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1

Chile.  

PubMed

The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations with the US improved when human rights difficulties were eased. PMID:12178038

1992-05-01

2

Towards Behavioral Reflexion Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Software architecture has become essential in the struggle to manage today s increasingly large and complex systems. Software architecture views are created to capture important system characteristics on an abstract and, thus, comprehensible level. As the system is implemented and later maintained, it often deviates from the original design specification. Such deviations can have implication for the quality of the system, such as reliability, security, and maintainability. Software architecture compliance checking approaches, such as the reflexion model technique, have been proposed to address this issue by comparing the implementation to a model of the systems architecture design. However, architecture compliance checking approaches focus solely on structural characteristics and ignore behavioral conformance. This is especially an issue in Systems-of- Systems. Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are decompositions of large systems, into smaller systems for the sake of flexibility. Deviations of the implementation to its behavioral design often reduce the reliability of the entire SoS. An approach is needed that supports the reasoning about behavioral conformance on architecture level. In order to address this issue, we have developed an approach for comparing the implementation of a SoS to an architecture model of its behavioral design. The approach follows the idea of reflexion models and adopts it to support the compliance checking of behaviors. In this paper, we focus on sequencing properties as they play an important role in many SoS. Sequencing deviations potentially have a severe impact on the SoS correctness and qualities. The desired behavioral specification is defined in UML sequence diagram notation and behaviors are extracted from the SoS implementation. The behaviors are then mapped to the model of the desired behavior and the two are compared. Finally, a reflexion model is constructed that shows the deviations between behavioral design and implementation. This paper discusses the approach and shows how it can be applied to investigate reliability issues in SoS.

Ackermann, Christopher; Lindvall, Mikael; Cleaveland, Rance

2009-01-01

3

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK V.D.W. Santiago de Chile Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, 1998 #12;iii Dedicada a mi Mamá que me apoyo desde cerca y

Dixon, Juan

4

Los derechos de los pacientes: algunas reflexiones desde la atencin primaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article reviews legal coverage in Spain and the European Community of the European Letter of Patients Rights (Letter of Rome) and the Patients Decalogue of the Barcelona Declaration. Both these documents were drawn up by patients and citizens associations and mainly reflect on compliance with these rights in primary care.We review rights related to patient information and autonomy,

Fernando Palacio

2005-01-01

5

Evaluating Self-Reflexion Analysis Using Repertory Grids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vladimir Lefebvres Algebraic Model of Self-Reflexion is a formal and flexible system for modeling the processes that underlie human judgments. The model has received notable empirical support from studies within personal construct psychology using the repertory grid approach. In this chapter we briefly review this research and the repertory grid method, and then report the results of two new studies on the model conducted in our laboratory. Lastly, we will briefly discuss the implications of our findings with regard to future research on self-reflexion.

Grice*, James; McDaniel, Brenda L.

6

Software Reflexion Models: Bridging the Gap between Design and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The artifacts constituting a software system often drift apart over time. We have developed the software reflexion model technique to help engineers perform various software engineering tasks by exploitingrather than removingthe drift between design and implementation. More specifically, the technique helps an engineer compare artifacts by summarizing where one artifact (such as a design) is consistent with and inconsistent with

Gail C. Murphy; David Notkin; Kevin J. Sullivan

2001-01-01

7

La competitividad internacional de las empresas espaolas y sus factores condicionantes. Algunas reflexiones desde la historia empresarial  

Microsoft Academic Search

El artculo analiza la competitividad internacional de las empresas espaolas en los siglos XIX y XX y sus factores condicionantes a partir de las investigaciones realizadas por la historia industrial y empresarial durante los ltimos veinte aos. En concreto, se examinan cuatro factores: la iniciativa empresarial, la tecnologa y el capital humano; el tamao relativo de las empresas y del

Jess Mara Valdaliso Gago

2004-01-01

8

Reflexions entorn la formaci de formadors i formadores a Catalunya  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este artculo analiza la situacin de la formacin de formadores en Catalua, desde la implantacin de la LOGSE hasta hoy. Una descripcin del modelo de formacin permanente del profesorado que se ha venido aplicando desde entonces y un anlisis del modelo de formadores y formadoras que se ha ido desarrollando, constituyen el contexto de los retos que se plantean actualmente

Maria Teresa Coln; Nria Gin Freixes

2006-01-01

9

[Setting up supportive care in oncology: reflexions and suggestions.].  

PubMed

A group of 19 health professionals implicated in supportive care wanted to suggest some reflexions for organization, setting and evaluation of the supportive care in institutions and health territories. The suggested organization must be applicable to any cancer patient and the place of the care whatever the age, the stage of the disease; in the future, must be applicable to any patient with serious chronic illness. This organization must allow to optimize the accompaniment and the care of the patients and their close relations by 1) precise and regular analysis of their needs; 2) the respect of the continuity of the health care; 3) the setting of collaborative practice and transversality in the care. It is not a new medical speciality but a coordination of competences for patients and their families. PMID:19903599

Colombat, P; Antoun, S; Aubry, R; Banterla-Dadon, I; Barruel, F; Bonel, J-M; Bonnin, J-C; Chassignol, L; Chollet, A; Chvetzoff, G; D'Hrouville, D; Drouart, M; Gaillet, H; Ganem, G; Krakowski, I; Morigault, M-O; Nallet, G; Rolland, J; Suc, A

2009-09-01

10

Chile. English Teaching Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of English language usage and instruction in Chile describes the role and status of English in society and outlines the situation of English-as-a-second-language instruction within the educational system at all levels. The profile covers the folLowing areas: the characteristics, qualifications, and pre- and in-service training of English

British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

11

ALMA Receivers Invading Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALMA Project has moved into the production phase, perhaps most notably for the advanced receiver systems, or Front Ends that are required by the project. This article provides a summary of the technical and production status of the various Front End subassemblies and some of their recent deliveries. The first complete Front End has been delivered by the European Front End Integration Centre to the ALMA Observatory in Chile.

Tan, G. H.; Ellison, B.; Lilley, P.; Patt, F.

2009-06-01

12

On the Oblique Reflexion and Transmission of Ocean Waves at Shore Fast Sea Ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model is reported describing the oblique reflexion and penetration of ocean waves into shore fast sea ice. The arbitrary depth model allows all velocity potentials occurring in the open water region to be matched precisely to their counterparts in the ice-covered region. Matching is done using a preconditioned conjugate gradient technique which allows the complete solution to be

Colin Fox; Vernon A. Squire

1994-01-01

13

Fires in Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

14

Bruggen Glacier, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station caught a rare glimpse of the massive ice fields and glaciers of Patagonia early in the afternoon on September 25, 2001. This part of the South American coast sees frequent storms and is often obscured from view by cloud cover. Bruggen Glacier in southern Chile is the largest western outflow from the Southern Patagonian Ice Field and, unlike most glaciers worldwide, advanced significantly since 1945. From 1945 to 1976, Bruggen surged 5 km across the Eyre Fjord, reaching the western shore by 1962 and cutting off Lake Greve from the sea. The glacier continued advancing both northward and southward in the fjord to near its present position before stabilizing. The growth covers a distance of more than 10 km north to south, adding nearly 60 square km of ice. Additional information on this and other Patagonian glaciers may be found at the following link: USGS - Historic Fluctuations of Outlet Glaciers from the Patagonian Ice Fields. Image ISS003-E-6061 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

2002-01-01

15

Pinochet Returns to Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A frail and ailing General Augusto Pinochet returned to Santiago this morning, after his release from a seventeen-month house arrest in the United Kingdom. Reflecting Pinochet's continuing popularity in military circles and the Army's power in Chile, his return was handled entirely by the Chilean army, which banned the media until shortly before Pinochet's plane landed. On Thursday, UK Home Secretary Jack Straw announced that, for medical reasons, Pinochet would not be extradited to Spain, where he was indicted for human rights abuses. The former dictator's health had considerably declined since his initial arrest in October 1998, and he was said to be suffering from brain damage, sparking concerns in some UK governmental circles that he might die on British soil before the extradition was resolved. While he has escaped prosecution in European courts, Pinochet still faces 59 civil lawsuits in his home country, although many observers doubt that any trial will take place. This decision has angered families of the General's victims and human rights activists, but the process has established one important legal precedent for future prosecutions of ex-dictators. In their March 1999 ruling, Britain's Law Lords determined that Pinochet was not automatically immune to prosecution for acts committed as a head of state. This reversal of the "sovereign immunity" claimed by many former dictators may pave the way to future prosecutions for human rights abuses.

De Nie, Michael W.

16

1939 Chile Earthquake Memorial Placard  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A memorial placard next to a cathedral in Chilln, Chile commemorates the 30,000 people who died in the 1939 earthquake. This high death toll motivated the adoption of strict building design codes for the reconstruction of the cathedral....

2010-03-30

17

Patagonia Glacier, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This ASTER images was acquired on May 2, 2000 over the North Patagonia Ice Sheet, Chile near latitude 47 degrees south, longitude 73 degrees west. The image covers 36 x 30 km. The false color composite displays vegetation in red. The image dramatically shows a single large glacier, covered with crevasses. A semi-circular terminal moraine indicates that the glacier was once more extensive than at present. ASTER data are being acquired over hundreds of glaciers worldwide to measure their changes over time. Since glaciers are sensitive indicators of warming or cooling, this program can provide global data set critical to understand climate change.

This image is located at 46.5 degrees south latitude and 73.9 degrees west longitude.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2000-01-01

18

Earthquake Resistant Cathedral in Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A cathedral in the central square of Chilln, Chile replaces the ancient cathedral that collapsed during the strong earthquake of 1939. This modern structure was constructed with earthquake resistance as the primary consideration. The only damage caused by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010 was b...

2010-03-30

19

Destruction in Downtown Concepcion, Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A masonry building in the downtown part of Concepcion, Chile partially collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Most modern buildings in Concepcion were undamaged during the earthquake due to the city's adoption of adequate building standards. However, many masonry buildings s...

2010-03-30

20

TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick  

E-print Network

TRANSMISSION OPEN ACCESS IN CHILE Hugh Rudnick Escuela de Ingenier'a Pontificia Universidad Cat--lica de Chile Casilla 306, Correo 22, Santiago, Chile I INTRODUCTION Transmission open access is receiving being able to reach consumers through the transmission network, which can be achieved through open

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

21

Educational Ethics and the DESD: Considering Trade-Offs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United Nation's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) aims to prepare students for pressing economic and environmental problems. In this article, I argue that an exclusive emphasis on an ambiguous goal, sustainable development, raises important questions for educational ethics. Specifically, I argue that DESD mission

Schlottmann, Christopher

2008-01-01

22

Relations Between Chile and ESO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As announced in an earlier Press Release (PR 08/94 of 6 May 1994), a high-ranking ESO delegation visited Santiago de Chile during the week of 24 - 28 May 1994 to discuss various important matters of mutual interest with the Chilean Government. It consisted of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. THE SUPPLEMENTARY TREATY BETWEEN CHILE AND ESO Following a meeting with the ambassadors to Chile of the eight ESO member countries, the ESO delegation was received by the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and members of his staff. The ESO delegation was pleased to receive assurances that the present Chilean Government, like its predecessors, will continue to honour all contractual agreements, in particular the privileges and immunities of this Organisation, which were laid down in the Treaty between ESO and Chile that was signed by the parties in 1963 and ratified the following year. The discussions covered some aspects of the proposed Supplementary Treaty which has been under preparation during the past year. This included in particular the desire of the Chilean side to further increase the percentage of guaranteed time for Chilean astronomers at the future ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and also the rules governing the installation by ESO member countries of additional telescopes at the ESO observatories in Chile. ESO invited a Chilean delegation to visit the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) later this year for the final adjustment of the text of the Supplementary Treaty, after which it should be possible to proceed rapidly with the signing and ratification by the Chilean Parliament and the ESO Council. THE SITUATION AROUND PARANAL The ESO delegation expressed its deep concern to the Chilean Government about the continuing legal questioning of ESO's privileges and immunities at the designated VLT site on the Paranal mountain south of the city of Antofagasta (see ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994), and also around the ownership of the land. ESO is now very worried about the timely completion of this 500 million DEM project. Unless a clarification of this problem is achieved as soon as possible, it is unlikely that the current plan for the construction of the VLT observatory at Paranal can be maintained. The ESO delegation expressed the opinion that these uncertainties must be removed, before the final negotiations about the above mentioned Treaty can proceed. RECEPTION BY THE PRESIDENT OF CHILE During its stay in Santiago, the ESO delegation was honoured to be received by the President of the Republic of Chile, Don Eduardo Frei Ruiz Tagle. ESO extended a warm invitation to the President to lay the cornerstone of the VLT observatory at Paranal later in 1994 at the appropriate moment. Twenty-five years ago, in 1969, the ESO La Silla observatory was inaugurated by his predecessor and father, Don Eduardo Frei Montalva. DECISIONS BY THE ESO COUNCIL The ESO delegation reported about the discussions in Santiago to the ESO Council, during its ordinary semi-annual session on June 7 - 8, 1994. The Council noted with satisfaction the clear attitude expressed by the Chilean Government, especially what concerns ESO's privileges and immunities in the host country. The ESO Council expects that the Chilean courts will also confirm these privileges and immunities. The ESO Council expressed the hope that it will now be possible to arrive at a resolution of the outstanding issues. However, in view of the increasingly tight VLT schedule - it is planned to ship the first VLT building to Paranal in the month of September this year - the Council was also much concerned about any further delays. Council requested the ESO management to ensure that the authorities of the member countries will be kept closely informed about the further developments during the coming months. The ESO Council Working Group on

1994-06-01

23

BAT RABIES IN URBAN CENTERS IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectiv- orous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed

Carlos A. de Mattos; Myriam Favi; Veronica Yung; Carlos Pavletic

2000-01-01

24

Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have

Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

2014-01-01

25

The Occurrence of Fog in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topography in Chile is extremely complex and many types of fog are found; both factors complicate the presentation of the data. Despite this, measurements from standard meteorological stations suggest a latitudinal maximum in fog frequency between 35 and 40S for coastal stations. This is supported by data from inland stations in Chile and the available observations from Argentina on

Pilar Cereceda; Robert S. Schemenauer

1991-01-01

26

An Energy Overview of Chile  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Chile. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit.

anon.

2003-10-20

27

Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning the litigation in Chilean courts about the ownership of the Paranal lands, has repeatedly expressed that the European Organisation is not party of the juridical proceedings. At the same time, the Chilean Government has assured ESO that it will attempt to arrive in the shortest possible time at a solution which definitively resolves the question of ownership and enables ESO to continue its activities at Paranal and all its properties in Chile, without external interference of any type. Concerning ESO's juridical immunity on all of the territory of Chile, the Government of Chile has indicated to ESO that these immunities are clearly stipulated in the 1963 Convention and that it is applicable to all properties and possessions of the Organisation, wherever they are located in Chile. Those properties, according to the Convention, should only be used by the Organisation in Chile for scientific and official purposes. In this spirit of good will and cooperation with the Government and the people of Chile, ESO has expressed its inclination to begin a dialogue with the appropriate Chilean authorities about the use of a major part of its property around Cerro Paranal for activities of scientific character or any others that do not adversely influence the astronomical quality of this site. The Government of Chile and ESO wish to express publicly their desire to continue to work towards the resolution of common problems in a spirit of mutual respect and full collaboration. The signing of this Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement initiates a new era of relations between Chile and ESO in the conviction that the Chilean and European scientific communities will henceforth share the important scientific discoveries which will be done with the VLT facility at Cerro Paranal. How to obtain ESO Press Information ESO Press Information is made available on the World-Wide Web (URL: http://www.eso.org../). ESO Press Photos may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory.

1995-04-01

28

PASI Chile 2013 Basics of surface wave  

E-print Network

PASI Chile 2013 Basics of surface wave simulation L. Ridgway Scott Departments of Computer Science? A very long wave with small amplitude can carry a great deal of energy! #12;Terminology Water motion

Stephens, Matthew

29

Tradition and transgression: Lesbian motherhood in chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a study that explored how Chilean lesbians perceive and carry out motherhood. Lesbian mothering is\\u000a a reflexive project in which lesbians must question issues that heterosexual women take for granted. For lesbian women in\\u000a Chile, having a child involves not only exerting great effort and imagination but also bucking social expectations. Homosexuals\\u000a in Chile live under

Florencia Herrera

2009-01-01

30

Glacier Inventory: A Case in Semiarid Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Glaciers are the most important water reservoirs found in the Andes. While the scientific community has conducted more extensive\\u000a glaciological studies in southern Chile, it is only recently that attention has been focused on northern Chile. In the Chilean\\u000a Norte Chico region, where glaciation is restricted to the highest summits, the sparse glacier network provides the majority\\u000a of water to

Jorge Marn; Jos Araos

31

Analysis of village hybrid systems in Chile  

SciTech Connect

Chile recently began a major rural electrification program to electrify those 240,000 families (about half of the rural people) who lack electricity access. In this paper, we discuss a pilot project to electrify three remote villages in Chile`s Region IX using wind/genset/battery hybrids. The intent of this project is to demonstrate the reliability and cost-effectiveness of wind/genset/battery hybrids and to encourage replication of these types of systems in Chile`s electrification program. For each village, electricity connections are planned for several residences, and also schools, health posts, community centers, or chapels. Projected average daily loads are small, ranging from 4 to 10 kWh. Using the optimization program HOMER and the simulation program Hybrid2, we evaluated options to maximize technical performance, minimize costs, and gain experience with a variety of systems and components. We find that wind/genset/battery hybrids will be able to provide cost-effective, reliable power for these sites. More importantly, their inherent flexibility allows for variations in load and resource without greatly affecting the cost of energy.

Lew, D J; Corbus, D; Holz, R [and others

1996-06-01

32

A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and

Wals, Arjen E. J.

2009-01-01

33

Incubation of Chile's 1960 Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrequent occurrence of giant events may help explain how the 1960 Chile earthquake attained M 9.5. Although old documents imply that this earthquake followed great earthquakes of 1575, 1737 and 1837, only three earthquakes of the past 1000 years produced geologic records like those for 1960. These earlier earthquakes include the 1575 event but not 1737 or 1837. Because the 1960 earthquake had nearly twice the seismic slip expected from plate convergence since 1837, much of the strain released in 1960 may have been accumulating since 1575. Geologic evidence for such incubation comes from new paleoseismic findings at the Ro Maullin estuary, which indents the Pacific coast at 41.5 S midway along the 1960 rupture. The 1960 earthquake lowered the area by 1.5 m, and the ensuing tsunami spread sand across lowland soils. The subsidence killed forests and changed pastures into sandy tidal flats. Guided by these 1960 analogs, we inferred tsunami and earthquake history from sand sheets, tree rings, and old maps. At Chuyaquen, 10 km upriver from the sea, we studied sand sheets in 31 backhoe pits on a geologic transect 1 km long. Each sheet overlies the buried soil of a former marsh or meadow. The sand sheet from 1960 extends the entire length of the transect. Three earlier sheets can be correlated at least half that far. The oldest one, probably a tsunami deposit, surrounds herbaceous plants that date to AD 990-1160. Next comes a sandy tidal-flat deposit dated by stratigraphic position to about 1000-1500. The penultimate sheet is a tsunami deposit younger than twigs from 1410-1630. It probably represents the 1575 earthquake, whose accounts of shaking, tsunami, and landslides rival those of 1960. In that case, the record excludes the 1737 and 1837 events. The 1737 and 1837 events also appear missing in tree-ring evidence from islands of Misquihue, 30 km upriver from the sea. Here the subsidence in 1960 admitted brackish tidal water that defoliated tens of thousands of trees. We sampled 45 such trees, some of them completely dead and the rest surviving only from shoots near the ground. One-third of these trees lived through the 1837 earthquake; they contain over 180 annual rings. Five of the trees also contain rings earlier than 1737. From this evidence, we tentatively infer that the islands underwent more subsidence in 1960 than they did in 1737 or 1837. Comparisons with old Chilean documents for the estuary further suggest that subsidence in 1837 did not approach that of 1960. In their depiction and description of the Misquihue islands in 1874, surveyor Francisco Vidal and botanist Carlos Juliet show nothing like the ghost forests seen today. Twice in the first 37 years after the 1837 earthquake, surveyors mapped as emergent several islands that the 1960 earthquake would lower into tidal water. Today, 43 years after they subsided in 1960, these islands remain submerged as barren intertidal flats. Research supported by Fondecyt 1020224.

Atwater, B. F.; Cisternas, M.; Salgado, I.; Machuca, G.; Lagos, M.; Eipert, A.; Shishikura, M.

2003-12-01

34

XLVII. The effect of discontinuities of the background on the evaluation of the intensities of X-ray reflexions from crystalline powders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper relates to the measurement of X-ray intensities ; it discusses in particular the discontinuous character of the background of white radiation and its effect on the evaluation of the intensities of X-ray reflexions. Discontinuities of two types are considered arising from absorption steps and from sudden sensitivity changes of the photographic emulsion for certain wavelengths. Means of avoiding

A. Baxter; J. C. M. Brentano

1937-01-01

35

Reflexion on a method for Archaeology of technical machine: a multi-competences experience on roman wooden force pump of Perigueux  

E-print Network

1 Reflexion on a method for Archaeology of technical machine: a multi-competences experience will present the different sides of the multi-expertise for this archaeology and experimental archaeology validation. Keywords: Wooden Pump, archaeology virtual to real reconstruction, archaeology multi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

Changes in spectral reflexions from the iridophores of the neon tetra.  

PubMed Central

1. The iridescent stripe of the freshwater teleost, the neon tetra, changes from green in the daytime to violet-blue at night. 2. Spectral reflectance measurements were used to follow these colour changes. 3. Light causes a shift in reflectance to longer wavelengths in living fish and in isolated tissue from the lateral stripe. The change is reversed in darkness. 4. The spectral reflectance shifts to longer wavelengths when the fish is disturbed in darkness. No such colour changes were seen in fishes kept alive in 10(-4) M-reserpine. 5. Hypotonic Ringer solution causes a reflectance shift to longer wavelengths and hypertonic solution causes a shift to shorter wavelengths. 6. The iridescent reflexions from the lateral stripe which is continued across the iris originate from iridophores in the dermis. These iridophores contain regular stacks of broad, double-sided hexagonal plates that are about 10 nm thick. Each plate is contained within a pouch in the cytoplasm and is separated from its neighbour by approximately one quarter the wavelength of light. 7. A distinction is drawn between the physiologically active iridophores in the lateral stripe and iris that have broad hexagonal crystal plates which are very thin and the physiologically inactive iridophores that are also found in the iris, but in addition are found on the flanks below the lateral stripe, and on the head. These iridophores contain hexagonal crystals that are usually narrower than the active type, but are about 60-100 nm thick. Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 5 PMID:7108777

Lythgoe, J N; Shand, J

1982-01-01

37

The Diffusion of the Internet in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latin America is the hottest market in the world. It has surpassed Asia to become the world's fastest growing region. In 1997, total regional economic growth topped 5% while the leading economics of Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Chile averaged a sizzling 7%. The Latin American economic boom and falling trade barriers have brought an explosion of demand for all types

Marta Caceres; Fay Sudweeks

38

Earthquake-Ready High Rise in Chile  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A well-engineered high rise apartment and two-story building in Talca, Chile suffered no evident damage, though much of the city was affected by the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. Many buildings in this city were constructed with adobe or masonry and suffered major collapse. These undamaged buil...

2010-03-30

39

An Overview of Web Research in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on topics related to Internet dates in Chile since the verybeginning of its deployment in the country. Research on Web issues date from the late nineties, and was consolidated with the creation of the center for Web research (CWR) in the year 2002. A relevant by-product of the CWR'sactivities was the recent opening of a Yahoo! research laboratory at

Claudio Gutierrez; Mauricio Marn

2008-01-01

40

Volunteer Outreach Activities at ESO Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO staff in Chile are often asked to disseminate astronomical knowledge to schools and to the general public. A significant number of volunteers are now involved in these activities and the most recent projects in low-income schools and neighbourhoods are described and possible perspectives discussed.

ESO-Chile Outreach Volunteer Team

2012-06-01

41

Sexual Violence in College Students in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young women's experiences of sexual victimization can have far-reaching consequences, including unwanted pregnancy and increased risk of psychological, sexual, and reproductive health difficulties; these experiences can also limit young women's ability to achieve their educational potential. To date, no quantitative studies have examined sexual violence among college students in Chile. To address this gap, an anonymous survey was administered to

Jocelyn A. Lehrer; Vivian L. Lehrer; Evelyn L. Lehrer; Pamela Oyarzun

2007-01-01

42

Bat rabies in urban centers in Chile.  

PubMed

One hundred and five rabies isolates obtained from domestic animals and insectivorous bats in Chile between 1977 and 1998 were molecularly characterized by limited sequence analysis of their nucleoprotein genes. These isolates were compared with viruses isolated from known domestic and wildlife rabies reservoirs in the Americas to identify potential reservoirs of rabies in Chile. The phylogenetic analyses showed that none of the Chilean isolates segregated with viruses from the terrestrial reservoirs. No non-rabies lyssaviruses were found in this study. The Chilean samples were not related to viruses of the sylvatic cycle maintained by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) in Latin America. Five genetic variants were identified from insectivorous bats in Chile. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) was identified as the reservoir for the rabies genetic variant most frequently isolated in the country between 1977 and 1998. The close association of a group of viruses obtained from a domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Brazilian free-tailed bats, and a red bat (Lasiurus borealis) with viruses maintained by Lasiurus spp. in North America implicated species of this genus as the possible reservoirs of this particular genetic variant in Chile. Reservoirs for the other three variants remain unknown. PMID:10813604

de Mattos, C A; Favi, M; Yung, V; Pavletic, C; de Mattos, C C

2000-04-01

43

Dictatorship, democracy and corruption in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of corruption in Chile suffers from the lack of a pre-existing body of academic research on which to draw for historical or contemporary analysis. This situation may be partially explained by several factors. Firstly, academic research tends to be reactive rather than proactive, in the sense that issues rarely become researched until they are either topical, or perceived

Benny Pollack; Ann Matear

1996-01-01

44

DIETS OF SYMPATRIC RAPTORS IN SOUTHERN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the diets of four sympatric raptor species in Torres del Paine National Park, Magallanes region, Chile. This assemblage includes some of the least-known raptors in southern South America. Two strigids, Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) and Barn Owl (Tyto alba), had the most generalized diets. The Cinereous Harrier (Circus cinereus) preyed primarily on birds and lizards, and

AGUSTIN IRIARTE; WILLIAM L. FRANKLIN; WARREN E. JOHNSON

1990-01-01

45

Privatization and Vouchers in Colombia and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The voucher model of financing schooling is becoming increasingly common throughout Latin America, with at least 12 countries using vouchers or voucher-like schemes. The present study focuses on the voucher models of Colombia and Chile, which have the most extensive programs of this type and those of the longest standing in the region. Using

Arenas, Alberto

2004-01-01

46

Chile: When Tyrants Tremble: The Pinochet Case  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This recent report from Human Rights Watch (HRW) reviews the Spanish effort to extradite and try General Pinochet and the repercussions in Chile, which is holding presidential elections in December 1999. The 57-page report also offers some background on Pinochet's regime and HRW's recommendations to the Chilean and US Governments. This report is offered by chapter in HTML format.

Brett, Sebastian.

47

UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FSICAS Y MATEMTICAS  

E-print Network

UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS Y MATEMÁTICAS DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA;UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FÍSICAS Y MATEMÁTICAS DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA INDUSTRIAL PAGO POR

Dixon, Juan

48

History of Chile from the Conquest to Arturo Alessandri.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated bibliography of materials on the history of Chile from the 1500s to the twentieth century. The bibliography includes works from the United States, England, and Chile on a variety of topics, including the colonial period, Pre-Columbian Chile, Indian life, culture, political structure, the impact of Spanish Imperialism, land

Slater, William F.

1981-01-01

49

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA INTERCONEXI?N DE SISTEMAS EL?CTRICOS título de Ingeniero Civil de Industrias, con Diploma en Ingeniería Eléctrica. Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK V.D.W. Santiago de Chile, 2005 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA

Dixon, Juan

50

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA ASPECTOS T?CNICO ECON?MICOS PARA para optar al título de Ingeniero Civil Electricista Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, 2011 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

51

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA "CONEXI?N DE ENERGÍAS RENOVABLES NO CONVENCIONALES AL SISTEMA EL?CTRICO" DANIEL ALFONSO CELIS RIOSECO Memoria para optar al título de Ingeniero Civil Santiago de Chile, 2011 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de

Dixon, Juan

52

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA EL?CTRICA Ingeniero Civil Industrial Diploma en Ingeniería Eléctrica Profesor Supervisor: JUAN W. DIXON R. Santiago de Chile, 2001 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

53

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA SISTEMA DE MONITOREO DE BATERÍAS EN Ingeniero Civil Electricista Profesor Supervisor: JUAN DIXON R. Santiago de Chile, 2004 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica SISTEMA DE MONITOREO

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

54

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA AUMENTO DEL RENDIMIENTO EN UN título de Ingeniero Civil Electricista. Profesores Supervisores: JUAN W. DIXON R. ANGEL C. ABUSLEME H. Santiago de Chile, 2002 #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

55

Electricity Reform in Chile: Lessons for Developing Countries  

E-print Network

% for the country as a whole, but 58% in the central system)7 but as demand increases fossil fuels have become more important (in this it is comparable to Columbia and the south west of Brazil). However Chile is perhaps unusual among developing countries because... of the strength of protection for private property and the stability engendered by the long period of economically disciplined military rule. 2. Chiles Electricity Reform In 1974 Chiles electricity utilities were in a mess.8 Inflation, high fuel prices...

Pollitt, Michael G.

2006-03-14

56

CIA, State, NSC Documents Declassified on Chile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Security Archive (NSA) has posted a selection of recently declassified documents regarding the tyrannical regime of General Augusto Pinochet in Chile (see the October 20, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). The nine salient documents -- released by the US State Department, the National Security Council (NSC), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) -- cover the bloodiest years of Pinochet's reign, 1973 to 1978. This fall, thousands of top secret US documents related to Pinochet's Chile are expected to be publicly released, and the NSA plans to digitize selected documents for its Website. In addition to the nine documents included in the new release, the NSA also provides access to several previously declassified documents about Pinochet and his 1973 coup.

57

Familial chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands, Chile.  

PubMed Central

Studies about chondrocalcinosis in the Chiloe Islands (Chile) showed the high frequency of the disease there and how most of it is aggregated in a few highly involved families. Pedigrees and the high degree of consanguinity among parents of index cases pointed to a recessive inheritance. The presence of common Caucasian anthropological features of genetic value in the patients and the lack of Indian mixture in three of the involved families, documented back to 1600, suggest a Caucasian origin of the mutation. Biochemical studies of the patients' synovial fluid showed a significant rise in pyrophosphate concentration. Calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were not different from a control group. PMID:168817

Reginato, A J; Hollander, J L; Martinez, V; Valenzuela, F; Schiapachasse, V; Covarrubias, E; Jacobelli, S; Arinoviche, R; Silcox, D; Ruiz, F

1975-01-01

58

Contributions to the mammalogy of Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Collections of mammals were made during more than three years of biological investigations in Chile sponsored by the Corporacin Nacional Forestal under the aegis of the Peace Corps (Smithsonian Environmental Program). Genera and species hitherto unreported for that country were taken and many useful data concerning distributional patterns of other (mostly little-known) species were gathered. These collections have also proved valuable in better understanding Chilean mammals from a taxonomic point of view and contribute knowledge of the species' natural history. Specimens are to be deposited in the (United States) National Museum of Natural History (USNM) or are to be retained by the Corporacin Nacional Forestal, Avda, Bulnes 285, Depto. 401, Santiago. Numbers provided below are field numbers. A final division of specimens between the two institutions has not yet been made. A number of specimens reported here were not taken by Peace Corps personnel but have been obtained by the National Museum of Natural History from other sources. Specimens in the Field Museum of Natural History (FMNH) were used in making comparisons. Some of Fulk's (GWF) specimens are at Texas Tech University. Other are at the Servicio Agricola y Ganadero in Santiago (as are specimens of some introduced species taken by Schamberger). Reise's (DF) are at the Universidad de Chile-Concepcin and in his personal collection.

Pine, Ronald H.; Miller, Sterling D.; Schamberger, Mel L.

1979-01-01

59

The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during

Walter, Amy R.

2005-01-01

60

Small mammal communities in rainforest fragments in Central Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Valdivian temperate rainforest of southern Chile and adjacent Argentina supports a diverse and unique biota, with a high percentage of endemic species. Progressive exploitation of these forests, especially in the Central Depression of southern Chile, has resulted in a complex and increasingly fragmented environment composed of isolated forest remnants in a landscape dominated by grazing and crop cultivation. To

Douglas A. Kelt

2000-01-01

61

Arsenic Exposure and Its Impact on Health in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of arsenic in Chile was reviewed. In Chile, the population is exposed to arsenic naturally via drinking-water and by air pollution resulted from mining activities. The sources of arsenic were iden- tified to estimate the exposure of population to arsenic through air, water, and food. Health effects, particularly early effects, observed in children and adults, such as vascular

Catterina Ferreccio; Ana Mara Sancha

2006-01-01

62

The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limar, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limar valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993,

Robert R. Hearne; K. William Easter

1997-01-01

63

Chile: Pioneer in deregulation of the electric power sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the deregulation of the electric power sector in Chile. Chile was the leader in Latin America in the restructuring of the electric power sector, and its case merits particular analysis. Although a small system (70% of installed capacity is hydroelectric with 2,800 MW maximum demand in 1993), its development has been observed with interest by many institutions,

H. Rudnick

1994-01-01

64

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA EL?CTRICA EDUARDO ORCHARD CONCHA Memoria para optar al grado de Ingeniero Civil Industrial Diploma en Ingeniería DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERÍA EL?CTRICA SISTEMA DE CONTROL PARA UN

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

65

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DISE?O Y CONSTRUCCI?N DE UN INVERSOR TRIFÁSICO MULTINIVEL FELIPE EDUARDO RÍOS DÍAZ Memoria para optar al título de Ingeniero Civil Industrial #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

66

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DISE?O Y CONSTRUCCI?N DE UN INVERSOR SCHUWIRTH Memoria para optar al título de Ingeniero Civil Industrial, con Diploma en Ingeniería Eléctrica CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de (departamento) DISE?O Y CONSTRUCCI?N DE UN INVERSOR

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

67

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA CÁLCULO DE UN ÍNDICE DE PROBABILÍSTICO ANALÍTICO RICARDO LARRAÍN LLONA Memoria para optar al título de Ingeniero Civil de Industrias con;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial y de

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

68

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA CELDAS FOTOVOLTAICAS EN GENERACION DISTRIBUIDA ISIDRO ELVIS PEREDA SOTO Memoria para optar al título de Ingeniero Civil Industrial Mención CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica CELDAS FOTOVOLTAICAS EN GENERACION

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

69

World Perspective Case Descriptions on Educational Programs for Adults: Chile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains two case studies of adult education programs in Chile. Both case studies begin with a "face sheet" on which is recorded basic information about the program and the description. The first case study, prepared by Patricio Donoso, reports on Centro El Canelo de Nos, an inservice center for educators who work with Chile's most

Donoso, Patricio; Gajardo, Marcela

70

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, Marzo, 2007 #12;ii A Carlos Domingo y

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

71

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERA  

E-print Network

Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, Agosto, 2007 CORTÁZAR Para completar las exigencias del grado de Magíster Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

72

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: JULIO VERGARA AIMONE Santiago de Chile, abril exigencias del grado de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, abril, 2012 #12;ii El futuro

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

73

Chile: Progress Stalled Setbacks in Freedom of Expression Reform  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In March 2001, Human Rights Watch released this new report. "Chile: Progress Stalled Setbacks in Freedom of Expression Reform" examines the failure of the current democratic government of Chile to repeal repressive laws established and enforced under Pinochet, including laws that criminalize speech and make "contempt of authority" a crime against the state.

2001-01-01

74

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT �OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIER�IA MEDICI �ON DEL IMPACTO DE LA ALEJANDRO URZ �UA M. #12;PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CAT �OLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIER�IA MEDICI �ON DEL

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

75

Endemic Scrub Typhus-like Illness, Chile  

PubMed Central

We report a case of scrub typhus in a 54-year-old man who was bitten by several terrestrial leeches during a trip to Chilo Island in southern Chile in 2006. A molecular sample, identified as related to Orientia tsutsugamushi based on the sequence of the16S rRNA gene, was obtained from a biopsy specimen of the eschar on the patients leg. Serologic analysis showed immunoglobulin G conversion against O. tsutsugamushi whole cell antigen. This case and its associated molecular analyses suggest that an Orientia-like agent is present in the Western Hemisphere that can produce scrub typhuslike illness. The molecular analysis suggests that the infectious agent is closely related, although not identical, to members of the Orientia sp. from Asia. PMID:21888791

Balcells, M. Elvira; Rabagliati, Ricardo; Garcia, Patricia; Poggi, Helena; Oddo, David; Concha, Marcela; Abarca, Katia; Jiang, Ju; Richards, Allen L.; Fuerst, Paul A.

2011-01-01

76

Three halls for music performance in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

2002-11-01

77

Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.  

PubMed

Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

2007-04-01

78

The Politics of Space and Culture in Santiago, Chiles Street Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent discussions of contentious politics have focused on struggles in and over space and place. This article builds upon\\u000a these concerns by using ethnographic, interview, and documentary data to analyze the spatial politics of street market vendors\\u000a in Santiago, Chile. Drawing upon Lefebvres concepts of perceived, conceived, and lived space as well as ideas drawn from\\u000a research on space and

Joel Stillerman

2006-01-01

79

Amending and complicating Chiles seismic catalog with the Santiago earthquake of 7 August 1580  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical earthquakes of Chile's metropolitan region include a previously uncatalogued earthquake that occurred on 7 August 1580 in the Julian calendar. We found an authoritative account of this earthquake in a letter written four days later in Santiago and now archived in Spain. The letter tells of a destructive earthquake that struck Santiago and its environs. In its reported effects it surpassed the one in the same city in 1575, until now presumed to be the only earthquake in the first century of central Chile's written history. It is not yet possible to identify the source of the 1580 earthquake but viable candidates include both the plate boundary and Andean faults at shallows depths around Santiago. By occurring just five years after another large earthquake, the 1580 earthquake casts doubt on the completeness of the region's historical earthquake catalog and the periodicity of its large earthquakes. That catalog, based on eyewitness accounts compiled mainly by Alexander Perrey and Fernand Montessus de Ballore, tells of large Chile's metropolitan region earthquakes in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. The addition of a large earthquake in 1580 implies greater variability in recurrence intervals and may also mean greater variety in earthquake sources.

Cisternas, Marco; Torrejn, Fernando; Gorigoitia, Nicols

2012-02-01

80

ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO and the Government of Chile launched today the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", written by the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile Joint Committee. This annual fund provides grants for individual Chilean scientists, research infrastructures, scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In a ceremony held in Santiago on 19 June 2006, the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere (ESO) and the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs marked the 10th Anniversary of the Supplementary Agreement, which granted to Chilean astronomers up to 10 percent of the total observing time on ESO telescopes. This agreement also established an annual fund for the development of astronomy, managed by the so-called "ESO-Chile Joint Committee". ESO PR Photo 21/06 ESO PR Photo 21/06 Ten Years ESO-Chile Agreement Ceremony The celebration event was hosted by ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of Special Policy for the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ambassador Luis Winter. "ESO's commitment is, and always will be, to promote astronomy and scientific knowledge in the country hosting our observatories", said ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky. "We hope Chile and Europe will continue with great achievements in this fascinating joint adventure, the exploration of the universe." On behalf of the Government of Chile, Ambassador Luis Winter outlined the historical importance of the Supplementary Agreement, ratified by the Chilean Congress in 1996. "Such is the magnitude of ESO-Chile Joint Committee that, only in 2005, this annual fund represented 8 percent of all financing sources for Chilean astronomy, including those from Government and universities", Ambassador Winter said. The ESO Representative and Head of Science in Chile, Dr. Felix Mirabel, and the appointed Chilean astronomer for the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, Dr. Leonardo Bronfman, also took part in the ceremony, along with ambassadors in Chile of ESO members States, and representatives of the Chilean government and the scientific community. To review the impact of the numerous projects financed over the last decade, ESO presented the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", based on the reports of the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile fund. Since the beginning, the ESO-Chile fund has granted over 2.5 million euros to finance post-doc and astronomy professors for main Chilean universities, development of research infrastructure, organisation of scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers, and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In addition to the 400,000 euros given annually by ESO to the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, around 550,000 euros are granted every year to finance regional collaboration programmes, fellowships for students in Chilean universities, and the development of radio astronomy through the ALMA-Chile Committee. In total, apart form the 10 percent of the observing time at all ESO telescopes, ESO contributes annually with 950,000 euros for the promotion of astronomy and scientific culture in Chile. The growth of astronomy and related sciences in Chile in the last years has been outstanding. According to a study by the Chilean Academy of Science in 2005, the number of astronomers has doubled over the last 20 years and there has been an 8-fold increase in the number of scientific publications. It is gratifying to see that 100 percent of the observing time granted by international observatories in Chile is actually used by the national community. The same study stated that astronomy could be the first scientific discipline in Chile with the standards of a developed country, with additional benefits in terms of technological improvement and growth of human resources. The English edition of the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe" is available here. The Spanish edition can be downloaded here.

2006-06-01

81

Subduction erosion along the North Chile margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Swathbathymetry off Antofagasta reveals many tectonic features of the north ChileTrench. Since sediment on the oceanic plate is only 100 m thick, and since the continental slopeis essentially eroded crystalline crust, basement rock is commonly near the sea floor. Therefore,high resolution bathymetry is a good indicator of basement structure. The narrow shelf and upperslope are characterized by canyons crossed locally by extensional faults. Mejillones Ridge ispositioned anomalously seaward of the coastal Cordillera and its emergent crest forms theMejillones Peninsula. The flanks of this 100 km long uplifted feature are characterized by manynormal faults. Normal faults partition the middle slope into blocks obscured by a downslopemobile blanket of debris thick enough to mute all but the major basement structure. In the middleslope, coherent detached blocks disintegrate rapidly by mass wasting. The lower slope is slidedebris pushed into low ridges and troughs by the well developed subducting horst and grabentopography of the oceanic plate. Detritus and sediment moves downslope into graben, levels thesubducting plate, and is pushed up over small ridges. Sediment and debris piled against the base ofthe slope as the plates converge is underthrust with the subducting plate. Compressional featuresare confined to the lower quarter of the slope and are isolated from extension of the middle andupper slope. 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Huene, R. von; Weinrebe, W.; Heeren, F.

1999-02-01

82

ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

2014-07-01

83

Increasing the donor pool in Chile.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ donation in Chile following the creation of the "Corporacin Nacional de Fomento de Trasplantes." The corporation was created in 1991 as a private, nonprofit organization whose main purpose was to increase the number of actual donors and multiorgan procurement. The organization is independent of the national government and acts as a link between the needs of patients and society and those of the National Ministry of Health. Following the creation of the corporation, the number of actual donors increased from 32 to 98. The number of potential donors increased 3-fold. Family refusal for organ donation was between 28% and 53.4%. Pediatric and marginal donors increased from 2% to 15%. Ninety-five percent of the donors came from Santiago, where 33% of the population lives and most of the efforts were concentrated. The corporation is working to increase organ donation throughout the rest of the country by organizing public campaigns; promoting knowledge about transplantation among medical and nursing personnel at hospitals, schools, universities, and social gatherings; evaluating technical and financial results; and helping with the processes of organ procurement. PMID:10205466

Palacios, J M

1998-12-01

84

Reflexiones acerca de la presencia de las tecnologas de la informacin y la comunicacin en la cultura de los estudiantes  

Microsoft Academic Search

En el entorno sociocultural de inicios del siglo XXI es cada vez mayor la relacin de los seres humanos con las llamadas Tecnologas de la Informacin y la Comunicacin (TIC). Si bien es cierto que la preocupacin por perfeccionar y agilizar la comunicacin ha sido una constante en el hombre desde sus orgenes, no hay dudas de que a partir

Roco Dalia Rodrguez Gutirrez; Raisa Torres Ruiz

2009-01-01

85

The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23 and -18 latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition, site installation was accomplished with special care. At each station a cavern was blasted into the bedrock up to 5 meters deep to ensure stable conditions for measurements. Currently five stations are additionally recording continuously GPS signals, another five are also recording meteorological data, and another seven are equipped with Magneto-Telluric (MT) probes (fluxgate magnetometers and electrode lines). It is planned to extend the multi-parameter observation to as many stations as possible. So far ten of the stations are sending continuous data via satellite links (VSAT) to the GEOFON data host at the GFZ. We will be reporting first results on seismicity, transient deformation and MT from the first two years of recording.

Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

2009-04-01

86

Diagnosing and mitigating market power in Chile's electricity industry  

E-print Network

This paper examines the incentives to exercise market power that generators would face and the different strategies that they would follow if all electricity supplies in Chile were traded in an hourly-unregulated spot ...

Arellano, Mara Soledad

2003-01-01

87

7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica...with a liquid soap and water solution, washed with...be washed with soapy water and the collected filtrate... Each consignment of fresh pomegranates must...

2013-01-01

88

7 CFR 319.56-56 - Fresh pomegranates from Chile.  

... 319.56-56 Fresh pomegranates from Chile. Fresh pomegranates (Punica...with a liquid soap and water solution, washed with...be washed with soapy water and the collected filtrate... Each consignment of fresh pomegranates must...

2014-01-01

89

Preliminary forecast model energy map - 2010 Chile event  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image show preliminary calculations for wave height resulting from the February 2010 tsunami generated by the 8.8 magnitude earthquake that struck just offshore of Maule, Chile on February 27, 2010.

Center, Noaa T.

90

Latin American Outlook April 1, 2000: Chile Moves On  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The April 2000 issue of Latin American Outlook from the AEI consists of the article "Chile Moves On," by Mark Folcoff. Latin American Outlook is a monthly newsletter on political and economic developments in Latin America.

Folcoff, Mark.

2000-01-01

91

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

SANHUEZA Tesis para optar al grado de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH del grado de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, Diciembre 2004 #12;ii A mis

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

92

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, Julio 2012 FINAT DIAZ HECTOR JORQUERA GONZÁLEZ Para completar las exigencias del grado de Magister en Ciencias de

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

93

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingenier�a Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de en Ciencias de la Ingenier�a Santiago de Chile, (Enero, 2014) #12;i A mis padres, mi polola y toda mi

Dixon, Juan

94

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

Doctor en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile VIAL EDWARDS Para completar las exigencias del grado de Doctor en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

95

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

IN THE CHILEAN ELECTRICITY MARKET PABLO I. VARAS VALENZUELA Tesis para optar al grado de Magister en Ciencias de SCHLEYER Para completar las exigencias del grado de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

96

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

grado de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago completar las exigencias del grado de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, agosto, 2013

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

97

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK VAN DE WYNGARD Santiago de Chile, Abril 2008 BERNARDO DOMINGUEZ COVARRUBIAS Para completar las exigencias del grado de Magister en Ciencias de la

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

98

Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries  

E-print Network

Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

Pollitt, Michael G.

2004-01-01

99

Pollution in coastal fog at Alto Patache, Northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe Atacama Desert in Northern Chile is one of the most arid places on earth. However, fog occurs regularly at the coastal\\u000a mountain range and can be collected at different sites in Chile to supply settlements at the coast with freshwater. This is\\u000a also planned in the fog oasis Alto Patache (2049?S, 7009?W). For this pilot study, we collected fog

Ellen Strter; Anna Westbeld; Otto Klemm

2010-01-01

100

Quality evaluation of commercial chile-based salsas  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine quality characteristics of commercial salsa products was conducted to assist small manufacturers in developing competitive products. Nine brands of red-type chile salsa and six brands of green-type chile salsa were evaluated for chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties. The pH values for all red-type and all but one brand of green-type salsa were below 4.2. Moisture

L. H. McKee; J. Christopher; M. A. Bock

2003-01-01

101

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

102

Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile Departamento de Ingeniera Elctrica  

E-print Network

establecido3Geotérmica 1800Solar Térmica Alta Temperatura 33645Solar Térmica Baja Temperatura 197Solar) 2010 [MW]2003 [MW] #12;300% Solar térmica alta temperatura 300%Fotovoltaica > 100 kW 575%Fotovoltaica Universidad Católica de Chile Santiago, Chile h.rudnick@ieee.org www.ing.puc.cl/power/ Versión definitiva en

Rudnick, Hugh

103

Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas  

E-print Network

Universidad de Chile Facultad de Ciencias F´isicas y Matem´aticas Departamento de Ingenier´ia Matem´isicas y Matem´aticas Departamento de Ingenier´ia Matem´atica C´alculo y Estabilidad de Equilibrios de Nash T´ITULO DE INGENIERO CIVIL MATEM´ATICO SANTIAGO DE CHILE Agosto 2002 #12;RESUMEN DEL INFORME FINAL

Xuan, Dong

104

Seismicity distribution in the vicinity of the Chile Triple Junction, Aysn Region, southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aysn Region, southern Chile, is the area located at the southern end of the Nazca-South America subduction zone, to the east of the Chile Triple Junction. This region has historically presented low levels of seismicity mostly related to volcanism. Nonetheless, a seismic sequence occurred in 2007, related to the reactivation of the strike-slip Liquie-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS), confirmed that this region is not exempt from major seismic activity M 7. Here we present results from background local seismicity of two years (2004-2005) preceding the sequence of 2007. Event magnitudes range between 0.5 and 3.4 ML and hypocenters occur at shallow depths, mostly within the upper 10 km of crust, in the overriding South American plate. No events were detected in the area locus of the 2007 sequence, and the Wadati-Benioff (WB) plane is not observable given the lack of subduction inter-plate seismicity in the area. A third of the seismicity is related to Hudson volcano activity, and sparse crustal events can be spatially associated with the trace of the Liquie-Ofqui fault, showing the largest detected magnitudes, in particular at the place where the two main branches of the LOFS meet. Other minor sources of seismicity correspond to glacial calving in the terminal zones of glaciers and mining explosions.

Agurto-Detzel, Hans; Rietbrock, Andreas; Bataille, Klaus; Miller, Matthew; Iwamori, Hikaru; Priestley, Keith

2014-04-01

105

Analysis and projections of physics in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient for a community that has doubled. Likewise, even 50% of the productivity corresponds to regional centres, only 35% of projects coming from FONDECYT are awarded to the regions (away from the metropolitan region). Regarding experimental Physics, this represents 20% of the community in both, researchers and productivity of the community. However, in the regular FONDECYT contest in 2005, only 2 projects (10%) were awarded in experimental Physics, which is undoubtedly insufficient. The study also includes a brief analysis according to social appraisal of Physics, dissemination activities to other areas of national living, and relation of Physics with the productive sector. Finally, some recommendations are made: - To create a special fund for experimental Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. Complementarily, experimental Physics should be one of the priority areas for the technological and scientific development of the country. - To duplicate the amount assigned to Physics in the regular FONDECYT contest. - To create a system that allows increasing the salaries of the researchers in Physics so they could be assimilated to other professional salaries in our country or at an international level. Not only demands must be globalized but also the benefits.

Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutirrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

2008-11-01

106

Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad  

PubMed Central

Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it. Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

2014-01-01

107

Injuries due to deliberate violence in Chile.  

PubMed

An analysis was made over a period of 6 months of the incidents involving deliberate violence as registered in 'Vicaria', the clinic for out-patients within the Cathedral of Santiago de Chile. A total of 236 victims of deliberate violence were observed. Men aged 15-24 years were found to be victims of deliberate violence most frequently. 'Under education' was the most frequently registered occupation for both sexes, and a large group of male victims were 'Unemployed'. 82% of the victims were men and 14% women, 1.5% were boys and 1.5% girls less than or equal to 14 years of age. None of the victims were alcohol intoxicated when arriving in the clinic. The incidents took place in streets for 81% of the male victims and 79% of the female victims, and in the majority of the cases the aggressor(s) was one (or several) police officer(s). Six percent of the female victims had been injured at home. There was no reporting of the aggressor being a relative or acquaintance. The most frequent type of violence was blunt violence from baton(s) (44%), while blunt violence without the use of instruments was reported less frequently (33%). The use of firearms was registered in 18% of the cases, and of sharp instruments, combustion, electro-shock and chain in 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.1% and 0.4% of the cases respectively. A total of 517 primary and secondary diagnoses were applied to the patients. Most of the victims (99%) had moderate or less serious lesions according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) (score less than or equal to 2). Twenty-four percent of the victims had more than 4 lesions, and 7% more than 10 lesions. The head/neck region and the trunk were affected with equal frequency, the frequency of injuries of the head/neck region being comparable with that observed among torture victims and in contrast to the pronounced predominance of injuries of the head/neck region observed in a Danish emergency ward study of deliberate violence. PMID:2376361

Aalund, O; Danielsen, L; Sanhueza, R O

1990-07-01

108

Effect of chemical peeling on the processing quality of long-green mild chile (Capasicum annuum)  

E-print Network

and shape of fresh chiles, 8 Textural attributes of fresh and processed chiles . . 9 Effects of peeling treatment on texture of processed chiles. 1O Effect of variety on sensory panel scores of processed chiles on a 9 point hedonic scale . 11 Effects... of peeling treatment on sensory panel scores of processed chiles on a 9 point hedonic scale 50 51 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Chile with portion of fru1t wall removed. Page 10 Sections through pepper pericarp in differ- ent stages of development...

Tillman, Richard Erland

2012-06-07

109

New L Chondrites from Antofagasta, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Desert regions can be productive meteorite recovery locations because of low humidity, minimal ground cover and, in favorable situations, high prevailing winds to deflate surfaces. For these reasons we have made reconnaissance searches of a particularly arid Atacama Desert tract between Antofagasta and Mejillones, Chile (approx. 23 degrees 15'S, 70 degrees 30'W). One of us (EMR) had previously collected new ordinary chondrites from this same area, which has been named Pampa (a), (b), (c), and (e). The Pampa de Agua Blanca (PAB) chondrite is also apparently from this same area. In our brief 1991 reconnaissance we found additional specimens of (a) and (c). All of these meteorites have been found as multiple stones, necessitating pairing studies. Consequently, we examined our finds (a, b, c, and e), borrowed specimens from the Field Museum (a, b, PAB) and Robert Haag (c), and have performed the first detailed studies of the Pampa meteorites. Here we summarize results of these studies. Shock levels refer to the classification developed by Stoffler et al. (1991). PAMPA (a): This weathered meteorite is represented by several partially fusion-crusted fragments with a combined mass of approximately 380 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section, although some chondrule fragments are present; considerable recrystallization is evident and plagioclase (Ab(sub)80Or5-Ab(sub)83Or(sub)5) is present as clear grains. Diopside and hydroxylapatite are also present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.4% mean deviation-PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (a) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA (b): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with a combined weight of approximately 10 kg. We examined thin sections from four individual stones of (b). A few distinct barred chondrules are evident in thin section, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)74.8 mean, 0.9 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, minor mosaicism and very rare (<25%) planar deformation features. We classify Pampa (b) as L4/5, shock level 4. PAMPA (c): This is a highly weathered, desert-varnished meteorite represented by numerous stones with a combined weight of approximately 25 kg. We examined sections from three stones of (c); the most notable feature of the meteorite is considerable darkening. Metal is almost entirely weathered. A few distinct barred and excentroradial chondrules are evident, along with numerous chondrule and aggregate fragments. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.3 mean, 0.8 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, mosaicism, planar deformation features, and melt veins and pockets. Some turbid glass is present. We classify Pampa (c) as L4, shock level 6. The classification of Pampa (c) given in the Meteoritical Bulletin (Graham, 1989) (L6) is incorrect. PAMPA (e): This is a weathered meteorite represented by numerous individual stones with an unknown total mass. No distinct chondrules are present in the single thin section available to us. Considerable recrystallization is evident, and clear plagioclase grains are present. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.0 mean, 0.07 PMD) exhibits no shock effects. We classify Pampa (e) as L6, shock level 1. PAMPA de AGUA BLANCA: This is a weathered meteorite represented by specimens totaling 10 g. No distinct chondrules are evident in thin section. Olivine (Fo(sub)75.2 mean, 0.2 PMD) exhibits undulatory extinction, planar fractures, minor mosaicism and very rare (<25%) planar deformation features. Clear plagioclase (Ab(sub)76Or(sub)8-Ab(sub)84Or(sub)5) grains are present. We classify Pampa de Agua Blanca as L6, shock level 4. We conclude by noting that the Atacama Desert in general, and the Antofagasta area in particular, appears to be a fruitful region for future meteorite searches. We note with curiosity that all chondrites found to date in the Antofogasta-Mejillones area have been of the L persuasion. METEORITE OLIVINE (Fo) PYROXENE (En) GLASS? SHOCK CLASS. MEAN PMD CaO MEAN PMD Pampa (a) L6 75.0 0.4 <=0.05 77.2 0.7 NO 1 Pampa (b) L

Martinez, R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez de Los Rios, E.

1992-07-01

110

ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. ESO has constructed a road from the main road in the area (the ``Old Panamericana'') to the summit. It passes by the ESO base camp (in the foreground, left of the road). The constructors' camp is located on the other side of the road. This photo (ESO PR Photo 08/94-1) accompanies ESO Press Release 08/94 of 6 May 1994 and may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-2: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is located in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. The altitude is 2650 metres. In this view towards the East, the high mountains of the Andean Cordillera are in the background. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. The four excavations for the buildings that will house the four 8.2 metre VLT unit telescopes are clearly seen. There are some dust clouds from the construction activity at the site. There are several other peaks in this area which may possibly be used for astronomical installations. The one to the left on which some site testing equipment can be seen, is known as the ``NTT Peak''. This photo (ESO PR Photo 08/94-2) accompanies ESO Press Release 08/94 of 6 May 1994 and may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory. ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-3: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is located in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. The altitude is 2650 metres. The top of the mountain has been levelled to make place for the extensive VLT installations. The four excavations for the buildings that will house t

1994-05-01

111

The New Student Loan System in Chile's Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile's higher education system stands out as being one of the most privatized and open to the market in the world. Recently, the Chilean Congress passed Law #20.027 of 2005, which provides the legal framework for the creation of a student loan system guaranteed both by the State and by higher education institutions (HEIs), financed by the private

Larrain, Christian; Zurita, Salvador

2008-01-01

112

Pablo Valdes-Donoso DVM (University of Chile), MPVM (UCD).  

E-print Network

with factors, such as the environmental health, the interphase among humans, domestic and wildlife animals, sustainable animal production, human and animal welfare, etc. PUBLICATIONS Co-infection patterns of two high-risk diseases affecting farmed Atlantic salmon in southern Chile (2007- 2009). 2013. Valdes-Donoso P., Mardones

Leistikow, Bruce N.

113

Misattributed tsunami: Chile, Sumatra and the subduction model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsunami intensity is poorly correlated with earthquake magnitude. The distribution of aftershocks that immediately followed the 2010 Maule (Chile), the 2004 SumatraAndaman and the 2005 Nias (Indonesia) events supports the view that faulting within an accretionary wedge or an outer rise can sometimes disrupt the seafloor more effectively than a megathrust even if the associated seismicity is minor. Monitoring offshore

Claudio Vita-Finzi

2011-01-01

114

Advective, orographic and radiation fog in the Tarapac region, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A project in northern Chile was undertaken to determine the origin and behaviour of fog in the coastal and inland locations of the Tarapac Region. In the Pampa del Tamarugal, 50 km from the sea, conditions exist for the formation of radiation fog. Advective fog has been studied on the coast and orographic fog was observed at a few coastal

P Cereceda; P Osses; H Larrain; M Far??as; M Lagos; R Pinto; R. S Schemenauer

2002-01-01

115

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the NPPO of Chile after the post-harvest processing. A biometric sample will be drawn and examined from each consignment...is released for entry into the United States. (ii) A biometric sample of boxes from each consignment will be selected...

2010-01-01

116

7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the NPPO of Chile after the post-harvest processing. A biometric sample will be drawn and examined from each consignment...is released for entry into the United States. (ii) A biometric sample of boxes from each consignment will be selected...

2011-01-01

117

National Television of Chile--New headquarters building acoustic projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 15 years TV stations in Chile have been incorporating in their facilities architectural acoustic and noise control approaches. This has been necessary as much for the technological advance, as for the necessity to achieve a better quality of sound that the listeners receive. In 1998, the National Television of Chile, with the sponsorship of the College of Architects of Chile, requested preliminary architectural designs in order to enlarge and to renovate its headquarters buildings in Santiago, Chile in stages. The Acoustic Project has been developed in an integral way, with three fundamental disciplines: noise and noise control; Machine rooms; vibrations and vibration control; Buildings, engines; architectural acoustics and acoustic comfort; TV studios and technical rooms. This presentation describes the Acoustic Project, phases I (1999), and II (2002), how it was possible to establish a common language with architects and engineers and the different specialties, to apply acoustic criteria and standards, the theoretical development and the projected acoustic solutions. (To be presented in Spanish.)

Huaquin, Mario

2002-11-01

118

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

E-print Network

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung

California at Berkeley, University of

119

Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN  

E-print Network

7 th ISE & 8 th HIC Chile, 2009 HYDRAULIC MANAGEMENT OF FILAMENTOUS ALGAE IN OPEN-CHANNEL NETWORKS channels which are specific eco-systems for many reasons. Firstly, they have to fulfill hydraulic, artificial channels have a relatively simple geometry and their hydraulic variables are easier to monitor

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

120

Progress in the utilization of solar energy in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar energy research in Chile is discussed in terms of indirect and direct utilization. Solar evaporation, solar distillation, and solar heating are examples of indirect utilization. Specific projects involving the production of table salt from sea water are explained, and equipment used for solar desalination, cookers, and furnaces is described. Research on the direct utilization of solar energy includes studies

J. G. Hirschmann; B. Seifert

1977-01-01

121

Quaternary Pollen Record from Laguna De Tagua Tagua, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen of southern beech and podocarp at Laguna de Tagua Tagua during the late Pleistocene indicates that cooler and more humid intervals were a feature of Ice Age climate at this subtropical latitude in Chile. The influence of the southern westerlies may have been greater at this time, and the effect of the Pacific anticyclone was apparently weakened. The climate

Calvin J. Heusser

1983-01-01

122

Labor Market Participation of Women in Chile 1958-2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study is to analyze the trends in the labor market participation of women between 1958 and 2003. Two main sources of primary data are used: the Employment Survey of the University of Chile, which covers the city of Santiago in the 1958-2003 period, and the CASEN socioeconomic household survey, which covers the whole country between 1987

Osvaldo Larragaa Jimnez

2007-01-01

123

Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile Escuela de Ingeniera  

E-print Network

Térmico, Hidrógeno), sus características y costos. El almacenamiento de energia es una pieza clave para renovables (e.g. solar, eólica). #12;Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Escuela de Ingeniería Magíster

Rudnick, Hugh

124

Women prosecuted and imprisoned for abortion in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is one of the last countries in the world where abortion is absolutely illegal. This paper reports on a study of 80 women who were prosecuted in Santiago for having had an abortion, mostly young women, eight of whom became pregnant following rape; 40 women who were prosecuted for performing abortions, almost all older women; and 12 mainly friends

Lidia Casas-Becerra

1997-01-01

125

Antecedentes sobre el desarrollo de la carcinologa en Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the utilization of crustaceans in continental Chile is at least 10,200 years old, the formal descrip- tion of the components of the Chilean carcinofauna only began about 200 years ago; Juan I. Molina having being the first Chilean naturalist to scientifically name autochtonous crustacean species. Many foreign and national scientists have contributed, with their efforts, to the development of

Carlos G. Jara

1997-01-01

126

Leadership Practices: A Comparison Between Chile And The United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leadership is a key element in the successful execution of any strategic plan. It is important to recognize differing perceptions concerning performance of leadership practices across cultures. This study compares leadership practices between the USA and Chile, using the LPI-Self questionnaire developed by Kouzes & Posner (1993) as the instrument for data collection. The results of the study show that

Leopoldo Arias-Bolzmann; Stanley J. Stough; Chellappan Somarajan; Leonardo Garcia-Polo

127

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND WOMEN'S MENTAL HEALTH IN CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation modeling to test the hypothesis that poverty and other structural inequalities would be

Rosario Ceballo; Cynthia Ramirez; Marcela Castillo; Gabriela Alejandra Caballero; Betsy Lozoff

2004-01-01

128

Forecasting ozone daily maximum levels at Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In major urban areas, air pollution impact on health is serious enough to include it in the group of meteorological variables that are forecast daily. This work focusses on the comparison of different forecasting systems for daily maximum ozone levels at Santiago, Chile. The modelling tools used for these systems were linear time series, artificial neural networks and fuzzy models.

Hctor Jorquera; Ricardo Prez; Aldo Cipriano; Andrs Espejo; M. Victoria Letelier; Gonzalo Acua

1998-01-01

129

Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination  

E-print Network

Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonalves, I; Guillot, T; Mkarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

2014-01-01

130

Water Recovery Study for Pampa Pabellon Tailings Impoundment, Collahuasi, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water recovery study has been completed for the Pampa de Pabellon tailings impoundment at Minera Doa Ines de Collahuasi, in the high Andes of northeastern Chile. The main objective of this study was to develop a water balance model, which could be used for prediction of future water losses under differ- ent tailings management scenarios. The study included (i)

C. Wels; A. Mac G. Robertson; P. M. Madariaga

131

A double-layered seismic zone in Arica, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double layered seismic zone is determined in Arica, northern Chile using locally recorded events. At depths >100 km two planes of seismicity can be observed: one dipping at ~30E with ~10 km of thickness and a second parallel plane 20-25 km deeper, with the same average thickness. Fault plane solutions for both layers show a wide variability, even between

Diana Comte; Louis Dorbath; Mario Pardo; Tony Monfret; Henri Haessler; Luis Rivera; Michel Frogneux; Bianca Glass; Carlos Meneses

1999-01-01

132

Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries

Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

2011-01-01

133

Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries have developed their educational systems by integrating ICT were analyzed, including

Jaime Snchez; lvaro Salinas; Jordan Harris

2011-01-01

134

UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FISICAS Y MATEMATICAS  

E-print Network

Estructuras Localizadas en Sistemas Discretos y en Cristales Líquidos Ricardo Gabriel Elías Moreno 2009 #12;UNIVERSIDAD DE CHILE FACULTAD DE CIENCIAS FISICAS Y MATEMATICAS ESCUELA DE POSTGRADO Frentes y Estructuras. Introducción. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 3. Frentes, Estructuras

Gavilan, Marcel G. Clerc

135

Accreditation in Higher Education in Chile: Results and Consequences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the results that the accreditation system implemented in Chile has brought to higher education institutions and undergraduate and graduate programs, taking into account both its positive and negative implications. Design/methodology/approach: The examination of the Chilean accreditation

Espinoza, Oscar; Gonzalez, Luis Eduardo

2013-01-01

136

The Evaluation of Education in Chile: Two Opposing Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The case of Chile seems to be one of those most affected by the bursting in of neoliberalism worldwide. Due to the imposition by force, the Chilean education model lived through a series of transformations, which lead to a betrayal of its republican history, as seen in the privatization of education services and the way the right to education

Jorge Inzunza Higueras

2009-01-01

137

International Reports on Literacy Research: Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 4 separate reports on Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Colombia. In the first report, research correspondent Marta Infante reports on two studies that reflect the growing interest of Chilean professionals in studying reading-related factors such as phonemic

Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

2005-01-01

138

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA DISE?O Y CONSTRUCCI?N DE CONVERSOR optar al título de Ingeniero Civil industrial, con Diploma en Ingeniería Eléctrica Profesor Supervisor INGENIERIA Departamento de (departamento) DISE?O Y CONSTRUCCI?N DE CONVERSOR DC-DC PARA CONTROL DE

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

139

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: EFECTOS EN LA título de Ingeniero Civil de Industrias, con Diploma en Ingeniería Eléctrica Profesor Supervisor: HUGH INGENIERIA Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO: EFECTOS EN LA GENERACI?N HIDROEL?CTRICA EN

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

140

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

grado de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: JUAN W. DIXON ROJAS Santiago de de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, Agosto de 2002 #12;ii A mis Padres y a la

Dixon, Juan

141

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

. EDUARDO ANDR?S ROUBIK ROJAS Tesis para optar al grado de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor exigencias del grado de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, Marzo, 2008 #12;ii

Dixon, Juan

142

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

�S ROMERO MOREAU Tesis para optar al grado de Magister en Ciencias de la Ingenier�a Profesor Supervisor Magister en Ciencias de la Ingenier�a Santiago de Chile, Enero, 2014 #12;ii A mi familia y a los que me

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

143

Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile Escuela de Ingeniera  

E-print Network

DESPRENDIMIENTO ?PTIMO DE CARGA ARMENGOL BLANCO BENITO Tesis para optar al Grado de Magíster en ciencias de la completar las exigencias del grado de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería. Santiago de Chile, 1992 #12;ii

Dixon, Juan

144

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERA  

E-print Network

ARIAS Tesis para optar al grado de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, Diciembre, 2007 #12;ii DEDICATORIA A mis padres, Andrés y

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

145

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERA  

E-print Network

en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: HUGH RUDNICK Santiago de Chile, Junio, 2006 #12. JORGE RAMOS G. Para completar las exigencias del grado de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

146

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE ESCUELA DE INGENIERIA  

E-print Network

optar al grado de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Profesor Supervisor: JUAN W. DIXON ROJAS exigencias del grado de Magíster en Ciencias de la Ingeniería Santiago de Chile, Julio 2005 #12;ii A mis

Dixon, Juan

147

The Incidence of Payroll Taxation: Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author provides new evidence on the incidence of payroll taxation by examining the experience of Chile before and after the privatization of its Social Security system. This policy change led to a sharp exogenous reduction in the payroll tax burden on Chilean firms; on average, payroll tax rates fell by 25 percent over six years. Using data from a

Jonathan Gruber

1997-01-01

148

Marine Conservation in Chile: Historical Perspective, Lessons, and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chile is one of the world's leading countries in landings (catch) of marine resources. The pioneer studies of human impacts on coastal marine communities provided the scientific basis on which to establish novel resource management strategies for exploited wild populations but were not used to develop a com- prehensive marine conservation plan that would also include no-take areas. We reviewed

MIRIAM FERNNDEZ; JUAN CARLOS CASTILLA

2005-01-01

149

Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, ?3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep-sea chemically-reducing ecosystem (hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, oxygen minimum zones and large organic falls) have the potential to co-exist.

German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Frh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team

2010-12-01

150

ISA virus in Chile: evidence of vertical transmission.  

PubMed

Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), genus Isavirus (family Orthomyxoviridae), is present in all large salmon (Salmo salar)-producing countries around the North Atlantic. The target species for this virus are members of the genus Salmo, but the virus may also replicate in other salmonids introduced to the North Atlantic (Oncorhychus spp.). Existing ISA virus isolates can be divided into two major genotypes, a North American (NA) and a European (EU) genotype, based on phylogenetic analysis of the genome. The EU genotype can be subdivided into several highly supported clades based on analysis of segments 5 (fusion protein gene) and 6 (hemagglutinin-esterase gene). In 1999 an ISA virus belonging to the NA genotype was isolated from Coho salmon in Chile, and in 2007 the first outbreaks of ISA in farmed Atlantic salmon was observed. Several salmon farms in Chile were affected by the disease in 2007, and even more farms in 2008. In this study, ISA virus has been isolated from salmon in a marine farm suffering an outbreak of the disease in 2008 and from smolts with no signs of ISA in a fresh water lake. Sequencing of the partial genome of these ISA viruses, followed by phylogenetic analysis including genome sequences from members of the NA and EU genotypes, showed that the Chilean ISA virus belongs to the EU genotype. The Chilean ISA virus groups in a clade with exclusively Norwegian ISA viruses, where one of these isolates was obtained from a Norwegian brood stock population. All salmonid species in the southern hemisphere have been introduced from Europe and North America. The absence of natural hosts for ISA viruses in Chile excludes the possibility of natural reservoirs in this country, and the close relationship between contemporary ISA virus strains from farmed Atlantic salmon in Chile and Norway suggest a recent transmission from Norway to Chile. Norway export large amounts of Atlantic salmon embryos every year to Chile; hence, the best explanation for the Norwegian ISA virus in Chile is transmission via these embryos, i.e. vertical or transgenerational transmission. This supports other studies showing that the ISA virus can be transmitted vertically. PMID:19034606

Vike, Siri; Nylund, Stian; Nylund, Are

2009-01-01

151

Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepcin, Chile  

E-print Network

trends #12;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile 0 50Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Global #12;Society of Wood Science and Technology Convention 10-12 November 2008, Concepción, Chile Subjects

152

NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA  

E-print Network

NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF QUINOA, Montpellier, June 28-30, 2010 1 NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY, Montpellier : France (2010)" #12;NEO-LIBERALISM IN CHILE AND ITS IMPACTS ON AGRICULTURE AND BIODIVERSITY

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

153

Estudio del razonamiento lgico-matemtico desde el modelo de las inteligencias mltiples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen: El objetivo del trabajo es estudiar el razonamiento lgico- matemtico de una muestra de alumnos de educacin infantil y primaria. Se disear el perfil cognitivo de los participantes en las distintas inteligen- cias, se estudiar la relacin entre la inteligencia lgico-matemtica en el modelo de Gardner y la inteligencia valorada desde una perspectiva psico- mtrica; finalmente, se establecern las

Carmen Ferrndiz; Rosario Bermejo; Marta Sainz; Mercedes Ferrando; Maria Dolores Prieto

2008-01-01

154

PARALELO ENTRE LA ACTIVIDAD Y LA SUSTANCIA ADICTIVA DESDE UN ENFOQUE SOCIAL Y SUS POSIBLES TRATAMIENTOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El tema de las adicciones ha sido abordado histric amente por la literatura desde mltiples puntos de vista, sin embargo en esta investigacin bibliogrfica nuestra intenci n es dimensionar las teoras sobre el origen de la s adicciones, considerando la complementariedad terica para la q ue se presta el tema, permitiendo un paralelo con l as terapias psicoanalticas y

Alan Herzberg; Viviana Messina; Diego Moreno; Natalia Olmedo; Romina Pitronello; Francisca Roman

155

Anlisis de los Mtodos de Seleccin de Componentes COTS desde una Perspectiva gil  

Microsoft Academic Search

componentes COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf), debidamente personalizados e integrados. En este tipo de sistemas, el nfasis se desplaza de las actividades propias del desarrollo a medida, a los procesos de seleccin e integracin de COTS. Existen diferentes propuestas basadas en la seleccin de COTS (pocas tratan de integracin), y en este artculo estudiamos cmo se comportan desde un punto de vista

Fredy Navarrete; Pere Botella; Xavier Franch

2005-01-01

156

A la venta desde el 11 de octubre Los libros esenciales de la  

E-print Network

A la venta desde el 11 de octubre #12; Los libros esenciales de la LITERATURA EN ESPA?OL Pisón o Fernando Vallejo entre otros muchos. El libro se compone de una introducción en la que se últimas décadas, y una serie de fichas sobre los cien libros seleccionados, ilustrados cada uno de ellas

158

Trust via disasters: the case of Chile's 2010 earthquake.  

PubMed

Chile has a long-standing history of natural disasters and, in particular, earthquakes. The latest big earthquake hit Chile on 27 February 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 on the Richter scale. As an event that had a profound impact on significant portions of the population, the earthquake could theoretically have served to build trust by promoting new trust networks through the enhancement of distant family ties and the interaction between affected neighbours. This study offers an empirical analysis of this theory in the Chilean case. It finds that if initial social capital is very low (thus allowing for post-disaster looting and violence), then the impact of the trust-increasing effect is smaller. It also shows that the effect of the disaster was not transitory, but that it persisted and actually increased over time. PMID:25196338

Dussaillant, Francisca; Guzmn, Eugenio

2014-10-01

159

Conservation easements and mining: The case of Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Private protected areas (PPAs) are important designations with the potential to complement and improve public protected area (PA) networks in many countries. PPAs come in many forms and offer a wide variety of incentives, rights, responsibilities, and protections. One popular model, now being considered for adoption in Chile, is the conservation easement. In this article, we examine how well conservation easements would perform as PPA designations in countries such as Chile that have strong mining industries. Mining, and other concessions, in PAs is emerging as an important point of contention between conservation and development. PPA designations should be carefully designed to offer protections that conform to standards that will complement PA networks, that are perpetual, and that require a publically accountable and transparent process to overturn or modify.

Root-Bernstein, M.; Montecinos Carvajal, Y.; Ladle, R.; Jepson, P.; Jaksic, F.

2013-12-01

160

Field Survey of the 27 February 2010 Chile Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 February 2010, a magnitude M w = 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region causing substantial damage and loss of life. Ancestral tsunami knowledge from the 1960 event combined with education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate after the earthquake. Many of the tsunami victims were tourists in coastal campgrounds. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event and surveyed 800 km of coastline from Quintero to Mehun and the Pacific Islands of Santa Mara, Mocha, Juan Fernndez Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter). The collected survey data include more than 400 tsunami flow depth, runup and coastal uplift measurements. The tsunami peaked with a localized runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitucin. The observed runup distributions exhibit significant variations on local and regional scales. Observations from the 2010 and 1960 Chile tsunamis are compared.

Fritz, Hermann M.; Petroff, Catherine M.; Cataln, Patricio A.; Cienfuegos, Rodrigo; Winckler, Patricio; Kalligeris, Nikos; Weiss, Robert; Barrientos, Sergio E.; Meneses, Gianina; Valderas-Bermejo, Carolina; Ebeling, Carl; Papadopoulos, Athanassios; Contreras, Manuel; Almar, Rafael; Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Synolakis, Costas E.

2011-11-01

161

Chile: pioneer in deregulation of the electric power sector  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the deregulation of the electric power sector in Chile. Chile was the leader in Latin America in the restructuring of the electric power sector, and its case merits particular analysis. Although a small system (70% of installed capacity is hydroelectric with 2,800 MW maximum demand in 1993), its development has been observed with interest by many institutions, particularly by the World Bank and most recently by other Latin American countries, and several countries have followed its steps. The Chilean 1982 electricity law was a worldwide pioneer in deregulating the electric power sector to create market conditions where generators compete to provide electrical energy to large consumers, sharing a transmission system open to all and paying fees for that system. The law formalized what had taken place in the country since 1978, several years before market approaches were formulated in the US and implemented in the United Kingdom.

Rudnick, H. (Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

1994-06-01

162

Understanding differences in access and use of healthcare between international immigrants to Chile and the Chilean-born: a repeated cross-sectional population-based study in Chile  

PubMed Central

Introduction International evidence indicates consistently lower rates of access and use of healthcare by international immigrants. Factors associated with this phenomenon vary significantly depending on the context. Some research into the health of immigrants has been conducted in Latin America, mostly from a qualitative perspective. This population-based study is the first quantitative study to explore healthcare provision entitlement and use of healthcare services by immigrants in Chile and compare them to the Chilean-born. Methods Data come from the nationally representative CASEN (Socioeconomic characterization of the population in Chile) surveys, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Self-reported immigrants were compared to the Chilean-born, by demographic characteristics (age, sex, urban/rural, household composition, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: education, household income, contractual status), healthcare provision entitlement (public, private, other, none), and use of primary services. Weighted descriptive, stratified and adjusted regression models were used to analyse factors associated with access to and use of healthcare. Results There was an increase in self-reported immigrant status and in household income inequality among immigrants between 2006 and 2009. Over time there was a decrease in the rate of immigrants reporting no healthcare provision and an increase in reporting of private healthcare provision entitlement. Compared to the Chilean-born, immigrants reported higher rates of use of antenatal and gynaecological care, lower use of well-baby care, and no difference in the use of Pap smears or the number of attentions received in the last three months. Immigrants in the bottom income quintile were four times more likely to report no healthcare provision than their equivalent Chilean-born group (with different health needs, i.e. vertical inequity). Disabled immigrants were more likely to have no healthcare provision compared to the disabled Chilean-born (with similar health needs, i.e. horizontal inequity). Factors associated with immigrants access to, and use of, healthcare were sex, urban/rural status, education and country of origin. Conclusion There were significant associations between SES, and access to and use of healthcare among immigrants in Chile and a higher prevalence of no health care provision entitlement among poor and disabled immigrants compared to the Chilean-born. Changing associations between access and use of healthcare and SES among immigrants in Chile over time may reflect changes in their socio-demographic composition or in the survey methodology between 2006 and 2009. Resumen Introduccin La evidencia internacional indica menor acceso y uso de servicios de salud por parte de inmigrantes, pero sus factores desencadenantes varan significativamente dependiendo del contexto. Algunas investigaciones se han desarrollado en este tema en Amrica Latina, desde una perspectiva cualitativa. Este estudio cuantitativo explor el auto-reporte de acceso y uso de servicios de salud de inmigrantes en Chile y los compar con la poblacin chilena. Mtodos Anlisis secundario de datos de encuesta nacional CASEN 2006 y 2009. Inmigrantes fueron comparados con chilenos en caractersticas demogrficas (edad, sexo, urbano/rural, composicin del hogar, etnia), estatus socioeconmico (educacin, ingreso, situacin contractual), tipo de previsin (pblica, privada, otra, ninguna), y uso de varios servicios de atencin primaria. Anlisis descriptivo, estratificado, y modelos de regresin ponderados para entender factores asociados al acceso y uso de servicios de salud en STATA 11.0. Resultados Se observ un aumento de reporte de inmigrantes y de la desigualdad en el ingreso de inmigrantes entre 2006 y 2009. Hubo una disminucin en la tasa de inmigrantes sin previsin y un aumento en el acceso al sistema privado. Los inmigrantes usaron ms frecuentemente la atencin prenatal y ginec

2012-01-01

163

Unintended pregnancy and sex education in Chile: a behavioural model.  

PubMed

This study analysed factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent and young adult women in Santiago, Chile. Three variations of a behavioural model were developed. Logistic regression showed that the effect of sex education on unintended pregnancy works through the use of contraception. Other significant effects were found for variables reflecting socioeconomic status and a woman's acceptance of her sexuality. The results also suggested that labelling affects measurement of 'unintended' pregnancy. PMID:7983095

Herold, J M; Thompson, N J; Valenzuela, M S; Morris, L

1994-10-01

164

Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the

Bernhard Steubing; Heinz Bni; Mathias Schluep; Uca Silva; Christian Ludwig

2010-01-01

165

A Ground-Level Ozone Forecasting Model for Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A physically based model for ground-level ozone forecasting is evaluated for Santiago, Chile. The model predicts the daily peak ozone concentration, with the daily rise of air temperature as input variable; weekends and rainy days appear as interventions. This model was used to analyse historical data, using the linear transfer function\\/finite impulse response (LTF\\/FIR) formalism; the simultaneous transfer function (STF)

Hector Jorquera; Wilfredo Palma; Jose Tapia

2002-01-01

166

Successional pattern above timberline in south-central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the above-timberline zone of south-central Chile, stepped microtopography commonly develops on slopes of unstable volcanic ash deposits. Between the Nothofagus timberline and the high-altitude sparse fellfields, a scrubgrassland vegetation dominated by prostrate shrubs such as Empetrum rubrum and Pernettya spp. and tussock grasses such as Hierochloe utriculata and Cortaderia pilosa characteristically occurs on the stepped microtopography. Species interactions and

Thomas T. Veblen; David H. Ashton

1979-01-01

167

A limnological reconnaissance of Lake Tebenquiche, Salar de Atacama, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of expeditions to the area of Salar de Atacama, Chile, 68 15'W, 20 30'S, have involved studies of the biological\\u000a and chemical features of Lake Tebenquiche, situated in the interior of the salar. Chemically, Tebenquiche is hypersaline,\\u000a with practically anoxic waters dominated by sodium and chloride ions but with high concentrations of sulphate also. The lake\\u000a is surrounded

L. R. Ziga; V. Campos; H. Pinochet; B. Prado

1991-01-01

168

Air Pollution and Mortality: Results from Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

May 1995The relationship between particulate air pollution and premature death in Santiago, Chile is found to be very similar to results from industrial countries.Heavy outdoor pollution is found in developing country cities such as Jakarta, Katowice, Mexico City, and Santiago. But most epidemiological studies of dose-response relationships between particulate air pollution (PM10) and premature deaths are from Western industrial nations.

Gunnar Eskeland; Jose Miguel Sanchez; Carlos Aranda

1999-01-01

169

Detection of dengue virus type 4 in Easter Island, Chile.  

PubMed

We report the detection of dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) for the first time in Easter Island, Chile. The virus was detected in serum samples of two patients treated at the Hospital in Easter Island. The two samples were IgM positive, and the infection was confirmed by RT-PCR and genetic sequencing; viral isolation was possible with one of them. The Easter Island isolates were most closely related to genotype II of dengue type 4. PMID:21691853

Fernndez, J; Vera, L; Tognarelli, J; Fasce, R; Araya, P; Villagra, E; Roos, O; Mora, J

2011-10-01

170

After the Coup: Four Dramatic Versions of Allende's Chile  

E-print Network

FALL 1978 39 After the Coup: Four Dramatic Versions of Allende's Chile RAMN LAYERA In his preface to Victor Torres' Una casa en Lota Alto (A House in Lota Alto, 1973) Augusto Boal, renowned Brazilian director, playwright and drama... plays written by Chilean playwrights about the Allende years illustrate the paradox inherent in Augusto Boal's proposition.1 Victor Torres' Una casa en Lota Alto, Sergio Vodanovic's Igual que antes {Same As Ever, 1972-73), Jorge Daz' Mear contra el...

Layera, Ramó n

1978-10-01

171

Chile's labor markets in an era of adjustment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1970s, Chile underwent profound structural changes in market regulation, public sector policies, and foreign trade. These changes produced notable economic strain and high open unemployment. After the financial crisis of the 1980s the Chilean economy adjusted successfully and resumed economic growth. The author describes the important role labor markets played in the adjustment process. Expenditure-switching and expenditure-reduction policies

Luis A. Riveros

1990-01-01

172

Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.

Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.

2013-12-01

173

Implementing the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD): Achievements, Open Questions and Strategies for the Way Forward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper looks at the implementation of the DESD from a global perspective. It takes the position that quality education is fundamental for learning how to live sustainably, and that the DESD needs to be better positioned in the education landscape and conceived as a global social movement that must be fostered and nurtured for the well-being of

Pigozzi, Mary Joy

2010-01-01

174

Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.  

PubMed

Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

1997-09-01

175

Physical Dating Violence Victimization in College Women in Chile  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives There are no published studies on physical dating violence in college students in Chile, and campuses across the country currently lack systematized programs to prevent or respond to this public health problem. This is the first study to examine prevalence and predictors of physical dating violence victimization with a sample of female college students in Chile. Methods A closed-ended questionnaire was administered to students enrolled in general education courses at a major public university. The prevalence of women's physical dating violence victimization was calculated, and generalized ordered logit models were used to estimate risk factors for such victimization (n?=?441). Ancillary analyses examined associations of dating violence victimization with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Results Approximately 21% of subjects reported one or more incidents of physical dating violence not involving physical injury since age 14, and another 5% reported at least one incident resulting in physical injury during this time period. Risk factors identified in five sequential models were sexual abuse and witnessing of domestic violence in childhood, low parental education, residence away from the parental home, urban residence, and having had sexual intercourse. Maternal employment and religious participation had protective effects. Dating violence victimization was found to be significantly associated with experiences of unwanted sexual contact and forced condom nonuse. Conclusions The study findings show a high prevalence of physical dating violence, strong associations between several sociodemographic factors and dating violence, and links between dating violence and sexual/reproductive risk. Our results indicate a need to expand attention to this public health problem in Chile as well as other developing countries, where research and prevention/response initiatives have generally been similarly limited. The findings also have important implications for the content of dating violence, HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI), and pregnancy prevention programs for adolescents and young adults. PMID:20350204

Lehrer, Evelyn L.; Zhao, Zhenxiang

2010-01-01

176

Spatial variability of atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an effort to characterize the spatial variability of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Chilean atmosphere, XAD-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for 12 months (2006-2007) along three elevational gradients in Northern, Central and Southern Chile, for a total of 20 sampling sites, ranging in elevation from 10 to 4400 m and ranging over 26 degrees of latitude. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) had largely uniform air concentrations with latitude and altitude, and is therefore used to derive sampler specific sampling rates, that account for differences in uptake kinetics due to environmental factors such as altitude and temperature. Levels of pesticides in the atmosphere of Chile are very low and only ?- and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane, ?-endosulfan and chlorothalonil were present in all of the samples. The concentrations of these four pesticides in air decreased from North to South, with much steeper gradients for chlorothalonil and endosulfan. Chlorothalonil levels were greatly elevated in air samplers deployed in urban locations. Endosulfan concentrations in air tend to increase with elevation. Since endosulfan is particularly susceptible to mountain cold-trapping, such gradients may reflect the re-volatilization of endosulfan that had been preferentially deposited at higher altitudes. Alternatively, increasing endosulfan concentrations with elevation could be the result of transport to higher altitude sites from the other side of Andes. Airshed analysis indeed indicates that air masses originating outside of Chile have a higher influence on the higher elevation sites, especially along the Northern transect. Concentrations of four-ring PAHs ranged from 0.3 to 1300 pg m -3, with higher levels in air samplers deployed in urban areas and close to roads. PCB concentrations were low (0.7-27 pg m -3), with slightly higher levels of volatile congeners in two urban sampling sites in Concepcion and Arica. PCB-52 is the only congener present in all samples, with levels that are remarkably uniform across the country.

Shunthirasingham, Chubashini; Barra, Ricardo; Mendoza, Gonzalo; Montory, Monica; Oyiliagu, Catherine E.; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

2011-01-01

177

Absolute gravity and GPS measurements in Chile : preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision gravity combined with GPS geodesy offers increasing potentialities for the study of time variations of the earth gravity field and crustal deformations related with geodynamic, tectonic or volcanic processes. The continental margin of Chile, resulting from the subduction of Nazca and Antarctic plates under the South American plate, belongs to the most active zones in the world where such processes can be observed. During summer 2002, we carried out a first experience of simultaneous absolute gravity and GPS measurements in north and central Chile with the aim to set up a repetition network of precise reference stations. The objectives are : (i) to attempt an estimation of the present-day vertical crustal motions along the andean margin ; (ii) to better constraints the vertical displacements associated with large earthquakes ; (iii) to establish precise calibration lines for relative gravity meters. The measurements have been performed with the FG5 absolute gravity meter (n206). The sites were selected to ensure precise and safe data acquisition and mid to long-term stability of the stations. Special care was attempted to get measurements on existing sites where other geodetic/gravity observations are available (permanent GPS, DORIS, VLBI, SLR absolute or superconducting gravity). For other sites, differential GPS observations have been realized simultaneously with the gravity measurements. Scintrex CG-3M relative gravity measurements have been taken for earth-tide recording and vertical gravity gradient determinations. A total number of 11 absolute gravity stations have been established in north and central/south Chile. A preliminary processing, confirms that an accuracy of 1 to 3 Gal is achieved for these absolute gravity networks. We present here the first results of this survey and discuss their implications for future monitoring of gravity changes along the south-american plate boundary.

Bonvalot, S.; Comte, D.; Dorbath, L.; Hinderer, J.; Gabalda, G.; Luck, B.; Ruegg, J. C.

2003-04-01

178

[Preliminary evaluation of Chile's First Citizen Consensus Conference].  

PubMed

This piece provides an initial assessment of the First Citizen Consensus Conference, an event held in the city of Santiago, Chile, from 22-24 November 2003, on the subject of "The Management of My Medical Record." This conference was the first citizen consensus conference that has been held in Chile as well as the first such conference in Latin America. Consensus conferences were devised by the Danish Board of Technology in 1987 as a way to assess science and technology issues through discussions between experts and a panel of lay persons. At the end of a consensus conference, the lay persons express their opinions and recommendations in a consensus report that is directed at policymakers, decision-makers, and the public in general. The objective of a consensus conference is to bridge the gaps that routinely exist among the general public, experts, and elected officials. So far, the Danish Board of Technology has organized more than 20 of these conferences, using a methodology that has become established as a model. Taking into account the changes that have occurred in the relationship between science and society at large, the Pan American Health Organization has decided to support the holding of consensus conferences in Latin America and the Caribbean. The First Citizen Consensus Conference adapted the Danish methodology to conditions in Chile, and this piece assesses the modifications that were made. In addition, some 6 to 12 months after the conference, there will be an external evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the conference, especially in the communications media, public debate, decision-making, and perceptions of the persons who were involved. Despite the criticisms made in this piece and some shortcomings that are pointed out, the First Citizen Consensus Conference achieved all of its objectives and will serve as an excellent model for similar conferences in other countries of the Americas. PMID:15231085

Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Zurita, Laura

2004-05-01

179

Chile: 16,000 Secret US Documents Declassified  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On November 13, the National Security Archive (NSA) (last discussed in the October 6, 2000 Scout Report) announced the release of over "16,000 secret US records on the Pinochet dictatorship in Chile, and Washington's role in the violent overthrow of the Allende government and the advent of the military regime to power." Totalling more than 50,000 pages, the records include numerous controversial documents that the CIA had refused to release until they were pressured by the White House. The NSA has posted a selection of some of the key documents on its site. They are offered in .pdf format with a brief description.

2000-01-01

180

Quaternary pollen record from laguna de tagua tagua, chile.  

PubMed

Pollen of southern beech and podocarp at Laguna de Tagua Tagua during the late Pleistocene indicates that cooler and more humid intervals were a feature of Ice Age climate at this subtropical latitude in Chile. The influence of the southern westerlies may have been greater at this time, and the effect of the Pacific anticyclone was apparently weakened. The climate today, wet in winter and dry in summer, supports broad sclerophyll vegetation that developed during the Holocene with the arrival of paleo-Indians and the extinction of mastodon and horse. PMID:17735194

Heusser, C J

1983-03-25

181

Experiences with the Transportable Integrated Geodetic Observatory (TIGO) in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2002 the TIGO-project is located in Concepcin, Chile. This observatory was designed developed during the 1990ties as a fundamental station for geodesy. This concept will be explained in detail because it is a precessor of the proposed observatory infrastructure for the Global Geodetic Observing System. After 11 years of operation for the international services of the IAG and the BIPM some technical, scientific and also cultural experiences with this project can be helpful to improve the global geodetic infrastructure in the Americas.

Hase, H.

2013-05-01

182

[Exanthematic typhus epidemic in Chile (1932-1939)].  

PubMed

After the great epidemic of the exanthematic typhus of 1918-1919 in Chile, there was a gradual decrease in the number of cases , until it became endemic around 1926. Starting in 1932 and until 1939 a new epidemic outbreak occured that prompted researchers to its study supported by the new clinical and technological advances of this period. Subsequently, two important events occured: the erradication of the vector ( human louse) by means of effective insecticides and the discovery of an effective antibiotic treatment. PMID:23877780

Laval, Enrique

2013-06-01

183

Surviving a Tsunami: Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report contains true stories that illustrate how to survive (and how not to survive) a tsunami. It is meant for people who live, work, or play along coasts that tsunamis may strike. The stories are personal accounts selected from interviews with people who survived a Pacific Ocean tsunami generated by the magnitude 9.5 earthquake that occurred along the coast of Chile on May 22, 1960. Important points include the necessity to heed all warnings (official and natural), head for higher ground, expect many waves, and not to attempt to recover personal belongings.

184

Ocean-ridge basalts with convergent-margin geochemical affinities from the Chile Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

COLLISIONS between active spreading centres and subduction zones have occurred frequently throughout Earth history1. Of the few sites of ridge subduction active today, the southern Chile Ridge has the simplest tectonic history2. We report here that basalts recovered from the Chile Ridge adjacent to the Chile Trench have geochemical characteristics unlike those of mid-ocean-ridge basalts sampled elsewhere, and show affinities

Emily M. Klein; Jill L. Karsten

1995-01-01

185

Blueberries Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Outside of the Boundaries of Natural Dispersion for Ericaceous Plants in Chile .  

E-print Network

??Blueberry culture in Chile has been expanding its acreage from suitable edaphoclimatic conditions to environments in which some soil characteristics depart from blueberries requirements, among (more)

Vega, A. R.

2009-01-01

186

Challenges for psychiatric recruitment and training in Chile.  

PubMed

This paper aims to describe the current challenges to recruitment of psychiatrists in Chile, and investigate factors related to interest in psychiatry from medical students of the Chilean Biobo Region. An online survey was completed by 39 medical students currently performing the internship. This survey included questions regarding socio-demographic aspects, probability of choosing a medical speciality, influencing factors on the choice of the medical speciality, and personal features. Students were separated in two groups for the analysis based on their likelihood of choosing psychiatry as a career. A total of 35.9% of the respondents showed some degree of interest in psychiatry. Factors considered important by the respondents were academic opportunities, training vacancies, and balance between job and personal life. The low participation in the study does not allow the extrapolation of data to the national situation, and may represent response bias to those already interested in psychiatry as a career. However, Chile has an average psychiatrist rate per number of inhabitants for the region, but an uneven distribution of this resource. National policies must be focused on this issue in order to reduce the gap in mental healthcare. PMID:24032495

Vicente, Benjamn; Rosel, Leonardo

2013-08-01

187

Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile.  

PubMed

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 1918-1921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during July-August 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A; Viboud, Ccile

2014-11-01

188

Death Patterns during the 1918 Influenza Pandemic in Chile  

PubMed Central

Scarce information about the epidemiology of historical influenza pandemics in South America prevents complete understanding of pandemic patterns throughout the continent and across different climatic zones. To fill gaps with regard to spatiotemporal patterns of deaths associated with the 1918 influenza pandemic in Chile, we reviewed archival records. We found evidence that multiple pandemic waves at various times of the year and of varying intensities occurred during 19181921 and that influenza-related excess deaths peaked during JulyAugust 1919. Pandemic-associated mortality rates were elevated for all age groups, including for adults >50 years of age; elevation from baseline was highest for young adults. Overall, the rate of excess deaths from the pandemic was estimated at 0.94% in Chile, similar to rates reported elsewhere in Latin America, but rates varied ?10-fold across provinces. Patterns of death during the pandemic were affected by variation in host-specific susceptibility, population density, baseline death rate, and climate. PMID:25341056

Simonsen, Lone; Flores, Jose; Miller, Mark A.; Viboud, Cecile

2014-01-01

189

Late Quaternary tephrostratigraphy of southern Chile and Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern and Austral Volcanic Zones of the Andes comprise 74 volcanic centres with known post-glacial activity. At least 21 of these have had one or more large explosive eruptions in the late Quaternary, dispersing tephra over vast areas. These tephra layers therefore have great potential as tephrochronological marker horizons in palaeoenvironmental studies in southern Chile and Argentina, a region that is particularly useful to study climate dynamics of the southern hemisphere. However, to date tephrochronology has rarely been fully utilised in this region as a correlation and dating tool. Here we review the existing post-glacial tephrostratigraphic record of the Southern and Austral Volcanic Zones, and compile a database of known occurrences of tephra from these volcanoes in ice and lacustrine, marine, peat, and cave sediment records. We address the inconsistencies in and revisions of the tephrostratigraphies presented in prior literature, and discuss the challenges in correlating tephras and the limitations of the tephrostratigraphic record in this area. This study highlights the many gaps that still exist in our knowledge of the eruptive histories of these volcanoes, but also reveals the largely under-utilised potential of tephra as a correlation tool in this region. This is exemplified by the severe lack of adequate geochemical analysis of tephra layers preserved in many lacustrine and peat sediment sections, which are particularly important tephrostratigraphic records in southern Chile and Argentina due to the paucity of surface preservation.

Fontijn, Karen; Lachowycz, Stefan M.; Rawson, Harriet; Pyle, David M.; Mather, Tamsin A.; Naranjo, Jos A.; Moreno-Roa, Hugo

2014-04-01

190

Astronomy Outreach Activities in Chile: IYA 2009 and Beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Chile, one of the developing countries in Latin-America, there are large social differences that persist between the richest and the poorest citizens. On the other hand, Chile has the advantage of a special and unique resource, the incomparably clear and dry skies in the desert of Atacama in the north of the country. This advantage is being exploited by the installation of large and powerful international observatories. However, the Chilean people's perception of this resource and the corresponding advantages for their country are still underdeveloped and rather poor. Therefore, we have been conducting successful outreach activities at all levels during the past few years, with special highlights during the International Year of Astronomy 2009, including participation of our undergraduate physics and astronomy students, the local media like newspapers, radio, and TV stations, talks and workshops in schools, popular talks for the general public, exhibitions, contests, and other multi-media efforts. We briefly describe these activities and outline the difference between our situation and that existing in developed countries like the USA.

Vogt, N.; Evans, M.; Aranda, J.; Gotta, V.; Monsalves, A.; Puebla, E.

2012-08-01

191

A Tsunami Model for Chile for (Re) Insurance Purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catastrophe models help (re)insurers to understand the financial implications of catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. In earthquake-prone regions such as Chile,(re)insurers need more sophisticated tools to quantify the risks facing their businesses, including models with the ability to estimate secondary losses. The 2010 (M8.8) Maule (Chile) earthquake highlighted the need for quantifying losses from secondary perils such as tsunamis, which can contribute to the overall event losses but are not often modelled. This paper presents some key modelling aspects of a new earthquake catastrophe model for Chile developed by Impact Forecasting in collaboration with Aon Benfield Research partners, focusing on the tsunami component. The model has the capability to model tsunami as a secondary peril - losses due to earthquake (ground-shaking) and induced tsunamis along the Chilean coast are quantified in a probabilistic manner, and also for historical scenarios. The model is implemented in the IF catastrophe modelling platform, ELEMENTS. The probabilistic modelling of earthquake-induced tsunamis uses a stochastic event set that is consistent with the seismic (ground shaking) hazard developed for Chile, representing simulations of earthquake occurrence patterns for the region. Criteria for selecting tsunamigenic events (from the stochastic event set) are proposed which take into consideration earthquake location, depth and the resulting seabed vertical displacement and tsunami inundation depths at the coast. The source modelling software RuptGen by Babeyko (2007) was used to calculate static seabed vertical displacement resulting from earthquake slip. More than 3,600 events were selected for tsunami simulations. Deep and shallow water wave propagation is modelled using the Delft3D modelling suite, which is a state-of-the-art software developed by Deltares. The Delft3D-FLOW module is used in 2-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation settings with non-steady flow. Earthquake-induced static seabed vertical displacement is used as an input boundary condition to the model. The model is hierarchically set up with three nested domain levels; with 250 domains in total covering the entire Chilean coast. Spatial grid-cell resolution is equal to the native SRTM resolution of approximately 90m. In addition to the stochastic events, the 1960 (M9.5) Valdivia and 2010 (M8.8) Maule earthquakes are modelled. The modelled tsunami inundation map for the 2010 Maule event is validated through comparison with real observations. The vulnerability component consists of an extensive damage curves database, including curves for buildings, contents and business interruption for 21 occupancies, 24 structural types and two secondary modifies such as building height and period of construction. The building damage curves are developed by use of load-based method in which the building's capacity to resist tsunami loads is treated as equivalent to the design earthquake load capacity. The contents damage and business interruption curves are developed by use of deductive approach i.e. HAZUS flood vulnerability and business function restoration models are adapted for detailed occupancies and then assigned to the dominant structural types in Chile. The vulnerability component is validated through model overall back testing by use of observed aggregated earthquake and tsunami losses for client portfolios for 2010 Maule earthquake.

Arango, Cristina; Rara, Vaclav; Puncochar, Petr; Trendafiloski, Goran; Ewing, Chris; Podlaha, Adam; Vatvani, Deepak; van Ormondt, Maarten; Chandler, Adrian

2014-05-01

192

IRIS Community Response to the Great Chile Earthquake of 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mw=8.8 Maule earthquake off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 is the 5th largest megathrust earthquake ever to be recorded and the 2nd largest to be recorded by modern digital seismic networks. Immediately following the Maule earthquake, teams of seismologists from Germany, France, the UK, and the US, working with seismologists in Chile, coordinated resources to deploy both broadband and short period seismometers and accelerometers above the rupture zone to capture aftershocks associated with this significant earthquake. The U.S. IRIS Community response involved deployment of 59 broadband and 4 combined broadband and accelerometer stations spanning the rupture region of the main shock from 33-38.5S and from the coast to the Andean range front. Four of these stations were subsequently upgraded for real-time telemetry, and these data have been freely available from the IRIS DMC since shortly after they came online. Data recorded at these stations will be combined to produce an open international community data volume providing an unprecedented opportunity to investigate processes associated with great earthquakes and to image the anatomy of a subduction zone. Scientific objectives potentially attainable using this unique data set fall into two general categories: (1) rupture processes of megathrusts, and (2) active tectonics and dynamics of an oceanic-continental (Andean) margin. For example, the relatively dense station spacing - 30 km - of the IRIS CHAMP (Chile RAMP) broadband seismic network will facilitate investigation into the character of the aftershock zone in the low-slip regions of the main shock to determine if these regions are locked or creeping, and whether these states are governed by variations in temperature or fluid content. The dataset also offers opportunities to generate higher resolution images of the seismogenic zone, forearc wedge, and subducting slab, that can reveal the role that spatial changes in material properties play in seismogenesis and slab dynamics. We can take advantage of data collected before the event at collocated stations to investigate secular changes in the properties of the medium in the rupture zone or upper plate, which can further elucidate the role of fluids in the seismogenic zone.

Meltzer, A.; Beck, S. L.; Roecker, S.; Russo, R. M.; Simpson, D. W.; Barrientos, S. E.; Comte, D.; Pardo, M. H.; Ruiz, J.; Aranda, C.; Slad, G.; Greschke, B.; Barstow, N.; Bonnet, B.; Reusch, A. M.; Bataille, K.; Cabello, O.; Velasco, A. A.; Ebeling, C. W.; Tilmann, F.; Vilotte, J.; Rietbrock, A.; Heit, B.; Schurr, B.; Lange, D.

2010-12-01

193

Carlota, a new genus of Agrypnini from the Valdivian Forests of Chile (Elateridae, Agrypninae, Agrypnini)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Carlota gen. n., with one included species C. coigue sp. n., is described and illustrated from the Valdivian forests of Chile. The relationships of this genus to other Agrypnini from Chile are discussed and generic key for Chilean Agrypninae genera is provided. PMID:25061355

Arias-Bohart, Elizabeth T.

2014-01-01

194

Prospects for Photovoltaics in Sunny and Arid Regions: A Solar Grand Plan for Chile  

E-print Network

Prospects for Photovoltaics in Sunny and Arid Regions: A Solar Grand Plan for Chile Part I Investigation of PV and Wind Penetration Vasilis Fthenakis1,2, Adam A. Atia1, Marc Perez1, Alejandro Florenzano3 National Laboratory, 3Fundaci�n Chile, 4University of Antofagasta, 5Solar Energy Research Center (SERC

195

Coseismic slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake  

E-print Network

Coseismic slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake Fred F. Pollitz by the February 27, 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake as measured by GPS and InSAR constrain coseismic slip at depth 25 km on the megathrust just west of Concepción. Coseismic slip is negligible below 35 km depth

Vigny, Christophe

196

Coseismic slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake  

E-print Network

Coseismic slip distribution of the February 27, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake Fred F. Pollitz by the February 27, 2010 Mw = 8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake as measured by GPS and InSAR constrain coseismic slip maxi- mum appears at depth 25 km on the megathrust just west of Concepción. Coseismic slip

Socquet, Anne

197

Barriers to Equitable Access: Higher Education Policy and Practice in Chile Since 1990  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines higher education policy in Chile after the return to democracy in 1990 from an equity perspective. Chile faces the challenge of implementing equity-oriented policies within the legal confines of an education system constructed under the neoliberal model and introduced by the military government (1973-1990). This has resulted in

Matear, Ann

2006-01-01

198

Una entrevista con Ins Margarita Stranger (Chile) y sus personajes femeninos  

E-print Network

FALL 1996 89 Una entrevista con Ins Margarita Stranger (Chile) y sus personajes femeninos Pedro Bravo-Elizondo A la fecha, su vida contempla un ttulo como teatrista por la Universidad Catlica de Chile en la cual es profesora en la Escuela de...

Bravo-Elizondo, Pedro

1996-10-01

199

Snails, southern hake and sustainability: Neoliberalism and natural resource exports in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This examination of the recent history of the fishing sector in Chile shows that in this sector, which has played an important role in Chile's export success, short-term growth was achieved at the cost of long-term sustainability, with negative implications for those involved in the industry. This case raises the more general issue of the importance of regulatory frameworks in

Rachel A. Schurman

1996-01-01

200

Foliose and placodioid species of the lichen family Physciaceae in southernmost Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract:Ten foliose and placodioid species of Physciaceae are reported from the National Park Torres del Paine and from other areas in southernmost Chile. Phaeophyscia constipata and Physconia perisidiosa are reported as new to the Southern Hemisphere, Phaeophyscia endococcina var. endococcina andPhaeorrhiza nimbosa as new to South America, and Dimelaena oreina and Physcia kalbii as new to Chile. The latter was

Arve Elvebakk; Roland Moberg

2002-01-01

201

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON MUNICIPAL, MINING, AND AGRICULTURAL WATER SUPPLIES IN CHILE  

E-print Network

CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON MUNICIPAL, MINING, AND AGRICULTURAL WATER SUPPLIES IN CHILE Daniel G. Nearyl, and Pablo Garcia-Chevesich2 Agriculturaland municipal water supplyinterestsin Chile rely heavily, on the southern edge of the Atacama Desert, is a major supplier of fruit and othercropsforthe

202

Seeding date influence on camelina seed yield, yield components, and oil content in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) was introduced for the first time in Chile in 2008 as a potential feedstock for biodiesel and also as high omega-3-containing seed oil for the salmon feed industry. The objective of this study was to determine the optimum seeding date to maximize camelina seed yield in South Central Chile. The experiment was conducted under dryland conditions

Marisol Berti; Rosemarie Wilckens; Susana Fischer; Alejandro Solis; Burton Johnson

2011-01-01

203

Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake  

E-print Network

Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip to derive a spatially variable estimate of the change in static shear stress along the ruptured fault

Vernon, Frank

204

DEM GENERATION FROM ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CERRO SILLAJHUAY, CHILE/BOLIVIA  

E-print Network

DEM GENERATION FROM ASTER SATELLITE DATA FOR GEOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CERRO SILLAJHUAY, CHILE/BOLIVIA and Geology University of Nebraska ­ Omaha 6001 Dodge Street, Omaha, NE 68182-0199, U.S.A. bishop, a volcano in the Andes of Chile/Bolivia, was developed from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission

Bolch, Tobias

205

On the origin of variations in the composition of granitic rocks of Chile and Bolivia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modal composition of 72 samples of granitic rocks from Chile and 7 samples from Bolivia has been investigated by the Chayes method (Chayes, 1956). The samples were taken uniformly from Magelianos Province of southern Chile to the Bolivian border. The samples from Bolivia were collected from the central part of the country by G. Donoso and sent to the authors.

Andrew B. Vistelius; Carlos Ruiz Fuller

1969-01-01

206

Widespread Effects on Aviation of the 2008 Eruption of Chaiten Volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2008 eruption of Chaiten in southern Chile was the first eruption to pose widespread hazards to aviation in southern South America since the VEI 5 eruption of Chile's Cerro Hudson in 1991. Five encounters of aircraft with volcanic-ash clouds occurred in the week following the start of the eruption on 2 May 2008; three of these encounters occurred at

M. Guffanti; C. Benitez; M. Andrioli; R. Romero; T. J. Casadevall

2008-01-01

207

Occurrence of sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Chile (redescription of Iguanodonichnus frenki)  

E-print Network

Occurrence of sauropod dinosaur tracks in the Upper Jurassic of Chile (redescription studied Upper Jurassic dinosaur unit in South America, the Ban~os del Flaco Formation, Chile characteristics might give clues about the pes morphology of the South American Jurassic sauropods, whose foot

Benton, Michael

208

Interdisciplinary studies of eruption at Chaitn volcano, Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-silica rhyolite magma fuels Earth's largest and most explosive eruptions. Recurrence intervals for such highly explosive eruptions are in the 100- to 100,000-year time range, and there have been few direct observations of such eruptions and their immediate impacts. Consequently, there was keen interest within the volcanology community when the first large eruption of high-silica rhyolite since that of Alaska's Novarupta volcano in 1912 began on 1 May 2008 at Chaitn volcano, southern Chile, a 3-kilometer-diameter caldera volcano with a prehistoric record of rhyolite eruptions [Naranjo and Stern, 2004semi; Servicio Nacional de Geologa y Minera (SERNAGEOMIN), 2008semi; Carn et al., 2009; Castro and Dingwell, 2009; Lara, 2009; Muoz et al., 2009]. Vigorous explosions occurred through 8 May 2008, after which explosive activity waned and a new lava dome was extruded.

Pallister, John S.; Major, Jon J.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Holitt, Richard P.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Eichelberger, John C.; Luis, Lara; Moreno, Hugo; Muoz, Jorge; Castro, Jonathan M.; Iroum, Andrs; Andreoli, Andrea; Jones, Julia; Swanson, Fred; Crisafulli, Charlie

2010-01-01

209

Influence on UV Radiation by wildfire smoke in Valparaso, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UV absorption in Valparaso, Chile, is analyzed during the passage of a smoke column from a nearby forest fire. Total solar absorption is measured, UVB and UVA radiation, UV nanometre to nanometre between 295 nm and 315 nm. With the purpose of seeing what factors intervene in this absorption, tropospheric ozone and PM10 particulate material are measured during the passage of this smoke column from the forest fire. In addition, considerations were made on the chemical compounds which are normally present during a forest fire such as, CO2, CO, SO2, NO, NO2, etc., depreciating their evidence that is the PM10 particulate material, which acts as a black body that is primarily responsible for the UV absorption. This affirmation is based on the fact that no absorption, which notoriously indicates some particular compound, was observed on the spectroradiometer register. All of the bands, nanometre to nanometre, showed the same behaviour, indicating the same type of absorption.

Da Silva, L.; Corts, O.; Ossandn, .; Mera, E.

2012-02-01

210

DEMETER Satellite Observations of Particle Burst Prior to Chile Earthquake  

E-print Network

The lithosphere activity during seismogenic or occurrence of one earthquake may emit electromagnetic wave which propagate to ionosphere and radiation belt, then induce disturbance of electric and magnetic field and the precipitation of high energy charged particles. This paper, based on the data detected by DEMETER satellite, present the high energy charged particle burst(PB) with 4 to 6 times enhancement over the average value observed about ten days days before Chile earthquake. The obvious particle burst was also observed in the northern hemisphere mirror points conjugate of epicenter and no PB events in different years over the same epicenter region was found. The energy spectra of the PBs are different from the one averaged within the first three months in 2010. At the same time, the disturbance of the VLF electric spectrum in ionosphere over the epicenter detected by the DEMETER satellite are also observed in the same two orbits. Those observations from energetic PB and VLF electric spectrum disturbance...

Zhang, Zhenxia; Shen, Xuhui; Ma, Yuqian; Chen, Huaran; You, Xinzhao; Yuan, Yahong

2010-01-01

211

Stigma Related to HIV among Community Health Workers in Chile  

PubMed Central

Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare systems policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824

Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah

2011-01-01

212

Assessing computer waste generation in Chile using material flow analysis.  

PubMed

The quantities of e-waste are expected to increase sharply in Chile. The purpose of this paper is to provide a quantitative data basis on generated e-waste quantities. A material flow analysis was carried out assessing the generation of e-waste from computer equipment (desktop and laptop PCs as well as CRT and LCD-monitors). Import and sales data were collected from the Chilean Customs database as well as from publications by the International Data Corporation. A survey was conducted to determine consumers' choices with respect to storage, re-use and disposal of computer equipment. The generation of e-waste was assessed in a baseline as well as upper and lower scenarios until 2020. The results for the baseline scenario show that about 10,000 and 20,000 tons of computer waste may be generated in the years 2010 and 2020, respectively. The cumulative e-waste generation will be four to five times higher in the upcoming decade (2010-2019) than during the current decade (2000-2009). By 2020, the shares of LCD-monitors and laptops will increase more rapidly replacing other e-waste including the CRT-monitors. The model also shows the principal flows of computer equipment from production and sale to recycling and disposal. The re-use of computer equipment plays an important role in Chile. An appropriate recycling scheme will have to be introduced to provide adequate solutions for the growing rate of e-waste generation. PMID:19793641

Steubing, Bernhard; Bni, Heinz; Schluep, Mathias; Silva, Uca; Ludwig, Christian

2010-03-01

213

[Revista Mdica de Chile in the year 2012].  

PubMed

During the year 2012, 539 manuscripts were submitted to this journal, following an increasing trend in the recent decade. Rejection rate was 33%. This higher number of submissions demanded a larger number and wider scope of external reviews, retarding the editorial process. The mean time lapse from reception to acceptance (or rejection) was 6.3 months (range 2-14) and from acceptance to publication 5.3 months (range 3-7). Research articles were 43.9% of published manuscripts and the remaining articles were Reviews, Special Articles, Case Reports, articles on Medical Ethics, Medical Education, Evidence Based Medicine, Public Health, History of Medicine, Letters to the Editor and others. Thirty seven published manuscripts (14.6%) came from foreign countries and 9 of them were published with full text in English. The 2012 Impact Factor was 0.360, showing little variation from previous years, locating the journal in the upper part of quartil 4 in the ISI-JCR category "Medicine, General and Internal", while the SCImago Journal & Country Rank locates the Revista in quartil 2 of its category "Medicine (miscellaneous)". In contrast with the low citation rate, the number of visits to the open access electronic version in www.scielo.cl averages over 3 million visits per year, illustrating that the interest among readers outnumbers the country's expectable readership. Only 22% of articles declared to have received financial help from entities external to the institution where the work was performed, coming mainly from Chilean Governmental competitive funds. The aim of Revista Mdica de Chile is to provide readers and authors a valuable source of information about current relevant topics in general and internal medicine, progress in related specialties and updates in basic sciences, rendering them available to Health professionals in Chile and worldwide, following international standards of ethical and scientific quality in medical publications. PMID:24448862

Reyes B, Humberto; Bustos-Gonzlez, Atilio; Andresen H, Max; Palma H, Joaqun

2013-08-01

214

revised version completed 19/04/2008 Upper plate deformation measured by GPS in the Coquimbo Gap, Chile.1  

E-print Network

gaps, e.g. Central Chile (Constitución-Concepción 35°S-37°S) and33 North Chile (Antofagasta-Arica 18°S as high as 8 cm/yr in the N 78°E direction27 [DeMets et al., 1990, 1994]. In Chile, several studies have

Vigny, Christophe

215

Complexity in Size, Recurrence and Source of Historical Earthquakes and Tsunamis in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Chile has a 470-year-long written earthquake history, the longest of any part of the country. Thanks to the early and continuous Spanish settlement of this part of Chile (32- 35 S), records document destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906 and 1985. This sequence has promoted the idea that central Chile's large subduction inter-plate earthquakes recur at regular intervals of about 80 years. The last of these earthquakes, in 1985, was even forecast as filling a seismic gap on the thrust boundary between the subducting Nazca Plate and the overriding South America Plate. Following this logic, the next large earthquake in metropolitan Chile will not occur until late in the 21st century. However, here I challenge this conclusion by reporting recently discovered historical evidence in Spain, Japan, Peru, and Chile. This new evidence augments the historical catalog in central Chile, strongly suggests that one of these earthquakes previously assumed to occur on the inter-plate interface in fact occurred elsewhere, and forces the conclusion that another of these earthquakes (and its accompanying tsunami) dwarfed the others. These findings complicate the task of assessing the hazard of future earthquakes in Chile's most populated region.

Cisternas, M.

2013-05-01

216

Magnitude Characterization Using Complex Networks in Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies using complex networks are applied to many systems, like traffic, social networks, internet and earth science. In this work we make an analysis using complex networks applied to magnitude of seismicity in the central zone of Chile, we use the preferential attachment in order to construct a seismic network using local magnitudes and the hypocenters of a seismic data set in central Chile. In order to work with a complete catalogue in magnitude, the data associated with the linear part of the Gutenberg-Richter law, with magnitudes greater than 2.7, were taken. We then make a grid in space, so that each seismic event falls into a certain cell, depending on the location of its hypocenter. Now the network is constructed: the first node corresponds to the cell where the first seismic event occurs. The node has an associated number which is the magnitude of the event which occured in it, and a probability is assigned to the node. The probability is a nonlinear mapping of the magnitude (a Gaussian function was taken), so that nodes with lower magnitude events are more likely to be attached to. Each time a new node is added to the network, it is attached to the previous node which has the larger probability; the link is directed from the previous node to the new node. In this way, a directed network is constructed, with a ``preferential attachment''-like growth model, using the magnitudes as the parameter to determine the probability of attachment to future nodes. Several events could occur in the same node. In this case, the probability is calculated using the average of the magnitudes of the events occuring in that node. Once the directed network is finished, the corresponding undirected network is constructed, by making all links symmetric, and eliminating the loops which may appear when two events occur in the same cell. The resulting directed network is found to be scale free (with very low values of the power-law distribution exponent), whereas the undirected one turns out to have small world behavior. These results are compared with a second, ficticious network, constructed in the same way, but where each successive node is chosen randomly in the grid, and its associated probability is also random, but taken from a Gaussian distribution. We find that this also generates a scale free network, but not a small world one. These results show an interesting behavior, another evidence of the complex organization of seismicity.

Pasten, D.; Comte, D.; Munoz, V.

2013-12-01

217

Hasty retreat of glaciers in the Palena province of Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mapping glacier extent from optical satellite data has become a most efficient tool to create or update glacier inventories and determine glacier changes over time. A most valuable archive in this regard is the nearly 30-year time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data that is freely available (already orthorectified) for most regions in the world from the USGS. One region with a most dramatic glacier shrinkage and a missing systematic assessment of changes, is the Palena province in Chile, south of Puerto Montt. A major bottleneck for accurate determination of glacier changes in this region is related to the huge amounts of snow falling in this very maritime region, hiding the perimeter of glaciers throughout the year. Consequently, we found only three years with Landsat scenes that can be used to map glacier extent through time. We here present the results of a glacier change analysis from six Landsat scenes (path-rows 232-89/90) acquired in 1985, 2000 and 2011 covering the Palena district in Chile. Clean glacier ice was mapped automatically with a standard technique (TM3/TM band ratio) and manual editing was applied to remove wrongly classified lakes and to add debris-covered glacier parts. The digital elevation model (DEM) from SRTM was used to derive drainage divides, determine glacier specific topographic parameters, and analyse the area changes in regard to topography. The scene from 2000 has the best snow conditions and was used to eliminate seasonal snow in the other two scenes by digital combination of the binary glacier masks. The observed changes show a huge spatial variability with a strong dependence on elevation and glacier hypsometry. While small mountain glaciers at high elevations and steep slopes show virtually no change over the 26-year period, ice at low elevations from large valley glaciers shows a dramatic decline (area and thickness loss). Some glaciers retreated more than 3 km over this time period or even disappeared completely. Typically, these glaciers lost contact to the accumulation areas of tributaries and now consist of an ablation area only. Furthermore, numerous pro-glacial lakes formed or expanded rapidly, increasing the local hazard potential. On the other hand, some glaciers located on or near to (still active) volcanoes have also advanced in the same time period. Observed trends in temperature (decreasing) are in contrast to the observed strong glacier shrinkage.

Paul, F.; Mlg, N.; Bolch, T.

2013-12-01

218

Antarctic icequakes triggered by the 2010 Maule earthquake in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic waves from distant, large earthquakes can almost instantaneously trigger shallow micro-earthquakes and deep tectonic tremor as they pass through Earth's crust. Such remotely triggered seismic activity mostly occurs in tectonically active regions. Triggered seismicity is generally considered to reflect shear failure on critically stressed fault planes and is thought to be driven by dynamic stress perturbations from both Love and Rayleigh types of surface seismic wave. Here we analyse seismic data from Antarctica in the six hours leading up to and following the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake in Chile. We identify many high-frequency seismic signals during the passage of the Rayleigh waves generated by the Maule earthquake, and interpret them as small icequakes triggered by the Rayleigh waves. The source locations of these triggered icequakes are difficult to determine owing to sparse seismic network coverage, but the triggered events generate surface waves, so are probably formed by near-surface sources. Our observations are consistent with tensile fracturing of near-surface ice or other brittle fracture events caused by changes in volumetric strain as the high-amplitude Rayleigh waves passed through. We conclude that cryospheric systems can be sensitive to large distant earthquakes.

Peng, Zhigang; Walter, Jacob I.; Aster, Richard C.; Nyblade, Andrew; Wiens, Douglas A.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

2014-09-01

219

Detecting depression among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: sex differences  

PubMed Central

Background Depression among adolescents is common but most cases go undetected. Brief questionnaires offer an opportunity to identify probable cases but properly validated cut-off points are often unavailable, especially in non-western countries. Sex differences in the prevalence of depression become marked in adolescence and this needs to be accounted when establishing cut-off points. Method This study involved adolescents attending secondary state schools in Santiago, Chile. We compared the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II with a psychiatric interview to ascertain diagnosis. General psychometric features were estimated before establishing the criterion validity of the BDI-II. Results The BDI-II showed good psychometric properties with good internal consistency, a clear unidimensional factorial structure, and good capacity to discriminate between cases and non-cases of depression. Optimal cut-off points to establish caseness for depression were much higher for girls than boys. Sex discrepancies were primarily explained by differences in scores among those with depression rather than among those without depression. Conclusions It is essential to validate scales with the populations intended to be used with. Sex differences are often ignored when applying cut-off points, leading to substantial misclassification. Early detection of depression is essential if we think that early intervention is a clinically important goal. PMID:23617306

2013-01-01

220

Aerosol effects on the UV irradiance in Santiago de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santiago de Chile (3327? S-7041? W) is a mid-latitude city of 6 million inhabitants with a complicated surrounding topography. Aerosol extinction in Santiago is determined by the semi-arid local climate, the urban pollution, a regional subsidence thermal inversion layer, and the boundary-layer wind airflow. In this paper we report on spectral measurements of the surface irradiance (at 290-600 nm wavelength range) carried out during 2013 in the heart of the city by using a double monochromator-based spectroradiometer system. These measurements were used to assess the effect of local aerosols, paying particular attention to the ultraviolet (UV) range. We found that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) exhibited variations likely related to changes in the subsidence thermal inversion and in the boundary-layer winds. Although the AOD at 350 nm typically ranged from 0.2 to 0.3, peak values of about 0.7 were measured. The AOD diminished with the wavelength and typically ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 at 550 nm. Our AOD data were found to be consistent with measurements of the particulate matter (PM) mass concentration.

Cordero, R. R.; Seckmeyer, G.; Damiani, A.; Jorquera, J.; Carrasco, J.; Muoz, R.; Da Silva, L.; Labbe, F.; Laroze, D.

2014-11-01

221

A Geophysical Monitoring Experiment in the Subduction System of Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part of the multi-disiplinary TIPTEQ project (From The Incoming Plate to Mega Thrust Earthquake Processes) is a combined seismic-magnetotelluric-geodetic monitoring network. In the first phase, which started in November 2004, a network of three stations was installed in southern Chile, aligned along an EW profile extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the volcanic arc. The overall goal is to detect transient events which are related to the subduction system by means of recording and imaging the local and regional seismicity distribution and the long-term variability of geomagnetic transfer functions. Synchronous recordings of GPS and seismic broadband data (periods up to hours) will allow us to examine a wide spectrum of earthquake styles: between seismic (sudden-onset) rupture and continuous or a-seismic slip. Here, we present first results of the long term magnetotelluric (MT) experiment. The data were recorded in a standard 5 component MT setup using fluxgate magnetometers and non-polarizing Ag AgCl electrodes. Single site processing of the data results in apparent resistivity and phase curves in a period range between 10s and 10000s which are generally repeatable for each station. The influence of noise is evident showing great variability between individual time segments and across the station network. potsdam.de/pb3/pb31/projects/tipteq/

Ritter, O.; Huebert, J.; Asch, G.

2006-12-01

222

Late Holocene megathrust earthquakes in south central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lack of comprehensive understanding of the seismic hazards associated with a subduction zone can lead to inadequate anticipation of earthquake and tsunami magnitudes. Four hundred and fifty years of Chilean historical documents record the effects of numerous great earthquakes; however, with recurrence intervals between the largest megathrust earthquakes approaching 300 years, seismic hazard assessment requires longer chronologies. This research seeks to verify and extend historical records in south central Chile using a relative-sea level approach to palaeoseismology. Our quantitative, diatom-based approaches to relative sea-level reconstruction are successful in reconstructing the magnitude of coseismic deformation during recent, well documented Chilean earthquakes. The few disparities between my estimates and independent data highlight the possibility of shaking-induced sediment consolidation in tidal marshes. Following this encouraging confirmation of the approach, we quantify land-level changes in longer sedimentary records from the centre of the rupture zone of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. Here, laterally extensive marsh soils abruptly overlain by low intertidal sediments attest to the occurrence of four megathrust earthquakes. Sites preserve evidence of the 1960 and 1575 earthquakes and we constrain the timing of two predecessors to 1270 to 1410 and 1050 to 1200. The sediments and biostratigraphy lack evidence for the historically documented 1737 and 1837 earthquakes.

Garrett, Ed; Shennan, Ian; Gulliver, Pauline; Woodroffe, Sarah

2013-04-01

223

Multiparameter Volcano Surveillance of Villarrica Volcano (South-Central Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villarrica is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile and one of the few in the world known to have an active lava lake within its crater. This snow-covered volcano generates frequent strombolian eruptions and lava flows and, at times, the melting of snow can cause massive lahars. Besides this, continuous degassing and high-level seismicity are the most common types of activity recorded at the volcano. In order to investigate the mechanisms driving the persistent degassing and seismic activity at the volcano, we use a multiparameter approach based on the combined study of high time-resolved gas and seismic data. These data are respectively acquired by means of 3 stationary NOVAC-type scanning Mini-DOAS and 7 additional seismometers (short period and broad bands), installed at the volcano since March 2009, that complement the existing OVDAS (Observatorio Volcanolgico de los Andes del Sur) volcano monitoring network. On the basis of the combination of gas and seismological measurements we aim at gaining insight into volcano-magmatic processes, and factors playing a role on onset of volcanic unrest and eruptive activity. Since the gas monitoring network has been installed at the volcano a correlation between SO2 emissions and seismic activity (LP events) has been recognized. A possible role played by regional tectonics on detected changes in volcano degassing and seismicity, and consequently on the volcanic activity, is also investigated.

Garofalo, Kristin; Pea, Paola; Dzierma, Yvonne; Hansteen, Thor; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Gil, Fernando

2010-05-01

224

76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...such sites. This mite sampling method has been tested in Chile...culling damaged fruit and sampling for mites, would remove...inspection and biometric sampling of the fruit would provide...United States. These methods have proved...

2011-03-16

225

Property values, housing subsidies and incentives : evidence from Chile's current housing policies  

E-print Network

This study evaluates the performance of low income housing subsidy programs currently operating in Chile. The use of detailed microdata allows a close assessment of the relationship between individual subsidy grants, ...

Razmilic Burgos, Slaven Antonio

2010-01-01

226

Initial results from the operation of village hybrid systems in Chile  

SciTech Connect

The government of Chile has undertaken a rural electrification program to electrify 75% of the population by the year 2000. Renewable energy is considered within this program, and its application facilitated through a technical cooperation agreement between Chile`s national energy commission (CNE) and the U.S. Department of Energy. In order to introduce isolated mini-grid hybrid wind-energy systems into Chile, three pilot projects were implemented in Region IX. The goal of the pilot systems is to establish renewables as a viable option for rural electrification in the Chilean context. In this paper we report on the first six months of three pilot projects. Presented as background information are brief descriptions of the power systems, data acquisition systems, and the operation and maintenance (O&M) protocols. Analyses of loads, component performance, system operation, and balance of payments for O&M are the primary points presented. Important lessons learned and future plans are also discussed.

Holz, R.; Baring-Gould, E.I.; Corbus, D. [and others

1997-08-01

227

Sex and the Church : a study of the Catholic Church and reproductive health in Chile  

E-print Network

Committee on Bioethics at the Catholic University in Chile. I asked him why the Catholic ChurchChurch articulates its positions in regards to matters of family. In more public example, the Permanent Committee

Longenecker, Karen

2010-01-01

228

La Productividad Cientfica de Economa y Administracin en Chile. Un Anlisis Comparativo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first part of this paper compares the volume and scientific productivity of Business Administration and Economics in Chile with the rest of scientific disciplines at the national and international levels. Given that scientific productivity is heteroge

Claudia Contreras; Gonzalo Edwards; Alejandra Mizala

2006-01-01

229

Stochastic optimization of hydroelectric dam operations on the Biobio River in Chile  

E-print Network

Growing electricity demand in Chile has prompted the proposal of new hydropower projects. In addition to evaluating new projects to satisfy demand, a holistic assessment of alternatives as well as potential gains from ...

Burrall, Kristen M

2009-01-01

230

United States and the Republic of Chile Partner to Battle Cancer  

Cancer.gov

A new alliance between the United States National Cancer Institute and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Chile, aims to accelerate progress against cancer in Hispanic populations in the United States and Latin America.

231

The State Machine : politics, ideology, and computation in Chile, 1964-1973  

E-print Network

This dissertation argues that Chile's history of computing is tightly interwoven with the history of the Chilean state. It begins by documenting the government use of mechanical tabulating machines during the 1920s and ...

Miller Medina, Jessica Eden

2005-01-01

232

Public and private Investment in Mexico and Chile: An empirical test of the complementarity hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the important question of whether government investment spending, rather than overall public expenditures,\\u000a exerts a positive effect on economic growth and productivity. Using time-series data for Chile and Mexico, it estimates a\\u000a linear growth model that incorporates a number of relevant quantitative and qualitative variables for each country. The empirical\\u000a results suggest that for both Chile and

Miguel D. Ramirez

1996-01-01

233

Protection of Existing and Potential Astronomical Sites in Chile - an Update.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The IAU's Working Group on Controlling Light Pollution (iauwg) has declared Mauna Kea and a wide strip of Northern Chile between Antofagasta and Chajnanator as top priorities for its efforts to protect existing and potential sites in the Northern and Southern hemispheres respectively. This report provides an update on the iauwg's co-ordinated efforts to protect areas around the major international optical observatories in Chile, as well as the "Chilean Special Zone" (CSZ) mentioned above. This zone is of current and potential interest for the installation of extremely large optical telescopes and includes the ALMA radio-astronomy site. The CSZ is potentially vulnerable to adverse effects of mining in the region. Progess has been made in demonstrating to local mining interests within the CSZ the economic advantages of quality lighting. Educational and outreach activities to a variety of target audiences are building on legislation covering dark skies - itself part of work by the Chilean government to protect the natural heritage of Chile. Substantial good will was generated by an international, bilingual conference held last March in Chile. Just in the region around AURA's Observatory in Chile (Gemini South, CTIO and SOAR), a portable planetarium has been used to reach out to over 600 teachers and 65,000 pupils in the RedLaSer schools network within the last three years. This has attracted the direct interest of Chile's Ministry of Education. Videoconferencing over Internet2 is being used for educational purposes between Chile and various sites in the US. The NSF- initiated Mamalluca municipal observatory now receives more visitors than all the international observatories in Chile combined and is the focus of an expanding local industry of astronomical eco-tourism. Most of this work was supported by funding from, or via, the US NSF through CTIO and Gemini, and from ESO, OCIW, CONAMA and the IDA.

Smith, M. G.; Sanhueza, P.; Norman, D.; Schwarz, H.; Orellana, D.

2002-12-01

234

Can Schools Reduce the Indigenous Test Score Gap? Evidence from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chile, indigenous students obtain lower test scores, on average, than non-indigenous students. Between two cohorts of eighth-graders in the late 1990s, the test score gap declined by 0.1 to 0.2 standard deviations. An Oaxaca decomposition and related descriptive evidence suggest that the most plausible explanation is related to Chile's large-scale school reforms that were targeted at low-achieving schools and

Patrick J. McEwan

2008-01-01

235

Ice elevation and areal changes of glaciers from the Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

High thinning rates (up to ?4.00.97m a?1) have been measured at Campo de Hielo Patagnico Norte (CHN) or Northern Patagonia Icefield, Chile between 1975 and 2001. Results have been obtained by comparing a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from regular cartography compiled by Instituto Geogrfico Militar of Chile (IGM) based upon 1974\\/1975 aerial photographs and a DEM generated from Advanced

Andrs Rivera; Toby Benham; Gino Casassa; Jonathan Bamber; Julian A. Dowdeswell

2007-01-01

236

Por qu se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Abigail Fallot a,b,*  

E-print Network

1 Título ¿Por qué se invierte en plantaciones de Jatropha? Respuestas desde Costa Rica Autores, France b CATIE, Programa cambio climático y cuencas, 30501 Turrialba, Costa Rica * Contacto: fallot de plantaciones de Jatropha curcas (Tempate) para biodiesel, analizamos el caso de Costa Rica donde

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

237

La continuidad y el cambio de las migraciones entre Mxico y Estados Unidos: una interpretacin desde Mxico  

Microsoft Academic Search

El tema de los movimientos de poblacin entre pases ha cobrado una importancia mayor tanto por el crecimiento numrico de los migrantes, como por las diversas implicaciones que ese fenmeno tiene desde varias perspectivas. A diferencia del pasado, al tema migratorio se le han aadido ahora otros que tienen que ver con los derechos humanos, laborales y civiles, adems de

Gustavo Verduzco Igarta

2005-01-01

238

Corporal Punishment and Youth Externalizing Behavior in Santiago, Chile  

PubMed Central

Objectives Corporal punishment is still widely practiced around the globe, despite the large body of child development research that substantiates its short- and long-term consequences. Within this context, this paper examined the relationship between parental use of corporal punishment and youth externalizing behavior with a Chilean sample to add to the growing empirical evidence concerning the potential relationship between increased corporal punishment and undesirable youth outcomes across cultures. Methods Analysis was based on 919 adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which parents use of corporal punishment and positive family measures were associated with youth externalizing behavior. Furthermore, the associations between self-reported externalizing behavior and infrequent, as well as frequent, use of corporal punishment were investigated to contribute to understanding how varying levels of parental use of corporal punishment were differently related to youth outcomes. Results Both mothers and fathers use of corporal punishment were associated with greater youth externalizing behavior. Additionally, increases in positive parenting practices, such as parental warmth and family involvement, were met with decreases in youth externalizing behavior when controlling for youth demographics, family socioeconomic status, and parents use of corporal punishment. Finally, both infrequent and frequent use of corporal punishment were positively associated with higher youth problem behaviors, though frequent corporal punishment had a stronger relationship with externalizing behavior than did infrequent corporal punishment. Conclusions Parental use of corporal punishment, even on an occasional basis, is associated with greater externalizing behavior for youth while a warm and involving family environment may protect youth from serious problem behaviors. Therefore, findings of this study add to the growing evidence concerning the negative consequences of corporal punishment for youth outcomes. PMID:22766372

Ma, Julie; Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

2012-01-01

239

Miocene Vetigastropoda and Neritimorpha (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Species of Vetigastropoda (Fissurellidae, Turbinidae, Trochidae) and one species of Neritimorpha (Neritidae) from the Navidad area, south of Valpara?so, and the Arauco Peninsula, south of Concepcin, are described. Among these, the Fissurellidae comprise Diodora fragilis n. sp., Diodora pupuyana n. sp., two additional unnamed species of Diodora, and a species resembling Fissurellidea. Turbinidae are represented by Cantrainea sp., and Trochidae include Tegula (Chlorostoma) austropacifica n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) chilena n. sp., Tegula (Chlorostoma) matanzensis n. sp., Tegula (Agathistoma) antiqua n. sp., Bathybembix mcleani n. sp., Gibbula poeppigii [Philippi, 1887] n. comb., Diloma miocenica n. sp., Fagnastesia venefica [Philippi, 1887] n. gen. n. comb., Fagnastesia matanzana n. gen. n. sp., Calliostoma mapucherum n. sp., Calliostoma kleppi n. sp., Calliostoma covacevichi n. sp., Astele laevis [Sowerby, 1846] n. comb., and Monilea riorapelensis n. sp. The Neritidae are represented by Nerita (Heminerita) chilensis [Philippi, 1887]. The new genus Fagnastesia is introduced to represent low-spired trochoideans with a sculpture of nodes below the suture, angulated whorls, and a wide umbilicus. This Miocene Chilean fauna includes genera that have lived at the coast and in shallow, relatively warm water or deeper, much cooler water. This composition therefore suggests that many of the Miocene formations along the central Chilean coast consist of displaced sediments. A comparison with different fossil and Recent faunas from around the Pacific and South America indicates that the vetigastropod and neritid fauna from the Miocene of Chile has only minor affinities with taxa living near New Zealand, Argentina, and the tropical eastern Pacific at that time.

Nielsen, Sven N.; Frassinetti, Daniel; Bandel, Klaus

2004-09-01

240

Understanding sources of sea lice for salmon farms in Chile.  

PubMed

The decline of fisheries over recent decades and a growing human population has coincided with an increase in aquaculture production. As farmed fish densities increase, so have their rates of infectious diseases, as predicted by the theory of density-dependent disease transmission. One of the pathogen that has increased with the growth of salmon farming is sea lice. Effective management of this pathogen requires an understanding of the spatial scale of transmission. We used a two-part multi-scale model to account for the zero-inflated data observed in weekly sea lice abundance levels on rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon farms in Chile, and to assess internal (farm) and external (regional) sources of sea lice infection. We observed that the level of juvenile sea lice was higher on farms that were closer to processing plants with fish holding facilities. Further, evidence for sea lice exposure from the surrounding area was supported by a strong positive correlation between the level of juvenile sea lice on a farm and the number of gravid females on neighboring farms within 30 km two weeks prior. The relationship between external sources of sea lice from neighboring farms and juvenile sea lice on a farm was one of the strongest detected in our multivariable model. Our findings suggest that the management of sea lice should be coordinated between farms and should include all farms and processing plants with holding facilities within a relatively large geographic area. Understanding the contribution of pathogens on a farm from different sources is an important step in developing effective control strategies. PMID:23628338

Kristoffersen, A B; Rees, E E; Stryhn, H; Ibarra, R; Campisto, J-L; Revie, C W; St-Hilaire, S

2013-08-01

241

The Influence Of Earthquakes On Degassing At Villarrica Volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Villarrica is one of the most active volcanoes in Chile and is presently characterized by continuous degassing, high-level seismicity and a persistent lava lake within its crater. Three stationary NOVAC-type scanning Mini-DOAS UV spectrometers for the quantification of SO2 fluxes were installed at the volcano in March 2009. Seismic stations used for this study include the OVDAS (Observatorio Volcanolgico de los Andes del Sur) volcano monitoring network, and 7 dedicated short period and broadband seismometers that were deployed in the region for more than one year. We have registered several cases of correlation between SO2 fluxes and seismic activity (LP events). Seismic events have in several cases been followed by an increase in degassing activity. The response seems to occur on two different time scales. Regional earthquake events in 2009 and 2010, and the 2011 Araucania event which occurred on January 2 and had a magnitude of 7.1, were followed by strongly increased degassing activity at Villarrica 2-4 days later, interpreted as due to increased bubble nucleation in the magmatic system at depth. The large Maule earthquake on February 27, 2010 with a magnitude of 8.8 had little immediate effect, but was followed several weeks later by an immense increase in degassing activity of about one order of magnitude compared to the baseline level. We speculate that this was a result of changing stress fields in the lower crust and at mantle depths caused by the Maule event, possibly changing melting conditions temporarily. Numerical models based on seismic, petrologic and gas flux data are used to demonstrate the feasibility of the time-lag between seismicity and degassing. We thus aim at gaining insight into the interface between magmatic and volcano-tectonic processes, especially factors playing a role for the onset of volcanic unrest.

Hansteen, T. H.; Bredemeyer, S.; Garofalo, K.; Pena, P.; Rupke, L.; Mora Stock, C.; Dzierma, Y.; Rabbel, W.; Bataille, K.; Gil Cruz, F.

2011-12-01

242

Dual seismogenic behavior: The 1985 Central Chile Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repeated leveling lines evidenced almost half a meter of uplift at coastal localities nearby the epicentral region of the March 3, 1985, Ms=7.8, Central Chile earthquake. A tide gauge at Valparaiso and two limnigraphs, 27 km apart, situated at the extremes of Rapel Lake, to the south of the leveling line, have been recording continuously sea level and the equipotential lake level for more than 10 years, providing a permanent very-long base tiltmeter. Water level difference at the two limnigraphs as a function of time resembles a ramp function, beginning approximately at the time of the earthquake occurrence; it has a rise time of approximately 10 months with a maximum amplitude of 120 mm or 4.4 radians in tilt. The overall shape of the time-dependent tilt is mimicked by the sea level signal recorded at Valparaso, about 100 km away from Rapel Lake, showing a maximum coastal subsidence of 0.6 m. Gravity surveys carried out in three different pre and postseismic epochs, along the segment of the leveling line which shows major coseismic uplift, indicate that the whole region has subsided postseismically, 10 cm in five years. Simple two-dimensional models for both co and postseismic stages indicate that at least 1.2 m of average fault displacement in ten months of postseismic movement along the contact between Nazca and South America plates is responsible of the time dependent elevation changes, 25% less of what was deduced with the same method for the coseismic stage.

Barrientos, Sergio E.

243

A European classification of services for long-term care--the EU-project eDESDE-LTC  

PubMed Central

Purpose and theory The eDESDE-LTC project aims at developing an operational system for coding, mapping and comparing services for long-term care (LTC) across EU. The projects strategy is to improve EU listing and access to relevant sources of healthcare information via development of SEMANTIC INTER-OPERABILITY in eHEALTH (coding and listing of services for LTC); to increase access to relevant sources of information on LTC services, and to improve linkages between national and regional websites; to foster cooperation with international organizations (OECD). Methods This operational system will include a standard classification of main types of care for persons with LTC needs and an instrument for mapping and standard description of services. These instruments are based on previous classification systems for mental health services (ESMS), disabilities services (DESDE) and ageing services (DESDAE). A Delphi panel made by seven partners developed a DESDE-LTC beta version, which was translated into six languages. The feasibility of DESDE-LTC is tested in six countries using national focal groups. Then the final version will be developed by the Delphi panel, a webpage, training material and course will be carried out. Results and conclusions The eDESDE-LTC system will be piloted in two EU countries (Spain and Bulgaria). Evaluation will focus primarily on usability and impact analysis. Discussion The added value of this project is related to the right of having access to high-quality healthcare when and where it is needed by EU citizens. Due to semantic variability and service complexity, existing national listings of services do not provide an adequate framework for patient mobility.

Weber, Germain; Brehmer, Barbara; Zeilinger, Elisabeth; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

2009-01-01

244

Anlisis de la Industria de Alojamiento Turstico de la Ciudad de Puerto Varas, Chile Analysis of the Tourist Accommodation Industry in the City of Puerto Varas, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following study describes and analyzes the competitiveness of the tourist accommodation industry in Puerto Varas, Chile, using two basic methodologies: the Porter method for the structural analysis of the industry and the strategic groups analysis, in order to detect the structural factors that define the expected gains and the long term profitability of this industry, and to identify the

245

EVALUACIN GENTICA DE CLONES DE OLIVO EN EL DESIERTO DE ATACAMA, CHILE GENETIC EVALUATION OF OLIVE CLONES IN THE ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

El olivo (Olea europaea L.) es una especie econmicamente im- portante para pases con clima mediterrneo y ha sido una al- ternativa apropiada y til para los sistemas agrcolas intensivos en las zonas ridas de Chile. Por este motivo, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar los componentes de varianza, heredabilidad en sentido amplio y la prediccin de valores gen-

Freddy Mora; Francisco Tapia; Antonio Ibacache; Elias Nunes-Martins; Carlos Alberto-Scapim

246

How healthy are cultivated scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) from Chile? A histopathological survey Qu tan sanos son los ostiones (Argopecten purpuratus) de cultivo en Chile? Un catastro histopatolgico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen.- El cultivo del ostin del Norte (Argopecten purpuratus) es una importante actividad econmica en la zona centro-norte de Chile, y las enfermedades son una constante preocupacin para los cultivadores y la autoridad pesquera. Se realiz un catastro de un ao para detectar qu parsitos o posibles patgenos se encuentran presentes en ostiones cultivados en tres localidades: Caldera, Guanaqueros y

Karin B. Lohrmann

2009-01-01

247

Meandering channels without vegetation: Examples from Nevada and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a study motivated by the occurrence of highly sinuous, actively migrating paleochannels on Mars. Highly sinuous, unconfined meanders require small aspect ratios, which in turn require cohesive channel banks. This cohesion is obtained most commonly by vegetation cover coupled with high suspended sediment loading. The dominant role of vegetation in meandering is reflected in the difficulty in creating highly sinuous channels in flume experiment without introduction of vegetation. The occurrence of strongly meandering channels on Mars suggests meanders can develop in the absence of vegetation. The main objective of our study is to understand the processes of meander evolution in non-vegetated surfaces. We have studied two terrestrial sites in which meandering channels form where vegetation is sparse and has little influence on bank erodibility or point-bar deposition, indicating that there must be other mechanisms creating bank cohesion. One mechanism is stabilization of point-bar deposits by mud drapes. The Quinn River in Nevada is a sinuous channel that flows through fine lacustrine sediments on the floor of paleolake Lahontan resulting in the river having both bed and bank composed of sediment containing least 40% silt/clay. In addition to abundant mud, high salt content of the river water encourages flocculation and settling of fine sediment; thus both high clay/silt content and salt work together at the Quinn River to maintain a small aspect ratio. In contrast to the Quinn River, meandering channels on alluvial fans in the Atacama Desert in northern Chile are deposited by flows originating from the foothills of the Andes Mountains where sediments are coarser and more variable in size. Like Quinn River both fine sediments and salts contribute to meandering. The bank cohesion is provided by mudflows or hyperconcentrated flows creating bank drapes as well as extensive overbank levees which harden to adobe-like consistency. The Atacama Desert is rich in precipitated salts forming salt crusted deposits, and because grains are coarser, we speculate that these salts may possibly be playing a much more direct role in providing the cohesion than they do in the Quinn River. We are using chemical analyses and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images of sediment samples to investigate cementation mechanisms.

Matsubara, Y.; Howard, A. D.; Burr, D. M.; Williams, R. M.; Moore, J. M.

2012-12-01

248

Aerosol composition and source apportionment in Santiago de Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Santiago de Chile, So Paulo and Mexico City are Latin American urban areas that suffer from heavy air pollution. In order to study air pollution in Santiago area, an aerosol source apportionment study was designed to measure ambient aerosol composition and size distribution for two downtown sampling sites in Santiago. The aerosol monitoring stations were operated in Gotuzo and Las Condes during July and August 1996. The study employed stacked filter units (SFU) for aerosol sampling, collecting fine mode aerosol (dp<2 ?m) and coarse mode aerosol (2

Artaxo, Paulo; Oyola, Pedro; Martinez, Roberto

1999-04-01

249

Marine Gravity Measurements at the Subduction Zone offshore Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity measurements were carried out during RV SONNE cruise SO-161 (SPOC) in late 2001 between 28 S and 44 S offshore Central Chile along a total length of about 17500 km. The mean accuracy of the data measured with the seagravimeter system KSS31M of BGR is better than 1 mGal. Further foreign marine gravity data were not included due to their considerable lower accuracy. Additional marine gravity data derived from satellite altimetry are needed to augment our data from the survey area. The SPOC data set was compared with 3 different satellite gravity data compilations. The data set with the best statistical results for the gravity differences was used for further gravity map compilations. The map of the freeair gravity is dominated by the anomalies of the main topographic features in the survey area. In the W the oceanic crust of the subducting Nazca Plate is characterized by weak positve gravity anomalies. Landward the anomalies decrease rapidly to less than minus 150 mGal in the Chilean trench. Further towards the coast extends a broad zone of alternating positve and negative freeair gravity anomalies. These could be interpreted either in terms of morphology of the continental slope or heterogeneous density distribution in the upper crust. Additionally Bouguer gravity anomalies were calculated. The anomalies on the Nazca Plate are strongly positive with a clear south - north trending increase of values, which reflect the increasing age of the oceanic crust. The effect of isostatic compensation was calculated assuming Vening-Meinesz models with different parameters. The gravity effect of the isostatic compensation root was eliminated from the Bouguer gravity anomalies and serves as a residual field. The interpretation of isostatic residual fields in this complicated tectonic environment leads to the detection of a series of offshore basins. In the N and the centre of the survey area the distribution of the profiles is rather uniform. For these areas 3D density models were developed. The models consider the results of the multi channel reflection seismic and especially the refraction seismic lines. The models show the density structure of the accretionary wedge which expands from N to S, the continental slope and various basins near to the coast. The possibility of a subduction channel in the southern area is discussed. The effect and trace of fracture zones before and after subduction were investigated.

Heyde, I.; Kopp, H.; Reichert, C.

2003-12-01

250

Ongoing seismological investigations around Villarrica Volcano, Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the collaborative research centre SFB 574, the Chilean subduction zone is being investigated by a seismological subproject conducted by Chilean and German partners. The general goal of the SFB 574 is to study the origin and influence of volatiles and fluids in subduction zones. The seismological subproject constitutes the structural and seismotectonic framework of these investigations. In the past years, the SFB 574 investigations focussed on the Central American subduction zone. For the next four years, the SFB 574 has moved to the Chilean subduction zone, where the subduction setting is different. In addition to presenting a continental end-member of subduction zones - vs. a transitional setting in Central America - seismicity and volcanism in Chile are influenced strongly by sediment input into the trench, oblique convergence and resulting strain partitioning, and pre-Andean characteristics of the overriding plate. Furthermore, the occurrence of the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake, the Valdivia 1960 earthquake, close to the very active Villarrica volcano, makes this region ideally suited for subduction-related hazard investigations. The seismological studies will be concentrated around Villarrica Volcano, linking it with the area around the epicentre of the 1960 Valdivia earthquake. A network of 60 seismological stations will be installed in October/November 2008 for a full year of continuous data recording: A transect of 20 broad-band seismometers will run across Villarrica Volcano, extending from the coast to the back-arc in Argentina. This is complemented by 40 short-period stations covering a region of some 60 km to the North and South of the Villarrica transect (39-40 deg S). The data collected by this network will serve for local and teleseismic tomography, seismicity, receiver function studies and further analyses of anisotropy. In addition to exploring the deep structure and geometry of this part of the subduction zone, these studies will provide insight into the presence of fluids, fluid pathways, and the stress field. In combination with geochemical and volcanological studies also performed by the SFB 574, these investigations will contribute to a better understanding of subduction zone characteristics in a region of extreme coseismic stress, slab-arc fluid processes, volcano dynamics and hazards.

Dzierma, Y.; Thorwart, M.; Rabbel, W.; Comte, D.; Legrand, D.; Bataille, K.; Iglesia, P.; Prezzi, C.

2009-04-01

251

Encountering Chile: influence of Chilean exiles on United States popular opinions in the 1970s and 1980s  

E-print Network

. " Additionally, a number of scholars who have been instrumental in drawing attention to events in Chile and to the works of exiled Chileans are themselves exiled Chileans working in universities in the United States. Marjorie Agosin, of Wellesley College.... For instance, Jose Donoso taught at the University of Iowa, the University of Colorado, Princeton University, Dartmouth College, the Catholic University of Chile, and the University of Chile at various times. " Dorfman taught at the Sorbonne in Paris...

Willard, Rachel

2013-02-22

252

Tectonics and mechanism of a spreading ridge subduction at the Chile Triple Junction based on new marine geophysical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chile Triple Junction (CTJ), an RTT-type triple junction located at 4630'S off Taitao Peninsula, the western coast of Chile, is to be remarked in that the Chile Ridge, one of the typical mid-oceanic ridges that generate oceanic plates, is subducting underneath the South American continental plate. It is well known that earthquakes occur frequently off the Chilean coast. But

T. Matsumoto; A. Doi; S. Kise; N. Abe

2010-01-01

253

CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. METHODS CHILE uses a socio-ecological approach to improve dietary intake and increase physical activity. The intervention includes: a classroom curriculum; teacher and food service training; family engagement; grocery store participation; and health care provider support. RESULTS Lessons learned from CHILE include: the need to consider availability of recommended foods; the necessity of multiple training sessions for teachers and food service; the need to tailor the family events to local needs; consideration of the profit needs of grocery stores; and sensitivity to the time constraints of health care providers. CONCLUSIONS HS can play an important role in preventing obesity in children. CHILE is an example of a feasible intervention that addresses nutrition and physical activity for preschool children that can be incorporated into HS curricula and aligns with HS national performance standards. PMID:23343323

Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

2012-01-01

254

Vent geometry detected from infrasound observation on Villaricca volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcan Villarrica in the southern Andes, Chile, is an active stratovolcano that hosts a convecting lava lake in the summit crater. Activity is characterized by persistent degassing and bubble bursting at the surface of lava lake. Between the 21st and 23rd of Jan 2010 we recorded monotonic infrasound with a stable dominant frequency at 0.7 to 0.8 Hz. Associated video imagery of the active lava lake, taken by a camera suspended from a wire across the crater, showed active convection and degassing, but gas release events were not directly correlated with infrasound transients. Continuous monotonic infrasound strongly suggests a resonant phenomena associated with a stable conduit and vent system. In the present study we attempt to estimate the vent geometry of Villarrica volcano based on the observed infrasound. We deployed four stations consisting of infrasound microphones, audible microphone, three components seismometers and weather stations, two of which were on the eastern and western rim of the crater, while the other two were on the flanks of volcano 2.7 and 3.8 km NNW of the crater, respectively. Despite amplitude variations the observed waveforms were very well correlated among the four stations indicating sound originating in the crater. From our video image and the past studies we inferred a cavity between the lava lake and overhanging spatter roof with a skylight in its center. In this case Helmholtz resonance is plausible as the source of observed monotonic infrasound. An idealized Helmholtz resonance model is manifested by a simple harmonic motion of air pistoning within the skylight neck that separates the inner cavity from external atmosphere. The frequenc f is given by: f=(c/2?)(S/VL)1/2 where c is sound velocity, S is neck cross sectional area, L is neck length and V is cavity volume. In the present case L corresponds to skylight depth. In practice, an extra volume proportional to neck radius moves together with the air above and below the neck, known as an end effect. When L is small enough compared to cavity diameter the air piston length is approximated to be 1.7 times of neck radius. By considering the skylight as a thin circular hole with radius r, f should be given by: f=(c/2?)(?r2/1.7Vr)1/2=(c/2?)(?r/1.7V)1/2 By applying f=0.8 Hz, r=5 m and c=340 m/s we obtain the cavity volume to be 34000 m3. If the cavity diameter is the same as that of the solidified roof (50-60 m), the cavity depth is derived to be 17.2-12.0 m. Although cavity height has some uncertainty associated with presumed geometry of the skylight, it agrees well with observed video image analysis. Using video imagery we detected lava fragments falling from the edge of skylight onto lava lake in about 1.2 to 1.8 s. This corresponds to a free fall distance between 8 and 15 m if we ignore drag force from atmosphere. The good agreement of estimated cavity height also assures the thinness of skylight edge, i.e., skylight is not cylindrical.

Goto, A.; Johnson, J. B.; Sanderson, R. W.; Anderson, J.; Varley, N. R.

2010-12-01

255

STS-65 Earth observation of Northern Chile and Andes Mtns taken from OV-102  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Northern Chile and the Andes Mountains. This color photograph is a panoramic (southern view) that features Chile and the Andes Mountains of South America. The Atacama Desert, one of the driest regions on Earth, is clearly visible along the Chilean coast. In the near left foreground is the Salar de Arizaro. Salar Punta Negra in the center foreground appears to be partially filled with water. On the right side of the view, a coastal plateau rises from the Pacific Ocean and meets the Andes Mountains that appear as a backbone running north to south along the border of Chile and Argentina. In the distant left portion of the view can be seen the hazy Chaco Plains and Pampas.

1994-01-01

256

Design of a Teacher Professional Development Program for International Collaborative Astronomy Research in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed (but not yet implemented) a program where five US teachers will team with five Chilean teachers to conduct high-quality astronomical research in Chile that can be brought back to their classrooms and shared with their students. This project will introduce US teachers to four research projects at the Observatorio Cruz del Sur, one the largest municipal observatories in South America. The program would operate over the course of a year or more, with a month of observing and conducting research in Chile. The observatory is located in the small town of Combarbal (Limari Province, IV Regin de Coquimbo) in a region rich in archeological, historical, and cultural heritage. Teachers will use high-sensitivity digital detectors to take data through telescopes and with cameras as part of four research projects- light pollution research, digital photography of dark large areas of the sky using wide angle cameras, asteroid photometry, and exoplanet photometric studies. The project partners the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (Tucson, Arizona and La Serena, Chile), the Municipality of the town of Combarbal, the National Observatory of Chile/University of Chile, and REUNA, an internet communication alliance that serves Chilean universities and observatories. Since the US teachers will have their astronomy classes running while they are in Chile, the teachers will be communicating with their classes on a regular basis. The teachers will also be providing long-term access to southern sky data for other teachers and students in the US while establishing the basis for long-term collaborative research. We expect the program to establish long-term international research collaborations among US and Chilean teachers and students.

Pompea, S. M.; Seguel, J.; Sparks, R.; Opazo, L.; Walker, C. E.

2011-12-01

257

Identification of diverse Salmonella Serotypes, Virulotypes, and Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes in Waterfowl From Chile  

PubMed Central

Abstract Salmonella enterica is a pathogen with a wide host-range that presents great concern in developed and developing countries. To determine and characterize Salmonella strains found in Chile's waterfowl, we sampled 758 birds along 2000?km of the Chilean coast. In this sample, 46 isolates from 10 serotypes were detected, several with multidrug resistance phenotypes and different combinations of virulence-associated genes (virulotypes). These results suggest that Salmonella infection in waterfowl in Chile could have impacts on public and animal health. PMID:24107205

Fresno, Marcela; Barrera, Violeta; Gornall, Vanessa; Lillo, Pilar; Paredes, Natalia; Abalos, Pedro; Fernndez, Alda

2013-01-01

258

Peru, Chile and Bolivia as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Areas of Peru (upper right), Chile (top center) and Bolivia as seen from the Gemini 9-A spacecraft during its 35th revolution of the earth. Large body of water at lower right is Lake Titicaca. Smaller lake at left edge is Lake Poopo. Salar de Uyuni is large light-colored area at upper left. At bottom of picture is the snow-capped Cordillera Real range of the Andes mountains. Pacific coastline of Peru and Chile is at upper right. Range running parallel with coastline is the Cordillera Occidental.

1966-01-01

259

Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones (Ixodoidea: Argasidae) in Chile: a tentative diagnosis.  

PubMed

Three argasid tick larvae were collected on April 2, 2010, from a common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, captured in the Parque Nacional Pan de Azcar (2609' S, 7041' W), Region of Atacama, Chile. The larvae were diagnosed as Ornithodoros, and further comparative analysis showed them to be Ornithodoros peruvianus Kohls, Clifford & Jones or a species close to it. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences of Ornithodoros species plus four Argas species was carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the larvae. This is the first finding of ticks parasitizing D. rotundus in Chile. PMID:23950013

Venzal, J; Gonzlez-Acua, Daniel; Mangold, A; Guglielmone, A

2012-02-01

260

Preliminary numerical simulations of the 27 February 2010 Chile tsunami: first results and hints in a tsunami early warning perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tsunamigenic earthquake (M 8.8) that occurred offshore central Chile on 27 February 2010 can be classified as a typical subduction-zone earthquake. The effects of the ensuing tsunami have been devastating along the Chile coasts, and especially between the cities of Valparaiso and Talcahuano, and in the Juan Fernandez islands. The tsunami propagated across the entire Pacific Ocean, hitting with

S. Tinti; R. Tonini; A. Armigliato; F. Zaniboni; G. Pagnoni; Sara Gallazzi; Lidia Bressan

2010-01-01

261

The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,

Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

2012-01-01

262

Policy Path Dependence of a Research Agenda: The Case of Chile in the Aftermath of the Student Revolt of 2011  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapidly shifting higher education policy agenda in the aftermath of the students' movement of 2011 in Chile and its mismatch with Chile's research capacities in the field of higher education studies are analyzed to illustrate how research is path dependent on policy. I argue that a stable policy environment, where change is only

Bernasconi, Andres

2014-01-01

263

History of United States of America Assistance to Chile. A.I.D. and Predecessor Agencies 1943-1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tbrough its foreign assitance and related programs, the United States has provided to Chile over $1.3 billion from fiscal years 1943 to 1980. In absolute terms, Chile has been the third best recipient of U.S. foreign assistance pragrams in Latin America. ...

1980-01-01

264

Zonacin y estructura de la comunidad macrofaunstica en playas de arena del Sur de Chile (Mehun, Valdivia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zonation and Structure of the Macrofaunistic Community in Sandy Beaches of Southern Chile (Mehun, Valdivia)Two beaches of Mehun (Valdivia) were studied with the purpose of finding out the zonation and structure of the macrofaunistic community in sandy beaches of Southern Chile. Some variability is present between the species composition of the two beaches studied. Notwithstanding, a general scheme for the

Eduardo Jaramillo

1978-01-01

265

Efficacy of Lime, Biosolids, and Mycorrhiza for the Phytostabilization of Sulfidic Copper Tailings in Chile: A Greenhouse Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate abandonment of copper mine tailings under semiarid Mediterranean climate type conditions has posed important environmental risks in Chile due to wind and rain erosion. There are cost-effective technologies for tailings stabilization such as phytostabilization. However, this technology has not been used in Chile yet. This study evaluated in a greenhouse assay the efficacy of biosolids, lime, and a commercial

Csar Verdugo; Pablo Snchez; Claudia Santibez; Paola Urrestarazu; Elena Bustamante; Yasna Silva; Denis Gourdon; Rosanna Ginocchio

2010-01-01

266

78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador...Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and Ecuador that...business forum in Bogot[aacute], Colombia, May 19-21, 2014. U.S....

2013-11-25

267

Space Radar Image of San Rafael Glacier, Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A NASA radar instrument has been successfully used to measure some of the fastest moving and most inaccessible glaciers in the world -- in Chile's huge, remote Patagonia ice fields -- demonstrating a technique that could produce more accurate predictions of glacial response to climate change and corresponding sea level changes. This image, produced with interferometric measurements made by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flown on the Space Shuttle last fall, has provided the first detailed measurements of the mass and motion of the San Rafael Glacier. Very few measurements have been made of the Patagonian ice fields, which are the world's largest mid-latitude ice masses and account for more than 60 percent of the Southern Hemisphere's glacial area outside of Antarctica. These features make the area essential for climatologists attempting to understand the response of glaciers on a global scale to changes in climate, but the region's inaccessibility and inhospitable climate have made it nearly impossible for scientists to study its glacial topography, meteorology and changes over time. Currently, topographic data exist for only a few glaciers while no data exist for the vast interior of the ice fields. Velocity has been measured on only five of the more than 100 glaciers, and the data consist of only a few single-point measurements. The interferometry performed by the SIR-C/X-SAR was used to generate both a digital elevation model of the glaciers and a map of their ice motion on a pixel-per-pixel basis at very high resolution for the first time. The data were acquired from nearly the same position in space on October 9, 10 and 11, 1994, at L-band frequency (24-cm wavelength), vertically transmitted and received polarization, as the Space Shuttle Endeavor flew over several Patagonian outlet glaciers of the San Rafael Laguna. The area shown in these two images is 50 kilometers by 30 kilometers (30 miles by 18 miles) in size and is centered at 46.6 degrees south latitude, 73.8 degrees west longitude. North is toward the upper right. The top image is a digital elevation model of the scene, where color and saturation represent terrain height (between 0 meters and 2,000 meters or up to 6,500 feet) and brightness represents radar backscatter. Low elevations are shown in blue and high elevations are shown in pink. The digital elevation map of the glacier surface has a horizontal resolution of 15 meters (50 feet) and a vertical resolution of 10 meters (30 feet). High-resolution maps like these acquired over several years would allow scientists to calculate directly long-term changes in the mass of the glacier. The bottom image is a map of ice motion parallel to the radar look direction only, which is from the top of the image. Purple indicates ice motion away from the radar at more than 6 centimeters per day; dark blue is ice motion toward or away at less than 6 cm per day; light blue is motion toward the radar of 6 cm to 20 cm (about 2 to 8 inches) per day; green is motion toward the radar of 20 cm to 45 cm (about 8 to 18 inches) per day; yellow is 45 cm to 85 cm (about 18 to 33 inches) per day; orange is 85 cm to 180 cm (about 33 to 71 inches) per day; red is greater than 180 cm (71 inches) per day. The velocity estimates are accurate to within 5 millimeters per day. The largest velocities are recorded on the San Rafael Glacier in agreement with previous work. Other outlet glaciers exhibit ice velocities of less than 1 meter per day. Several kilometers before its terminus, (left of center) the velocity of the San Rafael Glacier exceeds 10 meters (32 feet) per day, and ice motion cannot be estimated from the data. There, a revisit time interval of less than 12 hours would have been necessary to estimate ice motion from interferometry data. The results however demonstrate that the radar interferometry technique permits the monitoring of glacier characteristics unattainable by any other means. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) are part of NASA's

1994-01-01

268

Aftershocks of Chile's Earthquake for an Ongoing, Large-Scale Experimental Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation designs for social programs are developed assuming minimal or no disruption from external shocks, such as natural disasters. This is because extremely rare shocks may not make it worthwhile to account for them in the design. Among extreme shocks is the 2010 Chile earthquake. Un Buen Comienzo (UBC), an ongoing early childhood program in

Moreno, Lorenzo; Trevino, Ernesto; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Mendive, Susana; Reyes, Joaquin; Godoy, Felipe; Del Rio, Francisca; Snow, Catherine; Leyva, Diana; Barata, Clara; Arbour, MaryCatherine; Rolla, Andrea

2011-01-01

269

[Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].  

PubMed

Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health. PMID:18666482

Enrquez, R; Villagrn, R

2008-04-01

270

JUMBO SQUID ( DOSIDICUS GIGAS ) BIOMASS OFF CENTRAL CHILE: EFFECTS ON CHILEAN HAKE ( MERLUCCIUS GAY I)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) off central Chile (32 ?00'S-41 ?30'S) was estimated using data collected from July to November during 2005 and 2006 on board the commercial bottom trawl fleet, where D. gigas is part of the bycatch. A geostatistical approach was ap - plied to estimate the jumbo squid biomass in Chilean hake ( Merluccius gay i)

RUBEN ALARCN-MUOZ; LUIS CUBILLOS; CLAUDIO GATICA

2008-01-01

271

School Choice,Stratification,and Information on School Performance:Lessons from Chile  

E-print Network

to that of other Latin American countries and low relative to countries with similar income per capita.4 1 P A T R education via a flat per-student sub- sidy (or voucher) to the public or private school chosen by a family the early 1990s, Chile has also publicized information on school performance and increased per pupil expen

Biasutti, Michela

272

REPRESENTAES DE GNERO E HISTRIA NO CHILE ATUAL: ARIEL DORFMAN E MARCELA SERRANO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O objetivo deste artigo demonstrar como os escritores chilenos Ariel Dorfman e Marcela Serrano apresentam leituras histricas alternativas, centradas na questo de gnero, as quais desconstroem a histria oficial recente do Chile, em seus romances La nana y el iceberg e Para que no me olvides. O primeiro romance, de Dorfman, narra sobre o retorno de Gabriel McKenzie

Mrcia Hoppe Navarro

273

Further study on deep penetrating geochemistry over the Spence porphyry copper deposit, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of deep penetrating geochemistrythe surface exploration techniques for finding concealed mineral depositswas carried out over the Spence porphyry copper deposit in Chile by Australian, Canadian and Chinese laboratories using selective weak leach methods and is briefly reviewed here. Erratic and weak copper anomalies were obtained above the Spence deposit, which is concealed below a thick piedmont gravel cover.

Xuejing Xie; Yinxiu Lu; Wensheng Yao; Jinfeng Bai

2011-01-01

274

High frequency responses of nanoplankton and microplankton to wind-driven upwelling off northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autotrophic and heterotrophic nanoplankton and microplankton vary widely in quantity and composition in coastal upwelling zones, causing a highly heterogeneous distribution of food resources for higher trophic levels. Here, we assessed daily changes in size-fractioned biomass and community structure of nanoplankton and microplankton at two upwelling sites off northern Chile, Mejillones (23S) and Chipana (21S), during summer 2006, winter 2006

Victor Aguilera; Ruben Escribano; Liliana Herrera

2009-01-01

275

Helium isotope study of geothermal features in Chile with field and laboratory data  

DOE Data Explorer

Dobson, P.F., Kennedy, B.M., Reich, M., Sanchez, P., and Morata, D. (2013) Effects of volcanism, crustal thickness, and large scale faulting on the He isotope signatures of geothermal systems in Chile. Proceedings, 38th Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering, Stanford University, Feb. 11-13, 2013

Patrick Dobson

276

Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factor s that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC) as well as perce p - tions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural , political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected . The opinions of potential

Soledad Daz; Ellen Hardy; Gloria Alvarado; Enrique Ezcurra

2003-01-01

277

Beyond the Test Score: A Mixed Methods Analysis of a College Access Intervention in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using both quantitative and qualitative analyses, we examine the role of a college access intervention in the enrollment and persistence outcomes of low-income students in Chile modeled partially after a Texas admissions program. We find that, although students from the program have a mean cumulative GPA significantly lower than that of their

Trevio, Ernesto; Scheele, Judith; Flores, Stella M.

2014-01-01

278

Carbon isotope and magnetostratigraphy of the Cretaceous (Barremian Aptian) Pabelln Formation, Chaarcillo Basin, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

New oxygen and carbon isotopic analyses of finefraction samples from the Pabelln Formation (Chaarcillo Basin, Chile), together with magnetostratigraphic data, are presented. The carbon isotope curve shows a distinctive pattern including a negative isotope excursion preceding a positive event. Within the Lower Aptian this chemostratigraphic event is widely used for correlation of marine and continental stratigraphic sections and confirms the

Gregory D. Price; Ben Dashwood; Graeme K. Taylor; Robert M. Kalin; Neil Ogle

2008-01-01

279

Coseismic and postseismic slip associated with the 2010 Maule Earthquake, Chile: Characterizing the Arauco Peninsula  

E-print Network

Coseismic and postseismic slip associated with the 2010 Maule Earthquake, Chile: Characterizing; revised 4 March 2013; accepted 1 May 2013. [1] Observations of coseismic and postseismic deformation rupture and postseismic effects. We find that the bulk of coseismic slip occurs within a single elongated

Avouac, Jean-Philippe

280

DOES PRIVATIZATION IMPROVE EDUCATION? THE CASE OF CHILE'S NATIONAL VOUCHER PLAN  

Microsoft Academic Search

been scarce. Yet thanks to a number of recent studies in the United States and in other countries, particularly Chile, we now know a lot more about educational marketshence have much of the information we need to judge whether the claims are valid. The results of these studies suggest that, despite claims by proponents, markets in education improve academic performance

Martin Carnoy; Patrick McEwan

281

Private Education in Chile under the Military Regime (1973-1986).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the development of private education in Chile since the military coup of 1973, in the context of the military regime's neoconservative political and ideological aims. Despite these professed aims, copious evidence is presented to suggest that the need of an authoritarian state to maintain "national security" by suppressing all

Magendzo, Abraham; And Others

282

ICT-Supported Pedagogical Policies and Practices in South Africa and Chile: Emerging Economies and Realities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

South Africa participated in all three of the Second International Technology in Education Study (SITES). In the first international study, South Africa was the only developing country, and therefore, stark contrasts were found in the international study between South Africa and the other participating countries. Chile participated in the SITES

Howie, S. J.

2010-01-01

283

7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Vegetables 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia...with a liquid soap and water solution, washed with...be washed with soapy water and the collected filtrate... Each consignment of fresh baby kiwi must be...

2013-01-01

284

7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Vegetables 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia...with a liquid soap and water solution, washed with...be washed with soapy water and the collected filtrate... Each consignment of fresh baby kiwi must be...

2012-01-01

285

7 CFR 319.56-53 - Fresh baby kiwi from Chile.  

...Vegetables 319.56-53 Fresh baby kiwi from Chile. Fresh baby kiwi (Actinidia...with a liquid soap and water solution, washed with...be washed with soapy water and the collected filtrate... Each consignment of fresh baby kiwi must be...

2014-01-01

286

The Varve Record of Puyehue Lake (Meridional Chile), AD 1412-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Puyehue Lake is located in the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile (Southern Lake District, 40S). This monomictic lake is under the influence of the oceanic winter polar front (WPF) and constitutes a powerful sedimentary archive for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The underflow (PUI) and interflow (PUII) coring sites were selected by a high resolution seismic survey (RUG). The sedimentation is driven by

X. Boes; F. Arnaud; N. Fagel

2004-01-01

287

Economic effect of bovine abortion syndrome in commercial dairy herds in Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine abortion is a limiting factor for dairy business, as it decreases milk production and the potential, number of herd replacements, increases feeding and medical treatment costs, increases the number of artificial inseminations to obtain a calf as well as culling rates of cows. An estimation of the economic impact of abortion in dairy farms in Chile is not available

P. Gdicke; R. Vidal; G. Monti

2010-01-01

288

Tidal Variation in Non Volcanic Seismic Tremor Activity at the Chile Triple Junction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present evidence that non volcanic seismic tremor detected at Chile Ridge Subduction Project (CRSP) seismic network correlates with the semidiurnal (M2) tidal amplitude variation, enhanced by the lunar monthly (Mm) orbital cycle. Tremors were detected at 14 broadband seismic stations in the Los Chonos Archipelago and Taitao Peninsula by two methods: simple visual inspection of correlated tremor on seismograms

A. Gallego; R. M. Russo; D. Comte; V. I. Mocanu; R. E. Murdie; J. C. Vandecar

2007-01-01

289

Distribution of slip from 11 Mw > 6 earthquakes in the northern Chile subduction zone  

E-print Network

Distribution of slip from 11 Mw > 6 earthquakes in the northern Chile subduction zone M. E to constrain the relative location of coseismic slip from 11 earthquakes on the subduction interface both jointly and separately for the four largest earthquakes during this time period (1993 Mw 6.8; 1995

Simons, Mark

290

Environmental controls on methanogen viability in the hydrothermal waters of the El Tatio geyser field, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the El Tatio geyser field, a unique hydrothermal site located in the Andes Mountains in Chile, methanogenic archaea were found in only two of the hundreds of hydrothermal features. Reported here is an investigation into the environmental and geochemical controls on the distribution of methanogenic archaea. Located in the hyper- arid Atacama Desert, El Tatio waters are characterized by

M. A. Franks; P. C. Bennett; C. Omelon; A. S. Engel

2007-01-01

291

A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile  

PubMed Central

Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided. PMID:24715800

Araya, Juan Francisco; Cataln, Ricardo

2014-01-01

292

Achievement versus Aptitude in College Admissions: A Cautionary Note Based on Evidence from Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years there has been a debate over the alleged superiority of achievement tests over aptitude tests on the grounds that the first would be fairer for college admissions and less influenced by family background. The switch from aptitude tests to achievement tests in Chile presented a unique opportunity to examine this claim. Regression

Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica; Cofre, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

293

Pesticide levels in surface waters in an agriculturalforestry basin in Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residues of five pesticides in surface water were surveyed during 2001 and 2003 in the Traigun river basin in Southern Chile. Simazine, hexazinone, 2,4-D, picloram herbicides and carbendazim fungicide were selected through a pesticide risk classification index. Six sampling stations along the river were set up based on agricultural and forestry land use. The water sampling was carried out before

Graciela Palma; Alejandra Snchez; Yohana Olave; Francisco Encina; Rodrigo Palma; Ricardo Barra

2004-01-01

294

Iron control of past productivity in the coastal upwelling system off the Atacama Desert, Chile  

E-print Network

Iron control of past productivity in the coastal upwelling system off the Atacama Desert, Chile in productivity are found to be in phase with the precessional cycle ($20,000 years) and with inputs of iron from appear to have brought high inputs of iron, mainly from the Andes, to the coastal ocean enhancing primary

Demouchy, Sylvie

295

Ecology of the Patagonia puma Felis concolor patagonica in southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecology of the Patagonia puma was studied in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Thirteen pumas were captured from 1986 to 1989 and equipped with radio transmitters. During the winter of 1988 there was one puma per 17 km2 in the 200 km2 study area. Home ranges varied from 24 to 107 km2. Female home ranges overlapped with those

William L. Franklin; Warren E. Johnson; Ronald J. Sarno; J. Agustin Iriarte

1999-01-01

296

Impacto economico del turismo en el Mercosur y Chile (1990-2000)  

Microsoft Academic Search

El objetivo del presente trabajo consiste en describir la situacion del turismo actual y analizar la evolucion del turismo receptivo en la region del MERCOSUR y Chile en la decada de los noventa. Tambien se propone un modelo econometrico que recoge el impacto positivo del turismo en el crecimiento del PIB del sector servicios. This paper describes present situation of

Rodrigo Gardella; Eva Aguayo

2002-01-01

297

Melt inclusions in Fe oxide and phosphate tephra of El Laco volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The El Laco volcano of northern Chile is noted for its controversial iron ore deposits, which some researchers regard as examples of iron oxide lava flows but others regard as epithermal deposits replacing pre-existing silicate lava flows. Lava flows with textures and structures typical of ordinary silicate lavas are composed entirely of magnetite. Unconsolidated Fe oxide block and ash deposits

J. E. Mungall; H. R. Naslund

2009-01-01

298

Propensity of University Students in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile to Create Enterprise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors aim to discuss the propensity or intention to create enterprise among university students in the region of Antofagasta, Chile, and to analyze the factors that influence the step from desire to intention. 681 students were surveyed. The data were analyzed by binary logistical regression. The results show that curriculum is among the

Romani, Gianni; Didonet, Simone; Contuliano, Sue-Hellen; Portilla, Rodrigo

2013-01-01

299

When the Earth Trembles in the Americas: The Experience of Haiti and Chile 2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of the nephrological community to the Haiti and Chile earthquakes which occurred in the first months of 2010 is described. In Haiti, renal support was organized by the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF) of the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) in close collaboration with Mdecins Sans Frontires (MSF), and covered both patients with acute kidney injury (AKI)

R. Vanholder; D. Borniche; S. Claus; R. Correa-Rotter; R. Crestani; M. C. Ferir; N. Gibney; A. Hurtado; V. A. Luyckx; D. Portilla; S. Rodriguez; M. S. Sever; J. Vanmassenhove; R. Wainstein

2011-01-01

300

Investigating cultural heterogeneity in San Pedro de Atacama, northern Chile, through biogeochemistry and bioarchaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals living in the San Pedro de Atacama oases and the neighboring upper Loa River Valley of northern Chile experienced the collapse of an influential foreign polity, environmental decline, and the appearance of a culturally distinct group during the Late Intermediate Period (ca. AD 1,100-1,400). We investigate cultural heterogeneity at the Loa site of Caspana through analyses of strontium and

Kelly J. Knudson; Christina Torres-Rouff

2009-01-01

301

Three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model for postseismic deformation of the great 1960 Chile earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a three-dimensional viscoelastic finite element model to study postseismic deformation associated with the 1960 great Chile earthquake. GPS observations 35 years after the earthquake show that, while all coastal sites are moving landward, a group of inland sites 200400 km from the trench are moving seaward and that coastal velocities in the 1960 rupture area are distinctly smaller

Y. Hu; K. Wang; J. He; J. Klotz; G. Khazaradze

2004-01-01

302

Impact of atmospheric coastal jet off central Chile on sea surface temperature from satellite observations (20002007)  

E-print Network

Impact of atmospheric coastal jet off central Chile on sea surface temperature from satellite of covariance analyses between wind stress and sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, it is found that CJ of temperature resulting from Ekman transport, air-sea heat exchange, and Ekman-driven coastal divergence

303

School and Individual Factors That Contribute to the Achievement Gap in College Admissions Tests in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Chile, reports and research papers have shown that there is an achievement gap in college admissions tests mostly associated to students' gender, socioeconomic status and type of school attended. This gap represents a barrier for low-income and female students to access higher education, as well as for graduates of public schools. Prior

Perez Mejias, Paulina

2012-01-01

304

Listeria monocytogenes isolated from vegetable salads sold at supermarkets in Santiago, Chile: Prevalence and strain characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 2000 and 2005, 717 samples of three types of salads were analysed for Listeria monocytogenes in Santiago, Chile in order to provide information to Chilean health authorities on the presence of the pathogen in vegetable salad samples and to ascertain the risk of these products for consumers. L. monocytogenes isolates were found in 88 out of 347 (25.4%) samples

Ana Mara Cordano; Christine Jacquet

2009-01-01

305

Historical fluctuations of the Gualas and Reicher Glaciers, North Patagonian Icefield, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrochronology was used to date historical fluctuations of the little-visited Gualas and Reicher Glaciers on the North Patagonian Icefield in southern Chile. Vegetation trimlines dating to ad 1876, 1909 and 1954 show that glacier downwasting and retreat mirrored the patterns found at the neighbouring San Rafael and San Quintin Glaciers. Intermediate stages of recession of the Gualas and Reicher Glaciers

Stephan Harrison; Vanessa Winchester

1998-01-01

306

Onset of rapid calving and retreat of Glaciar San Quintin, Hielo Patagnico Norte, southern chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note records the recent rapid retreat of the terminus of Glaciar San Quintin, which drains the western edge of the Hielo Patagnico Norte (HPN) in southern Chile. In 1993, the glacier terminus was advancing strongly into vegetated ground, while from 1996 to May 2000 the glacier underwent a transition between advance and retreat. A satellite image taken in 2000

Stephan Harrison; Charles R. Warren; Vanessa Winchester; Masamu Aniya

2001-01-01

307

Psychosocial Distress and Substance Use among Adolescents in Four Countries: Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between adolescent substance use and psychosocial distress indicators among 30,851 adolescents aged 11 to 16 in four countries (Philippines, China, Chile, and Namibia). Global School-Based Student Health Survey data from these countries provided information about frequency and

Page, Randy M.; Dennis, Megan; Lindsay, Gordon B.; Merrill, Ray M.

2011-01-01

308

Causes of childhood blindness: Results from West Africa, South India and Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using World Health Organization definitions of visual loss and a standardised methodology, 905 children were examined in Chile, West Africa and South India. Of these 806 (89%) suffered from blindness (BL) or severe visual impairment (SVI). Causes of SVI and BL were classified anatomically and aetiologically, and avoidable causes identified. In W. Africa (n=284) the major anatomical cause of SVI\\/BL

C E Gilbert; R Canovas; M Hagan; S Rao; A Foster

1993-01-01

309

Canl to Curarrehue (Chile): A Journey in Alternative Development. Outdoor Education and Sustainable Development: Part Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The outdoor experience's core element of connection to the earth is a central feature of an environmental-education project in Canl forest sanctuary (Chile). Developed to provide integrated environmental and adventure-education experiences to forest visitors, the project expanded to train local youth as ecotourism guides and native-tree nursery

Walker, Rod

1999-01-01

310

Metagenome sequencing of the microbial community of a solar saltern crystallizer pond at chuil lagoon, chile.  

PubMed

Chuil Lagoon in central Chile harbors distinct microbial communities in various solar salterns that are arranged as interconnected ponds with increasing salt concentrations. Here, we report the metagenome of the 3.0- to 0.2-m fraction of the microbial community present in a crystallizer pond with 34% salinity. PMID:25395641

Plominsky, Alvaro M; Delherbe, Nathalie; Ugalde, Juan A; Allen, Eric E; Blanchet, Marine; Ikeda, Priscila; Santibaez, Francisco; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ulloa, Osvaldo; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; von Dassow, Peter; Astorga, Marcia; Glvez, Mara Jess; Gonzlez, Mara Lorena; Henrquez-Castillo, Carlos; Vaulot, Daniel; Lopes do Santos, Adriana; van den Engh, Gerrit; Gimpel, Carla; Bertoglio, Florencia; Delgado, Yolaine; Docmac, Felipe; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Narvez, Silvia; Sorroche, Fernando; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Trefault, Nicole

2014-01-01

311

Reforming water allocation policy through markets in tradable water rights: lessons from Chile, Mexico, and California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing water scarcity, rising costs of irrigation subsidies, and general economic liberalization are creating strong incentives for comprehensive water reform with establishment of tradable water rights and the development of markets in these rights. Experiences in Chile, Mexico, and California indicate that water allocation through markets in tradable water rights offers a viable approach to improving the efficiency of water

Mark W. Rosegrant

1994-01-01

312

Increased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile  

E-print Network

provides a rare opportunity to investigate the effects of early-life arsenic exposure on childhood mor effects, such as skin, bladder, and lung cancer (1-5). Antofagasta, the second largest city in Chile 1 Arsenic Health Effects Research Program, University of California, Berkeley, California; 2

California at Berkeley, University of

313

Relationships between remotely sensed surface parameters associated with the urban heat sink formation in Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work addresses the remotely sensed urban heat sink formation in Santiago City, Chile. The main aim was to analyse the relationship that surface temperature exhibits with land cover types, as well as with vegetation cover fraction, surface moisture and albedo of Santiago City and its rural surroundings. Information was extracted from the processing of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus

M. A. Pea

2008-01-01

314

First Case of Human Rabies in Chile Caused by an Insectivorous Bat Virus Variant  

PubMed Central

The first human rabies case in Chile since 1972 occurred in March 1996 in a patient without history of known exposure. Antigenic and genetic characterization of the rabies isolate indicated that its reservoir was the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis. This is the first human rabies case caused by an insectivorous bat rabies virus variant reported in Latin America. PMID:11749754

Favi, Myriam; Yung, Veronica; Chala, Evelyn; Lopez, Luis R.

2002-01-01

315

Exploring Quality of Life during the Transition from School to Work in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from Chile's national household survey (CASEN) for the years 1990-2003 reveal that the transition process from school to active working life has been postponed over the course of the 13 year period while its duration has steadily increased, resulting in a delayed integration into the labour force. This finding is consistent with experiences

Jeria, Maria

2009-01-01

316

Variabilidad y estructura gentica en dos poblaciones de Vicugna vicugna (Camelidae) del norte de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two populations of Vicugna vicugna from regions First and Second of Chile were studied on the basis of the electrophoretic determination of 28 presumptive loci. Due to the phenotypic differences between the populations mentioned above, this kind of study is required to determine some parameters like taxonomic status, genetic variability and population structure in order to help in conservation management

M. CECILIA NORAMBUENA; MARCO PAREDES

2003-01-01

317

Defining a Democracy: Reforming the Laws on Women's Rights in Chile, 1990-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates 38 bills seeking to expand womens rights in Chile and finds that the successful ones often originated with the Executive National Womens Ministry (SERNAM), did not threaten existing definitions of gender roles, and did not require economic redistribution. These factors (plus the considerable influence of the Catholic Church) correlate in important ways, and tend to constrain political

Merike Helena Blofield; Liesl Haas

2005-01-01

318

Discrimination and Victimization: Parade for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Pride, in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the population participating in the LGBT Pride Parade in Santiago, Chile, from discrimination and victimization standpoints. The sample consisted of 488 subjects older than 18 years (M = 25.1), who were interviewed during the 2007 event. For this purpose, a questionnaire from the Latin American Centre of Sexuality and Human Rights (CLAM) was adapted and administered. Approximately

Jaime Barrientos; Jimena Silva; Susan Catalan; Fabiola Gmez; Jimena Longueira

2010-01-01

319

22.06.2010 16:20 Der Roboter der HomeBreakers aus Chile  

E-print Network

voller Störungen robust zu realisieren. So fragte der Roboter Johnny des Weltmeisterteams b-it-bots[1422.06.2010 16:20 Der Roboter der HomeBreakers aus Chile spielt "Stein, Schere, Papier" ­ und radgetriebenen Roboter die Wiederholung der Finalbegegnung von den RoboCup German Open[3] im April. Vor zwei

Stryk, Oskar von

320

Tensions between State and Market in Chile: Educational Policy and Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A programme of education reform co-financed by the Chilean government and the World Bank was implemented between 1991 and 2003. It aimed to invest strategi- cally in resources and infrastructure, and to improve the quality of education as a prerequisite for economic growth and social cohesion. As a result of sustained in- vestment and a strategic approach to policy-making, Chile

Ann Matear

2007-01-01

321

The electricity crises of California, Brazil and Chile: lessons to the Chilean market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many countries have deregulated their electricity markets, boosting competition and participation of private enterprises in generation. The recent electricity crises of Chile, California and Brazil, and the problems that other countries have faced, have interrupted the development of these reforms. In this paper the fundamentals of each market are analyzed, as well as each deregulated legislation. The authors also studied

David Watts; Rafael Ariztia

2002-01-01

322

CAREX AND UNCINIA (CYPERACEAE, CARICEAE) FROM THE JUAN FERNANDEZ ARCHIPELAGO, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheeler, G. A. 2007. Carex and Uncinia (Cyperaceae, Cariceae) from the Juan Fernndez Archipelago, Chile. Darwiniana 45(1): 120-141. Ten members of the tribe Cariceae (Cyperaceae) occur on the Juan Fernndez Archipel- ago: four species of Carex and six of Uncinia. Eight of the ten species occur on Alejandro Selkirk Island (= Masafuera; 50 km2) while four are known from Robinson

Gerald A. Wheeler

2007-01-01

323

Civic Networks and Community Resilience in Brazil, Canada, Chile, and Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the relationship between civil society and community resilience in coastal communities in Brazil, Canada, Chile and Cuba. In understanding the role of social capital in community development, we do not feel sufficient attention has been paid to the subtle micro-dynamics of civil network structure. Using social network analysis, we explore the link between community cohesion and resilience.

Gene Barrett; Madine Vanderplaat; Maria Elena Castellano Gonzalez; Jose Ferreira Irmao; Maria Cecilia Godoy Ampuero; Clara Elisa Miranda Vera

2011-01-01

324

Orphans and Family Disintegration in Chile: The Mortality of Abandoned Children, 1750-1930  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first orphanage in Chile dates from 1756. By the beginning of the twentieth century one in ten newborn babies in Santiago were abandoned to the orphanage of the capital city. Seventy percent of the children who were admitted to the orphanage were less than one month old. Over 80% were illegitimate. The survival prospects of institutionalized orphans were bleak

Ren Salinas Meza

1991-01-01

325

Ionospheric density variations recorded before the 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake in Chile  

E-print Network

18 August 2011. [1] We present a study of plasma density variations observed by the DEMETER step, a statistical analysis with DEMETER data has been performed using the first 3 months of the years of the ionospheric density observed by the DEMETER satellite around the time of a large earthquake in Chile. The area

Santolik, Ondrej

326

The effects of invasive North American beavers on riparian plant communities in Cape Horn, Chile  

E-print Network

. In their native range, beavers shape riparian ecosystems by selectively feeding on particular plant species engineers on sub-Antarctic vegetation, we quantified beaver impacts on tree canopy cover and seedling and composition on Navarino Island, Cape Horn County, Chile (55°S). Beavers significantly reduced forest canopy up

Rosemond, Amy Daum

327

COMPARISON OF THREE METHODS TO PROJECT FUTURE BASELINE CARBON EMISSIONS IN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST, CURINANCO, CHILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deforestation of temperate rainforests in Chile has decreased the provision of ecosystem services, including watershed protection, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration. Forest conservation can restore those ecosystem services. Greenhouse gas policies that offer financing for the carbon emissions avoided by preventing deforestation require a projection of future baseline carbon emissions for an area if no forest conservation occurs. For a

Patrick Gonzalez; Antonio Lara; Jorge Gayoso; Eduardo Neira; Patricio Romero; Leonardo Sotomayor

2005-01-01

328

Status of blue whales off Isla de Chiloe, Chile, during 2007 field season  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 2004, a collaborative research program of the Alfaguara Project on blue whales off Isla de Chiloe, Chile, has produce important new information on present day conservation status of this population. This paper presents preliminary findings from 2007 and compares such data with that reported in previous years. Land-based monitoring in 2007 resulted in 36 days of observations with 262.85

Brbara Galletti Vernazzani; Carole A. Carlson; Elsa Cabrera

329

Metagenome Sequencing of the Microbial Community of a Solar Saltern Crystallizer Pond at Chuil Lagoon, Chile  

PubMed Central

Chuil Lagoon in central Chile harbors distinct microbial communities in various solar salterns that are arranged as interconnected ponds with increasing salt concentrations. Here, we report the metagenome of the 3.0- to 0.2-m fraction of the microbial community present in a crystallizer pond with 34% salinity. PMID:25395641

Plominsky, Alvaro M.; Delherbe, Nathalie; Ugalde, Juan A.; Allen, Eric E.; Blanchet, Marine; Ikeda, Priscila; Santibaez, Francisco; Hanselmann, Kurt; Ulloa, Osvaldo; De la Iglesia, Rodrigo; von Dassow, Peter; Astorga, Marcia; Glvez, Mara Jess; Gonzlez, Mara Lorena; Henrquez-Castillo, Carlos; Vaulot, Daniel; Lopes do Santos, Adriana; van den Engh, Gerrit; Gimpel, Carla; Bertoglio, Florencia; Delgado, Yolaine; Docmac, Felipe; Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Narvez, Silvia; Sorroche, Fernando; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo

2014-01-01

330

Pedagogising Poverty Alleviation: A Discourse Analysis of Educational and Social Policies in Argentina and Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past decades international organisations and governments have promoted and implemented analogous education policies on the grounds that education is the key factor to foster development and fight poverty. This article sets the context of these educational programmes and analyses their discourse on poverty in Argentina and Chile. Then, it

Rambla, Xavier; Veger, Antoni

2009-01-01

331

Voicing Differences: Indigenous and Urban Radio in Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indigenous cultures throughout the Americas and the rest of the world have to deal with problems of cultural assimilation, migration, and dissemination of their populations. Some of them, in countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Nigeria, have developed radio programming to maintain home languages; gain access to health, education, and employment

Carcamo-Huechante, Luis E.; Legnani, Nicole Delia

2010-01-01

332

The guild structure of a community of predatory vertebrates in central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The trophic ecology of eleven predator species (Falconiforms: Buteo polyosoma, Elanus leucurus, Falco sparverius, Geranoaetus melanoleucus, Parabuteo unicinctus; Strigiforms: Athene cunicularia, Bubo virginianus, Tyto alba; Carnivores: Dusicyon culpaeus; Snakes: Philodryas chamissonis, Tachymenis peruviana) in two nearby localities of central Chile is analyzed. The localities exhibit the typical climate (hot-dry summers, coldrainy winters), and vegetation (chaparral), of mediterranean ecosystems. Densities of

Fabian M. Jaksi; Harry W. Greene; Jos L. Yez

1981-01-01

333

Volcanic gases emitted during mild Strombolian activity of Villarrica volcano, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of volcanic gas emitted during mild Strombolian activity at the summit of Villarrica volcano (Chile) was estimated based on plume measurements at the rim of the summit crater about 100 m downwind of the vent, by application of a Portable Multi-Sensor System, Alkaline Filter Pack and Gas Detection Tubes. Comparison of the measured volcanic gas composition with volatile

H. Shinohara; J. B. Witter

2005-01-01

334

Trade, Environment, and Public Health in Chile. Evidence from an Economywide Model  

E-print Network

Trade, Environment, and Public Health in Chile. Evidence from an Economywide Model John Beghin Brad This paper uses an empirical simulation model to examine links between trade policy, pollution and public to atmospheric pollution and health status in the Santiago metropolitan area. The trade policy scenarios examined

Kammen, Daniel M.

335

A comparative analysis of the attitudes toward women managers in China, Chile, and the USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose The purpose of this research is to determine if stereotypical perceptions of women as managers exist between men and women in three countries: the USA, China, and Chile. Based on the extant literature, hypotheses were developed and tested. Design\\/methodology\\/approach Participants in the study were students enrolled in degree programs. The data were collected from the USA, China,

Robert Scherer; Carol Snchez; Lorena Pradenas Rojas; Vctor Parada Daza; Chi-en Hwang; Wu Yan

2011-01-01

336

Skin lesions on blue whales off southern Chile: Possible conservation implications?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on three types of skin lesions in a population of blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus, off the northwestern coast of Isla Grande de Chiloe, Chile. These lesions were: (1) cookie-cutter shark, Isistius brasilensis, bites, (2) vesicular or blister lesions, and (3) a tattoo-like skin disease. The presence of these lesions was determined by the examining photos collected in 2006

Brownell Jr. Robert L; Carole A. Carlson; Barbara Galletti Vernazzani; Elsa Cabrera

2007-01-01

337

Threats and Opportunities of Science at a For-Profit University in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty years after pro-market policies were first adopted, how best to organize Chile's scientific enterprise remains as elusive as when universities were state-run and funded. This paper explores scientific research at a for-profit university, University Andres Bello, to ask if a new mode of knowledge production is in the making and with what

Barandiaran, Javiera

2012-01-01

338

Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile David Watts a,b,*, Danilo Jara a  

E-print Network

from the dependency caused by foreign supply fossil fuels. Such factors plus a limited diversificationData Bank Statistical analysis of wind energy in Chile David Watts a,b,*, Danilo Jara following the recent regulatory changes. We also provide statistics on the only large scale operational

Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

339

The Evolution of Photochemical Smog in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November and December 1996 the PHOTOCHEMICAL CAMPAIGN took place in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago de Chile and covered a range of simultaneous measurements of meteorological parameters and air chemical compounds, including ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and online nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in the range of C4-C12. Measurements were obtained at a downtown site and a

Bernhard Rappenglck; Pedro Oyola; Ignacio Olaeta; Peter Fabian

2000-01-01

340

Regeneration patterns and persistence of the fog-dependent Fray Jorge forest in semiarid Chile during  

E-print Network

#12;Regeneration patterns and persistence of the fog- dependent Fray Jorge forest in semiarid Chile. These forests are likely dependent on water inputs from oceanic fog and their persistence seems uncertain persistence, patches are likely dependent on the combination of fog and rain water inputs. Forest patches have

Weathers, Kathleen C.

341

The Quality of Fog Water Collected for Domestic and Agricultural Use in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

One exciting new application of meteorology is the prospect of using high-elevation fogs as an and land's water resource. This has now become reality in northern Chile where a pilot project has used 50 fog collectors to generate an average of 7200 1 of water per day during three drought years. The chemical composition of the fog water is of

Robert S. Schemenauer; Pilar Cereceda

1992-01-01

342

Monetary policy and macroeconomic stability in Latin America: The cases of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, new monetary policy regimes were adopted in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, combining inflation targeting with floating exchange rates. These regime changes have been accompanied by lower volatility in the monetary stance in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, despite higher inflation volatility in Brazil and Colombia. This paper estimates a conventional New Keynesian model for these four countries and

Luiz de Mello; Diego Moccero

2011-01-01

343

Monetary Policy and Macroeconomic Stability in Latin America: The Cases of Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, new monetary policy regimes were adopted in Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, combining inflation targeting with floating exchange rates. These regime changes have been accompanied by lower volatility in the monetary stance in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, despite higher inflation volatility in Brazil and Colombia. This paper estimates a conventional New Keynesian model for these four countries and

Luiz de Mello; Diego Moccero

2007-01-01

344

Observations and Modeling of the 27 February 2010 Tsunami in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 February 2010, a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred just off the coast of Chile, 100km N of Concepcin, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chiles mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The tsunami accounts for 124 victims out of about 500 fatalities. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event and tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary ITST was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment per established protocols. The 3-25 March ITST covered an 800km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehun in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa Mara, Juan Fernndez Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter Island), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21-23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29m on a coastal bluff at Constitucin and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chiles mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometers inland along rivers. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Coastal uplift measurements in Chile are compared with tectonic land level changes from the 2007 Solomon Islands event. Preliminary modeling results, field observations, video recordings and satellite imagery are presented. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards as community-based education and awareness are essential to save lives in locales at risk.

Synolakis, C. E.; Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J. C.; Barrientos, S. E.

2010-12-01

345

Tidal modulation of continuous nonvolcanic seismic tremor in the Chile triple junction region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We located continuous seismic tremor with coherent amplitude wave trains in the Chile ridge subduction region (~46.5S) in two clusters north and south of the Chonos Archipelago, between the Chile trench and the North Patagonian fore arc. Tremor persisted from December 2004 to February 2007 (the entire period of the Chile Ridge Subduction Project temporary seismic deployment), and lasted >17 h on six occasions. Tremor in the more active southern cluster reached a maximum duration of 48 h, and we observed no more than 3 continuous days without tremor activity. The cluster locations coincide with the surface projections of subducted transform faults formed at the Chile ridge. We also detected simultaneous, colocated low-frequency microearthquakes with well-defined impulsive waves within the tremor signals distributed from the surface to 40 km depth, suggesting tremors and earthquakes are part of the same process. The periodicity of tremor duration is strongly correlated with semidiurnal, diurnal, and long-period tides, M2, N2, K1, O1, P1, and Mm (12.421 h, 12.000 h, 23.934 h, 25.819 h, 24.066 h, and 27.555 days, respectively). We found a significant correlation between tremor occurrence and Earth tides when tidal stress is calculated for the slip plane of a right-lateral strike-slip fault with strike N95E, which is near parallel to subducted transform faults (N78E) of the Chile ridge, indicating that the very small stresses resulting from the combination of ocean loading and solid Earth tides (~1 kPa) are sufficient to facilitate or suppress tremor production; tremors occur when shear stresses are maximum and wane or are low when shear stresses are minimum.

Gallego, A.; Russo, R. M.; Comte, D.; Mocanu, V.; Murdie, R. E.; Vandecar, J. C.

2013-04-01

346

What dynamics drive future wind scenarios for coastal upwelling off Peru and Chile?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of the Peru-Chile upwelling system (PCUS) are primarily driven by alongshore wind stress and curl, like in other eastern boundary upwelling systems. Previous studies have suggested that upwelling-favorable winds would increase under climate change, due to an enhancement of the thermally-driven cross-shore pressure gradient. Using an atmospheric model on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCUS, a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from a global coupled general circulation model (CGCM) is performed to investigate the processes leading to sea-surface wind changes. Downscaled winds associated with present climate show reasonably good agreement with climatological observations. Downscaled winds under climate change show a strengthening off central Chile south of 35S (at 30S-35S) in austral summer (winter) and a weakening elsewhere. An alongshore momentum balance shows that the wind slowdown (strengthening) off Peru and northern Chile (off central Chile) is associated with a decrease (an increase) in the alongshore pressure gradient. Whereas the strengthening off Chile is likely due to the poleward displacement and intensification of the South Pacific Anticyclone, the slowdown off Peru may be associated with increased precipitation over the tropics and associated convective anomalies, as suggested by a vorticity budget analysis. On the other hand, an increase in the land-sea temperature difference is not found to drive similar changes in the cross-shore pressure gradient. Results from another atmospheric model with distinct CGCM forcing and climate scenarios suggest that projected wind changes off Peru are sensitive to concurrent changes in sea surface temperature and rainfall.

Belmadani, Ali; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Takahashi, Ken; Junquas, Clmentine

2014-10-01

347

A biometric and ecologic comparison between Artemia from Mexico and Chile  

PubMed Central

Background A preliminary biometric and ecologic database for the brine shrimp Artemia from Mexico and Chile is presented. The area abounds in small and seasonal ponds and large inland lakes, the latter mainly located in Mexico, although relatively large and isolated lakes are found in complex hydrological settings in pre-high plateau areas of Chile. This paper summarizes research efforts aimed at the localization, characterization, and evaluation of the aquaculture potential of Artemia populations in Mexico and Chile, which exhibit great habitat diversity (ponds, salterns, coastal lagoons, sea arms, coastal and inland lakes), contrasting weather conditions and different levels of isolation and human intervention. Results This study covered locations between 29 north latitude (Baja California, Mexico) to 50 south latitude (Puerto Natales, Chile). Biological characteristics considered are species name, reproductive mode, cyst diameter, chorion thickness, and nauplius length, whereas ecological data include pond size, pH, salinity, temperature, and water ionic composition. Artemia franciscana is the only species found in Mexico, it exists together with A. persimilis in Chile, though separated geographically. Ecological differences in habitat exist between both regions but also within countries, a pattern particularly clear with regard to water composition. Surprisingly, a Mexican (Cuatro Cinegas, A. franciscana) and a Chilean location (Torres del Paine, A. persimilis) share habitat characteristics, at least for the period when data were collected. The discriminat analysis for cyst diameter and nauplius length shows that Artemia from only one location match in cyst diameter with those from San Francisco Bay (SFB) (Point Lobos), and one (Marquez) is far apart from SFB and all the others. The Chilean locations (Pampilla, Cejar, Cahuil, Llamara, Yape) share cyst diameter, but tend to differ from SFB. The remaining Mexican locations (Juchitan, Ohuira, Yavaros) are well separated from all the others. With regard to nauplii length, populations tend to distribute in a relatively random manner, being Marquez the location differing the most in cyst diameter from SFB. Conclusion This database will contribute to the knowledge of radiation centers and serves as a baseline for further biogeographic studies, population characterization, management, and monitoring of Artemia biodiversity. Likewise, the impact of colonization and translocations for aquaculture purposes can be better assessed with a baseline for reference. Mexico and Chile exemplify the need to increase and further integrate regional information to tackle fundamental problems underlying practical utilization of Artemia. PMID:17125517

Castro, Thala B; Gajardo, Gonzalo; Castro, Jorge M; Castro, Germn M

2006-01-01

348

Environmental evidence of fossil fuel pollution in Laguna Chica de San Pedro lake sediments (Central Chile).  

PubMed

This paper describes lake sediment spheroidal carbonaceous particle (SCP) profiles from Laguna Chica San Pedro, located in the Biobo Region, Chile (36 degrees 51' S, 73 degrees 05' W). The earliest presence of SCPs was found at 16 cm depth, corresponding to the 1915-1937 period, at the very onset of industrial activities in the study area. No SCPs were found at lower depths. SCP concentrations in Laguna Chica San Pedro lake sediments were directly related to local industrial activities. Moreover, no SCPs were found in Galletu lake (38 degrees 41' S, 71 degrees 17.5' W), a pristine high mountain water body used here as a reference site, suggesting that contribution from long distance atmospheric transport could be neglected, unlike published data from remote Northern Hemisphere lakes. These results are the first SCP sediment profiles from Chile, showing a direct relationship with fossil fuel consumption in the region. Cores were dated using the 210Pb technique. PMID:16226361

Chirinos, L; Rose, N L; Urrutia, R; Muoz, P; Torrejn, F; Torres, L; Cruces, F; Araneda, A; Zaror, C

2006-05-01

349

Chile shadow report to the United Nations sheds light on women's rights.  

PubMed

Three Chilean women's rights organizations and CRLP presented a Shadow Report to the UN Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The 25-page Shadow Report indicates in summary the disappointment of the Chilean women in their government. Although Chile has emerged from its history of military dictatorship and is taking its first steps toward returning to a democratic-style of government, the military and the Catholic Church still exert a very strong influence, especially when it comes to policy making. Chilean people especially women, continue to be tyrannized by repressive attitudes, laws, and policies. This tyrannization is exemplified by the rampant discrimination against women in the prisons and the punishment of those undergoing illegal abortions. In short, women have no rights in Chile, and the government has not done enough to eliminate discrimination against them. PMID:12346531

Farmer, A

1999-07-01

350

Researches on Pseudophyllidea (Carus, 1813) in the south of Chile. IV Occurrence of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzch).  

PubMed

Experimental infections were established with Diphyllobothrium sp. plerocercoids obtained from Salmo gairdneri, a fish introduced at the beginning of the 1900s in the lake region of Chile. These permitted us to obtain adult parasites in Larus dominicanus and Canis familiaris. The histological features of the plerocercoids, their relation to the host, adult pattern and susceptibility of hosts allowed us to determine the presence of Diphyllobothrium dendriticum (Nitzch) for the first time in South America in the lacustrine region of southern Chile. It is believed that this cestode was introduced to this ecosystem by infected persons travelling from North America of Europe or, alternatively, brought by migratory birds, e.g., Sterna hirundo, S. paradisea or Larus pipixcan on their winter visits to South America. PMID:7276504

Torres, P; Franjola, R; Figueroa, L; Schlatter, R; Gonzlez, H; Contreras, B; Martin, R

1981-09-01

351

Microbial Colonization of the Salt Deposits in the Driest Place of the Atacama Desert (Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama Desert (Chile), one of the most arid places on Earth, shows hostile conditions for the development of epilithic microbial communities. In this study, we report the association of cyanobacteria ( Chroococcidiopsis sp.) and bacteria belonging to Actinobacteria and Beta-Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes phyla inhabiting the near surface of salt (halite) deposits of the Salar Grande Basin, Atacama Desert (Chile). The halite deposits were investigated by using optical, confocal and field emission scanning electron microscopes, whereas culture-independent molecular techniques, 16S rDNA clone library, alongside RFLP analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing were applied to investigate the bacterial diversity. These microbial communities are an example of life that has adapted to extreme environmental conditions caused by dryness, high irradiation, and metal concentrations. Their adaptation is, therefore, important in the investigation of the environmental conditions that might be expected for life outside of Earth.

Stivaletta, Nunzia; Barbieri, Roberto; Billi, Daniela

2012-06-01

352

#Santiago is not #Chile, or is it? A Model to Normalize Social Media Impact  

E-print Network

Online social networks are known to be demographically biased. Currently there are questions about what degree of representativity of the physical population they have, and how population biases impact user-generated content. In this paper we focus on centralism, a problem affecting Chile. Assuming that local differences exist in a country, in terms of vocabulary, we built a methodology based on the vector space model to find distinctive content from different locations, and use it to create classifiers to predict whether the content of a micro-post is related to a particular location, having in mind a geographically diverse selection of micro-posts. We evaluate them in a case study where we analyze the virtual population of Chile that participated in the Twitter social network during an event of national relevance: the municipal (local governments) elections held in 2012. We observe that the participating virtual population is spatially representative of the physical population, implying that there is centra...

Graells-Garrido, Eduardo

2013-01-01

353

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18??S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

354

Late-Holocene fossil rodent middens from the Arica region of northernmost Chile  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Identification of >40 taxa of plant macrofossils in 14 rodent (Abrocoma) middens collected from 2800 to 3590 m elevation at the latitude of Arica, Chile (18S) provide snapshots of vegetation in the northernmost Atacama Desert over the past 3000 years. Midden floras show considerable stability throughout the late Holocene, which may be due in part to the broad elevational ranges of many perennial species and midden insensitivity to changes in plant community structure. The greatest variability is found in annuals in the Prepuna, a climatically sensitive zone. This variability, however might also arise from the brevity of midden depositional episodes. As the first midden record from the Arica-Parinacota Region (Chile's northernmost administrative region), this study demonstrates the potential for future midden research in this area.

Holmgren, C.A.; Rosello, E.; Latorre, C.; Betancourt, J.L.

2008-01-01

355

From foundling homes to day care: a historical review of childcare in Chile.  

PubMed

This article discusses significant changes in childcare policy and practice in Chile. We distinguish four specific periods of childcare history: child abandonment and the creation of foundling homes in the 19th century; efforts to reduce infant mortality and the creation of the health care system in the first half of the 20th century; an increasing focus on inequality and poverty and the consequences for child development in the second half of the 20th century; and, finally, the current focus on children's social and emotional development. It is concluded that, although Chile has achieved infant mortality and malnutrition rates comparable to those of developed countries, the country bears the mark of a history of inequality and is still unable to fully guarantee the health of children from the poorest sectors of society. Recent initiatives seek to improve this situation and put a strong emphasis on the psychosocial condition of children and their families. PMID:24714937

Crcamo, Rodrigo A; van der Veer, Ren; Vermeer, Harriet J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

2014-03-01

356

Review of Coagulation Technology for Removal of Arsenic: Case of Chile  

PubMed Central

Coagulation technology has been used since 1970 in northern Chile for removing arsenic from drinking-water. This experience suggests that coagulation is an effective technology for the removal of arsenic. It is currently possible to reduce arsenic from 400 ?g/L to 10 ?g/L at a rate of 500 L/sec, assuming pH, oxidizing and coagulation agents are strictly controlled. The Chilean experience with the removal of arsenic demonstrates that the water matrix dictates the selection of the arsenic-removal process. This paper presents a summary of the process, concepts, and operational considerations for the use of coagulation technology for removal of arsenic in Chile. PMID:17366767

2006-01-01

357

Globalization, Educational Targeting, and Stable Inequalities: A Comparative Analysis of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study analyzes educational targeting in Argentina, Brazil and Chile from a sociological point of view. It shows that a `logic of induction' has become the vehicle for anti-poverty education strategies meant to help targeted groups improve on their own. The analysis explores the influence of the global educational agenda, the empirical connection between the logic of induction and the mechanism of emulation, and the territorial aspects of educational inequalities. Emulation plays a main role inasmuch as the logic of induction leads targeted groups to compare their adverse situation with more privileged groups, which actually legitimizes inequalities. A brief statistical summary completes the study, showing that educational inequality has remained unchanged as far as urban-rural ratios (in Brazil and Chile) and regional disparities (in all three countries) are concerned.

Rambla, Xavier

2006-05-01

358

Tracking the 2011 Student-led Collective Movement in Chile through Social Media Use  

E-print Network

Using social media archives of the 2011 Chilean student unrest and dynamic social network analysis, we study how leaders and participants use social media such as Twitter, and the Web to self-organize and communicate with each other, and thus generate one of the biggest "smart movements" in the history of Chile. In this paper we i) describe the basic network topology of the 2011 student-led social movement in Chile; ii) explore how the student leaders are connected to, and how are they seen by (a) political leaders, and (b) University authorities; iii) hypothesize about key success factors and risk variables for the Student Network Movement's organization process and sustainability over time. We contend that this social media enabled massive movement is yet another manifestation of the network era, which leverages agents' socio-technical networks, and thus accelerates how agents coordinate, mobilize resources and enact collective intelligence.

Garcia, Cristobal; Barahona, Matias; Gloor, Peter

2012-01-01

359

A new species of Prosorhynchoides (Trematoda, Bucephalidae) from the intertidal rocky zone of central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bucephalid species, Prosorhynchoides carvajali sp. nov. is described. This parasite was found in three marine fish, Auchenionchus microcirrhis (type-host), A. variolosus and Sicyases sanguineus (other-hosts), collected from the intertidal rocky zones of central Chile. P. carvajali sp. nov. is characterized by a pharynx in a post-equatorial position, a large cirrus sac length (half of the total worm length)

Gabriela Muoz; Nathan J. Bott

2011-01-01

360

Health insurance selection in Chile: a cross-sectional and panel analysis.  

PubMed

In Chile, workers are mandated to choose either public or private health insurance coverage. Although private insurance premiums depend on health risk, public insurance premiums are solely linked to income. This structure implies that individuals with higher health risks may tend to avoid private insurance, leaving the public insurance system responsible for their care. This article attempts to explore the determinants of health insurance selection (private vs public) by individuals in Chile and to test empirically whether adverse selection indeed exists. We use panel data from Chile's 'Encuesta de Proteccion Social' survey, which allows us to control for a rich set of individual observed and unobserved characteristics using both a cross-sectional analysis and fixed-effect methods. Results suggest that age, sex, job type, income quintile and self-reported health are the most important factors in explaining the type of insurance selected by individuals. Asymmetry in insurance mobility caused by restrictions on pre-existing conditions may explain why specific illnesses have an unambiguous relationship with insurance selection. Empirical evidence tends to indicate that some sorting by health risk and income levels takes place in Chile. In addition, by covering a less healthy population with higher utilization of general health consultations, the public insurance system may be incurring disproportionate expenses. Results suggest that if decreasing segmentation and unequal access to health services are important policy objectives, special emphasis should be placed on asymmetries in the premium structure and inter-system mobility within the health care system. Preliminary analysis of the impact of the 'Garantias Explicitas de Salud' plan (explicit guarantees on health care plan) on insurance selection is also considered. PMID:23558960

Pardo, Cristian; Schott, Whitney

2014-05-01

361

Teleseismic inversion for rupture process of the 27 February 2010 Chile (Mw 8.8) earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 27 February 2010 Chile (Mw 8.8) earthquake is the fifth largest earthquake to strike during the age of seismological instrumentation. The faulting geometry, slip distribution, seismic moment, and moment-rate function are estimated from broadband teleseismic P, SH, and Rayleigh wave signals. We explore some of the trade-offs in the rupture-process estimation due to model parameterizations, limited teleseismic sampling of

T. Lay; C. J. Ammon; H. Kanamori; K. D. Koper; O. Sufri; A. R. Hutko

2010-01-01

362

Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in a Thioploca-dominated sediment off the coast of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continental shelf sediments of the central Chile upwelling area are dominated by the presence of dense mats of the filamentous, sulfur-depositing bacterium Thioploca spp. We examined rates and pathways of S and methane cycling in these sediments along a transect from the Bay of Concepcin to the continental slope. Sulfate reduction rates (1704670 nmol cm?3 d?1) were equal to or

Timothy G. Ferdelman; Cindy Lee; Silvio Pantoja; Jens Harder; Brad M. Bebout; Henrik Fossing

1997-01-01

363

Allele-specific Mutations Involved in the Pathogenesis of Endemic Gallbladder Carcinoma in Chile1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Althoughgallbladdercarcinomais one of the most frequentneoplasms in Chile, there is limited information about the molecular changes in volved in its pathogenesis. We investigated the incidence of ras gene mutations and loss of heterozygosity(LOH) at the following genes\\/loci: p53, DCC, rb, 5q 3p, 8p, and 9p. We precisely microdissected 194 relevant areas from paraffin-embeddedmicroslidesfrom 25 gallbladdercarcino mas and their accompanyingnonneoplasticlesions(whichwerepresentin 15

Ignacio I. Wistuba; Kenji Sugio; Jaclyn Hung; Yosuke Kishimoto; Ivan Roa; Jorge Albores-Saavedra; Adi F. Gazdar

1995-01-01

364

Near-inertial motions over the continental shelf off Concepcin, central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inertial response to wind forcing is studied on a continental shelf limited by two submarine canyons and near one of the biologically most important coastal areas in the ChilePeru upwelling system (3557?S3715?S). After a brief description of the tides (M2 and K1), the paper focuses on the temporal and spatial variability of the near-inertial band (0.0450.055cph), which accounts for

Marcus Sobarzo; R. Kipp Shearman; Steve Lentz

2007-01-01

365

Multifractal analysis of three large earthquakes in Chile: Antofagasta 1995, Valparaiso 1985, and Maule 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multifractal analysis of seismicity of three large earthquakes in Chile is made: the Central Zone 1985 ( M W = 8.0), Antofagasta 1995 ( M W = 8.1), and Maule 2010 ( M W = 8.8) earthquakes. The analysis shows that the fractal dimension spectrum D q decreases with time before an earthquake. This fact suggests that the spatial distribution of seismic events could form a cluster before a main shock.

Pastn, Denisse; Comte, Diana

2014-10-01

366

Industry sector analysis - electric generating equipment (Chile) February 1993. Export trade information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The market for electric generating equipment in Chile is good. Although it is small--only US$50 million, of which US$40 million is imported--it is growing at a rate of ten percent per year. Even in this small market, competition is fierce. U.S. suppliers have lost market share to competitors from Japan and Germany, who have won most of the recent bids

Bacigalupo

1994-01-01

367

Tree dynamics in canopy gaps in old-growth forests of Nothofagus pumilio in Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gap dynamics of two Nothofagus pumilio (lenga) stands have been investigated. We evaluated and compared tree diameter distributions, spatial patterns, tree fall and gap characteristics and regeneration responses in gaps in two old-growth forests of Nothofagus pumilio in Southern Chile (Shangri-La: 3660' S, 7130' W; Reserva Coyhaique: 4552' S, 7200' W). In addition, we describe relationships between gap size

Alex Fajardo; Reitze de Graaf

2004-01-01

368

The diet of black-browed albatrosses at the Diego Ramirez Islands, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diet of black-browed albatrosses was studied at Gonzalo Island, Diego Ramirez, Chile, during the early chick-rearing periods of 2000, 2001, and 2002. Diet composition was determined by sampling chick-stomach contents during January and February of each year. Reconstituted meal mass was similar throughout the study, with diet being dominated by fish in all 3years. Overall, the main items taken

Javier Arata; Jos C. Xavier

2003-01-01

369

The formulation and commercialization of glulam pine tannin adhesives in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of fingerjointing and glulam industrial trials in Chile using a honeymoon fast-set adhesive system manufactured\\u000a using commercially-produced mildly-sulphited pine tannin extract are reported. The results obtained satisfy the relevant international\\u000a standards specifications and constitute the first occasion that a commercially produced pine tannin adhesive has been used\\u000a succesfully in industrial productions runs. This pine tannin adhesive is now

E. von Leyser; A. Pizzi

1990-01-01

370

New records and range extension of some mosses in tropical areas of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of thirteen mosses are reported as new for Chile: Aloinella andina Delgad., Coscinodontella bryanii R.S. Williams, Didymodon acutus (Brid.) K. Saito, Erythrophyllopsis fuscula (Mll. Hal.) Hilp., Fissidens excurrentinervis R.S. Williams, Grimmia molesta J. Muoz, Grimmia pseudoanodon Deguchi, Jaffueliobryum williamsii (Deguchi) Delgad., Leptopteriginandrum austro- alpinum Mll. Hal., Pseudocrossidium elatum (R.S. Williams) Delgad., Rhexophyllum subnigrum (Mitt.) Hilp., Saitobryum lorentzii (Mll.

Mara J. Cano

371

Iodine-129, iodine-127 and caesium-137 in the environment: soils from Germany and Chile.  

PubMed

Soil profiles from Bavaria in southern Germany and from Chile were analysed for (129)I by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), for (127)I by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and for (137)Cs by gamma-spectrometry. The mean deposition density of (137)Cs in soils from Bavaria was (411.5(1)) kBq m(-2) (geometric mean and geometric standard deviation), originating mostly from the Chernobyl fall-out. The deposition density of (129)I in these soils was (1091.5(1)) mBq m(-2). The dominant sources of (129)I in Bavaria are, however, the reprocessing plants La Hague and Sellafield and not the Chernobyl fall-out. The (129)I/(127)I isotopic ratios of the Bavarian soils were between 10(-7) and 10(-10), i.e. 10(2)-10(5) times higher than the ratios observed for the samples from Chile. The (129)I integral deposition densities in Chile, Easter Island and Antarctica were between 0.3 mBq m(-2) and 2 mBq m(-2). In these soils, the observed (129)I/(127)I ratios were about 10(-12). The soils from Chile allow the determination of the (129)I fall-out from the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions undisturbed from contaminations due to releases from reprocessing plants. An upper limit of the integral (129)I deposition density of the atmospheric nuclear weapons explosions on the Southern Hemisphere (27S) is about 1 mBq m(-2). Finally, the dependence of the migration behaviour of (137)Cs, (127)I and of (129)I on the soil properties is discussed. It turns out that there is a distinctly different behaviour of (127)I, (129)I, and (137)Cs in the soils exhibiting different sorption mechanisms for old and recent iodine as well as for (137)Cs. PMID:22484471

Daraoui, A; Michel, R; Gorny, M; Jakob, D; Sachse, R; Synal, H-A; Alfimov, V

2012-10-01

372

Natural Resource Conservation and Technical Efficiency from Small-scale Farmers in Central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study estimates a stochastic production frontier to measure technical efficiency (TE) using farm-level survey data for a random sample of small-scale farmers in Central Chile. Socioeconomic and productive information was collected in season 2005\\/06 through a survey of 319 farmers in the Province of Linares. An important issue in the paper is the effect of adoption of soil and

Roberto Jara-Rojas; Boris E. Bravo-Ureta; Victor H. Moreira; Jose Diaz

2012-01-01

373

Distribution and foraging behaviour of the Peruvian Booby ( Sula variegata ) off northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Peruvian Booby (Sula variegata) is one of the most numerous guano bird species in the Humboldt Current. We used a combination of data logger deployment,\\u000a at-sea observations and colony-based work to investigate the foraging and diving behaviour, as well as the at-sea distribution\\u000a and food choice of Peruvian Boobies breeding at Isla Pajaros, northern central Chile. Birds foraged in

Katrin Ludynia; Stefan Garthe; Guillermo Luna-Jorquera

2010-01-01

374

The Emperors new clothes: Labor reform and social democratization in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the relationship between political and social democratization in recent democratic transitions by illustrating\\u000a how the two processes were at odds in the case of labor reform in Chile (19902001). Labor reform served simultaneously to\\u000a consolidate political democracy and slow down the momentum of social democratization. It was a tool for signalling policy\\u000a change to legitimate the democratic

Louise Haagh

2002-01-01

375

Coastal upwelling process on a continental shelf limited by submarine canyons, Concepcin, central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subinertial flow on the continental shelf off Concepcin (central Chile) and its relation with the local wind-forcing and the topography are studied. Emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional aspects and the effect of the topography on the classical two-dimensional approach to the coastal upwelling. Time series coming from 18 current meters installed on six moorings during MarchApril 1994 were

Marcus Sobarzo; Leif Djurfeldt

2004-01-01

376

Avian gut-passage effects on seed germination of shrubland species in Mediterranean central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of avian gut-passage on seed germination are important to assess the effectiveness of frugivores in woodland regeneration,\\u000a particularly in biodiversity hotspots that have a high incidence of avian frugivory. We examined the effect of avian gut-passage\\u000a on seed germination in contrast to seeds that remain uneaten in five shrub species in Mediterranean central Chile and sought\\u000a to determine the

Sharon ReidJuan; Juan J. Armesto

2011-01-01

377

Distribution and temporal variation of trace metal enrichment in surface sediments of San Jorge Bay, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cu, Pb, and Hg concentrations were determined in surface sediment samples collected at three sites in San Jorge Bay, northern\\u000a Chile. This study aims to evaluate differences in their spatial distribution and temporal variability. The highest metal concentrations\\u000a were found at the site Puerto, where minerals (Cu and Pb) have been loaded for more than 60years. On the other hand,

Jorge Valds; Domingo Romn; Marcos Guiez; Lidia Rivera; Toms Morales; Juan vila; Pedro Corts

2010-01-01

378

A 106 ka paleoclimate record from drill core of the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 100m long salt core (SQM #2005) from the Salar de Atacama, northern Chile (23S, 68W), a dry lake bed, contains a 106kyr paleoclimate record of hydrologic balances on the western slopes of the central Andes of South America. Six U-series disequilibrium dates range sequentially from 106.16.4 to 5.42.7ka. Based on sedimentary structures and petrographic textures of salts and associated

Andrew L Bobst; Tim K Lowenstein; Teresa E Jordan; Linda V Godfrey; Teh-Lung Ku; Shangde Luo

2001-01-01

379

Composicin, estructura y flujo energtico del meiobentos frente a Chile central  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The general ,objective ,of this ,study ,was ,to determine ,the structure ,of metazoan ,meiofauna ,(at a high taxonomic level) and to estimate its role in the energy flux of the benthic sub-system off Concepcin, Chile (~3630 S). Samples,were,collected in May,and November,1997 and May 1998 at five sites located at the: inner Bay of Concepcin (28 m), bay-mouth (35 m),

JAVIER SELLANES; CARLOS NEIRA; EDUARDO QUIROGA

2003-01-01

380

Locomotor activity and zonation of upper shore arthropods in a sandy beach of north central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tenebrionid beetle Phalerisida maculata Kulzer, the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet and the oniscid isopod Tylos spinulosus Dana are semi-terrestrial burrowing species, which coexist on sandy beaches of north central Chile (2830S). During the night, these scavengers emerge to make downshore migrations. Given the similarity in niches of these three species (all are known to include macroalgal detritus in

E. Jaramillo; H. Contreras; C. Duarte; M. H. Avellanal

2003-01-01

381

Exposure of neonates to ochratoxin A: first biomonitoring results in human milk (colostrum) from Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and its metabolite ochratoxin alpha (OT?) were determined in milk and blood from nine lactating\\u000a women who provided samples soon after delivery at a hospital in southern Chile. The analytical method applied liquidliquid\\u000a extraction with chloroform, and in the case of blood, an extra purification with solid phase extraction prior to HPLC analysis\\u000a with fluorescence

Katherine Muoz; Victor Campos; Meinolf Blaszkewicz; Mario Vega; Alejandro Alvarez; Jorge Neira; Gisela H. Degen

2010-01-01

382

Infrared sky noise survey. [over observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 10 micron infrared sky noise survey, which was conducted during the period from June 1, 1970 to June 30, 1974, is reported along with associated electronics and recording equipment which was developed and deployed for periods up to 18 months at various potential or existing infrared observing sites in the U.S., Mexico, and Chile. The results of the data activity are given, and variables are defined which influence the intensity and duration of the sky noise.

Westphal, J. A.

1974-01-01

383

Two new species of the ladybird beetle Hong ?lipi?ski from Chile (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Microweiseinae).  

PubMed

The ladybird beetle genus Hong ?lipi?ski was previously known from a single female specimen from a subtropical forest in South East Queensland, Australia. Hong guerreroi sp. nov. and H. slipinskii sp. nov. from a temperate forests of Central and Southern Chile are described and illustrated. A key for the species of the genus and complementary characters, including the first description of males, are provided. PMID:24758818

Gonzlez, Guillermo; Escalona, Hermes E

2013-01-01

384

Natural hazards and forest resources in the Andes of south-central Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

From May 2125, 1960 many of the cities of south-cenral Chile suffered extensive damage when shaken by 11 shocks of an earthquake swarm, each measuring over 6 on the Richter scale with the strongest at 8.5. Associated with this seismic activity were volcanic eruptions and thousands of debris avalanches, lands lides, and mudflows in the Andes fromc. 39 to 42

T. T. Veblen

1982-01-01

385

Using Natural Ecosystem Services to Diminish Salmon-Farming Footprints in Southern Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through field observations and a compilation of several manipulative and mensurative experiments carried out in freshwater\\u000a and marine ecosystems in southern Chile, we here provide alternatives for using natural ecosystem services to diminish salmonfarming\\u000a ecological footprints. In freshwater lakes, where early stages of salmon growth are completed, the high filter-feeding rate\\u000a of the native bivalve, Diplodon chilensis, can significantly reduce

Doris Soto; Fernando Jara

386

Climate Policy Without Tears: CGE-Based Ancillary Benefits Estimates for Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

What interest do developing countries have in limiting the growth of their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions? Answering this question is crucial to moving international climate policy negotiations forward. The primary benefits for individual countries of GHG abatement remain highly uncertain and, in any case, long-term in nature. The costs, on the other hand, are near-term.Using an economy-wide model of Chile,

Sbastien Dessus; David OConnor

1999-01-01

387

Measurements of children's exposures to particles and nitrogen dioxide in Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exposure study of children (aged 1012 years) living in Santiago, Chile, was conducted. Personal, indoor and outdoor fine and inhalable particulate matter (<2.5 ?m in diameter, PM2.5 and <10 ?m in diameter, PM10, respectively), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured during pilot (N=8) and main (N=20) studies, which were conducted during the winters of 1998 and 1999, respectively. For

Leonora Rojas-Bracho; Helen H. Suh; Pedro Oyola; Petros Koutrakis

2002-01-01

388

Notes on the Poaceae of the Robinson Crusoe (Juan Fernndez) Islands, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notes on the Poaceae of the Robinson Crusoe (Juan Fernndez) Islands, Chile, Brittonia 54: 154163. 2001.Poaceae in the Robinson\\u000a Crusoe (=Juan Fernndez) Islands number 53 species in 32 genera, of which 9% of the species are endemic, 9% indigenous, and\\u000a 81% adventitious. The endemic taxa (and their conservation status) are:Agrostis masafuerana (rare),Chusquea fernandeziana (not endangered),Megalachne berteroana (not endangered),M. masafuerana (not

Carlos M. Baeza; Tod F. Stuessy; Clodomiro Marticorena

2002-01-01

389

The richness of ordinary life: Religious justification among Chile's business elite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the analysis of 75 in-depth interviews with managers and businessmen of Chile's main economic conglomerates, this article is concerned with the justification, on religious and moral grounds, of the establishment of a neo-liberal economic model during Augusto Pinochet's regime (19731989) and, most importantly, with the representation of business as a religious vocation. The value granted to wealth creation

Anglica Thumala Olave

2010-01-01

390

Tackling Health Inequities in Chile: Maternal, Newborn, Infant, and Child Mortality Between 1990 and 2004  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We analyzed trends in maternal, newborn, and child mortality in Chile between 1990 and 2004, after the introduction of national interventions and reforms, and examined associations between trends and interventions. Methods. Data were provided by the Chilean Ministry of Health on all pregnancies between 1990 and 2004 (approximately 4 000 000). We calculated yearly maternal mortality ratios, stillbirth rates, and mortality rates for neonates, infants (aged > 28 days and < 1 year), and children aged 1 to 4 years. We also calculated these statistics by 5-year intervals for Chile's poorest to richest district quintiles. Results. During the study period, the maternal mortality ratio decreased from 42.1 to 18.5 per 100 000 live births. The mortality rate for neonates decreased from 9.0 to 5.7 per 1000 births, for infants from 7.8 to 3.1 per 1000 births, and for young children from 3.1 to 1.7 per 1000 live births. The stillbirth rate declined from 6.0 to 5.0 per 1000 births. Disparities in these mortality statistics between the poorest and richest district quintiles also decreased, with the largest mortality reductions in the poorest quintile. Conclusions. During a period of socioeconomic development and health sector reforms, Chile experienced significant mortality and inequity reductions. PMID:19443831

Requejo, Jennifer Harris; Nien, Jyh Kae; Merialdi, Mario; Bustreo, Flavia; Betran, Ana Pilar

2009-01-01

391

Ecology and Geography of Transmission of Two Bat-Borne Rabies Lineages in Chile  

PubMed Central

Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 19852011 at the Instituto de Salud Pblica de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances. PMID:24349592

Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Vernica; Pons, Daniel J.; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2013-01-01

392

[Universal screening program and early intervention (USPEI) in congenital bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in Chile].  

PubMed

Congenital hearing loss is the total or partial inability to hear sounds through the ears. It is the most common disability in newborns in Chile and worldwide, and is a permanent condition. The direct impact on children who are not adequately diagnosed is the alteration in acquisition of language and cognitive skills and a decline in their social and school insertion, jeopardizing their professional and potentially productive life. Universal screening programs for hearing loss are essential for the diagnosis, since 50% of infants with hearing loss have no known risk factor. Screening before one month of age, confirmation before 3 months, and effective intervention before 6 months, allows the development of these children as if they had normal hearing. In Chile there is a selective program of screening for infants aged less than 32 weeks or 1,500 grams, as part of Explicit Health Guarantees, but it covers only 0.9% of newborns per year. Therefore, a large majority of children remain without diagnosis. The aim of this review is to compare the situation in Chile with other countries, raising the need to move towards a universal neonatal hearing loss screening program, and propose necessary conditions in terms of justification and implementation of a universal screening public policy. PMID:24448863

Albertz, Nicols; Cardemil, Felipe; Rahal, Maritza; Mansilla, Francisca; Crdenas, Rodrigo; Zitko, Pedro

2013-08-01

393

Ecology and geography of transmission of two bat-borne rabies lineages in Chile.  

PubMed

Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985-2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pblica de Chile (ISP) and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances. PMID:24349592

Escobar, Luis E; Peterson, A Townsend; Favi, Myriam; Yung, Vernica; Pons, Daniel J; Medina-Vogel, Gonzalo

2013-01-01

394

Health care privatization in latin america: comparing divergent privatization approaches in chile, Colombia, and Mexico.  

PubMed

The public-private mix in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico was very similar until the early 1980s when Chile undertook health care privatization as part of comprehensive health care reform. Since then, health care privatization policies have diverged in these countries. In this study we characterize health care privatization in Latin America and identify the main factors that promoted and hindered privatization by comparing the experiences of these countries. We argue that policy elites took advantage of specific policy environments and the diffusion of privatization policies to promote health care privatization while political mobilization against privatization, competing policy priorities, weak market and government institutions, and efforts to reach universal health insurance hindered privatization. The privatization approaches of Chile and Colombia were classified as "big-bang," since these countries implemented health care privatization more rapidly and with a wider scope compared with the case of Mexico, which was classified as gradualist, since the privatization path followed by this country adopted a slower pace and became more limited and focalized over time. We conclude that the emphasis on policy-driven privatization diminished in the 1990s and 2000s because of increased public health care financing and a shift in health care reform priorities. Health care privatization in the region, however, continued as a consequence of demand-driven privatization. PMID:24842976

Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Mndez, Claudio A

2014-08-01

395

Dendroclimatology of high-elevation Nothofagus pumilio forests at their northern distribution limit in the central Andes of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nothofagus pumilio (Poepp et Endl.) Krasser, is a deciduous tree species that grows in Chile and adjacent Argentina between 36 and 56S, often forming the Andean tree line. This paper presents the first eight tree-ring chro - nologies from N. pumilio at its northern range limit in the central Andes of Chile (36-39S) and the first precipitation reconstruction for this

Antonio Lara; Juan Carlos Aravena; Ricardo Villalba; Alexia Wolodarsky-Franke; Brian Luckman; Rob Wilson

2001-01-01

396

The Chile tsunami of 27 February 2010: Field survey and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 27 February, 2010 a magnitude Mw 8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile's Maule region some 100 km N of Concepcin, causing substantial damage and loss of life on Chile's mainland and the Juan Fernandez archipelago. The majority of the 521 fatalities are attributed to the earthquake, while the tsunami accounts for 124 victims. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from past tsunamis such as the giant 1960 event, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. The majority of the tsunami victims were tourists staying overnight in low lying camp grounds along the coast. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 3 to 25 March ITST covered an 800 km stretch of coastline from Quintero to Mehun in various subgroups the Pacific Islands of Santa Mara, Juan Fernndez Archipelago, and Rapa Nui (Easter), while Mocha Island was surveyed 21 to 23 May, 2010. The collected survey data includes more than 400 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked with a localized maximum runup of 29 m on a coastal bluff at Constitucin and 23 m on marine terraces on Mocha Island. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along Chile's mainland both at local and regional scales. Inundation and damage also occurred several kilometres inland along rivers. Eyewitness tsunami videos are analysed and flooding velocities presented. Observations from the Chile tsunami are compared against the 1960 Chile, 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku Japan tsunamis. The tsunamigenic seafloor displacements were partially characterized based on coastal uplift measurements along a 100 km stretch of coastline between Caleta Chome and Punta Morguilla. More than 2 m vertical uplift were measured on Santa Maria Island. Tsunami propagation in the Pacific Ocean is simulated using the benchmarked tsunami model MOST (Titov and Gonzalez, 1997; Titov and Synolakis, 1998). For initial conditions the inversion model of Lorito et al. (2011) is utilized. The model results highlight the directivity of the highest tsunami waves towards Juan Fernndez and Easter Island during the transoceanic propagation. The team interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and educated residents about tsunami hazards since community-based education and awareness programs are essential to save lives in locales at risk from locally generated tsunamis.

Fritz, H. M.; Petroff, C. M.; Catalan, P. A.; Cienfuegos, R.; Winckler, P.; Kalligeris, N.; Weiss, R.; Meneses, G.; Valderas-Bermejo, C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Ebeling, C. W.; Papadopoulos, A.; Contreras, M.; Almar, R.; Dominguez, J.; Synolakis, C.

2011-12-01

397

Stakeholder participation within the public environmental system in Chile: major gaps between theory and practice.  

PubMed

The main objective of this paper is to present a critical analysis of the stakeholder participation process within the Environmental Impact Assessment System in Chile, after ca. 14 years of being enforced. This analysis is sustained by the description and analysis of the stakeholder participation possibilities in a representative rural area of North-Central Chile. The Environmental Basis Act 19300, enacted in 1994, considers the participation of the local community in the environmental impact assessment of new projects. However, this possibility is very limited and difficult to exert, often resulting in frustration for the participants. This is due to a number of reasons, such as the imbalance of resources and knowledge among the majority of participating communities and project proponents, the complexity and administrative and legal constraints to participation, and the dominant interest of the Central Government in approving investments, specifically in energy and natural resources related projects, which generate wealth and jobs. Also, the State's rush to develop Internet-based communication and management systems has built a barrier for poor, traditional communities. This factor is clearly reflected in the case study considered. Results show that there is generally a significant lack of knowledge about institutions and participation tools. From this base, we intend to raise concern on these selected aspects that could be addressed to improve the effectiveness of the existing framework, both in Chile and in other developing countries, where immature environmental impact assessment and public management systems face similar pressures in relation to the sustainable use of their natural resources. Finally, some basic steps are proposed in order to make the community participation an effective tool for sustainable development. PMID:21641109

Lostarnau, Carla; Oyarzn, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Soto, Guido; Seoret, Michelle; Soto, Manuel; Rtting, Tobias S; Amezaga, Jaime M; Oyarzn, Ricardo

2011-10-01

398

Epidemiological description of the sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi) situation in southern Chile in August 2007.  

PubMed

Salmon sea lice represent one of the most important threats to salmon farming throughout the world. Results of private monitoring efforts have shown an increase in the number of positive cages and cage-level abundance of sea lice in southern Chile since 2004. As a consequence, the Chilean Fisheries Service implemented an Official Surveillance Program in the main salmon production area of southern Chile to assess the situation of sea lice in fish farms. Results showed that the prevalence of sea lice in the fish farms was 53.4%, ranging from 3.5% in Puerto Aysn to 100% in the Seno de Reloncav zone. The average sea lice abundance was 11.8 per fish (Geometrical mean (GM)=8.61, 95% CI (2.1-6.9)). The highest levels were found in Seno de Reloncav (GM=24.99, 95% CI (15.9-39.2)), Hornopirn (GM=14.7, 95% CI (10.4-20.8)) and Chilo norte (GM=9.75, 95% CI (1-1.9)), and the lowest loads were observed in Puerto Aysn (GM=1.35, 95%CI (1-1.9)) and Puerto Cisnes (GM=1.67, 95%CI (1.1-2.6)). Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss had the highest abundance levels (GM=6.93, 95% CI (5.7-8.5), and (GM=5.55, 95% CI (3.6-8.5), respectively). O. kisutch showed lower levels (GM=1.34, 95% CI (1-1.7)), apparently being more resistant to infestation. Sea lice in farmed salmon are widely distributed in different zones of southern Chile, and are becoming a serious threat to this industry. Prevalence and abundance levels were found to be generally high, decreasing in southern zones. PMID:22209492

Hamilton-West, Christopher; Arriagada, Gabriel; Yatabe, Tadaishi; Valds, Pablo; Herv-Claude, Luis Pablo; Urcelay, Santiago

2012-05-01

399

Are the Taitao granites formed due to subduction of the Chile ridge?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taitao granites are distributed around the Late Miocene Taitao ophiolite (5.66 0.33 Ma to 5.19 0.15 Ma) exposed at the western tip of the Taitao peninsula, southern Chile, ~ 50 km southeast from the present day Chile triple junction. In this paper, we report sensitive high mass-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb ages for the Taitao granites to elucidate the temporal relationship between the ophiolite and granites, and discuss the origin of the granitic melts. Five intrusive bodies of the Taitao granites have U-Pb ages ranging from 5.70 0.25 Ma (Tres Montes pluton in southeast) to 3.92 0.07 Ma (Cabo Raper pluton in southwest). The Estero Cono, Seno Hoppner and Bahia Barrientos intrusions that fringe eastern margin of the ophiolite have U-Pb ages ranging from 5.17 0.09 Ma to 4.88 0.3 Ma. Recycled zircon cores are common only in the Tres Montes pluton. Our data indicate that the generation of the granitic melts started in the Tres Montes area when a short segment of the Chile ridge system started to subduct ca. 6 Ma ago. This magmatism involved contamination with sediments/basement rocks. A part of the subducting ridge center was emplaced to form the present Taitao ophiolite at ~ 5.6 Ma. Generation of granitic melts continued as the spreading center of the same ridge segment subducted, due perhaps to partial melting of the ophiolite and/or oceanic crust enhanced by heat from upwelling mantle beneath the ridge. Granitic magmas with various compositions developed during subduction of the ridge. Emplacement of the ophiolite and formation of continental crust took place almost simultaneously.

Anma, Ryo; Armstrong, Richard; Orihashi, Yuji; Ike, Shin-ichi; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Kon, Yoshiaki; Komiya, Tsuyoshi; Ota, Tsutomu; Kagashima, Shin-ichi; Shibuya, Takazo; Yamamoto, Shinji; Veloso, Eugenio E.; Fanning, Mark; Herv, Francisco

2009-12-01

400

[The Great European Georg Friedrich Nicolai: physician and pacifist. Berlin, Germany, 1874 - Santiago, Chile, 1964].  

PubMed

Georg Friedrich Nicolai (1874-1964) was a German physician and physiologist whose pacifism during the First World War led him in 1914 to cosign with W. J. Foerster, A. Einstein and O. Bueck a "Manifesto to the Europeans" against the entry of Germany into the war and the invasion of Belgium. As a result of this appeal and his strong pacifism, Nicolai lost his positions as cardiologist to the German royal family, professor at the University of Berlin and chief of laboratory at the Charite hospital also in Berlin, and was sent as a garrison physician in Graundenz, in today's Poland. There he began to write his book, The Biology of War. It managed to avoid censorship and was published in Leipzig in 1916. He was court-martialed in Danzig in 1916 but escaped to Denmark. Nicolai was reinstated to his faculty positions by the Weimar Republic after the war but was subsequently forced to emigrate from Germany to South America by the pressure of right wing student groups who accused him of being a deserter and a traitor. From 1922 to 1932 Nicolai lived in Argentina, and from 1932 until his death in 1964, in Chile. In this later country Nicolai was professor in the University of Chile and interacted with members of the Chilean intelligentsia, including the poets Vicente Huidobro, Gonzalo Rojas and Pablo Neruda. Through his friendship with Chilean psychiatrist Agustin Tellez, Nicolai influenced the development of phenomenological psychiatric school in Chile. The Chilean novelist Fernando Alegria compared him favorably with Robert J. Oppenheimer and Linus Pauling. PMID:23900377

Cabello C, Felipe

2013-04-01

401

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Summer Student Programs in La Serena, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) offers positions for U.S. and Chilean student interns during the Chilean summer months of January-March (northern winter semester) at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. CTIO is part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) of the United States, focused on the development of astronomy in the southern hemisphere. Six undergraduate research assistantships are offered for U.S. physics and astronomy undergraduate students through the NSF-funded Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program. The CTIO-funded Prcticas de Investigacin en Astronoma (PIA) program is run concurrently with the REU program, and offers two research assistantships for Chilean undergraduate or 1st or 2nd year masters students, also at the CTIO offices in La Serena, Chile. The CTIO REU and PIA programs provide exceptional opportunities for students considering a career in astronomy to engage in substantive research activities with scientists working at the forefront of contemporary astrophysics. Student participants work on specific research projects in close collaboration with members of the CTIO scientific and technical staff, such as galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing, supernovae, planetary nebulae, stellar populations, star clusters, star formation, variable stars and interstellar medium. The CTIO REU and PIA programs emphasize observational techniques and provide opportunities for direct observational experience using CTIO's state-of-the-art telescopes and instrumentation. The programs run for 10 weeks, from mid-January to the end of March. A two-night observing run on Cerro Tololo and a field trip to another observatory in Chile are included for students of both programs. These positions are full time, and those selected will receive a modest stipend and subsidized housing on the grounds of the offices of CTIO in La Serena, as well as travel costs to and from La Serena. In addition, the students have the opportunity attend the American Astronomical Society (AAS) winter meeting to present their research the year following the program.

Kaleida, Catherine C.; Smith, C.; Van Der Bliek, N. S.; James, D.

2014-01-01

402

Subduction Processes Off Chile: Preliminary Geophysical Results of Sonne Cruise So-161(2+3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the scope of the multi-disciplinary SPOC project (Subduction Processes Off Chile) some 8.700 km were recently acquired using marine magnetic, gravity and swath bathymetric methods whereof 5.200 km were surveyed with multi-channel seismics, including three seismic lines with simultaneous onshore observations. The goal of the project is to identify the variety of subduction features and accompanying conditions along the Central Chile segment of the collision zone between the Nazca and S-American plates, i.e. between Coquimbo and Valdivia. An additional line was achieved just south of Chiloe Island entering the submerged Central Valley. The present status of data allows the following observations: the oceanic crust is seg- mented by features like the Juan Fernandez Ridge, the Mocha and Valdivia Fracture Zones, accumulations of seamounts and by distinct parallel fault patterns with various azimuths. From north to south the subduction-induced inclination of the oceanic crust toward the trench decreases while the trench proper widens and the margin slope an- gle increase significantly. In the north clearly extensional normal faulting occurs on the upper and middle slopes, very similar to that observed off North Chile where sub- duction erosion is active. While in the north no bottom simulating reflectors could be observed they occur in the south as local patches. The slope area in the south is over- printed by a faint lineation pattern with a dominant azimuth of some 120 degrees that neatly fits with a mapped pattern onshore with the same azimuth. The pronounced forearc basins in the south are often accompanied by outer arc highs and strikingly narrow accretionary wedges. The latter are in contrast with the high convergence rate of more than 8 cm/yr and the relatively thick trench filling of up to more than 2.000 m. Thus, a non-accretionary subduction type is suggested, here.

Reichert, Chr.; Spoc Scientific Shipboard Party, The

403

Widespread Effects on Aviation of the 2008 Eruption of Chaiten Volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2008 eruption of Chaiten in southern Chile was the first eruption to pose widespread hazards to aviation in southern South America since the VEI 5 eruption of Chile's Cerro Hudson in 1991. Five encounters of aircraft with volcanic-ash clouds occurred in the week following the start of the eruption on 2 May 2008; three of these encounters occurred at low altitudes (less than 2 km) near the airport in Bariloche about 225 km from the volcano and involved significant engine damage. An airline company in Argentina reported that turbine damage from one encounter cost USD 2.5 million to repair. Operations at 16 airports in Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay at distances up to 2300 km from Chaiten were disrupted by flight cancellations or airport closures. The airport in the town of Chaiten, located about 15 kilometers from the eruptive vent, was severely damaged by ash fall and secondary lahars and is closed for the duration. Bariloche airport was closed for nearly four weeks in May and June 2008, during the start of the region's busy ski season, because of continuing concerns about the possible presence of ash in the surrounding airspace. Cancellation of 158 flights to Bariloche in May resulted in loss to an airline of USD 0.7 million. From the beginning of the eruption, advisories to aviation about the presence of ash in the atmosphere were issued by the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), one of nine VAAC worldwide established by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Aviation meteorological offices and civil aviation agencies used the VAAC advisories as the basis for formal volcanic-ash warnings to airline operations centers, pilots, and air-traffic control centers. The Buenos Aires VAAC worked to improve its operational capabilities for ash-dispersion forecasting and also coordinated its advisories with the adjacent Toulouse VAAC when ash clouds moved into airspace over the Atlantic Ocean.

Guffanti, M.; Benitez, C.; Andrioli, M.; Romero, R.; Casadevall, T. J.

2008-12-01

404

Bacterial Community Structure in the Hyperarid Core of the Atacama Desert, Chile?  

PubMed Central

Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from each of the samples revealed that microbial communities from the extreme hyperarid core of the desert clustered separately from all of the remaining communities. Bands sequenced from DGGE profiles of two samples taken at a 22-month interval from this core region revealed the presence of similar populations dominated by bacteria from the Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes phyla. PMID:17028238

Drees, Kevin P.; Neilson, Julia W.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Henderson, David A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

2006-01-01

405

Monofractal and multifractal analysis of the spatial distribution of earthquakes in the central zone of Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical and fractal properties of the spatial distribution of earthquakes in the central zone of Chile are studied. In particular, data are shown to behave according to the well-known Gutenberg-Richter law. The fractal structure is evident for epicenters, not for hypocenters. The multifractal spectrum is also determined, both for the spatial distribution of epicenters and hypocenters. For negative values of the index of multifractal measure q, the multifractal spectrum, which usually cannot be reliably found from data, is calculated from a generalized Cantor-set model, which fits the multifractal spectrum for q>0, a technique which has been previously applied for analysis of solar wind data.

Pastn, Denisse; Muoz, Vctor; Cisternas, Armando; Rogan, Jos; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro

2011-12-01

406

Northern Chile and Andes Mountains seen from STS-61 Shuttle Endeavour  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This color photograph is a panoramic (southeastern view) shot that features the northern half of the country of Chile and the Andes Mountains of South America. The Atacama Desert, one of the driest regions on earth, is clearly visible along the northern Chilean coast. The north-south trending spine of the Andes Mountains can be seen on this photograph. Several of the volcanic peaks in this mountain chain exceed 20,000 feet above sea level. Interspersed with these volcanic peaks, numerous dry lake beds (salars) can be seen as highly reflective surfaces. The largest of these salars (Salar de Uyuni) is visible at the edge of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

1993-01-01

407

Proxy-based reconstructions of earthquakes and tsunamis over the past millennia, Quidico, central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilized geomorphic, sedimentological, and stratigraphic methods to describe the relative magnitude of historic tsunamis and better understand the paleoseismic history at Quidico, Chile (38.1 S, 73.2 W). The study site lies within the transition zone between two major subduction-zone earthquake events during the observational period: the great 1960 Mw 9.5 earthquake to the south and the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule earthquake to the north. Despite Chile's growing need to continue to refine earthquake and tsunami hazards, there are few studies aimed at quantifying the geologic impact of earthquake-rupture overlap through time in this region. A combination of pits, cores, and riverbank exposures provide stratigraphic evidence of 5, laterally-continuous sand layers within the Quidico River floodplain. The sand units display landward thinning and disappear completely from the stratigraphy approximately 1 km inland from the coast, characteristic of tsunami deposits. All of the sand units have similar grain-size distribution, ranging from 70-120 ?m, which contrasts with the broader, bimodal distribution of grain size (10-450 ?m) from an eolian dune at the site and the coarser grain size (155-430 ?m) of the local beach sand. Intervening sediment layers consists of organic-rich silts and peat. AMS radiocarbon dates of Scirpus seeds found in peat directly below each sand layer indicate deposition of the sand layers has occurred within the past 800 years. The surficial sand layer (? 2 cm thick) is identified as the deposit from the 2010 tsunami. 137Cs measurements taken above, within, and below the second sand unit (4-7 cm) confirmed 14C results that this layer was deposited by the 1960 tsunami. Preliminary microfossil analysis indicates a slightly more marine diatom assemblage in the 1960 sand layer than in the organic-rich silt units above and below it, indicating a marine incursion. Lithology of the sand layers will further constrain their provenance. Comparison of the chronology of these deposits with the 500-year record of historical earthquakes in this region of Chile will be used to identify which tsunami events are preserved in the stratigraphy at Quidico. This information will help characterize the relative magnitude, preservation pattern, and history of past tsunamis within this transition zone. Correlating this record with additional geologic studies and historic accounts of earthquakes and tsunamis throughout the region will collectively advance our understanding of potential seismic hazards in south-central Chile.

Hong, I.; Ely, L. L.; Horton, B.; Dura, T.; Cisternas, M.

2013-12-01

408

To trade or not to trade: firm-level analysis of emissions trading in Santiago, Chile.  

PubMed

Whether tradable permits are appropriate for use in transition and developing economies--given special social and cultural circumstances, such as the lack of institutions and lack of expertise with market-based policies--is much debated. We conducted interviews and surveyed a sample of firms subject to emissions trading programs in Santiago, Chile, one of the first cities outside the OECD that has implemented such trading. The information gathered allows us to study what factors affect the performance of the trading programs in practice and the challenges and advantages of applying tradable permits in less developed countries. PMID:20599317

Coria, Jessica; Lfgren, Asa; Sterner, Thomas

2010-11-01

409

Does bird species diversity vary among forest types? A local-scale test in Southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Birds are the most diverse vertebrate group in Chile, characterized by low species turnover at the country-size scale (high alpha but low beta diversities), resembling an island biota. We tested whether this low differentiation is valid at a local scale, among six forest habitat types. We detected 25 bird species; avifauna composition was significantly different among habitat types, with five species accounting for 60 % of the dissimilarity. We found a higher level of bird assemblage differentiation across habitats at the local scale than has been found at the country-size scale. Such differentiation might be attributed to structural differences among habitats.

Fontrbel, Francisco E.; Jimnez, Jaime E.

2014-10-01

410

The Triassic Santa Juana Formation at the lower Biobo River, south central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sequence of Triassic rocks is exposed near the town of Concepcin, Chile. These clastic strata are interpreted as the deposits of rivers, lakes, playas, and alluvial fans. The deposits comprise conglomerates, arkosic sandstones, and sand-, silt- and mudstones. Four facies associations comprising eight sedimentary facies can be distinguished. Plant fossils from the sedimentary sequence of the Santa Juana Formation indicate a Carnian age. The flora includes ferns ( Gleichenites, Cladophlebis, Dictyophyllum, Thaumatopteris, Asterotheca, Saportaea) and seed ferns ( Kurtziana, Antevsia, Dicroidium), ginkgophytes ( Sphenobaiera), cycads ( Pseudoctenis), conifers ( Heidiphyllum, Telemachus, Rissikia), and gymnosperms of uncertain affinities ( Linguifolium, Gontriglossa). Two new species are presented: Pseudoctenis santajuanensis and Gontriglossa reinerae.

Nielsen, Sven N.

2005-09-01

411

[Molecular identification of Ehrlichia canis in a dog from Arica, Chile].  

PubMed

We report a molecular confirmed case of canine ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia canis. A 10-year old female crossbred Siberian from the city of Arica, which was infested by ticks, presented hemorrhagic manifestations (hematomas and snout bleeding) and prostration. Blood cell count revealed thrombocytopenia (30,000 platelets/ mm). Immunochromatographic rapid testing for E. canis IgG was positive. Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the 16S rRNA gen from a blood sample showed 100% homology with E. canis from Per. This is the first report of E. canis in Chile, an agent with known zoonotic potential. PMID:23282495

Lpez, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Mundaca, M Isabel; Caballero, Carla; Valiente-Echeverra, Fernando

2012-10-01

412

Geophysical variables and behavior: LX. Lonquimay and Alhu, Chile: tension from volcanic and earthquake hazard.  

PubMed

This study assesses the effect of trait anxiety scores on subjects' responses to volcanic eruption hazard and earthquake hazard in Lonquimay and Alhu, respectively. Lonquimay is located in the southern Chilean Andes and Alhu is located in central Chile in the Coastal Range. The former was afflicted by a volcanic eruption which commenced on Christmas Day 1988 and the latter by an earthquake on March 3, 1985. Expectations of high damage and fear from a radio hazard prediction were associated with high trait-anxiety scores in the Alhu sample while positive adjustments to extenuate the hazard effect reached significance for the Lonquimay sample. PMID:2326130

Larran, P; Simpson-Housley, P

1990-02-01

413

Analysis of Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards for Residential General Service Lighting in Chile  

SciTech Connect

Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards (MEPS) have been chosen as part of Chile's national energy efficiency action plan. As a first MEPS, the Ministry of Energy has decided to focus on a regulation for lighting that would ban the sale of inefficient bulbs, effectively phasing out the use of incandescent lamps. Following major economies such as the US (EISA, 2007) , the EU (Ecodesign, 2009) and Australia (AS/NZS, 2008) who planned a phase out based on minimum efficacy requirements, the Ministry of Energy has undertaken the impact analysis of a MEPS on the residential lighting sector. Fundacion Chile (FC) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) collaborated with the Ministry of Energy and the National Energy Efficiency Program (Programa Pais de Eficiencia Energetica, or PPEE) in order to produce a techno-economic analysis of this future policy measure. LBNL has developed for CLASP (CLASP, 2007) a spreadsheet tool called the Policy Analysis Modeling System (PAMS) that allows for evaluation of costs and benefits at the consumer level but also a wide range of impacts at the national level, such as energy savings, net present value of savings, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission reductions and avoided capacity generation due to a specific policy. Because historically Chile has followed European schemes in energy efficiency programs (test procedures, labelling program definitions), we take the Ecodesign commission regulation No 244/2009 as a starting point when defining our phase out program, which means a tiered phase out based on minimum efficacy per lumen category. The following data were collected in order to perform the techno-economic analysis: (1) Retail prices, efficiency and wattage category in the current market, (2) Usage data (hours of lamp use per day), and (3) Stock data, penetration of efficient lamps in the market. Using these data, PAMS calculates the costs and benefits of efficiency standards from two distinct but related perspectives: (1) The Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) calculation examines costs and benefits from the perspective of the individual household; and (2) The National Perspective projects the total national costs and benefits including both financial benefits, and energy savings and environmental benefits. The national perspective calculations are called the National Energy Savings (NES) and the Net Present Value (NPV) calculations. PAMS also calculate total emission mitigation and avoided generation capacity. This paper describes the data and methodology used in PAMS and presents the results of the proposed phase out of incandescent bulbs in Chile.

Letschert, Virginie E.; McNeil, Michael A.; Leiva Ibanez, Francisco Humberto; Ruiz, Ana Maria; Pavon, Mariana; Hall, Stephen

2011-06-01

414

Thermal State of the Seismogenic Plate Boundary in Southern Chile, 36 -- 46 S  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to current models of great subduction earthquakes, the area of the ruptured zone, and therefore the magnitude of the event, is controlled by the thermal structure of the plate boundary; updip and downdip limits of the seismogenic zone coincide with temperatures of 100 - 150 C and 350 - 450C, respectively. From this point of view, the 1960 Chile earthquake (M_W=9.5), which is the largest earthquake ever been recorded, was not only an outstanding event in respect to its magnitude. Also, the thermal structure of the young oceanic crust subducted along the ~1000 km long rupture area north of the Chile Triple Junction is remarkable, since considerable variability is caused by ocean floor ages ranging from ~0 - 30 Ma. Being part of the multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional project TIPTEQ (from The Incoming Plate to mega- Thrust EarthQuake processes), we present the correlation of lateral variations in the thermal structure of the 1960 Chile earthquake rupture area with seismic activity. Finite element method (FEM) models based on the Comsol Multiphysics code are used to estimate the thermal state of the plate boundary. To constrain the FEM models, scarce existing heat flux data were supplemented by 63 successful deployments of violin bow type heat flux probes during RV Sonne cruise 181-1b from December 2004 through January 2005. On the continental slope, additional constrains on the heat flux were derived from abundant bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) found in seismic reflection data. Geometry information and seismic activity were obtained from TIPTEQ and Subduction Processes Off-shore Chile (SPOC) local seismological networks along the rupture area. From heat flux measurements on the incoming plate, which are generally lower than expected from conductive cooling models, we inferred advective cooling by circulating fluids in the upper oceanic crust and effects of rapid sedimentation close to the trench. These processes had to be taken into account by the numerical models to estimate the updip limit of the seismogenic zone.

Heesemann, M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Villinger, H. W.; Contreras-Reyes, E.; Scherwath, M.; Vlker, D.

2006-12-01

415

Cdigos UNESCO: 2100 2200 2300 Frecuencia del curso: Anual X CURSO DE INICIACIN A LA INVESTIGACIN EN ESTRUCTURA DE LA MATERIA: DESDE LAS PARTCULAS  

E-print Network

EN ESTRUCTURA DE LA MATERIA: DESDE LAS PARTÍCULAS ELEMENTALES A LOS SISTEMAS DE ALTO PESO MOLECULAR investigación que se desarrollan actualmente en el Instituto de Estructura de la Materia a estudiantes de los Física de la Materia Desordenada. Fenómenos Sorprendentes en Núcleos Exóticos. Reacciones y Estructura

416

Evaluation of an integrated system for classification, assessment and comparison of services for long-term care in Europe: the eDESDE-LTC study  

PubMed Central

Background The harmonization of European health systems brings with it a need for tools to allow the standardized collection of information about medical care. A common coding system and standards for the description of services are needed to allow local data to be incorporated into evidence-informed policy, and to permit equity and mobility to be assessed. The aim of this project has been to design such a classification and a related tool for the coding of services for Long Term Care (DESDE-LTC), based on the European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS). Methods The development of DESDE-LTC followed an iterative process using nominal groups in 6 European countries. 54 researchers and stakeholders in health and social services contributed to this process. In order to classify services, we use the minimal organization unit or Basic Stable Input of Care (BSIC), coded by its principal function or Main Type of Care (MTC). The evaluation of the tool included an analysis of feasibility, consistency, ontology, inter-rater reliability, Boolean Factor Analysis, and a preliminary impact analysis (screening, scoping and appraisal). Results DESDE-LTC includes an alpha-numerical coding system, a glossary and an assessment instrument for mapping and counting LTC. It shows high feasibility, consistency, inter-rater reliability and face, content and construct validity. DESDE-LTC is ontologically consistent. It is regarded by experts as useful and relevant for evidence-informed decision making. Conclusion DESDE-LTC contributes to establishing a common terminology, taxonomy and coding of LTC services in a European context, and a standard procedure for data collection and international comparison. PMID:23768163

2013-01-01

417

Synthesis and establishment of Tuber melanosporum Vitt. ectomycorrhizae on two Nothofagus species in Chile.  

PubMed

Axenically germinated seedlings of two species of Southern beech (Nothofagus obliqua, N. glauca) from Chile were inoculated with spores of the Prigord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum). Ectomycorrhizal development was monitored for 6 months in the greenhouse and compared to the performance of the natural host species Quercus ilex and Quercus robur. Seedling survival and mycorrhization showed major differences in both Nothofagus species: T. melanosporum readily formed ectomycorrhizae with seedlings of N. obliqua, although at a lower rate than with Q. ilex but at a proportion very similar to Q. robur; survival and colonization rates were high, and seedling growth was not visibly affected by the high soil pH required by T. melanosporum. In contrast, more than 50% of N. glauca seedlings died after inoculation, and mycorrhiza formation was very sparse. In both species, no colonization by adventive ectomycorrhizal fungi could be observed, whereas both species of Quercus showed minor colonization by another fungus, probably Inocybe or Hebeloma. Our results show that it is possible to infect N. obliqua with the Prigord black truffle under greenhouse conditions, which opens up the possibility of cultivating this truffle as a secondary crop during reforestation with N. obliqua in Chile. PMID:17598134

Prez, Francisco; Palfner, Gtz; Brunel, Nidia; Santelices, Rmulo

2007-10-01

418

Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref. 2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M ~8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M 8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the MarchApril 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence.

Hayes, Gavin P.; Herman, Matthew W.; Barnhart, William D.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Riquelme, Sebstian; Benz, Harley M.; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul S.; Samsonov, Sergey

2014-01-01

419

Symptoms of another life: time, possibility, and domestic relations in Chile's credit economy.  

PubMed

In this article, I explore the synergy and disjunctures of the consumer credit system and care for the mentally ill and addicted in the lifeworlds of the urban poor in Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the expansion of the credit system has had a double-edged effect on the poor. Although it produces perpetual indebtedness, it also is a resource amid unstable labor. Following an extended family over several years, this article examines how women take up credit through a wider field of domestic relations and institutions to care for kin with mental illness and addiction within the home. Such gestures of care enact a temporality of waiting, allowing different, but unpredictable, aspects of others to emerge. Through longitudinal ethnographic research with this family, I demonstrate both how possibility is actualized within the home as symptoms of illness and forms of domestic violence, and how a wider network of dependenciesfrom neighbors to lending institutionsshapes the temporality of relations within the home. Such a study of care in relation to the credit economy may offer other analytic perspectives on discourses of individualism, consumerism, and cost-effectiveness accompanying the expansion of consumer credit as they are absorbed into the everyday. PMID:21510328

Han, Clara

2011-01-01

420

Acoustics: A branch of engineering at the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the 1960s, the first acousticians graduating at UACh had acquired an education in applied physics and musical arts, since there was no College of Engineering at that time. Initially, they had a (rather modest) four-year undergraduate program, and most of the faculty were not specialized teachers. The graduates from such a program received a sound engineering degree and they were skilled for jobs in the musical industry and sound reinforcement companies. In addition, they worked as sound engineers and producers. Later, because of the scientific, industrial and educational changes in Chile during the 1980s, the higher education system had massive changes that affected all of the undergraduate and graduate programs of the 61 universities in Chile. The UACh College of Engineering was officially founded in 1989. Then, acoustics as an area of expertise was included, widened and developed as an interdisciplinary subject. Currently, the undergraduate program in acoustics at UACh offers a degree in engineering sciences and a 6-year professional studies in Civil Engineering (Acoustics), having two main fields: Sound and Image, and Environment and Industry.

Poblete, Victor; Arenas, Jorge P.; Sommerhoff, Jorge

2002-11-01

421

Upwelling and dissolved oxygen variability over the continental shelf off Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In contrast to the legendary upwelling that is present along the Peruvian and northern Chilean coasts, the coastal ocean off central Chile presents a highly seasonal upwelling regime that extends from early spring to mid fall. This region is also affected by a strong subsurface poleward flow, which transports southward low-oxygen water from the eastern equatorial Pacific. Coastal waters are highly productive due to upwelling, but the upwelled source waters are very low in oxygen and may produce hypoxia near the bottom over the continental shelf. The spatial structure and main scales of variability of the upwelling cells and dissolved oxygen are poorly understood off central Chile. One of the main limitations has been the lack of direct information. During the last years an observational program has been conducted over the relatively wide continental shelf off Concepcin (3630' S). This program has included ship-based (monthly) time-series, underwater glider observations and time-series based on moored sensors. Here, based on physical (temperature, salinity, pressure, velocity), biological (chlorophyll fluorescence) and chemical (dissolved oxygen) information, we analyze the main scales of time variability of the upwelling, the coastal currents and their impact on the dissolved oxygen. The cross-shelf structure of the upwelling region was sampled using underwater gliders capable of sampling the entire water column to a maximum of 1000 m and from near shore to 200 km offshore.

Pizarro, Oscar

2014-05-01

422

Continuing megathrust earthquake potential in Chile after the 2014 Iquique earthquake.  

PubMed

The seismic gap theory identifies regions of elevated hazard based on a lack of recent seismicity in comparison with other portions of a fault. It has successfully explained past earthquakes (see, for example, ref.2) and is useful for qualitatively describing where large earthquakes might occur. A large earthquake had been expected in the subduction zone adjacent to northern Chile, which had not ruptured in a megathrust earthquake since a M?8.8 event in 1877. On 1 April 2014 a M8.2 earthquake occurred within this seismic gap. Here we present an assessment of the seismotectonics of the March-April 2014 Iquique sequence, including analyses of earthquake relocations, moment tensors, finite fault models, moment deficit calculations and cumulative Coulomb stress transfer. This ensemble of information allows us to place the sequence within the context of regional seismicity and to identify areas of remaining and/or elevated hazard. Our results constrain the size and spatial extent of rupture, and indicate that this was not the earthquake that had been anticipated. Significant sections of the northern Chile subduction zone have not ruptured in almost 150 years, so it is likely that future megathrust earthquakes will occur to the south and potentially to the north of the 2014 Iquique sequence. PMID:25119028

Hayes, Gavin P; Herman, Matthew W; Barnhart, William D; Furlong, Kevin P; Riquelme, Sebstian; Benz, Harley M; Bergman, Eric; Barrientos, Sergio; Earle, Paul S; Samsonov, Sergey

2014-08-21

423

Ecological aspects of nematode parasites of introduced salmonids from Valdivia river basin, Chile.  

PubMed

Between 1986 and 1987, 666 fishes distributed among the following species introduced in Chile, and from different sectors of the Valdivia river basin (39 degrees 30'-40 degrees 00'S, 73 degrees 30'-71 degrees 45'W), were examined: 348 Salmo trutta, 242 Salmo gairdneri, 24 Cyprinus carpio and 52 Gambusia affinis holbrooki. The presence of Camallanus corderoi and Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri and of C. corderoi in S. trutta is recorded in Chile for the first time. Cyprinus carpio and G. a. holbrooki did not present infections by nematodes. The prevalence and mean intensity of the infections by nematodes presented significant differences among some sectors of the Valdivia river basin. In general, the prevalence and intensity of the infections by C. corderoi were greater than those by Contracaecum sp. The infections in S. gairdneri were higher than in S. trutta. The sex of the hosts had no influence on the prevalence and intensity of the infections by both nematodes. The length of the hosts did have an influence, except in the case of the infections by Contracaecum sp. in S. gairdneri. The infrapopulations of both nematode species showed over-dispersion in most cases. The diet of the examined salmonids suggests that they would become infected principally through the consumption of autochthonous fishes. PMID:1842391

Torres, P; Cabezas, X; Arenas, J; Miranda, J C; Jara, C; Gallardo, C

1991-01-01

424

Not all fish are equal: functional biodiversity of cartilaginous fishes (Elasmobranchii and Holocephali) in Chile.  

PubMed

A review of the primary literature on the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras), together with new information suggests that 106 species occur in Chilean waters, comprising 58 sharks, 30 skates, 13 rays and five chimaeras. The presence of 93 species was confirmed, although 30 species were encountered rarely, through validated catch records and sightings made in artisanal and commercial fisheries and on specific research cruises. Overall, only 63 species appear to have a range distribution that normally includes Chilean waters. Actual reliable records of occurrence are lacking for 13 species. Chile has a cartilaginous fish fauna that is relatively impoverished compared with the global species inventory, but conservative compared with countries in South America with warm-temperate waters. The region of highest species richness occurs in the mid-Chilean latitudes of c. 30-40 S. This region represents a transition zone with a mix of species related to both the warm-temperate Peruvian province to the north and cold-temperate Magellan province to the south. This study provides clarification of species occurrence and the functional biodiversity of Chile's cartilaginous fish fauna. PMID:25263288

Bustamante, C; Vargas-Caro, C; Bennett, M B

2014-11-01

425

Gas fluxes and compositions of two active volcanoes in Northern Chile: Lascar and Lastarria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Andes Volcanic Zone of northern Chile comprises a ~1200 km long volcanic district extending from the Atacama region on the northe to the Arica and Parinacota region.Lascar and Lastarria are among the most actively degassing volcanoes of the several (more than 30) potentially active in the region. They both host persistent fumarolic fields and generate sustained plumes above the main craters. Here, we report on simultaneous in-situ and remote volcanic gas measurements aimed at obtaining the very first degassing budget for major volatiles released by these fumarolic fields. Using quick deployable scanning DOAS and SO2 camera systems we obtained time-averaged SO2 fluxes of ~ 500 t d-1 and ~ 970 t d-1 for Lascar and Lastarria, respectively. These data were integrated with plume compositional data, obtained using a portable MultiGAS analyzer and sets of base-treated filter packs, to indirectly calculate fluxes of other volcanic species (H2O, CO2, H2, HCl, HF, HBr and HI) from the fumarolic fields. We estimate H2O and CO2 fluxes of ~ 4400 t d-1 and ~ 470 t d-1 for Lascar and ~ 12200 t d-1 and ~ 1100 t d-1 for Lastarria. These numbers are similar to those charcteristic of other medium-sized active subduction zone volcanoes, and out the basis to better constraining the volatile budget for the Northern Chile arc segment.

Tamburello, G.; Hansteen, T. H.; Bredemeyer, S.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.

2013-12-01

426

When constitutional justice has the last word on health care: the case of Chile.  

PubMed

The Chilean health care system is in crisis. Since the recent ruling of the Constitutional Court that declared the risk rating (actuarial insurance) of private health insurers unconstitutional, all of the social actors related to health care have tried to agree on a legislative reform that would overcome the existing highly segmented and inequitable system, which is a legacy of Pinochet's dictatorship. Here we demonstrate how the social and political demands for legislative reform in the health care sector have been supported by the decisions of the courts. To achieve its goals of reducing equity gaps in health and ending the judicialization of health care (claims for protection represent almost 70% of total resources of the courts), the National Congress of Chile is trying to create a new national health insurance system that guarantees the right to a minimum level of health care. Part of this effort involves obtaining the constitutional approval of the courts. In Chile, justice has the final word on health care. PMID:24919310

Ziga Fajuri, Alejandra

2014-01-01

427

Transformative ties: gendered violence, forms of recovery, and shifting subjectivities in Chile.  

PubMed

Although a significant body of scholarship on trauma has emerged in medical anthropology, there has been little examination of how gendered expectations shape the aftermath of extreme human experience, forms of recovery, and subjectivity. Here, I show how domestic and other forms of violence have shaped Luz's suffering in the dictatorial (1973-90) and officially democratic (1990-present) eras in Chile. I then elucidate how Luz's engagement with Safe Space, an NGO connected to UN violence against women frameworks, and other globally connected women's groups, have allowed her to generate transformative ties with other women. These relationships provide support for Luz's self-defined project of transforming herself and society, largely in relationship to gendered expectations, so that her recovered sense of self will have more of a home in the world, outside the boundaries of narrowly defined gender roles. This analysis is based on ethnographic research in Santiago, Chile, over 19 months in 2000-04 and 2009, including participant-observation at two domestic violence centers and life history interviews with 18 women who sought help there. PMID:20420302

Parson, Nia

2010-03-01

428

Testing for Changes in Crustal Velocity at the Tocopilla Earthquake, Northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two different techniques to investigate the region between Antofagasta and Arica in northern Chile for crustal velocity changes. Data are taken from the 19 broadband stations of the IPOC project (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) operating partly since 2006 by GFZ and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the neighborhood of the seismic stations an M7.0 earthquake occurred near Tocopilla on 14 November 2007. Other studies have shown that in the course of such earthquakes seismic velocities may be changing (e.g. Brenguier et al. 2008). The first method is testing for phase shifts in receiver functions. To avoid varying travel paths of different events we compare events located in small source regions. Although temporal variations have been found in receiver functions for the Parkfield M6.0 and San Simeon M6.5 earthquakes (Audet 2006) we cannot find any variations exceeding the noise level of our dataset at the time of the M7.0 earthquake near Tocopilla. Therefore the data is analyzed with the help of cross-correlation technique of ambient seismic noise (Bensen et al. 2007). Compared to the first method it has the advantage of regularly available correlation functions (e.g. 1 per day). We report on first results.

Richter, T.; Asch, G.; Kind, R.

2011-12-01

429

Recent Advances in the National Seismographic Network of Chile: GPS as Tsunami Early Warning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Major plans were devised in 2007 for the establishment of a new National Seismographic Network for Chile comprising the existing academic instruments together with additional instruments to be acquired. In the meantime, a network of 10 observatories has been implemented by IRIS jointly with Chilean efforts. The Government approved funding in several stages allowing the acquisition of 65 broad-band stations, 297 strong motion instruments and about 130 dual-frequency devices. The 65 broad-band sites also house accelerometers and GPS devices transmitting in robust real-time links to a Central Data Processing in Santiago. Of the 297 strong motion instruments, distributed along the country with concentrated nests in large cities, it is envisioned that only a percentage will have robust communication capabilities; the rest will be connected with 3G (or 4G) means utilizing local providers. Another suit of 60-70 GPS devices will be installed along the coast, around 40-50 km from each other covering the Chilean portion of the Nazca-South America plate interaction, considered as the most seismically active segment of the country. International collaboration efforts to include real-time transmission and processing of the GPS data will complement the existing automatic seismic system. It is expected that this complementary design will not only allow rapid preliminary estimation of hypocentral parameters but also rupture location and extension as well as displacement distribution on the causative fault, essential ingredients to assess the tsunamigenic potential of large thrust-type earthquakes in Chile.

Barrientos, S. E.

2012-12-01

430

Ion Beam Facility at the University of Chile; Applications and Basic Research  

SciTech Connect

The main characteristics of the ion beam facility based on a 3.75 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator at the University of Chile are described at this work. Current activities are mainly focused on the application of the Ion Beam Analysis techniques for environmental, archaeological, and material science analysis. For instance, Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is applied to measure thin gold film thickness which are used to determine their resistivity and other electrical properties. At this laboratory the Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis (PESA) methodologies are extensively used for trace element analysis of urban aerosols (Santiago, Ciudad de Mexico). A similar study is being carried out at the Antarctica Peninsula. Characterization studies on obsidian and vitreous dacite samples using PIXE has been also perform allowing to match some of these artifacts with geological source sites in Chile.Basic physics research is being carried out by measuring low-energy cross section values for the reactions {sup 63}Cu(d,p){sup 64}Cu and {sup Nat}Zn(p,x){sup 67}Ga. Both radionuclide {sup 64}Cu and {sup 67}Ga are required for applications in medicine. Ongoing stopping power cross section measurements of proton and alphas on Pd, Cu, Bi and Mylar are briefly discussed.

Miranda, P. A.; Morales, J. R.; Cancino, S.; Dinator, M. I.; Donoso, N.; Sepulveda, A.; Ortiz, P.; Rojas, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile (Chile)

2010-08-04

431

Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chilo, Chile.  

PubMed

The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chilo, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chilo, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings. PMID:24407313

Ortiz, Rodrigo; Prraga, Mario; Navarrete, Jos; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

2014-04-01

432

The Effects of NO3- Supply on Mazzaella laminarioides (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales) from Southern Chile.  

PubMed

The effects of nitrate supply on growth, pigments, mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), C:N ratios and carrageenan yield were investigated in Mazzaella laminarioides cultivated under solar radiation. This species is economically important in southern Chile where an increase of nitrogen in coastal waters is expected as a consequence of salmon aquaculture activity. Apical segments were cultivated in enriched seawater with five different NO3- concentrations (0, 0.09, 0.18, 0.38 and 0.75mm) during 18days. Although phycoerythrin and phycocyanin content, as well as C:N ratios, were reduced in the control treatment (without NO3- supply), when compared to NO3- treatments, total MAA concentration, carrageenan yield and growth rates were similar in all tested conditions. Nevertheless, during the experiment, an important synthesis of mycosporine-glycine took place in a nitrate concentration-dependent manner, with accumulation being saturated around 0.18mm of nitrate. These results indicate that exposure to high NO3- concentration of more than 100 times the values observed in the nature did not impair the photoprotection system, as determined by MAAs, nor did it have a deleterious effect on growth or carrageenan yield of M.laminarioides, a late successional species from Chile. PMID:25214037

Navarro, Nelso P; Figueroa, Flix L; Korbee, Nathalie; Mansilla, Andrs; Matsuhiro, Betty; Barahona, Tamara; Plastino, Estela M

2014-11-01

433

Polyphenols and antioxidant activity of calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) fruits and other native berries from Southern Chile.  

PubMed

Calafate ( Berberis microphylla ) is a native berry grown in the Patagonian area of Chile and Argentina. In the present study the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of its fruits were studied and also compared with data obtained for other berry fruits from southern Chile including maqui ( Aristotelia chilensis ) and murtilla ( Ugni molinae ). Polyphenolic compounds in calafate fruit were essentially present in glycosylated form, 3-glucoside conjugates being the most abundant anthocyanins. The anthocyanin content in calafate berries (17.81 +/- 0.98 micromol g(-1)) and flavonol level (0.16 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1)) are comparable with those found in maqui (17.88 +/- 1.15 and 0.12 +/- 0.01 micromol g(-1), respectively); however, maqui shows lower flavan-3-ol concentration than calafate (0.11 +/- 0.01 and 0.24 +/- 0.03 micromol g(-1), respectively). Maqui and calafate show high antioxidant activity, which correlates highly with total polyphenol content and with anthocyanin concentration. PMID:20438111

Ruiz, Antonieta; Hermosn-Gutirrez, Isidro; Mardones, Claudia; Vergara, Carola; Herlitz, Erika; Vega, Mario; Dorau, Carolin; Winterhalter, Peter; von Baer, Dietrich

2010-05-26

434

From state terrorism to state errorism: post-Pinochet Chile's long search for truth and justice.  

PubMed

Patio 29 lies in the northern sector of Santiago's General Cemetery. To the naked eye, it is a grim unweeded field of some twelve hundred rusted tin crosses. But to the families of the 1,197 detained-disappeared during Augusto Pinochet's brutal dictatorship, Patio 29 is both a site of horror and a site of hope. Its story begins in September-December 1973 when 320 early victims of the repression were brought there in makeshift wooden crates that held as many as three bodies each, and buried in unmarked graves. A few years later, two hundred of those graves were exhumed by the military, and the remains presumably cremated. For another decade, the mass grave remained silent, yielding few of its secrets to the families' demands to know: Where are they? Today, nineteen years into the so-called transition to democracy, Patio 29--the most important single finding in relation to Chile's detained-disappeared-still refuses to reveal the identities of those victims, pressing upon the government of Michelle Bachelet a new question: Who are they? First state terror, now state error have conspired to make Patio 29 one of Chile's principal horror-cum-hopescapes. PMID:20503913

Wyndham, Marivic; Read, Peter

2010-02-01

435

Antecedents and perspectives on the development of nuclear energy in Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review of activities and future prospects of nuclear energy in Chile is presented. It shows that the development of this sector is closely linked to the history of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, CCHEN, established in 1965. We can distinguish three stages in its development: the installation, culminating at the beginning of 1974 with the La Reina experimental nuclear reactor went critical. Then a phase of consolidation, which reduces the activity of scientific research and stresses the application, between the years 1974 and the end of the eighties, and finally the last twenty years, a stage of continuity marked by a loss of importance and leadership of the institution at the national level, despite having important specific initiatives in the 2000s, such as the successful development of fuel elements, the installation of a cyclotron that allows the execution of PET diagnosis for the first time in the country and the consolidation of a research laboratory on plasma and nuclear fusion. At present there is a consensus that nuclear sector in Chile needs to be placed in accordance with the development experienced by the country, and therefore requires a profound restructuring of the CCHEN, reviewing its vision, mission and work program. Here is a proposal in this regard.

Gutirrez, Gonzalo

2014-05-01

436

SYMPTOMS OF ANOTHER LIFE: Time, Possibility, and Domestic Relations in Chile's Credit Economy  

PubMed Central

In this article, I explore the synergy and disjunctures of the consumer credit system and care for the mentally ill and addicted in the lifeworlds of the urban poor in Santiago, Chile. In Chile, the expansion of the credit system has had a double-edged effect on the poor. Although it produces perpetual indebtedness, it also is a resource amid unstable labor. Following an extended family over several years, this article examines how women take up credit through a wider field of domestic relations and institutions to care for kin with mental illness and addiction within the home. Such gestures of care enact a temporality of waiting, allowing different, but unpredictable, aspects of others to emerge. Through longitudinal ethnographic research with this family, I demonstrate both how possibility is actualized within the home as symptoms of illness and forms of domestic violence, and how a wider network of dependenciesfrom neighbors to lending institutionsshapes the temporality of relations within the home. Such a study of care in relation to the credit economy may offer other analytic perspectives on discourses of individualism, consumerism, and cost-effectiveness accompanying the expansion of consumer credit as they are absorbed into the everyday. PMID:21510328

HAN, CLARA

2011-01-01

437

Factors related to unmet oral health needs in older adults living in Chile.  

PubMed

To assess the oral health status and treatment needs of an ambulant population of older adults, living in the Maule Region, Chile, and provide descriptive information on its distribution by selected socio-demographic characteristics. The source of primary data was the Regional Oral Health Survey. A stratified random sample of 438 older adults, aged 65-74 years, living independently in the community was orally examined, and underwent an oral health interview. The sample was largely a dentate one (74.9%); with a mean DMFT score of 25.7 (s.d. 6.5) and an average number of missing teeth of 22.4 (s.d. 5.8). Dentate participants had 41% of their restorative care needs unmet, and 68.4% needed oral hygiene instruction plus removal of calculus on their teeth. Almost 30.1% required complex periodontal therapy. 21% of those fully edentulous were in need of full dentures. Comparing these findings with existing data on the oral health of older adults in Chile, participants in this study appear to have lower missing teeth scores and less need for complex periodontal treatment. Inequities were apparent in the proportion of unmet restorative and prosthetics needs. Community-based preventive care programs specifically tailored to older adults are needed to address this challenge. PMID:24556393

Mario, Rodrigo; Giacaman, Rodrigo A

2014-01-01

438

The Record of Giant Earthquakes in the Sediments of Lago Villarrica (South-Central Chile)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South-Central Chile is located where the oceanic Nazca plate actively subducts underneath the continental South American plate. This subduction zone has ruptured in great destructive earthquakes with variable magnitude during historical times, with as tragic highlight the 1960 Valdivia earthquake, which accounts for the largest instrumentally recorded earthquake worldwide (Moment Magnitude: 9.5). Damage from severe ground-shaking was reported from up to 1000 km south of the 1960 earthquake epicenter and a devastating tsunami ravaged across the Pacific. The historical earthquake records in South-Central Chile only cover ~500 yrs, so "natural" archives -in which paleo-earthquake activity has been recorded and preserved- need to be explored to reveal a statistically significant earthquake recurrence. In this study, a high-resolution seismic survey on Lago Villarrica has been executed to study its sedimentary infill for fingerprints of severe shaking. The seismic profiles acquired in our study show a succession of voluminous underwater landslide deposits and their related failure scars. Multiple slope failures occurred simultaneously in calm depositional environments, which points toward a strong, instantaneous basin-wide trigger of slope instability. Evaluation of all possible slope failure processes led us to infer that very strong earthquakes are the most likely triggers of these landslide events. Our seismic profiles also show a distinct stratigraphic level of sediment disturbance, locally overlain by a field of sediment volcanoes, which have dimensions up to 70 m wide and 2 m thick. These structures are interpreted as a result of sudden compaction in a buried landslide deposit and subsequent vertical flow of overpressured pore water and entrained sediments which have been expelled at the paleo-lake bottom. We postulate that this process of subsurface sediment mobilization has been triggered by seismic ground-shaking, as such sediment volcanoes have been commonly reported during strong earthquakes. Locally, some of the water-escape structures extend to a higher position in the stratigraphy, which could point to a polyphase escape associated with successive strong earthquakes. In conclusion, at least nine events of strong seismic shaking could be revealed in the upper 10 m of Lago Villarrica's sedimentary infill. The future of this paleoseismic research consists of dating these sedimentary events by radiocarbon (14C) measurements (and other techniques such as varve-counting) on sediment cores. Seismic surveys on other glacigenic lakes in the Chilean Lake District also show promising paleoseismic records, which will offer the unique opportunity to make inter-lake correlations to build a robust paleoseismic reconstruction as the basis for a reliable hazard assessment for giant earthquakes in South-Central Chile.

Moernaut, J.; de Batist, M.; Pino, M.; Brmmer, R.

2008-05-01

439

Three species of plagioporine opecoelids (Digenea), including a new genus and two new species, from marine fishes from off the coast of Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Villarrealina peruanus (syn. Pirupalkia queulensis) is described from Cilus gilberti, off the Talcahuano region, Chile. It is considered an opecoelid and is distinguishable by the combination of its extensive uterus, which reaches to the posterior extremity, and the vitellarium restricted to the hindbody. Jerguillicola leonora n. g., n. sp. from Aplodactylus punctatus, off the Talcahuano region, Chile, is distinguished by

Rodney A. Bray

2002-01-01

440

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate,...

2012-04-01

441

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate,...

2011-04-01

442

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate,...

2014-04-01

443

19 CFR 10.471 - Special rule for verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. 10.471 Section...verifications in Chile of U.S. imports of textile and apparel products. (a) Procedures...determining that a claim of origin for a textile or apparel good is accurate,...

2013-04-01

444

Resistencia bacteriana en cepas patgenas aisladas de mastitis en vacas lecheras de la V Regin, Regin Metropolitana y X Regin, Chile* Bacterial resistance of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cows in the Vth Region, Metropolitan Region and Xth Region, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Cooprinsem, Casilla 827, Osorno, Chile. SUMMARY Antimicrobial chemotherapy in human and veterinary medicine is one of the most important therapeutic tool against pathogenic agents causing infectious diseases; nevertheless, the development of multiple resistant strains during the last years has been reported. Some of the measures adopted to control this problem have been the veterinary prescription of antimicrobials for animal

B. SAN MARTIN

445

Dieta de tiburones juveniles Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) en la zona litoral centro-sur de Chile Diet of juvenile blue sharks Prionace glauca (Linnaeus, 1758) (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) in coastal waters off central-south Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feeding studies of pelagic sharks in Chilean waters are rare because of the difficulty in accessing and collecting stomachs. This paper is the first contribution to the knowledge of the diet of juvenile P. glauca (Linnaeus, 1758), caught in the coastal zone of central-southern Chile. We described the diet of 13 juvenile P. glauca using frequency of occurrence, percent by

M. Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas; Freddy Duarte; Javier Chong; Christian M. Ibez

2007-01-01

446

Discrimination and victimization: parade for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) pride, in Chile.  

PubMed

This article describes the population participating in the LGBT Pride Parade in Santiago, Chile, from discrimination and victimization standpoints. The sample consisted of 488 subjects older than 18 years (M = 25.1), who were interviewed during the 2007 event. For this purpose, a questionnaire from the Latin American Centre of Sexuality and Human Rights (CLAM) was adapted and administered. Approximately 35% of respondents reported having experimented school, religious, or neighborhood discrimination. The more discriminated are transgender people. Approximately three fourths of respondents reported experiencing ridicule and almost 60% reported experiencing insults or threats. Transgender were significantly more likely than gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals to experience discrimination or victimization events. Finally, the parade acquired an important social and political character in the context of a clearly homophobic society. PMID:20582801

Barrientos, Jaime; Silva, Jimena; Catalan, Susan; Gomez, Fabiola; Longueira, Jimena

2010-01-01

447

The 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake of Central Chile, monitored by GPS.  

PubMed

Large earthquakes produce crustal deformation that can be quantified by geodetic measurements, allowing for the determination of the slip distribution on the fault. We used data from Global Positioning System (GPS) networks in Central Chile to infer the static deformation and the kinematics of the 2010 moment magnitude (M(w)) 8.8 Maule megathrust earthquake. From elastic modeling, we found a total rupture length of ~500 kilometers where slip (up to 15 meters) concentrated on two main asperities situated on both sides of the epicenter. We found that rupture reached shallow depths, probably extending up to the trench. Resolvable afterslip occurred in regions of low coseismic slip. The low-frequency hypocenter is relocated 40 kilometers southwest of initial estimates. Rupture propagated bilaterally at about 3.1 kilometers per second, with possible but not fully resolved velocity variations. PMID:21527673

Vigny, C; Socquet, A; Peyrat, S; Ruegg, J-C; Mtois, M; Madariaga, R; Morvan, S; Lancieri, M; Lacassin, R; Campos, J; Carrizo, D; Bejar-Pizarro, M; Barrientos, S; Armijo, R; Aranda, C; Valderas-Bermejo, M-C; Ortega, I; Bondoux, F; Baize, S; Lyon-Caen, H; Pavez, A; Vilotte, J P; Bevis, M; Brooks, B; Smalley, R; Parra, H; Baez, J-C; Blanco, M; Cimbaro, S; Kendrick, E

2011-06-17

448

Hematology and serum biochemistry values of Culpeo foxes (Lycalopex culpaeus) from central Chile.  

PubMed

Hematology and serum biochemistry values were determined for 31 healthy captive and free-ranging Culpeo foxes (Lycalopex culpaeus) sampled in central Chile between 2008 and 2012. The influences of sex, age, and origin (captive versus free-ranging foxes) on the blood parameters were evaluated. The blood values determined were generally comparable to commonly reported values for other wild canid species and the domestic dog. No differences attributable to sex were observed for any parameter. Juveniles had higher levels of alkaline phosphatase and phosphorus and lower values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, and globulin than adult foxes. Captive and free-ranging animals differed in glucose and albumin values. This is the first study on blood parameters of the Culpeo fox and represents a contribution for clinical evaluations of this carnivore in captivity as well as in the wild. PMID:25314826

Rubio, Andr V; Hidalgo-Hermoso, Ezequiel; Bonacic, Cristian

2014-09-01

449

Bloom of the Yessotoxin producing dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae) in Northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In summer 2007, a dinoflagellate preliminarily identified as Protoceratium reticulatum bloomed in Baha Mejillones, northern Chile. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of resting cyst and motile cells of P. reticulatum. Oceanographic and phytoplankton data suggest that the bloom was initiated offshore by motile cells and germinated cysts during an upwelling pulse. These cells were advected into the bay when upwelling relaxed and grew without any relevant competitor. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin as the only toxin in an estimated proportion of 0.2 and 0.4 pg cell - 1 , thus confirming that P. reticulatum is a source of yessotoxin in northern Chilean waters and consequently that it poses a risk for human health and mollusk exploitation in the area.

lvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Daz, Rosario; Braun, Mauricio; Mario, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

2011-05-01

450

Brief Communication: Lactase persistence and dairy intake in Mapuche and Mestizo populations from southern Chile.  

PubMed

Lactase persistence (LP) occurs at a very low frequency in indigenous populations from Latin America, offering an opportunity to understand the relationship between this genetic trait and patterns of dairy consumption. Here, the frequency of LP is analyzed from Mapuche and -an adjacent- mestizo population inhabiting the Araucana region. In addition to genotyping for LP, participants were surveyed in relation to general perception and consumption habits of dairy products. Low LP frequency (10%) and very low dairy intake was found among the Mapuche population as compared with Mestizo populations inhabiting Chile. The survey reported that the main reasons for avoidance of dairy were the gastrointestinal symptoms after dairy intake and cultural dietary habits. The interaction between low LP genotype frequency, low dairy intake, and sociocultural determinants is here discussed in the light of their potential health outcomes. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:482-487, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25137143

Fernndez, Catalina I; Flores, Sergio V

2014-11-01

451

Coal-complex rehabilitation projects in Chile. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report describes the definitional mission to evaluate the prospects of the U.S. Trade and Development Program (TDP) funding a feasibility and coal mining study that would assist the Government of Chile in improving electrical generating and coal mining in the country. It was ascertained during the mission that the French government has had several discussions with Empreso Nacional de Carbon S.A. (ENACAR) and may shortly provide grants for a number of studies relevant to the Lota mine. The majority of the grant will be used to study the port improvements at the Lota underground mine. ENACAR indicated that it would like to see TDP propose funding for the following projects: Lota Mine Development; Lota Waste Coal Power Plant; Carampanque Coal Reserve Development; and Isla Riesco Coal Reserve Development.

Not Available

1992-04-01

452

Tests of the HYDAD-D Landmine Detector on Dry Soil in Northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HYDAD is an acronym of HYdrogen Density Anomaly Detector. It is a device that detects hydrogen-rich objects by analysis the energy-moderation of fast neutrons by hydrogen [1]. A HYDAD-D was assembled at the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) guided by the South African developers, aimed to detecting landmines in arid soils. The device was tested under controlled conditions in dry soil equivalent to the mine fields of the frontier zones of the north of Chile. The tests were carried out in Arica, in collaboration with the Chilean Army, using antipersonnel landmines, antitank landmines and objects with a high Hydrogen content (e.g, water vessel, paraffin wax). The test results demonstrated that HYDAD-D can detect antipersonnel landmines as small as the M14 (mass 100 g, including only 29 g of TNT in a plastic container), in dry sand, at typical landmines bury-depths (less than 5 cm).

Pavez, Cristian; Brooks, Frank D.; Smit, F. D.; Moreno, Jos; Altamirano, Luis; Soto, Leopoldo

2010-08-01

453

Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Mepraia gajardoi from Wild Ecotopes in Northern Chile  

PubMed Central

We evaluated Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 397 wild Mepraia gajardoi specimens from five coastal localities in northern Chile by detection of minicircle DNA by polymerase chain reaction. The wild capture sites were classified into two ecotopes: a fully wild ecotope (ecotope 1) and a wild ecotope near human dwellings (ecotope 2). Infection rates varied between 11% and 27%. Minicircle hybridization assays showed that T. cruzi lineages Tc II and Tc VI were commonly detected in ecotope 1 and ecotope 2, respectively. These results are discussed in the context of insect proximity to human dwellings, the alimentary profile of Mepraia sp., T. cruzi lineages detected in the past in the same disease-endemic area circulating in humans, and Triatoma infestans. PMID:23249691

Toledo, Andrea; Vergara, Fernanda; Campos, Ricardo; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Ortiz, Sylvia; Coronado, Ximena; Solari, Aldo

2013-01-01

454

Discovery of a blue whale feeding and nursing ground in southern Chile.  

PubMed Central

After the extensive exploitation that reduced the Southern Hemisphere blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) populations to less than 3% of its original numbers, studies on its recovery have been compounded by the inaccessibility of most populations and the extensive migrations between low and high latitudes, thus ensuring that knowledge about blue whale ecology and status remains limited. We report the recent discovery of, arguably, the most important blue whale feeding and nursing ground known to date in the Southern Hemisphere, which is located near the fjords off southern Chile. Through aerial and marine surveys (n = 7) 47 groups, comprising 153 blue whales including at least 11 mother-calf pairs, were sighted during the austral summer and early autumn of 2003. The implications of this discovery on the biological understanding and conservation of this endangered species are discussed. PMID:15252974

Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Osman, Layla P; Moreno, Carlos A; Findlay, Ken P; Ljungblad, Don K

2004-01-01

455

Aftershocks and Images of South Central Chile: Results from the Analysis of the IMAD Data Set  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In response to the Mw=8.8, Maule earthquake that occurred off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010, seismologists from France, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States joined their Chilean colleagues to install seismic stations between 33-38.5S, from the coast to the foothills of the Andes to produce the International Maule Aftershock Deployment (IMAD) data set. These stations were deployed starting in mid-March with some stations pulled out in late September while others remained recording until the end of December of 2010. We used procedures developed by the USGS National Earthquake Information Center to generate earthquake locations, magnitudes, phase readings and regional moment tensors solutions. The catalog consists of some 44,000 events to approximately M2.0. We use the catalog locations and travel times as a starting point we use double difference techniques to investigate relative locations and earthquake clustering. We generated Receiver Functions (RFs) from teleseismic P and PP phases and construct common conversion point stacks to image the structure of the slab and forearc region down to a depth of ~120 km. The migrated RF image the oceanic slab Moho on several E-W and N-S profiles at 40 to 60 km depth beneath the array and several discontinuities above the slab in the forearc. We also image a prominent Ps conversion that we interpret as the continental Moho at ~35 km under the foothills of the Andes and decreasing to 25-30 km under the central valley of Chile. We observe a prominent Ps conversion at ~40-50 km depth on a NNE-SSW cross-section parallel to the strike of the slab that we interpret as the oceanic Moho in the down-going slab. We created an Ambient Noise Tomography image combining IMAD stations with other temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations in Chile and Argentina to obtain absolute shear velocities in the crust. Phase velocity maps between periods of 8 and 40 sec are inverted for a 3-D shear-wave velocity at 0.1 grid spacing. At shallow depths the basins in the backarc of the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina show clear low shear wave velocities. The Chile forearc has higher shear velocities (>3.8 km/s) at all depths between 32 and 38S. Much of the active arc shows lower shear wave velocities (<3.5 km/s) at mid and lower crustal depths consistent with warm temperatures. We used two spectral ratio methods to determine shear wave attenuation in the earthquake rupture zone. Both methods reveal diminution of the ratio of spectral amplitudes of P and S waves observed along a given source-station path. The first calculates 400 individual Qs values for the phase pair. In the second method, spectra of each of the 400 iterations are stacked, yielding a Qs value obtained from the slope of the composite spectrum. Preliminary measurements, deemed acceptable when the two methods agree, show a variation of Qs values from ~100 to 1000.

Roecker, S. W.; Beck, S. L.; Morell, M.; Ward, K. M.; Zandt, G.; Meltzer, A.; Stachnik, J. C.; Russo, R. M.; Torpey, M.; Benz, H.

2013-05-01

456

Discovery of a blue whale feeding and nursing ground in southern Chile.  

PubMed

After the extensive exploitation that reduced the Southern Hemisphere blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) populations to less than 3% of its original numbers, studies on its recovery have been compounded by the inaccessibility of most populations and the extensive migrations between low and high latitudes, thus ensuring that knowledge about blue whale ecology and status remains limited. We report the recent discovery of, arguably, the most important blue whale feeding and nursing ground known to date in the Southern Hemisphere, which is located near the fjords off southern Chile. Through aerial and marine surveys (n = 7) 47 groups, comprising 153 blue whales including at least 11 mother-calf pairs, were sighted during the austral summer and early autumn of 2003. The implications of this discovery on the biological understanding and conservation of this endangered species are discussed. PMID:15252974

Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Osman, Layla P; Moreno, Carlos A; Findlay, Ken P; Ljungblad, Don K

2004-05-01

457

Central Andes mountains, Chile/Argentina as seen from STS-67  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chilean coastline and the arid Atacama Desert stretch the length of the view with the high Andes on the eastern margin where hundreds of volcanoes dot the landscape. The wider (250-350 kilometers) Altiplano ('plains') sector of the Andes appears in the top half of the view, and the narrow (120 kilometers) 'mountain-chain-dominated' sector to the bottom. The northern half of Chile can be seen, with the 'hammer-head' peninsula at the city of Antofagasta, top left. Up welling of cold water as the Humboldt Current immediately offshore gives rise to low stratus cloud. The extensive cloud mass on the right lies beyond the Andes in the low country of Argentina's 'pampas' grasslands and Chaco semi-desert.

1995-01-01

458

A pilot study for predicting ozone amounts for the general public in southern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During 1994/95 a UK Overseas Development Administration (now Department for International Development - DFID) funded project was undertaken to predict ozone amount over Punta Arenas in southern Chile. A low-cost satellite receiver was installed to receive the digital data stream from the NOAA series of weather satellites. The ozone channel of the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder instrument on the NOAA satellites was used to obtain maps of stratospheric ozone for the area around Punta Arenas in near real time. Also, a simple model was developed to predict the amount of column ozone from the forecast 100 hPa temperatures obtained from the UK Meteorological Office. These techniques used together made it possible to issue timely warnings to the general public of Punta Arenas before the Antarctic ozone hole moved across southern South America during the Austral spring.

Lachlan-Cope, T.; Turner, J.; Sear, C. B.; Burt, P. J. A.; Jones, A.; Bowden, T.; Monreal, R.

2000-03-01

459

Emergence of social complexity among coastal hunter-gatherers in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile  

PubMed Central

The emergence of complex cultural practices in simple hunter-gatherer groups poses interesting questions on what drives social complexity and what causes the emergence and disappearance of cultural innovations. Here we analyze the conditions that underlie the emergence of artificial mummification in the Chinchorro culture in the coastal Atacama Desert in northern Chile and southern Peru. We provide empirical and theoretical evidence that artificial mummification appeared during a period of increased coastal freshwater availability and marine productivity, which caused an increase in human population size and accelerated the emergence of cultural innovations, as predicted by recent models of cultural and technological evolution. Under a scenario of increasing population size and extreme aridity (with little or no decomposition of corpses) a simple demographic model shows that dead individuals may have become a significant part of the landscape, creating the conditions for the manipulation of the dead that led to the emergence of complex mortuary practices. PMID:22891345

Marquet, Pablo A.; Santoro, Calogero M.; Latorre, Claudio; Standen, Vivien G.; Abades, Sebastian R.; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.; Arriaza, Bernardo; Hochberg, Michael E.

2012-01-01

460

Using A Gridded Global Data Set To Characterize Regional Hydroclimate In Central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Central Chile is facing dramatic projections of climate change, with a consensus for declining precipitation, negatively affecting hydropower generation and irrigated agriculture. Rising from sea level to 6,000 meters within a distance of 200 kilometers, precipitation characterization is difficult due to a lack of long-term observations, especially at higher elevations. For understanding current conditions and recent hydroclimatological change, as well as to provide a baseline for downscaling climate model projections, a temporally and spatially complete data set of daily precipitation is essential. We use a gridded global daily meterological data set at 0.25 degree resolution for 1948-2008, and adjust it using monthly precipitation observations interpolated to the same grid using a cokriging method with elevation as covariate. For validation, we compare daily statistics of the adjusted gridded precipitation to station observations. For further validation we drive a hydrology model with the gridded 0.25-degree meteorology and compare stream flow statistics with observed flow. We validate the high elevation precipitation by comparing the simulated snow extent to MODIS images. Results show that the daily adjusted precipitation can accurately capture the statistical properties of extreme events as well as the sequence of wet and dry events. The new precipitation fields has been used to simulate the hydrological cycle of three basins in the region. The adjusted gridded data set will be used in downscaling efforts to be able to evaluate the vulnerability of the region's water resources to projected climate changes during the twenty-first century. Stakeholders in Central Chile will be able to use this information to plan potential adaptation responses to simulated changes in water availability in the region. This demonstrates the successful use of a global gridded data product in a relatively data-sparse region to capture hydroclimatological characteristics and extremes.

Demaria, E. M.; Maurer, E. P.; Sheffield, J.; Bustos, E.; Poblete, D.; Vicuna, S.; Meza, F. J.

2012-12-01

461

[The provision of health services in Chile: historical aspects, dilemmas and perspectives].  

PubMed

The evolution of the health system in Chile, since its beginning and during the National Health Service period is described. The transformations that this system underwent from 1980 on, during the military regime, and the changes introduced by the democratic governments from 1990 on, with the purpose of correcting distortions introduced in the previous period, are commented on. The production of the health services is compared as between the public and private sub-sectors. The indicators used are outpatient attendance per thousand insured inhabitants, use of, lab texts on the same populational basis, hospitalization rates, discharges per thousand insured and surgery rates per thousand. Differences between the two sub-systems are commented on as also are those related to user satisfaction in the two sub-systems. The chief challenges to the public system are considered as well as their possible responses to them on the basis of current policies and the solutions implemented. The present situation in the Public/Private mix in health care in Chile gives rise to the positive expectation that the public subsystem may succeed in maintaining its historical leadership in the orientation and health services offered in this country. This positive view is supported by the rigorous geographic and demographic logic of the public subsystem, the stable availability of financial resources (result of the 7% contribution for health applied on all salaries, complemented by tax funds), a not completely modern but reliable network of public health facilities and the considerable motivation shown by its staff. Some features of the Chilean health system's development are mentioned as potentially useful to the development of health systems in other countries, especially in Latin America, such as organization and management of regional health services, innovative methodologies in health service payment (diagnosed related payment, management agreements and per capita financing for primary care); the health surveilance system (especially for food and drugs) and the state regulation of private health care financers. PMID:9713128

Azevedo, A C

1998-04-01

462

Characterization of backyard poultry production systems and disease risk in the central zone of Chile.  

PubMed

Backyard poultry production systems (BPS) are an important and widespread form of poultry production. There is a common perception that biosecurity standards in BPS are generally poor and BPS are usually associated with animal diseases and zoonoses. In this study BPS were identified in the vicinity of six wetlands, having these a higher risk of presenting and introducing avian diseases such as HPAI and Newcastle disease, as defined by the national veterinary services, in to Chile's main poultry production area. BPS were characterized through a field questionnaire and the main areas covered by the survey were BPS structure, biosecurity and value chain. The BPS identified in this study share most characteristics on biosecurity, poultry management and product commercialization, but it was possible to identify a certain degree of variation within and among the study sites. BPS in Chile are similar to those in other regions, with a relatively small flock size (average 37 birds), a low level of biosecurity measures and lack of poultry disease management. Management findings include that most farmers used mixed/partial confinement, with low or no biosecurity and disease control measures in place. Eggs were the main output and were used mainly for home consumption or sale at local markets. Sick birds' treatment with drugs approved for other species or for human use could represent a risk to human health, owing to the possible presence of drug residues in poultry products. Despite the different structures of the poultry sector worldwide, BPS can play a major role in disease maintenance and spread because its management conditions characteristics and the lack of animal health services adapted to these production systems. This should be an alert message to the veterinary authorities to improve coverage of veterinary assistance and surveillance activities in backyard poultry production. PMID:21752410

Hamilton-West, C; Rojas, H; Pinto, J; Orozco, J; Herv-Claude, L P; Urcelay, S

2012-08-01

463

Operational tsunami modeling with TsunAWI - Examples for Indonesia and Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The numerical simulation code TsunAWI was developed in the framework of the German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS). The numerical simulation of prototypical tsunami scenarios plays a decisive role in the a priory risk assessment for coastal regions and in the early warning process itself. TsunAWI is based on a finite element discretization, employs unstructured grids with high resolution along the coast, and includes inundation. This contribution gives an overview of the model itself and presents two applications. For GITEWS, the existing scenario database covering 528 epicenters / 3450 scenarios from Sumatra to Bali was extended by 187 epicenters / 1100 scenarios in the Eastern Sunda Arc. Furthermore, about 1100 scenarios for the Western Sunda Arc were recomputed on the new model domain covering the whole Indonesian Seas. These computations would not have been feasible in the beginning of the project. The unstructured computational grid contains 7 million nodes and resolves all coastal regions with 150m, some project regions and the surrounding of tide gauges with 50m, and the deep ocean with 12km edge length. While in the Western Sunda Arc, the large islands of Sumatra and Java shield the Northern Indonesian Archipelago, tsunamis in the Eastern Sunda Arc can propagate to the North. The unstructured grid approach allows TsunAWI to easily simulate the complex propagation patterns with the self-interactions and the reflections at the coastal regions of myriads of islands. For the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA), we calculated a small scenario database of 100 scenarios (sources by Universidad de Chile) to provide data for a lightweight decision support system prototype (built by DLR). This work is part of the initiation project "Multi hazard information and early warning system in cooperation with Chile" and aims at sharing our experience from GITEWS with the Chilean partners.

Rakowsky, Natalja; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven; Immerz, Antonia; Fuchs, Annika; Behrens, Jrn; Danilov, Sergey; Hiller, Wolfgang; Schrter, Jens

2014-05-01

464

Regional frequency analysis for mapping drought events in north-central Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryDroughts are among the most important natural disasters, particularly in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. Proper management of droughts requires knowledge of the expected frequency of specific low magnitude precipitation totals for a variety of durations. Probabilistic approaches have often been used to estimate the average recurrence period of a given drought event. However, probabilistic model fitting by conventional methods, such as product moment or maximum likelihood in areas with low availability of long records often produces highly unreliable estimates. Recognizing the need for adequate estimates of return periods of severe droughts in the arid and semiarid region of Chile, a regional frequency analysis method based on L-moments (RFA-LM) was used for estimating and mapping drought frequency. Some adaptations to the existing procedures for forming homogeneous regions were found necessary. In addition, a new 3-parameter distribution, the Gaucho, which is a special case of the 4-parameter Kappa distribution, was introduced, and the analysis procedure was improved by the developments of two new software tools named L-RAP, to perform the RFA-LM analysis, and L-MAP, to map the resulting drought maps. Eight homogeneous sub-regions were delineated using the Gaucho distribution and used to construct return period maps for drought events with 80% and 40% precipitation of the normal. The study confirms the importance of a sub-regional homogeneity test, and the usefulness of the Gaucho distribution. The RFA-LM showed that droughts with a 40% precipitation of the normal have return periods that range from 4 years at the northern arid boundary of the study area to 22 years at the southern sub-humid boundary. The results demonstrate the need for different thresholds for declaring a drought than those currently in use for drought characterization in north-central Chile.

Nez, J. H.; Verbist, K.; Wallis, J. R.; Schaefer, M. G.; Morales, L.; Cornelis, W. M.

2011-08-01

465

Southern-ocean and glaciogenic nutrients control diatom export production on the Chile margin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biogenic particle flux was reconstructed using 230-Thorium normalization at two sites on the southern Chile margin. ODP Site 1233 at 41S, 838 m depth, is at the southern limit of the Peru-Chile upwelling system, where the northern extent of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current impinges on the South American continental margin. ODP Site 1234, at 36S, 1014 m depth, is located within the core of the coastal upwelling system near the mouths of the Bio Bio and Itata Rivers. At 41S, opal, lithogenic and carbonate fluxes are greatest during the Last Glacial interval (26-20 ka), carbonate has a secondary peak during the mid Holocene (8 ka) and organic carbon fluxes increase slightly from 17 ka to the present. At 36S, large lithogenic fluxes are observed both during the Last Glacial interval and the Holocene, and a maximum in organic carbon flux is observed during the late Holocene (5 ka) without an accompanying peak in opal flux. These reconstructed fluxes at 36S and 41S fit within a larger latitudinal pattern of a poleward increase in the magnitude of opal flux during the glacial period. The pattern of normalized opal flux, opal mass accumulation rate and opal:carbonate ratios is consistent with either i) enhanced supply of Si from the Southern Ocean, as proposed by the Silicic Acid Leakage Hypothesis or ii) enhanced Si and Fe delivery from land, driven by glacial erosion. The pattern of reconstructed export production supports our view that the appearance of more reducing conditions in the sediments upon deglaciation was most likely driven by decreased ventilation, rather than increased local productivity.

Chase, Zanna; McManus, James; Mix, Alan C.; Muratli, Jesse

2014-09-01

466

Elemental concentrations of ambient particles and cause specific mortality in Santiago, Chile: a time series study  

PubMed Central

Background The health effects of particulate air pollution are widely recognized and there is some evidence that the magnitude of these effects vary by particle component. We studied the effects of ambient fine particles (aerodynamic diameter < 2.5?m, PM2.5) and their components on cause-specific mortality in Santiago, Chile, where particulate pollution is a major public health concern. Methods Air pollution was collected in a residential area in the center of Santiago. Daily mortality counts were obtained from the National Institute of Statistic. The associations between PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality were studied by time series analysis controlling for time trends, day of the week, temperature and relative humidity. We then included an interaction term between PM2.5 and the monthly averages of the mean ratios of individual elements to PM2.5 mass. Results We found significant effects of PM2.5 on all the causes analyzed, with a 1.33% increase (95% CI: 0.87-1.78) in cardiovascular mortality per 10?g/m3 increase in the two days average of PM2.5. We found that zinc was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. Particles with high content of chromium, copper and sulfur showed stronger associations with respiratory and COPD mortality, while high zinc and sodium content of PM2.5 amplified the association with cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PM2.5 with high zinc, chromium, copper, sodium, and sulfur content have stronger associations with mortality than PM2.5 mass alone in Santiago, Chile. The sources of particles containing these elements need to be determined to better control their emissions. PMID:23116481

2012-01-01

467

Representation of Ecosystem Services by Terrestrial Protected Areas: Chile as a Case Study  

PubMed Central

Protected areas are increasingly considered to play a key role in the global maintenance of ecosystem processes and the ecosystem services they provide. It is thus vital to assess the extent to which existing protected area systems represent those services. Here, for the first time, we document the effectiveness of the current Chilean protected area system and its planned extensions in representing both ecosystem services (plant productivity, carbon storage and agricultural production) and biodiversity. Additionally, we evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas based on their respective management objectives. Our results show that existing protected areas in Chile do not contain an unusually high proportion of carbon storage (14.9%), agricultural production (0.2%) or biodiversity (11.8%), and also represent a low level of plant productivity (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index of 0.38). Proposed additional priority sites enhance the representation of ecosystem services and biodiversity, but not sufficiently to attain levels of representation higher than would be expected for their area of coverage. Moreover, when the species groups were assessed separately, amphibians was the only one well represented. Suggested priority sites for biodiversity conservation, without formal protection yet, was the only protected area category that over-represents carbon storage, agricultural production and biodiversity. The low representation of ecosystem services and species distribution ranges by the current protected area system is because these protected areas are heavily biased toward southern Chile, and contain large extents of ice and bare rock. The designation and management of proposed priority sites needs to be addressed in order to increase the representation of ecosystem services within the Chilean protected area system. PMID:24376559

Duran, America P.; Casalegno, Stefano; Marquet, Pablo A.; Gaston, Kevin J.

2013-01-01

468

The formation of an anticyclonic mode water eddy within the Peru-Chile Undercurrent.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of an anticyclonic mode water eddy in Jan/Feb 2013 within the Peru-Chile Undercurrent is presented based on a multi-platform observational study. Two consecutive research cruises, a glider swarm experiment and moored measurements were conducted as part of the interdisciplinary "SFB 754 Climate-Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" project within the Peruvian upwelling regime at 12S. The dataset allows a detailed investigation of the eddy generation process and its impacts on the near-coastal hydrography and biogeochemistry in space and time. The near-coastal horizontal circulation off Peru at 12S changes significantly over the two months of observation. In early January, we observe a strong but clear Peru-Chile Undercurrent with maximal pole-ward velocities of ~25 cm/s in 100 - 200 m depth. A week later the vertical shear starts to increases and finally a mode water eddy forms. The eddy has a velocity maximum of ~0.3 m/s in 100 - 200 m depth and a radius of ~45 km. The eddy induced circulation strongly influences the near-coastal hydrography: Across-shore velocities result in an exchange of water masses between the shelf-break and the offshore ocean. At the eddy edge small scale salinity anomalies are found, which seem to be formed by mesoscale stirring. Energetic near-inertial oscillations are observed in the deeper water column during eddy generation that appear to be associated with this feature. After its generation close to the shelf break the eddy propagates westwards.

Thomsen, Soeren; Kanzow, Torsten; Krahmann, Gerd; Dengler, Marcus; Krueger, Matthias

2014-05-01

469

Skin cancer risk affected by ultraviolet solar irradiance in Arica, Chile  

PubMed Central

The present study analyzed the risk of skin cancer due to ultraviolet erythemal irradiance (UVery) in Arica, Chile, using measurements of the solar ultraviolet index (UVI) between 2006 and 2011. The daily maximum value by biometer Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) solar ultraviolet B (UVB)-1 was measured between 2007 and 2012, and seasonal variations were clearly observed, with higher UVI levels during the summer when UVI usually reached extreme values of >11. The maximum UVI value was 15.6 in the summer of 2008 and the minimum was 2.2 in the winter of 2008. The UVI mean values that were collected monthly at noon between 2006 and 2010 fluctuated between 13 and 6, and reached higher values in January and lower values in June and July. Thus, a seasonal UVI response was observed during the two seasons. The accumulated UVery/day was calculated between September 2006 and 2007, the time when Arica normally receives the highest UVI levels. It was also noted that 60% of the days in September demonstrated values of >3.41 kJ/m2/day, while 3.3% of cloudy days had values of <2.0 kJ/m2/day. The mean value of UVery during 2007 was 3.23 kJ/m2/day and the variation was 1.94.6 kJ/m2/day. These UVery values were several times higher than the minimal erythemal doses (MEDs) corresponding to the skin types most frequently observed in Chile, skin types III and IV. The MED for skin type IV was 0.60 kJ/m2. The results demonstrated that the skin cancer rate was increased due to the fact that individuals from Arica are exposed to several times more UVery than the MED for their skin type during the spring and summer seasons. PMID:24396474

RIVAS, MIGUEL; ROJAS, ELISA; CALAF, GLORIA M.

2014-01-01

470

Drinking water arsenic in northern Chile: high cancer risks 40 years after exposure cessation  

PubMed Central

Background Millions of people worldwide are exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. In the largest city in northern Chile (Antofagasta) >250,000 people were exposed to high arsenic drinking water concentrations from 1958 until 1970 when a water treatment plant was installed. Because of its unique geology, limited water sources, and good historical records, lifetime exposure and long-term latency patterns can be assessed in this area with better accuracy than in other arsenic-exposed areas worldwide. Methods We performed a population-based case-control study in northern Chile from October 2007 to December 2010 involving 232 lung and 306 bladder cancer cases and 640 age- and gender-matched controls, with detailed information on past exposure and potential confounders, including smoking and occupation. Results Bladder cancer odds ratios for quartiles of average arsenic concentrations in water before 1971 (<11, 1190, 91335, and >335 g/L) were 1.00, 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 2.37), 3.87 (2.25 to 6.64), and 6.50 (3.69 to 11.43), respectively. Corresponding lung cancer odds ratios were 1.00, 1.27 (0.81 to 1.98), 2.00 (1.24 to 3.24), and 4.32 (2.60 to 7.17). Bladder and lung cancer odds ratios in those highly exposed in Antofagasta during 195870 but not thereafter were 6.88 (3.84 to 12.32) and 4.35 (2.57 to 7.36), respectively. Conclusions The lung and bladder cancer risks that we found up to 40 years after high exposures have ended are very high. Impact Our findings suggest that prevention, treatment, and other mortality reduction efforts in arsenic-exposed countries will be needed for decades after exposure cessation. PMID:23355602

Steinmaus, Craig M.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Romo, Johanna Acevedo; Yuan, Yan; Cortes, Sandra; Marshall, Guillermo; Moore, Lee E.; Balmes, John R.; Liaw, Jane; Golden, Todd; Smith, Allan H.

2013-01-01

471