortion endangers women's health and may be misaligned with public opinion. In this study we explored attitudes towards the legalisation of abortion and differences in levels of support across time. Among Chilean women in 2009 and 2013, we examined: (1) an additive index indicating support for legalisation of abortion in several situations and (2) support for each situation separately. We investigated the demographic characteristics associated with support for legalisation using multivariate regression. Over 70% of women supported the legalisation of abortion in cases of risk to the woman's life, rape and foetal malformation, and support was higher in 2013 compared to 2009 (? = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.44). Women with increasing education and those attending church services less frequently were more likely to support the legalisation of abortion (? = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.43), while those affiliated to a religion other than Catholicism (? =  - 0.32; 95% CI:  - 0.48,  - 0.16) were less likely to do so. Our study is the first to examine public opinions on abortion in Chile and differences in levels of support across time periods. Results indicate that current policies may not reflect trends in public opinion. PMID:25703034

  15. Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

  16. Mean glandular dose in six digital mammography services in Santiago, Chile: preliminary reference levels.

    PubMed

    Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria Do Socorro; Dantas, Marcelino; Duran, Maria Paz; Ubeda, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this paper was to estimate mean glandular dose levels (DG) in six digital mammography systems in Santiago, Chile, and to propose preliminary reference levels to execute mammography in Chile. The study was carried out assessing two direct digital systems and four computer-based radiography (CR) systems. Estimates of DG were calculated for different thicknesses of polymethyl methacrylate according to the quality control protocol in digital mammography of the Spanish Society of Medical Physics and NHSBSP Equipment Report 0604 Version 3. DG values ranged between 0.64 and 7.26 mGy for a range of 20- to 70-mm thickness, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of DG was higher than the acceptable dose level and 100 % of DG was higher than the desirable level. It is therefore necessary to optimise doses. The initial proposal to establish dose reference levels for DG would range between 0.90 and 6.40 mGy for a thickness range of 20 to 70 mm. PMID:25833896

  17. Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

    2010-05-26

    Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

  18. Natural history of chagasic cardiopathy in Chile. Follow-up of 71 cases after 4 years.

    PubMed

    Apt, W; Arribada, A; Cabrera, L; Sandoval, J

    1983-12-01

    As part of study of Chagasic cardiopathy in Chile we report a follow-up study of 100 cardiopathic patients from two endemic areas who had been diagnosed 4 years earlier during an epidemiological and clinical survey. The follow-up consisted of a clinical, serological and electrocardiographic examination, and a continuous ECG recording for 60 min to detect possible arrhythmias. From the original 100 cases, three had died: one of a gastric cancer and the other two due to probable chagasic cardiopathy. Twenty-six had migrated to other areas and were lost to our study. From the remaining 71 patients, 48 were asymptomatic and 23 had complaints including palpitations, dyspnoea and Stokes-Adams crisis. In most cases, seropositivity by indirect haemagglutination did not change, but in six cases the titres decreased, becoming negative in three of them. Xeno-diagnosis was positive in 19.3% of seropositive patients. The ECG had returned to normal in 18 cases (17%) but showed a higher degree of blockades in others, three of which reached complete A-V block. The 60 min ECG was very important as it showed alterations in 93% of the cases, revealing arrhythmias that the ECG alone did not show. This work demonstrates that chagasic cardiopathy in Chile is a slow, progressive disease, that attacks the heart as a whole, but with special damage to the conducting tissues. PMID:6672230

  19. Not all fish are equal: functional biodiversity of cartilaginous fishes (Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, C; Vargas-Caro, C; Bennett, M B

    2014-11-01

    A review of the primary literature on the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras), together with new information suggests that 106 species occur in Chilean waters, comprising 58 sharks, 30 skates, 13 rays and five chimaeras. The presence of 93 species was confirmed, although 30 species were encountered rarely, through validated catch records and sightings made in artisanal and commercial fisheries and on specific research cruises. Overall, only 63 species appear to have a range distribution that normally includes Chilean waters. Actual reliable records of occurrence are lacking for 13 species. Chile has a cartilaginous fish fauna that is relatively impoverished compared with the global species inventory, but conservative compared with countries in South America with warm-temperate waters. The region of highest species richness occurs in the mid-Chilean latitudes of c. 30-40° S. This region represents a transition zone with a mix of species related to both the warm-temperate Peruvian province to the north and cold-temperate Magellan province to the south. This study provides clarification of species occurrence and the functional biodiversity of Chile's cartilaginous fish fauna. PMID:25263288

  20. Factors related to unmet oral health needs in older adults living in Chile.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

    2014-01-01

    To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of an ambulant population of older adults, living in the Maule Region, Chile, and provide descriptive information on its distribution by selected socio-demographic characteristics. The source of primary data was the Regional Oral Health Survey. A stratified random sample of 438 older adults, aged 65-74 years, living independently in the community was orally examined, and underwent an oral health interview. The sample was largely a dentate one (74.9%); with a mean DMFT score of 25.7 (s.d. 6.5) and an average number of missing teeth of 22.4 (s.d. 5.8). Dentate participants had 41% of their restorative care needs unmet, and 68.4% needed oral hygiene instruction plus removal of calculus on their teeth. Almost 30.1% required complex periodontal therapy. 21% of those fully edentulous were in need of full dentures. Comparing these findings with existing data on the oral health of older adults in Chile, participants in this study appear to have lower missing teeth scores and less need for complex periodontal treatment. Inequities were apparent in the proportion of unmet restorative and prosthetics needs. Community-based preventive care programs specifically tailored to older adults are needed to address this challenge. PMID:24556393

  1. Far-IR Measurements at Cerro Toco, Chile: FIRST, REFIR, and AERI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cageao, Richard P.; Alford, J. Ashley; Johnson, David G.; Kratz, David P.; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    In mid-2009, the Radiative Heating in the Underexplored Bands Campaign II (RHUBC-II) was conducted from Cerro Toco, Chile, a high, dry, remote mountain plateau, 23degS , 67.8degW at 5.4km, in the Atacama Desert of Northern Chile. From this site, dominant IR water vapor absorption bands and continuum, saturated when viewed from the surface at lower altitudes, or in less dry locales, were investigated in detail, elucidating IR absorption and emission in the atmosphere. Three FTIR instruments were at the site, the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST), the Radiation Explorer in the Far Infrared (REFIR), and the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI). In a side-by-side comparison, these measured atmospheric downwelling radiation, with overlapping spectral coverage from 5 to100um (2000 to 100/cm), and instrument spectral resolutions from 0.5 to 0.64/cm, unapodized. In addition to the FTIR and other ground-based IR and microwave instrumentation, pressure/temperature/relative humidity measuring sondes, for atmospheric profiles to 18km, were launched from the site several times a day. The derived water vapor profiles, determined at times matching the FTIR measurement times, were used to model atmospheric radiative transfer. Comparison of instrument data, all at the same spectral resolution, and model calculations, are presented along with a technique for determining adjustments to line-by-line calculation continuum models. This was a major objective of the campaign.

  2. Unrest of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex: A binational Ecuador - Colombia effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Gomez, D.; Torres, R.; Cadena, O.; Mothes, P. A.; Anzieta, J. C.; Pacheco, D. A.; Bernard, B.; Acero, W.; Hidalgo, S.; Enriquez, W.; Cordova, A.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing seismic activity at the area of Chiles - Cerro Negro volcanic complex, located at the Ecuador-Colombian border, has been jointly monitored by the Instituto Geofisico - Ecuador and the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Pasto OVSP, a division of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano. Since April 2013, three seismic swarms have been detected in this area and more than 100.000 events are recorded since November 2013. The largest and more recent swarm has a daily average of 676 events between March and June 2014. Currently a seismic network of 8 seismic stations (5 in the Colombian and 3 in Ecuadorean side) are deployed in this area. Epicenters of more than 315 seismic events with magnitudes Ml>2.0 and 10 or more phases are located in an area 1-4 km south of Chiles volcano with shallow depths (up to 14 km). Most of events have magnitudes between 1.0 to 4.0. Nine events have magnitudes larger than 4.0 and the largest event occurred on April 30. 2014 with a local magnitude of 4.7 and inverse-transcurrent component focal mechanism. Waveforms and spectral patterns define these events as volcano-tectonic. Events with large magnitudes (above 3.0) show a very long-period component. Hot spring and deformation measurements also show signals of volcanic unrest.

  3. Asperity generating upper crustal sources revealed by b value and isostatic residual anomaly grids in the area of Antofagasta, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sobiesiak; U. Meyer; S. Schmidt; H.-J. Götze; C. M. Krawczyk

    2007-01-01

    In our study we show that the locations of largest coseismic slip (asperities) on the fault plane of the Mw = 8.0 1995 Antofagasta earthquake in Northern Chile can be mapped by the spatial distribution of the seismic b value obtained from the aftershock sequence of the megathrust earthquake. These areas of high seismic moment release and concurrent high-b values

  4. Monthly variation in the parasite communities of the intertidal fish Scartichthys viridis (Blenniidae) from central Chile: are there seasonal patterns?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriela Muñoz; Haseeb S. Randhawa

    2011-01-01

    Monthly variation in parasite populations and communities, from the blenniid fish Scartichthys viridis, were assessed during two consecutive years in order to examine monthly and seasonal temporal patterns. A total of 969 S. viridis was collected from September 2006 to August 2008 in central Chile. Sample size and fish total length (TL) varied among months.\\u000a The S. viridis parasite community

  5. Search for Non-Volcanic Tremor in the Aftermath of the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, R. J.; Beroza, G. C.; Ide, S.

    2011-12-01

    We seek to understand the relationship between the areal extent of non-volcanic tremor and seismic slip in large subduction zone events. Ideally, we would study areas where tremor is known to occur, and where the slip distribution in a large earthquake is well known; however, the subduction zones with the best constraints on tremor locations - Cascadia and the Nankai Trough - have not suffered recent large earthquakes. We attempt to study this relationship by searching for tremor using seismic data from the Chile IRIS RAMP network that was deployed following the February 27, 2010 M 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. The Chile RAMP network collected data between mid-March 2010 to the end of September 2010 in the region surrounding the epicenter of the event. Although non-volcanic tremor has not yet been reported near the Maule mainshock zone, it may have been observed to the north of the Chile Triple Junction (Gallego et al, 2006). We apply waveform envelope analysis to the RAMP data, and because of the sensitivity of this approach to aftershocks, we concentrate on data towards the end of the deployment. By identifying any possible non-volcanic tremor in the South American subduction zone, we hope to better understand if there is a relationship between tremor and mainshock slip.

  6. Magnitude Scaling of Early-Warning Parameters for the Mw 7.8 Tocopilla, Chile, Earthquake and Its Aftershocks

    E-print Network

    Madariaga, Raúl

    Magnitude Scaling of Early-Warning Parameters for the Mw 7.8 Tocopilla, Chile, Earthquake and Its between the final event magnitude and four parameters obtained from the early portion of P and S phases early- warning systems for real-time magnitude estimation. The investigated parameters are the low

  7. Subtle Tortures of the Neo-liberal Age: Teachers, Students, and the Political Economy of Schooling in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastrana, Jill Pinkney

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1970s following a military coup, Chile, with its population brutally suppressed, became the first testing ground for the changes that now define neo-liberal recommendations by international funding agencies such as the IMF and World Bank. The changes were dramatic and extensive. The population could not negotiate the terms of change.…

  8. Free gas at the base of the gas hydrate zone in the vicinity of the Chile triple junction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan L. B. Bangs; Dale S. Sawyer; Xenia Golovchenko

    1993-01-01

    At Ocean Drilling Program Site 859 in the vicinity of the Chile triple junction, the source of the bottom simulating reflection (BSR) at the base of the gas hydrate layer has, for the first time, been logged to reveal the nature of the impedance contrasts producing the reflection. We estimate from the P-wave velocity (V[sub P]) that hydrate occupies no

  9. Encountering Chile: influence of Chilean exiles on United States popular opinions in the 1970s and 1980s 

    E-print Network

    Willard, Rachel

    2013-02-22

    This project seeks to define the effects that exiled Chilean intellectuals had on popular perceptions of Latin America within the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The diaspora of "creators" following the 1973 coup in Chile had at least two...

  10. Analysis of the 24 July 2001 Shallow Earthquake Mw=6.3 Recorded in the Northern Chile Altiplano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Comte; M. Bordier; R. Roroschek; C. David; J. Martinod; B. Glass; E. Correa; I. Balmaceda; L. Dorbath; H. Haessler; G. Herail; C. Meneses; M. Frogneux; A. Cruz

    2001-01-01

    The main goal of the permanent seismic network, that is in operation in northern Chile since 1994, is to study the seismotectonic characteristics of the seismic gap associated with the large 1877 Mw ~9 previous earthquake. This network is composed by 13 short period seismic stations and their continuous recording also permitted to determine other interesting behaviors in the region

  11. Evaluation of a school-based sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mónica Silva; Inés Ross

    2003-01-01

    A sex education program was evaluated in a vocational high school in Santiago, Chile, that caters to a population of low income students. The goals of the program were to delay the occurrence of sexual activity, promote a positive attitude towards abstinence in adolescence, and facilitate communication on sexual topics with adults. A cohort design with no treatment partitioning was

  12. River runoff and regional climate of a small glaciated catchment area in the Andes in southernmost Patagonia, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Schneider; M. Moritz; R. Kilian

    2003-01-01

    The river runoff from a small partly glaciated catchment area in southernmost Patagonian Andes in Chile is measured to analyse the influence of regional precipitation and climate dependent glacier ablation on runoff. The first data from March to September 2002 were compared to climate data recorded at an automatic weather station in the area. The poster presents the first detailed

  13. Bringing water markets down to earth: The political economy of water rights in Chile, 1976–1995

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl J. Bauer

    1997-01-01

    For 15 years Chile has been the leading international example of pro-market policies for water resources, and its 1981 Water Code has recently been touted as a model for other countries to follow. Water markets are controversial in both theory and practice: their potential benefits include greater efficiency and flexibility of water use and less state intervention and expenditure; while

  14. Evidence of prehistoric diet from northern Chile: Coprolites, gut contents and flotation samples from the Tulán quebrada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy G. Holden

    1991-01-01

    The arid climate in the Tulán quebrada, situated on the eastern shore line of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile has resulted in the exceptional preservation of a wide range of ancient organic debris. This paper reports on the analysis of a number of human coprolites, and flotation samples from two habitation sites dated to approximately 3000 BP and two

  15. The Impact of Participation and Social Contacts on International Attitudes of Youth (The Case of Bolivia and Chile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menanteau-Horta, Dario

    Interviews with high school seniors in Bolivia (n=1,100) and Chile (n=2,460) demonstrated that individuals with international contacts hold more positive attitudes toward others than those individuals without this type of exposure. The study examined the students' opinions about other countries of the Latin American region, opportunities for…

  16. Heat flow and bending-related faulting at subduction trenches: Case studies offshore of Nicaragua and Central Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingo Grevemeyer; Norbert Kaul; Juan L. Diaz-Naveas; Heinrich W. Villinger; Cesar R. Ranero; Christian Reichert

    2005-01-01

    Detailed heat flow surveys on the oceanic trench slope offshore Nicaragua and Central Chile indicate heat flow values lower than the expected conductive lithospheric heat loss and lower than the global mean for crust of that age. Both areas are characterised by pervasive normal faults exposing basement in a setting affected by bending-related faulting due to plate subduction. The low

  17. Situation Report--Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in ten foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Burma, Chile, German Democratic Republic, Indonesia, Jamaica, Poland, Singapore, St. Christopher/Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…

  18. Ectoparasitismo en tiuque común Milvago chimango chimango (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Falconidae) en la zona de Ñuble, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julio San-Martín Órdenes; Cristina Brevis Ibáñez; Luis Rubilar Contreras; Ronald Schmäschke; Arwid Daugschies

    Ectoparasitism in the common chimango caracara Milvago chimango chimango (Vieillot, 1816) (Aves, Falconidae) in the Ñuble Area, Chile. The ectoparasites of Milvago c. chimango (Vieillot) in the Ñuble area were identified for qualitative and quantitative descriptive analyses. Three species of Phthiraptera were recorded (prevalences between parentheses): One Amblycera, Aquiligogus maculatus (Menoponidae - 100%), and two Ischnocera, Acutifrons vierai chimango (73.9

  19. Temporal and spatial variation in the distribution of epineustonic competent larvae of Concholepas concholepas along the central coast of Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elie Poulin; Alvaro T. Palma; Germán Leiva; Eduardo Hernández; Pilar Martínez; Sergio A. Navarrete; Juan C. Castilla

    2002-01-01

    The abundance of competent epineustonic larvae of the gastropod Concholepas concholepas (Gastropoda: Muricidae) in nearshore waters at 2 sites along the central coast of Chile was examined through monthly plankton tows from July 1999 to June 2000. Larvae were found in plankton collections from July 1999 to February 2000 with maximum abundance in September and October. Settlement in artificial collectors

  20. Geochemistry of ash leachates from the 1993 Lascar eruption, northern Chile. Implication for recycling of ancient evaporites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Risacher; Hugo Alonso

    2001-01-01

    Volcanic formations in the central Andes overlie extensive amounts of ancient evaporites of Cenozoic age. Recycling of buried salts in present closed basins through the hydrological cycle is a well-known process. Another salt recycling process through volcanic activity has been detected in a recent eruption of the Lascar volcano in northern Chile. About 109 metric tons of air-fall tephra was

  1. Children in Institutions: The Beginning of the End? The Cases of Italy, Spain, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. Innocenti Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorente, Maria Angeles Garcia; Charlebois, Laura Martinez-Mora; Ducci, Valerio; Farias, Ana Maria

    Noting the growing global consensus on the need to promote family-based alternatives to institutional care for children and adolescents, this report examines efforts to prevent the institutionalization of children in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Italy, and Spain, focusing on both public and private initiatives, as well as local and national…

  2. DISCOVERY AND GEOLOGY OF THE CERRO BAYO AND MARTHA LOW SULFIDATION EPITHERMAL GOLD-SILVER DEPOSITS, SOUTHERN CHILE-ARGENTINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Krewedl; Coeur d'Alene

    The Cerro Bayo and Martha mines are located on the western portion of the Patagonian Massif in southern Chile and Argentina. Both are recently discovered low sulfidation epithermal gold and silver deposits hosted within Jurassic age fel- sic volcanics. Both deposits have similar geologic characteristics and are part of the emerging Patagonian precious met- als province, which includes premier epithermal

  3. Distribution of dissolved species and suspended particulate copper in an intertidal ecosystem affected by copper mine tailings in Northern Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago Andrade; James Moffett; Juan A. Correa

    2006-01-01

    The coastline near Chañaral in Northern Chile is one of the most highly Cu-contaminated zones in the world due to discharges from mining activities for more than 60 years. The speciation of Cu has been studied to determine the importance of organic complexation in highly contaminated areas, and to assess the likely physiological impacts of Cu on marine organisms. Dissolved Cu

  4. NOTES ON SOUTH AMERICAN DASYOMMA, WITH THE DESCRIPTION OF A REMARKABLE NEW SPECIES FROM CHILE (DIPTERA: ATHERICIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Dasyomma Macquart, D. chrysopilum sp. nov., is described from Chile (Malleco and Ñuble Provinces). This species differs from all other known species in having dense golden pilosity on the abdominal tergites of both sexes. Dasyomma basale Malloch is redescribed, with the female des...

  5. 75 FR 5034 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...APHIS-2009-0082] Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request...recognize additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis...regulations for recognition as pest-free areas. We are making that...

  6. A network analysis of plant-pollinator interactions in temperate rain forests of ChiloeIsland, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodrigo Ramos-Jiliberto; Abraham A. Albornoz; Fernanda S. Valdovinos; Cecilia Smith-Ramõ; Matõ ´ as Arim; Juan J. Armesto; Pablo A. Marquet

    This study characterizes the structure of a plant-pollinator network in a temperate rain forest of ChiloeIsland, southern Chile, where woody species are strongly dependent on biotic pollinators, and analyzes its robustness to the loss of participating species. Degree distribution, nestedness, and expected species persistence were evaluated. In addition, we assessed the roles of predefined subsets of plants (classified by life

  7. Social security privatization and labor market reforms: how did they affect poverty and income distribution in Chile?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Azzurra Rinaldi

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the trend of poverty and income distribution in Chile in the last seventeen years, that is since 1989, when elections allowed a coalition named Concertacion and driven by Patricio Aylwin to guide the country and to put an end to Augusto Pinochets government, which lasted 16 years, from 1973 to 1989. The

  8. Operating practices in the beneficiation of major porphyry copper\\/molybdenum plants from Chile: Innovated technology and opportunities, a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Bulatovic; D. M. Wyslouzil; C. Kant

    1998-01-01

    The operating practices in the beneficiation of porphyry copper ores from Chile are reviewed. The factors which affect plant metallurgical results are discussed including: ore mineralogy, reagent scheme and flowsheet. Over the past decade, a decline in plant metallurgy at a number of plants occurred mainly due to the changes in ore mineralogy. The importance of the application of new

  9. Abstract-Chile has had a successful experience of over 20 years of applying benchmark price regulation to its

    E-print Network

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    Abstract- Chile has had a successful experience of over 20 years of applying benchmark price companies and explains the pricing access scheme that has been formulated. 1 I. INTRODUCTION Electrical of segmentation and privatization of state monopolies. Competition has been introduced in generation, while

  10. Co-Constructing Representations of Culture in ESL and EFL Classrooms: Discursive Faultlines in Chile and California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Based on qualitative research conducted in 3 university English as a foreign language classrooms in Chile and 3 community college English as a second language classrooms in California, this article examines the approaches used in teaching culture in these classrooms, the differences in how particular cultures (usually national cultures) were…

  11. Learning to Become a Teacher in the 21st Century: ICT Integration in Initial Teacher Education in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brun, Mario; Hinostroza, J. Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the most relevant results from a national study about the availability and use of ICT in 46 Initial Teacher Education institutions in Chile, implemented during 2009 as part of the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) international project "ICT in Initial Teacher Training." Main findings show an…

  12. Amenity migration Lifestyle Exurbanisation Chile DIE ERDE 140 2009 (3) Special Focus "Amenity Migration" pp. 275-292

    E-print Network

    Borsdorf, Axel

    · Amenity migration ­ Lifestyle ­ Exurbanisation ­ Chile DIE ERDE 140 2009 (3) Special Focus "Amenity Migration" pp. 275-292 Searching for Fresh Air, Tranquillity and Rural Culture in the Mountains Chilenen? 1.Introduction Moss (2006) defined amenity migration as the movement of people to places

  13. Seismicity and stress distribution in the Copiapo, northern Chile subduction zone using combined on- and off-shore seismic observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Comte; Henri Haessler; Louis Dorbath; Mario Pardo; Tony Monfret; Alain Lavenu; Bernard Pontoise; Yann Hello

    2002-01-01

    Historic, as well as teleseismically, and locally recorded seismicity of the subduction margin of Copiapo, northern Chile is analysed. An on- and off-shore temporary network was deployed during 2 months in the region in order to obtain a detailed definition of the Wadati–Benioff zone. An average dip angle of 20° along the subduction thrust interplate contact was determined; this value

  14. Erosion, transport and segregation of pumice and lithic clasts in pyroclastic flows inferred from ignimbrite at Lascar Volcano, Chile

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Calder; R. S. J. Sparks; M. C. Gardeweg

    2000-01-01

    Investigations have been made on the distribution of pumice and lithic clasts in the lithic rich Soncor ignimbrite (26.5ka) and the 1993 pumice flow deposits of Lascar Volcano, Chile. The Soncor ignimbrite shows three main lithofacies which grade into one another. Coarse lithic breccias range from matrix poor stratified varieties, irregular shaped sheets and elongate hummocks in proximal environments, to

  15. The Loss of Biodiversity as a Challenge for Sustainable Development: How Do Pupils in Chile and Germany Perceive Resource Dilemmas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menzel, Susanne; Bogeholz, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The topic of biodiversity is of high value for education for sustainable development as it reflects the interaction of ecological, economic and social issues particularly well. Especially in so-called biodiversity hotspots, among them Chile, natural resources are often depleted for economic interest which, in many cases, is required income.…

  16. Two new species of the Liolaemuselongatus-kriegi complex (Iguania, Liolaemidae) from Andean highlands of southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Troncoso-Palacios, Jaime; Díaz, Hugo A; Esquerré, Damien; Urra, Felix A

    2015-01-01

    The elongatus-kriegi complex is one of the most diverse clades of the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus of lizards. There are currently 29 species recognized in this group distributed between Chile and Argentina. Based on molecular evidence, there seem to be five main clades nested within this complex: the elongatus, leopardinus, kriegi, petrophilus and punmahuida clades. Liolaemusbuergeri and Liolaemuskriegi, both of the kriegi clade, were believed to inhabit the surroundings of the Laja Lagoon, in the Biobío Region of Chile. Moreover, this Chilean population of Liolaemuskriegi was recently recognized as an undescribed taxon called "Liolaemus sp. A" based on molecular phylogenetics. In this work, we studied these two populations of the Laja Lagoon and provided the morphological diagnosis to describe them as two new species: Liolaemusscorialis sp. n. and Liolaemuszabalai sp. n., previously considered Liolaemusbuergeri and "Liolaemuskriegi/Liolaemus sp. A" respectively. Additionally, we identified another population of Liolaemusscorialis in the vicinity of La Mula Lagoon in the Araucanía Region of Chile. Liolaemusscorialis differs from almost all of the species of the elongatus-kriegi complex by its considerably smaller size. Nevertheless, without molecular data we cannot assign it to any particular subclade. Liolaemuszabalai belongs to the kriegi clade based on published molecular phylogenies. Finally, we provide some natural history data on both species and we document for the first time the presence of Liolaemusneuquensis in Chile from a museum specimen from La Mula Lagoon. PMID:25987873

  17. Measurement of New Attributes for Chile's Admissions System to Higher Education. Research Report. ETS RR-11-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Ugarte, Juan Jose; Flotts, Paulina; Radovic, Darinka; Kyllonen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development and initial validation of new measures of critical thinking and noncognitive attributes that were designed to supplement existing standardized tests used in the admissions system for higher education in Chile. The importance of various facets of this process, including the establishment of technical rigor and…

  18. Assessment of 21st Century ICT Skills in Chile: Test Design and Results from High School Level Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Magdalena; Preiss, David D.; San Martin, Ernesto; Jara, Ignacio; Hinostroza, J. Enrique; Valenzuela, Susana; Cortes, Flavio; Nussbaum, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a study that evaluates fifteen-year-old Chilean students Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. The paper presents an operational definition of ICT skills, an instrument measuring these skills as well as the students' results in the test. The definition of ICT skills used considers Chile's curricular framework,…

  19. A Requisite Test for a First Course in Trigonometry and Analytic Geometry (MAT-111) at the Catholic University of Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivares, Maria Angelica; And Others

    The development of a diagnostic test at the Catholic University of Chile is described. The 50-item multiple choice test is used as an entrance and prerequisite test for students about to take a first university course in trigonometry and analytic geometry (MAT-111). Thirty items pertain to algebra and 20 to geometry. Each question corresponds to…

  20. Encountering Chile: influence of Chilean exiles on United States popular opinions in the 1970s and 1980s

    E-print Network

    Willard, Rachel

    2013-02-22

    This project seeks to define the effects that exiled Chilean intellectuals had on popular perceptions of Latin America within the United States during the 1970s and 1980s. The diaspora of "creators" following the 1973 coup in Chile had at least two...

  1. Seasonal predictability of daily rainfall characteristics in central-1 northern Chile for dry-land management2

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Andrew W.

    1 Seasonal predictability of daily rainfall characteristics in central-1 northern Chile for dry;2 Abstract45 The seasonal predictability of daily winter rainfall characteristics relevant to dry-land46 rainfall total, daily rainfall frequency, and mean daily rainfall intensity on wet48 days at the station

  2. U^Pb zircon chronostratigraphy of early-Pliocene ignimbrites from La Pacana, north Chile: implications for the formation

    E-print Network

    U^Pb zircon chronostratigraphy of early-Pliocene ignimbrites from La Pacana, north Chile of zircons from two consanguineous ignimbrites of contrasting composition, the high-silica rhyolitic Toconao in this study. Zircons from Atana and Toconao pumice clasts yield apparent 238 U/206 Pb ages of 4.11 þ 0.20 Ma

  3. El mundo rural medieval en la historiografa en alemn desde 1930. Compromiso poltico, permanencia de las interpretaciones y dispersin de las

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    El mundo rural medieval en la historiografía en alemán desde 1930. Compromiso político, permanencia Neither the achievements nor shortcomings of German-language historiography of medieval rural history. Consequently rural history today has only a rather marginal position, reinforced by its difficulty, not so much

  4. NEUROQUÍMICA Y TOXICODEPENDENCIA ENFOQUE DESDE LAS NEUROCIENCIAS COGNOSCITIVAS RODOLFO J. RODRIGUEZ R. E-MAIL:RODOLFOR @@@@CARIARI.UCR.AC.CR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RODOLFO J. RODRÍGUEZ-R

    INTRODUCCIÓN: Desde tiempos inmemoriales el ser humano ha tratado de explicar su conducta y sus experiencias introspectivas en términos de alma, mente o espíritu y de sus propiedades asociadas. Dentro de éste contexto se trató de explicar fenómenos subjetivos como: los sentimientos de aflicción, placer, alegría, melancolía etc.; acciones volitivas, el razonamiento, la imaginación y la inspiración como expresiones de

  5. Comparative analysis of the impact of geological activity on the structural design of telescope facilities in the Canary Islands, Hawaii and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eff-Darwich, A.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Rodriguez-Losada, J. A.; de La Nuez, J.; Hernández-Gutiérrez, L. E.; Romero-Ruiz, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    An analysis of the impact of seismic and volcanic activity has been carried out at selected astronomical sites, namely the observatories of El Teide (Tenerife, Canary Islands), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma, Canary Islands), Mauna Kea (Hawaii) and Paranal (Chile), and the candidate site of Cerro Ventarrones (Chile). Hazard associated with volcanic activity is low or negligible at all sites, whereas seismic hazard is very high in Chile and Hawaii. The lowest geological hazard in both seismic and volcanic activity is found at Roque de los Muchachos observatory, on the island of La Palma.

  6. A new flea, Ectinorus (Ectinorus) insignis n. sp. (Siphonaptera, Rhopalopsyllidae, Parapsyllinae), with notes on the subgenus Ectinorus in Chile and comments on unciform sclerotization in the superfamily Malacopsylloidea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A list is provided for the species of Ectinorus sensu stricto from Chile. Ectinorus (Ectinorus) insignis n. sp. is described from Chile: this species is characterized by the male genitalia. In the subgenus Ectinorus, the authors report the presence in Chile of E. pilosus Beaucournu & Carmen Castro, 2002 described from Argentina and E. simonsi (Rothschild, 1904) described from Bolivia but also known from Peru. A female neallotype is designated for E. ineptus Johnson, 1957. “Unciform sclerotization” is noted and illustrated for the first time, in all Malacopsylloidea, and a list is given for all studied species. PMID:24125080

  7. Multiple Slow-Slip Events Leading up to the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.1 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, A.; Nakagawa, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 1 April 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.1 earthquake occurred at 23:46(UTC) along a mega-thrust fault off northernmost Chile, where the Nazca plate is subducting beneath the South America plate at a convergence rate of ~8 cm/year. Northernmost Chile has been quiescent for 136 years since the 1877 M 8.6 earthquake, resulting in a current "North Chile seismic gap" stretching for ~450 km length along the strike of the plate boundary. According to the US Geological Survey (USGS) catalog, the mainshock was preceded by intensive foreshock sequence lasting around 15 days. To obtain a precise record of the foreshock sequence before the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.1 earthquake, we applied a matched-filter technique to continuous seismograms recorded near the source region. We newly detected about 10 times the number of seismic events listed in the routinely constructed earthquake catalog, and identified multiple sequences of earthquake migrations at speeds of 2-10 km/day, both along-strike and down-dip on the fault plane, up-dip of the mainshock area. In addition, we found out repeating earthquakes from the newly detected events, likely indicating aseismic slip along the plate boundary fault during the foreshock sequence. These observations suggest the occurrence of multiple slow-slip events up-dip of the mainshock area. The final slow-slip event, which had the fastest migration speed, migrated toward the mainshock nucleation point. We interpret that several parts of the plate boundary fault perhaps experienced slow slip, causing stress loading on the prospective largest slip patch of the mainshock rupture (Kato and Obara, 2014).

  8. Evaluation of an integrated system for classification, assessment and comparison of services for long-term care in Europe: the eDESDE-LTC study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The harmonization of European health systems brings with it a need for tools to allow the standardized collection of information about medical care. A common coding system and standards for the description of services are needed to allow local data to be incorporated into evidence-informed policy, and to permit equity and mobility to be assessed. The aim of this project has been to design such a classification and a related tool for the coding of services for Long Term Care (DESDE-LTC), based on the European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS). Methods The development of DESDE-LTC followed an iterative process using nominal groups in 6 European countries. 54 researchers and stakeholders in health and social services contributed to this process. In order to classify services, we use the minimal organization unit or “Basic Stable Input of Care” (BSIC), coded by its principal function or “Main Type of Care” (MTC). The evaluation of the tool included an analysis of feasibility, consistency, ontology, inter-rater reliability, Boolean Factor Analysis, and a preliminary impact analysis (screening, scoping and appraisal). Results DESDE-LTC includes an alpha-numerical coding system, a glossary and an assessment instrument for mapping and counting LTC. It shows high feasibility, consistency, inter-rater reliability and face, content and construct validity. DESDE-LTC is ontologically consistent. It is regarded by experts as useful and relevant for evidence-informed decision making. Conclusion DESDE-LTC contributes to establishing a common terminology, taxonomy and coding of LTC services in a European context, and a standard procedure for data collection and international comparison. PMID:23768163

  9. Mid-Cretaceous compressive deformation in Central Chile: The beginning of the Andean building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, D. I.; Charrier, R.; Tapia, F.; Farías, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Andean building has been traditionally considered as a consequence of successive orogenic phases mostly occurring during the Cenozoic. However evidence from Peru-northern Chile and southern Argentina have shown a first contractional pulse during the mid to late Cretaceous. Between these regions, however, there are no reports evidencing this event, hence which open the questions about the real impact of this orogeny along the western boundary of South America. Likewise, the occurrence of this event in central Chile-Argentina could be evidencing that this first contractional pulse in the Andes respond to a major synchronous orogeny along the entire former western margin of Gondwana after a long period of extension since the Triassic. In this context, our study, located approximately at the latitude of the Aconcagua mount (32º50'S), reveals the existence of contractional structures, developed east of the Early Cretaceous magmatic arc, deforming Aptian rocks deposited in an extensional setting. Particularly, the geometry exhibited by a regional east-vergent anticline evidences inversion tectonics in which a thick Albian molasse unit is developed in the frontal limb and beyond with growth strata. Later this synorogenic deposits were thrusted and then covered unconformably by Upper Cretaceous volcanic unit, sealing the deformation of the Aptian-Albian rocks. Finally all these deposits were gently deformed and unconformably covered by a Maastrichtian volcanic unit. Studies of provenance indicate a transitional arc origin for the sandstones contained in the synorogenic deposits, which is in agree with the reported exhumation of previous Andean magmatic arc. Our data evidence the beginning of the contractional deformation, marking the onset of the orogeny in central Chile, during the mid-Cretaceous. Therefore we can propose that the Peruvian orogenic phase extended along most of the Southamerican margin. The location farther west, close to the concurrent arc, and it slightly older age respect to that evidenced north and south of the study region would not indicate a diachronism in the orogenic onset, but that deformation progressed from the arc to the eastern foreland. Considering that this orogeny lasted since the Albian to the Upper Cretaceous. This study has been supported by the FONDECYT project N° 1120272.

  10. Upper lithospheric structure of the subduction zone offshore of southern Arauco peninsula, Chile, at ˜38°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras-Reyes, Eduardo; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Flueh, Ernst R.; Reichert, Christian

    2008-07-01

    A joint interpretation of swath bathymetric, seismic refraction, wide-angle reflection, and multichannel seismic data was used to derive a detailed tomographic image of the Nazca-South America subduction zone system offshore southern Arauco peninsula, Chile at ˜38°S. Here, the trench basin is filled with up to 2.2 km of sediments, and the Mocha Fracture Zone (FZ) is obliquely subducting underneath the South American plate. The velocity model derived from the tomographic inversion consists of a ˜7-km-thick oceanic crust and shows P wave velocities typical for mature fast spreading crust in the seaward section of the profile, with uppermost mantle velocities >8.4 km s-1. In the trench-outer rise area, the top of incoming oceanic plate is pervasively fractured and likely hydrated as shown by extensional faults, horst-and-graben structures, and a reduction of both crustal and mantle velocities. These slow velocities are interpreted in terms of extensional bending-related faulting leading to fracturing and hydration in the upper part of the oceanic lithosphere. The incoming Mocha FZ coincides with an area of even slower velocities and thinning of the oceanic crust (10-15% thinning), suggesting that the incoming fracture zone may enhance the flux of chemically bound water into the subduction zone. Slow mantle velocities occur down to a maximum depth of 6-8 km into the upper mantle, where mantle temperatures are estimated to be 400-430°C. In the overriding plate, the tomographic model reveals two prominent velocity transition zones characterized by steep lateral velocity gradients, resulting in a seismic segmentation of the marine fore arc. The margin is composed of three main domains: (1) a ˜20 km wide frontal prism below the continental slope with Vp ? 3.5 km s-1, (2) a ˜50 km area with Vp = 4.5-5.5 km s-1, interpreted as a paleoaccretionary complex, and (3) the seaward edge of the Paleozoic continental framework with Vp ? 6.0 km s-1. Frontal prism velocities are noticeably lower than those found in the northern erosional Chile margin, confirming recent accretionary processes in south central Chile.

  11. Transit time of water discharges from catchments in coastal mountain of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante-Ortega, Ramon; Morgenstern, Uwe; Ramirez de Arellano, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    Water quantity and quality response of forest catchments to climate and land-use change are difficult to understand and predict due to complexities of subsurface water flow paths. The main focus of forest hydrology in Chile has been the effect of canopy and soil together with rain in water availability. Groundwater, as a factor in water availability especially during dry season, has not been studied. Only a few studies have been carried out in northern Chile in a non-forestry area using the stable isotopes of the water to characterize recharge and depletion of the aquifer. We use tritium for understanding the dynamics of groundwater through small watersheds over a latitudinal gradient in the coastal range of Central Chile. The zone constitutes rapid growth plantations and a large population that depend on surface water and groundwater for drinking, agriculture, pasture and industry. The study areas have metamorphic bedrock with a Mediterranean weather, and precipitation ranging from 700-800 mm year-1 in the North (Constitución area) to 2300-2500 mm year-1 in the South (Valdivia area). The watersheds have been forested with Pinus radiata in 2003 and 1990 respectively, and flow stations were installed in 2008 by Forestal Arauco S.A. to identify the forest management impact on the water cycle. Tritium is present in meteoric water and decays through radioactive decay. In groundwater, which is separated from the tritium production source in the atmosphere, the tritium concentration decreases over time and therefore allows for determination of the residence time of the water in the groundwater system, and the lag time between recharge of the water, and discharge into the streams. Preliminary results of rain samples collected in 2014 in Constitución confirm the tritium input estimate that we made using the New Zealand input data from similar latitude, and the IAEA data (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/ih/IHS_resources_gnip.html). The mean residence time of the water in the stream at base flow is between 9 and 15 years, older during summer. The results of the Valdivia rain samples collected in 2014 show that the tritium input is slightly higher than estimated from the IAEA and New Zealand rain data. The mean residence time of the water in the stream at base flow is 5-7 years in winter, and approximately 10 years in summer. In the next phases of this study we will incorporate more watersheds from different precipitation and land use zones into the tritium survey, derive groundwater storage in the catchments, and develop water flow models that are validated by the tritium data.

  12. GPS-derived interseismic coupling on the subduction and seismic hazards in the Atacama region, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métois, M.; Vigny, C.; Socquet, A.; Delorme, A.; Morvan, S.; Ortega, I.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.-M.

    2014-02-01

    The Atacama region (between 29°S and 25°S) is located in the North-Central area of Chile, a tectonically complex transition area between North and Central Chile. Deformation in Atacama is due mainly to elastic loading on the subduction interface but also to diffuse shortening in the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina. The seismicity of the subduction is complex in this region: seismic swarms often occur, moderate (Mw ˜ 6) to large (Mw ˜ 7) earthquakes occur repeatedly and finally, megathrust earthquakes of magnitudes significantly larger than 8 occur once in a while, the last one being in 1922-almost a century ago. We use new GPS data we collected in the Atacama region between 2008 and 2012 to complete and densify existing data we acquired since 2004 in North-Central Chile. These new data allow to quantify the motion of the Andean sliver and assess the kinematic coupling on the subduction interface at these latitudes. We find that only 7 per cent of the whole convergence motion is taken up by an eastward rotation of the rigid sliver. A large part of the remaining 93 per cent (approximately 6 cm yr-1) gives way to accumulation of elastic deformation in the upper plate, due to locking on the plate interface. This accumulation shows important along-strike and along-dip variations, interpreted in terms of variable coupling which we correlate with seismicity. We identify two areas of low coupling near the `La Serena' (30°S) and `Baranquilla' (27.5°S) bays. Both are correlated with the subduction of singular bathymetric features and seem to stop the propagation of large seismic ruptures. These zones are also seismic swarm prone areas, which seem to occur rather on their edges. These low coupling areas separate two seismic segments where coupling is high: the Atacama segment (˜100 km long between 29°S and 28°S) and the Chañaral segment (˜200 km long between 27°S and 25°S). Should they rupture alone, these segments are sufficiently coupled and apparently since long enough, to produce Mw ˜ 8 events. However, a collective failure of both segments could generate a megathrust earthquake of magnitude close to 8.5, similar to the 1819 and 1922 complex events, which produced important tsunamis. Such giant events may occur in the area once a century.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL HOSTILITY, INDIVIDUAL LEARNING, AND INTRAPRENEURSHIP AS PREDICTORS OF ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING: A STUDY APPLIED TO TWO SELECTED MINING COMPANIES IN CHILE 

    E-print Network

    Molina Oyarce, Carlos E.

    2010-07-14

    , Individual Learning, Intrapreneurship, and Organizational Learning for two selected mining companies in Chile. A survey instrument was applied to 383 participants who worked in the mining companies. Structural Equation Modeling was the statistical technique...

  14. A tissue, a building, Santiago de Chile : transformation of the images and elements of the language of space and form into the design of a promenade

    E-print Network

    Girard, Corinne Catherine

    1983-01-01

    This study explores a strategy for an urban intervention in Centro Poniente, Santiago de Chile. Centro Poniente represents an urban district that needs some sense of focus and orientation. The hypothesis is that such an ...

  15. Technological change in the salmon farming industry in Chile : using investment decision tools to model an innovation path and a framework for developing a new technology

    E-print Network

    Lonza, Carlos (Lonza Robledo)

    2012-01-01

    Salmon farming is one of Chile's main economic activities, as well as a major factor in the country's aquaculture sector, and critical to the economic growth strategies proposed by the government. Chilean salmon farming ...

  16. Los Efectos de la Indización Cambiaria y Salarial en el Control de la Inflación: el Caso de Chile, 1975-1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Galetovic; Luis Felipe Lagos

    1990-01-01

    In 1975 Chile implemented an ortodox stabilization program. The fiscal deficit was sharply reduced and monetary policy was tight. However, indexation of wages and the exchange rate to past inflation implied that inflation only gradually declined. In fact,

  17. Nomad rover field experiment, Atacama desert, Chile 2. Identification of paleolife evidence using a robotic vehicle: Lessons and recommendations for a Mars sample return mission

    E-print Network

    Cabrol, N.A.; Bettis III, E.A.; Glenister, B.; Chong, G.; Herrera, C.; Jensen, A.; Pereira, M; Stoker, R.; Grin, E.A.; Landheim, R.; Thomas, G.; Golden, J.; Saville, K.; Ludvigson, Gregory A.; Witzke, B.

    2001-04-25

    During the Nomad Rover Field Experiment in the Atacama Desert (Chile), a potential fossil was identified in a boulder by the science team remotely located at NASA Ames Research Center, California. The science team requested ...

  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of the neuraminidase gene of the human influenza virus A\\/Chile\\/1\\/83 (H1N1)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Schreier; H. Roeske; G. Driesel; U. Künkel; D. R. Petzold; R. Berlinghoff; S. Michel

    1988-01-01

    Summary The complete nucleotide sequence of the neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza virus A\\/Chile\\/1\\/83 (H1N1) has been determined after reverse transcription and cloning into the plasmid pAT 153\\/PvuII\\/8. The gene is 1461 nucleotides long and codes for a protein of 470 amion acids. The overall nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of the A\\/Chile\\/1\\/83 NA exhibits a high homology with

  19. Inland water microcrustacean assemblages in an altitudinal gradient in Aysen region (46° S, Patagonia Chile).

    PubMed

    De los Ríos-Escalante, Patricio; Quinán, Esteban; Acevedo, Patricio

    2014-02-01

    The Chilean Patagonia has numerous kinds of inland water ecosystems such as lakes, ponds, wetlands and rivers that have been poorly studied due to access difficulties. This study was carried out in Aysen region, in southern Chile, and it included different kinds of water bodies such as rivers, streams, ponds, lagoons and lakes distributed along an altitudinal gradient at 46° S. It was found a low species number, essentially cladocerans, copepods and amphipods. A null model was applied in order to determine the existence of regulator factors of species associations, and the results revealed that they are not random. The patterns would be influenced by geographical and limnological characteristics of the studied sites. Our results would agree with regional studies on habitat heterogeneity such as in Torres del Paine National Park and other zones in Tierra del Fuego island. PMID:25055081

  20. Aftershocks and Images of South Central Chile: Results from the Analysis of the IMAD Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roecker, S. W.; Beck, S. L.; Morell, M.; Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Meltzer, A.; Stachnik, J. C.; Russo, R. M.; Torpey, M.; Benz, H.

    2013-05-01

    In response to the Mw=8.8, Maule earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010, seismologists from France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States joined their Chilean colleagues to install seismic stations between 33-38.5S, from the coast to the foothills of the Andes to produce the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD) data set. These stations were deployed starting in mid-March with some stations pulled out in late September while others remained recording until the end of December of 2010. We used procedures developed by the USGS National Earthquake Information Center to generate earthquake locations, magnitudes, phase readings and regional moment tensors solutions. The catalog consists of some 44,000 events to approximately M2.0. We use the catalog locations and travel times as a starting point we use double difference techniques to investigate relative locations and earthquake clustering. We generated Receiver Functions (RFs) from teleseismic P and PP phases and construct common conversion point stacks to image the structure of the slab and forearc region down to a depth of ~120 km. The migrated RF image the oceanic slab Moho on several E-W and N-S profiles at 40 to 60 km depth beneath the array and several discontinuities above the slab in the forearc. We also image a prominent Ps conversion that we interpret as the continental Moho at ~35 km under the foothills of the Andes and decreasing to 25-30 km under the central valley of Chile. We observe a prominent Ps conversion at ~40-50 km depth on a NNE-SSW cross-section parallel to the strike of the slab that we interpret as the oceanic Moho in the down-going slab. We created an Ambient Noise Tomography image combining IMAD stations with other temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations in Chile and Argentina to obtain absolute shear velocities in the crust. Phase velocity maps between periods of 8 and 40 sec are inverted for a 3-D shear-wave velocity at 0.1° grid spacing. At shallow depths the basins in the backarc of the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina show clear low shear wave velocities. The Chile forearc has higher shear velocities (>3.8 km/s) at all depths between 32 and 38S. Much of the active arc shows lower shear wave velocities (<3.5 km/s) at mid and lower crustal depths consistent with warm temperatures. We used two spectral ratio methods to determine shear wave attenuation in the earthquake rupture zone. Both methods reveal diminution of the ratio of spectral amplitudes of P and S waves observed along a given source-station path. The first calculates 400 individual Qs values for the phase pair. In the second method, spectra of each of the 400 iterations are stacked, yielding a Qs value obtained from the slope of the composite spectrum. Preliminary measurements, deemed acceptable when the two methods agree, show a variation of Qs values from ~100 to 1000.

  1. Discovery of a blue whale feeding and nursing ground in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Osman, Layla P; Moreno, Carlos A; Findlay, Ken P; Ljungblad, Don K

    2004-05-01

    After the extensive exploitation that reduced the Southern Hemisphere blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) populations to less than 3% of its original numbers, studies on its recovery have been compounded by the inaccessibility of most populations and the extensive migrations between low and high latitudes, thus ensuring that knowledge about blue whale ecology and status remains limited. We report the recent discovery of, arguably, the most important blue whale feeding and nursing ground known to date in the Southern Hemisphere, which is located near the fjords off southern Chile. Through aerial and marine surveys (n = 7) 47 groups, comprising 153 blue whales including at least 11 mother-calf pairs, were sighted during the austral summer and early autumn of 2003. The implications of this discovery on the biological understanding and conservation of this endangered species are discussed. PMID:15252974

  2. Observations of rapid-fire event tremor at Lascar volcano, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asch, Guenter; Wylegalla, K.; Hellweg, M.; Seidl, D.; Rademacher, H.

    1996-01-01

    During the Proyecto de Investigacio??n Sismolo??gica de la Cordillera Occidental (PISCO '94) in the Atacama desert of Northern Chile, a continuously recording broadband seismic station was installed to the NW of the currently active volcano, Lascar. For the month of April, 1994, an additional network of three, short period, three-component stations was deployed around the volcano to help discriminate its seismic signals from other local seismicity. During the deployment, the volcanic activity at Lascar appeared to be limited mainly to the emission of steam and SO2. Tremor from Lascar is a random, ??rapid-fire?? series of events with a wide range of amplitudes and a quasi-fractal structure. The tremor is generated by an ensemble of independent elementary sources clustered in the volcanic edifice. In the short-term, the excitation of the sources fluctuates strongly, while the long-term power spectrum is very stationary.

  3. Anisotropy and mantle flow in the Chile-Argentina subduction zone from shear wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Megan L.; Zandt, George; Triep, Enrique; Fouch, Matthew; Beck, Susan

    2004-12-01

    We examine shear wave splitting in teleseismic phases to observe seismic anisotropy in the South American subduction zone. Data is from the CHARGE network, which traversed Chile and western Argentina across two transects between 30°S and 36°S. Beneath the southern and northwestern parts of the network, fast polarization direction ($\\varphi$) is consistently trench-parallel, while in the northeast $\\varphi$ is trench-normal the transition between these two zones is gradual. We infer that anisotropy sampled by teleseismic phases is localized within or below the subducting slab. We explain our observations with a model in which eastward, Nazca-entrained asthenospheric flow is deflected by retrograde motion of the subducting Nazca plate. Resulting southward flow through this area produces N-S $\\varphi$ observed in the south and northwest; E-W $\\varphi$ result from interaction of this flow with the local slab geometry producing eastward mantle flow under the actively flattening part of the slab.

  4. Regional gravity decrease after the 2010 Maule (Chile) earthquake indicates large-scale mass redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shin-Chan; Sauber, Jeanne; Luthcke, Scott

    2010-12-01

    We report small but detectable changes in the GRACE satellites' relative trajectory after the M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake on 27 February 2010 that can be used to delineate the shift in the gravity field. A gravity anomaly of -5 ?Gal with a spatial scale of 500 km was found east of the epicenter after the earthquake. Based on coseismic models, the long-wavelength negative gravity change is primarily the result of crustal dilatation as well as surface subsidence in the onland region. The offshore positive gravity anomaly predicted from finite fault coseismic models is considerably smaller because the gravity changes due to surface uplift and interior deformation are opposite in polarity. Our study suggests a role for large-scale gravity observations in deciphering changes of the Earth's interior during great earthquakes by filling in the seldom-observed long-wavelength spectrum of earthquake deformations as a complement to surface geodetic measurements and seismic data.

  5. Human occupations and climate change in the Puna de Atacama, Chile.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Lautaro; Grosjean, Martin; Cartajena, Isabel

    2002-10-25

    Widespread evidence for human occupation of the Atacama Desert, 20 degrees to 25 degrees S in northern Chile, has been found from 13,000 calibrated 14C years before the present (cal yr B.P.) to 9500 cal yr B.P., and again after 4500 cal yr B.P. Initial human occupation coincided with a change from very dry environments to humid environments. More than 39 open early Archaic campsites at elevations above 3600 meters show that hunters lived around late glacial/early Holocene paleolakes on the Altiplano. Cessation of the use of the sites between 9500 and 4500 cal yr B.P. is associated with drying of the lakes. The mid-Holocene collapse of human occupation is also recorded in cave deposits. One cave contained Pleistocene fauna associated with human artifacts. Faunal diversity was highest during the humid early Holocene. PMID:12399589

  6. Description and life cycle of a new Physarum (Myxomycetes) from the Atacama Desert in Chile.

    PubMed

    de Basanta, D Wrigley; Lado, C; Estrada-Torres, A

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Physarum (Myxomycetes), Physarum atacamense is described in this paper, and details are provided on its life cycle as observed in spore-to-spore culture in agar. The new species was collected during studies of the Atacama Desert in Chile. It has been collected directly in the field and isolated in moist chamber cultures prepared with material from an endemic cactus. The combination of characters that make this species unique in the genus are its large fusiform nodes of the capillitium, its long, bicolored stalk and the very dark brown and densely warted angular spores. The morphology of specimens of this myxomycete was examined with scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, and micrographs of relevant details and life cycle stages are included in this paper. The importance of resistant stages in the life cycle of this myxomycete is stressed, and the close association of this myxomycete with its plant substrates is discussed. PMID:22492409

  7. Halorubrum tebenquichense sp. nov., a novel halophilic archaeon isolated from the Atacama Saltern, Chile.

    PubMed

    Lizama, Catherine; Monteoliva-Sánchez, Mercedes; Suárez-García, Antonio; Roselló-Mora, Ramón; Aguilera, Margarita; Campos, Victoriano; Ramos-Cormenzana, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    A novel extremely halophilic archaeon was isolated from Lake Tebenquiche, situated in the northern part of the Atacama Saltern, Chile. The cells of these micro-organisms were mostly irregularly disc-shaped. They grew in medium containing saturated concentrations of NaCl and did not require magnesium for optimal growth. The polar lipid composition revealed the presence of mannosyl-2-sulfate-(1-4)-glycosyl-archaeol, the main glycolipid of the genus Halorubrum, and two new glycolipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 63.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene placed strain ALT6-92T within the Halorubrum cluster. The low DNA-DNA hybridization value justified classification in a new species for which the name Halorubrum tebenquichense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ALT6-92T (= CECT 5317T = DSM 14210T). PMID:11837297

  8. Taxonomic study of extreme halophilic archaea isolated from the "Salar de Atacama", Chile.

    PubMed

    Lizama, C; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M; Prado, B; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Weckesser, J; Campos, V

    2001-11-01

    A large number of halophilic bacteria were isolated in 1984-1992 from the Atacama Saltern (North of Chile). For this study 82 strains of extreme halophilic archaea were selected. The characterization was performed by using the phenotypic characters including morphological, physiological, biochemical, nutritional and antimicrobial susceptibility test. The results, together with those from reference strains, were subjected to numerical analysis, using the Simple Matching (S(SM)) coefficient and clustered by the unweighted pair group method of association (UPGMA). Fifteen phena were obtained at an 70% similarity level. The results obtained reveal a high diversity among the halophilic archaea isolated. Representative strains from the phena were chosen to determine their DNA base composition and the percentage of DNA-DNA similarity compared to reference strains. The 16S rRNA studies showed that some of these strains constitutes a new taxa of extreme halophilic archaea. PMID:11822685

  9. Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

    2014-11-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucanía region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. PMID:25137143

  10. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation pattern discriminates cholecystitis from gallbladder cancer patients in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Kagohara, Luciane Tsukamoto; Schussel, Juliana L; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini; Lebron, Cynthia; Brait, Mariana; Maldonado, Leonel; Valle, Blanca L; Pirini, Francesca; Jahuira, Martha; Lopez, Jaime; Letelier, Pablo; Brebi-Mieville, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen; Pandey, Akhilesh; Chatterjee, Aditi; Sidransky, David; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes as potential biomarkers for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in a cohort from Chile. Material & methods DNA methylation was analyzed through an ELISA-based technique and quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Results Global DNA Methylation Index (p = 0.02) and promoter methylation of SSBP2 (p = 0.01) and ESR1 (p = 0.05) were significantly different in GBC when compared with cholecystitis. Receiver curve operator analysis revealed promoter methylation of APC, CDKN2A, ESR1, PGP9.5 and SSBP2, together with the Global DNA Methylation Index, had 71% sensitivity, 95% specificity, a 0.97 area under the curve and a positive predictive value of 90%. Conclusion Global and gene-specific DNA methylation may be useful biomarkers for GBC clinical assessment. PMID:25066711

  11. The Feasibility of Forecasting Cirrus Cloud Cover and Water Vapor Above Telescope Sites in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erasmus, D. A.; Peterson, R.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to examine the feasibility of forecasting cirrus cloud cover and atmospheric water vapor at European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescope sites in Chile at Paranal and La Silla. 6.7 ?m imagery from the Meteosat-3 satellite was used to quantify water vapor and cirrus cloud cover conditions above the sites. Using these data in conjunction with upper-air meteorological data, a method was developed to forecast the amount and type of cirrus cloud cover and water vapor above the telescopes. Forecasts were made of moisture and cloud parameters for four periods in 1993 and 1994 and evaluated by an objective comparison of forecasted and measured values. The results clearly indicate that it is feasible to forecast water vapor and cirrus cloud conditions above Paranal and La Silla with an accuracy that would be useful for telescope scheduling. (SECTION: Atmospheric Phenomena and Seeing)

  12. Post-crisis analysis of an ineffective tsunami alert: the 2010 earthquake in Maule, Chile.

    PubMed

    Soulé, Bastien

    2014-04-01

    Considering its huge magnitude and its location in a densely populated area of Chile, the Maule seism of 27 February 2010 generated a low amount of victims. However, post-seismic tsunamis were particularly devastating on that day; surprisingly, no full alert was launched, not at the national, regional or local level. This earthquake and associated tsunamis are of interest in the context of natural hazards management as well as crisis management planning. Instead of focusing exclusively on the event itself, this article places emphasis on the process, systems and long-term approach that led the tsunami alert mechanism to be ineffectual. Notably, this perspective reveals interrelated forerunner signs of vulnerability. PMID:24601922

  13. Maintaining of the Eastern South Pacific Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulmier, A.; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Garçon, V.; Farías, L.

    2006-10-01

    Processes regulating OMZs persistence in the oxygenated ocean remain poorly understood. Four cruises (21°-30°S) and fixed-point monitoring (36°S) between 2000 and 2002 using techniques adapted to O2 conditions as low as 1 ?M allow a preliminary analysis of the entire Chilean OMZ structure. A shallow OMZ is observed in the three studied areas, although its structure differs. Off northern and central Chile, the OMZ is a permanent feature, more pronounced at the coast than further offshore. On the shelf, it forms in spring and erodes in fall. A conceptual model of two intermittent active or passive phases (intense or low biogeochemical O2 consumption) is proposed as a key mechanism for the local OMZ maintaining. The highest O2 consumptions are paradoxically favoured at the oxycline when the OMZ is less intense as offshore and on the shelf in spring and fall, suggesting a control by O2 availability of the OMZ remineralization.

  14. Tests of the HYDAD-D Landmine Detector on Dry Soil in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavez, Cristian; Brooks, Frank D.; Smit, F. D.; Moreno, José; Altamirano, Luis; Soto, Leopoldo

    2010-08-01

    HYDAD is an acronym of HYdrogen Density Anomaly Detector. It is a device that detects hydrogen-rich objects by analysis the energy-moderation of fast neutrons by hydrogen [1]. A HYDAD-D was assembled at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) guided by the South African developers, aimed to detecting landmines in arid soils. The device was tested under controlled conditions in dry soil equivalent to the mine fields of the frontier zones of the north of Chile. The tests were carried out in Arica, in collaboration with the Chilean Army, using antipersonnel landmines, antitank landmines and objects with a high Hydrogen content (e.g, water vessel, paraffin wax). The test results demonstrated that HYDAD-D can detect antipersonnel landmines as small as the M14 (mass 100 g, including only 29 g of TNT in a plastic container), in dry sand, at typical landmines bury-depths (less than 5 cm).

  15. Determining the feasibility of establishing new multiple-use marine protected areas in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Lavín, Felipe; Simon, Jeanne W; Paz-Lerdón, Ximena

    2013-12-01

    This paper evaluates the feasibility of establishing a multiple-use marine protected area. The methodology was applied to evaluate three proposed sites in Chile with diverse conservation needs, social stress and poverty levels, and different economic activities (small-scale fishing, heavy industry, and mining activities). We use two broad categories for the evaluation: socio-economic and political-institutional. The methodology uses a combination of secondary data with personal interviews, workshops, and focus groups with stakeholders (e.g., fishermen, unions, politicians, social organizations) from different political, social, and economic backgrounds to characterize current and potential natural and social resources and to evaluate in an ordinal scale the feasibility of establishing the protected area. The methodology allows us to correctly identify the challenges faced in each site and can be used to develop appropriate strategies for balancing economic, social, and environmental objectives. This methodology can be replicated to evaluate the feasibility of other marine or terrestrial protected areas. PMID:24213998

  16. Coal-complex rehabilitation projects in Chile. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The report describes the definitional mission to evaluate the prospects of the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) funding a feasibility and coal mining study that would assist the Government of Chile in improving electrical generating and coal mining in the country. It was ascertained during the mission that the French government has had several discussions with Empreso Nacional de Carbon S.A. (ENACAR) and may shortly provide grants for a number of studies relevant to the Lota mine. The majority of the grant will be used to study the port improvements at the Lota underground mine. ENACAR indicated that it would like to see TDP propose funding for the following projects: Lota Mine Development; Lota Waste Coal Power Plant; Carampanque Coal Reserve Development; and Isla Riesco Coal Reserve Development.

  17. The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake of Central Chile, monitored by GPS.

    PubMed

    Vigny, C; Socquet, A; Peyrat, S; Ruegg, J-C; Métois, M; Madariaga, R; Morvan, S; Lancieri, M; Lacassin, R; Campos, J; Carrizo, D; Bejar-Pizarro, M; Barrientos, S; Armijo, R; Aranda, C; Valderas-Bermejo, M-C; Ortega, I; Bondoux, F; Baize, S; Lyon-Caen, H; Pavez, A; Vilotte, J P; Bevis, M; Brooks, B; Smalley, R; Parra, H; Baez, J-C; Blanco, M; Cimbaro, S; Kendrick, E

    2011-06-17

    Large earthquakes produce crustal deformation that can be quantified by geodetic measurements, allowing for the determination of the slip distribution on the fault. We used data from Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in Central Chile to infer the static deformation and the kinematics of the 2010 moment magnitude (M(w)) 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake. From elastic modeling, we found a total rupture length of ~500 kilometers where slip (up to 15 meters) concentrated on two main asperities situated on both sides of the epicenter. We found that rupture reached shallow depths, probably extending up to the trench. Resolvable afterslip occurred in regions of low coseismic slip. The low-frequency hypocenter is relocated 40 kilometers southwest of initial estimates. Rupture propagated bilaterally at about 3.1 kilometers per second, with possible but not fully resolved velocity variations. PMID:21527673

  18. Three New Species of Etamphidelus Andrássy, 1977 (Nemata: Alaimidae) in Southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Coomans, A. V.; Raski, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Three new species of Etamphidelus are described from Orange Bay, Hoste Island, Chile. All three are distinguished from previously described species by their numerous longitudinal cuticular ridges. E. acucephalus n. sp. is further distinguished by its extremely narrowed anterior body region and posteriorly situated amphids. E. fueguensis n. sp. is distinguished from E. acucephalus by its anteriorly located amphideal fovea, fewer cuticular ridges, smaller V-an/tail ratio and presence of males. E. yamani n. sp. is more similar to E. fueguensis n. sp. differing from it by a wider head end, more posteriorly located excretory pore, longer V-an/tail ratio, more numerous cuticular ridges and smaller spermatozoa. E. puccinelliae (Lorenzen, 1966) Andrássy, 1977 is transferred to Paramphidelus puccinelliae (Lorenzen, 1966) n. comb. The generic diagnosis of Etamphidelus is amended, and a key to species is presented. PMID:19290180

  19. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability. PMID:17653395

  20. Prevention at school level. Chile: "Education for prevention and non-discrimination".

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    The Ministry of Education in Chile has adopted a policy that guarantees the right of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to be educated. The document, "Educational policy and sexuality," recommends incorporating sex education and AIDS prevention into the school curriculum. In San Bernardo, where one child was not accepted at school, a project, "Education for prevention and non-discrimination," was announced by municipal authorities. Students in public and private schools in the country have been trained as monitors who, in the school environment, educate other children about AIDS. In Santiago, seminars that cover fear of AIDS have begun for teachers, many of whom are afraid. Working groups are being considered for development and communication of prevention strategies in schools. PMID:12179320

  1. Late Paleozoic pseudoalbaillellid radiolarians from southernmost Chile and their geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hsin Yi; Forsythe, Randall D..

    Details of late Paleozoic (Late Carboniferous and Early Permian) radiolarians from Isla Madre de Dios and Isla Regalada of southernmost Chile are presented for the first time, and their faunal compositions compared with those of the published records. One new species, Pseudo-albaillella chilensis, and one new subspecies, Ps. u-forma reflexa are proposed. Ages suggested by these findings, having older (Late Carboniferous) age limits for the Madre de Dios Archipelago and younger (Early Permian) for Regalada Island, support a S to SE younging pattern for the timing of accretion and the material accreted for the forearc terrane. The trend may be continued into the Antarctic Peninsula, where even younger Triassic radiolarian chert has been reported.

  2. Geologic and metallogenic aspects concerning the Nahuelbuta mountains banded iron formation, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyarzún, R.; Clemmey, H.; Collao, S.

    1986-07-01

    Paleozoic banded-iron-formation (BIF) deposits occur within the Nahuelbuta-Queule Complex (south central Chile) which hosts the following stratigraphic units: Cabo Tirúa (green schists, mica schists, and metacherts), Lleu-Lleu (iron-bearing metacherts, mica schists, and serpentinites), and Colcura (metagraywackes and metapelites). The lithological, structural, and geochemical characteristics of the Lleu-Lleu and Cabo Tirúa units indicate that they were part of a tectonic mélange accreted to the South American paleocontinent during the Paleozoic. BIF ores are restricted to the Lleu-Lleu metacherts and are characterized by oxide-silicate-sulfide BIF facies. The iron-bearing metacherts present mineralogical and geochemical characteristics close to the volcanogenic BIF types and are thought to have been formed by submarine volcanic exhalative activity.

  3. Luni-solar 18.6-year signal in tree-rings from Argentina and Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cùrrie, Robert G.

    1991-09-01

    Spectrum analysis of 32 tree-ring chronologies from Argentina and Chile yields evidence for two peaks with periods 19.2±1.6 years (30 out of 32 records) and 10.5±0.4 years in 22 instances. Tests by the t-statistic show that the long-period peak is significant at a confidence level of 99%. This signal is identified as the luni-solar 18.6-year M n term reported earlier by Currie (1983) in two treering chronologies from the same region, and later in tree-rings from North America, Tasmania, New Zealand, and South Africa ( Currie, 1991a-c). Amplitude and phase of the M n signal are nonstationary with respect to both time and geography. In particular, abrupt 180° phase changes in wave polarity are often observed.

  4. SELECTED CHEMICAL ANALYSES AND GEOTHERMOMETRY OF HOT SPRING WATERS FROM THE CALABOZOS CALDERA, CENTRAL CHILE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.; Grunder, A.L.; Hildreth, Wes

    1983-01-01

    Hot springs discharging from the active hydrothermal system associated with the Calabozos caldera, Chile, have measured orifice temperatures as high as 98. 5 degree C and calculated geothermometer temperatures as high as 250 degree C. Three types of spring waters can be identified from the chemical analyses: a Na-Cl type, a Na-HCO//3 type and a Na-mixed anion type. Chloride-enthalpy relations indicate that the hydrothermal reservoir water may attain temperatures near 342 degree C and that most spring waters are mixed with cold meteoric water. Despite the proximity of Mesozoic marine gypsum deposits, the Cl/Br weight ratio of the Calabozos spring waters does not appear to indicate that these waters have a significant 'marine' signature. Refs.

  5. Central Andes mountains, Chile/Argentina as seen from STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Chilean coastline and the arid Atacama Desert stretch the length of the view with the high Andes on the eastern margin where hundreds of volcanoes dot the landscape. The wider (250-350 kilometers) Altiplano ('plains') sector of the Andes appears in the top half of the view, and the narrow (120 kilometers) 'mountain-chain-dominated' sector to the bottom. The northern half of Chile can be seen, with the 'hammer-head' peninsula at the city of Antofagasta, top left. Up welling of cold water as the Humboldt Current immediately offshore gives rise to low stratus cloud. The extensive cloud mass on the right lies beyond the Andes in the low country of Argentina's 'pampas' grasslands and Chaco semi-desert.

  6. New assessment of organic mercury formation in highly polluted sediments in the Lenga estuary, Chile.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, Jorge; Guajardo, Marjory; Miranda, Cristian; Soto, César; Mansilla, Héctor D; Flegal, A Russell

    2013-08-15

    Anomalously high levels of mercury in sediment in the Lenga estuary, Chile are comparable to the most contaminated sites previously reported elsewhere. Total mercury (Hgtotal) concentrations range from 0.5 to 129 mg kg(-1) and organic mercury (Hgorg) from 11 to 53 ?g kg(-1). The highest levels are in areas near the previous wastewater outfall of a chlo-alkali plant. The results show that the proportion of Hgorg/Hgtotal in the sediment varies by more than two orders of magnitude (0.02-5.7%) according to the concentration of Hgtotal. No correlation between the concentration of Hgorg and Hgtotal was found. The lack of correlation does contrast with the findings of other authors in culture media. Our results indicate that even at very high concentrations of Hgtotal and organic matter do not influence organic mercury formation in estuary sediments. The disparity in Hgtotal and Hgorg concentrations also attests to environmental differences in the formation. PMID:23859224

  7. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo A; Alvarado, Sergio; Neary, Daniel G; Valdes, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan; Aguirre, Juan José; Mena, Marcelo; Pizarro, Roberto; Jofré, Paola; Vera, Mauricio; Olivares, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities. PMID:24485904

  8. Phenol and nitrophenols in the air and dew waters of Santiago de Chile.

    PubMed

    Rubio, María A; Lissi, Eduardo; Herrera, Natalia; Pérez, Viviana; Fuentes, Natalia

    2012-03-01

    Phenol, nitrophenols and dinitrophenols were measured in air and dews in downtown Santiago de Chile. In both systems, phenol, 2-nitrophenol (2-NP), and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) were the compounds found in higher concentrations and with major frequency. Temporal profiles in air were compatible with a significant direct incorporation from mobile sources. The data can be explained in terms of a faster removal of 2-NP than 4-NP, with the former predominating in fresh air masses and 4-NP in more aged samples. All these compounds, as well as dinitrophenols, were found in dew waters. Simultaneous measurements in air and dew indicate that phenol present in dew exceeds that expected in equilibrated samples, while the opposite occurs with 4-NP. This last result is associated to mass transfer limitations for the highly water soluble nitroderivative. PMID:22178376

  9. Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Pablo A.; Santoro, Calogero M.; Latorre, Claudio; Standen, Vivien G.; Abades, Sebastián R.; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Hochberg, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of complex cultural practices in simple hunter-gatherer groups poses interesting questions on what drives social complexity and what causes the emergence and disappearance of cultural innovations. Here we analyze the conditions that underlie the emergence of artificial mummification in the Chinchorro culture in the coastal Atacama Desert in northern Chile and southern Peru. We provide empirical and theoretical evidence that artificial mummification appeared during a period of increased coastal freshwater availability and marine productivity, which caused an increase in human population size and accelerated the emergence of cultural innovations, as predicted by recent models of cultural and technological evolution. Under a scenario of increasing population size and extreme aridity (with little or no decomposition of corpses) a simple demographic model shows that dead individuals may have become a significant part of the landscape, creating the conditions for the manipulation of the dead that led to the emergence of complex mortuary practices. PMID:22891345

  10. Ant Colony Optimization detects anomalous aerosol variations associated with the Chile earthquake of 27 February 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2015-04-01

    This study attempts to acknowledge AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) seismo-atmospheric anomalies around the time of the Chile earthquake of 27 February 2010. Since AOD precursor alone might not be useful as an accurate and stand alone criteria for the earthquake anomalies detection, therefore it would be more appropriate to use and integrate a variety of other precursors to reduce the uncertainty of potential detected seismic anomalies. To achieve this aim, eight other precursors including GPS-TEC (Total Electron Content), H+, He+, O+ densities (cm-3) and total ion density (cm-3) from IAP experiment, electron density (cm-3) and electron temperature (K) from ISL experiment and VLF electric field from ICE experiment have been surveyed to detect unusual variations around the time and location of the Chile earthquake. Moreover, three methods including Interquartile, ANN (Artificial Neural Network) and ACO (Ant Colony Optimization) have been implemented to observe the discord patterns in time series of the AOD precursor. All of the methods indicate a clear abnormal increase in time series of AOD data, 2 days prior to event. Also a striking anomaly is observed in time series of TEC data, 6 days preceding the earthquake. Using the analysis of ICE data, a prominent anomaly is detected in the VLF electric field measurement, 1 day before the earthquake. The time series of H+, He+, O+ densities (cm-3) and total ion density (cm-3) from IAP and also electron density (cm-3) and electron temperature (K) from ISL, illustrate the abnormal behaviors, 3 days before the event. It should be noted that the acknowledgment of the different lead times in outcomes of the implemented precursors strictly depend on the proper understanding of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) coupling mechanism during seismic activities. It means that these different anomalies dates between LAI precursors can be a hint of truthfulness of multi-precursors analysis.

  11. Spoc-experiment: Seismic Imaging and Bathymetry of The Central Chile Margin - First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladage, S.; Reichert, C.; Schreckenberger, B.; Block, M.; Bönnemann, C.; Canuta, J.; Damaske, D.; Diaz-Naveas, J.; Gaedicke, C.; Krawczyk, C.; Kus, J.; Urbina, O.; Sepulveda, J.

    During the RV SONNE cruise 161 Leg 1 to 5 (October 2001 to January 2002) Sub- duction Processes Off Chile (SPOC) have been investigated using a multi-disciplinary geoscientific approach. Here we report first results of multi channel seismic (MCS) experiments and high-resolution swath bathymetry data from Leg 3, south of Val- paraiso. 24 MCS profiles with a total length of 3670 km were run between 36 S to 4020' S, providing a detailed view of the structures related to the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the Chile Margin. The oceanic crust of the Nazca Plate shows at least three sets of structural trends associated with the Mocha and Valdivia Fractures Zones, the spreading lineations and subduction related horst and graben structures. In the study area the trench is filled with well stratified turbidites up to 2 seconds TWT thick. Along the trench axis a turbidite channel exceeding 80 m relief exists. Several large deep sea fan complexes are developed at the slope toe. Their distributary canyons cut deep into the slope and shelf and can be traced back to major river mouths. The deformation front is coincident with the slope toe; compressional structures of the trench fill are uncommon. The deformation front is curved and offset along strike, caused presumably by collision and indentation of structures of the Nazca Plate. The most remarkable features of the MCS - profiles, yet, are the only very rudimentary developed modern accretionary prism as well as the high variability of the lower slope angles. Lower slope angles locally exceed 10. The continental crust extends seawards to the middle slope and acts as a backstop. Several profiles reveal landward dipping reflectors above the downgoing slab, possibly depicting a subduction channel beneath the slope. Thus, the geometry of the subduction units U a young thick trench fill, only rudimental frontal accretion and a subduction channel U argues for subduction of the bulk of the sediments.

  12. Turbidite paleoseismology along the active continental margin of Chile - Feasible or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anne; Melnick, Daniel; Hebbeln, Dierk; Lückge, Andreas; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-07-01

    Much progress has been made in estimating recurrence intervals of great and giant subduction earthquakes using terrestrial, lacustrine, and marine paleoseismic archives. Recent detailed records suggest these earthquakes may have variable recurrence periods and magnitudes forming supercycles. Understanding seismic supercycles requires long paleoseismic archives that record timing and magnitude of such events. Turbidite paleoseismic archives may potentially extend past earthquake records to the Pleistocene and can thus complement commonly shorter-term terrestrial archives. However, in order to unambiguously establish recurring seismicity as a trigger mechanism for turbidity currents, synchronous deposition of turbidites in widely spaced, isolated depocenters has to be ascertained. Furthermore, characteristics that predispose a seismically active continental margin to turbidite paleoseismology and the correct sample site selection have to be taken into account. Here we analyze 8 marine sediment cores along 950 km of the Chile margin to test for the feasibility of compiling detailed and continuous paleoseismic records based on turbidites. Our results suggest that the deposition of areally widespread, synchronous turbidites triggered by seismicity is largely controlled by sediment supply and, hence, the climatic and geomorphic conditions of the adjacent subaerial setting. The feasibility of compiling a turbidite paleoseismic record depends on the delicate balance between sufficient sediment supply providing material to fail frequently during seismic shaking and sufficiently low sedimentation rates to allow for coeval accumulation of planktonic foraminifera for high-resolution radiocarbon dating. We conclude that offshore northern central Chile (29-32.5°S) Holocene turbidite paleoseismology is not feasible, because sediment supply from the semi-arid mainland is low and almost no Holocene turbidity-current deposits are found in the cores. In contrast, in the humid region between 36 and 38°S frequent Holocene turbidite deposition may generally correspond to paleoseismic events. However, high terrigenous sedimentation rates prevent high-resolution radiocarbon dating. The climatic transition region between 32.5 and 36°S appears to be best suited for turbidite paleoseismology.

  13. Syntectonic emplacement of the Middle Jurassic Concón Mafic Dike Swarm, Coastal Range, central Chile (33° S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creixell, Christian; Parada, Miguel Ángel; Roperch, Pierrick; Morata, Diego; Arriagada, César; de Arce, Carlos Pérez

    2006-10-01

    The Concón Mafic Dike Swarm (CMDS) consists of basaltic to andesitic dikes emplaced into deformed Late Paleozoic granitoids during the development of the Jurassic arc of central Chile. The dikes are divided into an early group of thick dikes (5-12 m) and a late group of thin dikes (0.5-3 m). Two new amphibole 40Ar/ 39Ar dates obtained from undeformed and deformed dikes, constrain the age of emplacement and deformation of the CMDS between 163 and 157 Ma. Based on radiometric ages, field observations, AMS studies and petrographic data, we conclude that the emplacement of the CMDS was syntectonic with the Jurassic arc extension and associated with sinistral displacements along the NW-trending structures that host the CMDS. The common occurrence of already deformed and rotated xenoliths in the dikes indicates that deformation in the granitoids started previously. The early thick dikes and country rocks appear to have been remagnetized during the exhumation of deep-seated coastal rocks in the Early Cretaceous (around 100 Ma). The remanent magnetization in late thin dikes is mainly retained by small amounts of low-Ti magnetite at high temperature and pyrrhotite at low temperature. The magnetization in these dikes appears to be primary in origin. Paleomagnetic results from the thin dikes also indicate that the whole area was tilted ˜ 23° to the NNW during cooling of the CMDS. The NNW-SSE extension vectors deduced from the paleomagnetic data and internal fabric of dikes are different with respect to extension direction deduced for the Middle-Late Jurassic of northern Chile, pointing to major heterogeneities along the margin of the overriding plate during the Mesozoic or differences in the mechanisms driving extension during such period.

  14. Unwanted sexual experiences in young men: evidence from a survey of university students in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A; Lehrer, Evelyn L; Koss, Mary P

    2013-02-01

    The public health problem of unwanted sexual experiences (USE) in male youths has received little attention. In this study, we examined prevalence of USE, risk factors, contexts, and barriers to disclosure with data from a quantitative survey of students enrolled in General Education courses at a public university in Chile. This study focused on the male sample (N = 466). Approximately 20.4 % of participants reported some form of USE since age 14. Forced sex through physical coercion, forced sex through verbal coercion or while intoxicated, attempted forced sex, and less severe forms of USE were reported by 0.2, 10.1, 1.4, and 8.7 % of participants, respectively. USE before age 14 was reported by 9.4 % of participants and was a significant predictor of USE since age 14 (AOR 6.38, 95 % CI 3.22-12.65, p < .01). The perpetrator of USE since age 14 was most commonly identified as a date/partner or friend/acquaintance; other findings on contexts and barriers to disclosure were also generally consistent with previous results in the literature. In addition, we found substantial co-occurrence of USE since age 14 with two other forms of coercion: physical dating violence victimization and coerced condom non-use. The study findings indicate a need for further attention to these public health problems and have implications for the development of violence and HIV/STI prevention programs for adolescent boys and young adult men in Chile and elsewhere. PMID:22971801

  15. Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Hervé-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

    2012-08-01

    Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production. PMID:21752410

  16. Unwanted Sexual Experiences in Young Men: Evidence from a Survey of University Students in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Lehrer, Jocelyn A.; Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Koss, Mary P.

    2012-01-01

    The public health problem of unwanted sexual experiences (USE) in male youths has received little attention. In this study, we examined prevalence of USE, risk factors, contexts, and barriers to disclosure with data from a quantitative survey of students enrolled in General Education courses at a public university in Chile. This study focused on the male sample (N = 466). Approximately 20.4% of participants reported some form of USE since age 14. Forced sex through physical coercion, forced sex through verbal coercion or while intoxicated, attempted forced sex, and less severe forms of USE were reported by 0.2%, 10.1%, 1.4%, and 8.7% of participants, respectively. USE before age 14 was reported by 9.4% of participants and was a significant predictor of USE since age 14 (AOR 6.38, 95% CI 3.22–12.65, p < .01). The perpetrator of USE since age 14 was most commonly identified as a date/partner or friend/acquaintance; other findings on contexts and barriers to disclosure were also generally consistent with previous results in the literature. In addition, we found substantial co-occurrence of USE since age 14 with two other forms of coercion: physical dating violence victimization and coerced condom non-use. The study findings indicate a need for further attention to these public health problems and have implications for the development of violence and HIV/STI prevention programs for adolescent boys and young adult men in Chile and elsewhere. PMID:22971801

  17. Predicting the Human Losses Implied by Predictions of Earthquakes: Southern Sumatra and Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, Max

    2010-08-01

    Predictions of earthquakes worldwide by the M8-MSc algorithm, which defines locations of Times of Increased Probability (TIPs), have been tested for nearly two decades, and the authors claim a high rate of success. Thus, it might be appropriate to ask what the consequences in terms of human losses may be if the expected earthquakes should occur. The loss estimating tool QUAKELOSS also has been tested in real-time mode during the last five years with success. Therefore, it is reasonable to estimate the order of magnitude of human losses if great earthquakes should occur in TIPs. Here I compare the consequences if M 8.5 earthquakes should happen in the current TIPs of southern Sumatra and central Chile (K ossobokov and S oloviev, 2008, centers at 4.75S/102.625E and 31.25S/71.77 W, respectively). The selection of the attenuation function is calibrated by matching theoretically calculated intensities and fatalities to the observed values in historic earthquakes. In both areas, the standard attenuation function I use is applicable. The results show that in southern Sumatra fatalities are expected to number fewer than 1,000 (possibly as much as a factor of 5 fewer), whereas they are likely to be larger than 1,000 (possibly as much as a factor six) in central Chile. These figures, however, do not account for possible tsunami effects. The difference is due to two factors. The earthquake sources are farther offshore, and there are only small settlements along the coast in southern Sumatra, whereas along the Chilean coast, large harbor cities are located in the northern part of the TIP area. Regardless of TIP predictions, large earthquakes are to be expected along the Chilean coast. Therefore, it seems advisable to implement mitigating measures in La Serena and Coquimbo, where most of the victims are expected.

  18. Perennial stream discharge in the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile during the latest Pleistocene.

    PubMed

    Nester, Peter L; Gayó, Eugenia; Latorre, Claudio; Jordan, Teresa E; Blanco, Nicolás

    2007-12-11

    A large fraction of the vital groundwater in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile is likely composed of "fossil" or "ancient" reserves that receive little or no recharge in today's hyperarid climate. Here, we present evidence for latest Pleistocene perennial streamflow in canyons from the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile. Fluvial terraces in the Pampa del Tamarugal (PdT) basin (21 degrees S) contain widespread fossil wood, in situ roots, and well preserved leaf litter deposits indicative of perennial surface flow currently absent in these channels. Nineteen radiocarbon dates on these deposits from four separate drainages within this endorheic basin indicate ages from 16,380 to 13,740 cal yr BP, synchronous with paleolake Tauca on the Bolivian Altiplano and other regional evidence for wetter conditions during the latest Pleistocene. Groundwater-fed riparian ecosystems and associated fluvial deposits abound today in the absence of direct rainfall in northern Atacama canyons with perennial discharge. Our relict riparian ecosystems from the PdT basin are indicative of conditions similar to these northern canyons. Given that discharge was higher than present during this time, we propose that these deposits represent the most important groundwater recharge events of the last 18,000 years. A lesser recharge event occurred during the Holocene, when phreatophytic trees also grew in these drainages between 1,070 and 700 cal yr BP, during the Medieval Climatic Anomaly. Taken together, our evidence lends further support for gradient changes in the equatorial Pacific as a major driver of hydrologic change in the Atacama on both centennial and millennial time scales. PMID:18056645

  19. Using A Gridded Global Data Set To Characterize Regional Hydroclimate In Central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaria, E. M.; Maurer, E. P.; Sheffield, J.; Bustos, E.; Poblete, D.; Vicuna, S.; Meza, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Central Chile is facing dramatic projections of climate change, with a consensus for declining precipitation, negatively affecting hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Rising from sea level to 6,000 meters within a distance of 200 kilometers, precipitation characterization is difficult due to a lack of long-term observations, especially at higher elevations. For understanding current conditions and recent hydroclimatological change, as well as to provide a baseline for downscaling climate model projections, a temporally and spatially complete data set of daily precipitation is essential. We use a gridded global daily meterological data set at 0.25 degree resolution for 1948-2008, and adjust it using monthly precipitation observations interpolated to the same grid using a cokriging method with elevation as covariate. For validation, we compare daily statistics of the adjusted gridded precipitation to station observations. For further validation we drive a hydrology model with the gridded 0.25-degree meteorology and compare stream flow statistics with observed flow. We validate the high elevation precipitation by comparing the simulated snow extent to MODIS images. Results show that the daily adjusted precipitation can accurately capture the statistical properties of extreme events as well as the sequence of wet and dry events. The new precipitation fields has been used to simulate the hydrological cycle of three basins in the region. The adjusted gridded data set will be used in downscaling efforts to be able to evaluate the vulnerability of the region's water resources to projected climate changes during the twenty-first century. Stakeholders in Central Chile will be able to use this information to plan potential adaptation responses to simulated changes in water availability in the region. This demonstrates the successful use of a global gridded data product in a relatively data-sparse region to capture hydroclimatological characteristics and extremes.

  20. Pilot program on patient dosimetry in pediatric interventional cardiology in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Ubeda, Carlos; Vano, Eliseo; Miranda, Patricia; Leyton, Fernando [Clinical Sciences Department, Radiological Sciences Center, Health Sciences Faculty and CHIDE, Tarapaca University, Arica (Chile); Radiology Department, Complutense University and San Carlos Hospital, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hemodynamic Department, Cardiovascular Service, Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital, Santiago (Chile); Institute of Public Health of Chile, Marathon 1000, Nunoa, Santiago, Chile and Faculty of Medicine, Diego Portales University, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to present the results of a pilot program on patient dosimetry carried out in Chile during the last 5 yr, using a biplane x-ray angiography system settled for pediatrics. This research was conducted in Latin America under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supporting programs on radiological protection (RP) of patients. Methods: Patient age, gender, weight, height, number of cine series, total number of cine frames, fluoroscopy time, and two dosimetric quantities [air kerma-area product (P{sub ka}) and cumulative dose (CD) at the patient entrance reference point] were recorded for each procedure. Results: The study includes 544 patients grouped into four age groups. The distributions by age group were 150 for <1 yr; 203 for 1 to <5 yr; 97 for 5 to <10 yr; and 94 for 10 to <16 yr. Median values of P{sub ka} and CD for the four age groups were 0.94, 1.46, 2.13, and 5.03 Gy cm{sup 2} and 23.9, 26.8, 33.5, and 51.6 mGy, respectively. No significant statistical differences were found between diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. A moderate correlation (r = 0.64) was seen between P{sub ka} and patient weight. Conclusions: The dose values reported in this paper were lower than those published in the previous work for the same age groups as a result of the optimization actions carried out by cardiologists and medical physicists with the support of the IAEA. Methodology and results will be used as a starting point for a wider survey in Chile and Latin America with the goal to obtain regional diagnostic reference levels as recently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for interventional procedures.