Science.gov

Sample records for chilean crops corn

  1. Alfalfa: A Companion Crop with Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. Corn is an attractive biofuel crop because it is easy to manage, process, and ship; is high yielding; and has significant industry support and research. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soyb...

  2. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  3. Soil carbon levels in irrigated Western Corn Belt cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An irrigated monoculture corn, monoculture soybean, and soybean-corn cropping systems study was initiated in 1991 on a uniform site in the Platte Valley near Shelton, Nebraska. The objective was to determine the long-term effects of these cropping systems on soil organic carbon levels. Four corn hyb...

  4. Alfalfa: a companion crop with corn for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soybean or as a continuous corn crop for ethanol, including high energy inputs, high soil erosion potential, and high nutrient inputs and loss to the environme...

  5. Impact of corn residue quantity on yield of following crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that crop growth can be suppressed in fields where high quantities of corn residue are present on the soil surface. To examine this perceived trend, we grew dry pea, spring wheat, and red clover in two levels of corn residues, achieved by growing corn at 21,000 and 30,000 plants/ac...

  6. Winter cover crops impact on corn production in semiarid regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the impact of winter brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...

  7. Rye Cover Crops in a Corn Silage-Soybean Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn silage is often grown in the Upper Midwest to provide feed for cattle. Silage harvest, however, does not leave enough crop residue to adequately protect the soil from erosion and can reduce soil organic matter. Winter cover crops planted after silage harvest and after other crops in the croppin...

  8. Crop competitive ability contributes to herbicide performance in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop variety effect on herbicide performance is not well characterized, particularly for sweet corn, a crop that varies greatly among hybrids in competitive ability with weeds. Field studies were used to determine the effect of crop competitive ability on season-long herbicide performance in sweet c...

  9. 77 FR 27658 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Processing Sweet Corn Crop Insurance Provisions. The intended effect of this action is to provide policy changes that better meet the needs of insured producers. The proposed changes will be effective for the 2013 and succeeding crop...

  10. Impact of corn residue on yield of cool-season crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synergy between dry pea and corn can reduce the density of corn needed for optimum yield. Lower crop density may accrue an additional benefit, as after-harvest residues of corn lying on the soil surface can reduce yield of crops planted the next year. This study evaluated impact of corn residue lev...

  11. Corn Belt Assessment of Cover Crop Management and Preferences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveying end-users about their use of technologies and preferences provides information for researchers and educators to develop relevant research and educational programs. A mail survey was sent to Corn Belt farmers during 2006 to quantify cover crop management and preferences. Results indicated t...

  12. Rolled cover crop mulches for organic corn and soybean production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in cover crop mulches has increased out of both economic and soil conservation concerns. The number of tractor passes required to produce corn and a soybean organically is expensive and logistically challenging. Farmers currently use blind cultivators, such as a rotary hoe or flex-tine harr...

  13. Temporal spectral measurements of corn and soybean crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, C. J.; Elgin, J. H., Jr.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1979-01-01

    A ground-based, hand-held radiometer, configured to measure red and photographic infrared spectral radiances, was successfully used to collect in situ temporal spectral measurements of corn and soybean crops. Significant relationships were found between the radiance data and the biomass, plant height, percentage crop cover, percentage crop chlorosis, and percentage leaf loss. The results of this experiment show conclusively that hand-held radiometers can be used to collect spectral data that are highly correlated to several agronomic variables. These findings suggest approaches for agronomic research, and confirm the value of remote sensing of agricultural targets.

  14. Impact of Corn Residue Removal on Crop and Soil Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. M.; Wilhelm, W. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Voorhees, W. B.; Linden, D.

    2003-12-01

    Over-reliance on imported fuels, increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouses and sustaining food production for a growing population are three of the most important problems facing society in the mid-term. The US Department of Energy and private enterprise are developing technology necessary to use high cellulose feedstock, such as crop residues, for ethanol production. Based on production levels, corn (Zea mays L.) residue has potential as a biofuel feedstock. Crop residues are a renewable and domestic fuel source, which can reduce the rate of fossil fuel use (both imported and domestic) and provide an additional farm commodity. Crop residues protect the soil from wind and water erosion, provide inputs to form soil organic matter (a critical component determining soil quality) and play a role in nutrient cycling. Crop residues impact radiation balance and energy fluxes and reduce evaporation. Therefore, the benefits of using crop residues as fuel, which removes crop residues from the field, must be balanced against negative environmental impacts (e.g. soil erosion), maintaining soil organic matter levels, and preserving or enhancing productivity. All ramifications of new management practices and crop uses must be explored and evaluated fully before an industry is established. There are limited numbers of long-term studies with soil and crop responses to residue removal that range from negative to negligible. The range of crop and soil responses to crop residue removal was attributed to interactions with climate, management and soil type. Within limits, corn residue can be harvested for ethanol production to provide a renewable, domestic source of energy feedstock that reduces greenhouse gases. Removal rates must vary based on regional yield, climatic conditions and cultural practices. Agronomists are challenged to develop a protocol (tool) for recommending maximum permissible removal rates that ensure sustained soil productivity.

  15. Normal crop calendars. Volume 3: The corn and soybean states of Illinois, Indiana, and Iowa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. L., III (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The state and crop reporting district crop calendars for Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana are presented. Crop calendars for corn, soybeans, sorghum, oats, wheat, barley, clover, flax, sugar beets, and tobacco are included.

  16. Comparing production practices and costs for continuous corn and corn-soybean cropping systems: A National Survey of 2005 corn-for-grain producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forecasts for increased corn acreage will likely lead to an increase in continuous corn cropping systems which may require producers to adjust their production practices compared to the more widely practiced corn-soybean rotation system. Using 2005 field-level data from a probability-based national...

  17. Cover Crop Biomass and Corn Yield Following 13 Rye, Wheat, and Triticale Cultivars Used as Winter Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops have the potential to reduce nitrate leaching and erosion in corn-soybean rotations in the upper Midwest. The cover crop growing season between harvest and planting of corn and soybean, however, is short and cold. Additionally, previous studies in Iowa have indicated that winter r...

  18. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    The ultimate economic feasibility of biomass depends on its cost of production and on the cost of competing fuels. The purpose of this research project is to evaluate the production costs of several combinations of species and management systems for producing herbaceous biomass for energy use in Iowa. Herbaceous biomass production systems have costs similar to other crop production systems, such as corn, soybean, and forages. Thus, the factors influencing the costs of producing dedicated biomass energy crops include technological factors such as the cultivation system, species, treatments, soil type, and site and economic factors such as input prices and use of fixed resources. In order to investigate how these production alternatives are influenced by soil resources, and climate conditions, two locations in Iowa, Ames and Chariton, with different soil types and slightly different weather patterns were selected for both the agronomic and economic analyses. Nine crops in thirteen cropping systems were grown at the two sites for five years, from 1988 to 1992. Some of the systems had multiple cropping or interplanting, using combinations of cool-season species and warm-season species, in order to meet multiple objectives of maximum biomass, minimal soil loss, reduced nitrogen fertilization or diminished pesticide inputs. Six of the systems use continuous monocropping of herbaceous crops with an emphasis on production. The seven other systems consist of similar crops, but with crop rotation and soil conservation considerations. While the erosion and other off-site effects of these systems is an important consideration in their overall evaluation, this report will concentrate on direct production costs only.

  19. Few crop traits accurately predict variables important to productivity of processing sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recovery, case production, and gross profit margin, hereafter called ‘processor variables’, are as important metrics to processing sweet corn as grain yield is to field corn production. However, crop traits such as ear number or ear mass alone are reported in sweet corn production research rather t...

  20. An analysis of spectral discrimination between corn and soybeans using a row crop reflectance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Reflectance calculations of soybeans and corn crops at two times during the growing season indicate that the high sensitivity of the thematic mapper mid-infrared band to exposed bare soil between soybean rows is most likely responsible for early season spectral discrimination of corn and soybean crops by this band.

  1. Correlation Between Precipitation and Crop Yield for Corn and Cotton Produced in Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Carol E.; Perkey, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, variations in precipitation during the time of corn silking are compared to Alabama corn yields. Also, this study compares precipitation variations during bloom to Alabama cotton yield. The goal is to obtain mathematical correlations between rainfall during the crop's critical period and the crop amount harvested per acre.

  2. An analysis of spectral discrimination between corn and soybeans using a row crop reflectance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Reflectance calculations of soybeans and corn crops at two times during the growing season indicate that the high sensitivity of the thematic mapper mid-infrared band to exposed bare soil between soybean rows is most likely responsible for early season spectral discrimination of corn and soybean crops by this band.

  3. Long-term response of corn to limited irrigation and crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dwindling water supplies for irrigation are prompting alternative management choices by irrigators. Limited irrigation, where less water is applied than full crop demand, may be a viable approach. Application of limited irrigation to corn was examined in this research. Corn was grown in crop rotatio...

  4. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in West Central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to numerous alternatives in crop sequence and changes in crop yield and price, finding the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.)-based crop rotations for...

  5. Biomass production of 12 winter cereal cover crop cultivars and their effect on subsequent no-till corn yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can improve the sustainability and resilience of corn and soybean production systems. However, there have been isolated reports of corn yield reductions following winter rye cover crops. Although there are many possible causes of corn yield reductions following winter cereal cover crops,...

  6. Ozone impacts on the productivity of selected crops. [Corn, wheat, soybean and peanut crops

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, W.W.; Cure, W.W.; Shriner, D.S.; Olson, R.J.; Heagle, A.S.

    1982-01-01

    The regional impacts of ozone on corn, wheat, soybean, and peanut crops are estimated by using dose-response functions to relate ambient maximum 7 h/d seasonal ozone concentrations to crop productivity data. Linear dose-response functions were developed from open-top field chamber studies. It was assumed that the limited number of cultivars and growing conditions available for the analysis were representative of major agricultural regions. Hourly ozone data were selected to represent rural concentrations and used to calculate maximum 7-h/d average values. Seasonal ozone averages for counties were extrapolated from approximately 300 monitoring sites. Results must be interpreted with knowledge of these assumptions and sources of uncertainty. Impacts are calculated for county units for the conterminous United States with maps showing patterns and tables summarizing the potential magnitude of ozone effects on selected crop yields. The assessment estimates that approximately three billion dollars of productivity could be gained if current maximum 7 hour per day ozone levels were reduced from present levels to below 25 parts per billion. Dollar values are based on 1978 crop prices, without accounting for price effects, to provide an overall estimate of the impact. Of the estimated economic impact, soybean represents 64%, corn 17%, wheat 12%, and peanuts 7%.

  7. Economic Considerations for the Adoption of Transgenic Crops: The Case of Bt Corn

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Marshall A.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Biotechnology is offering farmers new crop production opportunities and challenges. Prior to selecting a transgenic variety, farmers must consider the cost of the technology fee, possible yield drag, potential pest infestations, possible reductions in pesticide costs, refuge requirements to minimize the development of insect resistance, and adjustments in cultural practices. Moreover, crop segregation in the field, storage, and shipment may be necessary to capture potential price premiums for nontransgenic varieties. As farmers consider these various production and marketing factors, they find that Bt corn is a more profitable control method for European corn borer in the Western Corn Belt relative to the Eastern Corn Belt. This is primarily due to higher infestation probabilities in the Western Corn Belt, coupled with greater demand for manufacturing and export uses in the Eastern Corn Belt where several buyers do not accept transgenic corn. PMID:19265877

  8. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time. PMID:26024252

  9. Winter rye cover crops as a host for corn seedling pathogens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil protection, soil health and water quality. However, emerging implementations of cover cropping, such as winter cereals preceding corn, may dampen beneficial rotation effects by putting similar crop species i...

  10. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457.129 Section 457.129 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.129 Fresh...

  11. Limited irrigation of corn-based no-till crop rotations in west central Great Plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying the most profitable crop rotation for an area is a continuous research challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate 2, 3, and 4 yr. limited irrigation corn (Zea mays L.) based crop rotations for grain yield, available soil water, crop water productivity, and profitability in co...

  12. Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. Known benefits of winter cover crops include reductions in nutrient leaching, erosion mitigation, and weed suppression, however little research has investigated the effects of winter cover crops on soil properties. ...

  13. The potential for cereal rye cover crops to host corn seedling pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil health and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects by growing two grass species in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathog...

  14. Winter rye cover crop management influences on soil water, soil nitrate, and corn development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop can be seeded after corn (Zea mays L.) silage to mitigate some of the environmental concerns associated with this cropping system. Rye can be managed as a cover crop by chemical termination or harvested as for forage. A field study was conducted in Morris,...

  15. The Potential for Cereal Rye Cover Crops to Host Corn Seedling Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Matthew G; Acharya, Jyotsna; Moorman, Thomas B; Robertson, Alison E; Kaspar, Thomas C

    2016-06-01

    Cover cropping is a prevalent conservation practice that offers substantial benefits to soil and water quality. However, winter cereal cover crops preceding corn may diminish beneficial rotation effects because two grass species are grown in succession. Here, we show that rye cover crops host pathogens capable of causing corn seedling disease. We isolated Fusarium graminearum, F. oxysporum, Pythium sylvaticum, and P. torulosum from roots of rye and demonstrate their pathogenicity on corn seedlings. Over 2 years, we quantified the densities of these organisms in rye roots from several field experiments and at various intervals of time after rye cover crops were terminated. Pathogen load in rye roots differed among fields and among years for particular fields. Each of the four pathogen species increased in density over time on roots of herbicide-terminated rye in at least one field site, suggesting the broad potential for rye cover crops to elevate corn seedling pathogen densities. The radicles of corn seedlings planted following a rye cover crop had higher pathogen densities compared with seedlings following a winter fallow. Management practices that limit seedling disease may be required to allow corn yields to respond positively to improvements in soil quality brought about by cover cropping. PMID:26926485

  16. Long-term rotation history and previous crop effects on corn seedling health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diverse rotations provide benefits to agroecosystems through changes in the soil environment. A long term experiment was established to study four different four-year rotation sequences in which the crop phase prior to corn was sampled. Soils from rotations ending with soybean, sunflower, corn and p...

  17. THE ECONOMICS OF COVER CROP BIOMASS FOR CORN AND COTTON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inclusion of cover crops into cropping systems brings both direct and indirect costs and benefits to the farm. A myriad of studies have examined the economic benefits of cover crops in multiple cropping systems by comparing them to systems without cover crops. To date, economic research pertaini...

  18. Crop advisor perceptions of giant ragweed distribution, herbicide-resistance, and management in the Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Giant ragweed has been increasing as a major weed of row crops in North America. We conducted a web-based survey of Certified Crop Advisors in the Corn Belt to determine the current distribution of giant ragweed, the distribution of herbicide resistant populations, and management and ecological fact...

  19. Self-seeding small grain cover crops in a soybean-corn rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops provide environmental benefits, yet adoption in agronomic farming systems is low. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn (Zea m...

  20. Self-Seeded Cereal Cover Crop Effects on Interspecific Competition with Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perpetuating cereal cover crops through self-seeding may increase adoption by reducing risk and cost. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn...

  1. Double-cropping camelina and soybean in the northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growing camelina as a winter annual crop provides potential economic and environmental benefits that may make producing this relatively new industrial oilseed crop attractive to farmers. Previous research showed that winter camelina in the northern Corn Belt can be harvested early enough to allow pr...

  2. Soil response to corn residue removal and cover crops in Eastern South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Removal of crop residue has been shown to degrade soil organic carbon (SOC), and hence soil quality. The present study was conducted to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality parameters. The experimental site was located in Brookings County, ...

  3. Rye cover crop effects on soil properties in no-till corn silage/soybean agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the U.S. Corn Belt are showing increasing interest in winter cover crops. The known benefits of winter cover crops include reduced nitrate leaching, soil erosion, and weed germination, but evidence of improvements in soil productivity would provide further incentive for famers to implemen...

  4. Dynamic precision phenotyping reveals mechanism of crop tolerance to herbivory by the western corn rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Over the years, this pest has repeatedly shown its resilience and adaptability not only to traditional crop management strategies including chemical pesticides and crop rotation, but also to de...

  5. Yield, Grade, and Revenue of Double Cropped Green Bean and Sweet Corn with Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double cropping green bean, (Phaseolus vulgaris L.; GB) and sweet corn (Zea mays L.; SC) with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.; CT) can increase the economic return but can also be at risk of crop failure due to inclement weather patterns. The objectives were to: 1) quantify the yield of GB and SC doub...

  6. Can Crop Models Simulate the ENSO Impacts on Regional Corn Yield in U.s. Corn Belt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D. S.; Liu, X.; Andresen, J.; Jain, A. K.; Kumar, A.; Kellner, O.; Elias, A.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we seek to answer two questions: 1. Whether climate variability/ ENSO events impact the corn yield in U.S. Corn Belt?; and 2.Can crop models capture these impacts?. First, we evaluated the relationships between ENSO events and regional corn yield in the U.S Corn Belt, by taking data from 18 representative crop reporting districts for a 30 year period (1981-2010). These data were compiled as part of a large multiscale NIFA project titled U2U that aims at making Climate Information Useful to Usable. We clustered the data for different ENSO phases and performed statistical analysis to understand the impacts on corn yield. The detrended observed data indicate that El Niño events have positive impact on corn yields while La Niña events have slightly negative impact. These results are statistically significant at 0.05 level. To investigate whether crop models can capture the impacts of El Niño / La Niña; we compared the yields from three different crop models of varying complexity (Hybrid Maize; DSSAT; and ISAM) with default/ common agronomic and onsite meteorological input. Simulated yields show similar pattern as seen in the observed data: higher yield for El Niño years, and lower yields for the La Niña years. However, we also found MAE (Mean absolute error) of simulations in El Niño years are higher than for the La Niña years and Neutral years. To understand whether the performance can be enhanced by providing regional climatology, hydroclimatological, or agronomic information - we conducted additional experiments with the Hybrid Maize models involving- (i) use of onsite versus regional reanalysis data - the hypothesis being that even if the onsite data may have limited ENSO signature; the reanalysis data will have a much stronger ENSO feedback embedded within; (ii) use of actual planting date versus the default value used in the crop models - to understand if the year to year agronomic practice might influence or improve the response to capture

  7. Resistance Management Monitoring For the US Corn Crop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant increases in genetically modified corn planting are expected for future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with mandated non-genetically modified refuge is likely to in...

  8. Corn Stover for Bioethanol: Your New Cash Crop?

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    Biomass ethanol technology is still developing and important questions need to be answered about corn stover removal, but prospects are excellent for you to someday be able to harvest and sell a substantial portion of your stover for fuel production—without hurting your soil or main corn grain operation.

  9. Corn Stover for Bioethanol -- Your New Cash Crop?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.

    2001-05-16

    Biomass ethanol technology is still developing and important questions need to be answered about corn stover removal, but prospects are excellent for you to someday be able to harvest and sell a substantial portion of your stover for fuel production--without hurting your soil or main corn grain operation.

  10. Crop seeding level: implications for weed management in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet corn is seeded under a wide range of population densities; however, the extent to which variable population density influences weed fitness is unknown. Therefore, field studies were undertaken to quantify the influence of sweet corn seeding level on growth, seed production, and post-harvest se...

  11. Evaluation of the Community Land Model (CLM-Crop) in the United States Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Griffis, T.

    2013-12-01

    An accurate representation of crop phenology in land surface models is crucial for predicting the carbon, water and energy budgets of managed ecosystems. Soybean and corn are cultivated in approximately 600,000 km2 in the Corn Belt- an area greater than the entire State of California. Accurate prediction of the radiation, energy, and carbon budgets of this region is especially important for understanding its influence on radiative forcing, the thermodynamic properties of the atmospheric boundary layer, and changes in climate. Recently, key algorithms describing crop biophysics and interactive crop management (planting, fertilization, irrigation, harvesting) have been implemented in the Community Land Model (CLM-Crop). CLM-Crop provides a framework for prognostic simulation of crop phenology and evaluation of human management decisions under future climate scenarios. However, there is an important need to evaluate CLM-Crop against a broad range of agricultural site observations in order to understand its limitations and to help optimize the crop biophysical parameterization. Here we evaluated CLM-Crop version 4.5 at 9 AmeriFlux corn/soybean sites that are located within the United States Corn Belt. The following questions were addressed: 1) How well does CLM perform for the 9 crop sites with different management techniques (e.g., tillage vs. no-till, rainfed vs. irrigated)? 2) What are the model's strengths and weaknesses of simulating crop phenology, energy fluxes and carbon fluxes? 3) What steps are needed in order to improve the reliability of the CLM-Crop simulations? Our preliminary results indicate that CLM-Crop can simulate the radiation, energy, and carbon fluxes with reasonable accuracy during the mid growing season. The model performance degrades substantially during the early and late growing seasons, which we attribute to a bias in crop phenology. For instance, we observed that the simulated corn and soybean phenology (LAI) has an earlier phase than the

  12. Ethanol production from starch-rich crops other than corn and the composition and value of the resulting DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because corn (maize, Zea mays) is the predominant feedstock for fuel ethanol in the US and in many other countries, most of the chapters in this book focus on ethanol production and DDGS composition from corn. However, corn is not the only starch-rich crop that has been used as a feedstock for fuel...

  13. Increased Risk of Insect Injury to Corn Following Rye Cover Crop.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mike W; O'Neal, Matthew E; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-08-01

    Decreased pest pressure is sometimes associated with more diverse agroecosystems, including the addition of a rye cover crop (Secale cereale L.). However, not all pests respond similarly to greater vegetational diversity. Polyphagous pests, such as true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta Haworth), black cutworm (Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel), and common stalk borer (Papaipema nebris Guenee), whose host range includes rye have the potential to cause injury to crops following a rye cover crop. The objectives of this study were to compare the abundance of early-season insect pests and injury to corn (Zea mays L.) from fields with and without a rye cover crop on commercial farms. Fields were sampled weekly to quantify adult and larval pests and feeding injury to corn plants from mid-April until corn reached V8 stage, during 2014 and 2015. Measurements within fields were collected along transects that extended perpendicularly from field edges into the interior of cornfields. Adult true armyworm and adult black cutworm were captured around all cornfields, but most lepidopteran larvae captured within cornfields were true armyworm and common stalk borer. Cornfields with a rye cover crop had significantly greater abundance of true armyworm and greater proportion of injured corn. Both true armyworm abundance and feeding injury were significantly greater in the interior of cornfields with rye. Common stalk borer abundance did not differ between cornfields with or without rye cover. Farmers planting corn following a rye cover crop should be aware of the potential for increased presence of true armyworm and for greater injury to corn. PMID:27325884

  14. Are Cover Crops Being Used in the Corn Belt?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wealth of scientific information exists quantifying the benefits of cover crops, yet adoption of cover crops in agronomic farming systems is low. Research has documented the effectiveness of using cover crops to decrease soil erosion and decrease nitrogen losses to sub-surface drainage water. Othe...

  15. Small Grain Winter Cover Crops for Corn and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crops are plants that cover the soil between harvest and planting of summer annual grain crops. While doing this, cover crops perform important environmental functions that include reducing soil erosion, accumulating nutrients, and increasing soil carbon. This educational module provide...

  16. Are Cover Crops Being Used in the US Corn Belt?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefits of using cover crops are well established in the scientific literature, but adoption among end-users in agronomic farming systems is uncertain. Furthermore, limited regional information is available quantifying cover crop use in agronomic systems. Before cover crop use can increase, imp...

  17. Resistance Management Monitoring for the US Corn Crop to the Illinois Corn Growers Association

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant increases in genetically modified corn planting are expected for future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with mandated non-genetically modified refuge is likely to in...

  18. Rye-corn silage double-cropping reduces corn yield but improves environmental impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent proliferation of large dairies has prompted concern regarding the environmental impacts of associated corn silage production and high rate manure application. Our objectives were to compare forage production and environmental impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) silage and rye (Secale cereal L.)-cor...

  19. Nematode Numbers and Crop Yield in a Fenamiphos-Treated Sweet Corn-Sweet Potato-Vetch Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.; Chalfant, R. B.; Golden, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet corn and sweet potato as affected by the nematicide fenamiphos, in a sweet corn-sweet potato-vetch cropping system, were determined in a 5-year test (1981-85). Sweet potato was the best host of Meloidogyne incognita of these three crops. Fenamiphos 15G (6.7 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15 cm of the soil layer before planting of each crop increased (P ≤ 0.05) yields of sweet corn in 1981 and 1982 and sweet potato number 1 grade in 1982 and 1983. Yield of sweet corn and numbers of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) in the soil each month were negatively correlated from planting (r = - 0.47) to harvest (r = -0.61) in 1982. Yield of number 1 sweet potato was inversely related to numbers of J2 in the soil in July-October 1982 and July-September 1983. Yield of cracked storage roots was positively related to the numbers of J2 in the soil on one or more sampling dates in all years except 1985. Some factor(s), such as microbial degradation, resistant M. incognita development, or environment, reduced the effect of fenamiphos. PMID:19283032

  20. Nematode numbers and crop yield in a fenamiphos-treated sweet corn-sweet potato-vetch cropping system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Dowler, C C; Glaze, N C; Chalfant, R B; Golden, A M

    1992-12-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet corn and sweet potato as affected by the nematicide fenamiphos, in a sweet corn-sweet potato-vetch cropping system, were determined in a 5-year test (1981-85). Sweet potato was the best host of Meloidogyne incognita of these three crops. Fenamiphos 15G (6.7 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15 cm of the soil layer before planting of each crop increased (P corn in 1981 and 1982 and sweet potato number 1 grade in 1982 and 1983. Yield of sweet corn and numbers of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) in the soil each month were negatively correlated from planting (r = - 0.47) to harvest (r = -0.61) in 1982. Yield of number 1 sweet potato was inversely related to numbers of J2 in the soil in July-October 1982 and July-September 1983. Yield of cracked storage roots was positively related to the numbers of J2 in the soil on one or more sampling dates in all years except 1985. Some factor(s), such as microbial degradation, resistant M. incognita development, or environment, reduced the effect of fenamiphos. PMID:19283032

  1. Crop models capture the impacts of climate variability on corn yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, Dev; Liu, Xing; Andresen, Jeff; Song, Yang; Jain, Atul K.; Kellner, Olivia; Takle, Eugene S.; Doering, Otto C.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the ability of three different crop models of varying complexity for capturing El Niño-Southern Oscillation-based climate variability impacts on the U.S. Corn Belt (1981-2010). Results indicate that crop models, irrespective of their complexity, are able to capture the impacts of climate variability on yield. Multiple-model ensemble analysis provides best results. There was no significant difference between using on-site and gridded meteorological data sets to drive the models. These results highlight the ability of using simpler crop models and gridded regional data sets for crop-climate assessments.

  2. NASA crop calendars: Wheat, barley, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, M. R.; Anderson, E. N.

    1975-01-01

    Crop calenders used to determine when Earth Resources Technology Satellite ERTS data would provide the most accurate wheat acreage information and to minimize the amount of ground verified information needed are presented. Since barley, oats, and rye are considered 'confusion crops, i.e., hard to differentiate from wheat in ERTS imagery, specific dates are estimated for these crops in the following stages of development: (1) seed-bed operation, (2) planting or seeding, (3) intermediate growth, (4) dormancy, (5) development of crop to full ground cover, (6) heading or tasseling, and flowering, (7) harvesting, and (8) posting-harvest operations. Dormancy dates are included for fall-snow crops. A synopsis is given of each states' growing conditions, special cropping practices, and other characteristics which are helpful in identifying crops from ERTS imagery.

  3. Effect of plant density and mixing ratio on crop yield in sweet corn/mungbean intercropping.

    PubMed

    Sarlak, S; Aghaalikhani, M; Zand, B

    2008-09-01

    In order to evaluate the ear and forage yield of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var. Saccarata) in pure stand and intercropped with mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), a field experiment was conducted at Varamin region on summer 2006. Experiment was carried out in a split plot design based on randomized complete blocks with 4 replications. Plant density with 3 levels [Low (D1), Mean (D2) and High (D3) respecting 6, 8 and 10 m(-2) for sweet corn, cultivar S.C.403 and 10, 20 and 30 m(-2) for mung bean cultivar, Partow] was arranged in main plots and 5 mixing ratios [(P1) = 0/100, (P2) = 25/75, (P3) = 50/50, (P4) = 75/25, (P5) = 100/0% for sweet corn/mung bean, respectively] were arranged in subplots. Quantitative attributes such as plant height, sucker numbers, LER, dry matter distribution in different plant organs were measured in sweet corn economical maturity. Furthermore the yield of cannable ear corn and yield components of sweet corn and mung bean were investigated. Results showed that plant density has not any significant effect on evaluated traits, while the effect of mixing ratio was significant (p < 0.01). Therefore, the mixing ratio of 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) could be introduced as the superior mixing ratio; because of it's maximum rate of total sweet corn's biomass, forage yield, yield and yield components of ear corn in intercropping. Regarding to profitability indices of intercropping, the mixing ratio 75/25 (sweet corn/mung bean) in low density (D1P2) which showed the LER = 1.03 and 1.09 for total crop yield before ear harvesting and total forage yield after ear harvest respectively, was better than corn or mung bean monoculture. PMID:19266927

  4. Camelina: A Potential Winter Crop for the Northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) may offer a low-input oilseed alternative for biodiesel and other vegetable oil applications. Little is known about its agronomic potential or the winter survivability of winter cultivars in the northern Corn Belt. A study was initiated in west central Minnesota to eval...

  5. Nitrogen oartitioning and utilization in corn cropping systems: Rotation, N source, and N timing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen partitioning and utilization can partly control plant productivity. This study was conducted to estimate dry matter (DM) and N partitioning parameters in corn (Zea mays L.) as affected by N source, N timing, and crop rotation. We quantified yield by combine, aboveground DM accumulation [res...

  6. Biochemical suitability of crop residues for cellulosic ethanol: disincentives to nitrogen fertilization in corn agriculture.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Morgan E; Hockaday, William C; Masiello, Caroline A; Snapp, Sieglinde; McSwiney, Claire P; Baldock, Jeffrey A

    2011-03-01

    Concerns about energy security and climate change have increased biofuel demand, particularly ethanol produced from cellulosic feedstocks (e.g., food crop residues). A central challenge to cropping for cellulosic ethanol is the potential environmental damage from increased fertilizer use. Previous analyses have assumed that cropping for carbohydrate in residue will require the same amount of fertilizer as cropping for grain. Using (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that increases in biomass in response to fertilization are not uniform across biochemical classes (carbohydrate, protein, lipid, lignin) or tissues (leaf and stem, grain, reproductive support). Although corn grain responds vigorously and nonlinearly, corn residue shows only modest increases in carbohydrate yields in response to high levels of fertilization (25% increase with 202 kg N ha(-1)). Lignin yields in the residue increased almost twice as much as carbohydrate yields in response to nitrogen, implying that residue feedstock quality declines as more fertilizer is applied. Fertilization also increases the decomposability of corn residue, implying that soil carbon sequestration becomes less efficient with increased fertilizer. Our results suggest that even when corn is grown for grain, benefits of fertilization decline rapidly after the ecosystem's N demands are met. Heavy application of fertilizer yields minimal grain benefits and almost no benefits in residue carbohydrates, while degrading the cellulosic ethanol feedstock quality and soil carbon sequestration capacity. PMID:21348531

  7. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457.154 Section 457.154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  8. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457.154 Section 457.154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  9. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457.154 Section 457.154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  10. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457.154 Section 457.154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  11. 7 CFR 457.154 - Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... coverage, as specified in 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing sweet corn crop insurance provisions. 457.154 Section 457.154 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL...

  12. Effect of Corn-Cotton Rotations on Reniform Nematode Populations and Crop Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays) as a rotation crop with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) was evaluated in a field study conducted from 2000 through 2003 at Stoneville, MS to determine its impact on reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) populations. The experimental design used was a randomized block split-plot wi...

  13. Crop rotation affects corn, grain sorghum, and soybean yields and nitrogen recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cropping system and fertilizer N studies are essential towards understanding production potential and yield stability of corn (Zea mays L.), grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in rain-fed environments. A no-till experiment (2007-13) was conduc...

  14. Organic supplemental nitrogen sources for field corn production following a hairy vetch cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The combined use of legume cover crops and animal byproduct organic amendments could provide agronomic and environmental benefits to organic farmers by increasing corn grain yield while optimizing N and P inputs. To test this hypothesis we conducted a two-year field study and a laboratory soil incu...

  15. Thlaspi arvense (Pennycress): An off-season energy crop within the corn-soybean rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pennycress is being developed as an off-season rotation crop between annual corn and soybean production. This rotation scheme may offer distinct advantages to farmers by providing additional farm income from an otherwise fallow season with little impact on the subsequent soybean production. The seed...

  16. Multi-location corn stover harvest effects on crop yields and nutrient removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays, L.) stover was identified as an important feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production because of the extensive area upon which the crop is already grown. Our objective is to summarize more than 200 site-years of field research conducted across the U.S.A. to determine quantities and...

  17. Using cover crops and animal manure to maintain or improve soil properties after corn stover removal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of no-till cover crops and application of animal manure following corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal may be potential management strategies to ameliorate any negative effects that stover removal may have on soil properties and processes. We evaluated the effects of winter rye (Secale ce...

  18. Outcrossing potential between 11 important genetically modified crops and the Chilean vascular flora.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Miguel A; Cid, Pablo; Navarrete, Humberto; Aguirre, Carlos; Chacón, Gustavo; Salazar, Erika; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-02-01

    The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on biodiversity is one of the main concerns in an environmental risk assessment (ERA). The likelihood of outcrossing and pollen-mediated gene flow from GM crops and non-GM crops are explained by the same principles and depend primarily on the biology of the species. We conducted a national-scale study of the likelihood of outcrossing between 11 GM crops and vascular plants in Chile by use of a systematized database that included cultivated, introduced and native plant species in Chile. The database included geographical distributions and key biological and agronomical characteristics for 3505 introduced, 4993 native and 257 cultivated (of which 11 were native and 246 were introduced) plant species. Out of the considered GM crops (cotton, soya bean, maize, grape, wheat, rice, sugar beet, alfalfa, canola, tomato and potato), only potato and tomato presented native relatives (66 species total). Introduced relative species showed that three GM groups were formed having: a) up to one introduced relative (cotton and soya bean), b) up to two (rice, grape, maize and wheat) and c) from two to seven (sugar beet, alfalfa, canola, tomato and potato). In particular, GM crops presenting introduced noncultivated relative species were canola (1 relative species), alfalfa (up to 4), rice (1), tomato (up to 2) and potato (up to 2). The outcrossing potential between species [OP; scaled from 'very low' (1) to 'very high' (5)] was developed, showing medium OPs (3) for GM-native relative interactions when they occurred, low (2) for GMs and introduced noncultivated and high (4) for the grape-Vitis vinifera GM-introduced cultivated interaction. This analytical tool might be useful for future ERA for unconfined GM crop release in Chile. PMID:26052925

  19. Effect of tillage and crop residue management on nematode densities on corn.

    PubMed

    McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    1994-12-01

    Effects of winter cover crop management on nematode densities associated with a subsequent corn (Zea mays) crop were examined in five sites in north Florida. Two sites had received winter cover crops of lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), and one site each had rye (Secale cereale), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). In each site, five different management regimes were compared: 1) conventional tillage after the cover crop was removed for forage; 2) conventional tillage with the cover crop retained as green manure; 3) no-till with the cover crop mowed and used as a mulch; 4) no-till with the cover crop removed as forage; and 5) fallow. Sites were sampled at corn planting and harvest for estimates of initial (Pi) and final (Pf) nematode population densities, respectively. Whether the cover crop was removed as forage or retained as green manure or mulch had no effect (P > 0.10) on population densities of any plant-parasitic nematode before or after corn at any site. Differences between conventional-till and no-till treatments were significant (P crop residues had little consistent effect on nematodes, and these practices should be considered based on agronomic benefits rather than for nematode management. PMID:19279946

  20. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  1. Multispectral determination of vegetative cover in corn crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between different amounts of vegetative ground cover and the energy reflected by corn canopies was investigated. Low altitude photography and an airborne multispectral scanner were used to measure this reflected energy. Field plots were laid out, representing four growth stages of corn. Two plot locations were chosen-on a very dark and a very light surface soil. Color and color infrared photographs were taken from a vertical distance of 10 m. Estimates of ground cover were made from these photographs and were related to field measurements of leaf area index. Ground cover could be predicted from leaf area index measurements by a second order equation. Microdensitometry and digitzation of the three separated dye layers of color infrared film showed that the near infrared dye layer is most valuable in ground cover determinations. Computer analysis of the digitized photography provided an accurate method of determining precent ground cover.

  2. Identifying representative crop rotation patterns and grassland loss in the US Western Corn Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sahajpal, Ritvik; Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Gelfand, Ilya; Hurtt, George C.

    2014-10-01

    Crop rotations (the practice of growing crops on the same land in sequential seasons) reside at the core of agronomic management as they can influence key ecosystem services such as crop yields, carbon and nutrient cycling, soil erosion, water quality, pest and disease control. Despite the availability of the Cropland Data Layer (CDL) which provides remotely sensed data on crop type in the US on an annual basis, crop rotation patterns remain poorly mapped due to the lack of tools that allow for consistent and efficient analysis of multi-year CDLs. This study presents the Representative Crop Rotations Using Edit Distance (RECRUIT) algorithm, implemented as a Python software package, to select representative crop rotations by combining and analyzing multi-year CDLs. Using CDLs from 2010 to 2012 for 5 states in the US Midwest, we demonstrate the performance and parameter sensitivity of RECRUIT in selecting representative crop rotations that preserve crop area and capture land-use changes. Selecting only 82 representative crop rotations accounted for over 90% of the spatio-temporal variability of the more than 13,000 rotations obtained from combining the multi-year CDLs. Furthermore, the accuracy of the crop rotation product compared favorably with total state-wide planted crop area available from agricultural census data. The RECRUIT derived crop rotation product was used to detect land-use conversion from grassland to crop cultivation in a wetland dominated part of the US Midwest. Monoculture corn and monoculture soybean cropping were found to comprise the dominant land-use on the newly cultivated lands.

  3. Runoff losses from corn silage-manure cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transport of P, N, and sediment via runoff from crop fields, especially where manure has been applied, can contribute to eutrophication and degradation of surface waters. We established a paired-watershed field site in central Wisconsin to evaluate surface runoff losses of nutrients and sediment fro...

  4. Yields of Corn Silage Fertilized with Manure and Grown with Legume or Non-legume Companion Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to reducing nitrate and soil losses, cover crops and living mulches could enhance corn silage yields. In a four-year study in southern Wisconsin, no-till corn was grown with herbicide-suppressed Kura-clover or with June-interseeded red clover followed by one year of clover production. Th...

  5. Crop productivity and soil resilience observed on short-term corn stover or cob harvest on several northern soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly productive soils are found throughout the US Corn Belt, in part due to their inherently high soil organic matter. Their productivity contributes to the high corn grain and stover yields; hence, this crop residue is predicted to be a significant bioenergy feedstock within this region. The obje...

  6. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  7. Comparison of the Carbon Budget, Evapotranspiration, and Albedo Effect between the Biofuel Crops Switchgrass and Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelmann, E.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Warland, J. S.; Deen, B.; Voroney, P.

    2015-12-01

    Switching from annual cropping systems to perennial crops like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) for biofuel feedstock production will have implications on carbon and water cycling as well as biophysical parameters, such as surface albedo.We conducted eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide and water fluxes over a mature (>5 years) switchgrass field over three years (2012 to 2014) and a continuous corn field during the year 2014. Both fields were located in Southern Ontario, Canada. Results for carbon and water cycling were compared between the two crops for the year 2014. Differences in surface albedo between the two biofuel cropping systems were compared for the years 2012, 2013, and 2014. In 2014 switchgrass was a carbon sink with a net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) of -66±59 g C m-2, while corn was a carbon source with an NECB of 328±30 g C m-2 for a scenario where corn grain only is harvested and 634±34 g C m-2 for a scenario where both grain and stover are harvested. Annual evapotranspiration in 2014 was higher for the corn field (608.7±12 mm) than for the switchgrass field (517.0±8 mm). Albedo measurements showed an average annual negative radiative forcing effect for the switchgrass field compared to corn. Differences in albedo were largest in spring and fall when radiative forcing values of -10.2 and -5.5 W m-2 were observed, respectively.Comparing carbon cycling results from previous years, the switchgrass field was a source of carbon in 2012 (NEBC 106±45 g C m-2), but a small sink of carbon in 2013 (NEBC -59±45) and 2014. On average over the three measurement years, the switchgrass field was carbon neutral.Qualitative analysis of the carbon budget, evapotranspiration, and albedo results from this study suggest that biofuel produced from switchgrass can have more climate benefits than biofuel from continuous corn. This study provides important data for improvement of Life Cycle Analysis of switchgrass biofuel.

  8. How efficiently do corn- and soybean-based cropping systems use water? A systems modeling analysis.

    PubMed

    Dietzel, Ranae; Liebman, Matt; Ewing, Robert; Helmers, Matt; Horton, Robert; Jarchow, Meghann; Archontoulis, Sotirios

    2016-02-01

    Agricultural systems are being challenged to decrease water use and increase production while climate becomes more variable and the world's population grows. Low water use efficiency is traditionally characterized by high water use relative to low grain production and usually occurs under dry conditions. However, when a cropping system fails to take advantage of available water during wet conditions, this is also an inefficiency and is often detrimental to the environment. Here, we provide a systems-level definition of water use efficiency (sWUE) that addresses both production and environmental quality goals through incorporating all major system water losses (evapotranspiration, drainage, and runoff). We extensively calibrated and tested the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) using 6 years of continuous crop and soil measurements in corn- and soybean-based cropping systems in central Iowa, USA. We then used the model to determine water use, loss, and grain production in each system and calculated sWUE in years that experienced drought, flood, or historically average precipitation. Systems water use efficiency was found to be greatest during years with average precipitation. Simulation analysis using 28 years of historical precipitation data, plus the same dataset with ± 15% variation in daily precipitation, showed that in this region, 430 mm of seasonal (planting to harvesting) rainfall resulted in the optimum sWUE for corn, and 317 mm for soybean. Above these precipitation levels, the corn and soybean yields did not increase further, but the water loss from the system via runoff and drainage increased substantially, leading to a high likelihood of soil, nutrient, and pesticide movement from the field to waterways. As the Midwestern United States is predicted to experience more frequent drought and flood, inefficiency of cropping systems water use will also increase. This work provides a framework to concurrently evaluate production and

  9. Automatic corn-soybean classification using Landsat MSS data. I - Near-harvest crop proportion estimation. II - Early season crop proportion estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The techniques used initially for the identification of cultivated crops from Landsat imagery depended greatly on the iterpretation of film products by a human analyst. This approach was not very effective and objective. Since 1978, new methods for crop identification are being developed. Badhwar et al. (1982) showed that multitemporal-multispectral data could be reduced to a simple feature space of alpha and beta and that these features would separate corn and soybean very well. However, there are disadvantages related to the use of alpha and beta parameters. The present investigation is concerned with a suitable method for extracting the required features. Attention is given to a profile model for crop discrimination, corn-soybean separation using profile parameters, and an automatic labeling (target recognition) method. The developed technique is extended to obtain a procedure which makes it possible to estimate the crop proportion of corn and soybean from Landsat data early in the growing season.

  10. Estimation of crop coefficients by means of optimized vegetation indices for corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Piqueras, Jose; Calera, Alfonso; Gilabert, Maria A.; Cuesta, Andres; De la Cruz Tercero, Fernando

    2004-02-01

    A linear relationship between NDVI and basal crop coefficient (Kcb) allows to compute the spectral crop coefficient (Krcb). Due to the influence of soil variations varying surface humidity on NDVI, five soil optimized indices have been used to obtain a linear relationship normalized for soil background effect (SAVI, OSAVI, TSAVI, MSAVI and GESAVI). Data used on this work have been obtained from a field campaign for corn in the area of Barrax, Spain), describing crop growth stages with green fraction cover (GFC), and leaf area index (LAI). SAVI with optimized factor L set to 0.5 is a good estimator of Krcb from sparse to dense vegetation, nevertheless the soil line based index ( GESAVI) due to a wider range of variation are more sensitive to leaf variations at high levels of vegetation amount. Spectral crop coefficients obtained from SAVI and soil line based GESAVI are sensitive to crop hazards by weather anomalies and estimates in real time the basal crop coefficients to estimate the amount of water removed by the crop from the active root zone.

  11. Active crop canopy sensor optimal spatial scale for in-season variable-rate nitrogen application in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active crop canopy reflectance sensors have shown to be an efficient method for assessing spatially-variable crop nitrogen (N) need and controlling remedial in-season N applications in wheat. Recently, these sensors have been studied for N application in corn. This study will be conducted during the...

  12. Establishment and Growth of Self-Seeded Winter Cereal Cover Crops in a Soybean-Corn Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perpetuating cereal cover crops through self-seeding may increase adoption by reducing risk and cost. Winter rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack) were used to develop self-seeding cover crop systems in a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]-corn...

  13. Fertilizer source and tillage effects on yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in a corn cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn production consumes approximately 50% of all nitrogen (N) fertilizers applied to agricultural crops in the U.S. and therefore represents a large potential source of emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) relative to other crops. Quantification of N2O emissions resulting from...

  14. Can cover crop and manure maintain or improve soil properties after stover removal from irrigated no-till corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of cover crops and animal manure following corn (Zea mays L.) stover removal for expanded uses may mitigate negative soil property effects of stover removal. We studied the short-term (3 yr) cumulative impacts of stover removal with and without winter rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop or a...

  15. Integration of remote sensing and crop growth modeling for nitrogen management decision support in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, Kelly Robert

    This dissertation describes efforts to move toward a completely integrated remote sensing and crop growth modeling tool for developing precision nitrogen management recommendations for corn. Aerial hyperspectral remote sensing imagery collected throughout the 2004 growing season was used to estimate corn plant stand density, and a machine vision system was used to map corn population on the ground. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the ability of all combinations of three reflectance bands to estimate corn plant population at resolutions of 2 m, 6 m, and 10 m. Coefficients of multiple determination of up to 0.82 were achieved in this endeavor. Although some limitations apply, remote sensing can be used as a tool to provide corn plant population inputs for crop growth simulations. A cross validation technique and bivariate confidence ellipses were used to evaluate CERES Maize simulations of spatial corn yield variability across an Iowa cornfield. Results indicated that the model performed most poorly when using the wettest or driest growing seasons to validate the model, because the model parameters fitted under the conditions of moderate growing seasons were less flexible for simulating yield in growing seasons with more extreme weather. Results also indicated that topography affects the model performance spatially. CERES-Maize was also used to simulate yield and unused nitrogen remaining in the soil at harvest for a sequence of historical weather data. Simulations were run for 13 spring-applied nitrogen rates over a cornfield divided into 100 0.2 ha grid cells. A methodology based on cumulative probability distributions was then developed to use model output for assessing the link between yield and nitrogen left behind for various nitrogen rates in each grid cell. This methodology can be used to develop precision nitrogen management strategies that address both the economic and environmental concerns of nitrogen management practices. Although

  16. Corn

    MedlinePlus

    ... composed of a dense core that presses on sensory nerves, causing extreme pain. Soft corns occur between ... a benign condition and may not require medical evaluation. However, if corns become very painful, evaluation should ...

  17. Application of Computer Axial Tomography (CAT) to measuring crop canopy geometry. [corn and soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.; Vanderbilt, V. C. (Principal Investigator); Kilgore, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using the principles of computer axial topography (CAT) to quantify the structure of crop canopies was investigated because six variables are needed to describe the position-orientation with time of a small piece of canopy foliage. Several cross sections were cut through the foliage of healthy, green corn and soybean canopies in the dent and full pod development stages, respectively. A photograph of each cross section representing the intersection of a plane with the foliage was enlarged and the air-foliage boundaries delineated by the plane were digitized. A computer program was written and used to reconstruct the cross section of the canopy. The approach used in applying optical computer axial tomography to measuring crop canopy geometry shows promise of being able to provide needed geometric information for input data to canopy reflectance models. The difficulty of using the CAT scanner to measure large canopies of crops like corn is discussed and a solution is proposed involving the measurement of plants one at a time.

  18. Crop identification studies using Landsat data Separation of barley from other spring small grains and corn and soybean decision logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. L.; Register, D. T.; Abotteen, K. M.; Palmer, W. F.; Spikes, G. D.; Magness, E. R.; Wade, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two labeling procedures were developed which identify various agricultural crops through the use of Landsat data. One procedure separates barley from other spring small grains, and the other identifies corn and soybeans. For both procedures, a minimum data set (critical acquisition time) has been designated. Landsat data in both image format and various graphic displays were used along with ancillary data to obtain information which aided in labeling the spectral signatures. The corn and soybean procedure also employed a structured decision logic. Test results for the barley separation procedure emphasized the importance of obtaining a critical acquisition and showed some success especially in areas where spring crops followed the expected growth patterns. Two tests of the corn and soybean procedure produced good labeling accuracies. Problems with the procedure were easy to identify, and some solutions were implemented for the second test. Automation of various parts of the procedure and extension to other crops and regions were recommended.

  19. Effects and Carry-Over Benefits of Nematicides in Soil Planted to a Sweet Corn-Squash-Vetch Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, A. W.; Leonard, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of irrigation on the efficacy of nematicides on Meloidogyne incognita race 1 population densities, yield of sweet corn, and the carry-over of nematicidal effect in the squash crop were determined in a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system for 3 years. Fenamiphos 15G and aldicarb 15G were applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha and incorporated 15 cm deep with a tractor-mounted rototiller. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) was injected at 18 kg a.i./ha on each side of the sweet corn rows (total 36 kg a.i./ha) at planting for nematode control. Supplemental sprinkler irrigation (1.52-4.45 cm), applied in addition to natural rainfall (4.60-10.80 cm) within l0 days after application of nematicides, did not affect nematicide efficacy against M. incognita or yield of sweet corn. Soil treatment with fenamiphos, EDB, and aldicarb increased the number and total weight of sweet corn ears and the weight per ear each year over untreated controls (P ≤ 0.05). All nematicides provided some control of M. incognita on squash planted after sweet corn, but yields were consistently greater and root-gall indices lower on squash following sweet corn treated with fenamiphos than other nematicides. PMID:19277323

  20. Effects and carry-over benefits of nematicides in soil planted to a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Leonard, R A

    1995-12-01

    The effects of irrigation on the efficacy of nematicides on Meloidogyne incognita race 1 population densities, yield of sweet corn, and the carry-over of nematicidal effect in the squash crop were determined in a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system for 3 years. Fenamiphos 15G and aldicarb 15G were applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha and incorporated 15 cm deep with a tractor-mounted rototiller. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) was injected at 18 kg a.i./ha on each side of the sweet corn rows (total 36 kg a.i./ha) at planting for nematode control. Supplemental sprinkler irrigation (1.52-4.45 cm), applied in addition to natural rainfall (4.60-10.80 cm) within l0 days after application of nematicides, did not affect nematicide efficacy against M. incognita or yield of sweet corn. Soil treatment with fenamiphos, EDB, and aldicarb increased the number and total weight of sweet corn ears and the weight per ear each year over untreated controls (P corn, but yields were consistently greater and root-gall indices lower on squash following sweet corn treated with fenamiphos than other nematicides. PMID:19277323

  1. Large-scale alcohol production from corn, grain sorghum, and crop residues

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, A.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The potential impacts that large-scale alcohol production from corn, grain sorghum, and crop residues may have on US agriculture in the year 2000 are investigated. A one-land-group interregional linear-programming model is used. The objective function is to minimize the cost of production in the agricultural sector, given specified crop demands and constrained resources. The impacts that levels of alcohol production, ranging from zero to 12 billion gallons, have at two projected levels of crop demands, two grain-to-alcohol conversion and two milling methods, wet and dry, rates are considered. The impacts that large-scale fuel alcohol production has on US agriculture are small. The major impacts that occur are the substitution of milling by-products, DDG, gluten feed, and gluten meal, for soybean meal in livestock feed rations. Production of 12 billion gallons of alcohol is estimated to be equivalent to an 18 percent increase in crop exports. Improving the grain-to-alcohol conversion rate from 2.6 to 3.0 gallons per bushels reduces the overall cost of agricultural production by $989 billion when 12 billion gallons of alcohol are produced.

  2. Hyperspectral Reflectance and Fluorescence Indices for Carbon Related Parameters in Corn Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, E. M.; Corp, L. A.; Campbell, P. E.; Daughtry, C. S.

    2006-05-01

    The relative success in monitoring physiological or stand properties related to carbon (C) assimilation using narrow band (hyperspectral) reflectance and fluorescence indices was evaluated at leaf and canopy levels for mature corn crops (Zea mays L.) in two years. The corn crops were arranged in plots, each receiving a controlled nitrogen (N) fertilization regime at one of four dosages in experiments conducted in 2004 and 2005 at the USDA facility in Beltsville, MD, USA. Leaf reflectance spectra were obtained in conjunction with leaf level photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF), and chemistry (chlorophyll and carotenoid content per leaf area; percent C and N by dry mass). Whole plant canopy spectra and leaf area index data were obtained the same week as leaf measurements, followed by determinations of yields and biomass at harvest. The spectra were acquired using a spectroradiometer (ASD-FR FieldSpec Pro, Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc., Boulder, CO, USA), either coupled with a hemisphere for leaf optical properties or to measure nadir radiances 1 m above plant canopies within a 22o field of view. In situ photosynthesis and ChlF parameters were determined simultaneously with a photosynthetic system (Li-Cor 6400, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA) fitted with a fluorimeter under controlled conditions (temperature, irradiance, carbon dioxide, and humidity). Canopy-level steady state ChlF emissions were extracted from the apparent canopy reflectance spectra at 688 and 760 nm using the Fraunhofer Line Depth (FLD) principal. Both fluorescence and reflectance indices were successful in discriminating foliar constituents (e.g., pigment ratios, C/N ratios) but only fluorescence indices were correlated with light use efficiency (LUE) and corn yields in both years. LUE was inversely correlated (r = 0.85) with the ratio of non-photochemical (Qn) to photochemical (Qp) quenching of ChlF, (Qn/Qp). LUE was not strongly influenced by pigment levels, including the chlorophyll

  3. Assessment of the nutritional values of genetically modified wheat, corn, and tomato crops.

    PubMed

    Venneria, Eugenia; Fanasca, Simone; Monastra, Giovanni; Finotti, Enrico; Ambra, Roberto; Azzini, Elena; Durazzo, Alessandra; Foddai, Maria Stella; Maiani, Giuseppe

    2008-10-01

    The genetic modification in fruit and vegetables could lead to changes in metabolic pathways and, therefore, to the variation of the molecular pattern, with particular attention to antioxidant compounds not well-described in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the quality composition of transgenic wheat ( Triticum durum L.), corn ( Zea mays L.), and tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) to the nontransgenic control with a similar genetic background. In the first experiment, Ofanto wheat cultivar containing the tobacco rab1 gene and nontransgenic Ofanto were used. The second experiment compared two transgenic lines of corn containing Bacillus thuringiensis "Cry toxin" gene (PR33P67 and Pegaso Bt) to their nontransgenic forms. The third experiment was conducted on transgenic tomato ( Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) containing the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolD gene and its nontransgenic control (cv. Tondino). Conventional and genetically modified crops were compared in terms of fatty acids content, unsaponifiable fraction of antioxidants, total phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamin C, total antioxidant activity, and mineral composition. No significant differences were observed for qualitative traits analyzed in wheat and corn samples. In tomato samples, the total antioxidant activity (TAA), measured by FRAP assay, and the naringenin content showed a lower value in genetically modified organism (GMO) samples (0.35 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 2.82 mg 100 g (-1), respectively), in comparison to its nontransgenic control (0.41 mmol of Fe (2+) 100 g (-1) and 4.17 mg 100 g (-1), respectively). On the basis of the principle of substantial equivalence, as articulated by the World Health Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, these data support the conclusion that GM events are nutritionally similar to conventional varieties of wheat, corn, and tomato on

  4. Simulating long-term impacts of winter rye cover crop on hydrologic cycling and nitrogen dynamics for a corn-soybean crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting winter cover crops into corn-soybean rotation is a promising approach for reducing subsurface drainage and nitrate loss. However, the long-term impact of this practice needs investigation. We evaluated the performance of the RZWQM-DSSAT model against five years of comprehensive field data n...

  5. Crop processing and chop length of corn silage: effects on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bal, M A; Shaver, R D; Jirovec, A G; Shinners, K J; Coors, J G

    2000-06-01

    Effects of corn silage crop processing and chop length on intake, digestion, and milk production were evaluated. Corn silage treatments were harvested at one-half milkline stage of maturity (65% whole-plant moisture content) and at 0.95-cm theoretical length of cut without processing (control) or 0.95-, 1.45-, or 1.90-cm theoretical length of cut with processing at a 1-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 71 d in milk at trial initiation were in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods; one square was comprised of ruminally cannulated cows for rumen measurements. Corn silage treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 50% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 50% corn and soybean meal based concentrate (dry matter basis). Dry matter intake (25.9 vs. 25.3 kg/d) and milk (46.0 vs. 44.8 kg/ d) and fat (1.42 vs. 1.35 kg/d) yields were higher for the processed corn silage treatments compared with the control corn silage. Within the processed corn silage treatments, there were no chop length effects on intake, milk production, or milk composition. Chewing activity was not different among the four corn silage treatments averaging 12 h/d. Total tract digestion of dietary starch was lower for control corn silage (95.1%) compared with fine, medium, and coarse processed corn silage treatments, which averaged 99.3%. Total tract digestion of dietary NDF was reduced for fine-processed corn silage compared with control corn silage and coarse-processed corn silage (28.4% vs. 33.9 and 33.7%, respectively). Processing corn silage improved dry matter intake, starch digestion, and lactation performance. Under the conditions of this study and with theoretical lengths of cut ranging from 0.95 to 1.90 cm, length of chop effects were minimal in processed corn silage. PMID:10877392

  6. Estimation of corn and soybeans yield using remote sensing and crop yield data in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Nari; Lee, Yang-Won

    2014-10-01

    The crop yield estimation is essential for the food security and the economic development of any nation. Particularly, the United States is the world largest grain exporter, and the total amount of corn exported from the U.S. accounted for 49.2% of the world corn trade in 2010 and 2011. Thus, accurate estimation of crop yield in U.S. is very significant for not only the U.S. crop producers but also decision makers of food importing countries. Estimating the crop yield using remote sensing data plays an important role in the Agricultural Sector, and it is actively discussed and studied in many countries. This is because remote sensing can observe the large areas repetitively. Consequently, the use of various techniques based on remote sensing data is steadily increasing to accurately estimate for crop yield. Therefore, the objective of this study is to estimate the accurate yield of corn and soybeans using climate dataset of PRISM climate group and Terra/MODIS products in the United States. We construct the crop yield estimation model for the decade (2001-2010) and perform predictions and validation for 2011 and 2012.

  7. Spatial variation of corn canopy temperature as dependent upon soil texture and crop rooting characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    A soil plant atmosphere model for corn (Zea mays L.) together with the scaling theory for soil hydraulic heterogeneity are used to study the sensitivity of spatial variation of canopy temperature to field averaged soil texture and crop rooting characteristics. The soil plant atmosphere model explicitly solves a continuity equation for water flux resulting from root water uptake, changes in plant water storage and transpirational flux. Dynamical equations for root zone soil water potential and the plant water storage models the progressive drying of soil, and day time dehydration and night time hydration of the crop. The statistic of scaling parameter which describes the spatial variation of soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential is assumed to be independent of soil texture class. The field averaged soil hydraulic characteristics are chosen to be representative of loamy sand and clay loam soils. Two rooting characteristics are chosen, one shallow and the other deep rooted. The simulation shows that the range of canopy temperatures in the clayey soil is less than 1K, but for the sandy soil the range is about 2.5 and 5.0 K, respectively, for the shallow and deep rooted crops.

  8. Stover removal and cover crops effects on corn production and water use under full and limited irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal in irrigated cropping systems for livestock forage or cellulosic ethanol is of great interest in south-central Nebraska. Irrigation water restrictions in the region have also resulted in adoption of limited-irrigation strategies. Little is known regarding the inter...

  9. Corn gluten meal and spring-transplanted onions (Allium cepa L.): Crop safety, weed control, and yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  10. Corn gluten meal and spring-transplanted onions (Allium cepa L.): crop safety, weed control, and yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  11. Using the USDA Weekly Crop Progress Record to Document Trends in Corn Planting Date From 1979 to 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharik, C. J.

    2005-12-01

    Agriculture is a dominant driver of land surface phenology in the United States Corn Belt. The timing of planting and harvest, along with the rate of plant development, are influenced by crop type, technology, land management decisions, and weather and soil conditions. Collectively, these integrated factors affect the spatial and temporal spectral signature of crops captured by remote sensing. While many studies have used the historical satellite record of vegetation activity to detect changes across the land surface, there has been less emphasis on using ground-based or remote sensing data to depict the contemporary phenology of individual US agro-ecosystems. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) demonstrate how weekly USDA-NASS 'Crop Progress' data and 'Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletins' could be useful to remote sensing science when characterizing changing land surface phenology over the US; and (2) quantify long-term trends in corn planting progress from 1979 to 2005 across 12 states in the US Corn Belt. Examination of the weekly NASS crop progress data shows that the initiation of corn planting has become significantly (P < 0.01) earlier by 6 to 24 days since 1979, potentially contributing to about 10% to 64% of the linear increase in corn yields during this period. The magnitude of earlier planting date trend varies regionally, and not all of this change can be attributed to an earlier arrival of spring or warmer springtime temperatures. Rather, the change appears to be related to increased farmer planting efficiency in spring attributed to the increased adoption of no-tillage or reduced-tillage practices and plowing soils in fall. Regardless of the exact cause of this trend, we have a legitimate reason to suspect that 'greening' of the Corn Belt since about 1980, according to remote sensing observations, is not entirely due to climate change, but rather arises from human land-use change in combination with climate factors. In the future, crop

  12. Modeled Impacts of Cover Crops and Vegetative Barriers on Corn Stover Availability and Soil Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ian J. Bonner; David J. Muth Jr.; Joshua B. Koch; Douglas L. Karlen

    2014-06-01

    Environmentally benign, economically viable, and socially acceptable agronomic strategies are needed to launch a sustainable lignocellulosic biofuel industry. Our objective was to demonstrate a landscape planning process that can ensure adequate supplies of corn (Zea mays L.) stover feedstock while protecting and improving soil quality. The Landscape Environmental Assessment Framework (LEAF) was used to develop land use strategies that were then scaled up for five U.S. Corn Belt states (Nebraska, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Minnesota) to illustrate the impact that could be achieved. Our results show an annual sustainable stover supply of 194 million Mg without exceeding soil erosion T values or depleting soil organic carbon [i.e., soil conditioning index (SCI)?>?0] when no-till, winter cover crop, and vegetative barriers were incorporated into the landscape. A second, more rigorous conservation target was set to enhance soil quality while sustainably harvesting stover. By requiring erosion to be <1/2 T and the SCI-organic matter (OM) subfactor to be >?0, the annual sustainable quantity of harvestable stover dropped to148 million Mg. Examining removal rates by state and soil resource showed that soil capability class and slope generally determined the effectiveness of the three conservation practices and the resulting sustainable harvest rate. This emphasizes that sustainable biomass harvest must be based on subfield management decisions to ensure soil resources are conserved or enhanced, while providing sufficient biomass feedstock to support the economic growth of bioenergy enterprises.

  13. Development of estimation method for crop yield using MODIS satellite imagery data and process-based model for corn and soybean in US Corn-Belt region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Kang, S.; Jang, K.; Ko, J.; Hong, S.

    2012-12-01

    Crop productivity is associated with the food security and hence, several models have been developed to estimate crop yield by combining remote sensing data with carbon cycle processes. In present study, we attempted to estimate crop GPP and NPP using algorithm based on the LUE model and a simplified respiration model. The state of Iowa and Illinois was chosen as the study site for estimating the crop yield for a period covering the 5 years (2006-2010), as it is the main Corn-Belt area in US. Present study focuses on developing crop-specific parameters for corn and soybean to estimate crop productivity and yield mapping using satellite remote sensing data. We utilized a 10 km spatial resolution daily meteorological data from WRF to provide cloudy-day meteorological variables but in clear-say days, MODIS-based meteorological data were utilized to estimate daily GPP, NPP, and biomass. County-level statistics on yield, area harvested, and productions were used to test model predicted crop yield. The estimated input meteorological variables from MODIS and WRF showed with good agreements with the ground observations from 6 Ameriflux tower sites in 2006. For examples, correlation coefficients ranged from 0.93 to 0.98 for Tmin and Tavg ; from 0.68 to 0.85 for daytime mean VPD; from 0.85 to 0.96 for daily shortwave radiation, respectively. We developed county-specific crop conversion coefficient, i.e. ratio of yield to biomass on 260 DOY and then, validated the estimated county-level crop yield with the statistical yield data. The estimated corn and soybean yields at the county level ranged from 671 gm-2 y-1 to 1393 gm-2 y-1 and from 213 gm-2 y-1 to 421 gm-2 y-1, respectively. The county-specific yield estimation mostly showed errors less than 10%. Furthermore, we estimated crop yields at the state level which were validated against the statistics data and showed errors less than 1%. Further analysis for crop conversion coefficient was conducted for 200 DOY and 280 DOY

  14. Resistance Evolution to Bt Crops: Predispersal Mating of European Corn Borers

    PubMed Central

    Dalecky, Ambroise; Ponsard, Sergine; Bailey, Richard I; Pélissier, Céline; Bourguet, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy, aimed at delaying the evolution of pest resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins produced by transgenic crops, became mandatory in the United States and is being discussed for Europe. However, precopulatory dispersal and the mating rate between resident and immigrant individuals, two features influencing the efficiency of this strategy, have seldom been quantified in pests targeted by these toxins. We combined mark-recapture and biogeochemical marking over three breeding seasons to quantify these features directly in natural populations of Ostrinia nubilalis, a major lepidopteran corn pest. At the local scale, resident females mated regardless of males having dispersed beforehand or not, as assumed in the HDR strategy. Accordingly, 0–67% of resident females mating before dispersal did so with resident males, this percentage depending on the local proportion of resident males (0% to 67.2%). However, resident males rarely mated with immigrant females (which mostly arrived mated), the fraction of females mating before dispersal was variable and sometimes substantial (4.8% to 56.8%), and there was no evidence for male premating dispersal being higher. Hence, O. nubilalis probably mates at a more restricted spatial scale than previously assumed, a feature that may decrease the efficiency of the HDR strategy under certain circumstances, depending for example on crop rotation practices. PMID:16719560

  15. Energy balance with Landsat images in irrigated central pivots with corn crop in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Antônio H. d. C.; Hernandez, Fernando B. T.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; Leivas, Janice F.; Bolfe, Edson L.

    2014-10-01

    The energy balance (EB) components were quantified in a commercial farm with corn crop, irrigated by central pivots, in the Northwestern side of São Paulo state, Southeast Brazil. The SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving) was applied to retrieve the latent heat flux (λE), considering six pivots, covering irrigated areas from 74 to 108 ha. With λE quantified and considering soil heat flux (G) as a fraction of net radiation (Rn), the sensible heat flux (H) was acquired as a residual in the energy balance equation. Seven Landsat satellite images, covering all corn crop stages from 23 April 2010 to 29 August 2010, allowed relating the energy balance components according to the accumulated degree-days (DDac) from the planting to harvest dates. The average Rn values ranging from 5.2 to 7.2 MJ m-2 day-1, represented 30 to 45% of global solar radiation (RG). Considering the variation of the energy balance components along the corn crop growing seasons, the average ranges for λE, H and G were respectively 0.0 to 6.4 MJ m-2 day-1, -1.5 to 6.7 MJ m-2 day-1 and 0.1 to 0.6 MJ m-2 day-1. The fraction of the available energy (Rn - G) used as λE was from 0.0 to 1.3 indicated a good irrigation management, insuring that the water deficit could not be the reason of any yield reduction. Although Rn did not reflected well the crop stages, its partition strongly depended on these stages. λE higher than Rn and the negative H/Rn, happening sometimes along the corn growing seasons, occurred after the vegetative growth and before the harvest times, indicated heat advection from the surrounding areas to the irrigation pivots, which represented an additional energy source for the evaporative process. The models applied here with only the visible and infrared bands of the Landsat sensor are very useful for the energy balance analyses, considering the size of the corn crop irrigation pivots in Southeast Brazil, when subsidizing a rational irrigation water application

  16. In-Crop and Autumn-Applied Glyphosate Reduced Purple Nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus)Density in No-Till Glyphosate-Resistant Corn and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr field study was conducted from 2005 to 2007 at Stoneville, MS to determine efficacy of in-crop and fall-applied glyphosate on purple nutsedge density and yield of no-till glyphosate-resistant (GR) corn and GR soybean. Separate experiments were conducted in GR corn and GR soybean in areas main...

  17. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Using NASA Sensors to Perform Crop Type Assessment for Monitoring Insect Resistance in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, David; Copenhaver, Ken; Anderson, Daniel; Hilbert, Kent

    2007-01-01

    The EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) is tasked to monitor for insect pest resistance to transgenic crops. Several models have been developed to understand the resistance properties of insects. The Population Genetics Simulator model is used in the EPA PIRDSS (Pest Infestation and Resistance Decision Support System). The EPA Office of Pesticide Programs uses the DSS to help understand the potential for insect pest resistance development and the likelihood that insect pest resistance will negatively affect transgenic corn. Once the DSS identifies areas of concern, crews are deployed to collect insect pest samples, which are tested to identify whether they have developed resistance to the toxins in transgenic corn pesticides. In this candidate solution, VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) vegetation index products will be used to build hypertemporal layerstacks for crop type and phenology assessment. The current phenology attribute is determined by using the current time of year to index the expected growth stage of the crop. VIIRS might provide more accurate crop type assessment and also might give a better estimate on the crop growth stage.

  18. Comparison of Alternative Crop Phenology Detection Algorithms using MODIS NDVI Time Series Data in US Corn Belt Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Hong, S. Y.; Kang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Predicting crop phenology is important for understanding of crop development and growth processes and improving the accuracy of crop model. Remote sensing offers a feasible tool for monitoring spatio-temporal patterns of crop phenology in region and continental scales. Various methods have developed to determine the timing of crop phenological stages using spectral vegetation indices (i.e. NDVI and EVI) derived from satellite data. In our study, it was compared four alternative detection methods to identify crop phenological stages (i.e. the emergence and harvesting date) using high quality NDVI time series data derived from MODIS. In threshold method assumes the emergence and harvesting date when NDVI values exceed and decreases down to a given threshold, respectively. Two kind of threshold values were applied for NDVI and it increment for eight days. The other two methods use a logistic fitting model and inflection points on fitted curve, respectively. It was compared the four methods for corn and soybean, respectively. For validation, three kinds of datasets were utilized: AmeriFlux biological data of planting and harvest dates, and emergence date estimated from growing degree days (AGDDs) at flux tower sites, and state-level USDA Crop Progress Report (CPR). All methods showed substantial uncertainty but the threshold method showed relatively better agreement against with both site- and state-level data for soybean phenology. For better NDVI-based regional estimation of crop phenology, factors of uncertainty were examined and discussed in this study.

  19. The effect of relocation of whole-crop wheat and corn silages on their quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Weinberg, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Whole-crop wheat and corn silages in 1.5-L anaerobic jars were exposed to air for 0 up to 48 h during their anaerobic storage period to simulate relocation of silages. Ensiling treatments included control (no additives) and either Koffosil T (Koffolk Inc., Petah Tikva, Israel) comprising a mixture of organic acids or Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1 (Ecosyl Products Ltd., Stokesley, UK). In the first set of experiments, the duration of exposure to air had little effect on ensiling parameters or on the aerobic stability of the final silages. In the second set of experiments, both the inoculant and duration of exposure to air had an effect on various fermentation parameters and on the aerobic stability of the final silages. We concluded that if the silages are of good quality, the duration of the relocation process has little effect on silage quality or its aerobic stability. However, if the silage contains any factor that may affect its aerobic stability, it is more sensitive to the time it takes to re-ensile the forage. PMID:24210488

  20. Crop and soil responses to using corn stover as a bioenergy feedstock: Observations from the Northern US Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sustainable bioenergy depends upon soil resources to sustain and increase crop production. This study examined soil (erosion, soil C, and microbial indicators) and crop response to stover removal treatments [Full Residue Returned (FullRR), Moderate Residue Returned (ModRR) and Low Residue Returned...

  1. Off-season groundcover and runoff characteristics of perennial clover and annual grass companion crops for no-till corn fertilized with manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various companion crops such as spring-interseeded or fall-seeded cover crops and herbicide-suppressed living mulches are recommended for reducing the environmental impacts of silage corn (Zea mays L.) production. In a four-year Wisconsin study, we compared off-season dry matter yield (DMY) and nitr...

  2. Planting date impacts on soil water management, plant growth, and weeds in cover-crop-based no-till corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low input and organic farmers are increasingly utilizing cover crop mulches in maize production. Many farmers are delaying planting corn into these high residue environments to allow greater growth of the cover crop to maximize nitrogen fixation and improve mechanical termination with roller crimpe...

  3. Prohexadione-calcium improves the establishment and yield of alfalfa interseeded as a dual purpose cover-forage crop into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa an...

  4. Improving crop biomass through asynchronous assimilation of LAI and soil moisture during multiple growing seasons of corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovanni, T. E.; Nagarajan, K.; Jones, J. W.; Monsivais Huertero, A.; Judge, J.

    2010-12-01

    Crop biomass is an important indicator of the health of a plant and is also critical for various remote sensing algorithms. In addition, it determines water uptake by the roots, affecting the root zone soil moisture (RZSM). Typically, crop models are used to simulate growth and development in a growing season and estimate biomass and yield. However large uncertainties in these estimates occur over time due to errors in computation, initialization conditions, forcings, and model parameters. Such uncertainties can be significantly reduced by assimilating in situ and/or remotely sensed observations. Satellite-based LAI and near-surface soil moisture (SM) are available weekly and 3 days, respectively. In this study, an EnKF-based assimilation algorithm was implemented to improve crop biomass using the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) Cropping System Model. In situ observations of weekly LAI and every 3-day SM were assimilated asynchronously to update model estimates of LAI, RZSM, and crop biomass. The in situ observations were obtained from intensive field experiments during three seasons of sweet corn grown in North Central Florida. The impact of different assimilation scenarios for crop biomass was determined by the root mean squared difference and the standard deviation between the model estimates and observations during the seasons.

  5. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  6. Vertical distribution of corn biomass as influenced by cover crop and stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) production for grain is important given its many uses for human food, animal feed and other industrial products. Additionally, the abundance and potentially large biomass yield makes corn an attractive bioenergy feedstock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ...

  7. Dual cropping winter camelina with soybean in the northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainably balancing biofuel crop production with food, feed, and fiber on agricultural lands will require developing new cropping strategies. Double- and/or relay-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa L.) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] may be a means to produce an energy and food crop o...

  8. Manipulating cover crops to increase mycorrhizal colonization in corn (Zea mays)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were performed to determine the influence of cover crop treatments on the abundance of mycorrhizal fungi which can increase nutrient uptake by cash crops. Replicated plots established in spring wheat were assigned to eight cover crop treatments: No cover crop, winter canola, oats, hai...

  9. Corn transformed

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1990-08-10

    Researchers have produced fertile corn transformed with a foreign gene that makes the plants resistant to the herbicide bialaphos. This achievement, is the first report of fertile transgenic corn in the reviewed literature, and it is the capstone of almost a decade's efforts to genetically engineer this country's most important crop. The only other major crop to be so manipulated is rice. The ability produce transgenic corn gives biologists a valuable tool to probe the whys and hows of gene expression and regulation. It may also give plant breeders a way to develop new corn varieties with a speed and predictability that would be impossible with classical breeding techniques.

  10. Crop weather models of corn and soybeans for Agrophysical Units (APU's) in Iowa using monthly meteorological predictors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leduc, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate corn and soybean yield from weather data for agrophysical units (APU) in Iowa. The predictor variables are derived from monthly average temperature and monthly total precipitation data at meteorological stations in the cooperative network. The models are similar in form to the previous models developed for crop reporting districts (CRD). The trends and derived variables were the same and the approach to select the significant predictors was similar to that used in developing the CRD models. The APU's were selected to be more homogeneous with respect crop to production than the CRDs. The APU models are quite similar to the CRD models, similar explained variation and number of predictor variables. The APU models are to be independently evaluated and compared to the previously evaluated CRD models. That comparison should indicate the preferred model area for this application, i.e., APU or CRD.

  11. 7 CFR 457.129 - Fresh market sweet corn crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...—A type of corn with kernels containing a high percentage of sugar that is adapted for human... control measures; or (8) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured cause of...

  12. Trends in Crop Management and Phenology in the U.S. Corn Belt, and Effects on Yields, Evapotranspiration and Energy Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacks, W. J.; Kucharik, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    Two important factors that can affect crop yields are planting dates and the length of the crop growth period. We analyzed 25 years of data collected by the USDA in order to document trends in planting dates, lengths of the vegetative and reproductive growth periods, and the length of time between maturity and harvest for corn and soybeans across the U.S. We then used these observations to drive the Agro-IBIS model, in order to investigate the effects of changing planting dates and crop cultivars on crop yields and fluxes of water and energy. Averaged across the U.S., corn planting dates advanced about 10 days from 1981 to 2005, and soybean planting dates about 12 days. For both crops, but especially for corn, this has been accompanied by a lengthening of the growth period. The period from corn planting to maturity was about 12 days longer around 2005 than it was around 1981. A large driver of this change was a 14% increase in the number of growing degree days needed for corn to progress through the grainfill period, probably reflecting an adoption of longer-season cultivars. This trend to longer-season cultivars was responsible for a 12.6 bu ac-1 yield increase across the U.S. Corn Belt over this 25-year period, according to our simulations. Thus, the adoption of longer-season cultivars can account for 26% of the observed yield trend. These changes in crop phenology, together with a shortening of the time from maturity to harvest, have also modified the surface water and energy balance. Earlier planting has led to an increase in the latent heat flux and a decrease in the sensible heat flux in June, while a shorter time from maturity to harvest has meant an increase in net radiation in October.

  13. Sweet corn production and efficiency of nitrogen use in high cover crop residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops can provide many benefits to cropping systems including provision of significant quantities of fixed N (legumes) that is readily mineralized. In the humid, temperate mid-Atlantic area of the U.S.A., winter annual cover crops such as hairy vetch produce abundant biomass and N before summ...

  14. Cover cropping to enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in diversified crop rotations of the upper midwest U.S. corn belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive agricultural practices, such as tillage, monocropping, seasonal fallow periods, and inorganic nutrient application, have been shown to reduce arbuscular mycorrrhizal fungi (AMF). Agricultural practices that reduce AMF may reduce the benefits provided to crops by AMF, such as nutrient acqu...

  15. Assessment of RapidEye vegetation indices for estimation of leaf area index and biomass in corn and soybean crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kross, Angela; McNairn, Heather; Lapen, David; Sunohara, Mark; Champagne, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and biomass are important indicators of crop development and the availability of this information during the growing season can support farmer decision making processes. This study demonstrates the applicability of RapidEye multi-spectral data for estimation of LAI and biomass of two crop types (corn and soybean) with different canopy structure, leaf structure and photosynthetic pathways. The advantages of Rapid Eye in terms of increased temporal resolution (∼daily), high spatial resolution (∼5 m) and enhanced spectral information (includes red-edge band) are explored as an individual sensor and as part of a multi-sensor constellation. Seven vegetation indices based on combinations of reflectance in green, red, red-edge and near infrared bands were derived from RapidEye imagery between 2011 and 2013. LAI and biomass data were collected during the same period for calibration and validation of the relationships between vegetation indices and LAI and dry above-ground biomass. Most indices showed sensitivity to LAI from emergence to 8 m2/m2. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the red-edge NDVI and the green NDVI were insensitive to crop type and had coefficients of variations (CV) ranging between 19 and 27%; and coefficients of determination ranging between 86 and 88%. The NDVI performed best for the estimation of dry leaf biomass (CV = 27% and r2 = 090) and was also insensitive to crop type. The red-edge indices did not show any significant improvement in LAI and biomass estimation over traditional multispectral indices. Cumulative vegetation indices showed strong performance for estimation of total dry above-ground biomass, especially for corn (CV ≤ 20%). This study demonstrated that continuous crop LAI monitoring over time and space at the field level can be achieved using a combination of RapidEye, Landsat and SPOT data and sensor-dependant best-fit functions. This approach eliminates/reduces the need for reflectance

  16. Gut bacteria facilitate adaptation to crop rotation in the western corn rootworm.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Spencer, Joseph L; Curzi, Matías J; Zavala, Jorge A; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2013-07-16

    Insects are constantly adapting to human-driven landscape changes; however, the roles of their gut microbiota in these processes remain largely unknown. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major corn pest that has been controlled via annual rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. This practice selected for a "rotation-resistant" variant (RR-WCR) with reduced ovipositional fidelity to cornfields. When in soybean fields, RR-WCRs also exhibit an elevated tolerance of antiherbivory defenses (i.e., cysteine protease inhibitors) expressed in soybean foliage. Here we show that gut bacterial microbiota is an important factor facilitating this corn specialist's (WCR's) physiological adaptation to brief soybean herbivory. Comparisons of gut microbiota between RR- and wild-type WCR (WT-WCR) revealed concomitant shifts in bacterial community structure with host adaptation to soybean diets. Antibiotic suppression of gut bacteria significantly reduced RR-WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory to the level of WT-WCR, whereas WT-WCR were unaffected. Our findings demonstrate that gut bacteria help to facilitate rapid adaptation of insects in managed ecosystems. PMID:23798396

  17. Biofuel Potential of Cellulosic Double Crops Across the U.S. Corn-Soybean Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts by researchers and policy makers to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil include investigation of biofuels derived from plant biomass, which raises concern over fuel vs. food competition. One solution that addresses the concern of fuel crops displacing food crops is to raise cellulosic dou...

  18. Biofuel potential of cellulosic double crops across the U.S. corn-soybean belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable energy sources derived from plant biomass is increasing, raising concern over fuel versus food competition. One strategy to produce additional cellulosic biomass without reducing food-harvest potential is to grow winter cover crops after harvest of the primary summer crop. Thi...

  19. Double-cropping with winter camelina in the northern Corn Belt to produce fuel and food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is a viable oilseed feedstock for biofuels. Recently, it was shown that fall-seeded winter camelina can be successfully grown in the upper Midwest and may be harvested early enough the following summer to allow producing a second crop. Double-cropping may offer a profit...

  20. The impact of fall cover crops on soil nitrate and corn growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating cover crops into current production systems can have many beneficial impacts on the current cropping system including decreasing erosion, improving water infiltration, increasing soil organic matter and biological activity but in water limited areas caution should be utilized. A fiel...

  1. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  2. ELEMENTS IN MAJOR RAW AGRICULTURAL CROPS IN THE UNITED STATES. 1. CADMIUM AND LEAD IN LETTUCE, PEANUTS, SOYBEANS, SWEET CORN, AND WHEAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six raw agricultural crops (lettuce, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, sweet corn and wheat were collected from major U.S. growing areas uncontaminated by human activities other than normal agricultural practices and analyzed for Cd and Pb by using differential pulse anodic stripping ...

  3. Effect of conservation practices on soil carbon and nitrogen accretion and crop yield in a corn production system in the southeastern coastal plain, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We implemented conservation farming practices (winter cover cropping plus strip tillage) for a non-irrigated corn production system in the southern coastal plain of Georgia, USA that had been previously been managed under a plow and harrow tillage regime. Total soil carbon and nitrogen were measure...

  4. Profile and relative concentrations of fatty acids in corn and soybean seeds from transgenic and isogenic crops.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J J; Bernal, J L; Nozal, M J; Toribio, L; Bernal, J

    2009-10-23

    In this work 44 fatty acids, which were analyzed as methyl esters by GC/MS in scan mode, have been determined in genetically modified corn and soybean seeds. Their relative concentrations have been compared with those of isogenic lines grown in the same conditions. Studied compounds comprised saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, including cis/trans isomers and minor fatty acids. A classical soxhlet extraction and an accelerated solvent extraction have been assayed to extract the fatty compounds from seeds and the GC separation has been carried out on a biscyanopropylpolysiloxane chromatographic column. Soxhlet extraction was selected as the most convenient and applied to compare the samples. Specific compounds, which could denote the origin of the crop have not been observed, but for some sample pairs, significant differences have been found in relation to the percentage of certain acids; the highest differences for major acids were 4.1% in corn and 4.8% in soybean. The concentrations of long chain acids such as 24:0, 26:0 and 28:0 were higher in some isogenic lines whereas the concentrations of short chain acids such as 6:0, 8:0, 9:0, 10:0 and 12:0 were higher in their transgenic counterparts. PMID:19716136

  5. The applications of remote sensing to corn blight detection and crop yield forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Photography revealed the widespread and variable effects of southern corn leaf blight in Indiana. Three levels of severity of the infection could be discerned from good quality color and color infrared photography. As many as five severity levels appeared to be detectable and classifiable with multispectral scanner data and pattern recognition analysis. These conclusions are preliminary in nature, however, having been obtained from a limited amount of good quality scanner data collected over a small geographic area.

  6. [Effect of earthworm inoculation on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics and on crop yield with application of corn residues].

    PubMed

    Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Shen, Qirong; Chen, Xiaoyun; Cang, Long; Wang, Xia

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out in the Experimental Station of Nanjing Agricultural University, which is in a subtropical monsoon region characterized by a warm-wet spring and a hot-dry summer. The annual average temperature, precipitation and evaporation are 15.6 degrees C, 1010 mm and 1560 mm, respectively. In 1999, the experimental plots (2.8 m x 1.0 m x 0.6 m) were established by concrete frame. Soil in the plots was orthic aquisols collected from Rugao County, Jiangsu Province. Crop rotation was upland rice and winter wheat. At the beginning of the first crop (rice) season, earthworms (Pheretima sp.) were inoculated at a density of 10.m-2 and 20.m-2, respectively, in the plots with an application of corn residues at the rate of 1500 g.m-2(750 g.m-2 in the following seasons). The responses of soil carbon and nitrogen and crop yield to earthworm activity were investigated from 1999 to 2001. The results showed that earthworms had no significant influences on total soil carbon and nitrogen content, which implied that there was no depletion of soil carbon and nitrogen pools in the presence of earthworms. The maintenance of soil carbon might be explained by low assimilation efficiency of organic matter by earthworms, and by the compensation of carbon returning from plant production enhancement. Soil mineral nitrogen, soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass nitrogen were increased, and nitrogen mineralization was strengthened by earthworm activities, which was more obvious at jointing/booting and heading stages. In comparison with no-worm treatments, the yield of rice wheat increased by 9.3% and 5.1%, respectively, in the treatments inoculated with earthworms. It was concluded that earthworm was very important in promoting nitrogen recycling of crop residues and plant productivity, and in keeping the balance of soil carbon pool as well. PMID:12682972

  7. Economic Benefits of Improved Information on Worldwide Crop Production: An Optimal Decision Model of Production and Distribution with Application to Wheat, Corn, and Soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, J.

    1977-01-01

    An optimal decision model of crop production, trade, and storage was developed for use in estimating the economic consequences of improved forecasts and estimates of worldwide crop production. The model extends earlier distribution benefits models to include production effects as well. Application to improved information systems meeting the goals set in the large area crop inventory experiment (LACIE) indicates annual benefits to the United States of $200 to $250 million for wheat, $50 to $100 million for corn, and $6 to $11 million for soybeans, using conservative assumptions on expected LANDSAT system performance.

  8. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  9. Radiometric Sensitivity to Soil Moisture at 1.4 GHz Through a Corn Crop at Maximum Biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, B. K.; England, A. W.

    2004-05-01

    3 m-3. Vertically-polarized brightness temperature was 0.5 K per 0.01 m3 m-3 less sensitive than horizontally-polarized brightness temperature. A widely-used radiative transfer model underestimated this soil moisture sensitivity at horizontal polarization by over 1 K per 0.01 m3 m-3. We hypothesize this is because the water in a corn canopy is concentrated in stems and ears and not spread evenly over the canopy volume as assumed by the model, and as it effectively is in vegetation with electrically small components like grass. Enhanced backscatter from such scattering canopies has been observed in radar experiments. There may be a similar effect in radiometry. It is also possible that this "backscatter effect" could itself be enhanced when the vegetation canopy constituents are wet, and hence more reflective, when intercepted precipitation or dew is present. Given an appropriate emission model that correctly accounts for the differences in transparency between corn and grass-like canopies and/or an enhancement of soil moisture sensitivity through volume scattering, it appears that there will be practical sensitivity to soil moisture through corn (and most, if not all row crops) throughout the growing season.

  10. Captures of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults with Pherocon AM and vial traps in four crops in east central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Silvia I; Gray, Michael E

    2003-06-01

    It is hypothesized that the long-term rotation of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) in east central Illinois has caused a significant change in the ovipositional behavior of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Since the mid 1990s in east central Illinois, western corn rootworm adults have been observed feeding on soybean foliage and also now use soybean fields as egg laying sites. This behavioral adaptation has greatly decreased the effectiveness of rotation as a pest management tactic. By using Pherocon AM and vial traps, we evaluated the influence of maize, soybean, oat stubble (Avena sativa L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on male and female adult western corn rootworm densities from April 1998 through September 2000 near Urbana, IL. Our results indicated that western corn rootworm adults are common inhabitants of maize, soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa. Trapping efforts with both Pherocon AM (attractive) and vial traps (passive) revealed that initial densities of both male and female western corn rootworm adults were greater in maize. Soon after emergence, densities of females began to decline within maize and increase in other crops (soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa). Results from this experiment support the hypothesis that variant western corn rootworm females in east central Illinois are colonizing crops other than maize at densities of potential economic importance. Those producers who choose to rotate maize with soybean or alfalfa may remain at risk to economic larval injury to maize roots. Potentially, oat stubble also may support levels of western corn rootworm females resulting in sufficient oviposition to cause economic losses to rotated maize the following season. PMID:12852611

  11. Water for Food, Energy, and the Environment: Assessing Streamflow Impacts of Increasing Cellulosic Biofuel Crop Production in the Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recently expanded Renewable Fuel Standard, which now requires 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels by 2022, has increased demand for biofuel refinery feedstocks. Currently, biofuel production consists mainly of corn-based ethanol, but concern over increasing nitrate levels resulting from increased corn crop fertilization has prompted research into alternative biofuel feedstocks. Of these, high-yielding biomass crops such as Miscanthus have been suggested for cellulose-based ethanol production. Because these perennial crops require less fertilization and do not need tilling, increasing land area in the Midwest planted with Miscanthus would result in less nitrate pollution to the Gulf of Mexico. There is a tradeoff, however, as Miscanthus also has higher water requirements than conventional crops in the region. This could pose a serious problem for riparian ecosystems and other streamflow users such as municipalities and biofuel refineries themselves, as the lowest natural flows in this region coincide with the peak of the growing season. Moreover, low flow reduction may eventually cut off the water quality benefit that planting Miscanthus provides. Therefore, for large-scale cellulosic ethanol production to be sustainable, it is important to understand how the watershed will respond to this change in land and water use. To this end a detailed data analysis of current watershed conditions has been combined with hydrologic modeling to gain deeper insights into how catchments in the highly agricultural central IL watershed of the Sangamon River respond to current and future land and water usage, with the focus on the summer low-flow season. In addition, an integrated systems optimization model has been developed that combines hydrologic, agro-biologic, engineering infrastructural, and economic inputs to provide optimal scenarios of crop type and area and corresponding refinery locations and capacities. Through this integrated modeling framework, we address the key

  12. Impact of tillage and fertilizer application method on gas emissions in a corn cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. This study was conducted to determine the impact of fertilizer sources, land management practices, and fertilizer placement methods on greenhouse gas emissions. A new prototype i...

  13. Rye cover crop effects on nitrous oxide emissions from a corn-soybean system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities are a major source nitrous oxide emitted to the atmosphere. Development of management practices to reduce these emissions is needed. Non-leguminous cover crops are efficient scavengers of residual soil nitrate, but their effects on nitrous oxide emissions have not been well d...

  14. Reduced-tillage organic corn production in a hairy vetch cover crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is much interest in developing no-tillage systems for organic farming, however, potential limitations include the inability to control weeds and to provide sufficient crop available N. A three-year field experiment was conducted on organically-certified land to explore the use of roller-crimp...

  15. Nutrient source and tillage influences on nitrogen availability in a Southern Piedmont corn cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combinations of conservation tillage and poultry litter (PL) can increase crop production in southeastern USA soils compared to conventional tillage (CT) and chemical fertilizer (CF). The reason for the beneficial response is usually attributed to improved water and nutrient availability. We evaluat...

  16. The Direct Effects of Atmospheric Change on Evapotranspiration from Corn and Soybean Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and ozone ([O3]) are increasing as a result of land-use changes and fossil fuel combustion. These changes are hypothesized to have a large effect on water use for crops. While leaf-level responses to elevated [CO2] and [O3] are well documented,...

  17. Fertilizer source and tillage effects on yield-scaled nitrous oxide emissions in a corn cropping system.

    PubMed

    Venterea, Rodney T; Bijesh, Maharjan; Dolan, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Management practices such as fertilizer or tillage regime may affect nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions and crop yields, each of which is commonly expressed with respect to area (e.g., kg N ha or Mg grain ha). Expressing N₂O emissions per unit of yield can account for both of these management impacts and might provide a useful metric for greenhouse gas inventories by relating N₂O emissions to grain production rates. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of long-term (>17 yr) tillage treatments and N fertilizer source on area- and yield-scaled N₂O emissions, soil N intensity, and nitrogen use efficiency for rainfed corn ( L.) in Minnesota over three growing seasons. Two different controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) and conventional urea (CU) were surface-applied at 146 kg N ha(-1) several weeks after planting to conventional tillage (CT) and no-till (NT) treatments. Yield-scaled emissions across all treatments represented 0.4 to 1.1% of the N harvested in the grain. Both CRFs reduced soil nitrate intensity, but not N₂O emissions, compared with CU. One CRF, consisting of nitrification and urease inhibitors added to urea, decreased N₂O emissions compared with a polymer-coated urea (PCU). The PCU tended to have lower yields during the drier years of the study, which increased its yield-scaled N₂O emissions. The overall effectiveness of CRFs compared with CU in this study may have been reduced because they were applied several weeks after corn was planted. Across all N treatments, area-scaled N₂O emissions were not significantly affected by tillage. However, when expressed per unit yield of grain, grain N, or total aboveground N, N₂O emissions with NT were 52, 66, and 69% greater, respectively, compared with CT. Thus, in this cropping system and climate regime, production of an equivalent amount of grain using NT would generate substantially more N₂O compared with CT. PMID:21869514

  18. An integrated crop- and soil-based strategy for variable-rate nitrogen management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Darrin F.

    Nitrogen (N) management in cereal crops has been the subject of considerable research and debate for several decades. Historic N management practices have contributed to low nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Low NUE can be caused by such things as poor synchronization between soil N supply and crop demand, uniform application rates of fertilizer N to spatially variable landscapes, and failure to account for temporally variable influences on soil N supply and crop N need. Active canopy reflectance sensors and management zones (MZ) have been studied separately as possible plant- and soil-based N management tools to increase NUE. Recently, some have suggested that the integration of these two approaches would provide a more robust N management strategy that could more effectively account for soil and plant effects on crop N need. For this reason, the goal of this research was to develop an N application strategy that would account for spatial variability in soil properties and use active canopy reflectance sensors to determine in-season, on-the-go N fertilizer rates, thereby increasing NUE and economic return for producers over current N management practices. To address this overall goal, a series of studies were conducted to better understand active canopy sensor use and explore the possibility of integrating spatial soil data with active canopy sensors. Sensor placement to assess crop N status was first examined. It was found that the greatest reduction in error over sensing each individual row for a hypothetical 24-row applicator was obtained with 2-3 sensors estimating an average chlorophyll index for the entire boom width. Next, use of active sensor-based soil organic matter (OM) estimation was compared to more conventional aerial image-based soil OM estimation. By adjusting regression intercept values for each field, OM could be predicted using either a single sensor or image data layer. The final study consisted of validation of the active sensor algorithm

  19. Digestibility and performance of steers fed low-quality crop residues treated with calcium oxide to partially replace corn in distillers grains finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Shreck, A L; Nuttelman, B L; Harding, J L; Griffin, W A; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Cecava, M J

    2015-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to identify methods for treating crop residues to improve digestibility and value in finishing diets based on corn grain and corn wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS). In Exp. 1, 336 yearling steers (initial BW 356 ± 11.5 kg) were used in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments with 6 pens per treatment. Factors were 3 crop residues (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and 2 treatments where crop residues were either fed (20% diet DM) in their native form (NT) or alkaline treated with 5% CaO (DM basis) and hydrated to 50% DM before anaerobic storage (AT). Intakes were not affected by diet (F test; P = 0.30). An interaction between chemical treatment and residue (P < 0.01) was noted for final BW, ADG, G:F, and HCW. Greater final BW was observed for treated stover (4.6%) and straw (5.6%) compared with NT residues; however, AT and NT cobs were similar. Treated straw (9.7%) and stover (12.5%) resulted in greater ADG (P < 0.01) and improved G:F (10.7% and 5.0%, respectively; P < 0.01) compared with NT forms. In Exp. 2, ruminally fistulated steers (n = 5) were used in an unbalanced 5 × 7 incomplete Latin square design with a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were crop residue (corn cobs, wheat straw, and corn stover) and chemical treatment (NT or AT) fed at 25% of diet DM. Greater DM (73.7% vs. 66.1%; P < 0.01), OM (77.0% vs. 68.5%; P < 0.01), fat (89.2 vs. 85.2; P = 0.02), and NDF (66.8% vs. 51.5%; P < 0.01) digestibilities were noted for AT than for NT. However, no difference (P > 0.10) was observed between control (46% corn; DM basis) and AT (31% corn; DM basis) for DM digestibility (70.7% vs. 73.7%) or OM digestibility (72.1% vs. 77.0%). Dry matter intakes were not different between treated and untreated diets (P = 0.38), but lower (P < 0.01) NDF intake was observed for treated diets (3.1 vs. 3.5 kg/d), suggesting that CaO treatment was effective in solubilizing some carbohydrate. These data

  20. Use of crop simulation models to evaluate limited irrigation management options for corn in a semiarid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saseendran, S. A.; Ahuja, L. R.; Nielsen, D. C.; Trout, T. J.; Ma, L.

    2008-07-01

    Increasing competition for land and water resources due to increasing demands from rapid population growth calls for increasing water use efficiency of irrigated crops. It is important to develop location-specific agronomic practices to maximize water use efficiency (WUE). Adequately calibrated and validated agricultural systems models provide a systems approach and a fast alternative method for developing and evaluating agronomic practices that can utilize technological advances in limited irrigation agriculture. The objectives of this study were to (1) calibrate and validate the CERES-maize model under both dryland and irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) production in northeastern Colorado and (2) use the model with a long-term weather record to determine (1) optimum allocation of limited irrigation between vegetative and reproductive growth stages and (2) optimum soil water depletion level for initiating limited irrigation. The soil series was a Rago silt loam, and the initial water content on 1 January of each year was equal to field capacity in the upper 300 mm and half of the field capacity below this depth. Optimum production and WUE with minimum nitrogen (N) losses were found when (1) a water allocation ratio of 40:60 or 50:50 (uniform) between vegetative and reproductive stages for irrigations up to 100 mm, and a ratio of 20:80 for irrigations above 100 mm was used; and (2) irrigation was initiated at 20% plant-available water (PAW) (80% depletion). When available water for irrigation is limited to 100 mm, irrigating 50% of the area with 200 mm of water at 20:80 split irrigations between the vegetative and reproductive stages produced greater yield than irrigating 100% of the area with 100 mm water. Concepts developed in the study can potentially be adapted to other locations, climates, and crops. However, precise site-specific recommendations need to be developed for each soil-climate zone using the validated system model.

  1. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  2. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Hao, Wei; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC) silages and total mixed ration (TMR) silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages) to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages. PMID:26732329

  3. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests. PMID:9041734

  4. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G. F.

    2013-06-01

    Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting Earth's climate by altering the carbon, water and energy fluxes, but climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). In particular, we implement crop specific phenology schemes, which account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem and grain pools; dynamic vegetation structure growth, which better simulate the LAI and canopy height; dynamic root distribution processes in the soil layers, which better simulate the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration; and litter fall due to fresh and old dead leaves to better represent the water and energy interception by both stem and brown leaves of the canopy during leaf senescence. Observational data for LAI, above and below ground biomass, and carbon, water and energy fluxes were compiled from two Ameri-Flux sites, Mead, NE and Bondville, IL, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance under corn (C4)-soybean (C3) rotation system over the period 2001-2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation, water and energy fluxes under the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated GPP, net radiation fluxes at the top of canopy and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results is in sensible heat flux (H) for corn and soybean at both sites. With dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, model simulated GPP and latent heat flux (LH) were in much better agreement with observation data than for the without dynamic case. Modeled latent heat improved by 12-27% during the growing season at both sites, leading to the improvement in modeled GPP by 13

  5. Less waste corn, more land in soybeans, and the switch to genetically modified crops: trends with important implications to wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    An abundance of waste corn, a key food of many wildlife species, has helped make possible the widespread success of wildlife management in the United States over the past half century. We found waste corn post harvest in Nebraska declined by 47% from 1978 to 1998 due primarily to improvements in combine headers resulting in a marked decline in ear loss. The reduction in waste coincided with major declines in fat storage by sandhill cranes and white-fronted geese during spring migration. Sandhill cranes, northern pintails, white-fronted geese, and lesser snow geese avoided soybeans while staging in spring in the Rainwater Basin Area and Central Platte River Valley. These findings and other literature suggest soybeans are a marginal food for wildlife particularly during periods of high energy requirements. Soybean acreage has increased by 600% in the United States since 1950 and now comprises nearly one-quarter of the nation>'s cropland. With over 80% of the soybean crop now in genetically modified varieties and treated with glyphosate, weed seed is becoming scarce in soybean fields leaving limited food for wildlife on 72 million acres of U.S. cropland. We suggest that the combined effect of increasing efficiency of crop harvesting techniques, expansion of soybeans and other crops poorly suited for wildlife nutrient needs, and more efficient weed control through the shift to genetically modified crops may severely limit seed-eating wildlife populations in the future unless ways are found to replace high energy food sources being lost. We encourage more research to gain greater insight into effects of declining food resources on wildlife populations and propose that the conservation title of the 2002 farm bill be used as a mechanism to replace part of the high-energy food being lost due to changes in production agriculture.

  6. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

  7. High clearance phenotyping systems for season-long measurement of corn, sorghum and other row crops to complement unmanned aerial vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Seth C.; Knox, Leighton; Hartley, Brandon; Méndez-Dorado, Mario A.; Richardson, Grant; Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Rajan, Nithya; Neely, Haly; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar; Dong, Xuejun; Rooney, William L.

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of plant breeding progress requires accurately estimating plant growth and development parameters to be made over routine intervals within large field experiments. Hand measurements are laborious and time consuming and the most promising tools under development are sensors carried by ground vehicles or unmanned aerial vehicles, with each specific vehicle having unique limitations. Previously available ground vehicles have primarily been restricted to monitoring shorter crops or early growth in corn and sorghum, since plants taller than a meter could be damaged by a tractor or spray rig passing over them. Here we have designed two and already constructed one of these self-propelled ground vehicles with adjustable heights that can clear mature corn and sorghum without damage (over three meters of clearance), which will work for shorter row crops as well. In addition to regular RGB image capture, sensor suites are incorporated to estimate plant height, vegetation indices, canopy temperature and photosynthetically active solar radiation, all referenced using RTK GPS to individual plots. These ground vehicles will be useful to validate data collected from unmanned aerial vehicles and support hand measurements taken on plots.

  8. Implementation of dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model: evaluation of energy, water and carbon fluxes under corn and soybean rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G. F.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide expansion of agriculture is impacting the earth's climate by altering carbon, water, and energy fluxes, but the climate in turn is impacting crop production. To study this two-way interaction and its impact on seasonal dynamics of carbon, water, and energy fluxes, we implemented dynamic crop growth processes into a land surface model, the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). In particular, we implemented crop-specific phenology schemes and dynamic carbon allocation schemes. These schemes account for light, water, and nutrient stresses while allocating the assimilated carbon to leaf, root, stem, and grain pools. The dynamic vegetation structure simulation better captured the seasonal variability in leaf area index (LAI), canopy height, and root depth. We further implemented dynamic root distribution processes in soil layers, which better simulated the root response of soil water uptake and transpiration. Observational data for LAI, above- and belowground biomass, and carbon, water, and energy fluxes were compiled from two AmeriFlux sites, Mead, NE, and Bondville, IL, USA, to calibrate and evaluate the model performance. For the purposes of calibration and evaluation, we use a corn-soybean (C4-C3) rotation system over the period 2001-2004. The calibrated model was able to capture the diurnal and seasonal patterns of carbon assimilation and water and energy fluxes for the corn-soybean rotation system at these two sites. Specifically, the calculated gross primary production (GPP), net radiation fluxes at the top of the canopy, and latent heat fluxes compared well with observations. The largest bias in model results was in sensible heat flux (SH) for corn and soybean at both sites. The dynamic crop growth simulation better captured the seasonal variability in carbon and energy fluxes relative to the static simulation implemented in the original version of ISAM. Especially, with dynamic carbon allocation and root distribution processes, the model

  9. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  10. Urea Fertilizer Decreases N2O Emissions Compared to Anhydrous Ammonia in Corn Cropping Systems in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from corn and soybean fields under different fertilizer regimes is essential to developing national inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study was to compare N2O emissions in plots managed for more than 15 yr under continuous ...

  11. Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

  12. Crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues [e.g., corn (Zea mays) stover and small grain straw] are sometimes excluded when discussing cellulosic energy crops per se, but because of the vast area upon which they are grown and their current role in the development of cellulosic energy systems. This chapter focuses on current cor...

  13. Cellulosic biofuel potential of a winter rye double crop across the U.S. corn-soybean belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in renewable energy sources derived from plant biomass is increasing, raising concern over fuel versus food competition. One strategy to produce additional cellulosic biomass without reducing food-harvest potential is to grow winter cover crops after harvest of the primary summer crop. Thi...

  14. Comparison of Measurements and FluorMOD Simulations for Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Reflectance of a Corn Crop under Nitrogen Treatments [SIF and Reflectance for Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Campbell, Petya K. E.

    2007-01-01

    The FLuorescence Explorer (FLEX) satellite concept is one of six semifinalist mission proposals selected in 2006 for pre-Phase studies by the European Space Agency (ESA). The FLEX concept proposes to measure passive solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) of terrestrial ecosystems. A new spectral vegetation Fluorescence Model (FluorMOD) was developed to include the effects of steady state SIF on canopy reflectance. We used our laboratory and field measurements previously acquired from foliage and canopies of corn (Zea mays L.) under controlled nitrogen (N) fertilization to parameterize and evaluate FluorMOD. Our data included biophysical properties, fluorescence (F) and reflectance spectra for leaves; reflectance spectra of canopies and soil; solar irradiance; plot-level leaf area index; and canopy SIF emissions determined using the Fraunhofer Line Depth principal for the atmospheric telluric oxygen absorption features at 688 nm (O2-beta) and 760 nm (O2-alpha). FluorMOD simulations implemented in the default "look-up-table" mode did not reproduce the observed magnitudes of leaf F, canopy SIF, or canopy reflectance. However, simulations for all of these parameters agreed with observations when the default FluorMOD information was replaced with measurements, although N treatment responses were underestimated. Recommendations were provided to enhance FluorMOD's potential utility in support of SIF field experiments and studies of agriculture and ecosystems.

  15. Containment of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica v.virgifera: continued successful management 2008 in southern Switzerland by monitoring and crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Hans E; Bertossa, M

    2009-01-01

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Col.: Chrysomelidae), known as western corn rootworm (WCR) and endemic in North America, invaded Europe about two decades ago. Various unsuccessful attempts have been made to eradicate it from the Old World. Management with a variety of strategies is the option now remaining. WCR management in Southern Switzerland by a unique containment approach has been practiced successfully since 2003 using biotechnical means. Without any chemical pesticides or GMO input, the Swiss government mandated adherence to strict crop rotation. In addition to the economic benefits of this relatively simple approach, the environment was saved a considerable burden of pesticide applications. Other countries are invited to follow this example of sustainable pest management. PMID:20222583

  16. Diapause in northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticite corn rootworms are prominent pests of maize and have adapted to both cultural and chemical management methods. In response to a widely used corn-soybean crop rotation in the U.S. Corn Belt over several years, northern corn rootworm (NCR) populations adapted by increasing the proportion ...

  17. Wing shape and size of the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is related to sex and resistance to soybean-maize crop rotation.

    PubMed

    Mikac, K M; Douglas, J; Spencer, J L

    2013-08-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize in the United States and more recently, Europe. Understanding the dispersal dynamics of this species will provide crucial information for its management. This study used geometric morphometric analysis of hind wing venation based on 13 landmarks in 223 specimens from nine locations in Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, to assess whether wing shape and size differed between rotated and continuously grown maize where crop rotation-resistant and susceptible individuals are found, respectively. Before assessing differences between rotation-resistant and susceptible individuals, sexual dimorphism was investigated. No significant difference in wing (centroid) size was found between males and females; however, females had significantly different shaped (more elongated) wings compared with males. Wing shape and (centroid) size were significantly larger among individuals from rotated maize where crop-rotation resistance was reported; however, cross-validation of these results revealed that collection site resistance status was an only better than average predictor of shape in males and females. This study provides preliminary evidence of wing shape and size differences in D. v. virgifera from rotated versus continuous maize. Further study is needed to confirm whether wing shape and size can be used to track the movement of rotation-resistant individuals and populations as a means to better inform management strategies. PMID:24020261

  18. Agronomic and economic performance characteristics of conventional and low-external-input cropping systems in the central corn belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture in the Midwestern USA is characterized by heavy reliance on agrichemicals, widespread chemical emissions to water, and strong dependence on government subsidies. Diversified low-external-input (LEI) cropping systems offer important opportunities to reduce use of synthetic fertilizers and...

  19. Comparison of SVM RBF-NN and DT for crop and weed identification based on spectral measurement over corn fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important to find an appropriate pattern-recognition method for in-field plant identification based on spectral measurement in order to classify the crop and weeds accurately. In this study, the method of Support Vector Machine (SVM) was evaluated and compared with two other methods, Decision ...

  20. Use of Crop Simulation Models to Evaluate Limited Irrigation Management Options for Corn in Semi-Arid Environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing competition for land and water resources due to increasing demands from rapid population growth calls for increasing water use efficiency of irrigated crops. It is important to develop location-specific agronomic practices to maximize water use efficiency (WUE). Adequately calibrated and ...

  1. Soil-crop dynamic depth response determined from TDR of a corn silage field compared to EMI measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) mapping techniques have been used to monitor seasonal soil-crop electrical conductivity (EC) dynamics. These mapping techniques can be affected by many confounding seasonal changes in the soil profile, such as water content or salt leaching. Time domain reflectometry ...

  2. Herbicide Transport and Transformations in the Unsaturated Zone of Three Small Agricultural Basins with Corn and Soybean Row Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, T. C.; Vogel, J. R.; Sandstrom, M. W.; Capel, P. D.; Bayless, R. E.; Webb, R. M.

    2006-05-01

    In the United States, herbicides are among the most significant nonpoint-source pollutants and were applied to 95% of all fields in corn production and 97% of all fields in soybean production in 2003 and 2004. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted a study on select herbicides in the unsaturated zone under corn and soybean fields in three predominantly agricultural basins: Morgan Creek (Maryland), Leary Weber Ditch within Sugar Creek (Indiana), and Maple Creek (Nebraska). In 2004, the Morgan Creek and Leary Weber Ditch fields were in soybeans and the Maple Creek fields were in corn. The Maple Creek fields were irrigated, whereas those in Morgan Creek and Leary Weber Ditch were not. Similarities and differences in agricultural management practices, climatic conditions, and natural features, such as soil types and geology, were evaluated as part of the study. In general, the amounts of herbicides entering the unsaturated zone from rain in these basins were minor (1%) compared to amounts commonly applied to the land surface during agricultural practices. Few herbicides were detected on solid core samples from the unsaturated zones of these basins. An exception was found at a Morgan Creek site in an upland recharge area with sandier soils. Here, atrazine concentrations were highest in the near surface solids and decreased with depth. In the unsaturated-zone porewater of the Morgan Creek Basin, parent triazine and acetanilide herbicides were detected and only at the site in the upland recharge area at relatively low concentrations at depths greater than 4 meters, probably because these compounds had not been applied for several years. At the Morgan Creek and Leary Weber Ditch sites, acetanilide metabolites were frequently detected in the unsaturated-zone porewater. In general, the fraction of metolachlor ethane sulfonic acid (ESA) relative to the total mass of parent and metabolites increased with depth overall and at several individual sampling

  3. Impact of the spatial resolution of climatic data and soil physical properties on regional corn yield predictions using the STICS crop model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jégo, Guillaume; Pattey, Elizabeth; Mesbah, S. Morteza; Liu, Jiangui; Duchesne, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    The assimilation of Earth observation (EO) data into crop models has proven to be an efficient way to improve yield prediction at a regional scale by estimating key unknown crop management practices. However, the efficiency of prediction depends on the uncertainty associated with the data provided to crop models, particularly climatic data and soil physical properties. In this study, the performance of the STICS (Simulateur mulTIdisciplinaire pour les Cultures Standard) crop model for predicting corn yield after assimilation of leaf area index derived from EO data was evaluated under different scenarios. The scenarios were designed to examine the impact of using fine-resolution soil physical properties, as well as the impact of using climatic data from either one or four weather stations across the region of interest. The results indicate that when only one weather station was used, the average annual yield by producer was predicted well (absolute error <5%), but the spatial variability lacked accuracy (root mean square error = 1.3 t ha-1). The model root mean square error for yield prediction was highly correlated with the distance between the weather stations and the fields, for distances smaller than 10 km, and reached 0.5 t ha-1 for a 5-km distance when fine-resolution soil properties were used. When four weather stations were used, no significant improvement in model performance was observed. This was because of a marginal decrease (30%) in the average distance between fields and weather stations (from 10 to 7 km). However, the yield predictions were improved by approximately 15% with fine-resolution soil properties regardless of the number of weather stations used. The impact of the uncertainty associated with the EO-derived soil textures and the impact of alterations in rainfall distribution were also evaluated. A variation of about 10% in any of the soil physical textures resulted in a change in dry yield of 0.4 t ha-1. Changes in rainfall distribution

  4. Evaluation of the CENTURY Model Using Long-Term Fertilization Trials under Corn-Wheat Cropping Systems in the Typical Croplands of China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rihuan; Wang, Xiujun; Xu, Minggang; Ogle, Stephen M.; Parton, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Soil organic matter models are widely used to study soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. Here, we used the CENTURY model to simulate SOC in wheat-corn cropping systems at three long-term fertilization trials. Our study indicates that CENTURY can simulate fertilization effects on SOC dynamics under different climate and soil conditions. The normalized root mean square error is less than 15% for all the treatments. Soil carbon presents various changes under different fertilization management. Treatment with straw return would enhance SOC to a relatively stable level whereas chemical fertilization affects SOC differently across the three sites. After running CENTURY over the period of 1990–2050, the SOC levels are predicted to increase from 31.8 to 52.1 Mg ha−1 across the three sites. We estimate that the carbon sequestration potential between 1990 and 2050 would be 9.4–35.7 Mg ha−1 under the current high manure application at the three sites. Analysis of SOC in each carbon pool indicates that long-term fertilization enhances the slow pool proportion but decreases the passive pool proportion. Model results suggest that change in the slow carbon pool is the major driver of the overall trends in SOC stocks under long-term fertilization. PMID:24751981

  5. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  6. Risk Management of GM Crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    Driven by biofuel demand, a significant increase in GM corn acreage is anticipated for the 2007 growing season with future planted GM corn acreage approaching 80% of the corn crop by 2009. As demand increases, grower non-compliance with mandated planting requirements is likely to...

  7. Corn yield and water use efficiency under contrasting irrigation application methods: an AquaCrop study contrasting subsurface drip and sprinkler irrigation methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain corn (Zea mays, L.) is sensitive to soil water availability, which can be influenced by irrigation application method. Four facts motivate deficit irrigation of corn in this region. First, declining Ogallala aquifer well yields limit water availability and thus the area of land that can be irr...

  8. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  9. Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications for Corn Based on Sufficiency Index Calculations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn was grown in both continuous corn and corn/soybean cropping systems under irrigation in the Platte Valley of Nebraska. The objective of the study was to determine whether in-season N stress measured by using chlorophyll meters could be used to determine N fertilizer applications. Four corn hyb...

  10. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  11. The 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The successful fulfillment of the objectives for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment is reported. The objectives were: (1) detect the development and spread of corn blight during the growing season across the Corn Belt; (2) assess different levels of infection in the Corn Belt; (3) amplify data acquired by ground observations to better appraise current blight status and the probable impact on crop production; and (4) estimate through extrapolation the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  12. 7 CFR 407.11 - Area risk protection insurance for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for corn. 407.11... protection insurance for corn. The corn crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for the... Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Corn Crop Insurance Provisions 1. Definitions...

  13. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  14. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. PMID:26470183

  15. Feasibility for improving phytonutrient content in vegetable crops using conventional breeding strategies: case study with carotenoids and tocopherols in sweet corn and broccoli.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Khalid E; Juvik, John A

    2009-06-10

    Among vegetables, sweet corn ( Zea mays L.) and broccoli ( Brassica oleracea L. ssp. italica) are important sources of dietary carotenoids and tocopherols. Because medical evidence suggests that carotenoid and tocopherol health-promoting activity acts in a dose-dependent manner, conventional breeding to develop elite sweet corn and broccoli germplasm with enhanced levels of these phytochemicals will potentially promote health among the consuming public. This investigation includes the quantitative analysis of carotenoid and tocopherol contents of 41 corn and 24 broccoli genotypes grown in multiple environments (years and seasons in one location) to partition the variation into genetic, environment, and genotype by environment interaction (GxE) components and measure the phenotypic stability of genotypes for these phytochemicals. The primary carotenoids and tocopherols in corn were lutein and gamma-tocopherol (65 and 73% of total carotenoid and tocopherol, respectively), whereas beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were dominant in broccoli (65 and 79% of total carotenoid and tocopherol, respectively). Partitioning of the variance indicated that genetic differences among the genotypes averaged for the primary compounds in corn (lutein, zeaxanthin, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) and broccoli (beta-carotene, lutein, and alpha- and gamma-tocopherol) accounted for the largest proportion of the variation (67 and 55% of total phenotypic variation averaged across the phytochemicals in sweet corn and broccoli, respectively). Stability analysis identified several corn (IL451b sh2 and IL2027-8 sh2) and broccoli ('Pirate' and 'Baccus') genotypes with relatively high mean concentrations for the various carotenoids and tocopherols that were comparatively stable across seasons and years. The results of this investigation suggest that sweet corn and broccoli germplasm with enhanced concentrations of carotenoids and tocopherols can be developed using conventional breeding protocols

  16. Effects of changes in land use on soil physical properties and soil organic carbon content in a wheat-corn-sunflower crop sequence, in a loam soil of Argentina.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, V.; Costa, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    The Argentinean Humid Pampas extend over about 60 million hectares, 90% of which are agricultural lands. The Southeast of the Buenos Aires Province is part of the Humid Pampas, it covers over 1,206,162 hectares, the mean annual temperature is 13.3 °C and the climate is sub-humid. At the present only 6% of the lands are used for pasture. The main activities are agriculture and cattle production. The main crops are wheat, sunflower, corn and soybean. The tillage systems used in the area are: moldboard plow (MP), chisel plow (CP) and no-till (NT). Excessive soil cultivation under MP generates decreases in the levels of soil organic carbon (SOC). The magnitude of such decrease depends on the intensity of the tillage system, the tillage timeliness and the amount and quality of the residues. Adopting NT may reduce the effects of intensive agriculture, through the maintenance and accumulation of SOC. However, there are evidences that, under NT, the bulk density (ρb) in the superficial layers of the soil increases. The soil compaction causes degradation of the soil structure, reduces the soil water availability and reduces the soil hydraulic conductivity. With this scenario and the tendency to increase the surface under NT in the Southeast Humid Pampas, we evaluated the evolution of some soil physical properties and the SOC in a 10-year experiment with a wheat-corn-sunflower rotation. The experiment was carried out in four localities at farmerś fields under three different tillage systems: MP, CP and NT in a randomized complete block design, considering each locality as a block. Each plot had 50 m in width by 100 m length and the treatments were: NT, MP and CP. The results of this experiment have allowed us to verify that: i) the wheat-corn-sunflower crop sequence showed a tendency to reduce the values of bulk density (ρb) but NT increased ρb in the superficial soil layers; ii) the more intensive the tillage system, the higher the change in the mean weight diameter

  17. Concepts in crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotations have been a part of civilization since the Middle Ages. With colonization of what would become the United States came new crops of tobacco, cotton, and corn, the first two of which would play significant roles in both the economic beginnings and social fabric of the new country, how ...

  18. Intraspecific and interspecific competition in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition among crop plants (i.e. intraspecific) and between crop and weed plants (i.e. interspecific) likely co-occurs in many sweet corn fields; however, a fundamental understanding of the extent to which the crop is affected by the combination of these stresses is unknown. The objective of this...

  19. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  20. Within-Season Changes in the Residual Weed Community and Crop Tolerance to Interference over the Long Planting Season of Sweet Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet corn is planted over a long season to temporally extend the perishable supply of ears for fresh and processing markets. Most growers’ fields have weeds persisting to harvest (hereafter called residual weeds), and evidence suggests the crop’s ability to endure competitive stress from residual ...

  1. Use of a mustard trap crop to study efficacy of Beauveria bassiana treatments to corn and soybean for control of tarnished plant bug in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary field study was conducted in 2012 to measure impact of spraying tassel-stage corn and blooming early-maturity-group soybean with Beauveria bassiana on tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) populations before they colonize cotton. Four-row strips of mustard (total...

  2. Influence of fertilizer placement on gaseous loss (CO2, CH4, N2O, and NH4) under different tillage management practices in a corn cropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilizer application methods could alter plant yield and quality of corn production. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Sand Mountain Research Station located in the Appalachian Plateau region of Northeast Alabama on a Hartsells fine sandy loam to evaluate tillage (conventi...

  3. In-field rates of decomposition and microbial communities colonizing residues vary by depth of residue placement and plant part, but not by crop genotype for residues from two Cry1AB Bt corn hybrids and their non-transgenic i

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of Bt corn has been largely overshadowed by concerns about their unintended effects on human health and the environment. Residues of transgenic Bt crops decomposed more slowly than their non-transgenic isolines in one laboratory study, although no mechanism to explain these observations...

  4. Large area application of a corn hazard model. [Soviet Union

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashburn, P.; Taylor, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    An application test of the crop calendar portion of a corn (maize) stress indicator model developed by the early warning, crop condition assessment component of AgRISTARS was performed over the corn for grain producing regions of the U.S.S.R. during the 1980 crop year using real data. Performance of the crop calendar submodel was favorable; efficiency gains in meteorological data analysis time were on a magnitude of 85 to 90 percent.

  5. Fuel ethanol production from crop residues and processing byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007, the production of fuel ethanol from corn starch reached 6.5 billion gallons in the U.S.A. Various crop residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, and barley straw, and crop processing byproducts such as corn fiber and rice hulls can serve as low-cost lignocellulosic feedstocks for conversi...

  6. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  7. Corn production with Spray, LEPA, and SDI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, a major irrigated crop in the U.S. Great Plains, has a large irrigation requirement making efficient, effective irrigation technology important. The objective of this paper was to compare corn productivity for different irrigation methods and irrigation rates in 2009 and 2010 at Bushland, Texa...

  8. Erraticity of sprinkler irrigated corn in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprinkler non-uniformity effects on corn are accentuated in a drought. The lack of rainfall during the 2011 corn growing season in Colby, Kansas illustrated many fields irrigated by center pivot sprinklers that had poor crops due to non-uniform irrigation. Many of these effects were due to use of ...

  9. Less waste corn, more land in soybeans, and the switch to genetically modified crops: Trends with important implications for wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Brandt, D.A.; Cox, R.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    American agriculture has provided abundant high-energy foods for migratory and resident wildlife populations since the onset of modern wildlife management. Responding to anecdotal evidence that corn residues are declining in cropland, we remeasured waste corn post-harvest in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska during 1997 and 1998 to compare with 1978. Post-harvest waste corn averaged 2.6% and 1.8% of yield in 1997 and 1998, respectively. After accounting for a 20% increase in yield, waste corn in 1997 and 1998 was reduced 24% and 47% from 1978. We also evaluated use of soybeans by spring-staging sandhill cranes (Crus canadensis) and waterfowl during spring 1998 and 1999. Despite being widely available in the CPRV, soybeans did not occur in esophageal contents of sandhill cranes (n=174), northern pintails (Anas acuta, n=139), greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons, n=198), or lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens, n=208) collected with food in their esophagi. Lack of soybean consumption by cranes and waterfowl in Nebraska in early spring builds upon previously published findings, suggesting that soybeans are poorly suited for meeting nutrient needs of wildlife requiring a high-energy diet. Given evidence that high-energy food and numerous populations of seed-eating species found on farmland are declining, and the enormous potential risk to game and nongame wildlife populations if high-energy foods were to become scarce, a comprehensive research effort to study the problem appears warranted. Provisions under the Conservation Security subtitle of The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 offer a potential mechanism to encourage producers to manage cropland in ways that would replace part of the high-energy foods that have been lost to increasing efficiency of production agriculture.

  10. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  11. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  12. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  13. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  14. Soil aggregation response to harvesting corn stover for bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a primary feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production in the U.S. Corn/Soybean Belt because of the vast area upon which the crop is grown. Developing sustainable cellulosic ethanol from corn stover residue has also been identified as a high priority...

  15. Corn Response to Nitrogen Following Onion in Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, we evaluated the effects of residual soil N level plus applied N fertilizer (6 N rates) on corn grain yields and corn N uptake following the 2005 onion crop. Residual soil N levels in the 0- to 6-ft soil profile at corn planting ranged from 86 to 189 lb N/a where furrow irrigation was used...

  16. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  17. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  18. RELAY-CROPPING TO IMPROVE N MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat was seeded as a cover crop shortly after seed corn harvest in an attempt to remove residual N from soil so that nitrate would be unavailable for leaching. Because the growing season in the Corn Belt is not long enough to accommodate harvesting full crops of wheat and soybean in the same...

  19. Rotational Effects of Cuphea on Corn, Spring Wheat, and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural diversity is lacking in the northern Corn Belt. Adding crop diversity to rotations can give economic and environmental benefits. Cuphea (Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. x C. lanceolata W.T. Aiton; PSR23), which grows well in the northern Corn Belt, is a new oilseed crop and a source of medium...

  20. Corn performance under managed drought stress and in a kura clover living mulch intercropping system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A corn (Zea mays L.) and kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) intercropping system provides ecological services but competition for water between the grain crop and the living mulch crop leads to reduced corn yields. Our objectives in this study were to determine (i) if drought-tolerant corn ca...

  1. Hypoxia in Chilean Patagonian Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nelson; Vargas, Cristian A.

    2014-12-01

    Chilean Patagonia is one of the largest estuarine systems in the world. It is characterized by a complex geography of approximately 3300 islands, a total surface area of 240,000 km2, and 84,000 km of coast line, including islands, peninsulas, channels, fjords, and sounds. The Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea is filled with a mixture of sea, estuarine, and fresh waters, and is characterized by a two layer vertical general circulation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions in these fjords were analyzed based on historic salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrient data from 1200 oceanographic stations. Horizontal advection of adjacent well oxygenated Subantarctic Waters (5-6 mL L-1) was the mayor source of DO in the deep layers of the Interior Sea. Incoming DO was consumed by the respiration of autochthonous and allochthonous particulate organic matter, as ocean water flows towards the continental fjord heads, reaching near-hypoxic (2-3 mL L-1) or hypoxic levels (<2 mL L-1). As DO declined nutrient concentrations increased towards the fjord heads (from ∼1.6 μM PO4-3 and ∼16 μM NO3- to ∼2.4 μM PO4-3 and ∼24 μM NO3-). Overall, DO conditions in the Interior Sea were mostly the result of a combination of physical and biogeochemical processes. In all eastern channels and fjords, a low DO zone developed near the fjord heads (<4 mL L-1) as a result of larger allochthonous particulate organic matter inputs transported by local rivers. This enhanced organic matter input to the deep layer increased DO consumption due to respiration and overwhelmed the oxygen supplied by horizontal advection. Out of the 90 Chilean Patagonian gulfs, channels and fjords analyzed, 86 systems were oxic (>2 mL L-1) and four hypoxic (<2 mL L-1), but only at their heads. None were found to be anoxic (0 mL L-1). We found these DO conditions to be permanent features of the Chilean Patagonia Interior Sea.

  2. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    PubMed

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  3. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn

    PubMed Central

    Maine, Josiah J.; Boyles, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  4. IN-SEASON N MANAGEMENT FOR IRRIGATED CORN USING CHLOROPHYLL METERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn was grown in both continuous corn and corn/soybean cropping systems under irrigation in the Platte Valley of Nebraska. The objective of the study was to determine whether in-season N stress measured by using chlorophyll meters could be used to determine N fertilizer applications. Four corn hybr...

  5. Production cost analysis and use of pesticides in the transgenic and conventional corn crop [Zea mays (L.)] in the valley of San Juan, Tolima.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Kelly Avila; Chaparro Giraldo, Alejandro; Moreno, Giovanni Reyes; Castro, Carlos Silva

    2011-01-01

    A survey of 10 producers of conventional corn (Hybrids PAC 105 and Maximus) and 10 producers of transgenic corn (Pioneer Hybrid 30T17) was carried out in the municipality of Valle de San Juan in the territorial division of Tolima (Colombia), in order to analyze the differences in production costs and environmental impacts of these two agricultural technologies.  The environmental impacts were determined by calculating the field "Environmental Index Quotient" (EIQ). In the production cost analysis, a difference of 15% was found in benefit of the transgenic technology. The structure of costs of the transgenic technology was benefited by the reduced use of pesticides (insecticides and herbicides). In regards to production, the transgenic technology showed a greater yield, 5.22 ton/ha in comparison to 4.25 ton/ha the conventional technology, thus a 22% difference in yield. Finally, the EIQ calculation showed quantitative differences of 196.12 for the conventional technology (EIQ insecticides 165.14 + EIQ herbicides 30.98), while the transgenic technology was of 4.24 (EIQ insecticides 0 + EIQ herbicides 4.24). These results show a minor environmental impact when using the transgenic technology in comparison to the conventional technology, in regards to the use of insecticides and herbicides in a temporal, spatial and genotypical context analysis. : PMID:22008311

  6. Effects of low-disturbance manure application methods on N2O and NH3 emissions in a silage corn - rye cover crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of manure by tillage can conserve manure N by reducing ammonia volatilization losses, but tillage also incorporates crop residue, which may increase erosion potential. This study compared several low-disturbance manure application methods, designed to incorporate manure while maintaini...

  7. Tillage and Fertilizer Application Practices Effects on Greenhouse Gas Flux (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and Yield in a Corn Cropping System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tillage and fertilization practices used in row crop production are thought to alter greenhouse gas emissions from soil. Thus, a field experiment was conducted at the Sand Mountain Research and Extension Center located in the Appalachian Plateau region of Northeast Alabama on a Hartsells fine sandy ...

  8. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  9. Corn yields benefit in rotations with cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotations have long been stated to benefit all species involved in the sequence. Continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been the primary crop for much of the Mississippi Delta until recently. Corn (Zea mays L.) is now grown on about 1 million acres in the states of Arkansas, Mississippi...

  10. High Moisture Corn Evaluated for Northern Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitable rotation crops that can grow in cool, northern Maine climates are needed to sustain the diversity of potato systems. A field experiment was conducted to determine whether three high moisture corn hybrids were suitable for harvest as a short season rotation crop. Yield and grain moisture...

  11. Quantifying the impact of changes in crop area on evapotranspiration regimes in the US corn and soybean belts through phenological modeling and data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalskyy, V.; Henebry, G. M.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, fluctuations in food, feed, and fuel prices have led to shifts in the area of cropland dedicated to maize and soybean cultivation in the Northern Great Plains. We report here on a modeling experiment that compares three different simulated scenarios for actual evapotranspiration (ETa) from maize-soybean dominated areas in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, and Minnesota during the 2000-2009 growing seasons. Scenario 1 relies on MODIS-derived crop maps to provide a baseline of subpixel crop proportions; Scenario 2 increases the proportion of maize by to 100 percent; Scenario 3 substitutes grassland for half the maize. We use a simple soil water balance model of ETa linked to an empirically derived crop specific phenology model also capable of producing seasonal trajectories of canopy attributes. This coupled model has been successfully deployed using flux tower records from multiple locations in the central US. Forcing the coupled model using data from NLDAS, we derive seasonal trajectories of daily NDVI and ETa as well as phenological transition points for maize, soybean, and grassland for each scenario. Seasonal differences in ETa among the three scenarios underscore the importance of how land use modulates land surface phenologies and, in turn, water and energy balances.

  12. Remote sensing of agricultural crops and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Research in the correlative and noncorrelative approaches to image registration and the spectral estimation of corn canopy phytomass and water content is reported. Scene radiation research results discussed include: corn and soybean LANDSAT MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics; estimating crop development stages from MSS data; the interception of photosynthetically active radiation in corn and soybean canopies; costs of measuring leaf area index of corn; LANDSAT spectral inputs to crop models including the use of the greenness index to assess crop stress and the evaluation of MSS data for estimating corn and soybean development stages; field research experiment design data acquisition and preprocessing; and Sun-view angles studies of corn and soybean canopies in support of vegetation canopy reflection modeling.

  13. Response of corn to organic matter quantity and distribution in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this experiment were to: 1. Quantify the agronomic response of corn to tillage and cover crop management, 2. Determine soil quality changes following cropping of previous land in pasture, and 3. Estimate economics of corn production in response to tillage and cover crop management....

  14. Crop diversity sequencing can improve crop tolerance to weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn-soybean rotation in eastern South Dakota has led to a weed community comprised of species with similar life cycles to the crops; subsequently, weed management is a major input cost for producers. We are exploring crop diversity in this rotation to determine if producers can reduce the need...

  15. NASA Provides Assistance to Trapped Chilean Miners

    NASA Video Gallery

    Responding to a request received through the U.S. Department of State from the Chilean minister of health, NASA will provide advice in nutritional and behavioral sciences to assist miners trapped a...

  16. Chilean Volcano: June 24-26

    NASA Video Gallery

    This GOES-13 satellite imagery shows the Chilean caldera still emitting a steady stream of ash, three weeks after the initial eruption on June 4, 2011. The cold winter wind from the south carries i...

  17. Spatiotemporal distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in corn farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn-cotton farmscapes, four of six corn-peanut farmscapes, and in both corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton-sorghum at the peanut-cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  18. Corn-in-chip: Mesofluidic Device for Corn Root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, Kevin; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-03-01

    Plants have a collection of beneficial microorganisms in a region surrounding their roots called the rhizosphere. Although rhizosphere management could increase crop yield, little is known about the interaction between plant roots and their associated microorganisms. Thus we aim to simulate the rhizosphere and monitor root-microbe interactions in the lab environment, and have chosen corn as a model plant because of its economic significance. Here we present our preliminary study to develop a transparent mesofluidic device accommodating the root of corn seedlings into its channel and allowing further growth of the root.

  19. Long-term tillage and poultry litter application impacts on crop production in northeastern Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conservation tillage, manure application, and crop rotations are thought to increase yields compared to conventional monoculture (continuous cropping system without rotation) tillage systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate cropping sequences of corn with a wheat cover crop and corn with...

  20. Future generation energy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although cropping systems in the Midwest that emphasize corn (Zea mays), soybean (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are some of the most highly productive in the US, the growing lack of agricultural diversity in this region threatens to jeopardize long-term sustainability. Added to this co...

  1. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  2. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  3. Selection of herbaceous energy crops for the western corn belt. Final report Part 1: Agronomic aspects, March 1, 1988--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hallam, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    The relative high cost of energy derived from biomass is a major deterrent to greater use of biomass for energy production One of the most important methods of lowering the cost of dedicated biomass production is to increase the yield per unit of land area so that fixed costs can be applied to more tons of forage. For this study, the authors selected grass and legume crops with potential for high biomass yields and those that offer protection from soil erosion. The research reported here was conducted to identify those species and cultural practices that would result in high biomass yields for various land capabilities with acceptable and soil erosion potential. They also conducted research to determine if intercropping sorghum into alfalfa or reed canarygrass could increase biomass yields over alfalfa or reed canarygrass grown alone and still have the advantage for limiting soil erosion.

  4. Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers are interested in tactics for managing crop residues when growing corn after spring wheat. We compared five systems of managing spring wheat residues: conventional tillage, no-till, strip-till, cover crop (hairy vetch) with no-till, and cover crop with strip-till following spring wheat. ...

  5. An integrated modeling framework for exploring flow regime and water quality changes with increasing biofuel crop production in the U.S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaeger, Mary A.; Housh, Mashor; Cai, Ximing; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-12-01

    To better address the dynamic interactions between human and hydrologic systems, we develop an integrated modeling framework that employs a System of Systems optimization model to emulate human development decisions which are then incorporated into a watershed model to estimate the resulting hydrologic impacts. The two models are run interactively to simulate the coevolution of coupled human-nature systems, such that reciprocal feedbacks between hydrologic processes and human decisions (i.e., human impacts on critical low flows and hydrologic impacts on human decisions on land and water use) can be assessed. The framework is applied to a Midwestern U.S. agricultural watershed, in the context of proposed biofuels development. This operation is illustrated by projecting three possible future coevolution trajectories, two of which use dedicated biofuel crops to reduce annual watershed nitrate export while meeting ethanol production targets. Imposition of a primary external driver (biofuel mandate) combined with different secondary drivers (water quality targets) results in highly nonlinear and multiscale responses of both the human and hydrologic systems, including multiple tradeoffs, impacting the future coevolution of the system in complex, heterogeneous ways. The strength of the hydrologic response is sensitive to the magnitude of the secondary driver; 45% nitrate reduction target leads to noticeable impacts at the outlet, while a 30% reduction leads to noticeable impacts that are mainly local. The local responses are conditioned by previous human-hydrologic modifications and their spatial relationship to the new biofuel development, highlighting the importance of past coevolutionary history in predicting future trajectories of change.

  6. 7 CFR 457.113 - Coarse grains crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grains Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Coarse grains. Corn, grain sorghum, and soybeans. Grain sorghum... cash grain price per bushel for the U.S. No. 2 yellow corn, U.S. No. 2 grain sorghum, or U.S. No. 1... yellow corn and grain sorghum, or U.S. No. 1 grade for soybeans. Factors not associated with...

  7. 7 CFR 457.113 - Coarse grains crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grains Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Coarse grains. Corn, grain sorghum, and soybeans. Grain sorghum... cash grain price per bushel for the U.S. No. 2 yellow corn, U.S. No. 2 grain sorghum, or U.S. No. 1... yellow corn and grain sorghum, or U.S. No. 1 grade for soybeans. Factors not associated with...

  8. 7 CFR 457.113 - Coarse grains crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grains Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Coarse grains— Corn, grain sorghum, and soybeans. Grain sorghum... cash grain price per bushel for the U.S. No. 2 yellow corn, U.S. No. 2 grain sorghum, or U.S. No. 1... yellow corn and grain sorghum, or U.S. No. 1 grade for soybeans. Factors not associated with...

  9. 7 CFR 457.113 - Coarse grains crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grains Crop Provisions 1. Definitions Coarse grains. Corn, grain sorghum, and soybeans. Grain sorghum... cash grain price per bushel for the U.S. No. 2 yellow corn, U.S. No. 2 grain sorghum, or U.S. No. 1... yellow corn and grain sorghum, or U.S. No. 1 grade for soybeans. Factors not associated with...

  10. Corn kernel oil and corn fiber oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most edible plant oils that are obtained directly from oil-rich seeds by either pressing or solvent extraction, corn seeds (kernels) have low levels of oil (4%) and commercial corn oil is obtained from the corn germ (embryo) which is an oil-rich portion of the kernel. Commercial corn oil cou...

  11. HLA antigens in cardiomyopathic Chilean chagasics.

    PubMed Central

    Llop, E; Rothhammer, F; Acuña, M; Apt, W

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of HLA antigens in a sample of 124 Chagas serologically positive Chilean individuals was studied. The sample was subdivided according to the presence or absence of chagasic cardiomyopathy, in order to search for genetic differences associated with this pathological condition. The frequency of antigen B40 in the presence of antigen Cw3 was found to be significantly lower in subjects with cardiomyopathy. We tentatively suggest that the presence of these antigens among noncardiomyopathics is associated with a decreased susceptibility to develop chagasic cardiomyopathy in the Chilean population. PMID:3189340

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from traditional and biofuels cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems can have a tremendous effect on the greenhouse gas emissions from soils. The objectives of this study were to compare greenhouse gas emissions from traditional (continuous corn or corn/soybean rotation) and biomass (miscanthus, sorghum, switchgrass) cropping systems. Biomass croppin...

  13. Growth and yield of winter wheat as affected by preceding crop and crop management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers in eastern South Dakota are interested in adding winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to the corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max Merrill) rotation to improve crop yield and pest management. Our study quantified winter wheat response to preceding crop and crop management. Preceding cro...

  14. Planting dates for multiple cropping of biofuel feedstock and specialty crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is necessary to determine planting and harvesting windows in order to develop production systems for biofuel feedstock and specialty crops in rotation. The biodiesel feedstock crops Canola and Sunflower; and the bioethanol feedstock crops Sorghum and Sweet corn were established at various dates ...

  15. Nitrogen fertilization affects corn cellulosic biomass and ethanol yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research results on the effects of N management on corn (Zea mays L.) grain production in high-yielding cropping systems are widely available, but information on its effects on cellulosic ethanol potential from corn stover and cobs is limited. Stover and cob biomass and respective ethanol yields all...

  16. Areawide Insect Management Plans for Corn Rootworm Using GIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of maize in the United States and Europe. Historically, chemical pesticides and crop rotation have been used to control these pests, creating economic and environmental concerns. A five year corn rootworm areawide management program was es...

  17. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  18. IMPACT OF OZONE ON FIELD-CORN YIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field corn(Zea mays L.) is the most important agricultural crop in the U.S. and the major production areas are subjected to potentially damaging concentrations of ozone (O3). Since no information was available regarding the sensitivity of field-corn hybrids grown in the Midwest, ...

  19. Does K affect N response of corn after alfalfa?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for farmers to apply optimum K rates for alfalfa-corn rotations. However, little is understood about the effect of excess K applied to alfalfa on the subsequent corn crop's grain and silage yield. Furthermore, relatively ...

  20. Canopy Reflectance Sensing as Impacted by Corn Hybrid Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of physical and chemical properties with canopy reflectance sensing could help predict the overall health and yield of a corn crop. Little research has been done to show differences of corn hybrids on canopy reflectance sensing. This study was conducted to examine potential hybrid differe...

  1. WILD PROSO MILLET SUPPRESSION AMONG SWEET CORN HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in canopy architecture among sweet corn hybrids influences the effectiveness of weed management systems, both in short-term objectives (e.g. maximizing crop yield and quality) and long-term goals (e.g. weed seedbank depletion). Several canopy traits in sweet corn, such as height and canop...

  2. Insect Screening Results: Assessment of Corn Hybrids for Insect Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the growing season of 2006, the relatively dry environmental conditions in Tifton, Georgia were favorable for the rapid buildup of corn earworms, providing the potential for considerable damage to the corn crop. Six ear-feeding insects recorded in the order of infestation severity were: the...

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamic after corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuel production from plant biomass seems to be a suitable solution to mitigate fossil fuel use and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Corn (Zea mays) is a highly promising crop for biomass production. However, stover harvest could negatively impact soil properties. Changes in the quantity of corn r...

  4. Monitoring agricultural cropping patterns across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin using MODIS-NDVI data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunetta, Ross S.; Shao, Yang; Ediriwickrema, Jayantha; Lyon, John G.

    2010-04-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 16-day composite data product (MOD12Q) was used to develop annual cropland and crop-specific map products (corn, soybeans, and wheat) for the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The crop area distributions and changes in crop rotations were characterized by comparing annual crop map products for 2005, 2006, and 2007. The total acreages for corn and soybeans were relatively balanced for calendar years 2005 (31,462 km 2 and 31,283 km 2, respectively) and 2006 (30,766 km 2 and 30,972 km 2, respectively). Conversely, corn acreage increased approximately 21% from 2006 to 2007, while soybean and wheat acreage decreased approximately 9% and 21%, respectively. Two-year crop rotational change analyses were conducted for the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 time periods. The large increase in corn acreages for 2007 introduced crop rotation changes across the GLB. Compared to 2005-2006, crop rotation patterns for 2006-2007 resulted in increased corn-corn, soybean-corn, and wheat-corn rotations. The increased corn acreages could have potential negative impacts on nutrient loadings, pesticide exposures, and sediment-mediated habitat degradation. Increased in US corn acreages in 2007 were related to new biofuel mandates, while Canadian increases were attributed to higher world-wide corn prices. Additional study is needed to determine the potential impacts of increases in corn-based ethanol agricultural production on watershed ecosystems and receiving waters.

  5. Explaining public resistance to genetically modified corn: an analysis of the distribution of benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia

    2004-06-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have met with widespread approval among scientists and policy makers in the United States, but public approval of GM crops, both domestically and abroad, is progressing much more slowly. An underlying cause of public wariness may be that both nations and individual consumers do not perceive significant benefits to themselves from GM crops, while fearing the risks they may incur. In this study, an economic analysis is conducted to determine whether the benefits of one type of GM corn, Bt corn (genetically modified to resist damage from the ECB and Southwestern corn borer), outweigh the potential risks; and who the "winners" and "losers" are among stakeholder groups that may be affected by Bt corn. It is found that Bt corn growers, consumers, and industry all benefit from Bt corn adoption, though the purported health and environmental benefits of reducing chemical pesticide usage through Bt corn are negligible. Though the aggregated public benefit is large, the welfare gain to individual consumers is small and may not make up for perceived risks. While environmental and health risks of Bt corn are unlikely, the potential market risks-impacting both the organic corn market and total U.S. corn exports-are found to be significant. Currently, distributional analysis is not a part of regulatory decision making of Bt corn in the United States; yet it may help to explain why decision makers at both the government and individual-consumer levels have failed to embrace Bt corn and other GM crops. PMID:15209940

  6. Residue management, nitrogen, and carbon amendment effects on corn under full and limited irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn residue is a suitable feedstock for livestock forage and cellulosic ethanol. However, information about the response of the subsequent corn crop to residue removal in irrigated no-till continuous corn rotations is lacking. Subsequently, little is known regarding its response under limited irrig...

  7. Yield response to landscape position under variable N for irrigated corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable nutrient and water supply can result in spatial and temporal variation in crop yield within a given agricultural field. For the western Corn Belt, irrigated corn accounts for 58% of total annual corn production with the majority grown in Nebraska. Although irrigation decreases temporal yi...

  8. Tillage and Water Deficit Stress Effects on Corn (Zea mays, L.) Root Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One goal of soil management is to provide optimum conditions for root growth. Corn root distributions were measured in 2004 from a crop rotation – tillage experiment that was started in 2000. Corn was grown either following corn or following sunflower with either no till or deep chisel tillage. Wate...

  9. TILLAGE AND ROTATION EFFECTS ON ENERGY BALANCES IN CORN AND SOYBEAN SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information is available regarding the effect of common management practices on the energy balance of corn and soybean cropping systems. Energy balances were calculated for continuous corn, continuous soybean, and corn-soybean rotations under six tillage treatments that included no-tillage, ...

  10. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt c...

  11. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  12. Examining Text Environments in Elementary Chilean Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana-Garcia, Pelusa; Sailors, Misty

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the social practices related to literacy in classrooms in Chile in order to examine school-based literacy practices. We also examined the constraints and affordances literacy learning offered Chilean students. Through our case study and cross-case analysis, we discovered that although the classrooms contained an…

  13. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  14. Chilean Universities and Institutional Quality Assurance Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Daniel A.; Rojas, Maria J.; López, Boris A.; López, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the university accreditation processes in Chilean universities. The aim is to determine the effects of the different variables, especially the type of institutions (state- and privately owned, with and without state financial support) on the results obtained.…

  15. ICT & Learning in Chilean Schools: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    By the early nineties a Chilean network on computers and education for public schools had emerged. There were both high expectancies that technology could revolutionize education as well as divergent voices that doubted the real impact of technology on learning. This paper presents an evaluation of the Enlaces network, a national Information and…

  16. Statistical modeling of yield and variance instability in conventional and organic cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems research was undertaken to address declining crop diversity and verify competitiveness of alternatives to the predominant conventional cropping system in the northern Corn Belt. To understand and capitalize on temporal yield variability within corn and soybean fields, we quantified ...

  17. Corn grain yield and soil properties after 10 years of broiler litter amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  18. Developing nitrogen recommendations for corn with an on-the-go canopy reflectance sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to compare the potential for developing N recommendations for corn based on crop reflectance with those developed from more traditional approaches. Corn yield response to N was determined for N applied at the 8-leaf growth stage. Crop reflectance (590 nm and 880 nm) was determined ...

  19. Sidedressed dairy manure effects on corn yield and nitrate leaching potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of livestock manure to an annual crop such as corn is typically limited to relatively short time periods in the fall after harvest or in the spring before planting. Direct incorporation or injection into a growing corn crop at sidedress time offers another window of time for manure appli...

  20. A re-examination of corn (Zea mays L.) ear volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) is a major insect pest of corn and other agricultural crops. In corn adult moths commonly lay eggs on silk of ripening ears. After hatching, larvae feed on silk and developing kernels. This reduces crop quality and may increase fungal infection and mycotoxin production. Subs...

  1. Corn grain yield and soil properties under decade-long broiler litter amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of broiler litter nutrients for crop production benefits crops, soils, and aids in disposing manure. Understanding corn (Zea mays L.) grain production and soil properties resulting from long-term poultry litter amendment helps establish a sustainable animal manure based corn production with low ...

  2. ECONOMICS AND ENERGY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM ALFALFA, CORN, AND SWITCHGRASS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., biomass crop systems will be needed to meet future ethanol production goals. We estimated production costs, profits, and energy budgets for three potential crop systems for the Upper Midwest: continuous corn, an alfalfa-corn rotation, and switchgrass. Production costs, profits, and on-f...

  3. ECONOMICS AND ENERGY OF ETHANOL PRODUCTION FROM ALFALFA, CORN, AND SWITCHGRASS IN THE UPPER MIDWEST, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S., biomass crop systems will be needed to meet future ethanol production goals. We estimated production costs, profits, and energy budgets for three potential crop systems for the Upper Midwest: continuous corn, an alfalfa-corn rotation, and switchgrass. Production costs, profits, and on-f...

  4. Challenges and opportunities for improved N management in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With some exceptions, the alfalfa nitrogen (N) credit usually eliminates the need for manure N and/or fertilizer N to economically optimize yield of the first corn crop following alfalfa. Alfalfa also can provide nearly one-half or more of the N requirement for the second corn crop following alfalfa...

  5. USING AERIAL HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING IMAGERY TO ESTIMATE CORN PLANT STAND DENSITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since corn plant stand density is important for optimizing crop yield, several researchers have recently developed ground-based systems for automatic measurement of this crop growth parameter. Our objective was to use data from such a system to assess the potential for estimation of corn plant stan...

  6. INTERSEEDED RED CLOVER AND KURA CLOVER LIVING-MULCH SYSTEMS FOR CORN SILAGE PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to reducing nitrate and soil losses from cropland, greater use of companion crops (cover crops and living mulches) could enhance yields of corn-silage based production systems. In a replicated multi-year study in southern Wisconsin, Roundup-Ready corn was grown for silage with Kura-clove...

  7. Economic Analysis of No Tillage and Minimum Tillage Cotton-Corn Rotations in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotations have been shown to have agronomic benefits. An increasingly common crop rotation in the Mid–South is cotton rotated with corn. Many previous studies have focused on tillage systems or crop rotations. Few have evaluated a combination of the two (crop rotations and tillage) especially f...

  8. Agroecology of corn production in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, M.A.; Trujillo, J.

    1987-06-01

    The primary components of Tlaxcalan corn agriculture are described, including cropping patterns employed, resource management strategies, and interactions of human and biological factors. Tlaxcalan farmers grow corn in an array of polyculture and agroforestry designs that result in a series of ecological processes important for insect pest and soil fertility management. Measurements derived from a few selected fields show that trees integrated into cropping systems modify the aerial and soil environment of associated understory corn plants, influencing their growth and yields. With decreasing distance from trees, surface concentrations of most soil nutrients increase. Certain tree species affect corn yields more than others. Arthropod abundance also varies depending on their degree of association with one or more of the vegetational components of the system. Densities of predators and the corn pest Macrodactylus sp. depend greatly on the presence and phenology of adjacent alfalfa strips. Although the data were derived from nonreplicated fields, they nevertheless point out some important trends, information that can be used to design new crop association that will achieve sustained soil fertility and low pest potentials.

  9. Greenhouse-Selected Resistance to Cry3Bb1-Producing Corn in Three Western Corn Rootworm Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meihls, Lisa N.; Higdon, Matthew L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Hibbard, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72%) compared with control colonies (33%). For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest. PMID:23284656

  10. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    PubMed

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72%) compared with control colonies (33%). For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest. PMID:23284656

  11. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    PubMed

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  12. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Margarita C. G.; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  13. Vertical distribution of corn stover dry mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from biomass may reduce reliance on imported fossil fuel, increase revenue for farmers and rural communities, and reduce rates of greenhouse gas production. Corn stover and other crop biomass are viewed by the renewable energy industry as an inexpensive, "unused" source of feedsto...

  14. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%). PMID:16139500

  15. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn. PMID:25011306

  16. A method for mapping corn using the US Geological Survey 1992 National Land Cover Dataset

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, S.K.; Nuckols, J.R.; Ward, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to elevated nitrate levels in community drinking water supplies has been associated with an elevated risk of several cancers including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, colon cancer, and bladder cancer. To estimate human exposure to nitrate, specific crop type information is needed as fertilizer application rates vary widely by crop type. Corn requires the highest application of nitrogen fertilizer of crops grown in the Midwest US. We developed a method to refine the US Geological Survey National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) (including map and original Landsat images) to distinguish corn from other crops. Overall average agreement between the resulting corn and other row crops class and ground reference data was 0.79 kappa coefficient with individual Landsat images ranging from 0.46 to 0.93 kappa. The highest accuracies occurred in Regions where corn was the single dominant crop (greater than 80.0%) and the crop vegetation conditions at the time of image acquisition were optimum for separation of corn from all other crops. Factors that resulted in lower accuracies included the accuracy of the NLCD map, accuracy of corn areal estimates, crop mixture, crop condition at the time of Landsat overpass, and Landsat scene anomalies. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrogen Response and Economics for Irrigated Corn in Nebraska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen management recommendations may change as yield levels and efficiency of crop production increase. The mean yield with adequate nutrient availability in 32 irrigated corn (Zea mays L.) trials conducted across Nebraska to evaluate crop response to split-applied N was 14.8 Mg per ha. The mean...

  18. Impact of drought genetics on irrigated corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the major irrigated crop in the High Plains of Colorado, Nebraska, and Kansas. Declining water levels in the High Plains Aquifer have reduced well capacity such that limited irrigation strategies must be employed. Crop breeding advances have led to the introduction of drought resistant hybri...

  19. SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON CROPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1981, simulated H2SO4 acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H2SO4:HNO3 acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given...

  20. IN SEASON CROP N MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional nitrogen (N) management schemes for corn production in the USA have resulted in low N use efficiency (NUE), environmental contamination, and considerable public debate regarding use of N fertilizers in crop production. Hence, development of alternative schemes that improve NUE and minimi...

  1. Uniparental ancestry markers in Chilean populations.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Machado, Camilla Dutra; Tostes, Maluah; Alves, Gabrielle; Nazer, Julio; Martinez, Liliana; Wettig, Elisabeth; Pizarro Rivadeneira, Oscar; Diaz Caamaño, Marcela; Larenas Ascui, Jessica; Pavez, Pedro; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Castilla, Eduardo Enrique; Orioli, Ieda Maria

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans has led to the development of a multi-ethnic, admixed population in Chile. This study aimed to contribute to the characterization of the uniparental genetic structure of three Chilean regions. Newborns from seven hospitals in Independencia, Providencia, Santiago, Curicó, Cauquenes, Valdívia, and Puerto Montt communes, belonging to the Chilean regions of Santiago, Maule, and Los Lagos, were studied. The presence of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and two markers present in the non-recombinant region of the Y chromosome, DYS199 and DYS287, indicative of Native American and African ancestry, respectively, was determined. A high Native American matrilineal contribution and a low Native American and African patrilineal contributions were found in all three studied regions. As previously found in Chilean admixed populations, the Native American matrilineal contribution was lower in Santiago than in the other studied regions. However, there was an unexpectedly higher contribution of Native American ancestry in one of the studied communes in Santiago, probably due to the high rate of immigration from other regions of the country. The population genetic sub-structure we detected in Santiago using few uniparental markers requires further confirmation, owing to possible stratification for autosomal and X-chromosome markers. PMID:27494198

  2. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my

  3. An assessment of Landsat data acquisition history on identification and area estimation of corn and soybeans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.; Scholz, Donna K.

    1982-01-01

    In the past decade, numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of satellite remote sensing for providing accurate timely crop area information. This study assessed the impact of Landsat data acquisition history on classification and area estimation accuracy of corn and soybeans in the U.S. Corn Belt. The results illustrate the importance of selecting Landsat acquisitions based on spectral differences in crops at certain development stages. Although early season information can provide estimates of total corn and soybean areas, acquisitions from about emergence and after tasseling of the corn seem to provide a minimal set for accurate identification of corn and soybeans in the U.S. Corn Belt. Additional acquisitions provide only marginally greater separability for corn and soybeans.

  4. Modeling the dynamics of adaptation to transgenic corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Onstad, D W; Guse, C A; Spencer, J L; Levine, E; Gray, M E

    2001-04-01

    A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was created for a landscape of corn, soybean, and other crops. Although the model was created to study a 2-locus problem for beetles having genes for resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn, during this first phase of the project, the model was simulated to evaluate only resistance management plans for transgenic corn. Allele expression in the rootworm and toxin dose in the corn plant were the two most important factors affecting resistance development. A dominant resistance allele allowed quick evolution of resistance to transgenic corn, whereas a recessive allele delayed resistance >99 yr. With high dosages of toxin and additive expression, the time required to reach 3% resistance allele frequency ranged from 13 to >99 yr. With additive expression, lower dosages permitted the resistant allele frequency to reach 3% in 2-9 yr with refuges occupying 5-30% of the land. The results were sensitive to delays in emergence by susceptible adults and configuration of the refuge (row strips versus blocks). PMID:11332850

  5. Phosphorus losses in runoff after application of litter from broilers fed high-available phosphorus corn feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent efforts to reduce phosphorus (P) content of corn grain fed to poultry have led to the development of low phytic acid corn. Research is needed to evaluate the environmental impact of the application to crop land of manure from animals fed low phytic acid corn. The purpose of this research was ...

  6. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon dynamics of a no-till, corn-based cellulosic ethanol production system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues like corn stover perform important functions that promote soil health and provide ecosystem services that influence agricultural sustainability and global biogeochemical cycles. We evaluated the effect of corn residue removal from a no-till, corn-soybean rotation on greenhouse gas (GHG...

  7. Soil Moisture Dynamics under Corn, Soybean, and Perennial Kura Clover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochsner, T.; Venterea, R. T.

    2009-12-01

    Rising global food and energy consumption call for increased agricultural production, whereas rising concerns for environmental quality call for farming systems with more favorable environmental impacts. Improved understanding and management of plant-soil water interactions are central to meeting these twin challenges. The objective of this research was to compare the temporal dynamics of soil moisture under contrasting cropping systems suited for the Midwestern region of the United States. Precipitation, infiltration, drainage, evapotranspiration, soil water storage, and freeze/thaw processes were measured hourly for three years in field plots of continuous corn (Zea mays L.), corn/soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation, and perennial kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) in southeastern Minnesota. The evapotranspiration from the perennial clover most closely followed the temporal dynamics of precipitation, resulting in deep drainage which was reduced up to 50% relative to the annual crops. Soil moisture utilization also continued later into the fall under the clover than under the annual crops. In the annual cropping systems, crop sequence influenced the soil moisture dynamics. Soybean following corn and continuous corn exhibited evapotranspiration which was 80 mm less than and deep drainage which was 80 mm greater than that of corn following soybean. These differences occurred primarily during the spring and were associated with differences in early season plant growth between the systems. In the summer, soil moisture depletion was up to 30 mm greater under corn than soybean. Crop residue also played an important role in the soil moisture dynamics. Higher amounts of residue were associated with reduced soil freezing. This presentation will highlight key aspects of the soil moisture dynamics for these contrasting cropping systems across temporal scales ranging from hours to years. The links between soil moisture dynamics, crop yields, and nutrient leaching

  8. Research in satellite-aided crop inventory and monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Dragg, J. L.; Bizzell, R. M.; Trichel, M. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Automated information extraction procedures for analysis of multitemporal LANDSAT data in non-U.S. crop inventory and monitoring are reviewed. Experiments to develope and evaluate crop area estimation technologies for spring small grains, summer crops, corn, and soybeans are discussed.

  9. Winter crop and residue biomass potential in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper estimates the potential biomass production from winter crops and summer crop residues in China. Rye is used to represent winter crop production, and straw from corn, wheat and rice is used to represent residue potential. Biomass totals are intended for use as energy feedstocks and are ass...

  10. Reflectance and internal structure of leaves from several crops during a growing season.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, T. R.; Hoffer, R. M.; Schreiber, M. M.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of spectral reflectance characteristics during a growing season of leaves from six crops are reported. These crops include soybeans, wheat, oats, sorghum, corn, and sudangrass. The characteristics measured are related to changes in leaf structure and water content.

  11. Language, Identity, Education, and Transmigration: Chilean Adolescents in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall; Ganuza, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    This article examines patterns of national, cultural, and linguistic identification among Chilean-Swedish transmigrant adolescents in and around Stockholm, Sweden. Drawing from ethnographic interviews and observations, analysis focuses on adolescents' (a) views on ethnic and national identity; (b) general perceptions of Chileans and Swedes; and…

  12. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  13. Crop identification using ERTS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, M. L.; Heilman, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Digital analysis of August 15 ERTS-I imagery for southeastern South Dakota was performed to determine the feasibility of conducting crop surveys from satellites. Selected areas of bands 4, 5, 6, and 7 positive transparencies were converted to digital form utilizing Signal Analysis and Dissemination Equipment (SADE). The optical transmission values were printed out in a spatial format. Visual analysis of the printouts indicated that cultivated areas were readily distinguished from non-cultivated areas in all four bands. Bare soil was easily recognized in all four bands. Corn and soybeans, the two major crops in the area, were treated as separate classes rather than as a single class called row crops. Bands 6 and 7 provided good results in distinguishing between corn and soybeans.

  14. Adult activity and oviposition of corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Miscanthus, corn, and switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the biomass crop Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize) to support larval development for both United States (U.S.) and European populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, suggests an avenue for potential i...

  15. Corn residue removal impact on soil aggregates in a no-till corn/soybean rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many questions have surfaced regarding the removal of corn residue for use in the biofuels industry. Concerned producers are asking questions pertaining to what impacts removing residue will have on the following crop (short-term) and the effects this practice has on soil quality (long-term). To ad...

  16. ENERGY BALANCE COMPARISON AMONG TILLAGE PRACTICES IN CORN AND CORN-SOYBEAN SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction There is little information available on the effect of common management practices on the energy balance of corn and soybean cropping systems. This type of information is needed to assess the sustainability of these systems. Such information will also be useful for designing improved cr...

  17. Priorities for worldwide remote sensing of agricultural crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowker, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The world's crops are ranked according to total harvested area, and comparisons are made among major world regions of differences in crops produced. The eight leading world crops are wheat, rice, corn, barley, millet, soybeans, sorghum, and cotton. Regionally, millet and sorghum are most important in Africa, wheat is the most extensively grown crop in north-central America, Europe, USSR, and Oceania; corn is the dominant crop in South America; and rice is the most extensively grown crop in Asia. Agriculture in the USA is considered in more detail to show the national economic impact of variations in value per hectare among crops. On the world scene, the cereals are the most important crops, but locally, such crops as tobacco can play a dominant role.

  18. Fiscal year 1981 US corn and soybeans pilot preliminary experiment plan, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, G. P.; Nedelman, K. S.; Norwood, D. F.; Smith, J. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A draft of the preliminary experiment plan for the foreign commodity production forecasting project fiscal year 1981 is presented. This draft plan includes: definition of the phase 1 and 2 U.S. pilot objectives; the proposed experiment design to evaluate crop calendar, area estimation, and area aggregation components for corn and soybean technologies using 1978/1979 crop-year data; a description of individual sensitivity evaluations of the baseline corn and soybean segment classification procedure; and technology and data assessment in support of the corn and soybean estimation technology for use in the U.S. central corn belt.

  19. Poultry Litter and Tillage Influence on Corn Production and Soil Nutrients on a Silt Loam Soil in Kentucky

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler (Gallus Gallus) litter, a rich source of plant nutrients, is generated in large quantities in southeastern USA where many row crops, such as corn (Zea Mays L.), are also extensively cropped. However, the use of broiler manure as an economical alternative source of nutrients for corn producti...

  20. Reduced nitrogen losses following conversion of row crop agriculture to perennial biofuel crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current biofuel feedstock crops such as corn lead to large environmental losses of N through nitrate leaching and N2O emissions, and require large inputs of N fertilizer. Second generation cellulosic crops have the potential to reduce these N losses, and provide even greater biomass for conversion t...

  1. Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered. PMID:22688691

  2. Corn and soybean Landsat MSS classification performance as a function of scene characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, G. T.; Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to fully utilize remote sensing to inventory crop production, it is important to identify the factors that affect the accuracy of Landsat classifications. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of scene characteristics involving crop, soil, and weather variables on the accuracy of Landsat classifications of corn and soybeans. Segments sampling the U.S. Corn Belt were classified using a Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier on multitemporally registered data from two key acquisition periods. Field size had a strong effect on classification accuracy with small fields tending to have low accuracies even when the effect of mixed pixels was eliminated. Other scene characteristics accounting for variability in classification accuracy included proportions of corn and soybeans, crop diversity index, proportion of all field crops, soil drainage, slope, soil order, long-term average soybean yield, maximum yield, relative position of the segment in the Corn Belt, weather, and crop development stage.

  3. Fluorescence of crop residue: postmortem analysis of crop conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtrey, James E., III; Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Chappelle, Emmett W.

    1997-07-01

    Fluorescence of crop residues at the end of the growing season may provide an indicator of the past crop's vegetative condition. Different levels of nitrogen (N) fertilization were applied to field grown corn and wheat at Beltsville, Maryland. The N fertilizer treatments produce a range of physiological conditions, pigment concentrations, biomass levels, and grain yields that resulted in varying growth and stress conditions in the living crops. After normal harvesting procedures the crop residues remained. The fluorescence spectral characteristics of the plant residues from crops grown under different levels of N nutrition were analyzed. The blue-green fluorescence response of in-vitro residue biomass of the N treated field corn had different magnitudes. A blue-green- yellow algorithm, (460/525)*600 nm, gave the best separations between prior corn growth conditions at different N fertilization levels. Relationships between total dry biomass, the grain yield, and fluorescence properties in the 400 - 670 nm region of the spectrum were found in both corn and wheat residues. The wheat residue was analyzed to evaluate the constituents responsible for fluorescence. A ratio of the blue-green, 450/550 nm, images gave the best separation among wheat residues at different N fertilization levels. Fluorescence of extracts from wheat residues showed inverse fluorescence intensities as a function of N treatments compared to that of the intact wheat residue or ground residue samples. The extracts also had an additional fluorescence emission peak in the red, 670 nm. Single band fluorescence intensity in corn and wheat residues is due mostly to the quantity of the material on the soil surface. Ratios of fluorescence bands varied as a result of the growth conditions created by the N treatments and are thought to be indicative of the varying concentrations of the plant residues fluorescing constituents. Estimates of the amount and cost effectiveness of N fertilizers to satisfy

  4. Research in satellite-aided crop forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. D.; Dragg, J. L.; Bizzell, R. M.; Trichel, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluations of remote sensing procedures developed specifically to estimate non-U.S. spring small grains area show accuracies of less than 10 percent relative difference to reference statistics for North Dakota in 1978 and good comparison with 9000 square miles of observations over four states and Saskatchewan, Canada during the years 1976-79. Processing a 5 x 6-nautical-mile sample site requires a few minutes manual time and a few minutes central processing unit time on an AS-3000 computer. Evaluations of summer crop, corn, and soybeans area estimates show unbiased summer crops estimates in the U.S. central corn belt but significant bias in one of two years for area estimates of corn and soybeans. Based on results to date, a highly automated corn/sorghum/soybean area estimation procedure should be achieved that is applicable to Argentina.

  5. Cultural and environmental influences on temporal-spectral development patterns of corn and soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, E. P.

    1982-01-01

    A technique for evaluating crop temporal-spectral development patterns is described and applied to the analysis of cropping practices and environmental conditions as they affect reflectance characteristics of corn and soybean canopies. Typical variations in field conditions are shown to exert significant influences on the spectral development patterns, and thereby to affect the separability of the two crops.

  6. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  7. Influence of particle size on the effectiveness of the fiber in corn silage.

    PubMed

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1999-03-01

    This experiment evaluated the influence of particle size on the effectiveness of fiber in corn silage relative to that in hay crop, which consisted of mostly alfalfa silage. Fifteen multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to five treatments in each of 2 yr. The design was replicated but truncated 5 x 5 Latin squares with three 21-d periods in 1994 and four 21-d periods in 1995. The five diets (2-yr average, dry basis) were a basal, low fiber control with 12% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from hay crop forage (60% of total diet NDF); a high fiber control with 22% NDF from hay crop forage (82% of total diet NDF); and three diets each containing 12% NDF from hay crop forage and 9% NDF from coarse corn silage, fine corn silage, or an equal mixture of the two. An increase in the forage content above the basal amount with either hay crop or corn silage increased rumination and total chewing time. No detectable differences in rumination, total chewing time, or milk fat concentration were detected among the corn silage diets. In yr 1, yield of milk components and dry matter intake were greater for cows fed the four low alfalfa diets, but there was no effect due to particle size of the corn silage. In yr 2, linear increases in milk, fat, and protein yields were observed as the mean particle size of the corn silage decreased. Reduction of corn silage particle size did not affect chewing behavior. PMID:10194677

  8. Microbial inoculant effects on silage and in vitro ruminal fermentation, and microbial biomass estimation for alfalfa, bmr corn, and corn silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...

  9. A method for sampling waste corn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  10. Are Chileans exposed to dietary furan?

    PubMed

    Mariotti, María S; Toledo, Carla; Hevia, Karen; Gomez, J Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Rosowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar; Pedreschi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Chilean consumer preferences include foods that may contain considerable amounts of furan, a potential human carcinogen. However, there is no information regarding dietary exposure to furan in Chile. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the Chilean exposure to dietary furan. To accomplish this objective, the furan concentration of 14 types of commercial foods processed at high temperature were analysed based on a modified headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) method in which the limits of detection for different food matrices ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ng g(-1). In addition, a risk assessment was made with exposure estimates based on dietary data from national studies on different age groups (9-month-old babies, school children, adults and elderly people). Of the food items surveyed "American"-type coffee (espresso coffee plus hot water) obtained from automatic coffee machine (936 ng g(-1)) and low moisture starchy products like crisps and "soda"-type crackers showed the highest furan concentrations (259 and 91 ng g(-1), respectively). Furthermore, furan was also found in samples of breakfast cereals (approximately 20 ng g(-1)), jarred fruit baby foods (8.5 ng g(-1)) and orange juice (7.0 ng g(-1)). School children (aged 9-13 years) represented the highest intake of furan (about 500 ng kg(-1)(bw) day(-1)), with margins of exposure of 2479 and 2411, respectively, which points to a possible public health risk. PMID:23875686

  11. Estimated Yield of Some Alternative Crops Under Varying Irrigation in Northeast Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the irrigated acres in northeastern Colorado are devoted to corn grain production. Diversifying irrigated agricultural production in this region could result in water savings if alternative crops were grown that have lower water requirements than corn. Making such crop choice decisions initi...

  12. Genome Scan of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera for Genetic Variation Associated with Crop Rotation Tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotation has been a valuable technique for control of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, for almost a century. However, during the last two decades, crop rotation has ceased to be effective in an expanding area of the United States Corn Belt. This failure appears to be d...

  13. Climate change impacts on dryland cropping systems in the central Great Plains, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural systems models are essential tools to assess potential climate change (CC) impacts on crop production and help guide policy decisions. In this study, impacts of GCM projected CC on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow (WF), wheat-corn-fallow (WCF), and wheat-corn-millet (WCM) at Akro...

  14. Soil profile organic carbon as affected by tillage and cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports on the long-term effects of tillage and cropping systems on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in the entire rooting profile are limited. A long-term experiment with three cropping systems [continuous corn (CC), continuous soybean (CSB), and soybean-corn (SB-C)] in six primary tillage s...

  15. Impacts of climate change on corn yield and the length of corn growing season in U.S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.; Liu, X.; Takle, E. S.; Anderson, C.; Andresen, J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Gramig, B. M.; Doering, O.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a result of a USDA sponsored project titled Useful to Usable (U2U): "Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers". The objective of this project is to improve farm resilience and profitability in the U.S. Corn Belt region by transforming existing meteorological dataset into usable knowledge and tools for the agricultural community. In this study, we conducted the Hybrid-Maize corn growth simulation model at 18 sites across the U.S. Corn Belt with 5 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models. The crop model was running for two time periods: 1981-2010 ('current') and 2041-2070 ('future'). We also developed a "delta" method, which combines the current climate variability with the "mean" model projected climate change. The results indicate that under the 'future' climate, growing degree days (GDD) projected corn growing season (from planting date reach to maturity required GDD) are shortened due to the increasing of mean temperature. Compare to the contemporary simulations, the shorter growing season under "future" scenario brings lower attainable yields if farmers using the same cultivar. This presentation will focus on the details about the model simulations, the interactive process employed in developing the simulations, the implications of the results, the uncertainties, and the lessons learned.

  16. Finger millet: An alternative forage crop for Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southern High Plains, dairies are expanding to take advantage of favorable climatic conditions. Currently corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) are the two major crops grown in the region to meet the current silage demand. Corn and sorghum have relatively large w...

  17. Host suitability of some Poaceous crop cultivars for Heterodera goldeni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The host suitability of four corn, four sorghum and five rice cultivars to the cyst nematode Heterodera goldeni was determined in the greenhouse. The results showed that H. goldeni infected and reproduced successfully on all the tested poaceous crop cultivars. The corn hybrids Pioneer 3062 and SC 10...

  18. Inheritance and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Ingber, David A; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted to manage pest insects. One of the primary pests targeted by Bt corn in the United States is western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Cry3Bb1 corn for management of western corn rootworm was commercialized in 2003, and beginning in 2009, populations of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn were found in Iowa. Here we quantify the magnitude, inheritance, and fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in two strains (Hopkinton and Cresco) derived from field populations that evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn. For Hopkinton, we found evidence for complete resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn and nonrecessive inheritance. Additionally, no fitness costs of Cry3Bb1 resistance were detected for Hopkinton. For Cresco, resistance was incomplete and recessive, and we detected fitness costs affecting developmental rate, survival to adulthood, and fecundity. These results suggest that variation may exist among field populations in both the inheritance and accompanying fitness costs of resistance. To the extent that field populations exhibit nonrecessive inheritance and a lack of fitness cost, this will favor more rapid evolution of resistance than would be expected when resistance is functionally recessive and is accompanied by fitness costs. PMID:26453731

  19. Temporal spectral response of a corn canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Kimes, D. S.; Tucker, C. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Techniques developed for the prediction of winter wheat yields from remotely sensed data indicating crop status over the growing season are tested for their applicability to corn. Ground-based spectral measurements in the Landsat Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.62-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns) and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) were performed at one-week intervals throughout the growing season for 24 plots of corn, and analyzed to derive spectral ratios and normalized spectral differences of the IR and shortwave IR bands with the red. The ratios of the near IR and shortwave IR bands are found to provide the highest and most consistent correlations with corn yield and dry matter accumulation, however the value of band 5 could not be tested due to the absence of water stress conditions. Integration of spectral ratios over several dates improved the correlations over those of any single date by achieving a seasonal, rather than instantaneous, estimate of crop status. Results point to the desirability of further tests under other growth conditions to determine whether satellite-derived data will be useful in providing corn yield information.

  20. Analysis of scanner data for crop inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Cicone, R. C.; Kauth, R. J.; Malila, W. A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress and technical issues are reported in the development of corn/soybeans area estimation procedures for use on data from South America, with particular emphasis on Argentina. Aspects related to the supporting research section of the AgRISTARS Project discussed include: (1) multisegment corn/soybean estimation; (2) through the season separability of corn and soybeans within the U.S. corn belt; (3) TTS estimation; (4) insights derived from the baseline corn and soybean procedure; (5) small fields research; and (6) simulating the spectral appearance of wheat as a function of its growth and development. To assist the foreign commodity production forecasting, the performance of the baseline corn/soybean procedure was analyzed and the procedure modified. Fundamental limitations were found in the existing guidelines for discriminating these two crops. The temporal and spectral characteristics of corn and soybeans must be determined because other crops grow with them in Argentina. The state of software technology is assessed and the use of profile techniques for estimation is considered.

  1. The Use of Cover Crops as Climate-Smart Management in Midwest Cropping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basche, A.; Miguez, F.; Archontoulis, S.; Kaspar, T.

    2014-12-01

    The observed trends in the Midwestern United States of increasing rainfall variability will likely continue into the future. Events such as individual days of heavy rain as well as seasons of floods and droughts have large impacts on agricultural productivity and the natural resource base that underpins it. Such events lead to increased soil erosion, decreased water quality and reduced corn and soybean yields. Winter cover crops offer the potential to buffer many of these impacts because they essentially double the time for a living plant to protect and improve the soil. However, at present, cover crops are infrequently utilized in the Midwest (representing 1-2% of row cropped land cover) in particular due to producer concerns over higher costs and management, limited time and winter growing conditions as well as the potential harm to corn yields. In order to expand their use, there is a need to quantify how cover crops impact Midwest cropping systems in the long term and namely to understand how to optimize the benefits of cover crops while minimizing their impacts on cash crops. We are working with APSIM, a cropping systems platform, to specifically quantify the long term future impacts of cover crop incorporation in corn-based cropping systems. In general, our regional analysis showed only minor changes to corn and soybean yields (<1% differences) when a cover crop was or was not included in the simulation. Further, a "bad spring" scenario (where every third year had an abnormally wet/cold spring and cover crop termination and planting cash crop were within one day) did not result in any major changes to cash crop yields. Through simulations we estimate an average increase of 4-9% organic matter improvement in the topsoil and an average decrease in soil erosion of 14-32% depending on cover crop planting date and growth. Our work is part of the Climate and Corn-based Cropping Systems Coordinated Agriculture Project (CSCAP), a collaboration of eleven Midwestern

  2. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  3. Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1980-11-01

    Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

  4. Reduced nitrogen losses after conversion of row crop agriculture to perennial biofuel crops.

    PubMed

    Smith, Candice M; David, Mark B; Mitchell, Corey A; Masters, Michael D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Bernacchi, Carl J; Delucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Current biofuel feedstock crops such as corn lead to large environmental losses of N through nitrate leaching and NO emissions; second-generation cellulosic crops have the potential to reduce these N losses. We measured N losses and cycling in establishing miscanthus (), switchgrass ( L. fertilized with 56 kg N ha yr), and mixed prairie, along with a corn ( L.)-corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation (corn fertilized at 168-202 kg N ha). Nitrous oxide emissions, soil N mineralization, mid-profile nitrate leaching, and tile flow and nitrate concentrations were measured. Perennial crops quickly reduced nitrate leaching at a 50-cm soil depth as well as concentrations and loads from the tile systems (year 1 tile nitrate concentrations of 10-15 mg N L declined significantly by year 4 in all perennial crops to <0.6 mg N L, with losses of <0.8 kg N ha yr). Nitrous oxide emissions were 2.2 to 7.7 kg N ha yr in the corn-corn-soybean rotation but were <1.0 kg N ha yr by year 4 in the perennial crops. Overall N balances (atmospheric deposition + fertilization + soybean N fixation - harvest, leaching losses, and NO emissions) were positive for corn and soybean (22 kg N ha yr) as well as switchgrass (9.7 kg N ha yr) but were -18 and -29 kg N ha yr for prairie and miscanthus, respectively. Our results demonstrate rapid tightening of the N cycle as perennial biofuel crops established on a rich Mollisol soil. PMID:23673757

  5. Predicting western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval injury to rotated corn with Pherocon AM traps in soybeans.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, M E; Gray, M E; Ratcliffe, S; Steffey, K L

    2001-02-01

    Crop rotation for portions of east central Illinois and northern Indiana no longer adequately protects corn (Zea mays L.) roots from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Seventeen growers in east central Illinois monitored western corn rootworm adults in soybean (Glycine max L.) fields with unbaited Pherocon AM traps during 1996 and 1997. In the following years (1997 and 1998), growers left untreated strips (no insecticide applied) when these fields were planted with corn. Damage to rotated corn by rootworms was more severe in untreated than in treated strips of rotated corn, ranging from minor root scarring to a full node of roots pruned. Densities of western corn rootworms in soybean fields from 1996 were significantly correlated with root injury to rotated corn the following season. Adult densities from 1997 were not significantly correlated with root injury in 1998, due to heavy precipitation throughout the spring of 1998 and extensive larval mortality. Twenty-eight additional growers volunteered in 1998 to monitor rootworm adults in soybean fields with Pherocon AM traps based on recommendations that resulted from our research efforts in 1996 and 1997. In 1999, these 28 fields were rotated to corn, and rootworm larval injury was measured in untreated strips. Based on 1996-1997 and 1998-1999 data, a regression analysis revealed that 27% of the variation in root injury to rotated corn could be explained by adult density in soybeans the previous season. We propose a sampling plan for soybean fields and a threshold for predicting western corn rootworm larval injury to rotated corn. PMID:11233140

  6. Simulated acid rain on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Plocher, M.D.; Perrigan, S.C.; Hevel, R.J.; Cooper, R.M.; Moss, D.N.

    1985-10-01

    In 1981, simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/:HNO/sub 3/ acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given to effects of the acid rain on the appearance of the foliage, and the effects on yield were measured. Because the effect of pH 4.0 rain on corn yield was the only significant effect noted in the 1981 studies, in 1982, more-extensive studies of the effect of simulated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4//HNO/sub 3/ rain on corn were conducted. No significant effects of acid rain were found on foliage appearance, or on yield of grain or stover in the 1982 studies.

  7. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control.

    PubMed

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided. PMID:23604211

  8. The effects of bt corn on rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Linn, Matthew D; Moore, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    Bt crops are one of the most commonly used genetically modified crops worldwide. Bt crops contain a gene that is derived from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis, which produces the Cry1Ab toxin. Bt corn that contains the Cry1Ab toxin is used throughout the Midwest United States to control crop pests such as the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Headwater streams in regions known for intensive agriculture receive Bt corn detritus after the fall harvest, which is then consumed by a diverse community of stream invertebrates. The rusty crayfish (Orconectes rusticus) is a common invertebrate detritivore in these headwater streams. Both isogenic and Bt corn were grown under the controlled environmental conditions of a greenhouse and, after senescence, were tested for nutritional equality. Rusty crayfish were exposed to one of several detrital treatments composed of Bt corn, Bt corn plus American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), isogenic corn alone, isogenic corn plus P. occidentalis, or P. occidentalis alone for 8 weeks. Both strains of corn were grown under the controlled environmental conditions in a greenhouse and were tested for nutritional equality after senescence. Crayfish were housed in live streams with a water temperature of 12.8 °C and a 12:12 h light-to-dark photoperiod. Survival and growth of animals within each experimental treatment were monitored each week. After 8 weeks of exposure, there was no statistically significant difference in growth between crayfish in Bt and isogenic treatments. However, survivorship was 31 % lower in the Bt treatment compared with the isogenic treatment. These results suggest that the Bt corn and isogenic corn were of equivalent nutritional value but that Bt corn does have a toxic effect on rusty crayfish during long-term exposure. PMID:25001246

  9. 'NASA Helps Chilean Miners' Tops This Week @NASA

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA experts journeyed to Chile to assist the Chilean government on everything from what the trapped miners should eat and drink to how they could best adapt to their cramped, prolonged confinement...

  10. Anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic corn fiber to butyric acid, a substrate for microbial butanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors, including sharply fluctuating fuel prices and questions regarding the sustainability of fuel produced from potential food crops, have bolstered interest in renewable fuels from alternative feedstocks. We tested pretreated and nonpretreated corn fiber for its susceptibility to hydrolys...

  11. Nitrogen use and carbon sequestered by corn rotations in the northern corn belt, U.S.

    PubMed

    Pikul, J L; Schumacher, T E; Vigil, M

    2001-09-27

    Diversified crop rotation may improve production efficiency, reduce fertilizer nitrogen (N) requirements for corn (Zea mays L.), and increase soil carbon (C) storage. Objectives were to determine effect of rotation and fertilizer N on soil C sequestration and N use. An experiment was started in 1990 on a Barnes clay loam (U.S. soil taxonomy: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Calcic Hapludoll) near Brookings, SD. Tillage systems for corn-soybean ( Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotations were conventional tillage (CS) and ridge tillage (CSr). Rotations under conventional tillage were continuous corn (CC), and a 4-year rotation of corn-soybean-wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) companion-seeded with alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.)-alfalfa hay (CSWA). Additional treatments included plots of perennial warm season, cool season, and mixtures of warm and cool season grasses. N treatments for corn were corn fertilized for a grain yield of 8.5 Mg ha(-1) (highN), of 5.3 Mg ha(-1) (midN), and with no N fertilizer (noN). Total (1990-2000) corn grain yield was not different among rotations at 80.8 Mg ha(-1) under highN. Corn yield differences among rotations increased with decreased fertilizer N. Total (1990-2000) corn yields with noN fertilizer were 69 Mg ha-1 under CSWA, 53 Mg ha(-1) under CS, and 35 Mg ha(-1) under CC. Total N attributed to rotations (noN treatments) was 0.68 Mg ha(-1) under CSWA, 0.61 Mg ha(-1) under CS, and 0.28 Mg ha(-1) under CC. Plant carbon return depended on rotation and N. In the past 10 years, total C returned from above- ground biomass was 29.8 Mg ha(-1) under CC with highN, and 12.8 Mg ha(-1) under CSWA with noN. Soil C in the top 15 cm significantly increased (0.7 g kg(-1)) with perennial grass cover, remained unchanged under CSr, and decreased (1.7 g kg(-1)) under CC, CS, and CSWA. C to N ratio significantly narrowed (-0.75) with CSWA and widened (0.72) under grass. Diversified rotations have potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce fertilizer N

  12. Water deficit stress effects on corn (Zea mays, L.) root: shoot ratio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted at Akron, CO, USA, on a Weld silt loam in 2004 to quantify the effects of water deficit stress on corn (Zea mays, L.) root and shoot biomass. Corn plants were grown under a range of soil bulk density and water conditions caused by previous tillage, crop rotation, and irrigation...

  13. Corn residue removal effects on soybean yield and nitrogen dynamics in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerations for using corn residues as a biofuel feedstock should include impacts on subsequent crops in the rotation, in particular soybean. We used the APEX model to assess the impacts of four rates of corn residue removals; 0%, 40%, 60%, and 80%, across two land types; highly erodible (HEL) an...

  14. Observations from a quarter century of evaluating reactions of sweet corn hybrids in disease nurseries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet corn is one of the most popular vegetable crops in North America due in part to significant improvements made in eating quality in the last quarter century. Several plant diseases are major threats to sweet corn production. While resistance genes exist for many of these diseases, incorporating...

  15. Prohexadione-calcium improves stand density and yield of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...

  16. Early growth and devlopment response to corn to canola competition and shade stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-weed competition studies indicate that resource limitation slows normal corn growth and development and often results in lower yields. However there is minimal information on the physiological basis of crop competition, especially at the early growth stages when resources would be expected to b...

  17. Influence of planting date and weed interference on sweet corn growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop planting date and canopy density influence interactions between weeds and sweet corn (Zea mays L.); however, little is known about sweet corn growth response to weed interference. Field studies were conducted in 2004 and 2005 near Urbana, Illinois to quantify the influence of planting date and ...

  18. Gas and Water Vapor Exchanges in Rainfed Corn-Soybean Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn and soybean production in the Midwestern United States represents one of the most intensive and extensive cropping systems in the world. It is critical to understand the dynamics of CO2 (carbon dioxide) and H2O (water) vapor exchanges above corn and soybean canopies in rainfed environments in o...

  19. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  20. Late-season corn measurements to assess soil residual nitrate and nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) management and soil residual nitrate (NO3-N) late in the growing season could provide important management information for subsequent small grain crops and about potential NO3-N loss. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of several late-season corn...

  1. Residual Weeds of Processing Sweet Corn in the North Central Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed community structure in vegetable crops of the North Central Region (NCR) is poor. To characterize weed composition of species persisting in sweet corn to harvest, hereafter called residual weeds, 175 sweet corn fields were surveyed in Illinois, Minnesota, and Wisconsin from 2005 to...

  2. Goss’s wilt incidence in sweet corn is independent of transgenic traits and glyphosate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently claims have been made that the use of glyphosate and transgenic crop traits increases the risk of plant diseases. Transgenic traits used widely for years in dent corn are now available in commercial sweet corn cultivars, specifically, the combination of glyphosate resistance (GR) and Lepid...

  3. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  4. Agronomic characterization of the Argentina Indicator Region. [U.S. corn belt and Argentine pampas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, D. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An overview of the Argentina indicator region including information on topography, climate, soils and vegetation is presented followed by a regionalization of crop livestock land use. Corn/soybean production and exports as well as agricultural practices are discussed. Similarities and differences in the physical agronomic scene, crop livestock land use and agricultural practices between the U.S. corn belt and the Argentine pampa are considered. The Argentine agricultural economy is described. Crop calendars for the Argentina indicator region, an accompanying description, notes on crop-livestock zones, wheat production, field size, and agricultural problems and practices are included.

  5. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, Joachim

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  6. Tightening the Corn Belt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trisler, Carmen E.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students: identify agricultural crops that are grown in Great Lakes states, understand how global climate change will affect these crops, hypothesize about crops that could replace these, compare the current crops' economic value with projected replacement crops, and analyze the impact of global climate on the…

  7. Space Chambers for Crop Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Vacuum chambers, operated by McDonnell Douglas Corporation to test spacecraft, can also be used to dry water-soaked records. The drying temperature is low enough to allow paper to dry without curling or charging. Agricultural crops may also be dried using a spinoff system called MIVAC, which has proven effective in drying rice, wheat, soybeans, corn, etc. The system is energy efficient and can incorporate a sanitation process for destroying insects without contamination.

  8. Response of the North American corn belt to climatic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Solomon, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The climate of the North American corn belt was characterized as part of an effort to estimate the effects of climatic change on that agricultural region. Heat and moisture characteristics of the current corn belt were first identified. Locations of those characteristics were then mapped, based on a climate simulated to result from doubling the amount of atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Such projections of corn-belt location were made both with and without allowance for earlier planting dates under a warmer climate. Because the direct effects of CO/sub 2/ on plants, improvements in farm technology, and plant breeding are not considered, the resulting projections represent an extreme or worst case. Results indicate that even for such a worst case, climatic conditions favoring corn production would not extend very far into Canada. Greatest translocations are projected for the western, or driest, part of the corn belt where other crops such as winter wheat could replace corn. However, this kind of exercise clearly shows that the use of climate-model output requires several highly questionable assumptions about changes in the timing and regional distribution of precipitation accompanying a climatic warming. Increased use of climatic data and improved specification of CO/sub 2/-induced increases in water-use efficiency of corn are suggested for more credible projections of corn-belt responses to increasing CO/sub 2/.

  9. An evaluation of corn earworm damage and thresholds in soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Brian Patrick

    Interactions between corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and soybean, Glycine max L. (Merrill), were investigated in the Mid-South to evaluate thresholds and damage levels. Field studies were conducted in both indeterminate and determinate modern cultivars to evaluate damage, critical injury levels, and soybean response to simulated corn earworm injury. Field studies were also conducted to evaluate the response of indeterminate cultivars to infestations of corn earworm. Field studies were also conducted to investigate the relationship between pyrethroid insecticide application and corn earworm oviposition in soybean. Results of field studies involving simulated corn earworm damage indicated the need for a dynamic threshold that becomes more conservative as soybean phenology progressed through the reproductive growth stages. This suggested that soybean was more tolerant to fruit loss during the earlier reproductive stages and was able to compensate for fruit loss better during this time than at later growth stages. Results of field studies involving infestations of corn earworm indicated that current thresholds are likely too liberal. This resulted in economic injury level tables being constructed based upon a range of crop values and control costs, however, a general action threshold was also recommended for indeterminate soybean in the Mid-South. Field study results investigating the relationship of pyrethroid application and corn earworm oviposition indicated that even in the presence of an insecticide, corn earworm prefers to oviposit in the upper portion of the canopy, as well as on the leaves as opposed to all other plant parts, consistent with all previous literature.

  10. Tillage and Multiple Cropping Systems and Population Dynamics of Phytoparasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Gallaher, R. N.; Dickson, D. W.; Corella, J. F.; Hewlett, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two cropping and tillage systems on the population dynamics of four nematode species was evaluated on a loamy sand. Hairy vetch succeeded by corn or grain sorghum was seeded in split plots randomized within whole plots of no-tillage versus conventional tillage over four growing seasons (1980-83). The vetch-corn cropping system increased the density of Meloidogyne incognita 2.9 x more than the vetch-grain sorghum cropping system. In contrast, the vetch-grain sorghum cropping system increased the density of Criconemella ornata 0.7 x more than the vetch-corn cropping system. Meloidogyne incognita and C. ornata were affected more by these cropping systems than were Pratylenchus brachyurus or Paratrichodorus minor. Multiple cropping systems, vetch varieties, and crop host preference affected nematode population densities, whereas tillage treatments, conventional or no-tillage, had little effect on them. PMID:19290311

  11. Identifying resistance in corn to southwestern corn borer, fall armyworm, and corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith); and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, are major insect pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm with resistance to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer a...

  12. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  13. Meteorological models for estimating phenology of corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Cochran, J. C.; Hollinger, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    Knowledge of when critical crop stages occur and how the environment affects them should provide useful information for crop management decisions and crop production models. Two sources of data were evaluated for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity of corn (Zea mays L.). Initial evaluations were conducted using data of an adapted corn hybrid grown on a Typic Agriaquoll at the Purdue University Agronomy Farm. The second phase extended the analyses to large areas using data acquired by the Statistical Reporting Service of USDA for crop reporting districts (CRD) in Indiana and Iowa. Several thermal models were compared to calendar days for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity. Mixed models which used a combination of thermal units to predict silking and days after silking to predict physiological maturity were also evaluated. At the Agronomy Farm the models were calibrated and tested on the same data. The thermal models were significantly less biased and more accurate than calendar days for predicting dates of silking. Differences among the thermal models were small. Significant improvements in both bias and accuracy were observed when the mixed models were used to predict dates of physiological maturity. The results indicate that statistical data for CRD can be used to evaluate models developed at agricultural experiment stations.

  14. Automated mapping of soybean and corn using phenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Liheng; Hu, Lina; Yu, Le; Gong, Peng; Biging, Gregory S.

    2016-09-01

    For the two of the most important agricultural commodities, soybean and corn, remote sensing plays a substantial role in delivering timely information on the crop area for economic, environmental and policy studies. Traditional long-term mapping of soybean and corn is challenging as a result of the high cost of repeated training data collection, the inconsistency in image process and interpretation, and the difficulty of handling the inter-annual variability of weather and crop progress. In this study, we developed an automated approach to map soybean and corn in the state of Paraná, Brazil for crop years 2010-2015. The core of the approach is a decision tree classifier with rules manually built based on expert interaction for repeated use. The automated approach is advantageous for its capacity of multi-year mapping without the need to re-train or re-calibrate the classifier. Time series MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) reflectance product (MCD43A4) were employed to derive vegetation phenology to identify soybean and corn based on crop calendar. To deal with the phenological similarity between soybean and corn, the surface reflectance of the shortwave infrared band scaled to a phenological stage was used to fully separate the two crops. Results suggested that the mapped areas of soybean and corn agreed with official statistics at the municipal level. The resultant map in the crop year 2012 was evaluated using an independent reference data set, and the overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 87.2% and 0.804 respectively. As a result of mixed pixel effect at the 500 m resolution, classification results were biased depending on topography. In the flat, broad and highly-cropped areas, uncultivated lands were likely to be identified as soybean or corn, causing over-estimation of cropland area. By contrast, scattered crop fields in mountainous regions with dense natural vegetation tend to be overlooked. For future mapping efforts, it has great

  15. Increased survival of western corn rootworm on transgenic corn within three generations of on-plant greenhouse selection

    PubMed Central

    Meihls, Lisa N.; Higdon, Matthew L.; Siegfried, Blair D.; Miller, Nicholas J.; Sappington, Thomas W.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Spencer, Terence A.; Hibbard, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    To delay evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, nearby “refuges” of host plants not producing Bt toxins are required in many regions. Such refuges are expected to be most effective in slowing resistance when the toxin concentration in Bt crops is high enough to kill all or nearly all insects heterozygous for resistance. However, Bt corn, Zea mays, introduced recently does not meet this “high-dose” criterion for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. A greenhouse method of rearing WCR on transgenic corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein was used in which approximately 25% of previously unexposed larvae survived relative to isoline survival (compared to 1–4% in the field). After three generations of full larval rearing on Bt corn (Constant-exposure colony), WCR larval survival was equivalent on Bt corn and isoline corn in greenhouse trials, and the LC50 was 22-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than for the Control colony in diet bioassays with Cry3Bb1 protein on artificial diet. After six generations of greenhouse selection, the ratio of larval recovery on Bt corn to isoline corn in the field was 11.7-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than the Control colony. Removal from selection for six generations did not decrease survival on Bt corn in the greenhouse. The results suggest that rapid response to selection is possible in the absence of mating with unexposed beetles, emphasizing the importance of effective refuges for resistance management. PMID:19047626

  16. Landsat classification of Argentina summer crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Gargantini, C. E.; Redondo, F. V.

    1987-01-01

    A Landsat MSS and TM classification approach based on three features derived from the greenness profile has proved very effective in separating and identifying corn, soybeans, and other ground cover classes in the U.S. The objective of this study is to investigate the separation of summer crops in Argentina, one of the most important commodity exporters, using the same greenness profile features that have proved effective in the U.S. Corn Belt. The area chosen for study is a more complex cropping practice area located in the north-west corner of Buenos Aires province in Pampa Humeda, where corn, soybean, sorghum, sunflower, and pastures are cultivated. It is shown that the profile features can provide very effective separation, except in the case of corn from sorghum. Separation between corn and soybeans was found to be greater than in the U.S. This study suggests that the automatic, unsupervised classification approach developed in the U.S., with relatively minor modification, can be used for summer crop area estimation in Argentina.

  17. Starlink corn: a risk analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has dramatically increased our ability to alter the agronomic traits of plants. Among the novel traits that biotechnology has made available, an important group includes Bacillus thuringiensis-derived insect resistance. This technology has been applied to potatoes, cotton, and corn. Benefits of Bt crops, and biotechnology generally, can be realized only if risks are assessed and managed properly. The case of Starlink corn, a plant modified with a gene that encodes the Bt protein Cry9c, was a severe test of U.S. regulatory agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had restricted its use to animal feed due to concern about the potential for allergenicity. However, Starlink corn was later found throughout the human food supply, resulting in food recalls by the Food and Drug Administration and significant disruption of the food supply. Here we examine the regulatory history of Starlink, the assessment framework employed by the U.S. government, assumptions and information gaps, and the key elements of government efforts to manage the product. We explore the impacts on regulations, science, and society and conclude that only significant advances in our understanding of food allergies and improvements in monitoring and enforcement will avoid similar events in the future. Specifically, we need to develop a stronger fundamental basis for predicting allergic sensitization and reactions if novel proteins are to be introduced in this fashion. Mechanisms are needed to assure that worker and community aeroallergen risks are considered. Requirements are needed for the development of valid assays so that enforcement and post market surveillance activities can be conducted. PMID:11781159

  18. Corn-based feedstock for biofuels: Implications for agricultural sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Crop residue as a source of feedstock for biofuels production must retain ecosystem services and be sustainable. The challenge is to develop cropping system management strategies that balance the demand for increasing biofuel needs with ecosystem sustainability. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of changes in land use and management caused by corn-based biofuel production (grain, cob, stover) on soil fertility and ecosystem sustainability. Our specific goal was to investigate how the levels of corn residue removal influence current soil carbon and nutrient budgets and how these budgets are maintained under proposed production scenarios. Soil organic carbon (SOC), an important carbon component in the life cycle of biofuel production, is a sensitive indicator of cropping system sustainability. We used a soil carbon and nutrient balance approach developed from published field observations and a validated mechanistic model to analyze historical corn grain yields and fertilizer usage associated with various management practices at the county scale across the United States. Our analyses show that ecosystem carbon flux demonstrates significant spatial variability, relying heavily on the total biomass production level and residue harvest intensity; SOC budgets depend mainly on the proportion of residue removal, tillage type, and previous SOC stock level. Our results also indicate that corn cob removal for biofuel has little effect on soil carbon and nutrient balances under conventional management practices, while necessary irrigation can contribute greatly to corn-based biofuel production and ecosystem sustainability in the western side of the Great Plains and the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

  19. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  20. Benefits of annual and perennial forages in row crop rotations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of crop rotations that support sustainable agriculture depends on understanding complex relationships between soils, crops, and yield. Objectives were to measure how soil chemical and physical attributes as well as corn and soybean stover dry weight, stover mineral concentrations, seed ...

  1. Herbicide-resistant crops, resistant weeds, and herbicide drift

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New herbicide-resistance traits in corn and soybean may bring new management challenges for fruit and vegetable growers in the Mid-Atlantic region. Herbicide-resistant crops are an important weed management technology in row crop agriculture that allow growers to apply an herbicide to control weed...

  2. Soil Nitrogen Response to Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with manure (M) application may increase retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this research was to quantify soil N changes after application of liquid swine M (Sus scrofa L.) at target N rates of 112, 224, an...

  3. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the group, EPA will initially retain the pre-existing as well as the revised crop group in the CFR...-existing crop group will be removed from the CFR. (k) Establishment of a tolerance does not substitute for..., except corn). In this case an individual tolerance at the appropriate level for the unique...

  4. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the group, EPA will initially retain the pre-existing as well as the revised crop group in the CFR...-existing crop group will be removed from the CFR. (k) Establishment of a tolerance does not substitute for..., except corn). In this case an individual tolerance at the appropriate level for the unique...

  5. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the group, EPA will initially retain the pre-existing as well as the revised crop group in the CFR...-existing crop group will be removed from the CFR. (k) Establishment of a tolerance does not substitute for..., except corn). In this case an individual tolerance at the appropriate level for the unique...

  6. 40 CFR 180.40 - Tolerances for crop groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the group, EPA will initially retain the pre-existing as well as the revised crop group in the CFR...-existing crop group will be removed from the CFR. (k) Establishment of a tolerance does not substitute for..., except corn). In this case an individual tolerance at the appropriate level for the unique...

  7. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  8. Sensor-based nitrogen applications out-performed producer-chosen rates for corn in on-farm demonstrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal nitrogen (N) fertilizer rate for corn (Zea mays L.) and other crops can vary substantially within and among fields. Current N management practices do not address this variability. Crop reflectance sensors offer the potential to diagnose crop N need and control N application rates at a fine s...

  9. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  10. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  11. Dedicated energy crops and crop residues for bioenergy feedstocks in the Central and Eastern U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dedicated energy crops and crop residues will meet herbaceous feedstock demands for the new bioeconomy in the Central and Eastern USA. Perennial warm-season grasses and corn stover are well-suited to the eastern half of the USA and provide opportunities for expanding agricultural operations in the r...

  12. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on clay-pan soil grain crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  13. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on grain crop production on claypan soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  14. Long-term impacts of cropping systems and landscape positions on claypan-soil grain crop production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable grain crop production on vulnerable claypan soils requires improved knowledge of long-term impacts of conservation cropping systems (CS) with reduced inputs. Therefore, effects of CS and landscape positions (LP) on corn (Zea mays L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and wheat (Triticum...

  15. Corn Reflectance and Yield Response Spatial Variability along a Hillslope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The success of site-specific N recommendations for corn (Zea mays L.) will depend on a better understanding of the causal impacts on the variability of economic optimum N rate (EONR). The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between crop reflectance at the six-leaf (V6) growth s...

  16. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton across the southeastern U.S., however, little is known concerning its spatial distribution in corn fields of this region. It is likely that the proximity of other adjacent row crops, i.e., cotton an...

  17. Developing Sidedress Nitrogen Recommendations for Corn using an Active Sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active crop canopy reflectance sensors can be used during a sidedress N application to modify on-the-go fertilizer rates; but will this method be an improvement to current approaches to developing N recommendations? Our objective was to compare the potential for developing N recommendations for corn...

  18. Sensing Corn for Nitrogen Fertilizer Need Makes Sense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With increasing costs for crop inputs, corn farmers are interested in better methods to help them precisely apply the rate of nitrogen (N) fertilizer that will give them optimal profit. Additionally, environmental concerns continue because a large amount of N from agricultural fields moves into stre...

  19. The Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Corn (Maize) Plant Debris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. when present in corn, can cause serious toxicological problems in animals and humans. Little is known about their occurrence in crop residue post-harvest. This study determined naturally occurring aflatoxin, fumonisin, and zearalenone (F-2) leve...

  20. Field evaluation of a humic product in Iowa corn fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefit to corn production of a humic product derived from lignite was evaluated for three years under otherwise conventional crop management in Iowa farmers’ fields. Humic material was applied as a liquid extract at a rate of 3 pints acre-1 (0.57 L ha-1), generally as a foliar spray along with ...

  1. Evapotranspiration of corn and forage sorghum for silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S. Southern High Plains, dairies have expanded and have increased the regional demand for forage and silage. The objectives were to measure water use and determine crop coefficients for corn (Zea mays L.) and forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) produced for silage on the Southern ...

  2. Agronomic and economic effect of irrigation rate in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the Southeast U.S. receives an average annual precipitation of 1300 mm, corn (Zea mays L.) yield is often limited by erratic seasonal distributions. Irrigation is utilized to supplement precipitation during drought periods to sustain crop production. Studies were conducted from 2001 through...

  3. Corn stover removal reduces grain yield on marginal soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues such as corn stover (residue left after grain is harvested) are viewed as an abundant and inexpensive source of biomass that can be removed from fields to produce bioenergy. Assumptions include that with minimum or no-tillage farming methods, there will be no deleterious production or ...

  4. Phosphorus Removal By Silage Corn In Southern Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn silage is the predominant crop in Idaho used for recovering phosphorus (P) that has accumulated in soils from dairy manure applications. However, little is known about how much phosphorus and other nutrients are being recovered under Idaho conditions. The objective of the study is to estimate p...

  5. Predicting the Suitability of Fields for Rainfed Corn Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely irrigation of corn increases yield and reduces earworm damage and aflatoxin production. However, the costs of fuel, fertilizers, and other crop inputs have increased greatly in recent years and many producers cannot afford the investment required to be able to irrigate all of their fields. Wi...

  6. Evaluation of insect resistance among 47 commercial corn hybrids - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the growing season of 2007, the dry environmental conditions in Tifton, Georgia were favorable for the rapid buildup of all insect populations in the irrigated experimental plots, providing the potential for considerable damage to the corn crop. Seven ear-feeding insects recorded in the orde...

  7. Evaluation of corn gluten meal for weed control in cowpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current weed control practices for cowpea production typically involve use of synthetic herbicides. Increasing interest in organic crop production creates a need for alternative weed control techniques that are consistent with requirements of the USDA National Organic Program. Corn gluten meal (CG...

  8. [Change of Bt protein in soil after growing Bt corns and returning corn straws to soil and its effects on soil nutrients].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ping; Feng, Yuan-Jiao; Zhang, Wan-Chun; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Dong, Wen-Chao; Wang, Jian-Wu

    2014-07-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of Bt protein in soil and the change of soil nutrients in rhizosphere soil, root surface soil and soils at 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm were measured in greenhouse experiments. Two Bt corns, 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL, and their near isogenic non-Bt variety 5422 were grown for 90 days and the crop residues were retained to soil. Results showed that 1.59 and 2.78 ng x g(-1) Bt protein were detected in the rhizosphere soil with Bt corns 5422Bt1 and 5422CBCL immediately after harvest. However, there were only trace amounts of Bt protein (< 0.5 ng x g(-1)) were detected in root surface soil after 90 days and in bulk soil in the two Bt corn treatments after 30, 60 and 90 days. When corn residues returned to soil, Bt protein declined rapidly within 3 days and only trace amounts of Bt protein were measured after 7 days. There were no sig- nificant differences in organic matter, available nutrient (alkaline hydrolytic N, available P, available K) or total nutrient (total N, total P, total K) in root surface soils and soils at 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm among the Bt and non-Bt corns after 90 days. Sixty days after returning crop residues of 5422Btl to soil, the contents of organic matter and total N increased and the content of available K reduced significantly in the 0-20 cm soil depth. There were no significant differences in any other parameter at the 0-20 cm depth, neither for any parameter in the 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm soil depths compared to those in the non-Bt corn 5422 treatment. There were no significant differences in soil nutrient contents in Bt corn 5422CBCL treatment compared to those in non-Bt corn 5422 treatment except that available phosphorus content was reduced in root surface soils, and total P content increased at the 0-20 cm soil depth after 90 days. When crop residues of Bt corn 5422 CBCL were returned to soil, only available P content in the 0-20 cm soil layer was evidently higher compared to the soil receiving crop residues of

  9. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker; Greg McCarty; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient cropping systems. In southeastern Pennsylvania, cover crops can be successfully established following corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvest and are strongly promoted for use in this niche. They are also planted following corn grain, soybean (Glycine max L.), and vegetable harvest. In Pennsylvania, the use of winter cover crops for agricultural conservation has been supported through a combination of outreach, regulation, and incentives. On-farm implementation is thought to be increasing, but the actual extent of cover crops is not well quantified. Satellite imagery can be used to map green winter cover crop vegetation on agricultural fields and, when integrated with additional remote sensing data products, can be used to evaluate wintertime vegetative groundcover following specific summer crops. This study used Landsat and SPOT (System Probatoire d’ Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery, in combination with the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer, to evaluate the extent and amount of green wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields in four Pennsylvania counties (Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, and York) from 2010 to 2013. In December of 2010, a windshield survey was conducted to collect baseline data on winter cover crop implementation, with particular focus on identifying corn harvested for silage (expected earlier harvest date and lower levels of crop residue), versus for grain (expected later harvest date and higher levels of crop residue). Satellite spectral indices were successfully used to detect both the amount of green vegetative groundcover and the amount of crop residue on the surveyed fields. Analysis of wintertime satellite imagery

  10. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  11. Nitrogen, tillage, and crop rotation effects on nitrous oxide emissions from irrigated cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, Ardell D; Del Grosso, Stephen J; Reule, Curtis A

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of irrigated crop management practices on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from soil. Emissions were monitored from several irrigated cropping systems receiving N fertilizer rates ranging from 0 to 246 kg N ha(-1) during the 2005 and 2006 growing seasons. Cropping systems included conventional-till (CT) continuous corn (Zea mays L.), no-till (NT) continuous corn, NT corn-dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (NT-CDb), and NT corn-barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (NT-CB). In 2005, half the N was subsurface band applied as urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) at planting to all corn plots, with the rest of the N applied surface broadcast as a polymer-coated urea (PCU) in mid-June. The entire N rate was applied as UAN at barley and dry bean planting in the NT-CB and NT-CDb plots in 2005. All plots were in corn in 2006, with PCU being applied at half the N rate at corn emergence and a second N application as dry urea in mid-June followed by irrigation, both banded on the soil surface in the corn row. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured during the growing season using static, vented chambers (1-3 times wk(-1)) and a gas chromatograph analyzer. Linear increases in N(2)O emissions were observed with increasing N-fertilizer rate, but emission amounts varied with growing season. Growing season N(2)O emissions were greater from the NT-CDb system during the corn phase of the rotation than from the other cropping systems. Crop rotation and N rate had more effect than tillage system on N(2)O emissions. Nitrous oxide emissions from N application ranged from 0.30 to 0.75% of N applied. Spikes in N(2)O emissions after N fertilizer application were greater with UAN and urea than with PCU fertilizer. The PCU showed potential for reducing N(2)O emissions from irrigated cropping systems. PMID:18574163

  12. Cover crops and crop residue management under no-till systems improve soils and environmental quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Wegner, Brianna; Vahyala, Ibrahim; Osborne, Shannon; Schumacher, Thomas; Lehman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Crop residue harvest is a common practice in the Midwestern USA for the ethanol production. However, excessive removal of crop residues from the soil surface contributes to the degradation of important soil quality indicators such as soil organic carbon (SOC). Addition of a cover crop may help to mitigate these negative effects. The present study was set up to assess the impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) residue removal and cover crops on various soil quality indicators and surface greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. The study was being conducted on plots located at the North Central Agricultural Research Laboratory (NCARL) in Brookings, South Dakota, USA. Three plots of a corn and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) rotation under a no-till (NT) system are being monitored for soils and surface gas fluxes. Each plot has three residue removal (high residue removal, HRR; medium residue removal, MRR; and low residue removal, LRR) treatments and two cover crops (cover crops and no cover crops) treatments. Both corn and soybean are represented every year. Gas flux measurements were taken weekly using a closed static chamber method. Data show that residue removal significantly impacted soil quality indicators while more time was needed for an affect from cover crop treatments to be noticed. The LRR treatment resulted in higher SOC concentrations, increased aggregate stability, and increased microbial activity. The LRR treatment also increased soil organic matter (SOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) concentrations. Cover crops used in HRR (high corn residue removal) improved SOC (27 g kg-1) by 6% compared to that without cover crops (25.4 g kg-1). Cover crops significantly impacted POM concentration directly after the residue removal treatments were applied in 2012. CO2 fluxes were observed to increase as temperature increased, while N2O fluxes increased as soil moisture increased. CH4 fluxes were responsive to both increases in temperature and moisture. On average, soils under

  13. Analysis of scanner data for crop inventories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, R. (Principal Investigator); Cicone, R. C.; Kauth, R. J.; Malila, W. A.; Pont, W.; Thelen, B.; Sellman, A.

    1981-01-01

    Accomplishments for a machine-oriented small grains labeler T&E, and for Argentina ground data collection are reported. Features of the small grains labeler include temporal-spectral profiles, which characterize continuous patterns of crop spectral development, and crop calendar shift estimation, which adjusts for planting date differences of fields within a crop type. Corn and soybean classification technology development for area estimation for foreign commodity production forecasting is reported. Presentations supporting quarterly project management reviews and a quarterly technical interchange meeting are also included.

  14. New industrial uses, new markets for US crops: Status of technology and commercial adoption

    SciTech Connect

    Harsch, J.

    1993-08-01

    ;Contents: Foreword: Agriculture at the Crossroads; Transforming the Vision Into Reality: How To Make It Happen; Castor and Lesquerella; Corn; Crambe and Industrial Rapeseed; Dairy Products; Diesel from Crops; Ethanol from Crops; Forest Byproducts; Guayule; Jojoba; Kenaf; Livestock Byproducts; Milkweed; Polymers from Crops; Soybeans; Taxol and Other Pharmaceuticals from Plants; Wheat; Afterword: The Opportunity is Now.

  15. Cover Crop Effects on the Fate of Swine Manure-N Applied to Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal grain cover crops increase surface cover, anchor corn and soybean residues, increase infiltration, reduce both rill and interrill erosion, scavenge excess nutrients from the soil, and are easily obtained and inexpensive compared to other cover crop options. The use of cereal grain cover crops...

  16. Water use in a winter camelina – soybean double crop system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-cropping winter camelina (Camelina sativa) followed by soybean (Glycine max) may increase land-use efficiency by producing food and biofuel in a single season and is a viable cropping system for the northern Corn Belt. However, regional success of double-cropping, especially under dryland con...

  17. The Variable Response of Dryland Corn Yield to Soil Water Content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers in the central Great Plains would like to diversify crop rotations from the monoculture of the traditional winter wheat-fallow system. Corn (Zea mays L.) could work well as a rotation crop, but inputs are expensive and farmers would like to know the chances of producing a certain yield befor...

  18. Impact of corn gluten meal on direct-seeded vegetable seedling establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn gluten meal (CGM) may be used as a preemergent or preplant-incorporated herbicide for organic weed control of young developing or emerging weed seedlings; unfortunately, CGM can also adversely impact seedling survival of certain direct-seeded vegetable crops. Various vegetable crop seedlings re...

  19. Three year evaluation of corn production on narrow rows on the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the use of hybrids with upright leaf architecture, and more sophisticated cropping systems there is an increased use narrow row production systems. Midwest and northern corn producers have begun to migrate to a 38 cm (15”) row spacing while southern cropping systems have considered a 46 to 61 c...

  20. Sensor-based nitrogen applications for corn: opportunities, on-farm demonstration results, and obstacles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal N fertilizer rate for corn can vary substantially within and among fields. Current N management practices do not address this variability. Crop reflectance sensors offer the opportunity to diagnose crop N need and control N application rates at a fine spatial scale. Fifty-five replicated on-...

  1. Development of a corn and soybean labeling procedure for use with profile parameter classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Some essential processes for the development of a green-number-based logic for identifying (labeling) crops in LANDSAT imagery are documented. The supporting data and subsequent conclusions that resulted from development of a specific labeling logic for corn and soybean crops in the United States are recorded.

  2. Peanut, Cotton, and Corn Yield and Partial Net Income with Two Surface Drip Lateral Spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface drip irrigation laterals were spaced next to crop rows (0.91 m) and in alternate row middles (1.83 m) to document crop yield and partial net economic returns compared with non-irrigated peanut (Arachis hypogaea), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and corn (Zea mays). A drip irrigation system was ...

  3. VARIABILITY IN OBSERVED AND SENSOR BASED ESTIMATED OPTIMUM N RATES IN CORN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research showed that active sensors such as Crop Circle can be used to estimate in-season N requirements in corn. The objective of this research was to identify the sources of variability in the observed and estimated economic optimum N rates (EONR) using Crop Circle. Field experiments were c...

  4. Sweet corn hybrid influences outcomes of wild proso millet suppression with sethoxydim

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    he extent to which crop interference can reduce reliance on other forms of weed control are poorly known. Observed variation in weed suppressive ability among sweet corn hybrids, coupled with the need for new approaches to manage annual grasses, provide incentive to quantify the effect of crop hybr...

  5. Variability in Observed and Sensor Based Estimated Optimum N Rates in Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research showed that active sensors such as Crop Circle can be used to estimate in-season N requirements for corn. The objective of this research was to identify sources of variability in the observed and Crop Circle-estimated optimum N rates. Field experiments were conducted at two locations...

  6. Nitrogen Source Affects Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Irrigated No-Till Corn in Colorado (USA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Nitrogen fertilization is essential for optimizing corn yields and economic returns in irrigated cropping systems in the USA Central Great Plains area (Maddux and Halvorson, 2008). However, N application generally increases nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from cropping systems (Mosier et...

  7. Benefits of uniform row spacing in a cotton-corn conservation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations to obtain maximum yields of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) often don't occur with the same row spacing due to different crop's needs and available equipment. However, many producers in the South are now rotating these two crops and are faced with the dilemma of...

  8. Influence of Corn (Zea mays L.) Cultivar Development on Residue Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount and composition of crop residues added to soil in agricultural systems can influence decomposition processes and soil organic matter levels. This study aimed to evaluate residues (quantity and quality) of different corn cultivars commonly used in Brazilian cropping systems. The experiment...

  9. Water Balance and Nitrate Leaching for Corn in Kura Clover Living Mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems with improved environmental performance are needed in the Midwestern United States. Corn (Zea mays L.) grown in kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) living mulch is a relatively new cropping system which may have potential to meet that need. Our objectives were to determine the...

  10. Glyphosate effect on shikimate, nitrate reductase activity, yield, and seed composition in corn.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna N; Bellaloui, Nacer; Zablotowicz, Robert M

    2010-03-24

    When glyphosate is applied to glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops, drift to nonglyphosate-resistant (non-GR) crops may cause significant injury and reduce yields. Tools are needed to quantify injury and predict crop losses. In this study, glyphosate drift was simulated by direct application at 12.5% of the recommended label rate to non-GR corn (Zea mays L.) at 3 or 6 weeks after planting (WAP) during two field seasons in the Mississippi delta region of the southeastern USA. Visual plant injury, shikimate accumulation, nitrate reductase activity, leaf nitrogen, yield, and seed composition were evaluated. Effects were also evaluated in GR corn and GR corn with stacked glufosinate-resistant gene at the recommended label rate at 3 and 6 WAP. Glyphosate at 105 g ae/ha was applied once at 3 or 6 weeks after planting to non-GR corn. Glyphosate at 840 (lower label limit) or 1260 (upper label limit) g ae/ha was applied twice at 3 and 6 WAP to transgenic corn. Glyphosate caused injury (45-55%) and increased shikimate levels (24-86%) in non-GR compared to nontreated corn. In non-GR corn, glyphosate drift did not affect starch content but increased seed protein 8-21% while reducing leaf nitrogen reductase activity 46-64%, leaf nitrogen 7-16%, grain yield 49-54%, and seed oil 18-23%. In GR and GR stacked with glufosinate-resistant corn, glyphosate applied at label rates did not affect corn yield, leaf and seed nitrogen, or seed composition (protein, oil, and starch content). Yet, nitrate reductase activity was reduced 5-19% with glyphosate at 840 + 840 g/ha rate and 8-42% with glyphosate at 1260 + 1260 g/ha rate in both GR and GR stacked corn. These results demonstrate the potential for severe yield loss in non-GR corn exposed to glyphosate drift. PMID:20180575

  11. Closing the Carbon Budget in Perennial Biofuel Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantola, I. B.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Bernacchi, C.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Masters, M. D.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    At present, some 40% of corn grown in the United States, accounting for more than 26 million acres of farmland, is processed for bioethanol. Interest has arisen in converting biofuel production from corn grain ethanol to cellulosic ethanol, derived primarily from cellulose from dedicated energy crops. As many cellulosic biofuel feedstocks are perennial grasses, conversion from annual corn cropping to perennials represents a substantial change in farming practices with the potential to alter the plant-soil relationship in the Midwestern United States. Elimination of annual tillage preserves soils structure, conserving soil carbon and maintaining plant root systems. Five years of perennial grass establishment in former agricultural land in Illinois has shown a significant change in soil carbon pools and fluxes. Atmospheric carbon exchange monitoring combined with vegetation and soil sampling and respiration measurements confirm that in the first 3 years (establishment phase), perennial giant grasses Miscanthus x giganteus and Panicum virgatum rapidly increased belowground carbon allocation >400% and belowground biomass 400-750% compared to corn. Following establishment, perennial grasses maintained below- and aboveground annual biomass production, out-performing corn in both average and drought conditions. Here we offer a quantitative comparison of the carbon allocation pathways of corn and perennial biofuel crops in Midwestern landscapes, demonstrating the carbon benefits of perennial cropping through increased C allocation to root and rhizome structures. Long rotation periods in perennial grasses combined with annual carbon inputs to the soil system are expected to convert these agricultural soils from atmospheric carbon sources to carbon sinks.

  12. Forecasting the Chilean Tsunami, February 27 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, K.; Knight, W.; Whitmore, P.

    2010-12-01

    . Throughout the event, the models exhibited good agreement and supplied timely guidance. The Chilean tsunami forecast results presented are threefold: 1) the initial pre-computed best-fit forecast, 2) the refined forecast achieved by utilizing sea-level observations in real-time during the event, and 3) the post-event forecast using the USGS CMT earthquake parameters and incorporating the sea-level observations from the event. In this manner, improvements to the forecasting accuracy can be reviewed as the forecast fluctuations are analyzed. The Chilean tsunami forecasting experience provided many lessons-learned for real-time warning. Forecasting advancements for future events are discussed and include: increasing the number of locations for which forecasted amplitudes are provided, expanding the forecast to international locations, including estimates of uncertainty, and delivering inundation maps to the website.

  13. Economic and environmental impacts of the corn grain ethanol industry on the United States agricultural sector

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J.A.; English, B.C.; De La Torre Ugarte, D. G.; Menard, R.J.; Hellwinckel, C.M.; West, Tristram O.

    2010-09-10

    This study evaluated the impacts of increased ethanol production from corn starch on agricultural land use and the environment in the United States. The Policy Analysis System simulation model was used to simulate alternative ethanol production scenarios for 2007 through 2016. Results indicate that increased corn ethanol production had a positive effect on net farm income and economic wellbeing of the US agricultural sector. In addition, government payments to farmers were reduced because of higher commodity prices and enhanced net farm income. Results also indicate that if Conservation Reserve Program land was converted to crop production in response to higher demand for ethanol in the simulation, individual farmers planted more land in crops, including corn. With a larger total US land area in crops due to individual farmer cropping choices, total US crop output rose, which decreased crop prices and aggregate net farm income relative to the scenario where increased ethanol production happened without Conservation Reserve Program land. Substantial shifts in land use occurred with corn area expanding throughout the United States, especially in the traditional corn-growing area of the midcontinent region.

  14. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. Corn/soybean decision logic development and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. L.; Abotteen, K. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The development and testing of an analysis procedure which was developed to improve the consistency and objectively of crop identification using Landsat data is described. The procedure was developed to identify corn and soybean crops in the U.S. corn belt region. The procedure consists of a series of decision points arranged in a tree-like structure, the branches of which lead an analyst to crop labels. The specific decision logic is designed to maximize the objectively of the identification process and to promote the possibility of future automation. Significant results are summarized.

  15. Recommended data sets, corn segments and spring wheat segments, for use in program development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The sets of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment sites, crop year 1978, which are recommended for use in the development and evaluation of classification techniques based on LANDSAT spectral data are presented. For each site, the following exists: (1) accuracy assessment digitized ground truth; (2) a minimum of 5 percent of the scene ground truth identified as corn or spring wheat; and (3) at least four acquisitions of acceptable data quality during the growing season of the crop of interest. The recommended data sets consist of 41 corn/soybean sites and 17 spring wheat sites.

  16. Using Landsat digital data to detect moisture stress in corn-soybean growing regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, D. R.; Wehmanen, O. A.

    1980-01-01

    As a part of a follow-on study to the moisture stress detection effort conducted in the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE), a technique utilizing transformed Landsat digital data was evaluated for detecting moisture stress in humid growing regions using sample segments from Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana. At known growth stages of corn and soybeans, segments were classified as undergoing moisture stress or not undergoing stress. The remote-sensing-based information was compared to a weekly ground-based index (Crop Moisture Index). This comparison demonstrated that the remote sensing technique could be used to monitor the growing conditions within a region where corn and soybeans are the major crop.

  17. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  18. TQM at Corning.

    PubMed

    Houghton, J

    1992-01-01

    Houghton has been with Corning for 30 years, up through the ranks. Now, as chairman and CEO, his individual leadership stamp is TQM. It's a major turn-around story with Total Quality at its center. PMID:10117839

  19. Evaluation of vegetation indices for early assessment of corn status and yield potential in Southeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of crop canopy sensors for variable rate nitrogen (VRN) application in corn (Zea mays L.) production across the southeastern U.S. implies assessment of corn N status as early as the V6 growth stage. Our goals were to identify vegetation indices (VIs) that best: (i) correlate with plant statu...

  20. Transgenic Bt corn varietal resistance against the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Cramibidae) and implications to sugarcane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), attacks crops including corn, Zea mays L.; rice, Oryza sativa L.; sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench; and sugarcane, Saccharum spp., but strongly resistant varieties of any kind, native or otherwise, have not been identified. A field plot corn varie...

  1. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  2. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  3. Ovarian development and ovipositional preference of the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) variant in east central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Silvia I; Gray, Michael E

    2004-04-01

    The rotation of maize, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., has been the traditional cultural tactic to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in the Corn Belt. The reduced effectiveness of this rotation as a pest management tool in east central Illinois, northern Indiana, and southern Michigan can be explained by the shift in the ovipositional behavior of the new variant of western corn rootworm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of maize, soybean, oat, Avena sativa L., stubble, and alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., on the ovarian development and ovipositional preferences of the variant western corn rootworm. Field research was conducted near Urbana, IL, during 1998-2000. Gravid females were present throughout the season in all crops, and due to the prolonged period in which western corn rootworm females can lay eggs, none of the crops were immune from oviposition. Results indicated that the western corn rootworm variant oviposits in maize, soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa In 1998 and 1999, maize was the preferred oviposition site among crops; however, in 2000, maize, soybean, and oat stubble treatments had similar densities of western corn rootworm eggs. Lack of oviposition preference of the western corn rootworm variant demonstrated in this experiment represents a reasonable explanation of why the effectiveness of the rotation strategy to control western corn rootworm has diminished. PMID:15154460

  4. Nitrogen, Tillage, and Crop Rotation Effects On Carbon Dioxide and Methane Fluxes from Irrigated Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of tillage intensity, N fertilization, and crop rotation on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) flux from semiarid irrigated soils are poorly understood. We evaluated effects of: a) tillage intensity [no-till (NT) and moldboard plow tillage (CT)] in a continuous corn rotation; b...

  5. Blending soil conservation with production: Assessment of diverse crop rotations under no-till soil management for agronomic yield and soil C sequestration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified crop rotations, which reduce risk associated with adoption of no-till soil management, may influence soil C sequestration and soil quality. This study measured effects of corn-soybean (C-S), corn-soybean-oat/pea hay (C-S-H), or corn-soybean-oat/pea hay-alfalfa-alfalfa (C-S-H-A-A) annual...

  6. Crop Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of crop biotechnology on outcomes of agricultural practices and economics is readily evidenced by the escalating acreage of genetically engineered crops, all occurring in a relatively short time span. Until the mid 1990s, virtually no acreage was planted with commercial genetically mo...

  7. [Review of transgenic crop breeding in China].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dafang

    2015-06-01

    The development history and fundamental experience of transgenic crops (Genetically modified crops) breeding in China for near 30 years were reviewed. It was illustrated that a scientific research, development and industrialization system of transgenic crops including gene discovery, transformation, variety breeding, commercialization, application and biosafety assessment has been initially established which was few in number in the world. The research innovative capacity of transgenic cotton, rice and corn has been lifted. The research features as well as relative advantages have been initially formed. The problems and challenges of transgenic crop development were discussed. In addition, three suggestions of promoting commercialization, speeding up implementation of the Major National Project of GM Crops, and enhancing science communication were made. PMID:26672365

  8. Recent land use change in the Western Corn Belt threatens grasslands and wetlands.

    PubMed

    Wright, Christopher K; Wimberly, Michael C

    2013-03-01

    In the US Corn Belt, a recent doubling in commodity prices has created incentives for landowners to convert grassland to corn and soybean cropping. Here, we use land cover data from the National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer to assess grassland conversion from 2006 to 2011 in the Western Corn Belt (WCB): five states including North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Iowa. Our analysis identifies areas with elevated rates of grass-to-corn/soy conversion (1.0-5.4% annually). Across the WCB, we found a net decline in grass-dominated land cover totaling nearly 530,000 ha. With respect to agronomic attributes of lands undergoing grassland conversion, corn/soy production is expanding onto marginal lands characterized by high erosion risk and vulnerability to drought. Grassland conversion is also concentrated in close proximity to wetlands, posing a threat to waterfowl breeding in the Prairie Pothole Region. Longer-term land cover trends from North Dakota and Iowa indicate that recent grassland conversion represents a persistent shift in land use rather than short-term variability in crop rotation patterns. Our results show that the WCB is rapidly moving down a pathway of increased corn and soybean cultivation. As a result, the window of opportunity for realizing the benefits of a biofuel industry based on perennial bioenergy crops, rather than corn ethanol and soy biodiesel, may be closing in the WCB. PMID:23431143

  9. Corn volatiles as attractants for northern and western corn rootworm beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Diabrotica spp.).

    PubMed

    Hammack, L

    1996-07-01

    Synthetic corn volatiles and selected analogs were tested in commercial corn fields for attractiveness to feral northern (NCR,Diabrotica barberi) and western corn rootworm beetles (WCR,D. virgifera virgifera). Two new attractants, geranylacetone and α-terpineol, were identified among corn terpenes and compared at four stages in crop development with the phenylpropanoid standards cinnamyl alcohol and 4-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, with each component at 30 mg/trap. Dose-response relationships (0.1-100 mg/trap) and efficacy of two-component blends (30 mg/component) were also examined. More beetles were captured on traps baited with (+)- than (-)-α-terpineol, but the difference was statistically significant only for WCR. Captures with geranylacetone or (+)-α-terpineol were directly proportional to the logarithm of the attractant dose. WCR females were attracted to as little as 0.1 mg of either compound. WCR males required ≥ 1.0 mg of (+)-α-terpineol and were not attracted to geranylacetone at any dose. NCR required ≥0.3 mg of either attractant and showed less marked response differences between the sexes than did WCR. Geranylacetone and cinnamyl alcohol were equally effective attractants, whereas (+)-α-terpineol was significantly less attractive to WCR but more attractive to NCR than was 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde. Corn terpenes and phenylpropanoid standards produced similar seasonal response patterns in that captures tended to rise in each case as the season progressed, except during silking when no compound was attractive. Mixing corn terpenes or phenylpropanoid standards synergized responses of WCR females, but (+)-α-terpineol suppressed attraction of NCR females to geranylacetone. PMID:24226082

  10. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile. PMID:21985269

  11. The 2011 Chilean Student Movement against Neoliberal Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristián; Cabalin, Cristian; Orellana, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the 2011 Chilean student movement, the most relevant social mobilisation in Chile since the restoration of democracy in 1990. Based on available material and secondary sources, it describes the main features of this student movement, analyses the key components of the students' discourse and its relationship with the…

  12. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  16. Corn blight review: Sampling model and ground data measurements program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The sampling plan involved the selection of the study area, determination of the flightline and segment sample design within the study area, and determination of a field sample design. Initial interview survey data consisting of crop species acreage and land use were collected. On all corn fields, additional information such as seed type, row direction, population, planting date, ect. were also collected. From this information, sample corn fields were selected to be observed through the growing season on a biweekly basis by county extension personnel.

  17. Potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production. Background paper

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Bioenergy crops have the potential to improve the environment, increase rural incomes, and reduce Federal budget deficits and the U.S. trade imbalance. In the wake of the devastating Midwest floods, bioenergy crops may also offer a more robust crop for flood-prone regions. Bioenergy crops include annual row crops such as corn, herbaceous perennial grasses (herbaceous energy crops--HECs) such as switchgrass, and short-rotation woody crops (SRWCs) such as poplar. HECs are analogous to growing hay, harvesting the crop for energy rather than for forage. SRWCs typically consist of a plantation of closely spaced (2 to 3 meters apart on a grid) trees that are harvested on a cycle of 3 to 10 years.

  18. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  19. A mowing strategy to convert red clover to annual crops in organic farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic producers are interested in no-till cropping systems. In this study, we found that perennial clover can be converted to corn without tillage. Conversion tactics involved fall mowing in the third year of red clover, followed by between-row mowing of weeds and volunteer red clover in corn gr...

  20. EXPERIENCES WITH STRIP CROPPING SOYBEANS INTO SMALL GRAINS IN NEBRASKA. PROC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed corn is a high value crop and so yield is very important to producers. Input costs for nutrients and water are small relative to the return, especially when compared to commercial corn production. It doesn’t help that inbred plants used to produce hybrid seed are less vigorous than hybrids and ...

  1. Tillage and Nitrogen Source Effects on Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Irrigated Cropping Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide emissions were monitored from irrigated corn production systems receiving different N sources at fertilizer rates of 246 kg N ha-1 when in corn (Zea mays L.), 56 kg N ha-1 when in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and 157 kg N ha-1 when in barley (Hordeum distichon L.). Cropping syst...

  2. Modeling evolution of resistance of sugarcane borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Kang, J; Huang, F; Onstad, D W

    2014-08-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is a target pest of transgenic corn expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein, and the first evidence of resistance by D. saccharalis to Cry1Ab corn was detected in a field population in northeast Louisiana in 2004. We used a model of population dynamics and genetics of D. saccharalis to 1) study the effect of interfield dispersal, the first date that larvae enter diapause for overwintering, toxin mortality, the proportion of non-Bt corn in the corn patch, and the area of a crop patch on Bt resistance evolution; and 2) to identify gaps in empirical knowledge for managing D. saccharalis resistance to Bt corn. Increasing, the proportion of corn refuge did not always improve the durability of Bt corn if the landscape also contained sugarcane, sorghum, or rice. In the landscape, which consisted of 90% corn area, 5% sorghum area, and 5% rice area, the durability of single-protein Bt corn was 40 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.2 but 16 yr when the proportion of corn refuge was 0.5. The Bt resistance evolution was sensitive to a change (from Julian date 260 to 272) in the first date larvae enter diapause for overwintering and moth movement. In the landscapes with Bt corn, non-Bt corn, sugarcane, sorghum, and rice, the evolution of Bt resistance accelerated when larvae entered diapause for overwintering early. Intermediate rates of moth movement delayed evolution of resistance more than either extremely low or high rates. This study suggested that heterogeneity in the agrolandscapes may complicate the strategy for managing Bt resistance in D. saccharalis, and designing a Bt resistance management strategy for D. saccharalis is challenging because of a lack of empirical data about overwintering and moth movement. PMID:24914780

  3. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.

    PubMed

    Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

    2004-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P corn was grown. The second experiment used a split-plot design in which rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida. PMID:19262833

  4. Effect of Winter Cover Crops on Nematode Population Levels in North Florida

    PubMed Central

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P ≤ 0.05), but no treatment differences were observed in year 2. Wheat was a good host to Paratrichodorus minor, whereas vetch was a poor host, but numbers of P. minor were not lower in vetch-planted plots after corn was grown. The second experiment used a split-plot design in which rye or lupine was planted into field plots with histories of five tropical cover crops: soybean (Glycine max), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), and corn. Population densities of M. incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera were affected by previous tropical cover crops (P ≤ 0.05) but not by the winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida. PMID:19262833

  5. Changes of crop rotation in Iowa determined from the United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service cropland data layer product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alan J.; Doraiswamy, Paul C.; Raymond Hunt, E.

    2012-01-01

    Crop rotation is one of the important decisions made independently by numerous farm managers, and is a critical variable in models of crop growth and soil carbon. In Iowa and much of the Midwestern United States (US), the typical management decision is to rotate corn and soybean crops for a single field; therefore, the land-cover changes each year even though the total area of agricultural land-use remains the same. The price for corn increased from 2001 to 2010, which increased corn production in Iowa. We tested the hypothesis that the production increase was the result of changes in crop rotation in Iowa using the annual remote sensing classification (the cropland data layer) produced by the United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service. It was found that the area planted in corn increased from 4.7 million hectares in 2001 to 5.7 million hectares in 2007, which was correlated with the market price for corn. At the county level, there were differences in how the increase in corn production was accomplished. Northern and central counties had little land to expand cultivation and generally increased corn production by converting to a corn-corn rotation from the standard corn-soybean rotation. Southern counties in Iowa increased corn production by expanding into land that was not under recent cultivation. These changes affect the amount of soil carbon sequestration.

  6. Energy and greenhouse gas profiles of polyhydroxybutyrates derived from corn grain: a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-10-15

    Polyhydroxybutyrates (PHB) are well-known biopolymers derived from sugars orvegetable oils. Cradle-to-gate environmental performance of PHB derived from corn grain is evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA), particularly nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Site-specific process information on the corn wet milling and PHB fermentation and recovery processes was obtained from Telles. Most of energy used in the corn wet milling and PHB fermentation and recovery processes is generated in a cogeneration power plant in which corn stover, assumed to be representative of a variety of biomass sources that could be used, is burned to generate electricity and steam. County level agricultural information is used in estimating the environmental burdens associated with both corn grain and corn stover production. Results show that PHB derived from corn grain offers environmental advantages over petroleum-derived polymers in terms of nonrenewable energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, PHB provides greenhouse gas credits, and thus PHB use reduces greenhouse gas emissions compared to petroleum-derived polymers. Corn cultivation is one of the environmentally sensitive areas in the PHB production system. More sustainable practices in corn cultivation (e.g., using no-tillage and winter cover crops) could reduce the environmental impacts of PHB by up to 72%. PMID:18983094

  7. Trace Gas Exchange of Biofuel Crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Gilman, J. B.; Li, R.; Eller, A. S.; Gray, C.; Fierer, N.; Fall, R.; Harley, P. C.; Roberts, J. M.; Yuan, B.; Qian, Y.; Westra, P.; Fryrear, C.; Collins, M.; Whitman, K.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2010 leaf level gas exchange and VOC fluxes from switchgrass and corn grown at the CSU horticultural farm in Ft Collins (CO) were measured using a PTR-MS coupled to a modified Li6400 cuvette system. Both species are C4 plants with corn currently being the dominant biofuel crop in the USA whilst switchgrass being a promising candidate for cellulosic fuel ethanol production. Amongst the strongest VOC emissions from both plants were methanol, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, acetone and toluene. The switchgrass VOC emissions compare reasonably well with the only published data measured from potted plants in a whole plant enclosure (Eller et al. 2011). VOC emission studies on corn are almost as scarce as those of switchgrass. Considering the acreage of corn grown in the USA every year, VOC flux measurements of this plant species are largely under-represented in the literature. The emission rates that do exist in the literature do not compare well with the numbers found in this study (e.g. Das et al. 2003; 35μg methanol per hour per gram biomass). To investigate the biosphere atmosphere exchange of corn fields in more detail the field campaign BioCORN 2011 was initiated. In summer 2011 an eddy covariance system was set up in a corn field at ARDEC (CSU, Ft Collins, CO) to investigate the energy flux and the trace gas exchange of the US' dominant biofuel crop. Besides energy flux, evapotranspiration and CO2 flux a comprehensive suite of volatile organic compounds and inorganic species (O3, NO, NO2, CO) are measured for virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) analysis and true eddy covariance (EC) fluxes, respectively. VOCs are monitored by PTR-MS and, for the first time, fluxes of formic acid are measured utilizing NI-CIMS data for vDEC analysis. Besides the EC approach leaf level flux measurements and soil flux measurements are performed using a GC-MS system (TACOH) coupled to a modified Li6400 system and to soil chambers, respectively. Ethanol and methanol are amongst the

  8. Integrating pasture-based livestock production with annual crop production on the Great Plains to reduce loss of grassland wildlife

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tallgrass prairie has been replaced by corn and soybeans and mixed-grass prairie is being replaced by various annual crops. Annual crop fields support vegetarian diets but not much wildlife. Alternatively, integrating pastured livestock farming with annual crops can provide wildlife habitat. For ...

  9. Compositional analysis of genetically modified corn events (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared to conventional corn.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Abbott, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    Compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops continues to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment for these materials. The present study was designed to detect the genetic modifications and investigate the compositional analysis of GM corn containing traits of multiple genes (NK603, MON88017×MON810 and MON89034×MON88017) compared with non-GM corn. Values for most biochemical components assessed for the GM corn samples were similar to those of the non-GM control or were within the literature range. Significant increases were observed in protein, fat, fiber and fatty acids of the GM corn samples. The observed increases may be due to the synergistic effect of new traits introduced into corn varieties. Furthermore, SDS-PAGE analysis showed high similarity among the protein fractions of the investigated corn samples. These data indicate that GM corn samples were compositionally equivalent to, and as nutritious as, non-GM corn. PMID:25624211

  10. Productivity and nutrient cycling in bioenergy cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggenstaller, Andrew Howard

    One of the greatest obstacles confronting large-scale biomass production for energy applications is the development of cropping systems that balance the need for increased productive capacity with the maintenance of other critical ecosystem functions including nutrient cycling and retention. To address questions of productivity and nutrient dynamics in bioenergy cropping systems, we conducted two sets of field experiments during 2005-2007, investigating annual and perennial cropping systems designed to generate biomass energy feedstocks. In the first experiment we evaluated productivity and crop and soil nutrient dynamics in three prototypical bioenergy double-crop systems, and in a conventionally managed sole-crop corn system. Double-cropping systems included fall-seeded forage triticale (x Triticosecale Wittmack), succeeded by one of three summer-adapted crops: corn (Zea mays L.), sorghum-sudangrass [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], or sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Total dry matter production was greater for triticale/corn and triticale/sorghum-sudangrass compared to sole-crop corn. Functional growth analysis revealed that photosynthetic duration was more important than photosynthetic efficiency in determining biomass productivity of sole-crop corn and double-crop triticale/corn, and that greater yield in the tiritcale/corn system was the outcome of photosynthesis occurring over an extended duration. Increased growth duration in double-crop systems was also associated with reductions in potentially leachable soil nitrogen relative to sole-crop corn. However, nutrient removal in harvested biomass was also greater in the double-crop systems, indicating that over the long-term, double-cropping would mandate increased fertilizer inputs. In a second experiment we assessed the effects of N fertilization on biomass and nutrient partitioning between aboveground and belowground crop components, and on carbon storage by four perennial, warm-season grasses: big bluestem

  11. [Effects of simulated acid rain on seed germination and seedling growth of different type corn Zea mays].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Yan

    2013-06-01

    Taking normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn as test materials, this paper studied their seed germination and seedling growth under effects of simulated acid rain (pH 6.0, 5.0, 4.0, 3.0, 2.0, and 1.0). Simulated acid rain at pH 2.0-5.0 had no significant effects on the seed germination and seedling growth, but at pH 1.0, the germination rate of normal corn, waxy corn, pop corn, and sweet corn was 91.3%, 68.7%, 27.5%, and 11.7%, respectively. As compared with those at pH 6.0 (CK), the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, germination velocity, shoot height, root length, shoot and root dry mass, and the transformation rate of stored substances at pH 1.0 had significant decrease, and the average germination time extended apparently. At pH 1.0, the effects of acid rain were greater at seedling growth stage than at germination stage, and greater on underground part than on aboveground part. Due to the differences in gene type, normal corn and waxy corn had the strongest capability against acid rain, followed by pop corn, and sweet corn. It was suggested that corn could be categorized as an acid rain-tolerant crop, the injury threshold value of acid rain was likely between pH 1.0 and pH 2.0, and normal corn and waxy corn would be prioritized for planting in acid rain-stricken area. PMID:24066549

  12. Economic impacts of ethanol fuels from crops

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Richardson, J.

    1981-08-01

    This paper presents selected results of simulations of agricultural production of ethanol feedstocks from grains and sugar crops. Production levels of up to 5 billion gallons per year were simulated using various combinations of corn, high energy sorghum, sweet sorghum, and sugar beets. Major results include (1) at up to 2 billion gallons per year of ethanol, impacts on the agricultural sector are mild; (2) beyond 2 billion gallons per year, diversification away from corn appears to be necessary to avoid major feed price inflation; (3) farm income unambiguously rises in response to higher crop prices; and (4) exports of food grains are affected differently by alternative feedstocks, and high-energy sorghum shows a good potential for competing with food grains.

  13. Global warming likely reduces crop yield and water availability of the dryland cropping systems in the U.S. central Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated impacts of GCM-projected climate change on dryland crop rotations of wheat-fallow and wheat-corn-fallow in the Central Great Plains (Akron in Colorado, USA) using the CERES 4.0 crop modules in RZWQM2. The climate change scenarios for CO2, temperature, and precipitation were produced ...

  14. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces. PMID:11910721

  15. [The National Museum of Chilean Medicine: I. The Colonial period].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1989-09-01

    The first museum of Chilean Medicines was founded by Dr Enrique Laval in 1955. The new museum is a fusion of this one and patrimony of the School of Medicine and the ancient San Vicente Hospital. It was created in 1987 by the present Dean, Aleksandar Goic. The present article describes one of the halls, the Colony. Pictures of Governors and Conquerors who founded the first hospitals are in display. The period of Religious Medicine (1616-1823) is represented by pictures and religious objects, as well as hospital utensils. The times of the University of San Felipe and the "Protomedicato" (1756-1839) includes pictures and documentation from the first colonial physicians. Chilean medicine at that time stayed at a medieval level, lacking the influence of the Renaissance, the Barroque and other movements enlighting european medicine. PMID:2519478

  16. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  17. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns

    PubMed Central

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I.; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  18. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  19. Influence of soils on Landsat spectral signatures of corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalsted, K. J.; Worcester, B. K.; Devries, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Landsat data have been investigated extensively to determine crop types and acreage. However, confounding site factors have been found to reduce accuracy. Soils data in a small, contiguous area in southeast South Dakota were used to stratify Landsat data. A June 5 and July 29 CCT were used in a statistical analysis of corn training data. Significant soil parameters causing differences in study area soils were slope and parent material. Implication of the results is that, in this region, stratification of CCT data along parent material boundaries would improve corn classification accuracy. Research expanding on the interaction of soils and crops is both in progress and scheduled for additional studies in east central South Dakota.

  20. Sulfur dioxide and ozone effects on crops

    SciTech Connect

    Amundson, R.G. ); Kress, L. )

    1990-04-01

    In order to determine if exposure to O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} in combination produce greater-than-additive effects on yields of economically important crops, corn, wheat, soybean, alfalfa, and a mixed forage crop of timothy and red clover were exposed to SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using open-top chambers in six separate experiments during three field seasons. In five of the six studies changes in physiology and/or growth were also assessed to help determine short-term responses of the plants to the exposures. Monitoring of several physiological responses of the crops provided a means of assessing short term effects of the SO{sub 2} exposures on the crops and helped in interpretation of the effects on yields. 4 refs., 46 figs., 49 tabs.

  1. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  2. Foliar diseases of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  3. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    PubMed

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles. PMID:12347712

  4. Determination of Cry9C protein in processed foods made with StarLink corn.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Carmen; Fernandez, Cecilia; McDonald, Regina; Yeung, Jupiter M

    2002-01-01

    StarLink (Aventis CropScience US) hybrid corn has been genetically modified to contain a pesticidal protein, Cry9C, which makes it more resistant than traditional varieties to certain types of corn insect pests. Unlike other varieties of genetically engineered corn, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency authorized the use of StarLink corn for animal feed and industrial use only, not for human consumption. However, some Cry9C-containing corn was mistakenly or inadvertently comingled with yellow corn intended for human food use. Because corn containing the Cry9C construct was not approved for human use, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration considers food containing it to be adulterated. Consequently, this regulatory violation resulted in hundreds of recalls of corn-based products, such as taco shells, containing cry9C DNA. Detecting the novel protein in StarLink corn is an emerging issue; therefore, there is no standardized or established analytical method for detecting Cry9C protein in processed foods. We developed a procedure for quantitation of Cry9C protein, with validation data, in processed food matrixes with a limit of quantitation at 1.7 ng/g (ppb), using a commercial polyclonal antibody-based Cry9C kit that was intended for corn grain samples. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 2.8 and 11.8%, respectively. Mean recoveries were 73 and 85% at 2 and 5 ng/g Cry9C fortifications, respectively, for 19 control non-StarLink corn-based matrixes. Our data demonstrate only 0-0.5% of Cry9C protein survived the processing of tortilla chips and soft tortillas made from 100% StarLink corn, resulting in levels from below the detection limit to 45 ppb. PMID:12374406

  5. Cadmium distribution within corn plants as a function of cadmium loading of the soil

    SciTech Connect

    Re, M.; Garagiola, M.G.; Crovato, E.

    1983-02-01

    Corn is a widespread crop in some industrialized areas of Northern Italy and Europe where it serves for both animal and human nutrition. In the present paper we examined the distribution of Cd within corn plants grown under both hydroponic and field conditions. The results obtained show that Cd accumulation by different plant tissues may reach saturation without signs of phytotoxicity. Thus cadmium pollution can go undetected even when corn tissue is responsible for the entry of the metal into the food chain. Implications for human and animal nutrition are discussed.

  6. Life cycle assessment of fertilization of corn and corn-soybean rotations with Swine manure and synthetic fertilizer in iowa.

    PubMed

    Griffing, Evan Michael; Schauer, Richard Lynn; Rice, Charles W

    2014-03-01

    Life cycle assessment is the predominant method to compare energy and environmental impacts of agricultural production systems. In this life cycle study, we focused on the comparison of swine manure to synthetic fertilizer as nutrients for corn production in Iowa. Deep pit (DP) and anaerobic lagoon (AL) treatment systems were compared separately, and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) was chosen as the representative synthetic fertilizer. The two functional units used were fertilization of 1000 kg of corn in a continuous corn system and fertilization of a crop yielding 1000 kg of corn and a crop yielding 298 kg of soybean in a 2-yr corn-soybean rotation. Iowa-specific versions of emission factors and energy use were used when available and compared with Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change values. Manure was lower than synthetic fertilizer for abiotic depletion and about equal with respect to eutrophication. Synthetic fertilizer was lower than manure for global warming potential (GWP) and acidification. The choice of allocation method and life cycle boundary were important in understanding the context of these results. In the DP system, methane (CH) from housing was the largest contributor to the GWP, accounting for 60% of the total impact. When storage systems were compared, the DP system had 50% less GWP than the AL system. This comparison was due to reduction in CH emissions from the storage system and conservation of nitrogen. Nitrous oxide emissions were the biggest contributor to the GWP of UAN fertilization and the second biggest contributor to the GWP of manure. Monte Carlo and scenario analyses were used to test the robustness of the results and sensitivity to methodology and important impact factors. The available crop-land and associated plant nutrient needs in Iowa was compared with manure production for the current hog population. On a state- or county-wide level, there was generally an excess of available land. On a farm level, there is often an excess

  7. Satellite Data Inform Forecasts of Crop Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    During a Stennis Space Center-led program called Ag 20/20, an engineering contractor developed models for using NASA satellite data to predict crop yield. The model was eventually sold to Genscape Inc., based in Louisville, Kentucky, which has commercialized it as LandViewer. Sold under a subscription model, LandViewer software provides predictions of corn production to ethanol plants and grain traders.

  8. [Cultivation and environmental impacts of GMO crops].

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Georges

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic plant varieties are grown since 1996 on surfaces increasing each year. They covered 114 million hectares worldwide in 2007, which shows their success among the farmers in developed as well as developing countries, despite the propaganda campaigns of the environmental movements and advocates of decline. The first transgenic crops (soybean, corn, coton and rapeseed) offer benefits in terms of health, economy and environment. Europe and especially France, which reject this technology, sentence their research to death and penalize their agriculture. PMID:20122392

  9. Sugarcane and other crops as fuel feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    The use of sugarcane as a feedstock for fuel alcohol production in Brazil, and in Zimbabwe Rhodesia and Panama stimulated tremendous interest in the potential of agricultural crops for renewable energy sources. The cost of the feedstock is important. Corn, the current major agricultural feedstock in US fuel alcohol production, costs 60 to 80% of the selling price of the alcohol produced from it. Production costs for sugarcane and sugarbeets are higher than for corn. Sugarcane and sugarbeets, yield more fermentable carbohydrates per acre than any other crop. Sugarcane has the distinct advantage of containing a large amount of fiber in the harvested portion. The feedstock cost of sugarcane can be reduced by producing more cane per acre. Sweet sorghum has been discussed as a fuel crop. Cassana, the tapioca source, is thought to be a fuel crop of major potential. Feedstock cost can also be reduced through management decisions that reduce costly practices. Cultivation and fertilizer costs can be reduced. The operating cost of the processing plant is affected by the choice of crops grown for feedstock, both by their cost and by availability. (DP)

  10. Assessing corn water stress using spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mefford, Brenna S.

    Multiple remote sensing techniques have been developed to identify crop water stress, but some methods may be difficult for farmers to apply. Unlike most techniques, shortwave vegetation indices can be calculated using satellite, aerial, or ground imagery from the green (525-600 nm), red (625-700 nm), and near infrared (750-900 nm) spectral bands. If vegetation indices can be used to monitor crop water stress, growers could use this information as a quick low-cost guideline for irrigation management, thus helping save water by preventing over irrigating. This study occurred in the 2013 growing season near Greeley, CO, where pressurized drip irrigation was used to irrigate twelve corn ( Zea mays L.) treatments of varying water deficit. Multispectral data was collected and four different vegetation indices were evaluated: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Optimized Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), and the Wide Dynamic Range Vegetation Index (WDRVI). The four vegetation indices were compared to corn water stress as indicated by the stress coefficient (Ks) and water deficit in the root zone, calculated by using a water balance that monitors crop evapotranspiration (ET), irrigation events, precipitation events, and deep percolation. ET for the water balance was calculated using two different methods for comparison purposes: (1) calculation of the stress coefficient (Ks) using FAO-56 standard procedures; (2) use of canopy temperature ratio (Tc ratio) of a stressed crop to a non-stressed crop to calculate Ks. It was found that obtaining Ks from Tc ratio is a viable option, and requires less data to obtain than Ks from FAO-56. In order to compare the indices to Ks, vegetation ratios were developed in the process of normalization. Vegetation ratios are defined as the non-stressed vegetation index divided by the stressed vegetation index. Results showed that vegetation ratios were sensitive to water

  11. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  12. Impact of second-generation biofuel agriculture on greenhouse gas emissions in the corn-growing regions of the US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land use for bioenergy crops is controversial because terrestrial resources that supply food, livestock feed, and ecosystem services already compete for geographical space in some regions of the world. Currently, in the US, both feed and bioenergy are produced from the food crop Zea mays L. (corn), ...

  13. Aerial Photography: Use in Detecting Simulated Insect Defoliation in Corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, H. C.; Latham, R.; Meyer, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Artificial defoliation in corn was used to explore the usefulness of aerial photography in detecting crop insect infestations. Defoliation on the top of plants was easily detected, while that on the base was less so. Aero infrared film with Wratten 89B filter gave the best results, and morning flights at the scale of 1:15840 are recommended. Row direction, plant growth stage, and time elapse since defoliation were not important factors.

  14. Diversifying crops: the Nicaraguan experiment.

    PubMed

    Meyrat, A

    1992-01-01

    Over 1/2 of Nicaragua's population lives in the Pacific Plains where cotton has been grown intensively for 40 years. This single-crop economy has led to massive deforestation, wind and water erosion has affected the soil, and extensive use of pesticides has deposited excessive amounts of DDT in the breast milk of nursing mothers. After the downfall of the Somoza dictatorship the subsequent agrarian reform has been hampered by lack of information and training on sustainable methods of farming. The Pikin Guerrero project is a sustainable development experiment involving 2200 peasant families jointly run by the Nicaraguan Institute for Natural Resources and the Environment (IRENA) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The farmers grow corn and beans while exhausting the area's natural resources through forest clearing with the result of spreading erosion of fragile soils. 400 farmers have reshaped their production systems with the help of experts. Annual crops have become more diverse: yucca, 10 varieties of bean, 3 of pineapple, and 4 of corn, plus coffee, mango, bananas, and avocado. Soil conservation practices have been introduced, and farmers have built terraces. The initial pilot project comprised 5000 hectares, it is being expanded to cover another 10,000 hectares. The introduction of family planning to the local people is the next undertaking. PMID:12317702

  15. Datasets for transcriptomic analyses of maize leaves in response to Asian corn borer feeding and/or jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Huang, Qixing; Pennerman, Kayla K; Yu, Jiujiang; Liu, Zhixin; Guo, Anping; Yin, Guohua

    2016-06-01

    Corn is one of the most widely grown crops throughout the world. However, many corn fields develop pest problems such as corn borers every year that seriously affect its yield and quality. Corn's response to initial insect damage involves a variety of changes to the levels of defensive enzymes, toxins, and communicative volatiles. Such a dramatic change secondary metabolism necessitates the regulation of gene expression at the transcript level. In this paper, we summarized the datasets of the transcriptome of corn plants in response to corn stalk borers (Ostrinia furnacalis) and/or methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Altogether, 39, 636 genes were found to be differentially expressed. The sequencing data are available in the NCBI SRA database under accession number SRS965087. Our dataset will provide more scientific and valuable information for future work such as the study of the functions of important genes or proteins and develop new insect-resistant maize varieties. PMID:27408913

  16. An assessment of Landsat data acquisition history on identification and area estimation of corn and soybeans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixson, M. M.; Bauer, M. E.; Scholz, D. K.

    1980-01-01

    During the past decade, numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of satellite remote sensing for providing accurate and timely crop area information. This study assessed the impact of Landsat data acquisition history on classification and area estimation accuracy of corn and soybeans. Multitemporally registered Landsat MSS data from four acquisitions during the 1978 growing season were used in classification of eight sample segments in the U.S. Corn Belt. The results illustrate the importance of selecting Landsat acquisitions based on spectral differences in crops at certain growth stages.

  17. Assessing Corn Stover Composition and Sources of Variability via NIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, D. W.; Sluiter, A. D.; Hayward, T. K.; Hames, B. R.; Thomas, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Corn stover, the above-ground, non-grain portion of the crop, is a large, currently available source of biomass that potentially could be collected as a biofuels feedstock. Biomass conversion process economics are directly affected by the overall biochemical conversion yield, which is assumed to be proportional to the carbohydrate content of the feedstock materials used in the process. Variability in the feedstock carbohydrate levels affects the maximum theoretical biofuels yield and may influence the optimum pretreatment or saccharification conditions. The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which commercial hybrid corn stover composition varies and begin to partition the variation among genetic, environmental, or annual influences. A rapid compositional analysis method using near-infrared spectroscopy/partial least squares multivariate modeling (NIR/PLS) was used to evaluate compositional variation among 508 commercial hybrid corn stover samples collected from 47 sites in eight Corn Belt states after the 2001, 2002, and 2003 harvests. The major components of the corn stover, reported as average (standard deviation) % dry weight, whole biomass basis, were glucan 31.9 (2.0), xylan 18.9 (1.3), solubles composite 17.9 (4.1), and lignin (corrected for protein) 13.3 (1.1). We observed wide variability in the major corn stover components. Much of the variation observed in the structural components (on a whole biomass basis) is due to the large variation found in the soluble components. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the harvest year had the strongest effect on corn stover compositional variation, followed by location and then variety. The NIR/PLS rapid analysis method used here is well suited to testing large numbers of samples, as tested in this study, and will support feedstock improvement and biofuels process research.

  18. High speed measurement of corn seed viability using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, Ashabahebwa; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Wang-Hee; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2016-03-01

    Corn is one of the most cultivated crops all over world as food for humans as well as animals. Optimized agronomic practices and improved technological interventions during planting, harvesting and post-harvest handling are critical to improving the quantity and quality of corn production. Seed germination and vigor are the primary determinants of high yield notwithstanding any other factors that may play during the growth period. Seed viability may be lost during storage due to unfavorable conditions e.g. moisture content and temperatures, or physical damage during mechanical processing e.g. shelling, or over heating during drying. It is therefore vital for seed companies and farmers to test and ascertain seed viability to avoid losses of any kind. This study aimed at investigating the possibility of using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique to discriminate viable and nonviable corn seeds. A group of corn samples were heat treated by using microwave process while a group of seeds were kept as control group (untreated). The hyperspectral images of corn seeds of both groups were captured between 400 and 2500 nm wave range. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was built for the classification of aged (heat treated) and normal (untreated) corn seeds. The model showed highest classification accuracy of 97.6% (calibration) and 95.6% (prediction) in the SWIR region of the HSI. Furthermore, the PLS-DA and binary images were capable to provide the visual information of treated and untreated corn seeds. The overall results suggest that HSI technique is accurate for classification of viable and non-viable seeds with non-destructive manner.

  19. Sunflower crop

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, B.H.

    1981-05-01

    A review of the sunflower as a major commercial crop, including its history, cultivation, hybridization and uses. It is grown principally for its oil which is high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and used in a variety of foods. Recently it has been tested in diesel engines and a high protein meal is produced from the seed residues.

  20. The herbicide glyphosate impacts rhizosphere soil exoenzyme activities and microbial community structure associated with glyphosate–tolerant and non-tolerant corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Conservation tillage practices across the country have been implementing genetically engineered herbicide resistant crops along with applications of the herbicide glyphosate. We tested the hypothesis that five years of glyphosate applications to both resistant and non-resistant corn ...