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1

Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This paper discusses the approach and shows how it can be applied to investigate reliability issues in SoS.

Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

2009-01-01

2

Los derechos de los pacientes: algunas reflexiones desde la atención primaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews legal coverage in Spain and the European Community of the European Letter of Patients’ Rights (Letter of Rome) and the Patients’ Decalogue of the Barcelona Declaration. Both these documents were drawn up by patients’ and citizens’ associations and mainly reflect on compliance with these rights in primary care.We review rights related to patient information and autonomy,

Fernando Palacio

2005-01-01

3

Otro género de violencia. Reflexiones desde la teoría feminista como teoría crítica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entre les aportacions que les teories crítiques dels anys 60 han fet a l'anàlisi de la sexualitat, em referiré, en particular, a aquelles que es deriven de l'ús de la teoria feminista com a teoria crítica. Des d'ací, es parla d'una violència, que només des d'ací pot ser llegida com a discurs de poder, fent impossibles aquelles lectures que volen

Luisa Posada Kubissa

2008-01-01

4

El sexagésimo aniversario del Teatro Experimental de la Universidad de Chile  

E-print Network

SPRING 2001 189 El sexagésimo aniversario del Teatro Experimental de la Universidad de Chile Domingo Piga Desde antes de la primera función y de la creación del Teatro Experimental, cuando sólo nos movía la pasión por el teatro, nosotros, los...

Piga, Domingo

2001-04-01

5

Die Polarisierung von Röntgenstrahlen durch Reflexion an Kristallen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Es wird in einigen Fällen gezeigt, daß das an einem Kristall unter 900 nach der Braggschen Beziehung reflektierte Röntgenlicht praktisch vollständig polarisiert ist und daß bei Belichtung eines Kristalls mit linear polarisiertem Röntgenlicht keine Reflexion eintritt, falls die Richtung des reflektierten Strahles in die Schwingungsrichtung des polarisierten einfallenden Strahles fällt. Es lassen sich so Kristalle als Polarisatoren und Analysatoren

H. Mark; L. Szilard

1926-01-01

6

Geography of Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today you are going to explore the diverse geographic regions of Chile. How many kinds of terrain does Chile have? Please work with a partner to answer the following questions about each region in Chile, using the websites made available to you. Make sure you take advantage of these websites, because at the end of the lesson you will be completing a ...

Ms. Drummond

2009-10-21

7

Actividad Solar Desde EL Espacio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RESUMEN. Se describen los principales descubrimientos realizados por los arti+iciales con instrumentos dedicados a la observaci6n del Sol, durante los dos ultimos ciclos de su acti vi dad. La observaci6n el espacio ha permitido cubrir todas las zonas del espectro no observables desde tierra1 desde el ultravioleta hasta la radiaci6n gamma. Se hace referencia, en particular, a los resultados producidos por los dos grandes observatorios: el Skylab y el SMM. Este ultimo incluy6 un conjunto de instrumentos especialmente coordinados para observar en detalle las fulguraciones solares. Es un resumen para astr6nomos no especializados en la fisica solar, en el que se muestra que la gran riqueza del material observacional acumulado ha resuelto problemas preexistentes y, al mismo tiempo, ha abierto numerosos interrogantes a los que se buscar respuesta con la instrumentaci6n en desarrollo. Finalmente, se mencionan las caracteristicas de los proyectados para la pr6xima decada. : The main discoveries performed by artificial satellites instrumented for the observation of the Sun, during the last two cycles of its activity, are described. The space observations allowed of almost all the spectral regions which are not observable from the ground, from the ultraviolet to the gamma radiation. In particular, we ref er' to the two large solar space observatories: the Skylab and the SMM. The last one included a set 0+ coordinated instruments to observe in detail the solar flares. This is a summary for astronomers not dedicated to solar physics, where we show that the of observational material have solv# d many of the preexistent problems but, at the ame time, it opened many new questions to which the improved instrumentation will try to answer. , the characteristics of the satellites planned the next decade are mentioned. Key : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-CORONA - SUN-X-RAYS

Rovira, M. G.

1990-11-01

8

Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

9

New protests in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile's military regime in 1982 celebrated its ninth anniversary to the accompaniment of the most widespread and publicly expressed opposition since the coup of 11 September 1973. The collapse of its much-vaunted ‘economic miracle’ … most painfully demonstrated by devastated national industries, an unemployment rate of 25%, and a foreign debt estimated by some economists as the highest per capita

Malcolm Coad

1982-01-01

10

Country Profiles, Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A profile of Chile is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

Goldsmith, Alfredo; And Others

11

Chile Declassification Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As reported in the July 13, 1999 Scout Report for Social Sciences, several US Government agencies recently began to declassify documents related to events in Chile from 1973 to 1978, widely regarded as the most repressive period of General Augusto Pinochet's reign. Since then, the US State Department has made available the full text (heavily censored in some instances) of over 4,000 documents at its Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Electronic Reading Room.

12

Reflexion and Diffraction of Internal Waves analyzed with the Hilbert Transform  

E-print Network

Reflexion and Diffraction of Internal Waves analyzed with the Hilbert Transform Matthieu J. Mercier) Abstract We apply the Hilbert transform to the physics of internal waves in two-dimensional fluids. Using this demodulation technique, we can discriminate internal waves propagating in different directions: this is very

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

13

On the Oblique Reflexion and Transmission of Ocean Waves at Shore Fast Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is reported describing the oblique reflexion and penetration of ocean waves into shore fast sea ice. The arbitrary depth model allows all velocity potentials occurring in the open water region to be matched precisely to their counterparts in the ice-covered region. Matching is done using a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique which allows the complete solution to be

Colin Fox; Vernon A. Squire

1994-01-01

14

Highlights on DESD Progress to Date  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief report, delivered after the completion of the 1st year of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014), highlights the recent developments regarding the Decade (2005). It reports on the documents prepared, the regional and national launches of the Decade held so far and presents relevant…

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

2007-01-01

15

Time-resolved x-ray diffraction study of the troponin-associated reflexions from the frog muscle.  

PubMed Central

The vertebrate skeletal muscle gives rise to a series of x-ray reflexions indexed as orders (n) of 77 nm, the even orders being meridional whereas the odd orders being near-meridional. The diffraction intensities associated with these reflexions originate from the axial period of 39 nm attributable to the repeat of troponin-tropomyosin on the thin filament. In the present study, the x-ray intensities of the furthest inner reflexions, A2 (n = 2) reflexion at an axial spacing of 1/39 nm-1 and A4 (n = 4) reflexion at 1/19 nm, of this series were measured with a time resolved manner. Upon activation of the frog striated muscle, the two reflexions underwent biphasic time courses of the intensity changes. With A2 reflexion, a rapid intensity increase by 16%, being completed by the time when tension rises to 5%, was followed by a slow intensity decrease down to 50%, which was associated with the tension rise. In both phases, lateral widths remained unchanged. A4 reflexion also behaves in the same way, although the first phase (the intensity increase) was not clear due to unsatisfactory statistics. We interpret phase one as being caused by conformational change of the troponin-tropomyosin complex upon binding of Ca2+ to troponin, whereas phase two being due to direct contribution of the mass of the myosin heads bound to the thin filament, although possible contribution of conformational changes of the regulatory proteins to phase two is not excluded. The results indicated that the calcium activation of the thin filament leads the onset of the actomyosin interaction. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:1420915

Maéda, Y; Popp, D; Stewart, A A

1992-01-01

16

Chaiten Volcano, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On May 2, 2008 Chile's Chaiten Volcano erupted after 9,000 years of inactivity. Now, 4 weeks later, the eruption continues, with ash-, water-, and sulfur-laden plumes blowing hundreds of kilometers to the east and north over Chile and Argentina. On May 24, ASTER captured a day-night pair of thermal infrared images of the eruption, displayed here in enhanced, false colors. At the time of the daytime acquisition (left image) most of the plume appears dark blue because it is too thick for upwelling ground radiation to penetrate. At the edges it appears orange, indicating the presence of ash and sulfur dioxide. In the nighttime image (right), the plume is orange and red near the source, and becomes more yellow-orange further away from the vent. The possible cause is that ash is settling out of the plume further downwind, revealing the dominant presence of sulfur dioxide.

The images were acquired May 24, 2008, cover an area of 37 x 26.5 km, and are located near 42.7 degrees south latitude, 72.7 degrees west longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

17

CIA Activities in Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After withholding information for 27 years, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has acknowledged its deep involvement in General Augusto Pinochet's regime in a declassified report released and placed online on September 19. Among other things, the report reveals that the head of Chile's secret police was a paid CIA asset, that the CIA was well aware of the efforts to track and kill political opponents, and that the agency supported the kidnapping and murder of the Chilean commander-in-chief, Gen. Rene Schneider in October 1970 after he refused to support the overthrow of President Allende. The full text of the report is available in HTML format at the CIA site. The National Security Archive (last mentioned in the July 21, 2000 Scout Report), which has long stood in the vanguard of efforts to declassify documents related to US involvement in Chile, has posted digital images of the report and two supporting documents. The first of these is the text of the Hinchey amendment to the 2000 Intelligence Authorization Act, which forced this disclosure. The second is a heavily excised CIA report from 1976 on the assassination of former Chilean Ambassador Orlando Letelier and his 25-year old American associate Ronni Karpen Moffitt in Washington DC.

2000-01-01

18

Eso's Situation in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed that the best VLT site would be the Paranal Mountain, 700 km north of La Silla and 130 km south of Antofagasta, the capital of the Second Region in Chile. In October 1988, the Chilean Government by an official act donated the land surrounding Paranal (in all 725 sq. km) to ESO. As is the case for La Silla, this would serve to protect the planned, incredibly sensitive mega-telescope against all possible future sources of outside interference. The donation was made on the condition that ESO would indeed proceed with the construction of the VLT at Paranal within the next five years. The corresponding decision was taken by the ESO Council in December 1990. The construction of the VLT observatory site at Paranal started immediately thereafter, thus fulfilling the condition attached to the donation. The construction of the VLT is now well advanced. In Europe, the main parts of the first VLT unit 8.2-metre telescope will be pre-assembled later this year and the first two of the enormous mirrors are being polished. In Chile, the extensive landscaping of the Paranal peak was finished in 1993, during which around 300,000 cubic metres of rock and soil was removed to provide a 100x100 sq. metres platform for the VLT, and the concrete foundations are now ready. The installation of the first telescope enclosure can now begin and the next will start later this year. The first of the four telescopes is expected to start observations in late 1997. All in all, ESO has until now committed about 70 percent of the expected total investment for the VLT, estimated to be approximately 570 million DEM. THE OWNERSHIP OF PARANAL According to information later received, the Chilean Ministry of National Properties ("Bienes Nacionales") inscribed in 1977 in its name various lands in the commune of Taltal, including the area of the Paranal peak. At that time, i.e. ten years before ESO decided to construct the VLT, nobody in this Organisation could imagine that this telescope would one day be constructed at that site. It was only seven years later, in 1984, that ESO

1995-02-01

19

Fires in Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

20

Examination of the shock wave regular reflexion phenomenon in a rarefied supersonic plasma flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow properties of a low-pressure weakly ionized supersonic argon plasma jet are examined using Fabry-Pérot interferometry and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. The flow velocity and equilibrium temperature measured at the torch nozzle exit are in close agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations. The model also predicts the plasma flow to be in a rarefied regime. Departure from thermal equilibrium is indeed observed behind the nozzle where the parallel temperature differs significantly from the perpendicular temperature. The development of the axial velocity component along the jet center stream line reveals the occurrence of the shock wave regular reflexion phenomenon: No Mach disk is formed and the flow experiences successive supersonic-to-supersonic transitions before reaching a subsonic regime. Shock wave regular reflexion is in fact favored under our experimental conditions since the speed ratio is high and the rarefaction degree is pronounced at the nozzle exit.

Mazouffre, S.; Caubet-Hilloutou, V.; Lengrand, J. C.; Pawelec, E.

2005-01-01

21

1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chillán, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

22

Pinochet Returns to Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A frail and ailing General Augusto Pinochet returned to Santiago this morning, after his release from a seventeen-month house arrest in the United Kingdom. Reflecting Pinochet's continuing popularity in military circles and the Army's power in Chile, his return was handled entirely by the Chilean army, which banned the media until shortly before Pinochet's plane landed. On Thursday, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw announced that, for medical reasons, Pinochet would not be extradited to Spain, where he was indicted for human rights abuses. The former dictator's health had considerably declined since his initial arrest in October 1998, and he was said to be suffering from brain damage, sparking concerns in some UK governmental circles that he might die on British soil before the extradition was resolved. While he has escaped prosecution in European courts, Pinochet still faces 59 civil lawsuits in his home country, although many observers doubt that any trial will take place. This decision has angered families of the General's victims and human rights activists, but the process has established one important legal precedent for future prosecutions of ex-dictators. In their March 1999 ruling, Britain's Law Lords determined that Pinochet was not automatically immune to prosecution for acts committed as a head of state. This reversal of the "sovereign immunity" claimed by many former dictators may pave the way to future prosecutions for human rights abuses.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

23

Chile’s dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad  

PubMed Central

Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

2014-01-01

24

Temporada teatral en Chile: 1985  

E-print Network

FALL 1986 85 Temporada teatral en Chile: 1985 Pedro Bravo-Elizondo Sin pretender dárnosla de brujos o gitanos, decíamos en nuestro comen tario final de la Temporada 1984, "El teatro en Chile goza de buena salud. Si algo huele mal, es otro... elemento ajeno a él." Ese elemento extraño es la política entronizada en el arte. Jaime Miranda, con Regreso sin causa, recibió el premio del Círculo de Críticos Teatrales 1984 y además el Premio Municipal de Literatura. El día de la entrega del...

Bravo-Elizondo, Pedro

1986-10-01

25

Chiliques volcano, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.

The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.

These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, along-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Size: 7.5 x 7.5 km (4.5 x 4.5 miles) Location: 23.6 deg. South lat., 67.6 deg. West long. Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1,2, and 3, and thermal band 12 Original Data Resolution: 15 m and 90 m Date Acquired: January 6, 2002 and November 19, 2000

2002-01-01

26

Destruction in Downtown Concepcion, Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A masonry building in the downtown part of Concepcion, Chile partially collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Most modern buildings in Concepcion were undamaged during the earthquake due to the city's adoption of adequate building standards. However, many masonry buildings s...

2010-03-30

27

Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A cathedral in the central square of Chillán, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

28

X-Ray Bragg Reflexion from Perfect Crystals - Dependence on Geometrical Factors with Particular Regard to the Zero-Level-of-Interaction Limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation of X-ray Bragg reflexion properties of centro-symmetric perfect crystals (both absorbing and non-absorbing) with thickness and degree of asymmetry of the reflexion is explored systematically by direct numerical evaluation of the dynamical theory. In particular, it is shown that well-defined universal limits exist where the integrated reflectivity of a perfect crystal (i.e. dynamical theory) approaches asymptotically that for

S. W. Wilkins

1978-01-01

29

Chile Pepper Response to Nitrogen Fertilization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2008, we evaluated the effects of N fertilization (6 N rates) on chile pepper fresh yield and biomass accumulation following two years of continuous corn production. A polymer-coated urea, ESN® (Environmentally Smart Nitrogen), N fertilizer source was used. Fresh chile pepper yields increased ...

30

Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

2014-01-01

31

FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE  

E-print Network

FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE SOLUCIONES TIPO PARTÍCULA EN SISTEMAS EXTENDIDOS DANIEL ELIAS ESCAFF DIXON 2006 #12;FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE SOLUCIONES TIPO PARTÍCULA EN realice la Secundaria. En 1997 ingrese a la Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, de la Universidad

Gavilan, Marcel G. Clerc

32

Relations Between Chile and ESO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal questioning of ESO's privileges and immunities at the designated VLT site on the Paranal mountain south of the city of Antofagasta (see ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994), and also around the ownership of the land. ESO is now very worried about the timely completion of this 500 million DEM project. Unless a clarification of this problem is achieved as soon as possible, it is unlikely that the current plan for the construction of the VLT observatory at Paranal can be maintained. The ESO delegation expressed the opinion that these uncertainties must be removed, before the final negotiations about the above mentioned Treaty can proceed. RECEPTION BY THE PRESIDENT OF CHILE During its stay in Santiago, the ESO delegation was honoured to be received by the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz Tagle. ESO extended a warm invitation to the President to lay the cornerstone of the VLT observatory at Paranal later in 1994 at the appropriate moment. Twenty-five years ago, in 1969, the ESO La Silla observatory was inaugurated by his predecessor and father, Don Eduardo Frei Montalva. DECISIONS BY THE ESO COUNCIL The ESO delegation reported about the discussions in Santiago to the ESO Council, during its ordinary semi-annual session on June 7 - 8, 1994. The Council noted with satisfaction the clear attitude expressed by the Chilean Government, especially what concerns ESO's privileges and immunities in the host country. The ESO Council expects that the Chilean courts will also confirm these privileges and immunities. The ESO Council expressed the hope that it will now be possible to arrive at a resolution of the outstanding issues. However, in view of the increasingly tight VLT schedule - it is planned to ship the first VLT building to Paranal in the month of September this year - the Council was also much concerned about any further delays. Council requested the ESO management to ensure that the authorities of the member countries will be kept closely informed about the further developments during the coming months. The ESO Council Working Group on

1994-06-01

33

2010 Chile Earthquake Aftershock Response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw=8.8 earthquake off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and provides an unprecedented opportunity to advance our understanding of megathrust earthquakes and associated phenomena. The 2010 Chile earthquake ruptured the Concepcion-Constitucion segment of the Nazca/South America plate boundary, south of the Central Chile region and triggered a tsunami along the coast. Following the 2010 earthquake, a very energetic aftershock sequence is being observed in an area that is 600 km along strike from Valparaiso to 150 km south of Concepcion. Within the first three weeks there were over 260 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater and 18 with magnitude 6.0 or greater (NEIC, USGS). The Concepcion-Constitucion segment lies immediately north of the rupture zone associated with the great magnitude 9.5 Chile earthquake, and south of the 1906 and the 1985 Valparaiso earthquakes. The last great subduction earthquake in the region dates back to the February 1835 event described by Darwin (1871). Since 1835, part of the region was affected in the north by the Talca earthquake in December 1928, interpreted as a shallow dipping thrust event, and by the Chillan earthquake (Mw 7.9, January 1939), a slab-pull intermediate depth earthquake. For the last 30 years, geodetic studies in this area were consistent with a fully coupled elastic loading of the subduction interface at depth; this led to identify the area as a mature seismic gap with potential for an earthquake of magnitude of the order 8.5 or several earthquakes of lesser magnitude. What was less expected was the partial rupturing of the 1985 segment toward north. Today, the 2010 earthquake raises some disturbing questions: Why and how the rupture terminated where it did at the northern end? How did the 2010 earthquake load the adjacent segment to the north and did the 1985 earthquake only partially ruptured the plate interface leaving loaded asperities since 1906? Since the number of M>7.0 aftershocks has been low, does the distribution of large-magnitude aftershocks differ from previous events of this size? What is the origin of the extensional-type aftershocks at shallow depths within the upper plate? The international seismological community (France, Germany, U.K., U.S.A.) in collaboration with the Chilean seismological community responded with a total of 140 portable seismic stations to deploy in order to record aftershocks. This combined with the Chilean permanent seismic network, in the area results in 180 stations now in operation recording continuous at 100 cps. The seismic equipment is a mix of accelerometers, short -period and broadband seismic sensors deployed along the entire length of the aftershock zone that will record the aftershock sequence for three to six months. The collected seismic data will be merged and archived to produce an international data set open to the entire seismological community immediately after archiving. Each international group will submit their data as soon as possible in standard (mini seed) format with accompanying meta data to the IRIS DMC where the data will be merged into a combined data set and available to individuals and other data centers. This will be by far the best-recorded aftershock sequence of a large megathrust earthquake. This outstanding international collaboration will provide an open data set for this important earthquake as well as provide a model for future aftershock deployments around the world.

Barientos, Sergio

2010-05-01

34

Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1995-04-01

35

¿CÓMO AFRONTAR UN CASO DE BULLYING DESDE LA ESCUELA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cada vez son más comunes los casos de bullying en nuestros centros educativos, y es que nuestra sociedad está cambiando y se está volcando hacia caminos más agresivos y menos solidarios. Esta situación es bastante preocupante y más cuando se trata de niños\\/as que están empezando a crecer y que formarán la sociedad de mañana por lo que tanto desde

Nuria Otero Martínez

2009-01-01

36

LA TEORÍA DE EVOLUCIÓN DESDE UNA PERSPECTIVA HOLÍSTICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

El presente ensayo analiza las principales teorias evolutivas desde Darwin hasta la fecha, entre ellas la teoría de Lamark y la Teoría de la Quimiosintética, todas ellas con un sesgo fuertemente biologico, donde los cambios más decisivos en la homnización que se observan son: la adquisición de la postura erecta, que liberó sus extremidades anteriores y el desarrollo del cerebro,

Fredy Hardy Wompner Gallardo

2010-01-01

37

Employment responses to international liberalization in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates employment patterns in Chile following a substantial trade liberalization. The paper examines patterns of job creation and job destruction and relates these patterns to firms' size and trade orientation.

James Levinsohn

1999-01-01

38

Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile Description  

E-print Network

in traditional professions and in technological and practical fields. On February 11, 1930, Pope Pius XI declared. In Santiago de Chile, you can visit the former home of Pablo Neruda (Chilean poet and politician). #12;

Bristol, University of

39

Studying Volcaniclastic Deposits Northern Patagonia, Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS research hydrologist Tom Pierson, working with geologists from SERNAGEOMIN (Chile's geological survey), examines lahar and volcanic flood deposits along Rio Chaitén, approximately 8 km downstream of Chaitén volcano. The rhyolite volcano's current eruptive phase began in May, 2008,...

40

Heat flow and temperature gradients in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Conventional heat-flow measurements in Chile carried out by other workers are summarized. Between latitudes 26 – 29° S heat flow is consistently low (-2) excepting a site in the Andes slope (75.3 mWm-2). In Central Chile (33 °S) near Santiago, a value in the Andes (60.7 mWm-2) is lower than the value in the Santiago basin (78.7 mWm-2). Heat

Miguel Muñoz; Valiya Hamza

1993-01-01

41

The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Chile-based staff of the NAOJ Chile  

E-print Network

to: NAOJ Chile Observatory (2) Duty station: Chile 3. Field of specialty: radio astronomy 4. DutiesThe National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Chile-based staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory. 1. Vacant post: one assistant professor 2. (1) Division to belong

Ito, Atsushi

42

The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Chile-based staff of the NAOJ Chile  

E-print Network

to: NAOJ Chile Observatory (2) Duty station: Chile 3. Field of specialty: radio astronomy 4. DutiesThe National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Chile-based staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory. 1. Vacant post: one Associate Professor 2. (1) Division to belong

Ito, Atsushi

43

Localizacin no puntual: una perspectiva desde la Geometra Computacional  

E-print Network

Capítulo 7 Localización no puntual: una perspectiva desde la Geometría Computacional José Miguel- terio, logística y transporte, estadística, geometría computacional, etc. Con respecto a ésta última geometría computacional, destacando las técnicas y meto- dología más utilizadas. Para ello, observaremos que

Díaz-Báñez, José Miguel

44

The Oblique Reflexion of Long Wireless Waves from the Ionosphere at Places where the Earth's Magnetic Field is Regarded as Vertical  

Microsoft Academic Search

The calculation of reflexion coefficients for long wireless waves incident obliquely on the ionosphere requires an exact solution of the differential equations governing the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the ionosphere. Equations are developed for the electromagnetic field in a horizontally stratified medium of varying electron density, the presence of a vertical external magnetic field and also the collision frequency

J. Heading; R. T. P. Whipple

1952-01-01

45

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA PLANIFICACION DE REDES DE;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA PLANIFICACION DE REDES DE DISTRIBUCION redes...................................................................... 9 2.1.3 Planificación

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

46

UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FSICAS Y MATEMTICAS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS Y MATEMÁTICAS DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA;UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS Y MATEMÁTICAS DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA INDUSTRIAL PAGO POR

Dixon, Juan

47

Las Trans: Negotiating Gender, Personhood, and Citizenship in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Las Trans,” a group of male-to-female transgender residents living in Arica, Chile, challenge the strict dual-sex, dual-gender system of Chile’s family-oriented society. Chile presents an especially interesting case when analyzing the social position of sexual minorities due to the country’s historically strong ties to the Catholic Church, and, on a political level, the experience of 17 years of dictatorship during

Sydney A. Hare

2012-01-01

48

7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Fresh pomegranates from Chile. 319.56-56 Section 319.56-56...319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

2014-01-01

49

7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Fresh pomegranates from Chile. 319.56-56 Section 319.56-56...319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica granatum...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

2013-01-01

50

DIETS OF SYMPATRIC RAPTORS IN SOUTHERN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the diets of four sympatric raptor species in Torres del Paine National Park, Magallanes region, Chile. This assemblage includes some of the least-known raptors in southern South America. Two strigids, Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba), had the most generalized diets. The Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) preyed primarily on birds and lizards, and

AGUSTIN IRIARTE; WILLIAM L. FRANKLIN; WARREN E. JOHNSON

1990-01-01

51

Earthquake-Ready High Rise in Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A well-engineered high rise apartment and two-story building in Talca, Chile suffered no evident damage, though much of the city was affected by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Many buildings in this city were constructed with adobe or masonry and suffered major collapse. These undamaged buil...

2010-03-30

52

The ecological footprint of Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the case of Santiago de Chile, this paper explains how the ecological footprint of a city can be calculated and how this footprint can be compared with the biological capacity available for human use. As ecological footprints provide an easily communicable way of measuring the ecological bottom?line condition for sustainability, it is a useful tool for promoting a sustainable

Mathis Wackernagel

1998-01-01

53

Rubber finger stripper harvester for green chile  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Harvest mechanization as a system requires modifying or creating new components including cultivars, production practices, and harvest, transportation and processing plant machinery. New Mexican chile is one of the last segments of the pepper industry to still rely on hand labor. This paper reports ...

54

Nutrition transition in Chile: determinants and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyse the determinants and consequences of the nutrition transition in Chile and describe the related health promotion policies. Design and setting: This is a descriptive, population-based study including data on demographic, diet, nutrition and biomedical related variables. Data came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the National Institute of Statistics (INE),

Cecilia Albala; Fernando Vio; Juliana Kain; Ricardo Uauy

2002-01-01

55

Chile: When Tyrants Tremble: The Pinochet Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recent report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) reviews the Spanish effort to extradite and try General Pinochet and the repercussions in Chile, which is holding presidential elections in December 1999. The 57-page report also offers some background on Pinochet's regime and HRW's recommendations to the Chilean and US Governments. This report is offered by chapter in HTML format.

Brett, Sebastian.

56

Privatization of Social Security: Lessons from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, all covered workers must place 10% of monthly earnings in a savings account with a highly regulated intermediary that manages a single fund and provides survivors and disability insurance. Workers pay a commission charge, in addition to the mandatory 10%, to finance this insurance and to cover the costs and profits of the intermediaries. On becoming eligible to

Peter Diamond

1993-01-01

57

A systems approach to chile harvest mechanization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article reviews nearly half a century of published research on harvest mechanization of C. annuum var. annuum cultivars, focusing on chile for canning and fresh markets. At present, most of the crop is still harvested by hand, displacing production to locations where labor costs are low. Mech...

58

Chile, 2009 APPLICATION OF A DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED  

E-print Network

7 th ISE & 8 th HIC Chile, 2009 APPLICATION OF A DISTRIBUTED WATERSHED HYDROLOGY AND WATER QUALITY spatial and temporal point and nonpoint source material distributions in Great Lakes watersheds. We automatically calibrated the DLBRM hydrology to reproduce the 1950-1964 and the 1999-2006 watershed outflows

59

Fundamentals of Moral Education in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral education is not included in the curriculum, but the history of Chile shows the influence of European culture. Therefore a philosophy of education which promotes an autonomous human being has usually underlined educational policy. The influence of Catholicism has been very strong both in school curriculum and parent attitudes. (Author/SJL)

Vidal, Giaume

1980-01-01

60

Education of the Televiewer in Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins with a discussion of the origins of Chilean television, including its channels, programs, and transmission times, and how education for television has arisen in Chile as a defense against its influence. The initial concern of sociologists' about this influence and later development of ideas and programs by a number of…

Reyes, Miguel T.

61

The MRSEC-Chile Exchange Jordan Weil  

E-print Network

processes · Surface physics You DO, in fact, like to have fun/cultural experiences. #12;My project: Elastic is NOT necessary, though a rudimentary knowledge is useful. · Chile is a society very rich in culture. They have sites · A vibrant punk music scene · The Andes Further afield: · Ocean · Volcanoes · Desert · Fjords

Witten, Thomas A.

62

The apparent reflexion coefficient of the leaky corneal endothelium to sodium chloride is about one in the rabbit.  

PubMed Central

1. Rabbit corneal thickness changes were measured after some of the NaCl in the bathing Ringer solution was substituted by a neutral sugar. 2. The response had three phases which could be closely modelled by three exponentials of different amplitudes and rate constants, originating from the time of the substitution. 3. The first, fastest, phase was interpreted as being driven by the pure osmotic pressure difference developed across the corneal endothelium by the difference between the removed NaCl and the added sugar in the bathing Ringer solution; the second was driven by the diffusion of NaCl out of the stroma; and the third, slowest, phase was driven by the diffusion of the added sugar into the stroma. 4. Consistent with the interpretation, only the third, slowest, phase had its rate constant dependent upon the nature of the substituting neutral sugar. 5. The amplitude of the pure osmotic phase was a linear function of the added sugar. Its amplitude was zero when an equal osmolarity of sugar was substituted for NaCl. 6. It was concluded that the reflexion coefficient of rabbit corneal endothelium to NaCl is the same as that to sucrose, raffinose and stachyose, i.e. about 1. 7. The calculated hydraulic conductivity of the endothelium plus stroma was about the same as that of stroma alone, and it was concluded that the hydraulic conductivity of corneal endothelium is large compared to corneal stroma. 8. It is proposed that most of the hydraulic flow in response to osmotic gradients passes through the cells, whereas salt diffuses through the paracellular route, resulting in an apparent reflexion coefficient of 1. 9. Thus, corneal endothelium is a 'leaky' (12 omega cm2) salt-permeable epithelium and, according to the present study, simultaneously a semi-permeable membrane. To resolve the terminology, we suggest the term 'bi-permeable' for such epithelia which have a high salt permeability but such a very high water permeability as to give apparent reflexion coefficients of 1. PMID:3656171

Hodson, S A; Lawton, D M

1987-01-01

63

CIA, State, NSC Documents Declassified on Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Archive (NSA) has posted a selection of recently declassified documents regarding the tyrannical regime of General Augusto Pinochet in Chile (see the October 20, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). The nine salient documents -- released by the US State Department, the National Security Council (NSC), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) -- cover the bloodiest years of Pinochet's reign, 1973 to 1978. This fall, thousands of top secret US documents related to Pinochet's Chile are expected to be publicly released, and the NSA plans to digitize selected documents for its Website. In addition to the nine documents included in the new release, the NSA also provides access to several previously declassified documents about Pinochet and his 1973 coup.

64

Education in Chile. Bulletin, 1945, No. 10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile is a republic 2,630 miles long, extending along the western coast of South America from Peru to the southernmost tip of the continent. In width it averages about 110 miles, with snow-capped, volcano-studded Andes in the East, a low coastal range along the Pacific and a string of valleys and plains in between. It is estimated that 5,000…

Ebaugh, Cameron D.

1945-01-01

65

Circulation andvariability in the Chile Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current observations at several depths between 250 and 3750 m are reported from a 30? S, deep sea site 150 km off the Chile coast for the periodJuly 1993-June 2001. These results are usedwith current observations from a nearby slope site, satellite altimeter data, and hydrographic and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler data from the WOCE P6E section along 32.5? S

Gary Shaffer; Samuel Hormazabal; Oscar Pizarro; Marcel Ramos

66

Landslide hazards in Santiago, Chile: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santiago, the capital city of Chile, is the country's largest city, with a population of over 5 million people. It is located in a depression between the Coastal Range and the Andes Main Range. The city is placed on fluvial and alluvial sediments and varies in altitude between 500 and ca. 1,000 m a.s.l. The eastern fringe of the urban

SERGIO A. SEPÚLVEDA; SOFÍA REBOLLEDO; MARISOL LARA; CRISTÓBAL PADILLA

67

Tracking Our Progress: A Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the UN DESD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sustainability agenda is a concern of several UN agencies that appreciate how well-being, social justice, human development and the health of our planet are inextricably linked. This remit underpinned the launch of the UN Decade in Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) in 2005. As the DESD reaches its mid-point, mechanisms for assessing…

Tilbury, Daniella

2009-01-01

68

Four new species of Acoela from Chile.  

PubMed

Acoels are with few exceptions marine worms and a common component of the interstitial meiofauna. In this study we present new species to science belonging to Isodiametridae and Solenofilomorphidae. The new species, Isodiametra finkei n. sp., Postaphanostoma nilssoni n. sp., Pseudaphanostoma hyalinorhabdoida n. sp. and Solenofilomorpha pellucida n. sp. were all collected in Chile during March 2012. Nucleotide sequences for the ribosomal genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA as well as COI mtDNA have been determined for the new species and used in a maximum likelihood analysis to further support their classification. PMID:25112642

Kånneby, Tobias; Jondelius, Ulf

2013-01-01

69

Teatro en Santiago de Chile: Temporada 1981  

E-print Network

—Susana Cumsille y Carlos Zaror—montaron en Galpón de los Leones, Dos viejos pânicos de Virgilio Pinera, dirigida por Exequiel Lavandero. El grupo Teatro Abierto formado por Sonia Mena y Sergio Aguirre, a los que agregan Jean Mazoyer y Eduardo Barril... concesiones a su público. El tratamiento del tema se universaliza, aunque los marginados de Chile estén allí representados, mejor que en ninguna otra obra de 1981. Tejado de vidrio, cuya "acción se desarrolla en un día del año 1972," explora un tema hasta...

Bravo-Elizondo, Pedro

1982-10-01

70

Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.  

PubMed

Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

1975-06-01

71

Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.  

PubMed Central

Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

1975-01-01

72

75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and Singapore. DATES: July...trade agreements (FTAs) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its...

2010-05-19

73

77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION...preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program...program for implementing the U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement,...

2012-03-02

74

75 FR 3756 - Preserved Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International...mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia...mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to...

2010-01-22

75

Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporación Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporación Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepción and in his personal collection.

Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

1979-01-01

76

Ecotypic differentiation of Medicago polymorpha in Sardinia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L.) is commonly found in Sardinia and in Chile throughout a wide range of Mediterranean type climates. In Sardinia it is part of the native flora at altitudes ranging between 0 and 1000 m a.s.l., with annual rainfall ranging between 500 and 1100 mm. In Chile, burr medic is naturalized and distributed in a

A. Del Pozo; C. Porqueddu; C. Ovalle

77

1CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE FRONTIER FORESTS  

E-print Network

forests & people #12;2 CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE REPORT PRODUCTION 3.4 Forest Products 24 3.4.1 Exports of wood products 24 3.4.2 Non-wood forest products 24 31CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE CHILE´S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING

78

Chile: Progress Stalled Setbacks in Freedom of Expression Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001, Human Rights Watch released this new report. "Chile: Progress Stalled Setbacks in Freedom of Expression Reform" examines the failure of the current democratic government of Chile to repeal repressive laws established and enforced under Pinochet, including laws that criminalize speech and make "contempt of authority" a crime against the state.

2001-01-01

79

The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limarí, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limarí valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993,

Robert R. Hearne; K. William Easter

1997-01-01

80

Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

2012-01-01

81

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

E-print Network

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung

California at Berkeley, University of

82

The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

Walter, Amy R.

2005-01-01

83

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT ´OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIER´IA MEDICI ´ON DEL IMPACTO DE LA ALEJANDRO URZ ´UA M. #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT ´OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIER´IA MEDICI ´ON DEL

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

84

Interaction between the Chile Ridge and Chile Trench: Geophysical and geothermal evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical and geothermal data are examined from the three southernmost sections of the Chile Ridge, starting at 44°S and continuing south to the triple junction of the Nazca, Antarctic, and South America plates at 47°S. These sections represent three progressively younger stages in a ridge-trench collision event, corresponding to 3 m.y. before the collision, 1 m.y. before the collision, and

S. C. Cande; R. B. Leslie; J. C. Parra; M. Hobart

1987-01-01

85

Galatheidae) from the Magellan region, southern Chile  

E-print Network

SUMMARY: Feeding behaviour and food uptake rates of the anomuran crab Munida subrugosa from the southern Magellan region (Chile) were studied under laboratory conditions. Crabs exhibited a marked preference for meat versus macroalgae, with uptake rates being 14 times higher. Different algal species were ranked according to structure and detrital cover. Observations suggest that scavenging and cannibalism, restricted to injured or moulting individuals, are regularly applied in the natural habitat, whereas active hunting is only performed on suitable prey. The main food resource is suggested to be of microscopic origin, given the time spent on typical food uptake movements for detritus and suspended food. The findings of this study, backed up by results of simultaneously carried out stomach analysis, proved M. subrugosa to be an opportunistic feeder that can make use of different forms of food uptake.

Patricia Karas; Matthias Gorny; Rubén Alarcón-muñoz

86

Endemic Scrub Typhus–like Illness, Chile  

PubMed Central

We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient’s leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus–like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia. PMID:21888791

Balcells, M. Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; García, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddó, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.; Fuerst, Paul A.

2011-01-01

87

Endemic scrub typhus-like illness, Chile.  

PubMed

We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chiloé Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patient's leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhus-like illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia. PMID:21888791

Balcells, M Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; García, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddó, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Kelly, Daryl J; Richards, Allen L; Fuerst, Paul A

2011-09-01

88

ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the ceremony, along with ambassadors in Chile of ESO members States, and representatives of the Chilean government and the scientific community. To review the impact of the numerous projects financed over the last decade, ESO presented the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", based on the reports of the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile fund. Since the beginning, the ESO-Chile fund has granted over 2.5 million euros to finance post-doc and astronomy professors for main Chilean universities, development of research infrastructure, organisation of scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers, and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In addition to the 400,000 euros given annually by ESO to the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, around 550,000 euros are granted every year to finance regional collaboration programmes, fellowships for students in Chilean universities, and the development of radio astronomy through the ALMA-Chile Committee. In total, apart form the 10 percent of the observing time at all ESO telescopes, ESO contributes annually with 950,000 euros for the promotion of astronomy and scientific culture in Chile. The growth of astronomy and related sciences in Chile in the last years has been outstanding. According to a study by the Chilean Academy of Science in 2005, the number of astronomers has doubled over the last 20 years and there has been an 8-fold increase in the number of scientific publications. It is gratifying to see that 100 percent of the observing time granted by international observatories in Chile is actually used by the national community. The same study stated that astronomy could be the first scientific discipline in Chile with the standards of a developed country, with additional benefits in terms of technological improvement and growth of human resources. The English edition of the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe" is available here. The Spanish edition can be downloaded here.

2006-06-01

89

Mass movement characterization using a reflexion and refraction seismic survey with the sloping local base level concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes a new concept for upscaling local information on failure surfaces derived from geophysical data, in order to develop the spatial information and quickly estimate the magnitude and intensity of a landslide. A new vision of seismic interpretation on landslides is also demonstrated by taking into account basic geomorphic information with a numeric method based on the Sloping Local Base Level (SLBL). The SLBL is a generalization of the base level defined in geomorphology applied to landslides, and allows the calculation of the potential geometry of the landslide failure surface. This approach was applied to a large scale landslide formed mainly in gypsum and situated in a former glacial valley along the Rhône within the Western European Alps. Previous studies identified the existence of two sliding surfaces that may continue below the level of the valley. In this study, seismic refraction-reflexion surveys were carried out to verify the existence of these failure surfaces. The analysis of the seismic data provides a four-layer model where three velocity layers (< 1000 m s - 1 , 1500 m s - 1 and 3000 m s - 1 ) are interpreted as the mobilized mass at different weathering levels and compaction. The highest velocity layer (> 4000 m s - 1 ) with a maximum depth of ~ 58 m is interpreted as the stable anhydrite bedrock. Two failure surfaces were interpreted from the seismic surveys: an upper failure and a much deeper one (respectively 25 and 50 m deep). The upper failure surface depth deduced from geophysics is slightly different from the results obtained using the SLBL, and the deeper failure surface depth calculated with the SLBL method is underestimated in comparison with the geophysical interpretations. Optimal results were therefore obtained by including the seismic data in the SLBL calculations according to the geomorphic limits of the landslide (maximal volume of mobilized mass = 7.5 × 10 6 m 3).

Travelletti, Julien; Demand, Jehanne; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Marillier, François

2010-03-01

90

Fleas (Insecta-Siphonaptera) of Chile: a review.  

PubMed

This study presents a revision of the fleas (Siphonaptera) in Chile, gathered from 1993-2013 in response to a request to update our knowledge of the fauna of this country, as catalogued by Beaucournu & Gallardo in 1991 and 1992. For each taxon we give the depository of the type, the main references concerning it, its general distribution, particularly in Chile, and its known hosts, mainly in this country. Our review of the existing literature on fleas of Chile gives information on a total of 8 families, 11 subfamilies, 31 genera, 9 subgenera and 112 species (with 11 subspecies). The hosts are represented by 21 families of mammals (91 species) and 16 of birds (27 species). In addition we present 21 new reports of fleas for Chile and 165 new localities.  PMID:25543732

Beaucournu, Jean-Claude; Moreno, Lucila; González-Acuña, Daniel

2014-01-01

91

Latin American Outlook April 1, 2000: Chile Moves On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2000 issue of Latin American Outlook from the AEI consists of the article "Chile Moves On," by Mark Folcoff. Latin American Outlook is a monthly newsletter on political and economic developments in Latin America.

Folcoff, Mark.

2000-01-01

92

Preliminary forecast model energy map - 2010 Chile event  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image show preliminary calculations for wave height resulting from the February 2010 tsunami generated by the 8.8 magnitude earthquake that struck just offshore of Maule, Chile on February 27, 2010.

NOAA Tsunami Warning Center

93

Diagnosing and mitigating market power in Chile's electricity industry  

E-print Network

This paper examines the incentives to exercise market power that generators would face and the different strategies that they would follow if all electricity supplies in Chile were traded in an hourly-unregulated spot ...

Arellano, María Soledad

2003-01-01

94

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

95

Catastrophic influences on the vegetation of the Valdivian Andes, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In association with a devastating earthquake in 1960, thousands of debris avalanches, landslides, and mudflows occurred in\\u000a the Andes of south-central Chile. Catastrophic mass movements associated with seismic activity have affected the Andes of\\u000a south-central Chile several times in the past 400 years and have profoundly influenced the regional vegetation.\\u000a \\u000a The most widespread forest types in the Andean Cordillera of

Thomas T. Veblen; David H. Ashton

1978-01-01

96

New records to Chile of the Family Paraonidae (Annelida: Polychaeta)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paraonidae are a polychaete family of small body size which have not been reported for Chile until recently. Mainly due to improved sample-processing methods, research campaigns carried out in 1994 and 1996 on three areas off southern Chile have yielded numerous records. Several species proved to be new to the Chilean polychaete fauna, including species that have been known previously only from Antarctic areas. These new records and range extensions are reported in this paper.

Montiel, Américo; Hilbig, Brigitte; Rozbaczylo, Nicolás

2002-05-01

97

The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition, site installation was accomplished with special care. At each station a cavern was blasted into the bedrock up to 5 meters deep to ensure stable conditions for measurements. Currently five stations are additionally recording continuously GPS signals, another five are also recording meteorological data, and another seven are equipped with Magneto-Telluric (MT) probes (fluxgate magnetometers and electrode lines). It is planned to extend the multi-parameter observation to as many stations as possible. So far ten of the stations are sending continuous data via satellite links (VSAT) to the GEOFON data host at the GFZ. We will be reporting first results on seismicity, transient deformation and MT from the first two years of recording.

Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

2009-04-01

98

ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

2014-07-01

99

Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake.  

PubMed

It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. PMID:16163355

Cisternas, Marco; Atwater, Brian F; Torrejón, Fernando; Sawai, Yuki; Machuca, Gonzalo; Lagos, Marcelo; Eipert, Annaliese; Youlton, Cristián; Salgado, Ignacio; Kamataki, Takanobu; Shishikura, Masanobu; Rajendran, C P; Malik, Javed K; Rizal, Yan; Husni, Muhammad

2005-09-15

100

Predecessors of the giant 1960 Chile earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is commonly thought that the longer the time since last earthquake, the larger the next earthquake's slip will be. But this logical predictor of earthquake size, unsuccessful for large earthquakes on a strike-slip fault, fails also with the giant 1960 Chile earthquake of magnitude 9.5 (ref. 3). Although the time since the preceding earthquake spanned 123 years (refs 4, 5), the estimated slip in 1960, which occurred on a fault between the Nazca and South American tectonic plates, equalled 250-350 years' worth of the plate motion. Thus the average interval between such giant earthquakes on this fault should span several centuries. Here we present evidence that such long intervals were indeed typical of the last two millennia. We use buried soils and sand layers as records of tectonic subsidence and tsunami inundation at an estuary midway along the 1960 rupture. In these records, the 1960 earthquake ended a recurrence interval that had begun almost four centuries before, with an earthquake documented by Spanish conquistadors in 1575. Two later earthquakes, in 1737 and 1837, produced little if any subsidence or tsunami at the estuary and they therefore probably left the fault partly loaded with accumulated plate motion that the 1960 earthquake then expended. ?? 2005 Nature Publishing Group.

Cisternas, M.; Atwater, B.F.; Torrejon, F.; Sawai, Y.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Youlton, C.; Salgado, I.; Kamataki, T.; Shishikura, M.; Rajendran, C.P.; Malik, J.K.; Rizal, Y.; Husni, M.

2005-01-01

101

SYMPTOMS OF ANOTHER LIFE: Time, Possibility, and Domestic Relations in Chile’s Credit Economy  

PubMed Central

In this article, I explore the synergy and disjunctures of the consumer credit system and care for the mentally ill and addicted in the lifeworlds of the urban poor in Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the expansion of the credit system has had a double-edged effect on the poor. Although it produces perpetual indebtedness, it also is a resource amid unstable labor. Following an extended family over several years, this article examines how women take up credit through a wider field of domestic relations and institutions to care for kin with mental illness and addiction within the home. Such gestures of care enact a temporality of waiting, allowing different, but unpredictable, aspects of others to emerge. Through longitudinal ethnographic research with this family, I demonstrate both how possibility is actualized within the home as symptoms of illness and forms of domestic violence, and how a wider network of dependencies—from neighbors to lending institutions—shapes the temporality of relations within the home. Such a study of care in relation to the credit economy may offer other analytic perspectives on discourses of individualism, consumerism, and cost-effectiveness accompanying the expansion of consumer credit as they are absorbed into the everyday. PMID:21510328

HAN, CLARA

2011-01-01

102

Analysis and projections of physics in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient for a community that has doubled. Likewise, even 50% of the productivity corresponds to regional centres, only 35% of projects coming from FONDECYT are awarded to the regions (away from the metropolitan region). Regarding experimental Physics, this represents 20% of the community in both, researchers and productivity of the community. However, in the regular FONDECYT contest in 2005, only 2 projects (10%) were awarded in experimental Physics, which is undoubtedly insufficient. The study also includes a brief analysis according to social appraisal of Physics, dissemination activities to other areas of national living, and relation of Physics with the productive sector. Finally, some recommendations are made: - To create a special fund for experimental Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. Complementarily, experimental Physics should be one of the priority areas for the technological and scientific development of the country. - To duplicate the amount assigned to Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. - To create a system that allows increasing the salaries of the researchers in Physics so they could be assimilated to other professional salaries in our country or at an international level. Not only demands must be globalized but also the benefits.

Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

2008-11-01

103

Local Earthquake Distribution Off Valparaiso, Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SPOC experiment was carried out as a combined on- /offshore experiment using FS SONNE (cruise SO 161) to investigate the effects of subducting seamounts and fracture zones on the seismicity and structure of the Central Chilean margin off Valparaiso, Chile. The working area is characterised by the ongoing subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate under the South American continent and shows highly segmentation. North of Valparaiso the subduction angle is very low (flat slab) and we observe only minor sediment input into the trench. In contrast we observe a steep dip angle and high sedimentation rates in the south. Segment boundaries commonly coincide with e.g. bathymetric highs as in this case the Juan Fernandez Ridge which interrupts the lateral, south-north going material flow along the trench. Local earthquake monitoring was carried out for a period of ten weeks using two marine subarrays totally comprising 23 ocean bottom instruments (OBH and OBS). Seismological land data from the Central Chilean Network (CCN) and a number of temporary land stations supplement the marine data set. We present results of about 600 hypocenter determinations detected on the marine OBH/S recordings and the temporary land stations. The hypocenter distribution shows a considerable seismic activity below the upper part of the continental margin. Due to the geometry of the arrays which focus on the transitional domain of the slope we can map the seaward termination of the seismogenic zone using a compilation of both data sets. The southern marine subarray registered a swarm of shallow earthquakes, located on top of the already subducted Topocalma Knoll. A relation to this seamount subduction is strongly indicated. Next to the Juan Fernandez Seamount on the outer rise, we observe considerable seismic activity.

Thierer, P. O.; Tilmann, F.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Comte, D.

2003-04-01

104

Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.  

PubMed

Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

2014-01-01

105

The Seismogenic Coupling Zone in Central Chile - Amphibious Experiments SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with an onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment between 36\\deg and 39\\deg S, crossing the rupture area of the 1960 Chile earthquake. The campaign comprised: (1) a 2-D wide-angle component recording chemical shots and airgun pulses along three consecutive E-W onshore profiles; (2) a seismic reflection experiment in the onshore-offshore transition; and (3) a 3-D component which recorded both active and passive sources. Offshore, the upper plate is split into many segments with pronounced forearc basins and a narrow accretionary wedge. A thick subduction channel seems to cause a non-frontally accreting subduction mode. Along the westernmost part of the southernmost E-W refraction seismic line, the profile spread of the active reflection seismic survey at 38\\deg 15' S was 54 km long, and also recorded the airgun shots of the marine profile with the first 18 km of its spread. Different mainly eastward dipping reflection bands are observed. Between 5-25 km depth the internal structure of the Palaeozoic accretionary wedge is described. Reflections between 16-42 km correlate with Wadati-Benioff seismicity and are interpreted as imaging the top of the downgoing plate. In the central part of the profile a break in reflectivity located below the axis of the coastal cordillera more or less coincides with the intersection between the oceanic plate and the continental Moho. This break in reflectivity also approximately correlates with the downdip end of the seismogenic plate interface as defined by geodetic modelling. These new seismic data provide the geometry of the subduction zone in the area, and hence we suggest the relocation of the 1960 Chile earthquake at 73\\deg 05' W.

Krawczyk, C. M.; Stiller, M.; Mechie, J.; Lueth, S.; Wigger, P.; Oncken, O.; Reichert, C.; Bataille, K.

2003-12-01

106

Weathering of iron meteorites from Monturaqui, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monturaqui is a meteorite crater, 370 m diameter, in the Andes Mountains, Chile. The surface topography and the state of the corroded meteorite suggest, however, that the climate some time ago must have been more humid. Small fragments of severely corroded iron meteorites have been collected in the vicinity, 50-200 m from the crater rim. Fourteen fragments of iron shale have been examined in order to determine the corrosion products of an entirely disintegrated iron meteorite. Polished sections display some vugs and microporosities and are more than 99.9% oxidic. The nonoxidic parts are minute particles of taenite (38-42 wt% Ni), shcreibersite, rabdite (42 wt% Ni, 0.13 wt% Co, 12.5 wt% P), and cohenite (microhardness 1100 +/- 50). The overall morphology of the oxide shales, which sometimes are of breadcrust type, is that of a coarse octahedrite. X-ray diffractometry on powder samples discloses goethite and maghemite, and occasionally peaks from lepidocrocite and reevesite were identified. Peaks from magnetite, akaganeite, and hematite were not identified. The mineralogy and oxidation state of Fe was also investigated by Fe-57 Mossbauer spectroscopy. Spectra of a representative powder sample were obtained between 16 and 350 K. No indication of purely Fe(II)-containing compounds was present. The dominating components in the Mossbauer spectra are due to maghemite and goethite. The chemistry of the oxides was investigated by microprobe analysis including Fe2O3, NiO, CoO, SiO2, Al2O3, SO3, and Cl in the scheme. The total of the analyses varied from 80.3 to 100.9 wt% with a mean of 87.9 wt%. Despite the relatively simple mineralogy, it is not simple to relate the analyzes to different mineralogies (or mixtures) because of the unknown porosity of the analyzed points and the content of structural hydroxyls in goethite. Point analyses having totals close to 100 may be considered to be dominated by relatively bulky aggregates of maghemite.

Koch, C. Bender; Buchwald, V. F.

1994-07-01

107

LA RESOLUCIÓN DE PROBLEMAS EMPRESARIALES DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DE LA PSICOLOGÍA DE LA GESTALT  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artículo aborda el tema de la resolución de problemas empresariales desde una perspectiva gestáltica. Teniendo en cuenta los elementos comunes que agrupan a varias metodologías utilizadas para resolver problemas se intenta insertar el pensamiento del enfoque de la gestalt para lograr una comprensión total de la situación que puede enfrentar un directivo. La idea central es evidenciar los elementos

Dayamí Martínez Negreira; Ana María González Pérez del Villar; Gelmar García Vidal

2011-01-01

108

Stress reconstruction before and after 2010 Chile Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catastrophic earthquake with magnitude Mw = 8.8 occurred off the coast of central Chile on 27 February 2010. Stress reconstruction of the earth's crust and upper mantle before and after this earthquake was performed on the basis of the cataclastic analysis method (MCA) and data on stress relief for Chile Earthquake. Researches allowed getting new data about features of tectonic stresses field before and after this earthquake. On the one hand, there are some extensive areas of stable behavior of stress tensor parameters, on the other hand - there are local areas where these parameters change anomaly fast. The main type of the stress state is horizontal compression. The type of stress tensor is a horizontal shift. The preparation area of the Chile earthquake is characterized by medium values of effective pressure. The work was supported by the grant of the President of the Russian Federation MK-1904.2013.5.

Polets, Anastasia

2014-05-01

109

New records of feather lice from some seabirds in Chile.  

PubMed

Six species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae, Philopteridae) are reported from four species of seabirds collected off the coast of Chile. They are Eidmanniella pellucida, Piagetiella transitans, and Piagetiella caputincisa, from a Guanay cormorant (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii); Harrisoniella ferox collected from a black-browed albatross (Diomedea melanophrys); Ancistrona vagelli from a white-necked petrel (Pterodroma externa); and Pelmatocerandra flinti collected from a Magellan diving petrel (Pelecanoides magellani). Eidmanniella pellucida and P. transitans are reported from Chile for the first time. Piagetiella caputincisa from the Guanay cormorant may be a contaminant from a red-legged shag (Phalacrocorax gaimardi). PMID:9131581

Sepúlveda, M S; Palma, R L; Ochoa-Acuña, H

1997-04-01

110

Geographic diversification strategy: an application to the California - Chile table grape market  

E-print Network

and imported fresh table grape markets is evaluated using a probabilistic framework, resulting in estimated probabilities of integration for the California-Chile (Los Angeles, CA) and California-Chile (Philadelphia, PA) markets of 9% and 19% respectively. A...

Krueger, Angela Martene

2012-06-07

111

Characterization of the pelagic shark-fin trade in north-central Chile by genetic identification  

E-print Network

Estudios Avanzados en Zonas A´ridas (CEAZA), Coquimbo, Chile and Guy Harvey Research Institute and Save Our, Larrondo 1281, Coquimbo, Chile. Tel.: þ56 51 209904; fax: þ56 51 209812; email: phaye@ucn.cl Journal

112

Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): Achievements, Open Questions and Strategies for the Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of…

Pigozzi, Mary Joy

2010-01-01

113

Occurrence of sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Chile (redescription of Iguanodonichnus frenki)  

E-print Network

Occurrence of sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Chile (redescription studied Upper Jurassic dinosaur unit in South America, the Ban~os del Flaco Formation, Chile. Keywords: Chile; Dinosaur footprints; Parabrontopodus; Sauropod; Upper Jurassic Resu´men En el presente

Benton, Michael

114

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2012-01-01

115

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2010-01-01

116

7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56-53... § 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

2013-01-01

117

76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal...continental United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under...that is registered with the Government of Chile and certified as having a low...

2011-10-25

118

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2014-01-01

119

CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

2013-01-01

120

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2010-04-01

121

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2013-04-01

122

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2013-01-01

123

7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23...nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a) Importations allowed . Apricots...be imported into the United States from Chile in accordance with this section and...

2011-01-01

124

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2014-04-01

125

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2011-04-01

126

19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After...re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section...

2012-04-01

127

7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56-53... § 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

2014-01-01

128

7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. 319.56-53 Section 319.56-53... § 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia arguta...into the continental United States from Chile under the following conditions:...

2012-01-01

129

Decentralization and equity of resource allocation: evidence from Colombia and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relation between decentralization and equity of resource allocation in Colombia and Chile. Methods The ''decision space'' approach and analysis of expenditures and utilization rates were used to provide a comparative analysis of decentralization of the health systems of Colombia and Chile. Findings Evidence from Colombia and Chile suggests that decentralization, under certain conditions and with some

Thomas J. Bossert; Osvaldo Larranaga; Ursula Giedion; JoseJesus Arbelaez; Diana M. Bowser

2003-01-01

130

Rapid and major coastal subsidence during the late Miocene in south-central Chile  

E-print Network

´a, Universdad de Chile, Casilla 13518, Correo 21, Santiago, Chile Abstract Sedimentological and paleontological sedimentary successions and offshore boreholes of south-central Chile (33°­45°S). Sedimentology shows and deep-water (2000 m) benthic foraminifers, ostracodes, and gastropods. Sedimentology and paleontology

Finger, Kenneth L.

131

East-West Profile from Kermadec Trench to Valparaiso, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Although several studies have been made of parts of the East Pacific rise and the Peru-Chile trench, comparatively little is actually known about the tectonic framework of the South Pacific basin. Most tracklines are either short or pursue some form of a sawtooth pattern over a prominent feature. Very few continuous geophysical traverses have been made across the South

H. KELLER

1968-01-01

132

Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

2011-01-01

133

Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN  

E-print Network

7 th ISE & 8 th HIC Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN OPEN-CHANNEL NETWORKS channels which are specific eco-systems for many reasons. Firstly, they have to fulfill hydraulic, artificial channels have a relatively simple geometry and their hydraulic variables are easier to monitor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

Estrategia Robin Hood en Chile. Distribución e incidencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile has an unsatisfactory distribution of household income and although its public expenditure (in health, education and housing) and its redistributive policy using direct transfers, have helped reduce poverty; they have not however reduced inequality strongly. The data shows that autonomous household income distribution has improved only marginally after taking into account incomes net of taxes and cash subsidies. With

Cristian Mardones Poblete

2011-01-01

135

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...by a permit issued in accordance with § 319.56-3(b). (b) If the fruit is produced in an area of Chile where Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata ) is known to occur, the fruit must be cold treated in accordance with part 305...

2013-01-01

136

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...by a permit issued in accordance with § 319.56-3(b). (b) If the fruit is produced in an area of Chile where Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata ) is known to occur, the fruit must be cold treated in accordance with part 305...

2010-01-01

137

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...by a permit issued in accordance with § 319.56-3(b). (b) If the fruit is produced in an area of Chile where Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata ) is known to occur, the fruit must be cold treated in accordance with part 305...

2014-01-01

138

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...by a permit issued in accordance with § 319.56-3(b). (b) If the fruit is produced in an area of Chile where Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata ) is known to occur, the fruit must be cold treated in accordance with part 305...

2012-01-01

139

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...by a permit issued in accordance with § 319.56-3(b). (b) If the fruit is produced in an area of Chile where Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata ) is known to occur, the fruit must be cold treated in accordance with part 305...

2011-01-01

140

Reforming Educational Reform: Teachers' Union Leading Teacher Research in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher research movement in Chile has, historically, been an expression of the profession's concerns with the ways in which schooling reproduces and produces the social order in the broader society. The work currently done by members of the union's Pedagogical Movement is described, showing the connections between the scope of problems…

Montecinos, Carmen

2009-01-01

141

The Impact of Chile's School Feeding Program on Education Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile operates one of the oldest and largest school feeding programs in Latin America, targeting higher-calorie meals to relatively poorer schools. This paper evaluates the impact of higher-calorie meals on the education outcomes of public, rural schools and their students. It applies a regression-discontinuity design to administrative data,…

McEwan, Patrick J.

2013-01-01

142

The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides new evidence on the incidence of payroll taxation by examining the experience of Chile before and after the privatization of its Social Security system. This policy change led to a sharp exogenous reduction in the payroll tax burden on Chilean firms; on average, payroll tax rates fell by 25 percent over six years. Using data from a

Jonathan Gruber

1997-01-01

143

Taxes and income distribution in Chile: some unpleasant redistributive arithmetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper quantifies the direct impact of taxes on income distribution at the household level in Chile and estimates the distributional effect of several changes in the tax structure. We find that income distributions before and after taxes are very similar (Gini coefficients of 0.488 and 0.496, respectively). Moreover, radical modifications of the tax structure, such as raising the value

Eduardo M. R. A. Engel; Alexander Galetovic; Claudio E. Raddatz

1999-01-01

144

The Last Glaciation in Central Magellan Strait, Southernmost Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacial landforms and drift stratigraphy in central Magellan Strait, southernmost Chile, document repeated fluctuations during the last glacial cycle of outlet lobes from an ice cap centered over the southern Andes. The lobes developed comparatively low-gradient profiles because of low basal shear stresses over soft deformable beds and this made them sensitive to even small-scale changes in the mass balance.

Chalmers M. Clapperton; David E. Sugden; Darrell S. Kaufman; Robert D. McCulloch

1995-01-01

145

Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation…

Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

2013-01-01

146

Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Santiago de Chile, São Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las

Paulo Artaxo; Pedro Oyola; Roberto Martinez

1999-01-01

147

YIELD AND QUALITY OF MACHINE HARVESTED RED CHILE PEPPERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In the southwest U.S. growing region, which includes southern New Mexico, west Texas and southeast Arizona, mechanical harvest of chile peppers (Capsicum annuum) is increasing because of the high cost of hand labor. Mechanical harvesters have been developed, but there is limited information on the p...

148

Neoliberal Education and Student Movements in Chile: Inequalities and Malaise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the major consequences of the neoliberal education system implemented in Chile during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet and how two important student movements contested this structure. In 2006 and 2011, thousands of students filled the streets to demand better public education, more social justice and equal opportunities.…

Cabalin, Cristian

2012-01-01

149

Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small

Luis Urzua; Tom Powell; William B. Cumming; Patrick Dobson

2002-01-01

150

Ice volumetric changes on active volcanoes in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the glaciers in southern Chile have been retreating and shrinking during recent decades in response to atmospheric warming and decrease in precipitation. However, some glacier fluctuations are directly associated with the effusive and geothermal activity of ice-covered active volcanoes widely distributed in the region. The aim of this paper is to study the ice volumetric changes by comparing

Andrés Rivera; Francisca Bown; Ronald Mella; Jens Wendt; Gino Casassa; César Acuña; Eric Rignot; Jorge Clavero; Benjamin Brock

2006-01-01

151

Gas and aerosol emissions from Villarrica volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Villarrica volcano, Chile, in March 2009. A range of direct sampling and remote sensing techniques was employed to assess gas and aerosol emissions from the volcano, and extend the time series of measurements that have been made during recent years. Airborne traverses beneath the plume with an ultraviolet spectrometer yielded

G. M. Sawyer; G. G. Salerno; J. S. Le Blond; R. S. Martin; L. Spampinato; T. J. Roberts; T. A. Mather; M. L. I. Witt; V. I. Tsanev; C. Oppenheimer

2011-01-01

152

Neisseria meningitidis ST-11 Clonal Complex, Chile 2012  

PubMed Central

Serogroup W Neisseria meningitidis was the main cause of invasive meningococcal disease in Chile during 2012. The case-fatality rate for this disease was higher than in previous years. Genotyping of meningococci isolated from case-patients identified the hypervirulent lineage W:P1.5,2:ST-11, which contained allele 22 of the fHbp gene. PMID:25625322

Araya, Pamela; Del Canto, Felipe; Seoane, Mabel; Ibarz-Pavón, Ana B.; Barra, Gisselle; Pidal, Paola; Díaz, Janepsy; Hormazábal, Juan C.; Valenzuela, María T.

2015-01-01

153

Peces asociados con la deriva de macroalgas en Aysén, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen.- La obtención de restos de macroalgas flotando a la deriva en aguas frente al sur de Chile permite, por primera vez, explorar la presencia de peces nadando junto con ellas. Se registra la presencia del pez aguja Leptonotus blainvilleanus (familia Syngnathidae); la cojinova Seriolella porosa (familia Centrolophidae); el pampanito, Stromateus stellatus (familia Stromateidae) y el torito Bovichtus sp. (familia

Germán Pequeño; Daniela Farías; Martín Thiel; Iván Hinojosa

2004-01-01

154

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that poverty and other structural inequalities would be

Rosario Ceballo; Cynthia Ramirez; Marcela Castillo; Gabriela Alejandra Caballero; Betsy Lozoff

2004-01-01

155

Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy

2004-01-01

156

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERA  

E-print Network

DE LA TRANSMISI�N UTILIZANDO TEORÍA DE JUEGOS COOPERATIVOS: M�TODO EL NUCLEOLO WILMER ANDR�S TABRAJ RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, Diciembre, 2007 © 2007, Wilmer Andrés Tabraj Arias #12 TRANSMISI�N UTILIZANDO TEORÍA DE JUEGOS COOPERATIVOS: M�TODO EL NUCLEOLO WILMER ANDR�S TABRAJ ARIAS Tesis

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

157

Parents Help to Educate Their Children: An Experiment in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Parents and Children Project, an experiment to provide an inexpensive and effective educational program to rural areas in Chile, is summarized. Using community resources, parent volunteers, and a part-time staff, the project focuses directly on the education of preschool children. (JK)

Balmaceda, Carmen; And Others

1977-01-01

158

Curva de Beveridge, Vacantes y Desempleo: Chile 1986-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a vacancyindex for Chile for the period 1986 to the second quarter of 2002. This index is calculated using the number of jobs offered in newspapers’ advertisements of the 5 main urban areas. This information, in addition with employment and labor force data, is used to draw and estimate a Beveridge Curve (CB). We used

Dolly Bellani V; Pablo García S; Ernesto Pastén H

2002-01-01

159

¿Existe discriminación salarial contra la población indígena en Chile?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents empirical evidence on the existence of wage discrimination concerning indigenous population in Chile in the period 1996-2006, using data from the Casen survey. The results show that wage discrimination has remained stable during the last ten years (12%). Using bootstrapping techniques it is possible to construct a confidence interval for the wage discrimination measure, which allows to

Rodrigo Montero; Paz Garcés

2009-01-01

160

Discriminación salarial por género en Chile: una mirada global  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se realiza un análisis de la evolución de la discriminación salarial por género en Chile para el período 1990 y 2003, utilizando las Encuestas CASEN. Se aplica primero el método Oaxaca-Blinder y luego el de Oaxaca y Ransom, para verificar si existe una brecha salarial, conocer su magnitud y descomponer sus causas. Se corrigen las estimaciones de

Jeanette Fuentes; Amalia Palma; Rodrigo Montero

2005-01-01

161

Weathering of Iron Meteorites from Monturaqui, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monturaqui is a meteorite crater, 370 m diameter, in the Andes Mountains, Chile. The impact apparently took place in upper tertiary or pleistocene, judging from the topography of the drainage gullies in the crater area [1]. The surface topography and the state of the corroded meteorite suggest, however, that the climate some time ago must have been more humid. Small fragments of severely corroded iron meteorites have been collected in the vicinity, 50-200 m from the crater rim. Fourteen fragments of iron shale have been examined in order to determine the corrosion products of an entirely disintegrated iron meteorite. Polished sections display some vugs and microporosities and are >99.9% oxidic. The non-oxidic parts are minute particles of taenite (38-42%wt. Ni), schreibersite, rabdite (42%wt. Ni, 0.13%wt. Co, 12.5%wt. P), and cohenite (microhardness 1100 +- 50). The overall morphology of the oxide shales, which sometimes are of breadcrust type, is that of a coarse octahedrite, probably of Group IA similar to the Canyon Diablo meteorite [2]. X-ray diffractometry on powder samples disclose goethite and maghemite, and occasionally peaks from lepidocrocite and reevesite were identified. Peaks from magnetite, akaganeite, and hematite were not identified. The mineralogy and oxidation state of Fe was also investigated by ^57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy. Spectra of a representative powder sample were obtained between 16 and 350 K. No indication of purely Fe(II)-containing compounds was present. Based on the identification of a component due to octahedrally coordinated Fe in magnetite (a mixed Fe(II)- Fe(III) site) a maximum of approximately 5 relative % of Fe(II) can be estimated. Consequently the determination of Fe in oxides by microprobe is reported as Fe(III). The dominating components in the Mossbauer spectra are due to maghemite and goethite, the latter exhibiting a wide variation in crystallite size as evidenced from the observed variation in blocking temperatures between 50 and 300 K. Based on fits of the spectrum obtained at 16 K the Fe is partitioned between maghemite and goethite in the ratio 55:45. The magnetic hyperfine fields are reduced in comparison to the pure oxides probably due to substitution in the lattice. The chemistry of the oxides was investigated by microprobe analysis including Fe2O3, NiO, CoO, SiO2, Al2O3, SO3, and Cl in the scheme. Based on 47 analyses a mean Fe2O3 content of 81.8%wt. with minimum and maximum contents of 73.8 and 97.0%wt., respectively. The NiO content varied from 1.7 to 5.3%wt. with a mean of 3.9%wt., and the CoO content varied from 0.2 to 0.8%wt. with a mean of 0.5%wt. Of the non-meteoritic derived elements small amounts of Al2O3 (0-0.21%wt.), SiO2 (0-4.0%wt.), Cl (0-0.2%wt.), and SO3 (0-0.3%wt.) were detected. The total of the analyses varied from 80.3 to 100.9%wt. with a mean of 87.9%wt. Despite the relative simple mineralogy it is not simple to relate the analyses to different mineralogies (or mixtures) because of the unknown porosity of the analysed points and the content of structural hydroxyls in goethite. However, point analyses having totals close to 100 may be considered to be dominated by relatively bulky aggregates of maghemite. These points are characterised by quite variable Fe/Ni weight ratios (between 15 and 25) being distinctly higher than the estimated average for the unweathered meteorite having an average value of 13. The values are also not significantly different from those calculated from all the analyses with a mean value of approximately 19. Thus a relative loss in Ni in all the oxide phases is evidenced. References: [1] Sanches J. and Cassidy W.(1966) JGR, 71, 4891-4895. [2] Buchwald V. F. (1975) Handbook of Iron Meteorites, 1-3.

Bender Koch, C.; Buchwald, V. F.

1994-07-01

162

Surnames in Chile: a study of the population of Chile through isonymy.  

PubMed

In Chile, the Hispanic dual surname system is used. To describe the isonymic structure of this country, the distribution of 16,277,255 surnames of 8,178,209 persons was studied in the 15 regions, the 54 provinces, and the 346 communes of the nation. The number of different surnames found was 72,667. Effective surname number (Fisher's ?) for the entire country was 309.0, the average for regions was 240.8 ± 17.6, for provinces 209.2 ± 8.9, and for communes 178.7 ± 4.7. These values display a variation of inbreeding between administrative levels in the Chilean population, which can be attributed to the 'Prefecture effect' of Nei and Imaizumi. Matrices of isonymic distances between units within administrative levels were tested for correlation with geographic distance. The correlations were highest for provinces (r = 0.630 ± 0.019 for Euclidean distance) and lowest for communes (r = 0.366 ± 0.009 for Lasker's). The geographical distribution of the first three-dimensions of the Euclidean distance matrix suggests that population diffusion may have taken place from the north of the country toward the center and south. The prevalence of European plus European-Amerindian (95.4%) over Amerindian ethnicity (4.6%, CIA World Factbook) is compatible with diffusion of Caucasian groups over a low-density area populated by indigenous groups. The significant excess of maternal over paternal indigenous surnames indicates some asymmetric mating between nonAmerindian and Amerindian Chileans. The available studies of Y-markers and mt-markers are in agreement with this asymmetry. In the present work, we investigate the Chilean population with the aim of detecting its structure through the study of isonymy (Crow and Mange,1965) in the three administrative levels of the nation, namely 15 regions, 54 provinces, and 346 communes. PMID:22271503

Barrai, I; Rodriguez-Larralde, A; Dipierri, J; Alfaro, E; Acevedo, N; Mamolini, E; Sandri, M; Carrieri, A; Scapoli, C

2012-03-01

163

Conservation easements and mining: The case of Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Private protected areas (PPAs) are important designations with the potential to complement and improve public protected area (PA) networks in many countries. PPAs come in many forms and offer a wide variety of incentives, rights, responsibilities, and protections. One popular model, now being considered for adoption in Chile, is the conservation easement. In this article, we examine how well conservation easements would perform as PPA designations in countries such as Chile that have strong mining industries. Mining, and other concessions, in PAs is emerging as an important point of contention between conservation and development. PPA designations should be carefully designed to offer protections that conform to standards that will complement PA networks, that are perpetual, and that require a publically accountable and transparent process to overturn or modify.

Root-Bernstein, M.; Montecinos Carvajal, Y.; Ladle, R.; Jepson, P.; Jaksic, F.

2013-12-01

164

Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake.  

PubMed

Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time. PMID:25196338

Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmán, Eugenio

2014-10-01

165

Climatology of surface ultraviolet-radiation in Valparaiso, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the lack of long-term records, it is possible to describe many of the short term characteristics, dependencies and climatology of surface UV irradiance. This paper describes the climatology of on ground UV irradiance at Valparaiso (33.05°S, 71.63°W, sea level), Chile. The dependence of UV-B irradiance on ozone and on other climate variables is discussed with reference to our observations

Raúl R. Cordero; Pedro Roth; Aleksandar Georgiev; Luis DaSilva

2005-01-01

166

1CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE FRONTIER FORESTS  

E-print Network

.2 Forests and Land Tenure 21 3.3 Actors Involved 23 3.4 Forest Products 24 3.4.1 Exports of wood products 24 3.4.2 Non-wood forest products 24 3.5 Legislative Framework 26 3.5.1 Overview of forest legislation1CHILE'S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING A GLOBAL TREASURE CHILE´S FRONTIER FORESTS: CONSERVING

167

Refractive error study in children: results from La Florida, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE:To assess the prevalence of refractive errors and vision impairment in school-age children in a suburban area (La Florida) of Santiago, Chile.METHODS:Random selection of geographically defined clusters was used to identify a representative sample of children 5 to 15 years of age. Children in the 26 selected clusters were enumerated through a door-to-door survey and invited to report to a

Eugenio Maul; Silviana Barroso; Sergio R. Munoz; Robert D. Sperduto; Leon B. Ellwein

2000-01-01

168

Gas geochemistry of the Cordón Caulle geothermal system, Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cordón Caulle geothermal system is located in a NW-trending volcano-tectonic depression of the Southern Andean Volcanic Zone of Chile. Outflows of low chloride water were previously interpreted as the surface expression of a shallow steam-heated aquifer, with subsurface temperatures of 150–170°C. Gas data from fumaroles and hot springs have been used to assess the nature and temperature of the

Fabián Sepúlveda; Alfredo Lahsen; Thomas Powell

2007-01-01

169

Analyses of bottom simulating reflections offshore Arauco and Coyhaique (Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two seismic sections offshore Arauco and Coyhaique, Chile, have been analysed to better define the seismic character of hydrate-bearing\\u000a sediments. The velocity analysis was used to estimate the gas-phase concentration, which can serve to correlate hydrate presence\\u000a to the geological features. The velocity model allowed us to recognise the hydrate layer above the bottom simulating reflector\\u000a (BSR), and the free

Ivan de la Cruz Vargas Cordero; Umberta Tinivella; Flavio Accaino; Maria Filomena Loreto; Francesco Fanucci; Christian Reichert

2010-01-01

170

Petroleum possibilities in continental margin off central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continental margin off central Chile, from Valparaiso to Valdivia, encompassing an area of 100,000 km², has been the target of exploratory activity by Empresa Nacional del Petroleo since 1970. Exploratory drilling began in 1972. By August 1984, total exploratory efforts had resulted in drilling 14 offshore wells and acquiring 12,130 km of seismic reflection lines. A biogenic gas accumulation

1986-01-01

171

Glacier responses to recent volcanic activity in Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glaciers in Southern Chile (39–43°S) are characterized by frontal retreats and area losses in response to the ongoing climatic changes at a timescale of decades. Superimposed on these longer-term trends, volcanic activity is thought to impact glaciers in variable ways. Debris–ash covered Glaciar Pichillancahue-Turbio only retreated slightly in recent decades in spite of been located on Volcán Villarrica which has

Andrés Rivera; Francisca Bown; Daniela Carrión; Pablo Zenteno

2012-01-01

172

Potato remains from a late pleistocene settlement in southcentral Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taxonomic and evolutionary relationships between the Chilean cultivars ofSolanum tuberosum and the wild speciesS. maglia are explored. Widely separated centers of origin are postulated for the Group Tuberosum and Group Andigena varieties of the\\u000a common potato. The first group is believed to have been domesticated originally in the humid forest-lands of southcentral\\u000a Chile, while the second appears to have arisen

Donald Ugent; Tom Dillehay; Carlos Ramirez

1987-01-01

173

After the Coup: Four Dramatic Versions of Allende's Chile  

E-print Network

FALL 1978 39 After the Coup: Four Dramatic Versions of Allende's Chile RAMÓN LAYERA In his preface to Victor Torres' Una casa en Lota Alto (A House in Lota Alto, 1973) Augusto Boal, renowned Brazilian director, playwright and drama... plays written by Chilean playwrights about the Allende years illustrate the paradox inherent in Augusto Boal's proposition.1 Victor Torres' Una casa en Lota Alto, Sergio Vodanovic's Igual que antes {Same As Ever, 1972-73), Jorge Díaz' Mear contra el...

Layera, Ramó n

1978-10-01

174

Chile's labor markets in an era of adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s, Chile underwent profound structural changes in market regulation, public sector policies, and foreign trade. These changes produced notable economic strain and high open unemployment. After the financial crisis of the 1980s the Chilean economy adjusted successfully and resumed economic growth. The author describes the important role labor markets played in the adjustment process. Expenditure-switching and expenditure-reduction policies

Luis A. Riveros

1990-01-01

175

Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.  

PubMed

Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

1997-09-01

176

Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper  

PubMed Central

Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Kenney, M. J.; Murray, L. W.

1997-01-01

177

Interprétation hydrogéologique de l'aquifère des bassins sud-rifains (Maroc) : apport de la sismique réflexionHydrogeological interpretation of the southern Rifean basins aquifer (Morocco): seismic reflexion contribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aquifer of the Rharb Basin is constituted by heterogeneous material. The seismic reflexion interpretation carried out in this area, highlighted a permeable device compartmentalized in raised and subsided blocks. Depressions identified in the northern and southernmost zones are characterized by Plio-Quaternary fillings that are favourable to the hydrogeological exploitation. Two mechanisms contribute to structure the Plio-Quaternary aquifer: the Hercynian reactivation in the southernmost part, and the gravitational mechanism of the Pre-Rifean nappe. The groundwater flow and the aquifer thickening are controlled by this reactivation.

Zouhri, Lahcen; Gorini, Christian; Lamouroux, Christian; Vachard, Daniel; Dakki, Mohammed

2003-03-01

178

The 2010 Chile Earthquake - Variations in the Rupture Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnitude 8.8, February 27, 2010 Chile, that occurred along the south central Nazca/South American plate boundary was an underthrusting event with an aftershock length of ~600 km along strike, with a bi-lateral rupture that started near Cobquecura and ruptured north to Valparaiso and ruptured 100 km south of Concepcion. This segment of the south central coast of Chile has a long record of damaging underthrusting earthquakes dating back to 1570 that based on intensity and tsunami reports show variations in the rupture mode between earthquake cycles. In light of the recent 2010 Chile earthquake we review the historic earthquake record along this segment of the subduction zone and compare it to the slip distribution determined during the 2010 mainshock. The 2010 earthquake appears to have failed at least 2 segments of the plate boundary that failed previously in multiple earthquakes with different rupture lengths. The southern region of the 2010 rupture last failed in 1835, 1751, 1657 and 1570. The northern segment of the 2010 rupture last failed in 1928 (Ms=8.0), 1751, and in 1730. The 1751 earthquake probably ruptured both the 1928 and 1835 earthquake zones based on intensities and tsunami reports. The 1751 earthquake had intensity 9 in Concepcion, Talcahuano, Chillan, and Talca, and intensity 6 at Valparaiso (Askew and Algermissen, 1985). The northern termination of the 2010 rupture appears to end near 33.5°S to ~34°S which coincides with the southern portion of the 1985 (Mw=8.0) zone that previously ruptured in 1906 (Ms=8.4). Modeling of teleseismic P, SH and R1 waveforms show a bilateral rupture with the largest patch of slip ~ 100 km north and updip of the epicenter with smaller patches of slip to the south and down dip of the epicenter (Lay et al., 2010). As expected the rupture velocity is difficult to constrain with teleseismic data. Recent results from back projecting the P-waves recorded using Transportable Array data in the U.S. also show a bilateral rupture with the location of the highest slip region north of the epicenter. All of these methods show significant mainshock slip in the 1928 rupture zone and lesser amounts of slip in the part of the 1835 rupture zone that did not fail in 1928, despite the longer time since 1835. The aftershocks of the 2010 and 1985 earthquakes overlap but the high slip region of the 2010 earthquakes does not appear to overlap significantly with the high slip region of the 1985 earthquake and the latter may have contributed to the termination of the 2010 earthquake. The 2010 Chile earthquake segment along the south central Chile subduction shows large variations in the rupture mode in previous earthquakes. What controls the size of the earthquake (i.e. how many segments fail in a given event) is still uncertain but important in understanding the potential hazard of the Chile subduction zone.

Beck, S. L.; Comte, D.; Lay, T.; Kiser, E.; Ishii, M.

2010-12-01

179

Seismic noise tomography in the Chile ridge subduction region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise recorded in the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) region to estimate interstation surface wave time-domain Green's functions, and then inverted traveltimes to obtain crustal surface wave velocity models. Interstation distances within the Chile Ridge Subduction Project (CRSP) temporary seismic network ranged from 40 to ~100 km. We selected 365 d, and cross-correlated and stacked 24 hr of vertical component data at 38 stations pairs, resulting in nominally 703 traveltimes along assumed-straight interstation paths. Velocities in 2-D cells of 30 km × 30 km were calculated using a linear least-squares inversion of the Rayleigh wave group velocity traveltimes. Furthermore we performed a Rayleigh wave group velocity dispersion analysis to estimate the sensitivity of different period waves at depth and to calculate a 3-D shear velocity model of the Patagonian crust. The process was applied to cross correlation pairs determined in two period bands, 5-10 s, corresponding to shallow crustal velocities down to approximately 10 km depth, and 10-20 s, for velocities down to around 20 km. Our results show that cell velocities correlate well with known geological features. We find high-crustal velocities where the Patagonian Batholith outcrops or is likely present at depth, and low velocities correlate with the active volcanic arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone and the subducted Chile ridge in Taitao peninsula, where thermal activity of hot springs is present. High velocities in the mountainous portions of the southeastern study area appear to correlate with outcropping older metamorphic units. Low velocity in the east correlate with sequences of volcaniclastic deposits.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V. I.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

2010-09-01

180

Petroleum possibilities in continental margin off central Chile  

SciTech Connect

The continental margin off central Chile, from Valparaiso to Valdivia, encompassing an area of 100,000 km/sup 2/, has been the target of exploratory activity by Empresa Nacional del Petroleo since 1970. Exploratory drilling began in 1972. By August 1984, total exploratory efforts had resulted in drilling 14 offshore wells and acquiring 12,130 km of seismic reflection lines. A biogenic gas accumulation was discovered in the F well. Because these attempts to find oil were unsuccessful and because drilling costs have escalated, exploratory activities have been curtailed. Forearc basins off central Chile are characterized by low geothermal gradient and a sedimentary filling of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Tertiary sequences are characterized by low organic carbon content, immature humic-type organic matter, and a biogenic gas potential. Cretaceous sequences are characterized by higher organic carbon content, good reservoir rocks, and fair to good source rocks. The organic matter is sapropelic, with vitrinite and liptinites, and is favorable for oil and gas generation. Seismic and well data suggest that Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rock sequences filling the basins (more than 4000 m thick at the shelf edge) extend 40-70 km beyond the present shelf edge. Mesozoic rocks deposited on the slope may generate petroleum and gas that could migrate upslope and accumulate in traps associated with the faulted basement highs and graben-type depressions existing at the shelf edge. This geologic setting favors the development of large petroleum accumulations along the shelf edge and graben on the sedimentary basins off central Chile.

Gonzalez, E.

1986-07-01

181

[Analysis of the situation of occupational health in Chile].  

PubMed

The authors make a critical analysis of the Occupational Health in Chile based on the conclusions obtained from a multidisciplinary workshop, attended by professionals of this area. The method used was strategic planning, exposing the weaknesses, strengths and expectations regarding the health reality of the region. A profile of the type of professionals that should participate in the programs was also discussed, elaborating a work plan that should reflect the future development in this area, as well as pointing out the role of the University in the work plan and analysing the future of Occupational Health. PMID:10734937

Alvarado, O I; Suazo, S V; Quinteros, R V

1999-01-01

182

Chile: 16,000 Secret US Documents Declassified  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On November 13, the National Security Archive (NSA) (last discussed in the October 6, 2000 Scout Report) announced the release of over "16,000 secret US records on the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile, and Washington's role in the violent overthrow of the Allende government and the advent of the military regime to power." Totalling more than 50,000 pages, the records include numerous controversial documents that the CIA had refused to release until they were pressured by the White House. The NSA has posted a selection of some of the key documents on its site. They are offered in .pdf format with a brief description.

2000-01-01

183

An overview of the dinosaur fossil record from Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Chile, the record of dinosaurs in Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments is often restricted to footprints, with few skeletal remains. Tetanuran theropods are known in the Upper Jurassic, and bones of titanosaur sauropods in the Late Cretaceous, including partial skeletons (e.g. Atacamatitan chilensis Kellner et al.). Also from the late Cretaceous, an ornithopod vertebra, a pair of theropod teeth and one tarsometatarsus of a gaviiform bird (Neogaeornis wetzeli Lambrecht) have been reported. The Cenozoic fossil record comprises abundant and well-preserved marine birds from Eocene and Miocene units, with a specially abundant record of Sphenisciformes and less frequently, Procellariiformes. There is an excellent Miocene-Pliocene record of other birds such as Odontopterygiformes, including the most complete skeleton ever found of a pelagornithid, Pelagornis chilensis Mayr and Rubilar-Rogers. Fossil birds are also known from Pliocene and Pleistocene strata. A remarkable collection of birds was discovered in lacustrine sediments of late Pleistocene age associated to human activity. The perspectives in the study of dinosaurs in Chile are promising because plenty of material stored in institutional collections is not described yet. The record of Chilean dinosaurs is relevant for understanding the dynamics and evolution of this group of terrestrial animals in the western edge of Gondwana, while Cenozoic birds from the Region may contribute to the understanding of current biogeography for instance, the effect of the emergence and establishment of the Humboldt Current.

Rubilar-Rogers, David; Otero, Rodrigo A.; Yury-Yáñez, Roberto E.; Vargas, Alexander O.; Gutstein, Carolina S.

2012-08-01

184

Abortion in Chile: the practice under a restrictive regime.  

PubMed

This article examines, from a human rights perspective, the experience of women, and the practices of health care providers regarding abortion in Chile. Most abortions, as high as 100,000 a year, are obtained surreptitiously and clandestinely, and income and connections play a key role. The illegality of abortion correlates strongly with vulnerability, feelings of guilt and loneliness, fear of prosecution, physical and psychological harm, and social ostracism. Moreover, the absolute legal ban on abortion has a chilling effect on health care providers and endangers women's lives and health. Although misoprostol use has significantly helped to prevent greater harm and enhance women's agency, a ban on sales created a black market. Against this backdrop, feminists have taken action in aid of women. For instance, a feminist collective opened a telephone hotline, Linea Aborto Libre (Free Abortion Line), which has been crucial in informing women of the correct and safe use of misoprostol. Chile is at a crossroads. For the first time in 24 years, abortion law reform seems plausible, at least when the woman's life or health is at risk and in cases of rape and fetal anomalies incompatible with life. The political scenario is unfolding as we write. Congressional approval does not mean automatic enactment of a new law; a constitutional challenge is highly likely and will have to be overcome. PMID:25555764

Casas, Lidia; Vivaldi, Lieta

2014-11-01

185

Spearfishing to depletion: evidence from temperate reef fishes in Chile.  

PubMed

Unreliable and data-poor marine fishery landings can lead to a lack of regulatory action in fisheries management. Here we use official Chilean landing reports and non-conventional indicators, such as fishers' perceptions and spearfishing competition results, to provide evidence of reef fishes depletions caused by unregulated spearfishing. Results show that the three largest and most emblematic reef fishes targeted mainly by spearfishers (> 98% of landings) [Graus nigra (vieja negra), Semicossyphus darwini (sheephead or pejeperro), and Medialuna ancietae (acha)] show signs of depletion in terms of abundance and size and that overall the catches of reef fishes have shifted from large carnivore species toward smaller-sized omnivore and herbivore species. Information from two snorkeling speargun world championships (1971 and 2004, Iquique, Chile) and from fishers' perceptions shows the mean size of reef fish to be declining. Although the ecological consequences of reef fish depletion are not fully understood in Chile, evidence of spearfishing depleting temperate reef fishes must be explicitly included in policy debates. This would involve bans or strong restrictions on the use of SCUBA and hookah diving gear for spearfishing, and minimum size limits. It may also involve academic and policy discussions regarding conservation and fisheries management synergies within networks of no-take and territorial user-rights fisheries areas, as a strategy for the sustainable management of temperate and tropical reef fisheries. PMID:20945755

Godoy, Natalio; Gelcich, L Stefan; Vásquez, Julio A; Castilla, Juan Carlos

2010-09-01

186

Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile  

PubMed Central

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918–1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July–August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cécile

2014-01-01

187

Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert, northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Palaeoindian occupation of the Atacama Desert in northern Chile has been found between 12 600 and 10 200 cal. yr BP. The new site at Salar Punta Negra (24°28S/60°53W/2976 m) includes about 1000 classifiable, mostly unifacial artefacts and, uniquely, three different diagnostic types of early projectile points. Two of the Lateglacial/early Holocene projectile types have wide distribution and are known from different geographical areas in South America: the Palaeoindian Fell fish-tail point mainly from the southern cone of South America, and the triangular Tuina points typical of the Puna of the south-central Andes in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina. In addition, we found a third type, a stemmed point typical for the Salar Punta Negra. Filling a large geographical gap of Fell occupation, the site at Salar Punta Negra provides evidence for generally much higher mobility and diversity of early cultures, and supports an Andean-Pacific route for early human exploration of South America to the south through the desert at intermediate altitudes. Contemporaneous high-amplitude climatic changes were fundamental preconditions to provide adequate environments and habitats, and to make Palaeoindian hunting-gathering occupation possible in the Atacama Desert.

Grosjean, Martin; Núñez, Lautaro; Cartajena, Isabel

2005-10-01

188

A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow. Earthquake-induced static seabed vertical displacement is used as an input boundary condition to the model. The model is hierarchically set up with three nested domain levels; with 250 domains in total covering the entire Chilean coast. Spatial grid-cell resolution is equal to the native SRTM resolution of approximately 90m. In addition to the stochastic events, the 1960 (M9.5) Valdivia and 2010 (M8.8) Maule earthquakes are modelled. The modelled tsunami inundation map for the 2010 Maule event is validated through comparison with real observations. The vulnerability component consists of an extensive damage curves database, including curves for buildings, contents and business interruption for 21 occupancies, 24 structural types and two secondary modifies such as building height and period of construction. The building damage curves are developed by use of load-based method in which the building's capacity to resist tsunami loads is treated as equivalent to the design earthquake load capacity. The contents damage and business interruption curves are developed by use of deductive approach i.e. HAZUS flood vulnerability and business function restoration models are adapted for detailed occupancies and then assigned to the dominant structural types in Chile. The vulnerability component is validated through model overall back testing by use of observed aggregated earthquake and tsunami losses for client portfolios for 2010 Maule earthquake.

Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

2014-05-01

189

FEEDING ECOLOGY OF THE BARN OWL IN CENTRAL CHILE AND SOUTHERN SPAIN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY  

E-print Network

FEEDING ECOLOGY OF THE BARN OWL IN CENTRAL CHILE AND SOUTHERN SPAIN: A COMPARATIVE STUDY CARLOSM. HERREV&AND FABIANM. JAKSI·1 EstacidnBioldgicade Dogaria, Sevilla-12, Andalucia, Spain, and Instituto de of the Barn Owl (Tyro alba) in the mediterranean- climate areasof central Chile and southernSpain. In both

Herrera, Carlos M.

190

Curriculum Convergence in Chile: The Global and Local Context of Reforms in Curriculum Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the 14 years since Chile's return to democracy, educational reform has figured prominently in the social policy agenda. As is true throughout Latin America, Chilean policy makers have placed the quality of educational opportunities among their main concerns. Having previously focused on the numerical expansion of enrollment, Chile's leadership…

Valverde, Gilbert A.

2004-01-01

191

Pliocene near-trench magmatism in southern Chile: A possible manifestation of ridge collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight shallow-level intrusions and an ophiolite complex have recently been discovered in a remote region along the Pacific coast of southern Chile known as the Taitao Peninsula. The magmatic rocks are found only 10 to 15 km from the buried extension of the Peru-Chile Trench. The ophiolite body includes serpentinized ultramaflc rocks, gabbro, dikes, and an interbedded sequence of volcanic

Randall D. Forsythe; Eric P. Nelson; Michael J. Carr; Margaret E. Kaeding; Miguel Herve; Constantino Mpodozis; Jose Manuel Soffia; Salvador Harambour

1986-01-01

192

Una entrevista con Inés Margarita Stranger (Chile) y sus personajes femeninos  

E-print Network

FALL 1996 89 Una entrevista con Inés Margarita Stranger (Chile) y sus personajes femeninos Pedro Bravo-Elizondo A la fecha, su vida contempla un título como teatrista por la Universidad Católica de Chile en la cual es profesora en la Escuela de...

Bravo-Elizondo, Pedro

1996-10-01

193

MEDICIÓN DE LA CAPACIDAD DE CAPTURA DE CARBONO EN BOSQUES NATIVOS Y PLANTACIONES DE CHILE.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMEN Chile, como muchas naciones ha considerado importante participar en las iniciativas para mitigar el efecto invernadero y a su vez ha visto en ello, la posibilidad para atraer recursos y financiamiento que permitan favorecer el desarrollo sostenible de áreas rurales, la conservación de bosques nativos y la incorporación de tecnologías de producción, ambientalmente más apropiadas. Si bien Chile está

Jorge Gayoso Aguilar

194

Chile and Its Efforts to Present High-Level Technologies to the Developed World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile is rich in natural resources. Like many other resource-dependent nations, it has never made technology transfer a subject of intense focus. This article sheds light on the technological state of Chile today and its efforts to promote development, increase innovation and move towards a knowledge-based economy. The paper summarizes current…

Young, Nathan

2007-01-01

195

Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in…

Matear, Ann

2006-01-01

196

Equity in Education in Chile: The Tensions between Policy and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article examines education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Since then, policies have aimed for continuity, coherence and complementarity with the aim of furthering national development, promoting social mobility, and equitable access to quality education at all levels. However, Chile faces the…

Matear, Ann

2007-01-01

197

A Decade Lost and Found: Mexico and Chile in the 1980s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s. This paper analyzes four possible explanations for why Chile recovered much faster than Mexico did. Comparing data from the two countries allows us to rule out a monetarist explanation, an explanation based on falls in real wages and real exchange rates, and a debt overhang explanation. Using growth accounting,

Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

2002-01-01

198

Major earthquakes and tsunamis in Chile during the period 1535 to 1955  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eine Aufstellung der größeren Erdbeben Chiles (angenommene Stärke größer als 7,5) wird vorgelegt. Dieser Aufstellung liegt eine Lochkartenkartei chilenischer Erdbeben mit mehr als 15 000 Eintragungen zugrunde. Für jedes Beben werden die Auswirkungen einschließlich der Tsunami-Beobachtungen beschrieben und Schätzungen der Lage der Epizentren und der Stärke angegeben. Größere Erdbeben treten in Chile in nur wenigen Bebengebieten auf. Diese sind linear

Cinna Lomnitz

1970-01-01

199

75 FR 19658 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia; Determinations On the basis of the...mushrooms from Chile, China, India, and Indonesia would be likely to lead to continuation...duty order on preserved mushrooms from Indonesia would not be likely to lead to...

2010-04-15

200

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION TO SANTIAGO DE CHILE)  

E-print Network

ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR ANALYSIS AND FORECAST OF AIR POLLUTION (APPLICATION Chile and other cities in Chile, air pollution is a dramatic problem. An Environmental Information planning. Using a model-based EIS for air pollution it is possible (i) to study complex source

Bertossi, Leopoldo

201

Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepcin, Chile  

E-print Network

Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Global Trade of Wood and Paper Products By Ed Pepke Forest Products Marketing Specialist UNECE/FAO Timber #12;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Subjects

202

Canker and twig dieback of blueberry caused by Pestalotiopsis spp. and a Truncatella sp. in Chile  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has great economic importance in Chile, currently with about 8,500 ha being cultivated. Recently, the presence of canker and dieback symptoms has been observed along the productive blueberry zone of Chile extending from the V Region (32º49´ South lat.) in the north to the ...

203

The Southern Volcanic Zone in Chile: Calbuco Andesites Tiffany McKelvey  

E-print Network

The Southern Volcanic Zone in Chile: Calbuco Andesites Tiffany McKelvey Off the coast of Chile by melting of the subducting Nazca Plate. Calbuco is one of two volcanoes in this area producing andesite rather than basalt. The andesites found at Calbuco are porphyritic and contain crustal xenoliths, which

Sukop, Mike

204

Local Seismicity And Seismo-Tectonic Structure Of The Aysén Region, Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The largest recorded earthquakes have all taken place along subduction margins (e.g. Chile, 1960; Andaman-Sumatra, 2004; Chile, 2010). A better understanding of the stress distribution involved in these tectonic environments could lead to better prediction of the occurrence and maximum possible magnitudes of earthquakes at given segments of a subduction zone. The study area of the present research, the Aysén

H. Agurto; A. Rietbrock; K. Bataille; S. E. Barrientos; M. R. Miller

2010-01-01

205

Performance Characteristics of the First, State-of-the-art Electric Vehicle Implemented in Chile  

E-print Network

supplies, and a non- polluting battery charger. The car transformed to an EV was a double cabin, ChevroletPerformance Characteristics of the First, State-of-the-art Electric Vehicle Implemented in Chile, Alejandro Amaro and Eduardo Wiechmann*, Department of Electrical Engineering Catholic University of Chile

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

206

ORIGEN BOTANICO Y PROPIEDADES QUIMICAS DE LAS MIELES DE LA REGION MEDITERRANEA ARIDA DE CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

G. Montenegro, R. Pizarro, G. Avila, R. Castro, C. Ríos, O. Muñoz, F. Bas and M. Gómez. Botanical origin and chemical properties of honeys from an Arid Mediterranean Region of Chile. Pollen grains present in the honeys, produced during the season 2001-2002, in hives of the IV Region of Chile, were identified by microscopic analysis in order to determine their

G. MONTENEGRO; R. PIZARRO; G. AVILA; R. CASTRO; C. RIOS; O. MUÑOZ; F. BAS; M. GOMEZ

207

Increased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile  

E-print Network

is an established cause of lung, bladder, and skin cancers in adults and may also cause adult kidney and liver effects, such as skin, bladder, and lung cancer (1-5). Antofagasta, the second largest city in ChileIncreased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile Jane

California at Berkeley, University of

208

Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitn volcano, Chile Jonathan M. Castro1  

E-print Network

Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitén volcano, Chile Jonathan M. Castro1 & Donald B. Dingwell2 of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Ludwig-Maximillians Universitaet, 80333 Muenchen, Germany Rhyolite, in Chile's northern Patagonia, erupted rhyolite magma unexpectedly and explosively on 1 May 2008 (ref. 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

The Structural Pension Reform in Chile: Effects, Comparisons with Other Latin American Reforms, and Lessons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile pioneered a structural reform in Latin America that privatized its public pension system and influenced similar reforms in another nine countries. Twenty-five years later, this article evaluates the macroeconomic, microeconomic, and social effects of this reform in Chile and the other countries in the region, and extracts lessons from those experiences. Fiscal costs of the reform have been high

Alberto Arenas de Mesa; Carmelo Mesa-Lago

2006-01-01

210

75 FR 5034 - Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Chile to recognize additional areas as pest-free areas for Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in the Republic of Chile...area of that country as being free of Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly).\\1\\ Specifically, the...

2010-02-01

211

Stimulative effects of elemental sulfur in the presence of ammonium on chile and broccoli growth in calcareous soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chile pepper plant seldom responds to N and P fertilizers on fertile soils. Surplus industrial H2SO4 and elemental S have created interest in “mining”; calcareous soils for additional supplies of P, Ca, Mg and micronutrients. The effect of variable S, on the growth of chile and broccoli was evaluated holding other nutrients constant. Growth of chile and broccoli plants

L. B. Fenn; R. M. Taylor; C. A. Pety Jr

1987-01-01

212

http://nees.ucla.edu/ Post-Earthquake Monitoring of Buildings in Chile Using NEES@UCLA Resources  

E-print Network

http://nees.ucla.edu/ Post-Earthquake Monitoring of Buildings in Chile Using NEES@UCLA Resources On March 13 2010, NEES@UCLA dispatched a team to Santiago, Chile for post-earthquake. The magnitude 8.8 February 27, 2010 Chile Earthquake and it's aftershock sequence

Grether, Gregory

213

Influence on UV Radiation by wildfire smoke in Valparaíso, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV absorption in Valparaíso, Chile, is analyzed during the passage of a smoke column from a nearby forest fire. Total solar absorption is measured, UVB and UVA radiation, UV nanometre to nanometre between 295 nm and 315 nm. With the purpose of seeing what factors intervene in this absorption, tropospheric ozone and PM10 particulate material are measured during the passage of this smoke column from the forest fire. In addition, considerations were made on the chemical compounds which are normally present during a forest fire such as, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, etc., depreciating their evidence that is the PM10 particulate material, which acts as a black body that is primarily responsible for the UV absorption. This affirmation is based on the fact that no absorption, which notoriously indicates some particular compound, was observed on the spectroradiometer register. All of the bands, nanometre to nanometre, showed the same behaviour, indicating the same type of absorption.

Da Silva, L.; Cortés, O.; Ossandón, Á.; Mera, E.

2012-02-01

214

Nursing leadership in Chile: a concept in transition.  

PubMed

The purposes of this two-year research study were to uncover Chilean nurses' perspectives of the elements that comprise leadership, and to identify challenges faced by nurse leaders in modern health administration. The research question is, What are the structural components that define and characterize nursing leadership in Chile? Nine nurses from different professional backgrounds volunteered to take part in audiorecorded successive interviews. The research methodology was a kind of grounded theory. Findings suggest that leadership is characterized mainly by exerting a positive influence on others based on good communication, knowledge of management, and a futurist vision of the nursing profession. Crisis and transition in nursing leadership were associated with external and internal forces, such as reforms in healthcare organizations and changes in the nursing conceptual framework. PMID:12387232

Alarcon, Ana M; Astudillo, Paula R; Barrios, Sara A; Rivas, Edith E

2002-10-01

215

[Fecal microbiota transplantation: first case report in Chile and review].  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile (CD) infection is increasing in frequency and severity in in-hospital and outpatient clinical settings, with a recurrence that can reach 30% after first episode. The recurrences are usually treated with longer courses of metronidazole or vancomycin. Other treatments have been used, such as probiotics, fidaxomicin, rifaximin, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies against toxins A and B. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a promising strategy in this group of patients, with effectiveness greater than 90%. We present the first case reported in Chile of this therapeutic strategy in a patient with Crohn's disease and recurrent CD infection who presented after the fecal transplantation an Escherichia coli bacteremia, suggesting the need for caution in the use of this strategy. 10 months after the FMT the patient presented a new episode of E. coli bacteremia and two episodes of diarrhea due to CD infection, treated both of them with vancomycin with good clinical response. PMID:25327204

Espinoza, Ricardo; Quera, Rodrigo; Meyer, Lital; Rivera, Daniela

2014-08-01

216

S-velocity mantle structure at the subducting Chile Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyse data recorded at stations of the densely spaced Chile Ridge Subduction Project (CRSP), to map phase velocity variations within the array region. We map phase velocity in a two step procedure: first, we take advantage of the high station density of CRSP and thus similar waveforms recorded at the seismometers by cross-correlating filtered seismograms to obtain relative arrival times of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves at different periods ranging from 20 to 100 seconds. We then fit wave fronts to these arrival times as they traverse the array. Typically these wave fronts are nearly but not entirely plane and perpendicular to the great circle path as they enter the array, which indicates heterogeneity outside of CRSP. Changes in the wave fronts as they pass through the region indicate heterogeneity beneath the array. In the second step we further investigate these heterogeneities and image the mantle beneath CRSP by inverting the relative arrival times for phase velocities within the array.

Lloyd, S. M.; van der Lee, S.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

2009-12-01

217

Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaitén volcano, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-silica rhyolite magma fuels Earth's largest and most explosive eruptions. Recurrence intervals for such highly explosive eruptions are in the 100- to 100,000-year time range, and there have been few direct observations of such eruptions and their immediate impacts. Consequently, there was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions [Naranjo and Stern, 2004semi; Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), 2008semi; Carn et al., 2009; Castro and Dingwell, 2009; Lara, 2009; Muñoz et al., 2009]. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which explosive activity waned and a new lava dome was extruded.

Pallister, John S.; Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Holitt, Richard P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Eichelberger, John C.; Luis, Lara; Moreno, Hugo; Muñoz, Jorge; Castro, Jonathan M.; Iroumé, Andrés; Andreoli, Andrea; Jones, Julia; Swanson, Fred; Crisafulli, Charlie

2010-01-01

218

Analyses of bottom simulating reflections offshore Arauco and Coyhaique (Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two seismic sections offshore Arauco and Coyhaique, Chile, have been analysed to better define the seismic character of hydrate-bearing sediments. The velocity analysis was used to estimate the gas-phase concentration, which can serve to correlate hydrate presence to the geological features. The velocity model allowed us to recognise the hydrate layer above the bottom simulating reflector (BSR), and the free gas layer below it. The velocity field is affected by strong lateral variation, showing maximum (above the BSR) and minimum (below the BSR) values in the southern sector. Here, highest gas hydrate and free gas concentrations were calculated (15% and 2.7% of total volume respectively). The estimated geothermal gradient ranges from 35 to 95°C/km. In the northern sector, the highest gas hydrate and free gas concentrations are 15% and 0.2% of total volume respectively, and the geothermal gradient is uniform and equal to about 30°C/km.

Vargas Cordero, Ivan De La Cruz; Tinivella, Umberta; Accaino, Flavio; Loreto, Maria Filomena; Fanucci, Francesco; Reichert, Christian

2010-06-01

219

A serological survey of leptospirosis in sheep in Chile.  

PubMed

In order to investigate exposure to Leptospira spp. in sheep in the Xth Region in the south of Chile, 629 ovine serum samples were collected from 11 convenience selected sheep farms, using within farm random sampling. The sera collected were examined for antibodies to the following serovars; icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis, hardjo, pomona, ballum, and canicola, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test. Ten out of eleven flocks had sheep which were seropositive for at least one Leptospira spp. Positive tests, the majority at low titres, were obtained from 36/629 (5.7%) of all the serum samples tested. The most frequently detected serovars were, in descending order: icterohaemorrhagiae, autumnalis and hardjo. The greatest proportion of positive samples came from sheep which were over 30 months old. PMID:10932754

Zamora, J; Riedemann, S; Tadich, N

1999-01-01

220

Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile  

PubMed Central

Objective to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study's theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Method Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses. Results among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, Biocultural ecology and Health-care practices. The difficulties were related to the language and its semantic meaning, the new responsibilities and the difficult relationship with colleagues. "In search of better horizons - the decision to immigrate", "Gaining confidence and establishing a support network - employability and professional performance" and "Seeking for people's acceptance - professional adaptation in a new cultural scenario" are cultural themes that represent their experiences. Conclusions the competence to offer cultural care demands the development of public policies and continuing education programs at health institutions, specifically focused on immigrant nurses.

Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

2014-01-01

221

Endohelminth parasites from salmonids in intensive culture from southern Chile.  

PubMed

A total of 228 salmonids (90 Oncorhynchus mykiss, 48 Oncorhynchus kisutch, and 90 Salmo salar) from 8 intensive aquaculture centers in the south of Chile were examined for endohelminths parasites between December 2008 and May 2009. The body cavities of 2 O. mykiss were infected by Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1.0, mean abundance: 0.07) from the Lake Tarahuin hatchery on the south of Chiloé Island. Also, tetraphyllidean plerocercoids (prevalence: 3.3%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance: 0.03) and fourth-stage larvae of Hysterothylacium aduncum (prevalence: 6.7%, mean intensity: 1, mean abundance 0.07) were observed in O. kisutch from a marine hatchery in Chiloé. The occurrences of Diphyllobothrium sp. in a lake and a tetraphyllidean plerocercoid from marine cultured salmonid in Chiloé are reported for first time. No muscular infection by helminths was recorded in the fish examined. PMID:20557217

Torres, P; Quintanilla, J C; Rozas, M; Miranda, P; Ibarra, R; San Martín, M F; Raddatz, B; Wolter, M; Villegas, A; Canobra, C; Hausdorf, M; Silva, R

2010-06-01

222

El cambio en las redes : una aproximación a las relaciones sociales desde el lenguaje, la representación y la institucionalización  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artículo pretende retomar los planteamientos de Giddens de la doble hermenéutica como fundamento epistemológico para resolver la tensión entre metodologías estructurales cuantitativas como el análisis de redes sociales y el uso de representaciones sociales y lenguaje para entender la realidad social desde metodologías cualitativas. Esto involucra la discusión de la relación entre análisis cualitativo y cuantitativo. Estos debates no

Gabriel Vélez Cuartas

2006-01-01

223

Ciudad y campo americanos vistos desde el Consejo de Indias en Madrid (1570-1650) Guillaume Gaudin  

E-print Network

Ciudad y campo americanos vistos desde el Consejo de Indias en Madrid (1570-1650) Guillaume Gaudin and countryside seen from the Council of the Indies in Madrid (1570-1650) Guillaume Gaudin (*) Universidad de Toulouse, Francia guillaume.gaudin@univ-tlse2.fr Resumen: ¿Cómo consideraba la administración madrileña, es

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

224

Por qu se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Abigail Fallot a,b,*  

E-print Network

1 Título ¿Por qué se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Autores, France b CATIE, Programa cambio climático y cuencas, 30501 Turrialba, Costa Rica * Contacto: fallot de plantaciones de Jatropha curcas (Tempate) para biodiesel, analizamos el caso de Costa Rica donde

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

Anisakid parasites in commercial hake ceviche in southern Chile.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to determine the occurrence of anisakid nematode larvae in hake ceviche sold in restaurants in Valdivia (39°48'S, 73°14'W) and Niebla (39°49'S, 73°22'W), Chile. Between August and November 2012, 78 portions of ceviche were collected (6 from each of the 13 restaurants that sell this product). Each portion was weighed and divided into approximately 30-g samples, which were placed in petri dishes with 0.15 M NaCl. All samples were manually shredded and then examined with a stereomicroscope. Muscles of 41 southern hake (Merluccius australis), a fish sold fresh in Valdivia, also were examined by candling to determine the presence of anisakid larvae. The presence of Pseudoterranova larvae in ceviche sold in Chile was identified for the first time. The pH of ceviche ranges from 4.1 to 4.8, which favors the presence of viable anisakid larvae that tolerate the acid pH similar to that found in the stomach of their mammalian host. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in the prevalence, mean abundance, and mean density of anisakid larvae in ceviche were found between localities. Larvae were detected in ceviche from 3 of 6 restaurants in Valdivia and 4 of 7 restaurants in Niebla. Of the 78 examined portions of ceviche, 21.8% had larvae. The prevalence of viable larvae was 16.7 and 7.1% in the examined portions from Valdivia and Niebla, respectively. In the 41 hake muscle samples from Valdivia, the prevalence (4.9%), mean abundance (0.1), and mean density (0.03) was the same for Pseudoterranova and Anisakis larvae. No inspection processes or pretreatments are currently in place for raw fish to achieve safe conditions for ceviche in restaurants from Valdivia and Niebla. PMID:24988037

Torres-Frenzel, Pablo; Torres, Patricio

2014-07-01

226

Modeling to Predict Cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a life threatening disease transmitted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus in Chile. Hantavirus outbreaks are typically small and geographically confined. Several studies have estimated risk based on spatial and temporal distribution of cases in relation to climate and environmental variables, but few have considered climatological modeling of HPS incidence for monitoring and forecasting purposes. Methodology Monthly counts of confirmed HPS cases were obtained from the Chilean Ministry of Health for 2001–2012. There were an estimated 667 confirmed HPS cases. The data suggested a seasonal trend, which appeared to correlate with changes in climatological variables such as temperature, precipitation, and humidity. We considered several Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) time-series models and regression models with ARIMA errors with one or a combination of these climate variables as covariates. We adopted an information-theoretic approach to model ranking and selection. Data from 2001–2009 were used in fitting and data from January 2010 to December 2012 were used for one-step-ahead predictions. Results We focused on six models. In a baseline model, future HPS cases were forecasted from previous incidence; the other models included climate variables as covariates. The baseline model had a Corrected Akaike Information Criterion (AICc) of 444.98, and the top ranked model, which included precipitation, had an AICc of 437.62. Although the AICc of the top ranked model only provided a 1.65% improvement to the baseline AICc, the empirical support was 39 times stronger relative to the baseline model. Conclusions Instead of choosing a single model, we present a set of candidate models that can be used in modeling and forecasting confirmed HPS cases in Chile. The models can be improved by using data at the regional level and easily extended to other countries with seasonal incidence of HPS. PMID:24763320

Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Mekaru, Sumiko R.; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Marathe, Madhav V.; Brownstein, John S.

2014-01-01

227

Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile  

PubMed Central

Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

2011-01-01

228

Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico  

PubMed Central

Different Seed Selection and Conservation Practices for Fresh Market and Dried Chile Farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico. The process of selecting and saving seed is the most basic and oldest of agricultural practices. In today’s modern and highly capital-intensive agriculture, seeds are often treated like another chemical input. This study sought to examine seed selection and saving practices among chile farmers in Aguascalientes, Mexico, where both industrial and traditional agriculture are practiced. We observed a clear division among farmers who plant chile peppers commercially. Sixty-eight chile pepper farmers were surveyed in order to document seed selection and saving practices. Fifteen respondents (22%) planted chile peppers destined for the fresh market and all utilized purchased commercial seed of F1 hybrid varieties. Fifty-three farmers (78%) planted chiles to be dried and either saved their own or purchased seeds that others had saved and selected. Farmers who saved their own seed sought to maintain an ideotype, rather than directionally select for certain traits, much like Cleveland et al. (2000) chronicled in central Mexican maize farmers. Farmers would benefit from a participatory plant-breeding program in order to maintain productive seed stock for the continued cultivation of dried chile pepper in the state. PMID:21212817

de Jesús Luna-Ruíz, José; Gepts, Paul

2010-01-01

229

Complexity in Size, Recurrence and Source of Historical Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32°- 35° S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.

Cisternas, M.

2013-05-01

230

Effect of chemical peeling on the processing quality of long-green mild chile (Capasicum annuum)  

E-print Network

i o tain th two hu d ed i ties oi peppers, ranging from the heatless bell pepper to the jalapenrto, cay- enne, ser rano, and even hotter types (Weisenfelder, 1977). The Anaheim chile, or New Mexico chile, is also known as the long-green mild... on the com- mercial peeling and canning of green chiles, Canning manuals and specifications (Campbell, 1937; Lopez, 1975; Lay, 1980) provide direc- tion only for pimientos. Dunn ('l974) gave procedures for canning and freezing sweet bell peppers...

Tillman, Richard Erland

2012-06-07

231

Gas hydrates and possible environmental risks offshore South Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrates and free gas presence was detected within marine sediments, offshore South Chile, by using seismic analysis. We analysed dataset located offshore South Chile; in particular, two seismic lines were analysed. The first one is located in the northern sector offshore Arauco (38°S) and the second one located in the southern sector offshore Coyhaique (44°S).We used the pre-stack depth migration method (Kirchhoff algorithm) to obtain an accurate velocity model and the real geometry of the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), representing the base of the gas hydrate layer. The velocity was determined analysing iteratively the Common Image Gathers (CIGs) by using Seismic Unix and home code created ad hoc to convert the non-flatness of the reflections in the CIGs into velocity error. Moreover, we converted the final velocity model in terms of gas hydrate and free gas concentrations by using the modified Biot's theory, in which we compared the final velocity model with a theoretical model in absence of gas. Thus, the positive velocity anomalies were associated to gas hydrate presence, while the negative velocity anomalies were associated to free gas presence. In addition, the geothermal gradient was estimated by BSR and seafloor depths and relative BSR amplitude were calculated to correlate the hydrate/free gas concentration to the BSR characteristic. The velocity model allowed us to detect the hydrate layer above the bottom simulating reflector, and the free gas layer below it. The velocity field is affected by strong lateral variation, showing maximum and minimum values in the southern sector. In the southern sector, the highest gas hydrate and free gas concentrations are detected (23% and 2.4% of total volume respectively), even if the high velocity can be partially caused by overcompaction. Here, the BSR depth varies from 250 meter below seafloor (in the middle of the accretionary prism) to 130 meter below seafloor (in the structural high), reaching its maximum (330 m) in the fore-arc basin. This depth variability is partially due to the different water depth and partially to the variable geothermal gradient, from 35 to 95° C/km, caused by fluid migration that modifies the gas hydrate stability field. In the northern sector, the highest gas hydrate and free gas concentrations are of 7% and 0.2% of total volume respectively, and the geothermal gradient results quite uniform and equal to 30° C/km. Here, where the BSR is present, the BSR depth reaches 500 meters below seafloor. The higher BSR depth with respect to the southern sector can be justified by the high water depth and the presence of a lower geothermal gradient (about 30° C/km). So, the potentiality of southern margin of the Chile, from the gas hydrate point of view, is important in first approximation. Finally, it is worth to mention that, in our study area the presence of high amount of gas hydrate can involve environmental risks. For example a possible strong earthquake could generate anomalous sea waves, which represent important geohazard for human activities along the coasts. On the other hand, an earthquake can destabilise hydrates, amplifying the geohazard phenomena. Moreover, the high amount of the free gas, presumably in overpressure condition and present in correspondence of the structural high in the southern sector, could be abruptly released and trigger submarine slides toward the sides of the structural high, inducing hydrate instability. These scenarios should be taking in account in the environmental studies in this part of the Chilean margin.

Vargas Cordero, I.; Tinivella, U.; Accaino, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Fanucci, F.; Reichert, C.

2009-04-01

232

The Frequency Dependent Characteristics of the 2010 Chile Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2010 Chile earthquake is important both because of its magnitude (Mw 8.8), and its spatial relationship to geological features (e.g., the Juan Fernandez Ridge) and past large events (e.g., the1960 Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake). To determine the spatio-temporal relationship of the rupture propagation, we use seismic data from the USArray Transportable Array (TA) and apply a back-projection method. The TA data are filtered into three frequency ranges, 1-5 Hz, 0.1 - 0.5 Hz, and 0.05 - 0.01 Hz. The back-projection results from these three frequency ranges reveal unique aspects of the Chilean earthquake. The highest frequency data (1-5 Hz) show that slip occurred on two separate segments. The initial low-amplitude rupture is bilateral and has rupture velocities as low as 0.8 km/s near its southern end, near the Arauco Peninsula. The second high-amplitude segment is updip and to the north of the initial rupture and has a much higher rupture velocity (3.0 km/s). The gap between the two rupture regions and their timing suggests that the initial rupture triggered the second rupture. A similar rupture pattern is obtained using the intermediate-frequency data (0.1-0.5 Hz). However, for the second, northern rupture, the energy at intermediate-frequency lags behind the high-frequency energy. This observation suggests that slower slip is following the rupture front, which supports the hypothesis that fault lubrication is an important factor for the slips associated with giant earthquakes. Finally, the results using the lowest-frequency data (0.01-0.05 Hz) show a much different picture of the rupture than the other two frequency ranges. Here, the highest amplitude energy is at the southern extent of the initial rupture, near the Arauco Peninsula. These lowest-frequency results agree well with the available geodetic observations, which show largest deformation south of the epicenter. In general, it appears that the northern rupture, which corresponds to the area of the 1985 Valparaiso earthquake, released most of its energy at high frequencies, but caused little deformation. In contrast, the southern rupture, which was part of a seismic gap that last ruptured during the 1835 Darwin earthquake, released mostly low frequency energy and had much higher deformation. These differences in rupture styles between segments of the same earthquake demonstrate that the slip mechanism of giant earthquakes is different from smaller events. In addition, these results show the importance of investigating data at discrete frequency ranges when characterizing the rupture behavior and associated hazards of future large events.

Kiser, E.; Ishii, M.

2010-12-01

233

Magnitude Characterization Using Complex Networks in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies using complex networks are applied to many systems, like traffic, social networks, internet and earth science. In this work we make an analysis using complex networks applied to magnitude of seismicity in the central zone of Chile, we use the preferential attachment in order to construct a seismic network using local magnitudes and the hypocenters of a seismic data set in central Chile. In order to work with a complete catalogue in magnitude, the data associated with the linear part of the Gutenberg-Richter law, with magnitudes greater than 2.7, were taken. We then make a grid in space, so that each seismic event falls into a certain cell, depending on the location of its hypocenter. Now the network is constructed: the first node corresponds to the cell where the first seismic event occurs. The node has an associated number which is the magnitude of the event which occured in it, and a probability is assigned to the node. The probability is a nonlinear mapping of the magnitude (a Gaussian function was taken), so that nodes with lower magnitude events are more likely to be attached to. Each time a new node is added to the network, it is attached to the previous node which has the larger probability; the link is directed from the previous node to the new node. In this way, a directed network is constructed, with a ``preferential attachment''-like growth model, using the magnitudes as the parameter to determine the probability of attachment to future nodes. Several events could occur in the same node. In this case, the probability is calculated using the average of the magnitudes of the events occuring in that node. Once the directed network is finished, the corresponding undirected network is constructed, by making all links symmetric, and eliminating the loops which may appear when two events occur in the same cell. The resulting directed network is found to be scale free (with very low values of the power-law distribution exponent), whereas the undirected one turns out to have small world behavior. These results are compared with a second, ficticious network, constructed in the same way, but where each successive node is chosen randomly in the grid, and its associated probability is also random, but taken from a Gaussian distribution. We find that this also generates a scale free network, but not a small world one. These results show an interesting behavior, another evidence of the complex organization of seismicity.

Pasten, D.; Comte, D.; Munoz, V.

2013-12-01

234

United States and the Republic of Chile Partner to Battle Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A new alliance between the United States National Cancer Institute and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Chile, aims to accelerate progress against cancer in Hispanic populations in the United States and Latin America.

235

77 FR 64106 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Policy Mission to Chile  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade...Administration (ITA) is organizing a Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (RE...Government support for Chile's renewable energy goals. The mission...

2012-10-18

236

75 FR 8111 - Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-776-779 (Second Review)] Preserved Mushrooms From Chile, China, India, and Indonesia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject...

2010-02-23

237

Ideologies Regarding the Implementation of Foreign Language Policy in Chile: A Case Study   

E-print Network

The Ministry of Education of Chile declared in 2003 the importance and the necessity of incorporating foreign language teaching to the public education after the educative reforms done in the 90s. The official Language ...

Munoz, Valeria

2010-11-11

238

Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data  

SciTech Connect

Helium isotope and stable isotope data from the El Tatio, Tinginguirica, Chillan, and Tolhuaca geothermal systems, Chile. Data from this submission are discussed in: Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

Dobson, Patrick

2013-02-11

239

Wintertime Precipitation Episodes in Central Chile: Associated Meteorological Conditions and Orographic Influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Chile (32°-35°S) is a mountainous and densely populated strip of land between the South American Pacific coast and the main divide of the Andes, 5000 m in height. In this study, wintertime precipitation episodes in central Chile are characterized using precipitation gauge, river discharge, radio- sonde, and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM\\/I) passive microwave radiometer observations over a 10-yr

Mark Falvey; René Garreaud

2007-01-01

240

Gastrointestinal helminths of fish-eating birds from Chiloe Island, Chile.  

PubMed

Of four species of fish-eating birds from Chiloé Island (Chile), three were infected with eight species of helminths. Tetrabothrius sp. was found in Larus scoresbii. Tetrabothrius cylindraceus, Profilicollis antarcticus, Anomotaenia dominicanus, Stephanoprora denticulata, Capillaria sp. and P. antarcticus were found in Larus dominicanus. Contracaecum rudolphii and Corynosoma sp. infected Phalacrocorax olivaceus. With the exception of S. denticulata, C. rudolphii and Capillaria sp., the above helminths are reported for the first time from Chile. PMID:2023322

Torres, P; Ruíz, E; Gesche, W; Montefusco, A

1991-01-01

241

Late Quaternary evolution of the San Antonio Submarine Canyon in the central Chile forearc (?33°S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrosweep swath-bathymetry and seismic-reflection data reveal the morphology, sedimentary processes, and structural controls on the submarine San Antonio Canyon. The canyon crosses the forearc slope of the central Chile margin for more than 150 km before it empties into the Chile Trench near 33°S latitude. In its upper reaches, the nearly orthogonal segments of the San Antonio Canyon incise ?1

Jane Laursen; William R Normark

2002-01-01

242

Shared decision making in Chile: supportive policies and research initiatives.  

PubMed

WHAT ABOUT POLICY REGARDING SDM? Since 1999, there has been a small but growing interest by academics, the government, and society as a whole in strengthening patients' and professionals' involvement in shared decision making (SDM). Two governmental policy documents that indicate support for SDM are (1) Health Reform in 2003 and (2) Sanitary Objectives 2011-2020, which includes a brief section on client participation and SDM. WHAT ABOUT TOOLS - DECISION SUPPORT FOR PATIENTS? Research by Chilean academics has highlighted the patients' desire to participate in health decisions and effective approaches for enhancing health professionals' skills in interprofessional SDM; however, little has been done to support this need and the work is centralised in only one academic institution. Decision support tools and coaching interventions are limited to patients considering decisions about managing type 2 diabetes. WHAT ABOUT PROFESSIONAL INTEREST AND IMPLEMENTATION? Although there is increasing attention to studying patients' participation and involvement on their healthcare, little has been studied in relation to professionals' interest in SDM. As well, there are significant challenges for implementation of a country-wide SDM policy. WHAT DOES THE FUTURE LOOK LIKE? The future looks promising given the new health policies, local Chilean research projects, and international initiatives. Collaboration between health professionals, academics, and government policy makers, with public involvement needs to be strengthened in order to promote concrete strategies to implement SDM in Chile. PMID:21620317

Bravo, Paulina; Cabieses, Báltica; Bustamante, Claudia; Campos, Solange; Stacey, Dawn

2011-01-01

243

Permanent deformation caused by subduction earthquakes in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquakes are accompanied by coseismic and post-seismic rebound: blocks of crust on either side of the fault spring back to their initial, undeformed configuration. This rebound is well documented by space geodetic data, such as the Global Positioning System. Thus, all earthquake-induced deformation of the crust is considered non-permanent and is modelled as an elastic or visco-elastic process. Here, however, we show that earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in northern Chile caused the crust to deform permanently. We identify millimetre- to metre-scale tension cracks in the crust of the Atacama Desert and use cosmogenic nuclides to date the timing of crack formation. The cracks were formed by between 2,000 and 9,000 individual plate-boundary earthquakes that occurred in the past 0.8-1 million years. We show that up to 10% of the horizontal deformation generated during the earthquakes, recorded by Global Positioning System data and previously assumed to be recoverable, is permanent. Our data set provides a record of permanent strain in the shallow crust of the South American Plate. Although deformation of the deep crust may be predominantly elastic, we conclude that modelling of the earthquake cycle should also include a significant plastic component.

Baker, A.; Allmendinger, R. W.; Owen, L. A.; Rech, J. A.

2013-06-01

244

Glacier responses to recent volcanic activity in Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glaciers in Southern Chile (39-43°S) are characterized by frontal retreats and area losses in response to the ongoing climatic changes at a timescale of decades. Superimposed on these longer-term trends, volcanic activity is thought to impact glaciers in variable ways. Debris-ash covered Glaciar Pichillancahue-Turbio only retreated slightly in recent decades in spite of been located on Volcán Villarrica which has experienced increased volcanic activity since 1977. In contrast, the negative long-term Volcán Michinmahuida glacier area trend reversed shortly before the beginning of the explosive eruption of nearby Volcán Chaitén in May 2008, when Glaciar Amarillo advanced and a lahar type of mudflow was observed. This advancing process is analysed in connection to the nearby eruption, producing albedo changes at Michinmahuida glaciers, as well as a possible enhanced basal melting from higher geothermal flux. Deconvolution of glacier responses due to these processes is difficult and probably not possible with available data. Much more work and data are required to determine the causes of present glacier behaviour.

Rivera, Andrés; Bown, Francisca; Carrión, Daniela; Zenteno, Pablo

2012-03-01

245

Ice volumetric changes on active volcanoes in southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the glaciers in southern Chile have been retreating and shrinking during recent decades in response to atmospheric warming and decrease in precipitation. However, some glacier fluctuations are directly associated with the effusive and geothermal activity of ice-covered active volcanoes widely distributed in the region. The aim of this paper is to study the ice volumetric changes by comparing several topographic datasets. A maximum mean ice thinning rate of 0.81 ± 0.45 m a-1 was observed on the ash/debris-covered ablation area of Volcán Villarrica between 1961 and 2004, whilst on Volcán Mocho the signal-to-noise ratio was too small to yield any conclusion. An area reduction of 0.036 ± 0.019 km2 a-1 since 1976 was obtained on Glaciar Mocho, while on Volcán Villarrica the area change was -0.090 ± 0.034 km2 a-1 between 1976 and 2005. Glaciers on active volcanoes are therefore shrinking, mainly in response to climatic driving factors. However, volcanic activity is affecting glaciers in two opposite ways: ash/debris advection is helping to reduce surface ablation at lower reaches by insulating the ice from solar radiation, while geothermal activity is probably enhancing melting and water production at the bedrock, resulting in negative ice-elevation changes.

Rivera, Andrés; Bown, Francisca; Mella, Ronald; Wendt, Jens; Casassa, Gino; Acuña, César; Rignot, Eric; Clavero, Jorge; Brock, Benjamin

246

Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile  

SciTech Connect

The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

2002-05-24

247

Water governance in Chile: Availability, management and climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chile has a unique geography that provides an extraordinary variety of climatic conditions and availability of water resources. The objective of this manuscript was to describe and analyze the spatial and temporal distribution patterns, as well as the management of water resources, along a country with a narrow distance from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. This presents challenges to water governance from data collection and analysis perspectives, and for administration of the resource. The Water Resources Directorate (Dirección General de Aguas, DGA), is the federal government organization in charge of the water resources of the country. The DGA and other relevant public and private institutions are examined in terms of competition and conflict resolution across different scales and levels of interaction associated with water resources governance. Both monitoring stations (rainfall, streamflow, water quality, groundwater, sediment and snowfall), and the Chilean management and legislation of water resources are also analyzed. Finally, the success (or lack) of the national administration to upgrade its monitoring stations and equalize water resources distribution throughout the country is discussed including the influence of climate change on data collection, and decision making across different scales of water governance.

Valdés-Pineda, Rodrigo; Pizarro, Roberto; García-Chevesich, Pablo; Valdés, Juan B.; Olivares, Claudio; Vera, Mauricio; Balocchi, Francisco; Pérez, Felipe; Vallejos, Carlos; Fuentes, Roberto; Abarza, Alejandro; Helwig, Bridget

2014-11-01

248

Antarctic icequakes triggered by the 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic waves from distant, large earthquakes can almost instantaneously trigger shallow micro-earthquakes and deep tectonic tremor as they pass through Earth's crust. Such remotely triggered seismic activity mostly occurs in tectonically active regions. Triggered seismicity is generally considered to reflect shear failure on critically stressed fault planes and is thought to be driven by dynamic stress perturbations from both Love and Rayleigh types of surface seismic wave. Here we analyse seismic data from Antarctica in the six hours leading up to and following the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile. We identify many high-frequency seismic signals during the passage of the Rayleigh waves generated by the Maule earthquake, and interpret them as small icequakes triggered by the Rayleigh waves. The source locations of these triggered icequakes are difficult to determine owing to sparse seismic network coverage, but the triggered events generate surface waves, so are probably formed by near-surface sources. Our observations are consistent with tensile fracturing of near-surface ice or other brittle fracture events caused by changes in volumetric strain as the high-amplitude Rayleigh waves passed through. We conclude that cryospheric systems can be sensitive to large distant earthquakes.

Peng, Zhigang; Walter, Jacob I.; Aster, Richard C.; Nyblade, Andrew; Wiens, Douglas A.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

2014-09-01

249

Rapid ascent of rhyolitic magma at Chaitén volcano, Chile.  

PubMed

Rhyolite magma has fuelled some of the Earth's largest explosive volcanic eruptions. Our understanding of these events is incomplete, however, owing to the previous lack of directly observed eruptions. Chaitén volcano, in Chile's northern Patagonia, erupted rhyolite magma unexpectedly and explosively on 1 May 2008 (ref. 2). Chaitén residents felt earthquakes about 24 hours before ash fell in their town and the eruption escalated into a Plinian column. Although such brief seismic forewarning of a major explosive basaltic eruption has been documented, it is unprecedented for silicic magmas. As precursory volcanic unrest relates to magma migration from the storage region to the surface, the very short pre-eruptive warning at Chaitén probably reflects very rapid magma ascent through the sub-volcanic system. Here we present petrological and experimental data that indicate that the hydrous rhyolite magma at Chaitén ascended very rapidly, with velocities of the order of one metre per second. Such rapid ascent implies a transit time from storage depths greater than five kilometres to the near surface in about four hours. This result has implications for hazard mitigation because the rapidity of ascending rhyolite means that future eruptions may provide little warning. PMID:19812671

Castro, Jonathan M; Dingwell, Donald B

2009-10-01

250

Shear Wave Splitting and Seismic Anisotropy in the Chile Ridge Subduction Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new shear wave splitting measurements of SK(K)S and PKS phases recorded at 39 broadband seismic stations in the Chile triple junction region. The network, deployed December 2004-February 2005 and operated jointly by the University of Florida and the Universidad de Chile (Santiago), spans the region where the Chile Ridge subducts beneath South America, from the Pacific coast of the Taitao Peninsula to the Argentine border, and extends 250 km north and south of the actual triple junction. Given increasing temperature with depth, it has long been hypothesized that ridge subduction should result in creation of slab windows - asthenosphere-filled gaps between continually separating edges of oceanic lithosphere formed at the Earth's surface. The Chile Ridge Subduction Project was formulated in part to test this notion. The network was demobilized during January-February 2007. In conjunction with teleseismic travel time inversions and studies of seismic attenuation in the Chile Ridge subduction region, shear wave splitting as recorded at the Project network provides an excellent snapshot of upper mantle flow in the region: Shear wave splitting in the study area, which may be caused by mineral alignment during upper mantle flow or possibly by aligned pockets of partial melt, is strong (delay times up to 3 s) and highly variable, with a marked change from trench-parallel in the northern network to trench normal in the western Taitao Peninsula, near the most recently subducted Chile ridge segment.

Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Comte, D.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.; van der Lee, S.

2007-12-01

251

The Subducted Chile Ridge Imaged with Teleseismic Travel-time Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a teleseismic travel-time inversion for upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the Chile triple junction region. Data were recorded at 46 seismic stations deployed in southern Chile from December 2004 to February 2007 (for details, see the Chile Ridge Subduction Project, http://seismology.geology.ufl.edu/chile). The area covered by the network (42-46 degrees South and 72-78 degrees West) lies above the projected position of the subducted Chile ridge, which separates the Nazca and Antarctic oceanic plates. Because the Nazca plate subducts nearly 5 cm/yr faster than the Antarctic plate, the trailing edge of the last Nazca lithosphere formed before the ridge subducts has been inferred to separate steadily from the leading edge of the Antarctic lithosphere, forming progressively larger slab windows with depth. The relative delay times are obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme, which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 30,000 nodes beneath the region.. We image a high-velocity slab in the upper mantle dipping steeply to the East, which we associate with the subducted Nazca oceanic lithosphere, and a distinct low-velocity anomaly at the projected location of the subducted Chile ridge.

Vandecar, J. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Comte, D.; Murdie, R. E.; van der Lee, S.

2007-12-01

252

Image of the seismogenic coupling zone in Central Chile: The amphibious experiment SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly all interplate megathrust earthquakes occur in the seismogenic coupling zone between converging plates. In the area of the 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw = 9.5), we aim at a quantitative understanding of the seismicity and its relation to processes operating at depth and at the surface. As a first step, the offshore experiment SPOC with RV SONNE was combined with an onshore-offshore, active-passive seismic experiment between 36° and 39° S, crossing the rupture area of the 1960 Chile earthquake. The campaign comprised: (1) a 2-D wide-angle component recording chemical shots and airgun pulses along three consecutive E-W onshore profiles; (2) a seismic reflection experiment in the onshore-offshore transition; and (3) a 3-D component which recorded both active and passive sources. Offshore, the upper plate is split into many segments with pronounced forearc basins and narrow accretionary wedges. A thick subduction channel seems to cause a non-accretionary subduction mode. Covering onshore the westernmost part of a long E-W refraction seismic line (one amongst three), the profile spread of the reflection seismic survey at 38° 15`S was 54 km long, with three set-ups of 18 km length each, and extended from the coast to the east. Furthermore, the offshore-onshore transition zone is imaged by a wide-angle section resulting from the registration of the airgun shots of the marine profile with the first 18 km of the spread of the NVR survey. Different mainly eastward dipping reflection bands are observed between 5-25 km depth. These bands are interpreted to describe the internal structure of the Palaeozoic accretionary wedge in the region. The reflections between 25-45 km depth correlate with Wadati-Benioff seismicity and are suggested to image the top of the downgoing plate. Below the coast, the plate dips with c. 15° below the continent. In the central part of the profile, a break in reflectivity located below the axis of the coastal cordillera more or less coincides with the intersection between the oceanic plate and the continental Moho. This break in reflectivity also approximately correlates with the downdip end of the seismogenic plate interface as defined by geodetic modelling.

Krawczyk, C. M.; Stiller, M.; Lüth, S.; Mechie, J.; Spoc Research Group

2003-04-01

253

Large slope instabilities in Northern Chile and Southern Peru  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep canyon incision into Tertiary paleosurfaces and large slope instabilities along the canyon flanks characterize the landscape of western slope of the Andes of northern Chile and South Peru. This area belongs to the Coastal Escarpment and Precordillera and is formed by coarse-grained clastic and volcanoclastic formations. The area is characterized by intense seismicity and long-term hyperaridity (Atacama Desert). Landslides along the canyon flanks affect volumes generally up to 1 km3 and locally evolved in large rock avalanches. We prepared a landslide inventory covering an area of about 30,000 km2, extending from Iquique (Chile) to the South and Tacna (Peru) to the North. A total of 606 landslides have been mapped in the area by use of satellite images and direct field surveys, prevalently including large phenomena. The landslides range from 1 10-3 km2 to 464 km2 (Lluta landslide). The total landslide area, inclusive of the landslide scarp and of the deposit, amounts to about 2,130 km2 (about 7% of the area). The mega landslides can be classified as large block slides that can evolve in large rock avalanches (e.g. Minimini landslide). Their initiation seems to be strongly associated to the presence of secondary faults and large fractures transversal to the slope. These landslides show evidence suggesting a re-incision by the main canyon network. This seems particularly true for the Lluta collapse where the main 'landslide' mass is masked or deleted by the successive erosion. Other landslides have been mapped along the Coastal Escarpment and some of the major tectonic escarpments with an E-W trend. We examined area-frequency distributions of landslides by developing logarithmically binned, non-cumulative size frequency distributions that report frequency density as a function of landslide planar area A. The size frequency distribution presents a strong undersampling for smaller landslides, due to the extremely old age of the inventory. For landslides larger than 2 000 m2, the distribution exhibits a power-law behaviour with scaling exponent, ?, equal to -2.24. For comparison, we analysed the power-law behaviour of other earthquake-induced landslide inventories, obtaining similar results, although the geological and seismic conditions may have been very different (Buller, New Zealand, ? = -2.42; Iningahua, New Zealand, ? = -2.53; Northridge, USA, ? = -2.39; Chi-Chi, Taiwan, ? = -2.30; Wenchuan Earthquake, China, ? = -2.19). Volume estimates and slope stability modelling have been completed to characterize the phenomena and the possible triggering mechanisms. For volume estimate, we reconstructed the pre-failure surface for tens of landslides, in order to characterize the area-volume relationship. By using this relationship, we assigned a volume to all landslides of the inventory. The study area is subject to a high seismicity associated to earthquakes of different type: interplate (superficial and intermediate depth), subduction zone earthquakes, and earthquake along the Coastal Escarpment. By analysing the frequency size relationships for earthquake-induced landslides from literature, it is possible to observe that the higher the earthquake Magnitude, the higher the frequency density curve. To quantify this observation, we used the power-law relationships derived for each inventory to calculate the frequency density associated to selected areas, and we plotted these frequencies as a function of the magnitude of the respective earthquakes. By fitting these values, we derived the expected Magnitude required to generate the landslide distribution of the study area. In conclusion, we argue that the evolution of these landslides is controlled by: deep valley incision, canyon walls undercutting and lateral migration of the river controlled by valley flank instabilities, the Presence of weak lithologies and weak basal layers, the river incision debuttressing the slope toe and especially brings to daylighting the weak basal layers observed at some landslide sites, the possible deep groundwater flow above the deep imperm

Crosta, Giovanni B.; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Valbuzzi, Elena; Frattini, Paolo; Valagussa, Andrea

2014-05-01

254

The Dusty View of DI from ESO Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the time of the impact of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission at comet 9P/Tempel 1, in total 6 telescopes with altogether 7 different instruments, located at the La Silla (LSO) and Paranal (VLT) Observatories of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Chile, were used to characterize the dust properties before and after the event. The ejecta cloud expanded at an average speed of about 200 ms-1during the first hours after the event. It reached stagnation distance of 25000 km about 3 days after impact. The pre-impact dust jet and fan activity (`porcupine' pattern) remained undisturbed after impact. In our measurements the jet activity can be traced to a few 100 km nucleus distance. In total 9 comastructures are identified which may originate from at least 4 regions of enhanced dust emission on the nucleus - one of this region may in fact be multiple. No obvious signatures of a new active region created by DI are found. The overall dust production during the impact compares to about 5-10 h of normal activity. The global expansion geometry of the DI cloud is compatible with a majority of dust grains in the micron size range. Indications exist for asymmetric brightness and colour distributions of the dust in the ejecta cloud. The dust temperature rose from about 280-290 K before to 330 K one day after the event and fell to pre-impact level the day thereafter. The dust reflected sunlight was found to be linearly polarized at about 7.5% in the visible and near-IR, at constant level within about 4000 km from the nucleus. No circular polarization of the dust is detected.

Boehnhardt, H.; Ageorges, N.; Bagnulo, S.; Barrera, L.; Bonev, T.; Hainaut, O.; Jehin, E.; Käufl, H. U.; Kerber, F.; Locurto, G.; Manfroid, J.; Marco, O.; Pantin, E.; Pompei, E.; Rauer, H.; Saviane, I.; Selman, F.; Sterken, C.; Tozzi, G. P.; Weiler, M.

255

Mental health of indigenous school children in Northern Chile  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety and depressive disorders occur in all stages of life and are the most common childhood disorders. However, only recently has attention been paid to mental health problems in indigenous children and studies of anxiety and depressive disorders in these children are still scarce. This study compares the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara and non-Aymara children. Among the Aymara children, the study examines the relations between these symptoms and the degree of involvement with Aymara culture. Methods We recruited 748 children aged 9 to 15 years from nine schools serving low socioeconomic classes in the city of Arica, in northern Chile. The children were equally divided between boys and girls and 37% of the children were Aymara. To evaluate anxiety and depressive symptoms we used the Stress in Children (SiC) instrument and the Children Depression Inventory-Short version (CDI-S), and used an instrument we developed to assess level of involvement in the Aymara culture. Results There was no significant difference between Aymara and non-Aymara children on any of the instrument scales. Dividing the Aymara children into high-involvement (n?=?89) and low-involvement (n?=?186) groups, the low-involvement group had significantly higher scores on the Hopelessness subscale of the CDI-S (p?=?0.02) and scores of marginally higher significance in overall Anxiety on the SiC (p?=?0.06). Conclusions Although Aymara children have migrated from the high Andean plateau to the city, this migration has not resulted in a greater presence of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Greater involvement with the Aymara culture may be a protective factor against anxiety and depressive symptoms in Aymara children. This point to an additional benefit of maintaining cultural traditions within this population. PMID:24438210

2014-01-01

256

Life cycle assessment of gasoline production and use in Chile.  

PubMed

Gasoline is the second most consumed fuel in Chile, accounting for 34% of the total fuel consumption in transportation related activities in 2012. Chilean refineries process more than 97% of the total gasoline commercialized in the national market. When it comes to evaluating the environmental profile of a Chilean process or product, the analysis should consider the characteristics of the Chilean scenario for fuel production and use. Therefore, the identification of the environmental impacts of gasoline production turns to be very relevant for the determination of the associated environmental impacts. For this purpose, Life Cycle Assessment has been selected as a useful methodology to assess the ecological burdens derived from fuel-based systems. In this case study, five subsystems were considered under a "well-to-wheel" analysis: crude oil extraction, gasoline importation, refinery, gasoline storage and distribution/use. The distance of 1km driven by a middle size passenger car was chosen as functional unit. Moreover, volume, economic and energy-based allocations were also considered in a further sensitivity analysis. According to the results, the main hotspots were the refining activities as well as the tailpipe emissions from car use. When detailing by impact category, climate change was mainly affected by the combustion emissions derived from the gasoline use and refining activities. Refinery was also remarkable in toxicity related categories due to heavy metals emissions. In ozone layer and mineral depletion, transport activities played an important role. Refinery was also predominant in photochemical oxidation and water depletion. In terms of terrestrial acidification and marine eutrophication, the combustion emissions from gasoline use accounted for large contributions. This study provides real inventory data for the Chilean case study and the environmental results give insight into their influence of the assessment of products and processes in the country. Moreover, they could be compared with production and distribution schemes in other regions. PMID:25461086

Morales, Marjorie; Gonzalez-García, Sara; Aroca, Germán; Moreira, María Teresa

2015-02-01

257

Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valpara?´so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepción, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

2004-09-01

258

Geomorphological characterization of endorheic basins in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative geomorphology regroups a large number of interesting tools to characterize natural basins across scales. The application of these tools to several river basins allows the description and comparison of geomorphological properties at different spatial scales as oppose to more traditional descriptors that are typically applied at a single scale, meaning the catchment scale. Most of the recent research using these quantitative geomorphological tools has focused on open catchments and no specific attention has been given to endorheic basins, and the possibility of having particular features that distinguish them from exorheic catchments. The main objective of our study is to characterize endorheic basins and investigate whether these special geomorphological features can be identified. Because scaling invariance is a widely observed and relatively well quantified property of open basins, it provides a suitable tool to characterize differences between the geomorphology of closed and open basins. Our investigation focuses on three closed basins located in northern Chile which describe well the diversity in the geomorphology and geology of this arid region. Results show that endhoreic basins exhibit different slope-area and flow paths sinuosity regimes compared to those observed in open basins. These differences are in agreement with the particular self-similar behavior across spatial scales of the Euclidean length of subcatchments, as well as the Hack's law and Horton's ratios. These regimes imply different physical processes inside the channel network regardless of the basin area, and they seem to be related to the endorheic character of these basins. The analysis of the probability density functions of contributing areas and lengths to the lower region shows that the hypothesis of self-similarity can also be applied to closed basins. Theoretical expressions for these distributions were derived and validated by the data. Future research will focus on (1) applying similar analyses in other locations and comparing the results, and (2) understanding and modeling the effects of groundwater in forming the landscape of these arid regions.

Dorsaz, J.; Gironas, J. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Rinaldo, A.

2011-12-01

259

Repeating Earthquakes in the Outer Rise Offshore Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2004-January 2005 two temporary arrays of ocean bottom seismometers and hydrophones (Sonne cruise SO181) were recording the micro-earthquake activity of the outer rise region offshore Southern Chile. The southern array was located offshore the Chonos archipelago (45°S) on very young oceanic plate (6 Ma). No outer rise earthquakes are listed in the global catalogues for this region. The northern array is located off Chiloe island (43°S) on somewhat older plate (14 Ma). Several normal faulting events have occurred in this area in the last 30 years. Nevertheless, during the temporary deployment, the southern region was far more active with several hundred locatable events. Most events located in the crust and the uppermost 1-2~km of the mantle. In contrast, relatively few locatable events (<200) were recorded by the Northern array, with most events lying outside the array. The depth of the few events within the array places them well into the mantle, ~5km deeper than the deepest events in the south. The event set recorded by the southern array is remarkable in that a very high proportion (~0.35) of the events are repeating earthquakes, that is events with a high waveform similarity (correlation coeff. >0.9). They group into 41 clusters of various sizes, with the largest cluster consisting of 24 events. Recurrence times are highly irregular, with repeating earthquakes occasionally being separated by a few minutes only but some sequences stretching over the entire observational period. Repeating earthquakes have been associated with strong patches embedded within weak parts of a fault, with irregularities at the boundary between strong and weak parts, and with systematic changes in pore fluid pressure due to fluid diffusion. We will consider how far each of these models can describe the event sequences at the Outer Rise, where the dominant strain arises due to bending of the oceanic plate.

Tilmann, F. J.; Grevemeyer, I.; Gossler, J.; Scherwath, M.; Flueh, E.; Hofmann, S.; Dahm, T.

2005-12-01

260

Ecology, Genetic Diversity, and Phylogeographic Structure of Andes Virus in Humans and Rodents in Chile?  

PubMed Central

Andes virus (ANDV) is the predominant etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in southern South America. In Chile, serologically confirmed human hantavirus infections have occurred throughout a wide latitudinal distribution extending from the regions of Valparaíso (32 to 33°S) to Aysén (46°S) in southern Patagonia. In this study, we found seropositive rodents further north in the Coquimbo region (30°S) in Chile. Rodent seroprevalence was 1.4%, with Oligoryzomys longicaudatus displaying the highest seroprevalence (5.9%), followed by Abrothrix longipilis (1.9%) and other species exhibiting ?0.6% seropositivity. We sequenced partial ANDV small (S) segment RNA from 6 HCPS patients and 32 rodents of four different species collected throughout the known range of hantavirus infection in Chile. Phylogenetic analyses showed two major ANDV South (ANDV Sout) clades, congruent with two major Chilean ecoregions, Mediterranean (Chilean matorral [shrubland]) and Valdivian temperate forest. Human and rodent samples grouped according to geographic location. Phylogenetic comparative analyses of portions of S and medium segments (encoding glycoproteins Gn and Gc) from a subset of rodent specimens exhibited similar topologies, corroborating two major ANDV Sout clades in Chile and suggesting that yet unknown factors influence viral gene flow and persistence throughout the two Chilean ecoregions. Genetic algorithms for recombination detection identified recombination events within the S segment. Molecular demographic analyses showed that the virus is undergoing purifying selection and demonstrated a recent exponential growth in the effective number of ANDV Sout infections in Chile that correlates with the increased number of human cases reported. Although we determined virus sequences from four rodent species, our results confirmed O. longicaudatus as the primary ANDV Sout reservoir in Chile. While evidence of geographic differentiation exists, a single cosmopolitan lineage of ANDV Sout remains the sole etiologic agent for HCPS in Chile. PMID:19116256

Medina, Rafael A.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Galeno, Hector; Navarrete, Maritza; Vial, Pablo A.; Palma, R. Eduardo; Ferres, Marcela; Cook, Joseph A.; Hjelle, Brian

2009-01-01

261

Developing an effective tsunami warning system: Lessons from the 1960 Chile earthquake tsunami for New Zealand coastal communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude 9.5 earthquake on 22 May 1960 in southern Chile was the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake in the 20th century. It generated a tsunami that swept the shores of Chile and radiated out across the Pacific, with the major loss of life in Chile and, despite warnings being issued, in both Hawai'i and Japan. The absence of a Pacific?wide

David Johnston; Rylee Pettersson; Gaye Downes; Douglas Paton; Graham Leonard; Katharine Pishief; Rob Bell

2008-01-01

262

Deglacial pattern of circulation and marine productivity in the upwelling region off central-south Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution sea surface temperature and paleoproductivity reconstruction on a sedimentary record collected at 36°S off central-south Chile (GeoB 7165-1, 36°33'S, 73°40'W, 797 m water depth, core length 750 cm) indicates that paleoceanographic conditions changed abruptly between 18 and 17 ka. Comparative analysis of several cores along the Chilean continental margin (30°-41°S) suggests that the onset and the pattern of deglacial warming was not uniform off central-south Chile due to the progressive southward migration of the Southern Westerlies and local variations in upwelling. Marine productivity augmented rather abruptly at 13-14 ka, well after the oceanographic changes. We suggest that the late deglacial increase in paleoproductivity off central-south Chile reflects the onset of an active upwelling system bringing nutrient-rich, oxygen-poor Equatorial Subsurface Water to the euphotic zone, and a relatively higher nutrient load of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. During the Last Glacial Maximum, when the Southern Westerlies were located further north, productivity off central-south Chile, in contrast to off northern Chile, was reduced due to direct onshore-blowing winds that prevented coastal upwelling and export production.

Mohtadi, Mahyar; Rossel, Pamela; Lange, Carina B.; Pantoja, Silvio; Böning, Philipp; Repeta, Daniel J.; Grunwald, Maik; Lamy, Frank; Hebbeln, Dierk; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

2008-07-01

263

Receptor modeling of ambient VOC at Santiago, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient VOC measured at a 1996 spring campaign at Santiago, Chile, have been analyzed using the receptor models UNMIX and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The ambient campaign took place at two sites: a downtown site, close to major traffic emissions, and a residential site, downwind of major industrial sources and highways. At the downtown site the following source apportionments estimates were obtained: fuel evaporation, 29.7±5.6%; gasoline exhaust, 22.0±3.4%; diesel exhaust, 18.1±2.9%; biogenic, LPG and evaporative emissions, 18.0±3.4%, unexplained: 12%. At the residential site, the following source apportionment was obtained: transported gasoline exhaust, 31.2±4.1%; local gasoline exhaust, 25.5±4.0%; evaporative losses, 11.7±2.8%; LPG losses, 11.0±2.5%; biogenic emissions, 7.7±1.7%; diesel exhaust, 6.2±1.5%; unexplained, 7.7%. Thus, near 70% of ambient VOC impacts at both sites are due to mobile sources. The receptor analyses produced source profiles that had distinctive, dominant compounds; in addition, source contributions exhibited diurnal profiles that were consistent with ambient temperature and wind speed data, and the expected activity patterns within the city. Typical errors in the source contributions vary between 15% for the larger sources—like gasoline exhaust—and 25% for the smaller sources—like biogenic emissions. It was found that the number of factors given by the UNMIX model was a good starting point to refine the solution using PMF. Both models showed good performance at discriminating between source profiles that had similar compositions in subsets of common species, but PMF was able to find better, cleaner source profiles that did UNMIX. At both monitoring sites LPG losses appear mixed in with other source profiles, and this feature could not be solved by adding more source profiles in the analyses; this was likely due to a lack of C 3 measurements needed to better resolve an LPG source profile.

Jorquera, Héctor; Rappenglück, Bernhard

264

Meandering channels without vegetation: Examples from Nevada and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a study motivated by the occurrence of highly sinuous, actively migrating paleochannels on Mars. Highly sinuous, unconfined meanders require small aspect ratios, which in turn require cohesive channel banks. This cohesion is obtained most commonly by vegetation cover coupled with high suspended sediment loading. The dominant role of vegetation in meandering is reflected in the difficulty in creating highly sinuous channels in flume experiment without introduction of vegetation. The occurrence of strongly meandering channels on Mars suggests meanders can develop in the absence of vegetation. The main objective of our study is to understand the processes of meander evolution in non-vegetated surfaces. We have studied two terrestrial sites in which meandering channels form where vegetation is sparse and has little influence on bank erodibility or point-bar deposition, indicating that there must be other mechanisms creating bank cohesion. One mechanism is stabilization of point-bar deposits by mud drapes. The Quinn River in Nevada is a sinuous channel that flows through fine lacustrine sediments on the floor of paleolake Lahontan resulting in the river having both bed and bank composed of sediment containing least 40% silt/clay. In addition to abundant mud, high salt content of the river water encourages flocculation and settling of fine sediment; thus both high clay/silt content and salt work together at the Quinn River to maintain a small aspect ratio. In contrast to the Quinn River, meandering channels on alluvial fans in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile are deposited by flows originating from the foothills of the Andes Mountains where sediments are coarser and more variable in size. Like Quinn River both fine sediments and salts contribute to meandering. The bank cohesion is provided by mudflows or hyperconcentrated flows creating bank drapes as well as extensive overbank levees which harden to adobe-like consistency. The Atacama Desert is rich in precipitated salts forming salt crusted deposits, and because grains are coarser, we speculate that these salts may possibly be playing a much more direct role in providing the cohesion than they do in the Quinn River. We are using chemical analyses and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of sediment samples to investigate cementation mechanisms.

Matsubara, Y.; Howard, A. D.; Burr, D. M.; Williams, R. M.; Moore, J. M.

2012-12-01

265

Cristobalite in the 2011-13 Cordón Caulle Eruption (Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volcanic formation of cristobalite and other silica polymorphs is of great concern from a public health perspective, because they are known carcinogens and pose prominent respiratory hazards. Cristobalite is common in volcanic domes and other products, but its mode of formation is not completely understood. Firstly, it is enigmatic that the low-pressure stability field of cristobalite lies outside normal volcanic temperature conditions. Secondly, it is unclear if crystobalite forms by devitrification of volcanic glass, or by precipitation from a locally (e.g., immediately adjacent to porous networks) or deeply (e.g., from depth within the conduit) derived vapour phase, or by an intimate and necessary combination of both of these processes. The 2011-13 eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (Chile) has provided an excellent opportunity to track cristobalite formation during the full progression of a rhyolite eruption. The eruption included a short opening Plinian phase, a protracted period of hybrid explosive-effusive activity that included the emplacement of a compound obsidian flow, and the endogenous advance of the obsidian flow after the magma supply had been cut off. Together, these yield an ideal framework and sample suite for testing hypotheses of cristobalite formation, because samples were produced in different phases of the eruption, and were all collected very fresh with little to no alteration or devitrification. Immediately noteworthy is the presence of vapour phase crystallization products lining the vesicles in samples from the obsidian lava flow. Examination by SEM shows these precipitates to be rich in prismatic cristobalite. The relative proportions of vapour phase precipitates appears to be correlated to the degree of interconnectivity of the lava's vesicle network; where sheared, coalesced and collapsed vesicle networks show little-to-no vapour phase precipitates, and isolated vesicles show intensive vapour phase crystallization. Theses textures immediately argue for cristobalite formation from a Si-saturated vapour phase, and since the samples are derived from lava lobes far from the vent, argue that the vapour was locally derived from within the flow. Ongoing quantification using various analytical tools (?-cT; XRD; EBSD; ICPMS; SEM; EMPA; Cl-SEM) aim to pinpoint the timing and mechanisms of cristobalite formation during the progression of the Cordón Caulle eruption.

Schipper, C.; Castro, J. M.; Tuffen, H.

2013-12-01

266

Marine Gravity Measurements at the Subduction Zone offshore Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity measurements were carried out during RV SONNE cruise SO-161 (SPOC) in late 2001 between 28° S and 44° S offshore Central Chile along a total length of about 17500 km. The mean accuracy of the data measured with the seagravimeter system KSS31M of BGR is better than 1 mGal. Further foreign marine gravity data were not included due to their considerable lower accuracy. Additional marine gravity data derived from satellite altimetry are needed to augment our data from the survey area. The SPOC data set was compared with 3 different satellite gravity data compilations. The data set with the best statistical results for the gravity differences was used for further gravity map compilations. The map of the freeair gravity is dominated by the anomalies of the main topographic features in the survey area. In the W the oceanic crust of the subducting Nazca Plate is characterized by weak positve gravity anomalies. Landward the anomalies decrease rapidly to less than minus 150 mGal in the Chilean trench. Further towards the coast extends a broad zone of alternating positve and negative freeair gravity anomalies. These could be interpreted either in terms of morphology of the continental slope or heterogeneous density distribution in the upper crust. Additionally Bouguer gravity anomalies were calculated. The anomalies on the Nazca Plate are strongly positive with a clear south - north trending increase of values, which reflect the increasing age of the oceanic crust. The effect of isostatic compensation was calculated assuming Vening-Meinesz models with different parameters. The gravity effect of the isostatic compensation root was eliminated from the Bouguer gravity anomalies and serves as a residual field. The interpretation of isostatic residual fields in this complicated tectonic environment leads to the detection of a series of offshore basins. In the N and the centre of the survey area the distribution of the profiles is rather uniform. For these areas 3D density models were developed. The models consider the results of the multi channel reflection seismic and especially the refraction seismic lines. The models show the density structure of the accretionary wedge which expands from N to S, the continental slope and various basins near to the coast. The possibility of a subduction channel in the southern area is discussed. The effect and trace of fracture zones before and after subduction were investigated.

Heyde, I.; Kopp, H.; Reichert, C.

2003-12-01

267

Late Cenozoic Evolution of the Mejillones Peninsula, Northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mejillones Peninsula, located on the Pacific margin of Northern Chile, contains outer shelf, shelf and coastal terrace deposits that record the paleoceanographic, tectonic, and topographic evolution of the region. Preliminary micropaleontologic, geochemical, sedimentological and geochronological analyses of sedimentary sequences within the Tiburon Basin and uplifted coastal terraces of the Mejillones Peninsula together document Plio-Pleistocene sea-level cyclicity, as well as coeval changes in marine productivity, regional uplift, and displacement on local faults. The sedimentary succession within the Tiburon Basin can be subdivided into a lower set of diatomaceous sedimentary cycles containing thin phosphatic horizons, marine vertebrates and abundant planktonic and benthic foraminifera. Preliminary analyses of these sediments indicate an initial deep-water ( ˜500 meter) basin with high primary productivity related to upwelling of cold intermediate water interrupted by periods of little to no sediment input. This style of deposition was interrupted by an uplift event, probably involving vertical motion on the Mejillones Fault immediately to the west of the Tiburon Basin, which dominated the character of the upper set of sedimentary cycles and comprise coarse clastic sediments including vertebrate fossils, blocks up to boulder size, interpreted as detritus from the nearby fault scarp, and well-rounded pebbles derived from the interior of the Mejillones Peninsula. This switch from diatomaceous to clastic sedimentary cycles indicates abrupt (1) shallowing of the basin to shelfal (50-100 meters) to nearshore depths, (2) generation of significant local relief on the fault scarp, and (3) large-scale uplift and erosion of the Mejillones Peninsula. An Ar/Ar age of 2.8 +/- .04 Ma from an ash horizon near the top of the succession indicates a Pliocene age for the Tiburon succession, which is consistent with the foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the diatomaceous sequences. At least 10-12 coastal terraces occur within the Mejillones Peninsula, the highest of which can be traced to the margin of the Tiburon Basin and document contemporaneous subaerial exposure, uplift, and continuing sea-level cyclicity through the Quaternary.

Ishman, S. E.; Reilly, T. P.; Wilson, G. S.; Martinez-Pardo, R.; Pinter, N.; Wilke, H.; Chong, G.

2003-12-01

268

A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile.  

PubMed

Based on morphological and molecular evidence (mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) we describe a new species of spiny-chest frog, Alsodes cantillanensis, from central Chile (around 34°S). The type locality, Quebrada Infiernillo, is located in the Coastal Range at approximately 65 km from Santiago (Metropolitan Region), the capital of Chile. The distribution of the new species is included entirely in that of A. nodosus (32-36°S approximately), which was identified as the sister taxon according to molecular phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, both species are sympatric in the type locality. The new species was found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest potentially threatened by gold mining activities. We identify other threats for its conservation and some biological data needed for understanding the evolution of this species. This discovery reveals the scarce knowledge about biogeography, evolution and ecology of spiny-chest frogs from central Chile.  PMID:25662142

Charrier, Andrés; Correa, Claudio; Castro, Camila; Méndez, Marco A

2015-01-01

269

Non-Volcanic Seismic Tremor in the Chile Triple Junction Region: Active Subducted Transform Faults?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analyses of episodic non-volcanic seismic tremor recorded at the Chile Ridge Subduction Project temporary seismic network, operated jointly by the University of Florida and the Universidad de Chile, Santiago. The 57 station network was deployed to study subduction of the Chile Ridge spreading center in the Chile Triple Junction region. Tremor activity during the first project year (2004-5) includes 4 or 5 peaks of high activity with a maximum duration of 48 hours. We observe progressive increases and decreases of activity before and after the high activity peaks, the frequency content of tremor signals is less than 15 Hz, and we observe low magnitude earthquakes within the tremors on rare occasions, as has been seen in Cascadia and Japan. Tremor source regions were determined using the source scanning algorithm of Kao and Shan (2004). The tremors are mainly concentrated in the northern Taitao Peninsula, in the neighborhood of the now-subducted Taitao transform fault, which is the subsurface Nazca-Antarctica plate boundary east of the Chile Triple Junction. At depth, the tremors are distributed between the surface and around 40 km depth, and thus occur mainly in overriding South America. The Taitao transform fault was the site of an unusual slow seismic event around one month after the great 1960 Chile earthquake. Kanamori and Stewart (1979) observed 1.5-2 hours of continuous Rayleigh wave radiation consistent with strike-slip motions on the transform fault, but without associated body wave radiation. We speculate that the tremors are also a result of quasi-continuous slow strike-slip events on the subducted Taitao transform fault and associated deformation and fluid flow in overriding South America.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V. I.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

2007-05-01

270

Shear Wave Splitting and Seismic Anisotropy in the Chile Ridge Subduction Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new shear wave splitting measurements of SK(K)S and PKS phases recorded at 39 broadband seismic stations in the Chile triple junction region. The network, deployed December 2004-February 2005 and operated jointly by the University of Florida and the Universidad de Chile (Santiago), spans the region where the Chile Ridge subducts beneath South America, from the Pacific coast of the Taitao Peninsula to the Argentine border, and extending 250 km north and south of the actual triple junction. Given increasing temperature with depth, it has long been hypothesized that ridge subduction should result in creation of slab windows asthenosphere-filled gaps between continually separating edges of oceanic lithosphere formed at the Earth's surface. The Chile Ridge Subduction Project (seismology.geology.ufl.edu/chile) was formulated in part to test this notion. The network was demobilized during January-February 2007. In conjunction with teleseismic travel time inversions and studies of seismic attenuation in the Chile Ridge subduction region, shear wave splitting as recorded at the Project network will likely provide an excellent snapshot of upper mantle flow in the region: The tomography and attenuation studies will allow us to define the distribution of lithosphere and asthenosphere to determine if slab windows exist in the area. The shear wave splitting, which may be caused by mineral alignment during upper mantle flow or possibly by aligned pockets of partial melt, will then define the upper mantle flow pattern and/or partial melt distribution in the region of ridge subduction, and possibly also mineral alignments in the subducted Nazca and Antarctic plates. We will present preliminary results at the meeting.

Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Comte, D.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.; van der Lee, S.

2007-05-01

271

Boulder transport by the 2010 Chile tsunami (Bucalemu, Central Chile): A quasi-experimental setting in a natural environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27th February, 2010, at 03:34 a.m. local time, a MW 8.8. earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile. The triggered tsunami affected the coast from Valparaiso in the north to Tirua, about 650 km further south. During our field survey which was conducted four weeks after the event, we studied erosional and depositional impact of the tsunami. The tsunami deposited fine grained sediments, such as sand layers or fine grained caps, often covering plants or pre-tsunami soil. Boulders were only available at two locations: Bucalemu and Isla Mocha. While Isla Mocha offered a natural setting, boulders in Bucalemu where artificially dumped close to the shore in order to construct a break water a few days before the tsunami hit. This coincidence made Bucalemu a perfect setting for studying boulder transport by a tsunami because (1) the pre-transport setting is well defined, (2) exact transport distances can be measured, and (3) flow depth of ca. 2 m and flow speed of at least 5.6 m/s are known from eyewitnesses accounts and video recordings. Additionally, the coastal plain of Bucalemu is crossed by a river and backflow followed the river bed so that no erosion or modification of the run up sediments occurred. The size of the artificially quarried boulders was restricted to max. 0.3 m3 and 720 kg, with the boulders having uniform triangular shapes. Calculations show that the tsunami would have been capable to transport even bigger boulders. A fining landward trend of boulder size is not present because of the narrow spectrum of boulder sizes available at this location. Boulders were probably transported by rolling or even saltation because of their relatively small weight and a flow speed of at least 5.6 m/s. The boulders are deposited in three groups in different distances to the pile where they originate from. A boulder free zone separates group I and II. Transition zones with only a few randomly scattered boulders are found in landward direction of group II and III. We interpret the arrangement of boulders as the result of a step by step transport by several waves of the tsunami wave train. Furthermore, the boulder groups are located in morphological depressions. Hence, the boulder distribution seems to be the result of both the number of individual waves of the tsunami wave train, their respective energies, and the local topography.

Spiske, M.; Bahlburg, H.

2010-12-01

272

Identification of diverse Salmonella Serotypes, Virulotypes, and Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Waterfowl From Chile  

PubMed Central

Abstract Salmonella enterica is a pathogen with a wide host-range that presents great concern in developed and developing countries. To determine and characterize Salmonella strains found in Chile's waterfowl, we sampled 758 birds along 2000?km of the Chilean coast. In this sample, 46 isolates from 10 serotypes were detected, several with multidrug resistance phenotypes and different combinations of virulence-associated genes (virulotypes). These results suggest that Salmonella infection in waterfowl in Chile could have impacts on public and animal health. PMID:24107205

Fresno, Marcela; Barrera, Violeta; Gornall, Vanessa; Lillo, Pilar; Paredes, Natalia; Abalos, Pedro; Fernández, Alda

2013-01-01

273

Influence of large scale oscillations on upwelling-favorable coastal wind off central Chile  

E-print Network

central Chile (30#4;S), Cont. Shelf Res., 24, 789–804, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2004.02.004. Saha, S., et al. (2010), The NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 91, 1015–1057, doi:10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1. Shaffer, G., S. Hormazabal, O... oscillations on upwelling-favorable coastal wind off central Chile, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D19114, doi:10.1029/2012JD018016. 1. Introduction [2] Over the southeast Pacific (SEP) the circulation is generally dominated by a surface anticyclone that drives low...

Rahn, David A.

2012-10-16

274

Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) in Chile: a tentative diagnosis.  

PubMed

Three argasid tick larvae were collected on April 2, 2010, from a common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, captured in the Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar (26°09' S, 70°41' W), Region of Atacama, Chile. The larvae were diagnosed as Ornithodoros, and further comparative analysis showed them to be Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones or a species close to it. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences of Ornithodoros species plus four Argas species was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the larvae. This is the first finding of ticks parasitizing D. rotundus in Chile. PMID:23950013

Venzal, J; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, A; Guglielmone, A

2012-02-01

275

Observations of pCO2 in the coastal upwelling off Chile: Spatial and temporal extrapolation using satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric and oceanic partial pressures of carbon dioxide and fluorescence were measured underway off the coast of northern Chile in January 1997. Seawater samples were taken for the analysis of nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations at 31 stations. The objectives were to improve the understanding of the biologically induced responses of upwelling processes off the coast of Chile and to assess

Nathalie Lefèvre; Jim Aiken; Jose Rutllant; Giovanni Daneri; Samantha Lavender; Tim Smyth

2002-01-01

276

Private and Public Schooling in the Southern Cone: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina and Chile. Occasional Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argentina and Chile have longstanding policies that give public subsidies to private schools. This paper uses data from 1997 from Argentina and Chile to compare the academic outcomes of seventh and eighth graders in public and private schools. Three types of private schools are analyzed: Catholic schools that are subsidized by the government,…

McEwan, Patrick J.

277

The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

2012-01-01

278

Variation and persistence of the middle rocky intertidal community of central Chile, with and without human harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans are an important intertidal predator in central Chile. Following a five-year study we report on the effects of the exclusion of humans from the rocky intertidal at Las Cruces, central Chile. The middle intertidal of harvested and non-harvested areas diverged in species diversity and composition during the experiment. In harvested areas the middle intertidal rocky shore was dominated throughout

L. R. Durán; J. C. Castilla

1989-01-01

279

Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only…

Bernasconi, Andres

2014-01-01

280

CHILE PEPPER RSPONSE TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION IN THE ARKANSAS VALLEY OF COLORADO. COLORADO AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION TECHNICAL BULLETIN TR05  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2004, we evaluated the effects of N fertilization (6 N rates) on chile pepper fresh yield and biomass accumulation following four years of continuous corn production. A controlled release N fertilizer (Polyon®3) was used. Fresh chile pepper yields increased with increasing N rate up to about 9...

281

Life Stories of Graduate Students in Chile and the United States: Becoming a Scientist from Childhood to Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this cross-national study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding about doctoral students in the United States and Chile and how their decisions to pursue a career in the life sciences field occurred throughout their lives. I interviewed 15 doctoral students from the Seven Lakes University (Chile) and 15 students from the…

Silva Fernandez, Marta A.

2013-01-01

282

Use of high-resolution satellite images for characterization of geothermal reservoirs in the Tarapaca Region, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of renewable and clean sources of energy is becoming crucial for sustainable development of all countries, including Chile. Chilean Government plays special attention to the exploration and exploitation of geothermal energy, total electrical power capacity of which could reach 16.000 MW. In Chile the main geothermal fields are located in the Central Andean Volcanic Chain in the North,

A. A. Arellano-Baeza; C. Montenegro A

2010-01-01

283

Use of satellite images to obtain accurate snowmelting runoff forecasts and to survey geothermal activity along Los Andes Range, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pilot experiments developed in Los Andes Range, Central Zone of Chile, have obtained significant snd positive preliminary results on the use of multispectral and multitemporal satellite images to prepare snowmelt runoff forecasts by measuring snowcovered area in Andean watersheds. The same information is also very useful for studying regional and semi-regional geothermal activity along Los Andes in Chile. These results

Mauricio F. Araya

1984-01-01

284

The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory  

E-print Network

Observatory, 2) Duty station: Santiago, Chile 3. Field of specialty: radio astronomy 4. DutiesThe National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following staff research staff of NAOJ Chile Observatory. A profound understanding of radio interferometry is essential

Ito, Atsushi

285

The W-Phase and PTWC's Response to the Mw 8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010  

E-print Network

IS IN EFFECT FOR CHILE / PERU A TSUNAMI WATCH IS IN EFFECT FOR ECUADOR (...) AN EARTHQUAKE HAS OCCURREDThe W-Phase and PTWC's Response to the Mw 8.8 Chile Earthquake of February 27, 2010 Zacharie-phase software to begin its calculations at 25 minutes after the earthquake origin time. We use only vertical

Duputel, Zacharie

286

U^Pb zircon chronostratigraphy of early-Pliocene ignimbrites from La Pacana, north Chile: implications for the formation  

E-print Network

U^Pb zircon chronostratigraphy of early-Pliocene ignimbrites from La Pacana, north Chile of zircons from two consanguineous ignimbrites of contrasting composition, the high-silica rhyolitic Toconao and the overlying dacitic Atana ignimbrites, erupted from La Pacana caldera, north Chile, are presented

287

Upwelling response to atmospheric coastal jets off central Chile: A modeling study of the October 2000 event  

E-print Network

Upwelling response to atmospheric coastal jets off central Chile: A modeling study of the October are used to document such processes during an atmospheric coastal jet event off central Chile. The event is a major contributor to the cooling tendency both in the jet core area and in the nearshore zone where

288

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications...471 Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and...

2014-04-01

289

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications...471 Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and...

2012-04-01

290

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel...REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications...471 Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and...

2013-04-01

291

Invasive Pleurodema thaul from Robinson Crusoe Island: molecular identification of its geographic origin and comments on the phylogeographic structure of this species in mainland Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robinson Crusoe Island, located 670 km west of the coast of central Chile, is characterized by a high number of endemic and introduced species of plants and animals. This island lacks native amphibians or reptiles, but somewhat more than 30 years ago the toad Pleurodema thaul, native to continental Chile, was introduced. The coast of central Chile was identified as

Claudio Correa; Gabriel Lobos; Luis Pastenes; Marco A. Méndez

292

Inequality and the Politics of Social Policy Implementation: Gender, Age and Chile's 2004 Health Reforms  

E-print Network

- forms provide an opportunity to assess the politics of expan- sionary social policy reformsInequality and the Politics of Social Policy Implementation: Gender, Age and Chile's 2004 Health Reforms CHRISTINA EWIG and GASTO´ N A. PALMUCCI * University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA Summary

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

293

Seismic investigation of the continental margin off- and onshore Valparaiso, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the latitude of Valparaiso, Chile, a fundamental change in the configuration of the Benioff zone, volcanic activity, and the structure of the continental margin occurs opposite the subducting Juan Fernandez Ridge. Three legs of the German RVSonne (cruises SO101, SO103 and SO104) surveyed the continental margin and oceanic plate offshore Valparaiso, aiming at studying the crustal structure and investigating

E. R. Flueh; N. Vidal; C. R. Ranero; A. Hojka; R. von Huene; J. Bialas; K. Hinz; D. Cordoba; J. J. Dañobeitia; C. Zelt

1998-01-01

294

Tectonic control of the subducting Juan Fernández Ridge on the Andean margin near Valparaiso, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near the latitude of Valparaiso, Chile, a fundamental change in configuration of the Benioff Zone, volcanic arc activity, and the structure of the continental margin occurs opposite the subducting Juan Fernández Ridge. Upper plate tectonics related to subduction of the ridge were studied by an international group of geoscientists in the two-degree segment offshore Valparaiso, extending from the shelf edge

R. von Huene; J. Corvalán; E. R. Flueh; K. Hinz; J. Korstgard; C. R. Ranero; W. Weinrebe

1997-01-01

295

Poverty and housing in Chile: the development of a neo-liberal welfare state  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers poverty alleviation measures in Chile under the military regimes of General Pinochet (1973–1989). It explores the political and economic context within which decisions were made and the impact of economic restructuring upon urban poverty in the country. It argues that the state responded to rising poverty through the use of increased targeting of subsidies. While this was

Ben Richards

1995-01-01

296

Los Estados Unidos y la República de Chile se unen para combatir el cáncer  

Cancer.gov

Una nueva alianza entre el Instituto Nacional del Cáncer de los Estados Unidos y el Ministerio de Salud de la República de Chile, tiene el propósito de acelerar el avance contra el cáncer en la población hispana en los Estados Unidos y en América Latina.

297

Dendroecological analysis of a Fitzroya cupressoides and a Nothofagus nitida stand in the Cordillera Pelada, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lumbering of Fitzroya cupressoides in Chile began in 1599 and continued until 1976, when the species was declared a national monument and cutting of live trees was prohibited. Today, F. cupressoides is threatened; many of the remaining stands in the coastal range appear to be declining, with a predominance of standing dead stems and patchy, sparse regeneration. We performed tree-ring

Margaret S. Devall aq; Bernard R. Parresol; Juan J. Armesto

298

ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES…

Howie, S. J.

2010-01-01

299

Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseo y Estudios Urbanos  

E-print Network

de Francoise Dureau y Carlos De Mattos Miembros del jurado Francoise DUREAU, Directora de investigación, IRD Carlos DE MATTOS, Profesor, Instituto de Estudios Urbanos y Territoriales, PUC Chile Oscar Mattos Miembros del jurado Francoise DUREAU, Directora de investigación, IRD Carlos DE MATTOS, Profesor

Boyer, Edmond

300

Status of blue whales off Isla de Chiloe, Chile, during 2007 field season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2004, a collaborative research program of the Alfaguara Project on blue whales off Isla de Chiloe, Chile, has produce important new information on present day conservation status of this population. This paper presents preliminary findings from 2007 and compares such data with that reported in previous years. Land-based monitoring in 2007 resulted in 36 days of observations with 262.85

Bárbara Galletti Vernazzani; Carole A. Carlson; Elsa Cabrera

301

Skin lesions on blue whales off southern Chile: Possible conservation implications?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on three types of skin lesions in a population of blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, off the northwestern coast of Isla Grande de Chiloe, Chile. These lesions were: (1) cookie-cutter shark, Isistius brasilensis, bites, (2) vesicular or blister lesions, and (3) a tattoo-like skin disease. The presence of these lesions was determined by the examining photos collected in 2006

Brownell Jr. Robert L; Carole A. Carlson; Barbara Galletti Vernazzani; Elsa Cabrera

2007-01-01

302

75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Chile as a pest-free area for Ceratitis capitata, Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly). Based on our site visit to the area...for the verification of the maintenance of freedom from Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata). Prior to...

2010-06-10

303

Postdoctoral Positions in Numerical Analysis of PDEs (Chile 2014) Research Team Project ACT 1118 on  

E-print Network

Postdoctoral Positions in Numerical Analysis of PDEs (Chile 2014) Research Team Project ACT 1118 on Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equations (ANANUM) (Anillo de Investigaci´on ACT 1118 en An on Numerical Analysis of Partial Differential Equa- tions (ANANUM), a three-year project financed by CONICYT

Pérez, Carlos E.

304

Subduction of the Chile Ridge Imaged by Teleseismic Travel-time Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Making use of teleseismic data recorded at 46 seismic stations deployed in southern Chile from December 2004 to February 2007 (see the Chile Ridge Subduction Project; http:seismology.geology.ufl.edu/chile), we present a preliminary inversion for the mantle P-wave velocity structure beneath the region. The area covered by the network (42-46 degrees South and 72-78 degrees West) lies above the projected position of the subducted Chile ridge, which separates the Nazca and Antarctic oceanic plates. Because the Nazca plate subducts nearly 5 cm/yr faster than the Antarctic plate, the trailing edge of the last Nazca lithosphere formed before the ridge subducts has been inferred to separate steadily from the leading edge of the Antarctic lithosphere, forming progressively larger slab windows with depth. We use the teleseismic inversion to test models for such slab windows. The P-wave relative delay times are obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 30,000 nodes beneath the region.

Vandecar, J. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Gallego, A.; Comte, D.; Murdie, R. E.; van der Lee, S.

2007-05-01

305

Voicing Differences: Indigenous and Urban Radio in Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous cultures throughout the Americas and the rest of the world have to deal with problems of cultural assimilation, migration, and dissemination of their populations. Some of them, in countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria, have developed radio programming to maintain home languages; gain access to health, education, and employment…

Carcamo-Huechante, Luis E.; Legnani, Nicole Delia

2010-01-01

306

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in Breeding Turkeys, Valparaiso, Chile  

PubMed Central

Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus was detected in breeding turkeys on 2 farms in Valparaiso, Chile. Infection was associated with measurable declines in egg production and shell quality. Although the source of infection is not yet known, the outbreak was controlled, and the virus was eliminated from the birds. PMID:20350395

Mathieu, Christian; Moreno, Valentina; Retamal, Patricio; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Rivera, Alejandro; Fuller, Jorge; Jara, Cecilia; Lecocq, Claudio; Rojas, Miriam; García, Alfonso; Vasquez, Marcela; Agredo, Michel; Gutiérrez, Cristian; Escobar, Hector; Fasce, Rodrigo; Mora, Judith; García, Julio; Fernández, Jorge; Ternicier, Claudio

2010-01-01

307

Transformación económica, políticas y producción de la segregación social en Chile y México  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basado en los conceptos de la segregación residencial se analizan los principales cambios en Santiago de Chile y en la Ciudad de México en las últimas décadas. Analíticamente se trata de destacar el rol de las políticas para la producción de formas específicas de la segregación. En este contexto se analiza la relación entre la transformación socioeconómica y los cambios

Karin Fischer; Johannes Jäger; Christof Parnreiter

2007-01-01

308

Moral Dilemmas in Teaching Recent History Related to the Violation of Human Rights in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the moral dilemmas that a teacher faces in the classroom when teaching recent history which deals with military regimes, violation of human rights (1973-1990) and the transition to democracy in Chile (1990-2008). Furthermore, it explores the neutrality of the content taught; the ideological standpoints of the teachers and the…

Magendzo, Abraham; Toledo, Maria Isabel

2009-01-01

309

The guild structure of a community of predatory vertebrates in central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic ecology of eleven predator species (Falconiforms: Buteo polyosoma, Elanus leucurus, Falco sparverius, Geranoaetus melanoleucus, Parabuteo unicinctus; Strigiforms: Athene cunicularia, Bubo virginianus, Tyto alba; Carnivores: Dusicyon culpaeus; Snakes: Philodryas chamissonis, Tachymenis peruviana) in two nearby localities of central Chile is analyzed. The localities exhibit the typical climate (hot-dry summers, coldrainy winters), and vegetation (chaparral), of mediterranean ecosystems. Densities of

Fabian M. Jaksié; Harry W. Greene; José L. Yáñez

1981-01-01

310

Fostering Innovation in Chile: OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 454  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A good framework for investment in innovation can contribute to increasing Chile's growth potential. Spending on R&D is currently low in relation to GDP and heavily reliant on government financing. Innovation activity in the business sector is also limited by insufficient seed and venture capital and human capital constraints. This is despite…

Benavente, Jose-Miguel; de Mello, Luiz; Mulder, Nanno

2005-01-01

311

Propensity of University Students in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile to Create Enterprise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors aim to discuss the propensity or intention to create enterprise among university students in the region of Antofagasta, Chile, and to analyze the factors that influence the step from desire to intention. 681 students were surveyed. The data were analyzed by binary logistical regression. The results show that curriculum is among the…

Romani, Gianni; Didonet, Simone; Contuliano, Sue-Hellen; Portilla, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

312

Enlightenment, Education, and the Republican Project: Chile's "Instituto Nacional" (1810-1830)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the establishment of the "Instituto Nacional de Chile" between 1810 and 1830 as a crucial element of a political and cultural project advanced from an enlightened and republican elite. Its early inception in 1813 resulted from the necessity of consolidating a republican order, as shown by the different projects between 1810…

Baeza Ruz, Andres

2010-01-01

313

Evaluation of five green chile cultivars utilizing five different harvest mechanisms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High cost and unavailability of labor for hand harvest has resulted in domestic green chile production declining even as consumption grows. Mechanization is clearly necessary, but has resisted four decades of research and development. In these trials five picking mechanisms were tested in five cul...

314

The effects of generalized school choice on achievement and stratification: Evidence from Chile's voucher program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1981, Chile introduced nationwide school choice by providing vouchers to any student wishing to attend private school. As a result, more than 1000 private schools entered the market, and the private enrollment rate increased by 20 percentage points, with greater impacts in larger, more urban, and wealthier communities. We use this differential impact to measure the effects of unrestricted

Chang-Tai Hsieh; Miguel Urquiola

2006-01-01

315

Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it…

Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

2009-01-01

316

The Effectiveness and Efficiency of Private Schools in Chile's Voucher System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the relative effectiveness and efficiency of private and public schools in Chile, where the military government implemented a national voucher plan in 1980. Non-religious voucher schools (accounting for two-thirds of primary enrollments in all private voucher schools) are marginally less effective than public schools in producing academic achievement in the fourth grade; at best, they are similarly

Patrick J. McEwan; Martin Carnoy

2000-01-01

317

Rethinking the Role of Elite Private Schools in a Neoliberal Era: An Example from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neoliberalism has brought a privatization trend that has deeply affected the structure of the educational system of countries. While public schools lag behind, new forms of private schooling have arisen creating different forms of inequality. Nonetheless, in Chile the major inequality exists between schools attended by low and middle income…

Fernandez, Eduardo Cavieres

2009-01-01

318

The Impact of School Choice and Public Policy on Segregation: Evidence from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates argue that vouchers can make improved educational opportunity available to disadvantaged students. Critics contend that vouchers increase the risk of stratification. Researchers have found that Chile's voucher program has lead to increased socioeconomic school segregation. What has been overlooked, however, is segregation between schools…

Elacqua, Gregory

2012-01-01

319

Carbon pools in an arid shrubland in Chile under natural and afforested conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Arid and semiarid regions comprise 41% of the continental area of Chile, but no estimates of carbon (C) pools have been reported for these areas. This study quantified the C pools of biomass, litter, and soil for natural compared to afforested (two-year-old Acacia saligna (Labill.) H.L. Wendl.) sit...

320

School and Individual Factors That Contribute to the Achievement Gap in College Admissions Tests in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Chile, reports and research papers have shown that there is an achievement gap in college admissions tests mostly associated to students' gender, socioeconomic status and type of school attended. This gap represents a barrier for low-income and female students to access higher education, as well as for graduates of public schools. Prior…

Perez Mejias, Paulina

2012-01-01

321

Exploring Quality of Life during the Transition from School to Work in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from Chile's national household survey (CASEN) for the years 1990-2003 reveal that the transition process from school to active working life has been postponed over the course of the 13 year period while its duration has steadily increased, resulting in a delayed integration into the labour force. This finding is consistent with experiences…

Jeria, Maria

2009-01-01

322

Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and…

Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

2011-01-01

323

Active faulting in northern Chile: ramp stacking and lateral decoupling along a subduction plate boundary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two large features parallel to the coastline of northern Chile have long been suspected to be the sites of young or active deformation: (1) The 700-km long Coastal Scarp, with average height (above sea level) of about 1000 m; (2) The Atacama Fault zone, that stretches linearly for about 1100 km at an average distance of 30-50 km from the

Rolando Armijo; Ricardo Thiele

1990-01-01

324

The Effectiveness of Public, Catholic, and Non-Religious Private Schools in Chile's Voucher System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1980, Chile began financing public and most private schools with vouchers. This paper uses 1997 data on over 150 000 Chilean eighth-graders to compare Spanish and mathematics achievement in six types of public and private schools, including voucher schools operated by Catholic and non-religious institutions. Initial findings suggest that Catholic voucher schools have a small advantage over most public

PATRICK J. McEWAN

2001-01-01

325

Reviews of National Policies for Education: Quality Assurance in Higher Education in Chile 2013  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growth and diversity have characterised higher education in OECD countries for fifty years. Chile is no exception and has experienced dramatic increases in the number of students, the range of institutions and the programmes that they offer. But wider participation and diversification are only part of the story. Chilean society remains highly…

OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2013

2013-01-01

326

Tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Andes of northern Argentina and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two orogenic cycles, both with different evolution, are developed in the western margin of the South American continent in northern Argentina and Chile: the Paleozoic ``Hercynic'' cycle and the Meso-Cenozoic ``Andean'' cycle. The Hercynic cycle. A wide marine basin extending westward of the Cordillera Oriental which developed in Cambrian-Ordovician times marks the beginning of this cycle. In contrast to Peru

Beatríz Coira; John Davidson; Constantino Mpodozis; Victor Ramos

1982-01-01

327

Christian Education in Chile: Is the Seventh-Day Adventist System at Risk?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diverse perspectives with respect to Christian Education constitute a potential path for misunderstanding and contradictions; this study considers this situation in the context of a Seventh-day Adventist Christian system with students and parents from different religious perspectives in Chile. The parents/sponsors of the eighth graders were…

Grajales G., Tevni; Leon V., Vicente H.; Elias, Galiya

2010-01-01

328

First report of root rot of Chicory caused by Phytophthora cryptogea in Chile  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var sativum Bisch.), a relatively new high value crop in Chile, was introduced for commercial production of inulin. Inulins are polysaccharides extracted from chicory tap roots that are used in processed foods due to their beneficial gastrointestinal properties. Approxi...

329

Access to Higher Education in Chile: A Public vs. Private Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study analyzes how access to public and private institutions of higher education in Chile has changed as the post-secondary system has become increasingly privatized. It analyses access by young people to higher education from four perspectives: funding type (public/private), gender, family income level, and ethnicity. The study uses…

Espinoza, Oscar; González, Luis Eduardo

2013-01-01

330

MASS SPECTRAL DETERMINATIONS OF THE FOLIC ACID CONTENT OF FORTIFIED BREADS FROM CHILE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Sixty-four samples of fortified bread collected from bakeries from Santiago, Chile were assayed for their folic acid (FA) content using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). A 13C-labeled analogue of FA was spiked into each sample as an internal standard and the analyte ...

331

Mechanizing chile peppers: Challenges and advances in transitioning harvest of New Mexico's signature crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New Mexican-type chile (Capsicum annuum L.), often referred to as 'Anaheim', is the signature crop of New Mexico. Both the red and green (fully sized, but physiologically immature) crops are integral to the state's culture and economy. Lack of a predictable labor supply and higher input costs have p...

332

Beyond the Test Score: A Mixed Methods Analysis of a College Access Intervention in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we examine the role of a college access intervention in the enrollment and persistence outcomes of low-income students in Chile modeled partially after a Texas admissions program. We find that, although students from the program have a mean cumulative GPA significantly lower than that of their…

Treviño, Ernesto; Scheele, Judith; Flores, Stella M.

2014-01-01

333

Science Teacher Education in South America: The Case of Argentina, Colombia and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, the main characteristics of science teacher education in three countries in South America, namely Argentina, Chile and Colombia, are examined. Although reforms toward constructivist and inquiry-based teaching in science instruction have been made in each of the three reviewed countries, each country demonstrates limitations in the…

Cofré, Hernán; González-Weil, Corina; Vergara, Claudia; Santibáñez, David; Ahumada, Germán; Furman, Melina; Podesta, María E.; Camacho, Johanna; Gallego, Rómulo; Pérez, Royman

2015-01-01

334

SYNOPTIC ASPECTS OF THE CENTRAL CHILE RAINFALL VARIABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE SOUTHERN OSCILLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central Chile winter (June, July, August (JJA)) rainfall shows positive anomalies during the developing stage of warm events of the Southern Oscillation. Conversely, cold events correspond quite closely to dry conditions. A synoptic characterization of major storms during the most recent warm events is presented. Dry months during cold- event years are described in terms of average 500-hPa contour anomaly

JOSE RUTLLANT; HUMBERTO FUENZALIDA

1991-01-01

335

Threats and Opportunities of Science at a For-Profit University in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years after pro-market policies were first adopted, how best to organize Chile's scientific enterprise remains as elusive as when universities were state-run and funded. This paper explores scientific research at a for-profit university, University Andres Bello, to ask if a new mode of knowledge production is in the making and with what…

Barandiaran, Javiera

2012-01-01

336

Comparing Protest Movements in Chile and California: Interculturality in an Internet Chat Exchange  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is based on an analysis of chat transcripts from an English-language telecollaboration project between students at universities in Chile and California. This research found that the richest intercultural interactions involved events that could not have been foreseen: the immigrant rights demonstrations in the USA and the massive student…

Menard-Warwick, Julia

2009-01-01

337

Hydrochemical processes controlling arsenic and heavy metal contamination in the Elqui river system (Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe arsenic poisoning from drinking water has been documented in Northern Chile. However, the Elqui River, which provides water for ?200000 people in this region, is poorly studied and no data on contaminants have been published to date. In this study, trace elements and the main aqueous constituents were monitored for approximately 2 years in the entire river system. Aqueous

Thorsten Dittmar

2004-01-01

338

Light hydrocarbons as redox and temperature indicators in the geothermal field of El Tatio (northern Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El Tatio (northern Chile), one of the largest geothermal fields of South America, is presently undergoing a new program of geothermal exploration, after the failure of the first exploration phase in the early 1970s. The geochemical features of the fluid discharges characterizing this system mainly consist of boiling pools and fumaroles, and represent the result of a complex mixing process

F. Tassi; C. Martinez; O. Vaselli; B. Capaccioni; J. Viramonte

2005-01-01

339

The isotopic composition of waters from the El Tatio geothermal field, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of isotopic and chemical analyses of 45 spring, well and meteoric water samples from the El Tatio geothermal field in Northern Chile, four main processes giving rise to the formation of a wide range of thermal discharges can be distinguished. (1) Deep dilution of a predominant, primary high chloride (5500 mg\\/l, 260°) supply water derived from precipitation

Werner F. Giggenbach

1978-01-01

340

Ecology of the Patagonia puma Felis concolor patagonica in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of the Patagonia puma was studied in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Thirteen pumas were captured from 1986 to 1989 and equipped with radio transmitters. During the winter of 1988 there was one puma per 17 km2 in the 200 km2 study area. Home ranges varied from 24 to 107 km2. Female home ranges overlapped with those

William L. Franklin; Warren E. Johnson; Ronald J. Sarno; J. Agustin Iriarte

1999-01-01

341

Canl to Curarrehue (Chile): A Journey in Alternative Development. Outdoor Education and Sustainable Development: Part Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outdoor experience's core element of connection to the earth is a central feature of an environmental-education project in Canl forest sanctuary (Chile). Developed to provide integrated environmental and adventure-education experiences to forest visitors, the project expanded to train local youth as ecotourism guides and native-tree nursery…

Walker, Rod

1999-01-01

342

Iron control of past productivity in the coastal upwelling system off the Atacama Desert, Chile  

E-print Network

Iron control of past productivity in the coastal upwelling system off the Atacama Desert, Chile in productivity are found to be in phase with the precessional cycle ($20,000 years) and with inputs of iron from appear to have brought high inputs of iron, mainly from the Andes, to the coastal ocean enhancing primary

Demouchy, Sylvie

343

Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: Contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments  

E-print Network

Commentary Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: Contribution pollution Santiago Erosion Sedimentation a b s t r a c t Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10

344

THE FIRST REPORT OF PHORONIS SP. (PHORONIDA) IN RED ABALONE (HALIOTIS RUFESCENS) IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various red abalone shells (Haliotis rufescens) taken from Chiloe´ , X Region, Chile, were examined revealing an enormous amount of vermiform organisms identified as phoronides (Phylum Phoronida) belonging to the genus Phoronis. These individuals have an extended vermiform body not divided into segments, but its upper extreme shows a crown of tentacles shaped in a circular ring (that is the

FABIÁN AVILÉS; NICOLÁS ROZBACZYLO; MARCOS GODOY; GERARDO MUÑOZ

2007-01-01

345

Andesite Forming Processes Within Calbuco Volcano, Southern Chile Tiffany McKelvey  

E-print Network

Andesite Forming Processes Within Calbuco Volcano, Southern Chile Tiffany McKelvey Calbuco Volcano to the andesitic lava composition and phenocryst hornblende, Calbuco is unlike most of the other stratovolcanoes and petrological studies have determined that this andesitic composition is due to fractional crystallization

Sukop, Mike

346

Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jeff Chiles,1  

E-print Network

Two-photon photovoltaic effect in gallium arsenide Jichi Ma,1 Jeff Chiles,1 Yagya D. Sharma,2 214669); published September 4, 2014 The two-photon photovoltaic effect is demonstrated in gallium; (230.0250) Optoelectronics; (040.5350) Photovoltaic; (130.4310) Nonlinear. http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL

Fathpour, Sasan

347

Modeling of stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the seismicity and stress transfer in the Coquimbo region of central Chile, where an exceptional series of more than 12 earthquakes of magnitudes from 6 to 7.6 has occurred since July 1997. In this area, the oceanic Nazca plate is subducted under the continental lithosphere of South America. Below 50 km, the downgoing slab slips aseismically with respect

A. Gardi; A. Lemoine; R. Madariaga; J. Campos

2006-01-01

348

Three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model for postseismic deformation of the great 1960 Chile earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model to study postseismic deformation associated with the 1960 great Chile earthquake. GPS observations 35 years after the earthquake show that, while all coastal sites are moving landward, a group of inland sites 200–400 km from the trench are moving seaward and that coastal velocities in the 1960 rupture area are distinctly smaller

Y. Hu; K. Wang; J. He; J. Klotz; G. Khazaradze

2004-01-01

349

800,000Year Record of Plate Boundary Earthquakes in the Atacama Desert, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coseismic cracks preserved in the hyper-arid Atacama Desert of Northern Chile provide a unique record of the seismic history of the modern Andean forearc, which has generated the largest earthquakes on earth. Loveless et al. (2009) mapped more than 50,000 cracks on satellite imagery and, based on boundary element modeling, suggested that they indicate repeated rupture of approximately the same

A. M. Baker; L. A. Owen; J. Rech; R. W. Allmendinger

2010-01-01

350

Short-Period Rupture Process of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake in Chile  

E-print Network

Campose) The 2010 Maule earthquake is one of the largest events ever recorded with modern instruments. We of about 500 km by 140 km, this is the largest event ever recorded instrumen- tally in Chile (no strong motion instruments recorded the 22 May 1960 event). The Maule earthquake has been studied by many authors

Madariaga, Raúl

351

Paulo Freire in Chile, 1964-1969: "Pedagogy of the Oppressed" in Its Sociopolitical Economic Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, John Holst presents findings of his historical research on Paulo Freire's educational work in Chile from 1964 to 1969. Freire's "Education as the Practice of Freedom", which was written in 1965 from notes he brought from Brazil, was informed by a liberal developmentalist outlook. In contrast, his "Pedagogy of the Oppressed",…

Holst, John D.

2006-01-01

352

Surgimiento de nuevas actividades de exportación en América Latina: el caso de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

En este trabajo se pasa revista al crecimiento de las exportaciones en general en Chile y se concentra la atención en tres casos específicos de surgimiento de actividades de exportación exitosas en ese país: vino, puerco y arándanos. En cada uno de esos casos específicos se trata cómo empresas, asociaciones y gobiernos a varios niveles han manejado crisis de mercado

Manuel Agosin; Claudio Bravo-Ortega

2009-01-01

353

Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data  

DOE Data Explorer

Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

Dobson, Patrick

354

Distribution of slip from 11 Mw > 6 earthquakes in the northern Chile subduction zone  

E-print Network

Distribution of slip from 11 Mw > 6 earthquakes in the northern Chile subduction zone M. E to constrain the relative location of coseismic slip from 11 earthquakes on the subduction interface both jointly and separately for the four largest earthquakes during this time period (1993 Mw 6.8; 1995

Simons, Mark

355

76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...fruit would have to undergo pre-harvest sampling at the registered production site. Following...fruit would have to undergo pre-harvest sampling at the registered production site under...chilensis mites from such sites. This mite sampling method has been tested in Chile and...

2011-03-16

356

76 FR 15225 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...fruit would have to undergo pre-harvest sampling at the registered production site. Following...fruit would have to undergo pre-harvest sampling at the registered production site under...chilensis mites from such sites. This mite sampling method has been tested in Chile and...

2011-03-21

357

Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in…

Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

2011-01-01

358

Spreading of the ocean floor: Undeformed sediments in the peru-chile trench  

USGS Publications Warehouse

None of the expected stratigraphic and structural effects of a spreading sea floor have been imposed on the sedimentary fill of the Peru-Chile Trench. During at least the last several million years, and perhaps during much of the Cenozoic, the trench has not been affected by an oceanic crust thrusting under the continent.

Scholl, D. W.; Von Huene, R.; Ridlon, J.B.

1968-01-01

359

The Evolution of Photochemical Smog in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November and December 1996 the PHOTOCHEMICAL CAMPAIGN took place in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile and covered a range of simultaneous measurements of meteorological parameters and air chemical compounds, including ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and online nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in the range of C4-C12. Measurements were obtained at a downtown site and a

Bernhard Rappenglück; Pedro Oyola; Ignacio Olaeta; Peter Fabian

2000-01-01

360

Exploring the Relationship Between Export Intensity and Exporter Characteristics, Resources, and Capabilities: Evidence From Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on exporters in Chile in order to compare the characteristics, resources, and capabilities for export success (RACFES) possessed by high, medium, and low intensity exporters. Data for this study were collected throughan Internet survey of Chilean manufacturers that export. Of the 480 companies in the sample, 133 responded to the questionnaire consisting of 69 items, yielding a

Sadrudin A. Ahmed; Juan Rock

2012-01-01

361

Glacial changes and glacier mass balance at Gran Campo Nevado, Chile during recent decades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the framework of the program Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) a glacier inventory of the Peninsula Muñoz Gamero in the southernmost Andes of Chile (53°S) has been generated using aerial photopgrahy and Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. The Peninsula is partly covered by the ice cap of the Gran Campo Nevado (GCN), including several outlet glaciers plus some

C. Schneider; M. Schnirch; R. Kilian; C. Acuña; G. Casassa

2003-01-01

362

A New Click Beetle Genus from Southern Chile: Llanquihue (Coleoptera, Elateridae, Elaterinae, Pomachiliini)  

PubMed Central

Llanquihue, a new genus of Elateridae from Southern Chile, is here described and illustrated with 2 species: Llanquihue vittipennis (Candèze) new comb., and L. carlota sp. nov. The genus Llanquihue belongs to the subfamily Elaterinae and to the tribe Pomachiliini. PMID:20233094

Arias, Elizabeth T.

2008-01-01

363

Distribution of Hopanoids and Steroids Along a Precipitation Gradient of the Atacama Desert, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atacama Desert in northern Chile is one of the oldest and dries regions on the planet that extends across 1000 km from 20° S to 30° S along the Pacific coast of South America. In recent years this area has received more attention by the astrobiology community after the discovery of Mars-like soils in the Yungay area, the hyperarid

Enrique Iñiguez; Rafael Navarro-Gonzalez; Chris McKay

2008-01-01

364

Chile's High Growth Economy: Poverty and Income Distribution, 1987-1998. A World Bank Country Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile has an outstanding record in reducing poverty, having cut the poverty rate in half in the 11 years ended 1998. Poverty is a multi-dimensional concept, including both income and access to social services and education, as well as such intangibles as empowerment and social capital. This study presents a quantitative assessment of "deficits" in…

World Bank, Washington, DC.

365

Surviving a Tsunami--Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan Circular 1187  

E-print Network

Surviving a Tsunami--Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan Circular 1187 U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program Prepared in cooperation of Japan, the Pacific Tsunami Museum, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration

366

A model of deep crustal fluid flow following the Mw = 8.0 Antofagasta, Chile, earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a model to test the hypothesis that a high fluid pressure pulse and subsequent fluid flow caused a spatially extensive increase in the VP\\/VS ratio following the Mw = 8.0 Antofagasta, Chile, subduction zone earthquake. The postseismic anomaly appeared within a 50-day period inside the forearc region of the Andes continental crust. We model this anomaly with a

A. Koerner; E. Kissling; S. A. Miller

2004-01-01

367

Storage and eruption of near-liquidus rhyolite magma at Cordn Caulle, Chile Jonathan M. Castro  

E-print Network

Storage and eruption of near-liquidus rhyolite magma at Cordón Caulle, Chile Jonathan M. Castro C in that they have started with relatively short pre-eruptive warning and produced chemically homogeneous rhyolite in rhyolite magma produced in the most recent eruption of Cordón Caulle and we use these to infer magma

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

368

Diferenciales y discriminación de salarios contra la etnia mapuche en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the wage gap between non-indigenous peoples and Mapuches in Chile. This gap is broken down into endowment and discriminatory components. Participation and wage equations are estimated by gender and ethnic group and the results are controlled for sample selection bias. The results show significant differences in endowments that favor the non-indigenous peoples, both male and female. The

Grethel Zurita Zapata; Jorge Dresdner Cid

2009-01-01

369

Inflation Targeting in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico: Performance, Credibility, and the Exchange Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflation targeting (IT) has been adopted by a growing number of countries and Latin America has been part of this world trend. This paper reviews the recent IT experiences of Brazil, Chile, and Mexico, applying a common empirical framework to the three country cases. Inflation performance under IT and its associated output costs are reported and compared favorably to a

Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel; Alejandro M. Werner

2002-01-01

370

DEM GENERATION FROM ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CERRO SILLAJHUAY, CHILE/BOLIVIA  

E-print Network

DEM GENERATION FROM ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CERRO SILLAJHUAY, CHILE and Reflection Radiometer) satellite data. The original 30-m DEM was generated by using tie points data with sub-pixel accuracy is possible (Krzystek 1995). DEMs can be generated from stereo satellite

Bolch, Tobias

371

Metagenome Sequencing of the Microbial Community of a Solar Saltern Crystallizer Pond at Cáhuil Lagoon, Chile  

PubMed Central

Cáhuil Lagoon in central Chile harbors distinct microbial communities in various solar salterns that are arranged as interconnected ponds with increasing salt concentrations. Here, we report the metagenome of the 3.0- to 0.2-µm fraction of the microbial community present in a crystallizer pond with 34% salinity. PMID:25395641

Plominsky, Alvaro M.; Delherbe, Nathalie; Ugalde, Juan A.; Allen, Eric E.; Blanchet, Marine; Ikeda, Priscila; Santibañez, Francisco; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ulloa, Osvaldo; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; von Dassow, Peter; Astorga, Marcia; Gálvez, María Jesús; González, María Lorena; Henríquez-Castillo, Carlos; Vaulot, Daniel; Lopes do Santos, Adriana; van den Engh, Gerrit; Gimpel, Carla; Bertoglio, Florencia; Delgado, Yolaine; Docmac, Felipe; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Narváez, Silvia; Sorroche, Fernando; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo

2014-01-01

372

A Pliocene mega-tsunami deposit and associated features in the Ranquil Formation, southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exceptionally large tsunami affected the coastline of southern Chile during the Pliocene. Its backflow eroded coarse beach and coastal dune sediments and redistributed them over the continental shelf and slope. Sandstone dykes and sills injected from the base of the resulting hyperconcentrated flow into underlying cohesive muds, assisted in plucking up large blocks of the latter and incorporating them

J. P. Le Roux; Sven N. Nielsen; Helga Kemnitz; Álvaro Henriquez

2008-01-01

373

Tidal modulation of continuous nonvolcanic seismic tremor in the Chile triple junction region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We located continuous seismic tremor with coherent amplitude wave trains in the Chile ridge subduction region (~46.5°S) in two clusters north and south of the Chonos Archipelago, between the Chile trench and the North Patagonian fore arc. Tremor persisted from December 2004 to February 2007 (the entire period of the Chile Ridge Subduction Project temporary seismic deployment), and lasted >17 h on six occasions. Tremor in the more active southern cluster reached a maximum duration of 48 h, and we observed no more than 3 continuous days without tremor activity. The cluster locations coincide with the surface projections of subducted transform faults formed at the Chile ridge. We also detected simultaneous, colocated low-frequency microearthquakes with well-defined impulsive waves within the tremor signals distributed from the surface to 40 km depth, suggesting tremors and earthquakes are part of the same process. The periodicity of tremor duration is strongly correlated with semidiurnal, diurnal, and long-period tides, M2, N2, K1, O1, P1, and Mm (12.421 h, 12.000 h, 23.934 h, 25.819 h, 24.066 h, and 27.555 days, respectively). We found a significant correlation between tremor occurrence and Earth tides when tidal stress is calculated for the slip plane of a right-lateral strike-slip fault with strike N95°E, which is near parallel to subducted transform faults (N78°E) of the Chile ridge, indicating that the very small stresses resulting from the combination of ocean loading and solid Earth tides (~1 kPa) are sufficient to facilitate or suppress tremor production; tremors occur when shear stresses are maximum and wane or are low when shear stresses are minimum.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

2013-04-01

374

Non-Volcanic Seismic Tremor in the Chile Triple Junction Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analyses of non-volcanic seismic tremor observed for the first time in South America. The episodic tremor signals were recorded at the Chile Ridge Subduction Project temporary seismic network, operated jointly by the University of Florida and the Universidad de Chile, Santiago. The network was deployed to study subduction of the Chile Ridge spreading center in the Chile Triple Junction region, and consists of 40 broadband and 20 short period seismometers distributed throughout the subduction forearc and the southern Andes to the Argentine border. The tremor signals appear as high frequency (1-20 Hz) ringing seismic signals, clearly above noise, which are observed on both vertical and horizontal sensor components for durations of up to 15 hours per episode. These signals' shapes and amplitude envelopes correlate among stations separated by 100's of km and persist for months. To date, we do not have enough data to determine tremor periodicity on the annual scale, but activity peaks and subsides monthly. We determined preliminary locations of these events using both travel-time correlations of the amplitude envelopes at groups of stations (Obara, 2002) and the recent source-scanning algorithm method of Kao and Shan (2004). Tremors are mainly produced in the forearc region to the north of the Chile Triple Junction, which currently lies just north of the Taitao Peninsula at around 46.5 S. These tremor events are similar to those observed recently along the southern Japan and Cascadia subduction zones, and may be caused by the release of fluids during slab dehydration processes, or they may be related to strike-slip on the nearby Liquine-Ofqui fault system.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V. I.; Murdie, R. E.

2006-12-01

375

The Evolution of Seabirds in the Humboldt Current: New Clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile  

PubMed Central

Background During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Principal Findings Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. Conclusion/Significance The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current. PMID:24621560

Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D.; Nielsen, Sven N.

2014-01-01

376

Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in size and is centered at 46.6 degrees south latitude, 73.8 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The top image is a digital elevation model of the scene, where color and saturation represent terrain height (between 0 meters and 2,000 meters or up to 6,500 feet) and brightness represents radar backscatter. Low elevations are shown in blue and high elevations are shown in pink. The digital elevation map of the glacier surface has a horizontal resolution of 15 meters (50 feet) and a vertical resolution of 10 meters (30 feet). High-resolution maps like these acquired over several years would allow scientists to calculate directly long-term changes in the mass of the glacier. The bottom image is a map of ice motion parallel to the radar look direction only, which is from the top of the image. Purple indicates ice motion away from the radar at more than 6 centimeters per day; dark blue is ice motion toward or away at less than 6 cm per day; light blue is motion toward the radar of 6 cm to 20 cm (about 2 to 8 inches) per day; green is motion toward the radar of 20 cm to 45 cm (about 8 to 18 inches) per day; yellow is 45 cm to 85 cm (about 18 to 33 inches) per day; orange is 85 cm to 180 cm (about 33 to 71 inches) per day; red is greater than 180 cm (71 inches) per day. The velocity estimates are accurate to within 5 millimeters per day. The largest velocities are recorded on the San Rafael Glacier in agreement with previous work. Other outlet glaciers exhibit ice velocities of less than 1 meter per day. Several kilometers before its terminus, (left of center) the velocity of the San Rafael Glacier exceeds 10 meters (32 feet) per day, and ice motion cannot be estimated from the data. There, a revisit time interval of less than 12 hours would have been necessary to estimate ice motion from interferometry data. The results however demonstrate that the radar interferometry technique permits the monitoring of glacier characteristics unattainable by any other means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's

1994-01-01

377

Is Anisakis simplex s.l. a biological marker for stock identification of Strangomera bentincki from Chile?  

PubMed

The absence of the larval Anisakis simplex s. l. in samples from central Chile but heavy infections in fish from southern localities suggest the existence of two stocks of Strangomera bentincki, one closely associated with the central coast of Chile (landing port San Antonio and Talcahuano, c. 33° 30' S-36° 40' S) and the other associated with southern Chile (landing port Puerto Montt, c. 41° 30' S). Results confirm the usefulness of metazoan parasites, like A. simplex s. l. as biological markers. PMID:23902315

Oliva, M E

2013-08-01

378

Spatial and temporal relationships between granites and porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chile is the leading copper producing country in the world, hosting ~30% of known worldwide copper reserves. Subduction-related magmatism in Chile has been ongoing since at least Mesozoic time, with progressive inland migration of the magmatic arc from the Jurassic coast eastward to the active western cordillera in the high Andes. Porphyry copper deposits (PCDs) in Chile are spatially and temporally related to emplacement of shallow, felsic to intermediate composition plutons that sourced the ore-forming magmas and mineralising fluids. However, not every such intrusion in Chile is associated with a mineralised deposit, suggesting that there are other controls on whether or not an intrusion hosts a PCD. Models for porphyry copper formation typically assume emplacement of these felsic to intermediate intrusions at shallow crustal levels (5-15 km depth) [1], but absolute constraints on emplacement depths for both mineralised and barren systems are lacking. In order to explore the relationship between granite emplacement depths and occurrences of PCDs in northern Chile, we have created a geospatial database that compares the age, geochemistry, and depth of mapped felsic to intermediate plutons (e.g. granites, tonalities, and diorites) with the locations of known PCDs, as well as major fault zones and volcanic centres. Emplacement depths have been calculated from published geochemical analyses using existing calibrations of the Al-in-hornblende barometer, which is widely used for calc-alkaline granitic rocks [2]. We are also developing a new experimental calibration of the barometer using a combination of piston cylinder experiments (5, 7, and 10 kbar), externally heated pressure vessel experiments (0.5-2 kbar), and electron microprobe analyses on a granitic sample of the Lluta batholith, collected in northern Chile. This improved Al-in-hornblende barometer, calibrated for shallow intrusions, will provide a viable alternative to estimating depths of PCD formation from fluid inclusions, which is often hampered by alternations between lithostatic and hydrostatic pressure. Furthermore, the results of this study will be broadly applicable to investigating the potential links between intrusion depth, PCD formation, and parameters such as regional tectonic patterns and fluid/melt interactions. References: [1] Sillitoe, 2010, Porphyry Copper Systems, Ec. Geol., 105, 3-41. [2] Anderson et al., 2008, Thermometers and Thermobarometers in Granitic Systems, Rev. Min. Geochem., 69, 121-142.

Jiskoot, Courtney; Mutch, Euan; Cooper, Frances; Tattitch, Brian; Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Blundy, Jon

2014-05-01

379

EL SISTEMA DE VOUCHERS EN LA EDUCACIÓN: UNA REVISIÓN DE LA TEORÍA Y LA EVIDENCIA EMPÍRICA PARA CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

En Chile el 90% de los niños cursa su educación básica y media en escuelas municipales o particulares financiadas parcial o totalmente con recursos públicos. Los recursos que reciben estas escuelas dependen del número de alumnos atendidos. Cada alumno es \\

Cristian Aedo; Claudio Sapelli

380

76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: December 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

2011-12-16

381

76 FR 18511 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Figs From Chile into the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh figs from Chile. DATES: Effective Date: April 4, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

2011-04-04

382

Estrogen pollution in a highly productive ecosystem off central-south Chile.  

PubMed

While the presence of steroid estrogens in the environment has become a major environmental and health concern, their occurrence in coastal sediments remains poorly characterized. In this study, we measured the levels of three natural (estrone, 17?-estradiol, estriol) and one synthetic (17?-ethinylestradiol) estrogens in 54 coastal sediment samples collected from nine locations off central-southern Chile. Steroid estrogens were found in every sample. Remarkably high levels of 17?-ethinylestradiol were detected, reaching up to 48.14 ng/g dry weight. As a result, the global estrogenic loads were estimated to be high at all sites. Interestingly, they were found to correlate with the size of human populations served by sewage plants. Our study indicates that 17?-ethinylestradiol may accumulate in coastal sediments. The possible impact of this highly potent synthetic estrogen on the biota of the marine ecosystem off central-south Chile and on human health remains an open question. PMID:21530984

Bertin, Angéline; Inostroza, Pedro A; Quiñones, Renato A

2011-07-01

383

[Isolation of Sporothrix pallida complex in clinical and environmental samples from Chile].  

PubMed

The isolation of S. pallida complex from medical samples and home garden soil of a patient in Chile is here in reported. Fungi of the Sporothrix schenckii complex can cause various infections. In Chile, the medical and environmental isolates of these this complex are rare. The aim of this study was to identify an unusual agent in a case of onychomycosis and to detect its presence in the patient's home garden. For this purpose, clinical samples were obtained by scraping the patient's subungueal first right toe nail as well as by taking soil samples from different areas of her home garden. Species identification was performed by morphophysiology and one of the strains isolated from the patient's toe nail was sent to CBS for molecular confirmation (14.062). S. pallida complex was identified both from the patient's toe nail and samples taken from her home garden. PMID:25576414

Cruz Choappa, Rodrigo M; Vieille Oyarzo, Peggy I; Carvajal Silva, Laura C

2014-01-01

384

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

385

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18°S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

386

Variability of cadmium, copper and zinc levels in molluscs and associated sediments from Chile.  

PubMed

The concentrations of cadmium, copper and zinc in mussel and sediment samples collected together from eight different geographical coastal areas of Chile were determined. The mussels studied were 'Chorito Maico', 'Almejas' and 'Navajuelas Chilenas' (Perumytilus purpuratus, Semelle solida and Tagellus dombeii, respectively). Sampling was carried out in July and September 1992 and January and April 1993 (winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons in Chile, respectively). The metal levels in these mussels varied among species; there were several sites where the metal concentrations in molluscs approached or exceeded the criteria levels for Cd, Cu and Zn in shellfish products: 1, 10 and 50 ppm ww respectively, which are regarded as safe levels for human consumption. The results of metal levels in sediments showed two areas clearly polluted with Cu. Strong relationships between Cu concentrations in the three molluscs and sediments were found; weak correlations were observed for Zn in S. solida. PMID:15091389

De Gregori, I; Pinochet, H; Gras, N; Muñoz, L

1996-01-01

387

Review of Coagulation Technology for Removal of Arsenic: Case of Chile  

PubMed Central

Coagulation technology has been used since 1970 in northern Chile for removing arsenic from drinking-water. This experience suggests that coagulation is an effective technology for the removal of arsenic. It is currently possible to reduce arsenic from 400 ?g/L to 10 ?g/L at a rate of 500 L/sec, assuming pH, oxidizing and coagulation agents are strictly controlled. The Chilean experience with the removal of arsenic demonstrates that the water matrix dictates the selection of the arsenic-removal process. This paper presents a summary of the process, concepts, and operational considerations for the use of coagulation technology for removal of arsenic in Chile. PMID:17366767

2006-01-01

388

A diverse assemblage of fossil hardwood from the Upper Tertiary (Miocene?) of the Arauco Peninsula, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicified woods of 10 dicotyledonous tree families of probably Miocene age from the Arauco Peninsula, central Chile are described and classified according to their anatomy. The diversity is surprisingly high, in that of the 19 samples analyzed, virtually every one could belong to a different species of tree or shrub. Almost all species document a damp climate, and most have related species living in the central zone of modern Chile. The samples were collected in a narrow zone on Punta El Fraile, west of the town of Arauco. The following families are based on woods from the Arauco Peninsula: Anacardiaceae, Boraginaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fagaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae, Monimiaceae, the first report of fossil Myristicaceae, Myrtaceae, and Proteaceae. Their diagenetic history is connected to tuffaceous material and calcareous concretions.

Schöning, Meike; Bandel, Klaus

2004-09-01

389

[Prevalence of hepatitis E virus antibodies in blood donors and other population groups in southern Chile].  

PubMed

Little is known about hepatitis E virus (HEV) prevalence in South American countries. Anti-HEV was studied in 1,773 subjects from 1,360 blood donors of 3 cities in Chile, 72 in health care workers, 241 inmates in state jails, and in 100 Araucanian indians. Anti-HEV was detected in 109 out of 1,360 (8.0%) total donors (6.3%, 6.1%, and 18.8% from the cities of Valdivia, Osorno and Puerto Montt respectively); 9 out of 72 (12.5%) health care workers; 18 out of 241 (7.5%) inmates, and 17 out of 100 (17%) Araucanian indians. Prevalence of anti-HEV was not related to age and sex. Hepatitis E is an endemic infection in some population groups of Southern Chile, associated to environmental pollution, crowding and low socioeconomic level. PMID:9460262

Ibarra, H; Riedemann, S; Reinhardt, G; Frieck, P; Siegel, F; Toledo, C; Calvo, M; Froösner, G

1997-03-01

390

La Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios: El caso de Chile y sus perspectivas para Trabajo Social  

PubMed Central

El estudio acerca de las características de los vecindarios y sus efectos sobre las personas ha llegado a ser un área de creciente atención por parte de investigadores de diversas disciplinas en países desarrollados. Aunque actualmente existen diversas metodologías para estudiar efectos del vecindario, una de las más utilizadas es la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios –Systematic Social Observation SSO, en inglés—porque permite recolectar información acerca de diversas características del entorno físico, social, ambiental y económico de los vecindarios donde se aplica. El objetivo de este artículo es (i) dar a conocer sumariamente algunas investigaciones influyentes sobre efectos del vecindario en Estados Unidos, ii) describir cómo se diseñó e implementó la Observación Sistemática de Vecindarios en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, iii) señalar algunos facilitadores y obstaculizadores de la implementación del proyecto y, finalmente iv) enunciar posibles contribuciones y limitaciones que esta metodología ofrecería al trabajo social en Chile. PMID:24791060

Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Castillo, Marcela

2012-01-01

391

Microbial Colonization of the Salt Deposits in the Driest Place of the Atacama Desert (Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Desert (Chile), one of the most arid places on Earth, shows hostile conditions for the development of epilithic microbial communities. In this study, we report the association of cyanobacteria ( Chroococcidiopsis sp.) and bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria and Beta-Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla inhabiting the near surface of salt (halite) deposits of the Salar Grande Basin, Atacama Desert (Chile). The halite deposits were investigated by using optical, confocal and field emission scanning electron microscopes, whereas culture-independent molecular techniques, 16S rDNA clone library, alongside RFLP analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were applied to investigate the bacterial diversity. These microbial communities are an example of life that has adapted to extreme environmental conditions caused by dryness, high irradiation, and metal concentrations. Their adaptation is, therefore, important in the investigation of the environmental conditions that might be expected for life outside of Earth.

Stivaletta, Nunzia; Barbieri, Roberto; Billi, Daniela

2012-06-01

392

Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a `logic of induction' has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical connection between the logic of induction and the mechanism of emulation, and the territorial aspects of educational inequalities. Emulation plays a main role inasmuch as the logic of induction leads targeted groups to compare their adverse situation with more privileged groups, which actually legitimizes inequalities. A brief statistical summary completes the study, showing that educational inequality has remained unchanged as far as urban-rural ratios (in Brazil and Chile) and regional disparities (in all three countries) are concerned.

Rambla, Xavier

2006-05-01

393

Bases para un desarrollo ganadero sostenible: la consideración de la producción animal desde una perspectiva sistémica y el estudio de la diversidad de las explotaciones  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. INTRODUCCIÓN La consideración de los sistemas de producción animal desde una perspectiva puramente económica y mecanicista, basada en rela- ciones causa-efecto, ha conducido en numerosas ocasiones a una falta de coordinación entre los distintos agentes implicados en la mejora de los sistemas de producción y el contexto socioeconómi- co. Esta circunstancia se ha traducido, por un lado, en que

EMMA SERRANO MARTÍNEZ; ÁNGEL RUIZ MANTECÓN

2003-01-01

394

Learning from social security reforms: Two different cases, Chile and Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares two of the most important structural reforms of social security in Latin America: the Chilean private fully funded system, and the public\\/private Argentinean “integrated” (pay-as-you-go\\/fully funded) program. Chile was the first country in the world to completely privatize the old public pension system. This landmark reform has had a strong influence on other pension reforms, not only

Fabio Bertranou

1997-01-01

395

Interseismic coupling, segmentation and mechanical behavior of the Central Chile subduction zone.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements carried out in Chile over the last two decades showed that an entire portion of the Nazca-South America subduction zone (38°S-24°S) was locked over this period of time. The induced accumulation of elastic deformation in the upper-plate was not released until the recent Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the southern part of this section. Locking or coupling between the two plates varies both with depth and along strike. Here we use our own GPS data (an updated solution of our extended network in central Chile), combined with other published data sets, to quantify the spatial variations of the coupling that prevailed before the Maule earthquake. Using a simple elastic model based on the back-slip assumption, we show that coupling variations on the subduction plane are sufficient to explain the observed surface deformation, with no need of a sliver in central Chile. We identify four segments characterized by higher coupling and separated by narrow areas of lower coupling. This segmentation is in good agreement with historical and recent seismicity in Chile. In particular, the La Serena Bay (30°S-28°S) where the locked zone vanishes is a stable boundary where historical events stopped. The Maule region that ruptured in feb. 27th of 2010 (Mw 8.8) from 38 S to 34 S, was characterized by a well developped fully locked zone that extents far indepth and narrows where the earthquake stopped propagating (San Antonio at 34°S and south of Arauco peninsula at 38°S). These narrow zones of lower coupling are often associated with irregular bathymetric or coastal features (fracture zones or peninsulas). Finally, coseismic and early post-seismic slip distribution of the Maule earthquake, occurring either in previously highly or weakly coupled zones, map a complex distribution of velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening patches on the subduction interface.

Métois, M.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.

2012-04-01

396

POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS OF VALDIVIA AND VALPARAÍSO, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

PAHs and PCBs were measured in the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck) collected from three different sites along the coast of Valdivia and Valparaiso, South-Central and Central Chile, respectively. Pollution at these sites is considered low with PAHs originating mainly from pyrolytic sources according to the Phenanthrene\\/Anthracene and Fluoranthene\\/Pyrene ratios. Temporal variation of PAHs was observed in Valdivia, while site variation

HERNÁN PALMA-FLEMING; CARLOS CORNEJO; MYRIAM GONZÁLEZ; VIVIANA PÉREZ; MARTA GONZÁLEZ; ELENA GUTIERREZ; JOSÉ LUIS SERICANO; MICHAEL SEEGER

2008-01-01

397

Multifractal analysis of three large earthquakes in Chile: Antofagasta 1995, Valparaiso 1985, and Maule 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multifractal analysis of seismicity of three large earthquakes in Chile is made: the Central Zone 1985 ( M W = 8.0), Antofagasta 1995 ( M W = 8.1), and Maule 2010 ( M W = 8.8) earthquakes. The analysis shows that the fractal dimension spectrum D q decreases with time before an earthquake. This fact suggests that the spatial distribution of seismic events could form a cluster before a main shock.

Pastén, Denisse; Comte, Diana

2014-10-01

398

Interseismic coupling, segmentation and mechanical behavior of the central Chile subduction zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements carried out in Chile over the last two decades showed that an entire portion of the Nazca-South America subduction zone (38°S - 24°S) was locked over this period of time. The induced accumulation of elastic deformation in the upper-plate was not released until the recent Maule earthquake of 27 February 2010 (Mw 8.8) that ruptured the southern part of this section. Locking or coupling between the two plates varies both with depth and along strike. Here we use our own GPS data (an updated solution of our extended network in central Chile), combined with other published data sets, to quantify the spatial variations of the coupling that prevailed before the Maule earthquake. Using a simple elastic model based on the back-slip assumption, we show that coupling variations on the subduction plane are sufficient to explain the observed surface deformation, with no need of a sliver in central Chile. We identify four segments characterized by higher coupling and separated by narrow areas of lower coupling. This segmentation is in good agreement with historical and recent seismicity in Chile. In particular the narrow zones of lower coupling seem to have stopped most large seismic ruptures, including Maule's. These zones are often associated with irregular bathymetric or coastal features (fracture zones or peninsulas). Finally, coseismic and early post-seismic slip distribution of the Maule earthquake, occurring either in previously highly or weakly coupled zones, map a complex distribution of velocity-weakening and velocity-strengthening patches on the subduction interface.

MéTois, M.; Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.

2012-03-01

399

Avian gut-passage effects on seed germination of shrubland species in Mediterranean central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of avian gut-passage on seed germination are important to assess the effectiveness of frugivores in woodland regeneration,\\u000a particularly in biodiversity hotspots that have a high incidence of avian frugivory. We examined the effect of avian gut-passage\\u000a on seed germination in contrast to seeds that remain uneaten in five shrub species in Mediterranean central Chile and sought\\u000a to determine the

Sharon ReidJuan; Juan J. Armesto

2011-01-01

400

Exotic Vertebrate Fauna in the Remote and Pristine SubAntarctic Cape Horn Archipelago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pristine wilderness is a scarce global resource, but exotic species are so common that they constitute a principal component\\u000a of worldwide ecological change. The relationship between these two topics, invasion and remoteness, was the impetus behind\\u000a five years of fieldwork aimed at identifying the assemblage and range of exotic vertebrates in Cape Horn, Chile, identified\\u000a as one of the world's

Christopher B. Anderson; Ricardo Rozzi; Juan C. Torres-Mura; Steven M. Mcgehee; Margaret F. Sherriffs; Elke Schüttler; Amy D. Rosemond

2006-01-01

401

Chronic Arsenic Exposure and Risk of Infant Mortality in Two Areas of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-1.9), neonatal mortality (RR = 1.53; CI, 1.4-1.7), and postneonatal mortality (RR = 1.26; CI, 1.2-1.3) after adjustment for location and calendar time. The findings from this investigation may support a role for arsenic exposure in increasing the risk of late fetal and infant mortality. Key words: arsenic, Chile, drinking water, infant mortality, neonatal death,

Claudia Hopenhayn-Rich; Steven R. Browning; Irva Hertz-Picciotto; Catterina Ferreccio; Cecilia Peralta; Herman Gibb

2000-01-01

402

Holocene rainfall variability in southern Chile: a marine record of latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical and clay mineral parameters of a high accumulation marine sediment core from the Chilean continental slope (41°S) provide a 7700 yr record of rainfall variability in southern Chile related to the position of the Southern Westerlies. We especially use the iron content, measured with a time-resolution of ca. 10 yr on average, of 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry dated marine sediments

Frank Lamy; Dierk Hebbeln; Ursula Röhl; Gerold Wefer

2001-01-01

403

Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in a Thioploca-dominated sediment off the coast of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental shelf sediments of the central Chile upwelling area are dominated by the presence of dense mats of the filamentous, sulfur-depositing bacterium Thioploca spp. We examined rates and pathways of S and methane cycling in these sediments along a transect from the Bay of Concepción to the continental slope. Sulfate reduction rates (170–4670 nmol cm?3 d?1) were equal to or

Timothy G. Ferdelman; Cindy Lee; Silvio Pantoja; Jens Harder; Brad M. Bebout; Henrik Fossing

1997-01-01

404

Seasonal Climatology of Hydrographic Conditions in the Upwelling Region Off Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 30 years of hydrographic data from the northern Chile (18 degreesS-24 degreesS) upwelling region are used to calculate the surface and subsurface seasonal climatology extending 400 km offshore. The data are interpolated to a grid with sufficient spatial resolution to preserve cross-shelf gradients and then presented as means within four seasons: austral winter (July-September), spring (October-December), summer (January-March), and

J. L. Blanco; Andrew Thomas; M.-E. Carr; P. T. Strub

2001-01-01

405

Miocene fossil hydrothermal system associated with a volcanic complex in the Andes of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cenozoic deposits in the Andes of central Chile have been affected by very low-grade burial metamorphism. At about 33°S in the Cuesta de Chacabuco area, approximately 53 km north of Santiago, two Oligocene and Miocene volcanic units form a ca. 1300-m-thick rock pile. The Miocene unit corresponds to a volcanic complex composed of two eroded stratovolcanoes. Secondary mineral assemblages in

Francisco Fuentes; Luis Aguirre; Mario Vergara; Leticia Valdebenito; Eugenia Fonseca

2004-01-01

406

Cu, Mn, and Ag mineralization in the Quebrada Marquesa Quadrangle, Chile: the Talcuna and Arqueros districts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Quebrada Marquesa Quadrangle in Chile exhibits a series of mineralizations comprising manto-type manganese and copper\\u000a deposits of Lower Cretaceous age, and copper and silver veins of Tertiary age. The deposits are hosted by volcanic and volcaniclastic\\u000a units of the Arqueros (Hauterivian-Barremian) and Quebrada Marquesa (Barremian-Albian) Formations. Three episodes of manganese\\u000a mineralization (Mn1-3) are recognized within the study area. Hydrothermal

R. Oyarzun; L. Ortega; J. Sierra; R. Lunar; J. Oyarzun

1998-01-01

407

Enigmatic clastogenic rhyolitic volcanism: The Corral de Coquena spatter ring, North Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the unusual occurrence of the products of lava fountaining in a Pliocene calc-alkaline rhyolitic monogenetic center from northern Chile. Corral de Coquena is a discontinuous ring of lava located in the moat of La Pacana caldera (23°27' S, 67°23.5' W), part of the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex of the Central Andes. The volcanic structure is composed of a

Stephen Self; Shanaka L. de Silva; Joaquín A. Cortés

2008-01-01

408

Fluid geochemistry of hydrothermal systems in the Arica-Parinacota, Tarapacá and Antofagasta regions (northern Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the chemical and isotopic composition of water and gas thermal discharges from six hydrothermal systems in the Tarapacà and Antofagasta regions (northern Chile): Surire, Puchuldiza-Tuja, Pampa Lirima, Pampa Apacheta, El Tatio and Torta de Tocorpuri, to determine the chemical–physical conditions at the fluid source. The chemical facies of the thermal discharges vary from Na+–Cl? (El Tatio, Puchuldiza-Tuja and

F. Tassi; F. Aguilera; T. Darrah; O. Vaselli; B. Capaccioni; R. J. Poreda; A. Delgado Huertas

2010-01-01

409

Arsenic enrichment in waters and sediments of the Rio Loa (Second Region, Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Second Region of Chile (126,500 km2) is extremely arid, with a dramatic scarcity of water. The only water resource for the population (about 420,000 habitants) and the mining industry (the most important economic activity in the region) is the 440 km long Rio Loa. Moreover, this is highly enriched in As. In order to assess As concentrations and sources,

L. Romero; H. Alonso; P. Campano; L. Fanfani; R. Cidu; C. Dadea; T. Keegan; I. Thornton; M. Farago

2003-01-01

410

Simulations of tephra dispersal from the 1991 explosive eruptions of Hudson volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1991 explosive eruptions of Hudson volcano in southern Chile produced 2.7km3 (dense rock equivalent) of basalt and trachyandesite tephra during the period August 8–15. The initial basaltic phase (phase I, August 8–9) produced a maximum column height of 12km above sea level (ASL) and tephra fallout was directed to the north and northeast by the prevailing winds. The paroxysmal

David J. Kratzmann; Steven N. Carey; Julie Fero; Roberto A. Scasso; Jose-Antonio Naranjo

2010-01-01

411

The hot spring and geyser sinters of El Tatio, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The siliceous sinter deposits of El Tatio geothermal field in northern Chile have been examined petrographically and mineralogically. These sinters consist of amorphous silica (opal-A) deposited around hot springs and geysers from nearly neutral, silica-saturated, sodium chloride waters. Water cooling and evaporation to dryness are the main processes that control the opal-A deposition in both subaqueous and subaerial settings, in

J. L. Fernandez-Turiel; M. Garcia-Valles; D. Gimeno-Torrente; J. Saavedra-Alonso; S. Martinez-Manent

2005-01-01

412

Almerio B. Franca Petrobras-E&P-BC, Av. Chile 65, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil  

E-print Network

AUTHORS Alme´rio B. Franc¸a Petrobra´s-E&P-BC, Av. Chile 65, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brazil Alme´rio B. Franc¸a received his B.S. degree in geology from the Universidade de Brasi´lia, Brazil in 1974 and his of glacially influenced deposits in the Gondwana of the Parana´ basin, southern Brazil. He joined Petrobra

Maynard, J. Barry

413

Two new species of the ladybird beetle Hong ?lipi?ski from Chile (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Microweiseinae).  

PubMed

The ladybird beetle genus Hong ?lipi?ski was previously known from a single female specimen from a subtropical forest in South East Queensland, Australia. Hong guerreroi sp. nov. and H. slipinskii sp. nov. from a temperate forests of Central and Southern Chile are described and illustrated. A key for the species of the genus and complementary characters, including the first description of males, are provided. PMID:24758818

González, Guillermo; Escalona, Hermes E

2013-01-01

414

Natural Resource Conservation and Technical Efficiency from Small-scale Farmers in Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates a stochastic production frontier to measure technical efficiency (TE) using farm-level survey data for a random sample of small-scale farmers in Central Chile. Socioeconomic and productive information was collected in season 2005\\/06 through a survey of 319 farmers in the Province of Linares. An important issue in the paper is the effect of adoption of soil and

Roberto Jara-Rojas; Boris E. Bravo-Ureta; Victor H. Moreira; Jose Diaz

2012-01-01

415

3Component Reflection Seismic Survey Across the Seismogenic Coupling Zone in Chile (Project TIPTEQ)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TIPTEQ project (from The Incoming Plate to mega-Thrust EarthQuake processes) studies processes which generate mega-thrust earthquakes at convergent plate margins, with the Chilean subduction zone as natural laboratory. The seismogenic coupling zones at convergent margin plate interfaces harbour some 90% of the global seismicity, and in the case of Chile, the hypocenter of the largest historically recorded earthquake in

U. Micksch; K. Gross; S. Buske; C. M. Krawczyk; M. Stiller; P. Wigger; M. Araneda; K. Bataille; J. Bribach; S. Lüth; J. Mechie; A. Schulze; S. A. Shapiro; T. Ziegenhagen

2005-01-01

416

The Record of Giant Earthquakes in the Sediments of Lago Villarrica (South-Central Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

South-Central Chile is located where the oceanic Nazca plate actively subducts underneath the continental South American plate. This subduction zone has ruptured in great destructive earthquakes with variable magnitude during historical times, with as tragic highlight the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, which accounts for the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake worldwide (Moment Magnitude: 9.5). Damage from severe ground-shaking was reported from up

J. Moernaut; M. de Batist; M. Pino; R. Brümmer

2008-01-01

417

Slip distribution of the 1960 Chile earthquake using a FEM with precise geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1960 Chile earthquake (Mw=9.5) is the largest recorded seismic event. It caused a ~950-km-long rupture between the subducting Nazca plate and the South American continent. Ongoing postseismic mantle relaxation, interseismic strain accumulation, motion of a forearc sliver, and block rotation controlled by crustal faults have been documented in the vicinity of the earthquake rupture zone. A variable slip distribution

M. S. Moreno; J. Bolte; J. Klotz; D. Melnick; K. Bataille

2009-01-01

418

Non-ENSO interannual rainfall variability in central Chile during austral winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first principal component (PC1) of seasonal rainfall anomalies in central Chile during winter (June–August) is used to\\u000a analyze the circulation anomalies related to wet and dry conditions, when near-normal or neutral SST anomalies are observed\\u000a in the equatorial Pacific, i.e., during non-ENSO conditions. Eight wet and eight dry winter seasons were defined as the upper\\u000a and lower terciles of

Aldo Montecinos; Michael V. Kurgansky; Cristian Muñoz; Ken Takahashi

419

Linking forest structure and composition: avian diversity in successional forests of Chiloé Island, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how Chilean forest bird species richness, abundance and guild structure changes as a function of structural properties of forest stands. We surveyed bird assemblages in two old-growth (>200 years), two mid-successional (30–60 years), and two early-successional forest stands (4–20 years), from November 1999 to September 2000, on Chiloé Island, southern Chile (42°S). Birds were grouped into four habitat-use

Iván A. Díaz; Juan J. Armesto; Sharon Reid; Kathryn E. Sieving; Mary F. Willson

2005-01-01

420

Linking forest structure and composition: avian diversity in successional forests of ChiloeIsland, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how Chilean forest bird species richness, abundance and guild structure changes as a function of structural properties of forest stands. We surveyed bird assemblages in two old-growth (>200 years), two mid-successional (30-60 years), and two early-suc- cessional forest stands (4-20 years), from November 1999 to September 2000, on ChiloeIsland, southern Chile (42S). Birds were grouped into four habitat-use

Ivan A. Di; Juan J. Armesto; Sharon Reid; Kathryn E. Sieving; Mary F. Willson

421

Iodine-129, iodine-127 and caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile.  

PubMed

Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (41×1.5(±1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (109×1.5(±1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27°S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs. PMID:22484471

Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V

2012-10-01

422

Reproductive biology of Wahlenbergia (Campanulaceae) endemic to Robinson Crusoe Island (Chile)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive biology ofW. berteroi, W. fernandeziana, and a putative hybrid betweenW. fernandeziana andW. grahamiae, endemic to Robinson Crusoe Island (Juan Fernández archipelago, Chile) was studied. Flowers are hermaphroditic, protandrous, offer nectar, and exhibit secondary pollen presentation involving pollen collecting hairs on the style. These features imply allogamy and biotic pollination. However, male and female phases overlap and no effective

G. J. Anderson; G. Bernardello; P. S. Lopez; D. J. Crawford; T. F. Stuessy

2000-01-01

423

Exposure of neonates to ochratoxin A: first biomonitoring results in human milk (colostrum) from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and its metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OT?) were determined in milk and blood from nine lactating\\u000a women who provided samples soon after delivery at a hospital in southern Chile. The analytical method applied liquid–liquid\\u000a extraction with chloroform, and in the case of blood, an extra purification with solid phase extraction prior to HPLC analysis\\u000a with fluorescence

Katherine Muñoz; Victor Campos; Meinolf Blaszkewicz; Mario Vega; Alejandro Alvarez; Jorge Neira; Gisela H. Degen

2010-01-01

424

Seed germination in temperate rain forest species of southern Chile: chilling and gap-dependency germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canopy gap and chilling requirements for seed germination were assessed in 61 and 44 species, respectively, in the temperate\\u000a rain forest of southern Chile. Germination assays within canopy gap and understorey were carried out under natural conditions.\\u000a Germination tests in cold stratified and non-stratified seeds were performed under laboratory conditions. Seeds were collected\\u000a of common trees, shrubs, vines and perennial

Javier A. Figueroa

2003-01-01

425

Petrogenesis of axial lavas from the southern Chile Ridge: Major element constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present major element glass data for 163 rock samples collected from four ridge segments of the southern Chile Ridge between the Chiloe Fracture Zone and the Chile Margin Triple Junction, including the segment currently being subducted at the Chile Trench (segment 1). The subridge mantle is heterogeneous at small spatial scales. Normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB), recovered from all four ridge segments, have experienced variable extents of low pressure fractionation but have been generated by relatively uniform extents (F) and initial pressures (Po) of melting of a slightly heterogeneous depleted source. Type 1 E-MORB, found only on segment 4, have trace element affinities to some ocean island basalts, display a large range of major element variations at constant and high MgO, and are spatially associated with N-MORB. Type 2 E-MORB have trace element affinities with suprasubduction zone settings. They are found at two segment 1 sites and along most of segment 3. In order to minimize fractionation and source heterogeneity effects and assess melting conditions, E-MORB compositions were double-backtracked to 8 wt % MgO and a K/Ti ratio of 0.1. Although the magnitudes of F and Po are model-dependent, we find that N-MORB and both types of E-MORB were generated under similar melting conditions. These observations indicate that spreading rate and mantle temperature exert primary control on the southern Chile Ridge thermal regime. We see no influence of ridge subduction on the major element systematics and melting conditions of segments closest to the trench.

Sherman, Sarah B.; Karsten, Jill L.; Klein, Emily M.

1997-07-01

426

Development of a biofertilizer based on filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria for rice crops in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a biofertilizer based on filamentous nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria selected from\\u000a rice fields and to generate a technological package compatible with its use for the rice crop in Chile. Thirty-four Chilean\\u000a rice fields, located between Maule and BioBío regions, were sampled during the 1998\\/1999 and 1999\\/2000 growing seasons. A\\u000a total of 9 species and

Iris Pereira; Rodrigo Ortega; Leticia Barrientos; Mario Moya; Guissella Reyes; Victor Kramm

2009-01-01

427

Spatial distribution of guanaco mating sites in southern Chile: conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distribution, habitat characteristics and conservation value of mating areas in a wild population of guanacos in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Copulating guanacos were observed directly during December–January 1994–1995, 1995–1996 and 1997–1998. The timing of the breeding season was homogeneous across years. Copulation sites occurred in vega (ephemeral wetland) habitats (48.6%) greater than expected based on

Michael S. Bank; Ronald J. Sarno; William L. Franklin

2003-01-01

428

Morphology of San Antonio submarine canyon on the central Chile forearc  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multibeam survey was conducted over San Antonio submarine canyon, near Valparaiso, Chile, in April and May 1993 using the SeaBeam 2000 system on the R\\/V Melville. The bathymetric data from this survey reveal a canyon with an overall sinuosity of 1.25, a broad, roughly U-shaped cross-section along most of its length, and an almost constant channel slope above the

Rick A. Hagen; Hernán Vergara; David F. Naar

1996-01-01

429

Study of the structure changes caused by earthquakes in Chile applying the lineament analysis to the Aster (Terra) satellite data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is one of the most seismically and volcanically active regions in the South America due to a constant subdiction of the South American plate, converging with the Nazca plate in the extreme North of Chile. Four events, namely: the Ovalle earthquake of Juny 18, 2003, M=6.3, with epicenter localized at (-30:49:33, -71:18:53), the Calama earthquake of Junly 19, 2001,

A. Arellano-Baeza; A. Zverev; V. Malinnikov

2004-01-01

430

Remotely triggered microearthquakes and tremor in central California following the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine remotely triggered microearthquakes and tectonic tremor in central California following the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake. Several microearthquakes near the Coso Geothermal Field were apparently triggered, with the largest earthquake (Ml 3.5) occurring during the large-amplitude Love surface waves. The Chile mainshock also triggered numerous tremor bursts near the Parkfield-Cholame section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF). The

Zhigang Peng; David P. Hill; David R. Shelly; Chastity Aiken

2010-01-01

431

The impact of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) program on radiation and tissue banking in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tissue Banking Project in Chile started as an idea in 1996. Before 1996 in Chile there were only a few small bone banks\\u000a working with their own standards of quality. The first tissue bank (LPTR) was established in 1998, with the technical and\\u000a financial support of the IAEA. Since 2001, the laboratory began to produce tissues for clinical use,

Paulina Aguirre Herrera; Jorge Morales Pedraza

2009-01-01

432

Ecology and Geography of Transmission of Two Bat-Borne Rabies Lineages in Chile  

PubMed Central

Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985–2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances. PMID:24349592

Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Pons, Daniel J.; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2013-01-01

433

Streamflow Trend in Three Watersheds of a Mediterranean Mountain Region in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Region of Valparaiso, Chile is one of the many semiarid mountainous regions of the world that will be impacted by water availability for future development. Located in a transition zone between arid and more humid conditions in Central Chile, this area is sensitive to desertification. Under a Mediterranean climate, hydrological processes in Valparaiso watersheds are highly variable seasonally. Seasonal variability of streamflow and precipitation are the main characteristics of the hydrological processes of the region. The presence of Los Andes modified somewhat this variability, which at present time ensures a continuous flow of water for irrigation, domestic and industrial uses because dry summers are offset by snowmelt. In our work, statistical analysis of three separate watersheds in Valparaiso was undertaken to understand precipitation trends in the last sixty years by comparing discharge values in transects from arid to more humid conditions. Although similarities at a regional scale are present, statistically significant differences in discharge associated with hypsometric parameters were found. Slight differences in the local scale climate, extension of glaciers, historical presence of productive activities and geomorphological variables could explain this response but not allow final conclusions about trends observed from the decade of 1950s to the present. But, these differences allow the identification of spatial patterns associated with the varying geomorphology of the watersheds. Thus, we developed a watershed classification scheme based on aerial photography and ground checking to improve future modeling of hydrological response in similar watersheds in Central Chile.

Chamorro Lopez, A. O.; Giardino, J. R.; Vitek, J. D.; High Alpine; Arctic Research Program

2011-12-01

434

Spatial and temporal trends of bat-borne rabies in Chile.  

PubMed

SUMMARY In Chile, while dog rabies has decreased markedly over the last 30 years, bat rabies is still reported frequently. In order to shed new light on the spatiotemporal trends of these reports, we analysed active and passive data from years 1985 and 2012, which included 61 076 samples from 289 counties of Chile. We found that from 1994 to 2012, more than 15 000 bat samples were submitted for diagnostics through passive surveillance, 9·5% of which tested positive for rabies. By contrast, the prevalence of infection was only ~0·4% among the nearly 12 000 bat samples submitted through active surveillance. We found that the prevalence of dog rabies dropped steadily over the same period, with just a single confirmed case since 1998. None of the 928 samples from wild animals, other than bats, were positive for rabies. Although there has been only one confirmed case of human rabies in Chile since 1985, and a single confirmed case in a dog since 1998, bats remain a reservoir for rabies viruses. While active surveillance indicates that rabies prevalence is low in bat colonies, the high proportion of positive bats submitted through passive surveillance is a concern. To prevent human rabies, local public health agencies should increase research on the basic ecology of bats and the role of stray dogs and cats as potential rabies amplifiers. PMID:25166219

Escobar, L E; Restif, O; Yung, V; Favi, M; Pons, D J; Medina-Vogel, G

2014-08-28

435

The COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES): Probing HI Across Cosmic Time  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen (HI) is the most abundant element in the Universe, and surprisingly, we know very little about the neutral hydrogen beyond z~0.08. The recently upgraded VLA makes it now possible to image the HI in galaxies beyond the local Universe. We are using the broad bandwidth of the VLA to instantaneously probe HI from z=0 to z=0.5 in one pointing of the COSMOS field. Once CHILES is complete, we will have HI images of 300 galaxies across cosmic time in different environments. These images will have a spatial resolution of 0.5 kpc for nearby galaxies and 30 kpc at z~0.5, and a velocity resolution of 7 km/s. In preparation for CHILES, we carried out a pilot study that observed the same pointing out to z~0.2, and detected HI in 33 galaxies in our volume. I will describe the science goals of CHILES, what we learned from the pilot study, and present preliminary results for the first 200 hours of observations of the full survey. After 1002 hours of integration time, we will have high-resolution HI images that will help us understand galaxy evolution across cosmic time and test predictions made by cosmological simulations.

Fernandez, Ximena; van Gorkom, Jacqueline H.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Chiles Team

2015-01-01

436

Rise and fall of pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O3:K6 in southern Chile.  

PubMed

Seafood consumption-related diarrhoea increased drastically in Chile when the pandemic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus serotype O3:K6 reached Region de Los Lagos, where most of Chile's seafood is produced. Outbreaks peaked in 2005 with 3725 clinical cases in this region and gradually decreased to fewer than 10 cases in 2010 and 2011. We show here that the pandemic strain concurrently vanished from mussels; we also report further environmental data. Integration of the 2010/2011 data with those obtained since 2004 suggests that after its arrival in southern Chile, the pandemic strain grew in mussels, likely facilitated by a minor rise in surface seawater temperature and by warming of the mussels in the intertidal region due to frequent sunny days. However, since these environmental parameters probably equally affected the pandemic strain and more than 30 V.?parahaemolyticus DNA restriction clusters that inhabit local shellfish, a selective effect of bacteriophages is proposed. Lytic bacteriophage VP93 may have favoured the growth of the pandemic strain versus similar phage-sensitive strains, as shown here in a particular case. However, the pandemic strain's decline may have been promoted by temperate phage VP58.5, which kills the pandemic strain and increases the UV sensitivity of lysogenized phage-resistant cells. PMID:23051148

García, Katherine; Bastías, Roberto; Higuera, Gastón; Torres, Rafael; Mellado, Alex; Uribe, Paulina; Espejo, Romilio T

2013-02-01

437

Deconvolving Ocean Drilling Program temperature logging tool data to improve borehole temperature estimates: Chile Triple Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a technique for correcting borehole fluid temperature observations made by the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) with the Lamont temperature logging tool (TLT), for the effects of the slow temperature response of one of its sensors. TLT data have been recorded in many ODP boreholes, but, perhaps partly because of tool response effects, the data have only rarely been used. It has been shown that a continuous temperature log is the convolution of a tool response function and the temperature history experienced by the tool. We use temperature data from ODP Leg 141 to estimate the tool response function of the TLT. We then use Wiener filter theory to design a decon volution operator to remove the effect of the tool response from the recorded data. We apply the deconvolution operator to the data from Leg 141, assess the effectiveness of the deconvolution technique, and extrapolate the resulting borehole fluid temperatures to estimate the equilibrium geotherm at the two sites considered. The geothermal gradient in the accretionary wedge near the Chile Triple Junction increases with depth. This suggests that the thermal environment is not steady state, that fluid flow is transporting heat, or, most likely, both. The average heat flow in the accretionary wedge near the Chile Triple Junction is higher over the subducting Chile Ridge axis than over subducting young oceanic crust near the ridge axis.

Sawyer, Dale S.; Bangs, Nathan L.; Golovchenko, Xenia

1994-06-01

438

Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

2009-01-01

439

Health care privatization in latin america: comparing divergent privatization approaches in chile, Colombia, and Mexico.  

PubMed

The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. PMID:24842976

Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Méndez, Claudio A

2014-08-01

440

White rot Basidiomycetes isolated from Chiloé National Park in Los Lagos region, Chile.  

PubMed

Wood decomposition is an important component in forest ecosystems but information about the diversity of fungi causing decay is lacking. This is especially true for the temperate rain forests in Chile. These investigations show results of a biodiversity study of white-rot fungi in wood obtained from Chiloé National Park in Los Lagos region, Chile. Culturing from white-rotted wood followed by sequencing of the complete internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) or partial large subunit region of the rDNA, identified 12 different species in the Basidiomycota. All of these fungi were characterized as white rot fungi and were identified with a BLAST match of 97 % or greater to sequences in the GenBank database. Fungi obtained were species of Phlebia, Mycoacia, Hyphodontia, Bjerkandera, Phanerochaete, Stereum, Trametes, and Ceriporiopsis. This report identifies for the first time in Chile the species Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, Hyphodontia radula, Phlebia radiata, Phanerochaete affinis, Peniophora cinerea, Stereum gausapatum, Phlebia setulosa and Phanerochaete sordida. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the type of decay caused by the fungi that were isolated and a combination of selective lignin degraders and simultaneous white rot fungi were found. Fungi that cause a selective degradation of lignin are of interest for bioprocessing technologies that require modification or degradation of lignin without cellulose removal. PMID:24068453

Ortiz, Rodrigo; Navarrete, José; Oviedo, Claudia; Párraga, Mario; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Blanchette, Robert A

2013-12-01

441

Implementing an Education and Outreach Program for the Gemini Observatory in Chile.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in 2001, the Gemini Observatory began the development of an innovative and aggressive education and outreach program at its Southern Hemisphere site in northern Chile. A principal focus of this effort is centered on local education and outreach to communities surrounding the observatory and its base facility in La Serena Chile. Programs are now established with local schools using two portable StarLab planetaria, an internet-based teacher exchange called StarTeachers and multiple partnerships with local educational institutions. Other elements include a CD-ROM-based virtual tour that allows students, teachers and the public to experience the observatory's sites in Chile and Hawaii. This virtual environment allows interaction using a variety of immersive scenarios such as a simulated observation using real data from Gemini. Pilot projects like "Live from Gemini" are currently being developed which use internet videoconferencing technologies to bring the observatory's facilities into classrooms at universities and remote institutions. Lessons learned from the implementation of these and other programs will be introduced and the challenges of developing educational programming in a developing country will be shared.

Garcia, M. A.

2006-08-01

442

Ecology and geography of transmission of two bat-borne rabies lineages in Chile.  

PubMed

Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985-2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances. PMID:24349592

Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Verónica; Pons, Daniel J; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2013-01-01

443

Evaluation of an integrated system for classification, assessment and comparison of services for long-term care in Europe: the eDESDE-LTC study  

PubMed Central

Background The harmonization of European health systems brings with it a need for tools to allow the standardized collection of information about medical care. A common coding system and standards for the description of services are needed to allow local data to be incorporated into evidence-informed policy, and to permit equity and mobility to be assessed. The aim of this project has been to design such a classification and a related tool for the coding of services for Long Term Care (DESDE-LTC), based on the European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS). Methods The development of DESDE-LTC followed an iterative process using nominal groups in 6 European countries. 54 researchers and stakeholders in health and social services contributed to this process. In order to classify services, we use the minimal organization unit or “Basic Stable Input of Care” (BSIC), coded by its principal function or “Main Type of Care” (MTC). The evaluation of the tool included an analysis of feasibility, consistency, ontology, inter-rater reliability, Boolean Factor Analysis, and a preliminary impact analysis (screening, scoping and appraisal). Results DESDE-LTC includes an alpha-numerical coding system, a glossary and an assessment instrument for mapping and counting LTC. It shows high feasibility, consistency, inter-rater reliability and face, content and construct validity. DESDE-LTC is ontologically consistent. It is regarded by experts as useful and relevant for evidence-informed decision making. Conclusion DESDE-LTC contributes to establishing a common terminology, taxonomy and coding of LTC services in a European context, and a standard procedure for data collection and international comparison. PMID:23768163

2013-01-01

444

The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepción, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehuín in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa María, Juan Fernández Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitución and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Tsunami propagation in the Pacific Ocean is simulated using the benchmarked tsunami model MOST (Titov and Gonzalez, 1997; Titov and Synolakis, 1998). For initial conditions the inversion model of Lorito et al. (2011) is utilized. The model results highlight the directivity of the highest tsunami waves towards Juan Fernández and Easter Island during the transoceanic propagation. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

2011-12-01

445

[Human hydatidosis in Chile. Seroprevalence and estimate of the number of infected people].  

PubMed

Chile is located in the southwestern border of South America. The country is 4,329 km long and 96-342 wide. From north to south it is divided into five marked different biogeographical zones: deserts, steppes, bushes, forests (cattle raising) and austral (sheep raising). Population (June 1999) 15,017,760 (14.6% rural). Human hydatidosis is endemic in Chile. According to Ministry of Health information about 320 cases are registered each year. In order to find out the likely prevalence of human hydatidosis in Chile, a series of serosurveys was carried out in 1988-1997 throughout the total country. By using the indirect hemagglutination reaction and ELISA for hydatidosis (tests with good sensibility and specificity) 60,790 unselected apparently healthy persons: 41,399 from urban areas (16,428 blood donors, 13,894 delivering mothers and 11,077 middle grade schoolchildren) and 19,361 from rural areas--from randomly selected family groupings--were studied. A total individuals 82 (136/100,000) resulted positive: 36 (87/100,000) urban and 46 (241/100,000) rural, being the prevalence higher in rural areas, particularly in the southern austral zone (mean 1068/100,00). These figures agree with those observed in clinical epidemiological studies. In conformity with the present results, in the whole country 17,002 individuals should have hydatidosis: 10,318 urban and 6,784 rural. All these possible infected people, not necessarily should present pathology in the future, as it has been observed in autopsies from unselected individuals, performed at the Medico-Legal Service in Santiago, in whom 71.3% of diagnosed hydatosis with hydatid cysts in many different locations, was an autopsy finding. PMID:10883493

Schenone, H; Contreras, M C; Salinas, P; Sandoval, L; Saavedra, T; Rojas, A

1999-01-01

446

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Summer Student Programs in La Serena, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) offers positions for U.S. and Chilean student interns during the Chilean summer months of January-March (northern winter semester) at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. CTIO is part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) of the United States, focused on the development of astronomy in the southern hemisphere. Six undergraduate research assistantships are offered for U.S. physics and astronomy undergraduate students through the NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The CTIO-funded Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía (PIA) program is run concurrently with the REU program, and offers two research assistantships for Chilean undergraduate or 1st or 2nd year masters students, also at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. The CTIO REU and PIA programs provide exceptional opportunities for students considering a career in astronomy to engage in substantive research activities with scientists working at the forefront of contemporary astrophysics. Student participants work on specific research projects in close collaboration with members of the CTIO scientific and technical staff, such as galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing, supernovae, planetary nebulae, stellar populations, star clusters, star formation, variable stars and interstellar medium. The CTIO REU and PIA programs emphasize observational techniques and provide opportunities for direct observational experience using CTIO's state-of-the-art telescopes and instrumentation. The programs run for 10 weeks, from mid-January to the end of March. A two-night observing run on Cerro Tololo and a field trip to another observatory in Chile are included for students of both programs. These positions are full time, and those selected will receive a modest stipend and subsidized housing on the grounds of the offices of CTIO in La Serena, as well as travel costs to and from La Serena. In addition, the students have the opportunity attend the American Astronomical Society (AAS) winter meeting to present their research the year following the program.

Kaleida, Catherine C.; Smith, C.; Van Der Bliek, N. S.; James, D.

2014-01-01

447

Seismic Noise Tomography in the Chile Ridge Subduction Region, Northern Patagonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used cross-correlation of ambient seismic noise recorded in the Chile Triple Juntion (CTJ) region to estimate interstation surface wave time-domain Green's functions and to invert resulting travel times for crustal shear wave velocity. Data were recorded at the Chile Ridge Subduction Project temporary network of 39 broadband sensors deployed in the CTJ region by the Universidad de Chile, Santiago, and the University of Florida, from December 2004 to February 2007. Interstation distances ranged from 40 to around 100 km. We selected 30 days with low earthquake activity, and cross-correlated and stacked 24 hours of vertical component data at 34 stations pairs, resulting in nominally 1,122 travel-times along assumed-straight interstation paths. Velocities in two-dimensional cells of 20 km N-S by 30 km E-W extent were calculated using the method of Tarantola (1987). The process was applied to cross correlation pairs determined in three frequency bands, 0.1- 0.2 Hz, corresponding to shallow crustal velocities down to 15 km depth, 0.05 - 0.1 Hz, for velocities down to 30 km, and 0.01 - 0.05 Hz for deeper velocities. Our results show that cell velocities correlate well with known geologic features. We find high crustal velocities where the Patagonian Batholith outcrops or is likely present at depth, and low velocities correlate with the active volcanic arc of the Southern Volcanic Zone (e.g., Volcan Hudson, Volcan Cay). Slow velocities also correlate with well developed sedimentary basins and for the highest frequencies, the glaciers of the Northern Ice Field. A very high velocity anomaly in the southern Andes portion of the study area appears to correlate with outcropping metamorphic rocks and plutonic intrusions.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V.; Vandecar, J.

2008-12-01

448

Stakeholder participation within the public environmental system in Chile: major gaps between theory and practice.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. PMID:21641109

Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Señoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rötting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzún, Ricardo

2011-10-01

449

Subduction Processes Off Chile: Preliminary Geophysical Results of Sonne Cruise So-161(2+3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the scope of the multi-disciplinary SPOC project (Subduction Processes Off Chile) some 8.700 km were recently acquired using marine magnetic, gravity and swath bathymetric methods whereof 5.200 km were surveyed with multi-channel seismics, including three seismic lines with simultaneous onshore observations. The goal of the project is to identify the variety of subduction features and accompanying conditions along the Central Chile segment of the collision zone between the Nazca and S-American plates, i.e. between Coquimbo and Valdivia. An additional line was achieved just south of Chiloe Island entering the submerged Central Valley. The present status of data allows the following observations: the oceanic crust is seg- mented by features like the Juan Fernandez Ridge, the Mocha and Valdivia Fracture Zones, accumulations of seamounts and by distinct parallel fault patterns with various azimuths. From north to south the subduction-induced inclination of the oceanic crust toward the trench decreases while the trench proper widens and the margin slope an- gle increase significantly. In the north clearly extensional normal faulting occurs on the upper and middle slopes, very similar to that observed off North Chile where sub- duction erosion is active. While in the north no bottom simulating reflectors could be observed they occur in the south as local patches. The slope area in the south is over- printed by a faint lineation pattern with a dominant azimuth of some 120 degrees that neatly fits with a mapped pattern onshore with the same azimuth. The pronounced forearc basins in the south are often accompanied by outer arc highs and strikingly narrow accretionary wedges. The latter are in contrast with the high convergence rate of more than 8 cm/yr and the relatively thick trench filling of up to more than 2.000 m. Thus, a non-accretionary subduction type is suggested, here.

Reichert, Chr.; Spoc Scientific Shipboard Party, The

450

CHILES Con Pol: Probing galaxy evolution, the dark Universe, and cosmic magnetism with a deep 1000 hour Jansky VLA survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently started a 1000 hour campaign to observe 0.2 square degrees of the COSMOS field in full polarization continuum at 1.4 GHz with the Jansky VLA, as part of a joint program with the spectral line COSMOS HI Large Extragalactic Survey (CHILES). When complete, we expect our CHILES Continuum Polarization (CHILES Con Pol) survey to reach an unprecedented SKA-era sensitivity of 0.7 uJy per 4 arcsecond FWHM beam. Here we present the key goals of CHILES Con Pol, which are to (i) produce a source catalog of legacy value to the astronomical community, (ii) measure differential source counts in total intensity, linear polarization, and circular polarization in order to constrain the redshift and luminosity distributions of source populations, (iii) perform a novel weak lensing study using radio polarization as an indicator of intrinsic alignment to better study dark energy and dark matter, and (iv) probe the unknown origin of cosmic magnetism by measuring the strength and structure of intergalactic magnetic fields in the filaments of large scale structure. The CHILES Con Pol source catalog will be a useful resource for upcoming wide-field surveys by acting as a training set for machine learning algorithms, which can then be used to identify and classify radio sources in regions lacking deep multiwavelength coverage.

Hales, Christopher A.; Chiles Con Pol Collaboration

2014-04-01

451

Studies on sexual compatibility between Ectocarpus siliculosus (Phaeophyceae) from Chile and the Mediterranean Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clonal isolates of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus (Ectocarpales) originating from Naples (Mediterranean Sea) and southern Chile were compared in laboratory culture studies. The two isolates showed distinctly different morphological characters, but very similar details of life history and sexual reproduction. Gametes are sexually compatible; hybrid zygotes are formed and sporophytes develop, which are fertile on the basis of mitotic spores. However, unilocular sporangia were abortive, indicating segregational sterility caused by chromosomal mismatch during meiosis. Although the biological species concept in a strict sense does not apply, and appreciable morphological variability exists in this cosmopolitan taxon, local populations are considered as representatives of the same species.

Müller, Dieter G.

1988-09-01

452

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

SciTech Connect

Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

2011-06-01

453

The Aysen (Southern Chile) 2007 Seismic Swarm: Volcanic or Tectonic Origin?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aysen seismic swarm began January 23, 2007, with a magnitude 5.2 (USGS) earthquake and, after an apparent decrease in activity, continued with a magnitude 5.6 event on February 26. The swarm is characterized by numerous felt earthquakes of small to moderate magnitude, located at crustal depths beneath the Aysen Canal, a prominent fiord of the Chilean littoral. The region is characterized by the subduction of an active oceanic spreading ridge: the Chile Ridge, the divergent Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary, is currently subducting beneath continental South America along the Chile Trench at approximately 46.5°S, forming a plate triple junction in the vicinity of the Taitao Peninsula, somewhat south and west of the swarm. Also, the Liquine-Ofqui dextral strike- slip fault traverses the Aysen Canal in the vicinity of the swarm. This fault has been interpreted as a 1000 km long dextral intra-arc strike-slip fault zone, consisting of two major strands which extend north from the Chile Margin triple junction. The Liquiñe-Ofqui system is marked by several pull-apart basins along its trace through the area. Seismic activity along the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault zone has been poorly studied to date, largely because teleseismic events clearly related to the fault have been few, and southern hemisphere seismic stations are lacking. However, we deployed a dense temporary broad-band seismic network both onland and on the islands in the Aysen region, which allowed us to capture the initial phases of the swarm on some 20 stations, and to determine the background seismicity patterns in this area for the two years preceding the swarm. The swarm could be caused by several processes: the spatial and depth distribution of the events suggests that they are well correlated with reactivation of the southern end of the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault, as defined by geologic studies and onshore gravity data collected in southern Chile. The swarm may be related to formation of new volcanic center between Volcan Hudson (last erupted 1991) and Volcan Maca. Given uncertainties in the event locations, the 2007 seismic swarm could also result from a combination of tectonic motions on the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault system and magmatic arc activity. The two earthquakes with magnitudes over 5 and the numerous felt earthquake of the swarm clearly indicate that seismic hazard estimations in this previously quiescent region must be re-estimated.

Comte, D.; Gallego, A.; Russo, R.; Mocanu, V.; Murdie, R.; Vandecar, J.

2007-05-01

454

FEATURE OF THE 3 MARCH 1985 CHILE EARTHQUAKE - POSSIBLE TERRAIN AMPLIFICATION.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper presents results of site-response experiments performed five months after the M//s equals 7. 8 Central Chile Earthquake of 3 March 1985. The objectives of the experiments performed are to identify amplification due to topography and geology. Topographical amplification at Canal Beagle, a subdivision of Vina del Mar, was hypothesized immediately after the main event, when extensive damage was observed on the ridges of Canal Beagle. Spectral ratios determined from aftershock data obtained from a temporary dense array are used to show that there was substantial amplification of motions at the ridges of Canal Beagle.

Celebi, M.

1986-01-01

455

Bacterial community structure in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70 degrees S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from each of the samples revealed that microbial communities from the extreme hyperarid core of the desert clustered separately from all of the remaining communities. Bands sequenced from DGGE profiles of two samples taken at a 22-month interval from this core region revealed the presence of similar populations dominated by bacteria from the Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes phyla.

Drees, Kevin P.; Neilson, Julia W.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Henderson, David A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

2006-01-01

456

Bacterial Community Structure in the Hyperarid Core of the Atacama Desert, Chile?  

PubMed Central

Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70°S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from each of the samples revealed that microbial communities from the extreme hyperarid core of the desert clustered separately from all of the remaining communities. Bands sequenced from DGGE profiles of two samples taken at a 22-month interval from this core region revealed the presence of similar populations dominated by bacteria from the Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes phyla. PMID:17028238

Drees, Kevin P.; Neilson, Julia W.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Henderson, David A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

2006-01-01

457

[Seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila infection in healthy, adults from Santiago, Chile].  

PubMed

In order to investigate the L pneumophila seroprevalence in healthy adult population of Santiago, Chile, a serologic survey of antibodies to serogroups 1 through G was performed. Sera of 100 blood donors were studied with the indirect fluorescent antibody method. Positive results (> or = 1.64) were obtained in five samples. Titres > or = 1:128 were not observed. We conclude that the seroprevalence of L pneumophila in Santiago is 5% and that a single titre > or = 1:256 suggests the diagnosis of legionellosis. The low seroprevalence in Santiago is in agreement with the few cases of legionellosis reported. PMID:8191115

Lobos, T; Moreno, R; Carstens, M; Domenech, A; Piemonte, P; Juliet, C; Pfenninger, A

1993-10-01

458

Turbidite sequences in marine sediments off southern Chile ? records of Quaternary climate - tectonics interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The active continental margin of South America is characterized by frequent, devastating and large-magnitude subduction earthquakes. In this environment the assessment of the history of major past earthquakes is hampered by the short historical and instrumental records. Here, we focus on marine turbidite records from offshore southern Chile that reflect the regional paleoseismic history of the forearc region since late Pleistocene time. The investigated records were retrieved from cores obtained from the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), site 1232, and SONNE 50SL. The coring locations are at ~ 40ç and ~ 38çS lat, within the Peru-Chile trench, and are characterized by frequent interbedded strata of turbiditic and hemipelagic origin. Importantly, dated sections of the obtained cores indicate a recurrence time between 100 and 200 years for individual turbidite events. On the basis of the sedimentological characteristics and the nature of the active margin of southern Chile, we infer that the turbidites are seismogenic in origin, and represent paleo-earthquakes. However, the long-term changes in turbidite recurrence intervals also appear to be strongly influenced by climate and associated sea-level changes. For example, during the rising sea-level in the Holocene (ACHTUNG: es gab keine h?heren Meeresspiegel, sondern der Meeresspiegel ist seit 14 ka angestiegen) and Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, recurrence of turbiditic layers is substantially higher, primarily reflecting a climate-induced reduction of sediment availability and enhanced slope stability (Dieser Satz ist inhaltlich nicht ganz klar). In addition, changes in the segmentation of tectonic uplift in the forearc and related drainage captures likely influenced the availability of sediment entering the marine realm, possibly determining the postglacial decrease in turbidite frequency. On the other hand, glacial turbidite recurrence times (including MIS 2, MIS 3, cold substages of MIS 5, and MIS 6), are within the same order of magnitude as earthquake recurrence intervals, derived from historical data and other terrestrial paleoseismic archives of the region. Only during these cold stages sediment availability and slope instability were pronounced enough to provide conditions conducive to a full record of the sequence of large earthquakes. Our data thus suggest that earthquake recurrence intervals on the order of 100 to 200 years are characteristic for southern Chile and were sustained during the last 140 kyrs.

Echtler, H. P.; Blumberg, S.; Lamy, F.; Arz, H.; Wiedicke, M.; Haug, G. H.; Oncken, O.

2007-12-01

459

Spoc-experiment: Wide-angle Profiling and Seismological Network Off Central Chile (october - December 2001)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of the RV SONNE cruise 161 SPOC (Subduction Processes Off Chile), Leg 1 and 4, was to investigate the effects of subducting aseismic ridges and frac- ture zones on the seismicity and structure of the Central Chilean Margin. Scientists from GEOMAR (Kiel), BGR (Hannover), FU Berlin (SFB 267), Universidad de Chile (Santiago) and Instituto Costaricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica) participated in data acquisition and analysis. The SPOC experiment consists of four consecutive legs off Valparaiso, Central Chile. During Leg 1 (October), an array of 23 ocean bottom hydrophons and seismome- ters (OBH/S) was deployed to register local earthquakes. In December (Leg 4), the network was recovered and a total of 125 OBH/S locations were occupied on five wide-angle profiles. They recorded more than 10.000 airgun shots, fired by an airgun array of 20 guns with a total volume of 50 liters. In addition, the wide-angle seis- mic lines were extended by land-based seismometers, operated by the Universidad de Chile, Santiago. Furthermore gravity, magnetics and high resolution bathymetry (SIMRADTM) and sediment echo-sound data (PARASOUNDTM) were recorded. On Legs 2 and 3, the BGR carried out a multi-channel reflection (MCS) seismic survey. Preliminary analysis of the data shows that a considerable number of local earthquakes has been recorded by the passive seismological network. Preliminary location of the hypocenters yield earthquake depths predominantly between 15 and 30 km. Many events registered by the local seismological network have been relocated~10 km west- wards of the previous land-based locations, which might indicate a bias in the existing catalogues. Wide-angle record sections of high quality were obtained, for all profiles shot. Mantle phases over offsets of more than 120 km were recorded by many stations. The pre- liminary velocity depth model derived for a profile striking E-W at 31a S across the subduction zone resolved the lateral transition on the continental slope between ac- creted sediments (vp=4-6 km/s) and the continental backstop (vp=5.5-5.8 km/s) in the subsurface. The two profiles crossing the O'Higgins Seamount and Guyot indicate a Moho depression of about 4 km resulting in a Moho depth of 13-14 km which could be described as a typical hotspot-related crustal thickness anomaly as it is characterized 1 for seamount chains. The collected data will provide new insight into the structure and geometry of sub- ducting aseismic ridges and fracture zones at convergent margins, and their effect on seismicity. 2

Thierer, P. O.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Tilmann, F.; Gaedicke, C.; Schreckenberger, B.

460

Medicinal plants of Chile: evaluation of their anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity.  

PubMed

The extracts of several plants of Central Chile exhibited anti-Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes activity. Most active extracts were those obtained from Podanthus ovatifolius, Berberis microphylla, Kageneckia oblonga, and Drimys winteri. The active extract of Drimys winteri (IC50 51.2 microg/mL) was purified and three drimane sesquiterpenes were obtained: polygodial, drimenol, and isodrimenin. Isodrimenin and drimenol were found to be active against the trypomastigote form of T. cruzi with IC50 values of 27.9 and 25.1 microM, respectively. PMID:23923616

Muñoz, Orlando M; Maya, Juan D; Ferreira, Jorge; Christen, Philippe; San Martin, José; López-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Morello, Antonio; Kemmerling, Ulrike

2013-01-01

461

Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Jiménez, Jaime E.

2014-10-01

462

Report from the First Latin American Urological Oncology Symposium (SLAURO) 19–21 June 2014, Viña del Mar, Chile  

PubMed Central

Cancer is one of the most important diseases in Chile, with alarming incidence and mortality rates that are among the highest in Latin America. Economic growth in South America has led to demographic change, with an aging population typical of developed countries, but also a growing population with cancer. The incidence and mortality of urological cancers in Chile is significant, and has led to the formulation of health laws and policies promoting the early treatment of urological cancers. It is also well known that there are regions of Chile with extremely high incidence and mortality of bladder cancer caused by arsenic exposure. SLAURO (Simposio Latinoamericano de Urología Oncológica [Latin American Oncological Urology Symposium]) is a new Latin American forum for discussing and promoting knowledge of urological cancers across the region.

Caglevic, Christian; Pinto, Ivàn; Altamirano, Jaime; Vilches, Roberto; Martìn, Eu Marìa Eliana San; Gallardo, Jorge

2014-01-01

463

Vertebrate fossils and trace fossils in Upper Jurassic-Lower cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pterosaur, dinosaur, and crocodile bones are recorded here for the first time in Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous red beds in the Atacama region east of Copiapó, Chile. Trace fossils produced by vertebrate animals include the footprints of theropod dinosaurs and the depressions of sandstone laminae interpreted as burrows and foot impressions. The fossils occur in the 1500-meter-thick Quebrada Monardes Formation, which consists predominantly of the aeolian and alluvial deposits of a semi-arid terrestrial environment. Vertebrate fossils are very rare in Chile. Dinosaur bones and footprints have previously been recorded at only seven locations, and pterosaur remains at only one location. The newly discovered dinosaur bones are the oldest to be described in Chile.

Bell, C. M.; Suárez, M.

464

Biological response to circulation driven by mean summertime winds off central Chile: A numerical model study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupled physical-biological model of the waters off central Chile is used to investigate the nitrogen-phytoplankton-zooplankton response to ocean circulation driven by mean summertime winds. The circulation drives the upwelling of middepth water onto the continental shelf and reaches a quasistable rate between days 40 and 60 of the simulation. High-nutrient, low-phytoplankton biomass water is upwelled at the coast, with nutrients being converted to phytoplankton within 3-10 days. A lagged response in zooplankton occurs after 6-30 days, by which time the water has been advected offshore. The magnitude and spatial distribution of phytoplankton biomass and export of organic matter off the continental shelf is sensitive to the zooplankton mortality term. For low zooplankton mortality, phytoplankton biomass on the continental shelf is limited by grazing pressure due to zooplankton, phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass remains low, and the nitrogen advected off the continental shelf in the surface waters is primarily dissolved inorganic nitrogen. When the mortality rate is increased fourfold, an approximately fourfold to fivefold increase is seen in the continental shelf phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton productivity, and export of organic matter to the deep ocean. This dependence on zooplankton mortality illustrates the potential of top-down control of the shelf production and export of organic matter off the central Chile continental shelf.

Baird, Mark E.; Leth, Ole; Middleton, John F.

2007-07-01

465

Surface carbonate and land-derived clastic marine sediments from southern Chile: mineralogical and geochemical investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface carbonate and land-derived deposits in the sea off southern Chile were investigated for their mineralogical and geochemical composition. The data were related to environmental features and compared with those of similar temperate and polar carbonate deposits from Tasmania, New Zealand, Arctica, and Antarctica. The mineralogy of the siliciclastic fraction is typical of cold areas and is mainly composed of chlorite, mica, quartz, feldspars and amphibole. The CaCO 3 content varies from 30 to 90%; carbonate mineralogy is made up of low-Mg calcite, high-Mg calcite and minor amounts of aragonite. The Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, and Mn contents of bulk carbonates and some selected skeletal hard parts are comparable to those of carbonates from Tasmania. The elemental composition is mainly related to carbonate mineralogy, skeletal components, and seawater conditions. The ?13C and ?18O values of carbonates are positive, and their field falls between the "seafloor diagenesis" and "upwelling water" trend lines, because the sediments are likely to be in equilibrium with waters of Antarctic origin. The mineralogical, elemental, and isotopic compositions of carbonates from southern Chile show better similarities with the "temperate" carbonates from Tasmania and New Zealand than with the "polar" carbonates from Arctica and Antarctica. Carbonate deposition is allowed by the low terrigenous input, the low SPM concentration and, probably, the upwelling of seawater from Antarctica.

Marinoni, L.; Setti, M.; Gauthier-Lafaye, F.

2000-12-01

466

Tidal Variation in Non Volcanic Seismic Tremor Activity at the Chile Triple Junction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present evidence that non volcanic seismic tremor detected at Chile Ridge Subduction Project (CRSP) seismic network correlates with the semidiurnal (M2) tidal amplitude variation, enhanced by the lunar monthly (Mm) orbital cycle. Tremors were detected at 14 broadband seismic stations in the Los Chonos Archipelago and Taitao Peninsula by two methods: simple visual inspection of correlated tremor on seismograms at CRSP stations, and an automated search of the tremor frequency band (5-10 Hz). The two methods yield similar results. Analysis of two years of data (2005-2006) reveals a positive correlation (R = 0.76) between daily tremor duration and daily tidal variations, with a lag of 2.5 days between maximum tidal amplitude difference and tremor activity. The 28 day tidal cycle is produced by conjunction (New Moon), generating the highest and lowest tide amplitudes of the orbital cycle. Gravitational traction due to tidal acceleration is maximum near the latitude of the study region, and is enhanced by the ocean loading. At least two hypotheses could explain the correlation: stress cycling on the subducted Taitao and Darwin transform faults due to solid earth tide and ocean loading, leading to tremor generation; or enhanced hydrothermal activity during fluid release in the subducted Chile ridge structure.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V. I.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

2007-12-01

467

Comparison of aminoglycoside resistance patterns in Japan, Formosa, and Korea, Chile, and the United States.  

PubMed Central

The resistance mechanisms of more than 2,000 aminoglycoside-resistant gram-negative aerobic bacteria were estimated by a method that assigned a biochemical mechanism based on susceptibility to selected aminoglycosides. Strains from hospitals in Japan, Formosa, and Korea (the Far East) were compared with strains from Chile and the United States. Of the strains from Chile, 90% had an aminoglycoside resistance pattern indicative of the 3-N-acetyltransferase [AAC(3)-V] enzyme. Of the strains from the Far East, 78% had susceptibility patterns suggesting the presence of AAC(6') enzymes. In contrast, strains from the United States had a wider variety of resistance mechanisms including 2''-O-adenylyltidyltransferase [ANT(2'')], AAC(3), AAC(6'), and AAC(2'). Reflecting these differences in resistance patterns, the frequencies of resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, dibekacin, and amikacin in strains from the United States were different from those in strains from the Far East. These differences seem to be correlated with different aminoglycoside usage in the two regions. In the United States, where gentamicin was the most widely used aminoglycoside, 92% of the strains were resistant to gentamicin, 81% were resistant to dibekacin, and 8.8% were resistant to amikacin. In the Far East, dibekacin and kanamycin were widely used in the past and more recently amikacin has been frequently used. Of the strains from this region, 99% were resistant to dibekacin, 85% were resistant to gentamicin, and 35% were resistant to amikacin. PMID:3914858

Shimizu, K; Kumada, T; Hsieh, W C; Chung, H Y; Chong, Y; Hare, R S; Miller, G H; Sabatelli, F J; Howard, J

1985-01-01

468

Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M ~8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March–April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence.

Hayes, Gavin P.; Herman, Matthew W.; Barnhart, William D.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Riquelme, Sebástian; Benz, Harley M.; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul S.; Samsonov, Sergey

2014-01-01

469

Differential invasion success of salmonids in southern Chile: patterns and hypotheses  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biological invasions create complex ecological and societal issues worldwide. Most of the knowledge about invasions comes only from successful invaders, but less is known about which processes determine the differential success of invasions. In this review, we develop a framework to identify the main dimensions driving the success and failure of invaders, including human influences, characteristics of the invader, and biotic interactions. We apply this framework by contrasting hypotheses and available evidence to explain variability in invasion success for 12 salmonids introduced to Chile. The success of Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo trutta seems to be influenced by a context-specific combination of their phenotypic plasticity, low ecosystem resistance, and propagule pressure. These well-established invaders may limit the success of subsequently introduced salmonids, with the possible exception of O. tshawytscha, which has a short freshwater residency and limited spatial overlap with trout. Although propagule pressure is high for O. kisutch and S. salar due to their intensive use in aquaculture, their lack of success in Chile may be explained by environmental resistance, including earlier spawning times than in their native ranges, and interactions with previously established and resident Rainbow Trout. Other salmonids have also failed to establish, and they exhibit a suite of ecological traits, environmental resistance, and limited propagule pressure that are variably associated with their lack of success. Collectively, understanding how the various drivers of invasion success interact may explain the differential success of invaders and provide key guidance for managing both positive and negative outcomes associated with their presence.

Arismendi, Ivan; Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason; García de Leaniz, Carlos; Soto, Doris; Fleming, Ian A.; Gomez-Uchidam, Daniel; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Vargas, Pamela V.; León-Muñoz, Jorge

2014-01-01

470

Lessons from scaling up a depression treatment program in primary care in Chile.  

PubMed

In Chile, the National Depression Detection and Treatment Program (Programa Nacional de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de la Depresión, PNDTD) in primary care is a rare example of an evidence-based mental health program that was scaled up to the national level in a low- or middle-income country. This retrospective qualitative study aimed to better understand how policymakers made the decision to scale up mental health services to the national level, and to explore the elements, contexts, and processes that facilitated the decision to implement and sustain PNDTD. In-depth semistructured interviews with six key informants selected through intentional sampling were conducted in August-December 2008. Interviewees were senior officers at the Ministry of Health who were directly involved in the decision to scale up the program. Results yielded four elements pivotal to the decisionmaking process: scientific evidence, teamwork and leadership, strategic alliances, and program institutionalization. Each element contributed to building consensus, securing funding, attracting resources, and gaining lasting support from policymakers. Additionally, a review of available documentation led the authors to consider sociopolitical context and use of the media to be important factors. While research evidence for the effectiveness of mental health services in the primary care setting continues to accumulate, low- and middle-income countries should get started on the lengthy process of scaling up by incorporating the elements that led to decisionmaking and implementation of the PNDTD in Chile. PMID:23183564

Araya, Ricardo; Alvarado, Rubén; Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Rojas, Graciela

2012-09-01

471

Ion Beam Facility at the University of Chile; Applications and Basic Research  

SciTech Connect

The main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Chile are described at this work. Current activities are mainly focused on the application of the Ion Beam Analysis techniques for environmental, archaeological, and material science analysis. For instance, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is applied to measure thin gold film thickness which are used to determine their resistivity and other electrical properties. At this laboratory the Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) methodologies are extensively used for trace element analysis of urban aerosols (Santiago, Ciudad de Mexico). A similar study is being carried out at the Antarctica Peninsula. Characterization studies on obsidian and vitreous dacite samples using PIXE has been also perform allowing to match some of these artifacts with geological source sites in Chile.Basic physics research is being carried out by measuring low-energy cross section values for the reactions {sup 63}Cu(d,p){sup 64}Cu and {sup Nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga. Both radionuclide {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga are required for applications in medicine. Ongoing stopping power cross section measurements of proton and alphas on Pd, Cu, Bi and Mylar are briefly discussed.

Miranda, P. A.; Morales, J. R.; Cancino, S.; Dinator, M. I.; Donoso, N.; Sepulveda, A.; Ortiz, P.; Rojas, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile (Chile)

2010-08-04

472

Transformative ties: gendered violence, forms of recovery, and shifting subjectivities in Chile.  

PubMed

Although a significant body of scholarship on trauma has emerged in medical anthropology, there has been little examination of how gendered expectations shape the aftermath of extreme human experience, forms of recovery, and subjectivity. Here, I show how domestic and other forms of violence have shaped Luz's suffering in the dictatorial (1973-90) and officially democratic (1990-present) eras in Chile. I then elucidate how Luz's engagement with Safe Space, an NGO connected to UN violence against women frameworks, and other globally connected women's groups, have allowed her to generate transformative ties with other women. These relationships provide support for Luz's self-defined project of transforming herself and society, largely in relationship to gendered expectations, so that her recovered sense of self will have more of a home in the world, outside the boundaries of narrowly defined gender roles. This analysis is based on ethnographic research in Santiago, Chile, over 19 months in 2000-04 and 2009, including participant-observation at two domestic violence centers and life history interviews with 18 women who sought help there. PMID:20420302

Parson, Nia

2010-03-01

473

Upwelling and dissolved oxygen variability over the continental shelf off Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to the legendary upwelling that is present along the Peruvian and northern Chilean coasts, the coastal ocean off central Chile presents a highly seasonal upwelling regime that extends from early spring to mid fall. This region is also affected by a strong subsurface poleward flow, which transports southward low-oxygen water from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Coastal waters are highly productive due to upwelling, but the upwelled source waters are very low in oxygen and may produce hypoxia near the bottom over the continental shelf. The spatial structure and main scales of variability of the upwelling cells and dissolved oxygen are poorly understood off central Chile. One of the main limitations has been the lack of direct information. During the last years an observational program has been conducted over the relatively wide continental shelf off Concepción (36°30' S). This program has included ship-based (monthly) time-series, underwater glider observations and time-series based on moored sensors. Here, based on physical (temperature, salinity, pressure, velocity), biological (chlorophyll fluorescence) and chemical (dissolved oxygen) information, we analyze the main scales of time variability of the upwelling, the coastal currents and their impact on the dissolved oxygen. The cross-shelf structure of the upwelling region was sampled using underwater gliders capable of sampling the entire water column to a maximum of 1000 m and from near shore to 200 km offshore.

Pizarro, Oscar

2014-05-01

474

Acoustics: A branch of engineering at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the 1960s, the first acousticians graduating at UACh had acquired an education in applied physics and musical arts, since there was no College of Engineering at that time. Initially, they had a (rather modest) four-year undergraduate program, and most of the faculty were not specialized teachers. The graduates from such a program received a sound engineering degree and they were skilled for jobs in the musical industry and sound reinforcement companies. In addition, they worked as sound engineers and producers. Later, because of the scientific, industrial and educational changes in Chile during the 1980s, the higher education system had massive changes that affected all of the undergraduate and graduate programs of the 61 universities in Chile. The UACh College of Engineering was officially founded in 1989. Then, acoustics as an area of expertise was included, widened and developed as an interdisciplinary subject. Currently, the undergraduate program in acoustics at UACh offers a degree in engineering sciences and a 6-year professional studies in Civil Engineering (Acoustics), having two main fields: Sound and Image, and Environment and Industry.

Poblete, Victor; Arenas, Jorge P.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

2002-11-01

475

Site effect evaluation in the basin of Santiago de Chile using ambient noise measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed extensive ambient vibration measurements in the basin of Santiago de Chile (Chile), and we look for testing the reliability of the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V) as a tool to provide qualitative and quantitative information of site effects in complex geological media. The interpretation of the H/V data was carried out conformably to the SESAME project consensus criteria and outlines three major patterns: (1) clear peaked H/V curves related to sharp underground velocity contrast; (2) H/V peak of low amplitude and flat curve related to weak contrast and (3) broad H/V peak indicating the presence of strong lateral variations of underground structure. H/V measurements, however, reveal a discrepancy between the computed soil resonance frequencies and the expected building resonance, therefore not leading to a straight interpretation of the intensity distribution derived from observed damage to one storey houses in Santiago after the 1985 Valparaiso earthquake. Indeed, the H/V technique mostly maps the first fundamental frequency; however, it fails to show higher resonance modes. In the case of the city of Santiago, this method works well for assessing the seismic hazard for high-rise buildings, but is questionable for smaller structures as is the case of a great percentage of constructions in the city.

Bonnefoy-Claudet, Sylvette; Baize, Stéphane; Bonilla, Luis Fabian; Berge-Thierry, Catherine; Pasten, Cesar; Campos, Jaime; Volant, Philippe; Verdugo, Ramon

2009-03-01

476

Financing marine protected areas through visitor fees: insights from tourists willingness to pay in Chile.  

PubMed

Tourism is a financing mechanism considered by many donor-funded marine conservation initiatives. Here we assess the potential role of visitor entry fees, in generating the necessary revenue to manage a marine protected area (MPA), established through a Global Environmental Facility Grant, in a temperate region of Chile. We assess tourists' willingness to pay (WTP) for an entry fee associated to management and protection of the MPA. Results show 97 % of respondents were willing to pay an entrance fee. WTP predictors included the type of tourist, tourists' sensitivity to crowding, education, and understanding of ecological benefits of the MPA. Nature-based tourists state median WTP values of US$ 4.38 and Sun-sea-sand tourists US$ 3.77. Overall, entry fees could account for 10-13 % of MPA running costs. In Chile, where funding for conservation runs among the weakest in the world, visitor entry fees are no panacea in the short term and other mechanisms, including direct state/government support, should be considered. PMID:24213996

Gelcich, Stefan; Amar, Francisca; Valdebenito, Abel; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Fernandez, Miriam; Godoy, Cecilia; Biggs, Duan

2013-12-01

477

The effects of NO3(-) supply on Mazzaella laminarioides (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) from southern Chile.  

PubMed

The effects of nitrate supply on growth, pigments, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), C:N ratios and carrageenan yield were investigated in Mazzaella laminarioides cultivated under solar radiation. This species is economically important in southern Chile where an increase of nitrogen in coastal waters is expected as a consequence of salmon aquaculture activity. Apical segments were cultivated in enriched seawater with five different NO3(-) concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.18, 0.38 and 0.75 mm) during 18 days. Although phycoerythrin and phycocyanin content, as well as C:N ratios, were reduced in the control treatment (without NO3(-) supply), when compared to NO3(-) treatments, total MAA concentration, carrageenan yield and growth rates were similar in all tested conditions. Nevertheless, during the experiment, an important synthesis of mycosporine-glycine took place in a nitrate concentration-dependent manner, with accumulation being saturated around 0.18 mm of nitrate. These results indicate that exposure to high NO3(-) concentration of more than 100 times the values observed in the nature did not impair the photoprotection system, as determined by MAAs, nor did it have a deleterious effect on growth or carrageenan yield of M. laminarioides, a late successional species from Chile. PMID:25214037

Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Félix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrés; Matsuhiro, Betty; Barahona, Tamara; Plastino, Estela M

2014-01-01

478

Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake.  

PubMed

The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile, which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M ?8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March-April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence. PMID:25119028

Hayes, Gavin P; Herman, Matthew W; Barnhart, William D; Furlong, Kevin P; Riquelme, Sebástian; Benz, Harley M; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul S; Samsonov, Sergey

2014-08-21

479

From state terrorism to state errorism: post-Pinochet Chile's long search for truth and justice.  

PubMed

Patio 29 lies in the northern sector of Santiago's General Cemetery. To the naked eye, it is a grim unweeded field of some twelve hundred rusted tin crosses. But to the families of the 1,197 detained-disappeared during Augusto Pinochet's brutal dictatorship, Patio 29 is both a site of horror and a site of hope. Its story begins in September-December 1973 when 320 early victims of the repression were brought there in makeshift wooden crates that held as many as three bodies each, and buried in unmarked graves. A few years later, two hundred of those graves were exhumed by the military, and the remains presumably cremated. For another decade, the mass grave remained silent, yielding few of its secrets to the families' demands to know: Where are they? Today, nineteen years into the so-called transition to democracy, Patio 29--the most important single finding in relation to Chile's detained-disappeared-still refuses to reveal the identities of those victims, pressing upon the government of Michelle Bachelet a new question: Who are they? First state terror, now state error have conspired to make Patio 29 one of Chile's principal horror-cum-hopescapes. PMID:20503913

Wyndham, Marivic; Read, Peter

2010-02-01

480

Gas fluxes and compositions of two active volcanoes in Northern Chile: Lascar and Lastarria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Andes Volcanic Zone of northern Chile comprises a ~1200 km long volcanic district extending from the Atacama region on the northe to the Arica and Parinacota region.Lascar and Lastarria are among the most actively degassing volcanoes of the several (more than 30) potentially active in the region. They both host persistent fumarolic fields and generate sustained plumes above the main craters. Here, we report on simultaneous in-situ and remote volcanic gas measurements aimed at obtaining the very first degassing budget for major volatiles released by these fumarolic fields. Using quick deployable scanning DOAS and SO2 camera systems we obtained time-averaged SO2 fluxes of ~ 500 t d-1 and ~ 970 t d-1 for Lascar and Lastarria, respectively. These data were integrated with plume compositional data, obtained using a portable MultiGAS analyzer and sets of base-treated filter packs, to indirectly calculate fluxes of other volcanic species (H2O, CO2, H2, HCl, HF, HBr and HI) from the fumarolic fields. We estimate H2O and CO2 fluxes of ~ 4400 t d-1 and ~ 470 t d-1 for Lascar and ~ 12200 t d-1 and ~ 1100 t d-1 for Lastarria. These numbers are similar to those charcteristic of other medium-sized active subduction zone volcanoes, and out the basis to better constraining the volatile budget for the Northern Chile arc segment.

Tamburello, G.; Hansteen, T. H.; Bredemeyer, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.

2013-12-01

481

Synthesis and establishment of Tuber melanosporum Vitt. ectomycorrhizae on two Nothofagus species in Chile.  

PubMed

Axenically germinated seedlings of two species of Southern beech (Nothofagus obliqua, N. glauca) from Chile were inoculated with spores of the Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum). Ectomycorrhizal development was monitored for 6 months in the greenhouse and compared to the performance of the natural host species Quercus ilex and Quercus robur. Seedling survival and mycorrhization showed major differences in both Nothofagus species: T. melanosporum readily formed ectomycorrhizae with seedlings of N. obliqua, although at a lower rate than with Q. ilex but at a proportion very similar to Q. robur; survival and colonization rates were high, and seedling growth was not visibly affected by the high soil pH required by T. melanosporum. In contrast, more than 50% of N. glauca seedlings died after inoculation, and mycorrhiza formation was very sparse. In both species, no colonization by adventive ectomycorrhizal fungi could be observed, whereas both species of Quercus showed minor colonization by another fungus, probably Inocybe or Hebeloma. Our results show that it is possible to infect N. obliqua with the Périgord black truffle under greenhouse conditions, which opens up the possibility of cultivating this truffle as a secondary crop during reforestation with N. obliqua in Chile. PMID:17598134

Pérez, Francisco; Palfner, Götz; Brunel, Nidia; Santelices, Rómulo

2007-10-01

482

[Masters of internal medicine, in Chile: Manuel García de los Ríos Alvarez MD].  

PubMed

Master of Internal Medicine is the highest award granted by the Chilean Society of Internal Medicine (Sociedad Médica de Santiago) to its members. Since this award was instituted, in 1981, the Society has given it periodically to the most distinguished Chilean physicians. All nominees are considered a model as a physician, medical educator and person, to be emulated by the future generations, with the responsibility of maintaining the spirit, the prestige and the projection of Internal Medicine into the future. This year, on the occasion of the XXIXth Chilean Congress of Internal Medicine, the title of "Master of Internal Medicine" was awarded to Manuel García de los Ríos, M.D., M.A.C.P. Dr. García de los Ríos is Professort of Medicine at the University of Chile School of Medicine, Member of the National Academy of Medicine (Chile), and Master of the American College of Physicians, among several other national and international distinctions in the fields of Internal Medicine and Diabetology. The following list updates the names of those Chilean physicians that have been awarded this distinction. PMID:18259660

2007-11-01

483

The tomato borer, Tuta absoluta, invading the Mediterranean Basin, originates from a single introduction from Central Chile.  

PubMed

The Lepidopteran pest of tomato, Tuta absoluta, is native to South America and is invasive in the Mediterranean basin. The species' routes of invasion were investigated. The genetic variability of samples collected in South America, Europe, Africa and Middle East was analyzed using microsatellite markers to infer precisely the source of the invasive populations and to test the hypothesis of a single versus multiple introductions into the old world continents. This analysis provides strong evidence that the origin of the invading populations was unique and was close to or in Chile, and probably in Central Chile near the town of Talca in the district of Maule. PMID:25667134

Guillemaud, Thomas; Blin, Aurélie; Le Goff, Isabelle; Desneux, Nicolas; Reyes, Maritza; Tabone, Elisabeth; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia; Niño, Laura; Lombaert, Eric

2015-01-01

484

THOMPSON & THOMPSON: 317-331 Studia dipterologica 13 (2006) Heft 2 ISSN 0945-3954 A new Toxomerus species from Chile (Diptera: Syrpliidae)  

E-print Network

and fig- ures of the critical taxonomic characters. Key words Syrphidae, Chile, Toxomerus, new species to be found in Chile such as the new Toxomerus species here described. And about another dozen new speciesTHOMPSON &í THOMPSON: 317-331 Studia dipterologica 13 (2006) Heft 2 · ISSN 0945-3954 A new

Mathis, Wayne N.

485

Plant Disease Note 2005 | Iris yellow spot virus in Onion in Chile Overview Current Issue Past Issues Search PD Search APS Journals  

E-print Network

Plant Disease Note 2005 | Iris yellow spot virus in Onion in Chile Overview Current Issue Past in Onion in Chile. M. Rosales, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Centro Regional de Investigación), such as diamond-shaped and irregular chlorotic and necrotic lesions, were observed during 2004 and 2005 in onion

Pappu, Hanu R.

486

Geothermal evidence for fluid flow through the gas hydrate stability field off Central Chile-transient flow related to large subduction zone earthquakes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluids are suspected to play a major role in the nucleation and rupture propagation of earthquakes. In Chile, seismological data were previously interpreted to indicate that fluids captured in the fault zone are released periodically during large underthrust earthquakes, leading to post-seismic fluid flow. In central Chile, heat flow derived from the presence of a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) show

Ingo Grevemeyer; Norbert Kaul; Juan L. Diaz-Naveas

2006-01-01

487

Subduction of the South Chile active spreading ridge: A 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple

Emmanuelle Boutonnet; Nicolas Arnaud; Christèle Guivel; Yves Lagabrielle; Bruno Scalabrino; Felipe Espinoza

2010-01-01

488

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate,...

2010-04-01

489

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate,...

2011-04-01

490

The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Mitaka-based staff of the NAOJ Chile Observatory  

E-print Network

Chile Observatory, 2) Duty station: Mitaka, Tokyo, Japan 3. Field of specialty: radio astronomy 4The National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) invites application for the following Mitaka of the younger research staff of NAOJ Chile Observatory. In addition to a deep knowledge of radio interferometry

Ito, Atsushi

491

Estimates of stress drop from the 27 February 2010 Chile earthquake and tectonic stress in the crust: Implications for fault strength  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great February 27, 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake off the coast of southern Chile ruptured a 606 km length of subduction zone. In this study we make two independent estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip model constrained by geodetic observations from InSAR and GPS to derive

K. M. Luttrell; X. Tong; D. T. Sandwell; B. A. Brooks

2010-01-01