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Sample records for chimeric antibodies expressed

  1. Genetic engineering, expression, and activity of a chimeric monoclonal antibody-avidin fusion protein for receptor-mediated delivery of biotinylated drugs in humans.

    PubMed

    Boado, Ruben J; Zhang, Yufeng; Zhang, Yun; Xia, Chun-fang; Wang, Yuntao; Pardridge, William M

    2008-03-01

    The genetic engineering, expression, and validation of a fusion protein of avidin (AV) and a chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the human insulin receptor (HIR) is described. The 15 kDa avidin monomer was fused to the carboxyl terminus of the heavy chain of the HIRMAb. The fusion protein heavy chain reacted with antibodies specific for human IgG and avidin, and had the same affinity for binding to the HIR extracellular domain as the original chimeric HIRMAb. The fusion protein qualitatively bound biotinylated ligands, but was secreted fully saturated with biotin by COS cells, owing to the high level of biotin in tissue culture medium. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were permanently transfected with a tandem vector expressing the fusion protein genes, and high expressing cell lines were isolated by methotrexate amplification and dilutional cloning. The product expressed by CHO cells had high binding to the HIR, and migrated as a homogeneous species in size exclusion HPLC and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The CHO cells were adapted to a 4 week culture in biotin depleted medium, and the HIRMAb-AV fusion protein expressed under these conditions had 1 unoccupied biotin binding site per molecule, based on a [3H]-biotin ultrafiltration assay. The HIRMAb-AV increased biotin uptake by human cells >15-fold, and mediated the endocytosis of fluorescein-biotin, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy. In summary, the HIRMAb-AV fusion protein is a new drug targeting system for humans that can be adapted to monobiotinylated drugs or nucleic acids. PMID:18278853

  2. Functionalization of scaffolds with chimeric anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies for osseous regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Sahar; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Pi, Sung Hee; Han, Alexander; Abdelhamid, Alaa I.; Zadeh, Homayoun H.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of murine anti-BMP-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) immobilized on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) to mediate de novo bone formation, a process termed antibody mediated osseous regeneration (AMOR). The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of a newly generated chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb in mediating AMOR, as well as to evaluate the suitability of different biomaterials as scaffolds to participate in AMOR. Chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb was immobilized on 4 biomaterials, namely, titanium microbeads (Ti), alginate hydrogel, macroporous biphasic calcium phosphate (MBCP) and ACS, followed by surgical implantation into rat critical-size calvarial defects. Animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks and the degree of bone fill was assessed using micro-CT and histomorphometry. Results demonstrated local persistence of chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb up to 8 weeks, as well as significant de novo bone regeneration in sites implanted with chimeric anti-BMP-2 antibody immobilized on each of the 4 scaffolds. Ti and MBCP showed the highest volume of bone regeneration, presumably due to their resistance to compression. Alginate and ACS also mediated de novo bone formation, though significant volumetric shrinkage was noted. In vitro assays demonstrated cross-reactivity of chimeric anti-BMP-2 mAb with BMP-4 and BMP-7. Immune complex of anti-BMP-2 mAb with BMP-2 induced osteogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells in vitro, involving expression of RUNX2 and phosphorylation of Smad1. The present data demonstrated the ability of chimeric anti- BMP-2 mAb to functionalize different biomaterial with varying characteristics to mediate osteogenesis. PMID:24055525

  3. Humanization of predicted T-cell epitopes reduces the immunogenicity of chimeric antibodies: new evidence supporting a simple method.

    PubMed

    Roque-Navarro, Lourdes; Mateo, Cristina; Lombardero, Josefa; Mustelier, Geraudis; Fernández, Alicia; Sosa, Katya; Morrison, Sherrie L; Pérez, Rolando

    2003-08-01

    Genetic engineering has provided several approaches to reduce immunogenicity of murine antibodies. We described previously a new method based on the humanization of the linear epitopes presented to T cells. In brief, potential immunogenic epitopes in the variable region were identified and subjected to point mutations to make them human and/or to modify amphipatic motifs. The resulting recombinant antibody retained its antigen binding affinity and was less immunogenic in monkeys than their murine or chimeric predecessors are. The present study provides two new examples of this T-cell epitope humanization approach: ior-t1A murine monoclonal antibody (mMAb), which recognizes the human-CD6 molecule, and ior-C5 mMAb, which recognizes a novel glycoprotein expressed on the surface of malignant colorectal cells. Seven amino acids were substituted in ior-C5 and eleven residues in ior-t1A, by the corresponding residues from the highest homologous human sequences. Surprisingly, the homology between re-shaped chimeric antibody variable region frameworks and human sequences was 80-90%. Experiments in monkeys showed that T1AhT and C5hT "detopes" antibodies were less immunogenic than their chimeric analogues while they retained 30-50% of antigen binding affinities. The proposed method might be of general applicability to reduce immunogenicity of chimeric antibodies with therapeutic potential. PMID:14511570

  4. [Research of Human-mouse Chimeric Antibodies Against Ebola Virus Nucleoprotein].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rongping; Sun, Lina; Liu, Yang; Wu, Wei; Li, Chuan; Liang, Mifang; Qiu, Peihong

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus is highly infectious and can result in death in ≤ 90% of infected subjects. Detection of the Ebola virus and diagnosis of infection are extremely important for epidemic control. Presently, Chinese laboratories detect the nucleic acids of the Ebola virus by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, such detection takes a relatively long time and necessitates skilled personnel and expensive equipment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of serum is simple, easy to operate, and can be used to ascertain if a patient is infected with the Ebola virus as well as the degree of infection. Hence, ELISA can be used in epidemiological investigations and is a strong complement to detection of nucleic acids. Cases of Ebola hemorrhagic fever have not been documented in China, so quality-control material for positive serology is needed. Construction and expression of human-mouse chimeric antibodies against the nucleoprotein of the Ebola virus was carried out. Genes encoding variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) chains were extracted and amplified from murine hybridoma cells. Genes encoding the VH and VL chains of monoclonal antibodies were amplified by RT-PCR. According to sequence analyses, a primer was designed to amplify functional sequences relative to VH and VL chain. The eukaryotic expression vector HL51-14 carrying some human antibody heavy chain- and light chain-constant regions was used. IgG antibodies were obtained by transient transfection of 293T cells. Subsequently, immunological detection and immunological identification were identified by ELISA, immunofluorescence assay, and western blotting. These results showed that we constructed and purified two human- mouse chimeric antibodies. PMID:27295878

  5. Plant-based Production of Two Chimeric Monoclonal IgG Antibodies Directed against Immunodominant Epitopes of Vibrio cholerae Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Kara J.; Giffen, Samantha R.; Pauly, Michael H.; Kim, Do H.; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Whaley, Kevin J.; Zeitlin, Larry; Mantis, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    We have produced and characterized two chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibodies that bind different immunodominant epitopes on Vibrio cholerae lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MAb 2D6 IgG1 recognizes Ogawa O-polysaccharide antigen, while mAb ZAC-3 IgG1 recognizes core/lipid A moiety of Ogawa and Inaba LPS. Both antibodies were expressed using a Nicotiana benthamiana-based rapid antibody-manufacturing platform (RAMP) and evaluated in vitro for activities associated with immunity to V. cholerae, including vibriocidal activity, bacterial agglutination and motility arrest. PMID:25865265

  6. In vitro and in vivo properties of human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Saga, T.; Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Konishi, J.; Ueda, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Watanabe, T. )

    1990-06-01

    A human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for a common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen was efficiently obtained by ligating human heavy-chain enhancer element to the chimeric heavy- and light-chain genes. Cell binding and competitive inhibition assays of both radioiodine and indium-111- (111In) labeled chimeric antibodies demonstrated in vitro immunoreactivity identical with that of the parental murine monoclonal antibodies. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled chimeric antibody in tumor-bearing nude mice was similar to that of the parental murine antibody. Tumor accumulation of radioiodinated parental and chimeric antibodies was lower than that of {sup 111}In-labeled antibodies, probably because of dehalogenation of the radioiodinated antibodies. Indium-111-labeled chimeric antibody clearly visualized xenografted tumor. These results suggest that a human/mouse chimeric antibody can be labeled with {sup 111}In and radioiodine without the loss of its immunoreactivity, and that chimeric antibody localizes in vivo in the same way as the parental murine antibody.

  7. The expression and genetic immunization of chimeric fragment of Hantaan virus M and S segments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fanglin; Wu Xingan; Luo Wen; Bai Wentao; Liu Yong; Yan Yan; Wang Haitao; Xu Zhikai . E-mail: zhikaixu@fmmu.edu.cn

    2007-03-23

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), which is characterized by severe symptoms and high mortality, is caused by hantavirus. There are still no effective prophylactic vaccines directed to HFRS until now. In this research, we fused expressed G2 fragment of M segment and 0.7 kb fragment of S segment. We expect it could be a candidate vaccine. Chimeric gene G2S0.7 was first expressed in prokaryotic expression system pGEX-4T. After inducing expressed fusion proteins, GST-G2S0.7 was induced and its molecular weight was about 100 kDa. Meanwhile, the fusion protein kept the activity of its parental proteins. Further, BALB/c mice were vaccinated by the chimeric gene. ELISA, cell microculture neutralization test in vitro were used to detect the humoral immune response in immunized BALB/c mice. Lymphocyte proliferation assay was used to detect the cellular immune response. The results showed that the chimeric gene could simultaneously evoke specific antibody against nucleocapsid protein (NP) and glycoprotein (GP). And the immunized mice of every group elicited neutralizing antibodies with different titers. But the titers were low. Lymphocyte proliferation assay results showed that the stimulation indexes of splenocytes of chimeric gene to NP and GP were significantly higher than that of control. It suggested that the chimeric gene of Hantaan virus containing G2 fragment of M segment and 0.7 kb fragment of S segment could directly elicit specific anti-Hantaan virus humoral and cellular immune response in BALB/c mice.

  8. Generation of monoclonal antibodies of desired specificity using chimeric polyomavirus-derived virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Zvirbliene, A; Samonskyte, L; Gedvilaite, A; Voronkova, T; Ulrich, R; Sasnauskas, K

    2006-04-20

    Foreign protein sequences presented on hamster polyomavirus (HaPyV) major capsid protein VP1-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) have been demonstrated to be highly immunogenic. The current study was aimed to evaluate VP1-derived chimeric VLPs as tools for hybridoma technology to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of desired specificity. Chimeric VLPs containing inserts of different size and origin were used as immunogens. Chimeric VLPs carrying a 9 amino acid (aa)-long cytotoxic T-cell epitope (STAPPVHNV) of human mucin 1 (MUC1) elicited a strong epitope-specific humoral immune response in mice and promoted the production of MUC1-specific mAbs. From a total of seven mAbs of IgG isotype generated against the chimeric VLPs, two mAbs were directed against the MUC1 epitope and five mAbs against the VP1-carrier. Two out of five anti-VP1 mAbs recognized epitopes located at the previously defined insertion site #2 (aa 223/224), which confirms its surface-exposed localization. Chimeric VLPs carrying a 120-aa long sequence of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) nucleocapsid protein (NP) promoted the generation of five mAbs of IgG isotype specific to PUUV NP. All mAbs recognized the full-length NP of different PUUV strains. In contrast, no VP1-specific mAbs were obtained. The ability of chimeric VLPs to activate antigen-presenting cells was evaluated by studying the uptake of chimeric VLPs by murine spleen cell-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Efficient uptake of VLPs and activation of murine DCs were demonstrated, which may represent the basis of the strong immunogenicity of chimeric VLPs. In conclusion, chimeric VLPs effectively stimulated the production of IgG antibodies specific for foreign epitopes presented at surface-exposed regions. Thus, chimeric HaPyV VP1-derived VLPs represent efficient immunogens for hybridoma technology and provide a promising alternative to chemical coupling of synthetic peptides to carrier proteins. PMID:16516908

  9. A Novel Chimeric Anti-PA Neutralizing Antibody for Postexposure Prophylaxis and Treatment of Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Siping; Tang, Qi; Liang, Xudong; Zhou, Tingting; Yang, Jin; Liu, Peng; Chen, Ya; Wang, Changjun; Feng, Zhenqing; Zhu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax is a highly lethal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, and the associated shock is closely related to the lethal toxin (LeTx) produced by the bacterium. The central role played by the 63 kDa protective antigen (PA63) region of LeTx in the pathophysiology of anthrax makes it an excellent therapeutic target. In the present study, a human/murine chimeric IgG mAb, hmPA6, was developed by inserting murine antibody variable regions into human constant regions using antibody engineering technology. hmPA6 expressed in 293F cells could neutralize LeTx both in vitro and in vivo. At a dose of 0.3 mg/kg, it could protect all tested rats from a lethal dose of LeTx. Even administration of 0.6 mg/kg hmPA6 48 h before LeTx challenge protected all tested rats. The results indicate that hmPA6 is a potential candidate for clinical application in anthrax treatment. PMID:26134518

  10. Mouse-human immunoglobulin G1 chimeric antibodies with activities against Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed Central

    Zebedee, S L; Koduri, R K; Mukherjee, J; Mukherjee, S; Lee, S; Sauer, D F; Scharff, M D; Casadevall, A

    1994-01-01

    Passive antibody administration is a potentially useful approach for the therapy of human Cryptococcus neoformans infections. To evaluate the efficacy of the human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) constant region against C. neoformans and to construct murine antibody derivatives with reduced immunogenicities and longer half-lives in humans, two mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibodies were generated from the protective murine monoclonal antibodies 2D10 (IgM) and 18B7 (IgG1). The 2D10 mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibody (ch2D10) had significantly lower binding affinity than its parent murine antibody (m2D10), presumably because of a loss of avidity contribution on switching from IgM to IgG. The 18B7 mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibody (ch18B7) had higher affinity for cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen than its parent murine antibody (m18B7). ch18B7 and ch2D10 promoted phagocytosis of C. neoformans by primary human microglial cells and the murine J774.16 macrophage-like cell line. ch18B7 and m18B7 enhanced fungistatic or fungicidal activity of J774.16 cells and prolonged the survival of lethally infected mice. We conclude that the human IgG1 constant chain can be effective in mediating antifungal activity against C. neoformans. ch18B7 or similar antibodies are potential candidates for passive antibody therapy of human cryptococcosis. PMID:7979280

  11. Production of Hybrid Chimeric PVX Particles Using a Combination of TMV and PVX-Based Expression Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Dickmeis, Christina; Honickel, Mareike Michaela Antonia; Fischer, Rainer; Commandeur, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    We have generated hybrid chimeric potato virus X (PVX) particles by coexpression of different PVX coat protein fusions utilizing tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and PVX-based expression vectors. Coinfection was achieved with a modified PVX overcoat vector displaying a fluorescent protein and a TMV vector expressing another PVX fluorescent overcoat fusion protein. Coexpression of the PVX-CP fusions in the same cells was confirmed by epifluorescence microscopy. Labeling with specific antibodies and transmission electron microscopy revealed chimeric particles displaying green fluorescent protein and mCherry on the surface. These data were corroborated by bimolecular fluorescence complementation. We used split-mCherry fragments as PVX coat fusions and confirmed an interaction between the split-mCherry fragments in coinfected cells. The presence of assembled split-mCherry on the surface confirmed the hybrid character of the chimeric particles. PMID:26636076

  12. Chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies to retarget T cells in pediatric oncology

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Maya; Curran, Kevin J.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy using antigen-specific T cells has broad therapeutic potential. Chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies can redirect T cells to kill tumors without human leukocyte antigens (HLA) restriction. Key determinants of clinical potential include the choice of target antigen, antibody specificity, antibody affinity, tumor accessibility, T cell persistence, and tumor immune evasion. For pediatric cancers, additional constraints include their propensity for bulky metastatic disease and the concern for late toxicities from treatment. Nonetheless, the recent preclinical and clinical developments of these T cell based therapies are highly encouraging. PMID:25832831

  13. Isolation and Chimerization of a Highly Neutralizing Antibody Conferring Passive Protection against Lethal Bacillus anthracis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Ronit; Marcus, Hadar; Ben-Arie, Einat; Lachmi, Bat-El; Mechaly, Adva; Reuveny, Shaul; Gat, Orit; Mazor, Ohad; Ordentlich, Arie

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the passive transfer of protective antigen (PA)-neutralizing antibodies can protect animals against Bacillus anthracis infection. The standard protocol for the isolation of PA-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies is based upon a primary selection of the highest PA-binders by ELISA, and usually yields only few candidates antibodies. We demonstrated that by applying a PA-neutralization functionality-based screen as the primary criterion for positive clones, it was possible to isolate more than 100 PA-neutralizing antibodies, some of which exhibited no measurable anti-PA titers in ELISA. Among the large panel of neutralizing antibodies identified, mAb 29 demonstrated the most potent activity, and was therefore chimerized. The variable region genes of the mAb 29 were fused to human constant region genes, to form the chimeric 29 antibody (cAb 29). Guinea pigs were fully protected against infection by 40LD50 B. anthracis spores following two separate administrations with 10 mg/kg of cAb 29: the first administration was given before the challenge, and a second dose was administered on day 4 following exposure. Moreover, animals that survived the challenge and developed endogenous PA-neutralizing antibodies with neutralizing titers above 100 were fully protected against repeat challenges with 40LD50 of B. anthracis spores. The data presented here emphasize the importance of toxin neutralization-based screens for the efficient isolation of protective antibodies that were probably overlooked in the standard screening protocol. The protective activity of the chimeric cAb 29 demonstrated in this study suggest that it may serve as an effective immunotherapeutic agent against anthrax. PMID:19629185

  14. Expression and purification of toxic anti-breast cancer p28-NRC chimeric protein

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Meysam; Mirmohammad-Sadeghi, Hamid; Sadeghi-Aliabadi, Hojjat; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chimeric proteins consisting of a targeting moiety and a cytotoxic moiety are now under intense research focus for targeted therapy of cancer. Here, we report cloning, expression, and purification of such a targeted chimeric protein made up of p28 peptide as both targeting and anticancer moiety fused to NRC peptide as a cytotoxic moiety. However, since the antimicrobial activity of the NRC peptide would intervene expression of the chimeric protein in Escherichia coli, we evaluated the effects of two fusion tags, that is, thioredoxin (Trx) and 6x-His tags, and various expression conditions, on the expression of p28-NRC chimeric protein. Materials and Methods: In order to express the chimeric protein with only 6x-His tag, pET28 expression plasmid was used. Cloning in pET32 expression plasmid was performed to add both Trx and 6x-His tags to the chimeric protein. Expression of the chimeric protein with both plasmids was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis following optimization of expression conditions and host strains. Results: Expression of the chimeric protein in pET28a was performed. However, expression yield of the chimeric protein was low. Optimization of culture conditions and host strains led to reasonable expression yield of the toxic chimeric protein in pET32a vector. In cases of both plasmids, approximately 10 kDa deviation of the apparent molecular weight from the theoretical one was seen in SDS-PAGE of purified chimeric proteins. Conclusions: The study leads to proper expression and purification yield of p28-NRC chimeric protein with Trx tag following optimizing culture conditions and host strains. PMID:27169101

  15. High efficiency reconstitution of a human-mouse chimeric Fab of CAb-1 antibody specific to human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, X-M; Xing, J-L; Liao, C-G; Yao, X-Y; Li, Y; Chen, Z-N

    2008-07-01

    Monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been widely applied in the treatment of human diseases, especially in malignant tumours. However, most antibodies produced in mouse by hybridoma technology might induce severe human anti-mouse reactions. We had reported a murine mAb CAb-1 of therapeutic interest for its specifically binding to a cell surface glycoprotein of human colon cancer. Here, we attempted to generate a reconstituted human-mouse chimeric Fab (cFab) of CAb-1 in vitro to reduce its antigenicity and increase its capacity of penetration. First, the genes of heavy and light chain variable region (VH, VL) of CAb-1 were cloned. Then, the chimeric light chain (cL) and Fd (cFd) were constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli. Finally, the reconstituted cFab was obtained by gradient dialysis of the mixture of cFd and cL. SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis showed the reconstituted cFab with a recovery rate of 70.2% when the initial total concentration of cL and cFd proteins to be 100 microg/ml. The reconstituted cFab maintained the affinity and specificity to colon cancer cells compared with its parental antibody as determined by immunostaining analysis, FACS and ELISA. Our results established a foundation for further application of the cFab in diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer. PMID:18482205

  16. Suppression of allergen-specific B lymphocytes by chimeric protein-engineered antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kerekov, Nikola; Michova, Antoaneta; Muhtarova, Maryia; Nikolov, Georgi; Mihaylova, Nikolina; Petrunov, Bogdan; Nikolova, Maria; Tchorbanov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    House dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) are among the most frequent causes of allergy symptoms in Europe. Der p 1 is one of the major allergenic compounds of Dpt and the pathological Der p 1-specific B cells play a key role as producers of allergen-binding antibodies. The selective elimination of these cells by artificial protein molecules which inhibit the production of Dpt-recognizing IgE antibodies is a perspective therapeutic goal of allergy. A protein engineered chimeric molecule has been constructed, which binds Der p 1-specific B cells via their BCR and suppresses selectively the production of anti-Der p 1 antibodies via CR1. The synthetic peptide Der p 1 p52-71 and an anti-CD35 monoclonal antibody were used for the construction of Der p 1 chimera. The functional effects of engineered antibodies were analyzed in vitro using PBMCs from allergy patients. Significant inhibition of allergen-specific proliferation and reduction of Der p 1-IgE antibody production were observed after treatment of PBMCs from allergic patients with Der p 1-peptide chimera. Culturing of these PBMCs in the presence of the chimeric molecule increased the percentage of apoptotic (Annexin V-positive) B lymphocytes, but not T lymphocytes. PMID:24021574

  17. Cloning, expression, and purification of a highly immunogenic recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) chimeric peptide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinshu; Zhu, Zheng; Duan, Peng; Li, Wenjia; Zhang, Yin; Wu, Jie; Hu, Zhuoyi; Roque, Rouel S; Liu, Jingjing

    2006-12-01

    To design an anti-gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine capable of eliciting strong immunogenicity, a gene fragment encoding a chimeric peptide was constructed using polymerase chain reaction and ligated into a novel expression vector for recombinant expression in a T7 RNA polymerase-based expression system. The chimeric peptide called GnRH3-hinge-MVP contained three linear repeats of GnRH (GnRH3), a fragment of the human IgG1 hinge region, and a T-cell epitope of measles virus protein (MVP). The expression plasmid contained the GnRH3-hinge-MVP construct ligated to its fusion partner (AnsB-C) via an unique acid labile Asp-Pro linker. The recombinant fusion protein was expressed in an inclusion body in Escherichia coli under IPTG or lactose induction and the target peptide was easily purified using washing of urea and ethanol precipitation. The target chimeric peptide was isolated from the fusion partner following acid hydrolysis and purified using DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. The purified GnRH3-hinge-MVP was determined to be highly homogeneous by IEF analysis and the N-terminal sequencing. Further, immunization of female mice with the recombinant chimeric peptide resulted in generation of high-titer antibodies specific for GnRH. The results showed that GnRH3-hinge-MVP could be considered as a candidate anti-GnRH vaccine. PMID:17064933

  18. The production and preclinical characterization of a chimeric anti-breast-cancer antibody, cBC2.

    PubMed

    Sutton, V R; Burgess, J; Pietersz, G A; Li, W J; McKenzie, I F; Trapani, J A

    1994-04-01

    A chimeric (mouse-human) BC2 antibody (cBC2) was produced which may be used in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The BC2 variable region genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using oligonucleotide primers homologous to the framework sequences of mouse VH and V kappa genes. The PCR products were used to create cBC2 expression vectors containing the mouse BC2 VH and V kappa and human constant region (IgG1 and K) genes. Chimeric antibody was produced following transfection of these constructs into Sp2/0 myeloma cells. Binding assays in vitro demonstrated that cBC2 had the same specificity for human milk fat globule membrane (HMFGM) and MUC1+ cells as mBC2, and bound antigen with a similar affinity (cBC2, Ka 5.53 +/- 2.09 x 10(8); mBC2, Ka 1.44 +/- 0.98 x 10(9)). Functionally, only cBC2 (5-25 micrograms ml-1), was able to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) with human effector cells, with 25% maximal specific lysis of MUC1+ cells at an E/T ratio of 100:1. Human complement-mediated lysis was minimal (10-15% specific lysis) with both mBC2 and cBC2. Neither cBC2 nor mBC2 was able to inhibit tumour growth in vivo in the absence of covalently coupled anticancer drugs. However, biodistribution studies demonstrated that both antibodies preferentially targeted MUC1+ tumour cells, with 17% of the injected dose of cBC2, as compared to 27% of mBC2, localized to the MUC1+ tumour at 24 h (less than 6% detected in any other tissue). PMID:7584487

  19. The use of chimeric virus-like particles harbouring a segment of hantavirus Gc glycoprotein to generate a broadly-reactive hantavirus-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80-89) or site #4 (aa 280-289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24513568

  20. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80–89) or site #4 (aa 280–289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24513568

  1. Preoperative clinical radioimmunodetection of pancreatic cancer by 111 In-labeled chimeric monoclonal antibody Nd2.

    PubMed

    Sawada, T; Nishihara, T; Yamamoto, A; Teraoka, H; Yamashita, Y; Okamura, T; Ochi, H; Ho, J J; Kim, Y S; Hirakawa, K

    1999-10-01

    The present study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the clinical usefulness of radioimmunodetection (RAID) with 111In-labeled murine/human chimeric monoclonal antibody, Nd2 (c-Nd2) in patients with pancreatic cancer. Nineteen patients suspected to have pancreatic cancer were administered intravenously 74 MBq/2 mg 111In-labeled c-Nd2 in 100 ml of saline containing 2% albumin over 30 min. A scintigram was obtained on the 3rd day after infusion by using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Of the 14 patients finally diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer on the basis of surgical specimens or progress of disease, specific focal uptake at the site of the tumor was detected in 12 (true positive cases), representing a sensitivity of 85.7% (12/14), and liver metastasis was found in one case with metastasis. Of the 5 patients diagnosed with tumor-forming pancreatitis (TFP), 4 patients demonstrated true negative imaging, but one patient whose tumor demonstrated interesting findings in histology and immunostaining, showed false positive imaging. Of patients investigated for human anti-chimeric antibody (HACA) response, none showed HACA response, and no allergic reaction was seen in any of the patients administered c-Nd2. These results suggest that RAID with 11In-labeled c-Nd2 is useful for differential preoperative diagnosis between invasive pancreatic cancer and TFP. PMID:10595748

  2. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  3. Eliciting neutralizing antibodies against the membrane proximal external region of HIV-1 Env by chimeric live attenuated influenza A virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Zang, Yang; Du, Dongchuan; Li, Na; Su, Weiheng; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Jianhui; Wang, Youchun; Kong, Wei; Jiang, Chunlai

    2015-07-31

    Despite significant efforts directed toward research on HIV-1 vaccines, a truly effective immunogen has not been achieved. However, the broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) 2F5 and 4E10, targeting the highly conserved membrane proximal external region (MPER) of HIV-1, are two promising tools for vaccine development. Here we engrafted the MPER into the linker domain between the trimeric core structure and the transmembrane domain of influenza A virus HA2 to investigate the potential of such chimeric viruses to elicit HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. In the context of proliferating attenuated influenza A viruses, these HIV-1 neutralizing antibody epitopes could be continuously expressed and mimicked their native conformation to induce humoral immune responses. While MPER-specific antibodies could be detected in serum of guinea pigs vaccinated with the chimeric viruses, they exhibited only weakly neutralizing activities. These antisera from vaccinated animals neutralized viruses of clades B and BC (tier 1), but not of clades AE (tier 1) and C (tier 2). These results suggest that influenza A virus can be used as a vehicle for displaying MPER and inducing BnAbs, but it provides limited protection against HIV-1 infection. In the future development of HIV-1 vaccines by rational design, a more effective live virus vector or multiple antigens should be chosen to facilitate the process of neutralizing antibody maturation. PMID:26126669

  4. Immunophotodiagnosis of colon carcinomas in patients injected with fluoresceinated chimeric antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Folli, S; Wagnières, G; Pèlegrin, A; Calmes, J M; Braichotte, D; Buchegger, F; Chalandon, Y; Hardman, N; Heusser, C; Givel, J C

    1992-01-01

    Based on previous experiments in nude mice, showing that fluoresceinated monoclonal antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen localized specifically in human carcinoma xenografts and could be detected by laser-induced fluorescence, we performed a feasibility study to determine whether this immunophotodiagnosis method could be applied in the clinic. Six patients, with known primary colorectal carcinoma, received an i.v. injection of 4.5 or 9 mg of mouse-human chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody coupled with 0.10-0.28 mg of fluorescein (molar ratio 1/10 to 1/14). The monoclonal antibody was also labeled with 0.2-0.4 mCi of 125I (1 Ci = 37 GBq). Photodetection of the tumor was done ex vivo on surgically resected tissues for the six patients and in vivo by fluorescence rectosigmoidoscopy for the sixth patient. Upon laser irradiation, clearly detectable heterogeneous green fluorescence from the dye-antibody conjugate was visually observed on all six tumors; almost no such fluorescence was detectable on normal mucosa. The yellowish tissue autofluorescence, which was emitted from both tumor and normal mucosa, could be subtracted by real-time image processing. Radioactivity measurements confirmed the specificity of tumor localization by the conjugate; tissue concentrations of up to 0.059% injected dose per g of tumor and 10 times less (0.006%) per g of normal mucosa were found. The overall results demonstrate the feasibility of tumor immunophotodiagnosis at the clinical level. Images PMID:1518823

  5. Treatment of vitiligo with a chimeric monoclonal antibody to CD20: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Argüelles, A; García-Carrasco, M; Jimenez-Brito, G; Sánchez-Sosa, S; Pérez-Romano, B; Garcés-Eisele, J; Camacho-Alarcón, C; Reyes-Núñez, V; Sandoval-Cruz, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; López-Colombo, A

    2013-01-01

    Five patients with active disseminated vitiligo were given 1 g of a chimeric (murine/human) monoclonal antibody to CD20 in a single intravenous infusion and followed-up for 6 months. Three of the patients showed an overt clinical and histological improvement of the disease, one presented slight improvement and the remaining patient showed no changes. Improvement was neither associated with changes in laboratory parameters nor to a specific human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) phenotype. We believe that these preliminary results are encouraging, and further clinical trials should be undertaken. An important aim should be the finding of a marker with a good response to this therapeutic approach. PMID:23815517

  6. Structure-based affinity maturation of a chimeric anti-ricin antibody C4C13.

    PubMed

    Luo, Longlong; Luo, Qun; Guo, Leiming; Lv, Ming; Lin, Zhou; Geng, Jing; Li, Xinying; Li, Yan; Shen, Beifen; Qiao, Chunxia; Feng, Jiannan

    2014-01-01

    Ricin is a highly lethal toxin. Anti-ricin chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) C4C13 was prepared in our lab; however, its binding affinity was much weaker than that of the parent antibody 4C13. In this study, based on the computer-guided homology modeling and conformational optimization methods, the 3-D structure of C4C13 variable regions Fv was constructed and optimized. Using molecular docking and dynamics simulation methods, the 3-D complex structure of ricin and C4C13 Fv was obtained. Considering the orientation property, surface electrostatic distribution, residues chemical and physical character and intermolecular hydrogen bond, the binding mode and key residues were predicted. According to C4C13 Fv fragment and ricin complementary binding surface, electrostatic attraction periphery and van der Waals interaction interface, three mutants (i.e., M1 (N(H102)F, W(H103)Y); M2 (W(H103)Y) and M3 (R(L90)G)) were designed, in which M1 and M2 were predicted to possess higher antigen-binding activity than C4C13, while M3 was weaker. The relative affinity assays by ELISA showed that M1 and M2 mutations had higher affinity (9.6 and 18.3 nmol/L) than C4C13 (130 nmol/L) and M3 had weaker affinity (234.5 nmol/L) than C4C13. The results showed that the modeling complex structure of the antigen (ricin) and antibody (C4C13) is reasonable. Our work offered affinity maturated antibodies by site mutations, which were beneficial for valuable anti-ricin antibody design and preparation in future. PMID:23527922

  7. Performance Assessment of Four Chimeric Trypanosoma cruzi Antigens Based on Antigen-Antibody Detection for Diagnosis of Chronic Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Celedon, Paola Alejandra Fiorani; Zanchin, Nilson Ivo Tonin; Brasil, Tatiana de Arruda Campos; Foti, Leonardo; Souza, Wayner Vieira de; Silva, Edmilson Domingos; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Krieger, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The performance of serologic tests in chronic Chagas disease diagnosis largely depends on the type and quality of the antigen preparations that are used for detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. Whole-cell T. cruzi extracts or recombinant proteins have shown variation in the performance and cross-reactivity. Synthetic chimeric proteins comprising fragments of repetitive amino acids of several different proteins have been shown to improve assay performances to detect Chagasic infections. Here, we describe the production of four chimeric T. cruzi proteins and the assessment of their performance for diagnostic purposes. Circular Dichroism spectra indicated the absence of well-defined secondary structures, while polydispersity evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering revealed only minor aggregates in 50 mM carbonate-bicarbonate (pH 9.6), demonstrating that it is an appropriate buffering system for sensitizing microplates. Serum samples from T. cruzi-infected and non-infected individuals were used to assess the performance of these antigens for detecting antibodies against T. cruzi, using both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a liquid bead array platform. Performance parameters (AUC, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and J index) showed high diagnostic accuracy for all chimeric proteins for detection of specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies and differentiated seropositive individuals from those who were seronegative. Our data suggest that these four chimeric proteins are eligible for phase II studies. PMID:27517281

  8. Performance Assessment of Four Chimeric Trypanosoma cruzi Antigens Based on Antigen-Antibody Detection for Diagnosis of Chronic Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zanchin, Nilson Ivo Tonin; Brasil, Tatiana de Arruda Campos; Foti, Leonardo; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Silva, Edmilson Domingos; Gomes, Yara de Miranda; Krieger, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    The performance of serologic tests in chronic Chagas disease diagnosis largely depends on the type and quality of the antigen preparations that are used for detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. Whole-cell T. cruzi extracts or recombinant proteins have shown variation in the performance and cross-reactivity. Synthetic chimeric proteins comprising fragments of repetitive amino acids of several different proteins have been shown to improve assay performances to detect Chagasic infections. Here, we describe the production of four chimeric T. cruzi proteins and the assessment of their performance for diagnostic purposes. Circular Dichroism spectra indicated the absence of well-defined secondary structures, while polydispersity evaluated by Dynamic Light Scattering revealed only minor aggregates in 50 mM carbonate-bicarbonate (pH 9.6), demonstrating that it is an appropriate buffering system for sensitizing microplates. Serum samples from T. cruzi-infected and non-infected individuals were used to assess the performance of these antigens for detecting antibodies against T. cruzi, using both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a liquid bead array platform. Performance parameters (AUC, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and J index) showed high diagnostic accuracy for all chimeric proteins for detection of specific anti-T. cruzi antibodies and differentiated seropositive individuals from those who were seronegative. Our data suggest that these four chimeric proteins are eligible for phase II studies. PMID:27517281

  9. Design and Development of Therapies using Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing T cells

    PubMed Central

    Dotti, Gianpietro; Gottschalk, Stephen; Savoldo, Barbara; Brenner, Malcolm K

    2013-01-01

    Summary Investigators developed chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) for expression on T cells more than 25 years ago. When the CAR is derived from an antibody, the resultant cell should combine the desirable targeting features of an antibody (e.g. lack of requirement for major histocompatibility complex recognition, ability to recognize non-protein antigens) with the persistence, trafficking and effector functions of a T-cell. This article describes how the past two decades have seen a crescendo of research which has now begun to translate these potential benefits into effective treatments for patients with cancer. We describe the basic design of CARs, describe how antigenic targets are selected, and the initial clinical experience with CART cells. Our review then describes our own and other investigators’ work aimed at improving the function of CARs and reviews the clinical studies in hematological and solid malignancies that are beginning to exploit these approaches. Finally, we show the value of adding additional engineering features to CAR-T cells, irrespective of their target, to render them better suited to function in the tumor environment, and discuss how the safety of these heavily modified cells may be maintained. PMID:24329793

  10. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene using either of two C. reinhardtii chloroplast promoters and 5' and 3' RNA elements. This lsc antibody, directed against glycoprotein D of the herpes simplex virus, is produced in a soluble form by the alga and assembles into higher order complexes in vivo. Aside from dimerization by disulfide bond formation, the antibody undergoes no detectable posttranslational modification. We further demonstrate that accumulation of the antibody can be modulated by the specific growth regime used to culture the alga, and by the choice of 5' and 3' elements used to drive expression of the antibody gene. These results demonstrate the utility of alga as an expression platform for recombinant proteins, and describe a new type of single chain antibody containing the entire heavy chain protein, including the Fc domain.

  11. A chimeric protein comprising the immunogenic domains of Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin and outer membrane protein PlpE induces antibodies against leukotoxin and PlpE.

    PubMed

    Batra, Sai Arun; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Donofrio, Gaetano; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is a very important pathogen of pneumonia in ruminants. Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are highly susceptible to M. haemolytica-caused pneumonia which has significantly contributed to the drastic decline of bighorn sheep population in North America. Pneumonia outbreaks in wild BHS can cause mortality as high as 90%. Leukotoxin is the critical virulence factor of M. haemolytica. In a 'proof of concept' study, an experimental vaccine containing leukotoxin and surface antigens of M. haemolytica developed by us induced 100% protection of BHS, but required multiple booster injections. Vaccination of wild BHS is difficult. But they can be vaccinated at the time of transplantation into a new habitat. Administration of booster doses, however, is impossible. Therefore, a vaccine that does not require booster doses is necessary to immunize BHS against M. haemolytica pneumonia. Herpesviruses are ideal vectors for development of such a vaccine because of their ability to undergo latency with subsequent reactivation. As the first step towards developing a herpesvirus-vectored vaccine, we constructed a chimeric protein comprising the leukotoxin-neutralizing epitopes and the immuno-dominant epitopes of the outer membrane protein PlpE. The chimeric protein was efficiently expressed in primary BHS lung cells. The immunogenicity of the chimeric protein was evaluated in mice before inoculating BHS. Mice immunized with the chimeric protein developed antibodies against M. haemolytica leukotoxin and PlpE. More importantly, the anti-leukotoxin antibodies effectively neutralized leukotoxin-induced cytotoxicity. Taken together, these results represent the successful completion of the first step towards developing a herpesvirus-vectored vaccine for controlling M. haemolytica pneumonia in BHS, and possibly other ruminants. PMID:27269790

  12. Antitransferrin receptor antibody-RNase fusion protein expressed in the mammary gland of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Newton, D L; Pollock, D; DiTullio, P; Echelard, Y; Harvey, M; Wilburn, B; Williams, J; Hoogenboom, H R; Raus, J C; Meade, H M; Rybak, S M

    1999-12-10

    Antibodies fused to human enzymes offer an alternative to specifically targeting tumors with antibodies linked to plant or bacterial toxins. Since large amounts of these reagents can be administered without eliciting non-specific toxicities, efficient methods of production are needed. The goal of this work was to express a complex immunoenzyme fusion protein (immunotoxin) in the mammary gland of transgenic mice. A chimeric mouse/human antibody directed against the human transferrin receptor (E6) was fused at its CH2 domain to the gene for a human angiogenic ribonuclease, angiogenin (Ang). It was expressed in the mammary gland of mice and secreted into mouse milk. Expression levels in milk were approximately 0.8 g/l. The chimeric protein retained antibody binding activity and protein synthesis inhibitory activity equivalent to that of free Ang. It was specifically cytotoxic to human tumor cells in vitro. PMID:10648935

  13. Generation and characterization of a human-mouse chimeric antibody against the extracellular domain of claudin-1 for cancer therapy using a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yosuke; Tada, Minoru; Iida, Manami; Nagase, Shotaro; Hata, Tomoyuki; Watari, Akihiro; Okada, Yoshiaki; Doi, Takefumi; Fukasawa, Masayoshi; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo

    2016-08-12

    Claudin-1 (CLDN-1), an integral transmembrane protein, is an attractive target for drug absorption, prevention of infection, and cancer therapy. Previously, we generated mouse anti-CLDN-1 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and found that they enhanced epidermal absorption of a drug and prevented hepatitis C virus infection in human hepatocytes. Here, we investigated anti-tumor activity of a human-mouse chimeric IgG1, xi-3A2, from one of the anti-CLDN-1 mAbs, clone 3A2. Xi-3A2 accumulated in the tumor tissues in mice bearing with human CLDN-1-expressing tumor cells. Xi-3A2 activated Fcγ receptor IIIa-expressing reporter cells in the presence of human CLDN-1-expressing cells, suggesting xi-3A2 has a potential to exhibit antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against CLDN-1 expressing tumor cells. We also constructed a mutant xi-3A2 antibody with Gly, Ser, and Ile substituted with Ala, Asp, and Arg at positions 236, 239, and 332 of the Fc domain. This mutant antibody showed greater activation of Fcγ receptor IIIa and in vivo anti-tumor activity in mice bearing human CLDN-1-expressing tumors than xi-3A2 did. These findings indicate that the G236A/S239D/I332E mutant of xi-3A2 might be a promising lead for tumor therapy. PMID:27286708

  14. First human study of a chimeric anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Misty W; Henry, Ralph L; Owens, S Michael; Schutz, Ralph; Gentry, W Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This first-in-human study examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of ch-mAb7F9, an anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody, in healthy volunteers. Single, escalating doses of ch-mAb7F9 over the range of 0.2 to 20 mg/kg were administered to 42 subjects who were followed for 147 d. Safety was measured by physical examinations, adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory testing. Serum ch-mAb7F9 concentration and immunogenicity analyses were performed. There were no serious adverse reactions or discontinuations from the study due to adverse events. No trends emerged in the frequency, relatedness, or severity of adverse events with increased dose or between active and placebo treated subjects. Ch-mAb7F9 displayed expected IgG pharmacokinetic parameters, including a half-life of 17-19 d in the 3 highest dose groups and volume of distribution of 5-6 L, suggesting the antibody is confined primarily to the vascular compartment. Four (12.5%) of the 32 subjects receiving ch-mAb7F9 were confirmed to have developed a human anti-chimeric antibody response by the end of the study; however, this response did not appear to be dose related. Overall, no apparent safety or tolerability concerns were identified; a maximum tolerated dose was not reached in this Phase 1 study. Ch-mAb7F9 therefore appears safe for human administration. PMID:25484042

  15. Characterization and biodistribution of recombinant and recombinant/chimeric constructs of monoclonal antibody B72. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Colcher, D.; Milenic, D.; Roselli, M.; Raubitschek, A.; Yarranton, G.; King, D.; Adair, J.; Whittle, N.; Bodmer, M.; Schlom, J.

    1989-04-01

    Radiolabeled B72.3 has been administered both i.v. and i.p. in patients with colorectal and ovarian cancer as well as other carcinomas and has been shown to selectively bind to approximately 70-80% of metastatic lesions. Greater than 50% of the patients that have been treated with B72.3 have developed an immunological response to murine IgG after a single injection. In an attempt to minimize the immune response of these patients to the administered murine monoclonal antibody, we developed a recombinant form of the murine B72.3 as well as a recombinant/chimeric antibody, using the variable regions of the murine B72.3 and human heavy chain (gamma 4) and light chain (kappa) constant regions. We report here that both the recombinant B72.3 (rB72.3) and the recombinant/chimeric B72.3 (cB72.3(gamma 4)) IgGs maintain the tissue binding and idiotypic specificity of the native murine IgG. The native B72.3, rB72.3, and cB72.3(gamma 4) IgGs were radiolabeled and the biodistribution of these IgGs was studied in athymic mice bearing human colon carcinoma xenografts (LS-174T). Differences were observed between the cB72.3(gamma 4) and the native B72.3 in the percentage of injected dose/g that localized in the tumor. The somewhat lower absolute amounts of the cB72.3(gamma 4) in the tumor are mostly likely due to the observed more rapid clearance from the blood and body of the mouse as compared to the native B72.3 and rB72.3. All three forms (native B72.3, rB72.3, and cB72.3(gamma 4)) of the IgG, however, were able to localize the colon tumor with similar radiolocalization indices (percentage of injected dose/g in tumor divided by the percentage of injected dose/g in normal tissue).

  16. Viral Engineering of Chimeric Antigen Receptor Expression on Murine and Human T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Hammill, Joanne A; Afsahi, Arya; Bramson, Jonathan L; Helsen, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of a bolus of tumor-specific T lymphocytes into cancer patients is a promising therapeutic strategy. In one approach, tumor specificity is conferred upon T cells via engineering expression of exogenous receptors, such as chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Here, we describe the generation and production of both murine and human CAR-engineered T lymphocytes using retroviruses. PMID:27581020

  17. Minor displacements in the insertion site provoke major differences in the induction of antibody responses by chimeric parvovirus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Rueda, P; Hurtado, A; del Barrio, M; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, J L; Kamstrup, S; Leclerc, C; Casal, J I

    1999-10-10

    An antigen-delivery system based on hybrid virus-like particles (VLPs) formed by the self-assembly of the capsid VP2 protein of canine parvovirus (CPV) and expressing foreign peptides was investigated. In this report, we have studied the effects of inserting the poliovirus C3:B epitope in the four loops and the C terminus of the CPV VP2 on the particle structure and immunogenicity. Epitope insertions in the four loops allowed the recovery of capsids in all of the mutants. However, only insertions of the C3:B epitope in VP2 residue 225 of the loop 2 were able to elicit a significant anti-peptide antibody response, but not poliovirus-neutralizing antibodies, probably because residue 225 is located in an small depression of the surface. To fine modulate the insertion site in loop 2, a cassette-mutagenesis was carried out to insert the epitope in adjacent positions 226, 227, and 228. The epitope C3:B inserted into these positions was well recognized by the specific monoclonal antibody C3 by immunoelectron microscopy. BALB/c mice immunized with these chimeric C3:B CPV:VLPs were able to elicit an strong neutralizing antibody response (>3 log(10) units) against poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney strain). Therefore, minor displacements in the insertion place cause dramatic changes in the accessibility of the epitope and the induction of antibody responses. PMID:10544085

  18. Uptake and transient expression of chimeric genes in seed-derived embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Töpfer, R; Gronenborn, B; Schell, J; Steinbiss, H H

    1989-01-01

    Uptake of DNA in dry and viable embryos of wheat by imbibition in DNA solution was detected by monitoring the transient expression of chimeric genes. Gene expression vectors used in this study contained a neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT) II reporter gene fused to various promoters. Some of the chimeric "neo" genes were shown to yield reproducibly NPT II activity in germinating embryos. This NPT II activity was increased markedly when the neo genes were carried by a vector capable of autonomous replication. Dimers of wheat dwarf virus, a monopartite gemini virus, were thus shown to be effective in amplifying the transient expressed NPT II activity in embryos of several cereals. These and other observations indicate that the observed transient expression really results from DNA uptake and expression in plant embryo cells and is not due to contaminating microorganisms. PMID:2562504

  19. A transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles.

    PubMed

    Muthamilselvan, Thangarasu; Lee, Chin-Wei; Cho, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Feng-Chao; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. We generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (VP1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Antigens accumulated to high levels in BdT38 and BdT19 transgenic cell lines co-expressing silencing suppressor protein P38 or P19. BaMV chimeric virus particles (CVPs) were subsequently purified from the respective cell lines (1.5 and 2.1 mg CVPs/20 g fresh weight of suspended biomass, respectively), and the resulting CVPs displayed VP1 epitope on the surfaces. Guinea pigs vaccinated with purified CVPs produced humoral antibodies. This study represents an important advance in the large-scale production of immunopeptide vaccines in a cost-effective manner using a plant cell-suspension culture system. PMID:25879277

  20. Exploiting chimeric human antibodies to characterize a protective epitope of Neisseria adhesin A, one of the Bexsero vaccine components.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, Isabella; Faleri, Agnese; Galli, Barbara; Lo Surdo, Paola; Liguori, Alessia; Norais, Nathalie; Santini, Laura; Masignani, Vega; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Marzia Monica

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria adhesin A (NadA) is one of the antigens of Bexsero, the recently licensed multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB). NadA belongs to the class of oligomeric coiled-coil adhesins and is able to mediate adhesion and invasion of human epithelial cells. As a vaccine antigen, NadA has been shown to induce high levels of bactericidal antibodies; however, the domains important for protective response are still unknown. In order to further investigate its immunogenic properties, we have characterized the murine IgG1 mAb (6E3) that was able to recognize the 2 main antigenic variants of NadA on the surface of MenB strains. The epitope targeted by mAb 6E3 was mapped by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and shown to be located on the coiled-coil stalk region of NadA (aa 206-249). Although no serum bactericidal activity was observed for murine IgG1 mAb 6E3, functional activity was restored when using chimeric antibodies in which the variable regions of the murine mAb 6E3 were fused to human IgG3 constant regions, thus confirming the protective nature of the mAb 6E3 epitope. The use of chimeric antibody molecules will enable future investigations of complement-mediated antibody functionality independently of the Fc-mediated differences in complement activation. PMID:26304221

  1. Murine immune responses to a Plasmodium vivax-derived chimeric recombinant protein expressed in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop a plant-based vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, two P. vivax candidate proteins were chosen. First, the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), a major asexual blood stage antigen that is currently considered a strong vaccine candidate. Second, the circumsporozoite protein (CSP), a component of sporozoites that contains a B-cell epitope. Methods A synthetic chimeric recombinant 516 bp gene encoding containing PvMSP-1, a Pro-Gly linker motif, and PvCSP was synthesized; the gene, named MLC, encoded a total of 172 amino acids. The recombinant gene was modified with regard to codon usage to optimize gene expression in Brassica napus. The Ti plasmid inducible gene transfer system was used for MLC chimeric recombinant gene expression in B. napus. Gene expression was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), beta-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS) assay, and Western blot. Results The MLC chimeric recombinant protein expressed in B. napus had a molecular weight of approximately 25 kDa. It exhibited a clinical sensitivity of 84.21% (n = 38) and a clinical specificity of 100% (n = 24) as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with MLC chimeric recombinant protein successfully induced antigen-specific IgG1 production. Additionally, the Th1-related cytokines IL-12 (p40), TNF, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the spleens of the BALB/c mice. Conclusions The chimeric MLC recombinant protein produced in B. napus has potential as both as an antigen for diagnosis and as a valuable vaccine candidate for oral immunization against vivax malaria. PMID:21529346

  2. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W.; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M.; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. PMID:25972404

  3. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L; Gravitt, Patti E; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-07-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. PMID:25972404

  4. [Novel therapy for malignant lymphoma: adoptive immuno-gene therapy using chimeric antigen receptor(CAR)-expressing T lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Keiya

    2014-03-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) technology is a novel approach to cancer immuno-gene therapy. CARs are hybrid proteins consisting of target-antigen-specific single-chain antibody fragment fused to intracellular T-cell activation domains (CD28 or CD137/CD3 zeta receptor). CAR-expressing engineered T lymphocytes can directly recognize and kill tumor cells in an HLA independent manner. In the United States, promising results have been obtained in the clinical trials of adoptive immuno-gene therapy using CD19-CAR-T lymphocytes for the treatment of refractory B-cell malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this review article, CD19-CAR-T gene therapy for refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is discussed. PMID:24724418

  5. A Tripartite Cocktail of Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies Passively Protects Mice against Ricin, Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B and Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Sully, Erin K.; Whaley, Kevin; Bohorova, Natasha; Bohorov, Ognian; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Pauly, Michael; Velasco, Jesus; Holtsberg, Frederick W.; Stavale, Eric; Aman, M. Javad; Tangudu, Chandra; Uzal, Francisco A.; Mantis, Nicholas J.; Zeitlin, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Due to the fast-acting nature of ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin (ETX), it is necessary that therapeutic interventions following a bioterrorism incident by one of these toxins occur as soon as possible after intoxication. Moreover, because the clinical manifestations of intoxication by these toxins are likely to be indistinguishable from each other, especially following aerosol exposure, we have developed a cocktail of chimeric monoclonal antibodies that is capable of neutralizing all three toxins. The efficacy of this cocktail was demonstrated in mouse models of lethal dose toxin challenge. PMID:25260254

  6. Generation and Characterization of a Human/Mouse Chimeric GD2-Mimicking Anti-Idiotype Antibody Ganglidiximab for Active Immunotherapy against Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Eger, Christin; Siebert, Nikolai; Seidel, Diana; Zumpe, Maxi; Jüttner, Madlen; Brandt, Sven; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lode, Holger N

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination with proteins mimicking GD2 that is highly expressed on neuroblastoma (NB) cells is a promising strategy in treatment of NB, a pediatric malignancy with poor prognosis. We previously showed efficacy of ganglidiomab in vivo, a murine anti-idiotype (anti-Id) IgG1. In order to tailor immune responses to variable regions, we generated a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id antibody (Ab) ganglidiximab by replacing murine constant fragments with corresponding human IgG1 regions. DNA sequences encoding for variable regions of heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) were synthesized by RT-PCR from total RNA of ganglidiomab-producing hybridoma cells and further ligated into mammalian expression plasmids with coding sequences for constant regions of human IgG1 heavy and light chains, respectively. We established a stable production cell line using Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells co-transfected with two expression plasmids driving the expression of either ganglidiximab heavy or light chain. After purification from supernatants, anti-idiotypic characteristics of ganglidiximab were demonstrated. Binding of ganglidiximab to anti-GD2 Abs of the 14.18 family as well as to NK-92tr cells expressing a GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (scFv(ch14.18)-zeta) was shown using standard ELISA and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Ganglidiximab binding affinities to anti-GD2 Abs were further determined by surface plasmon resonance technique. Moreover, binding of anti-GD2 Abs to the nominal antigen GD2 as well as GD2-specific Ab-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC, CDC) was competitively inhibited by ganglidiximab. Finally, ganglidiximab was successfully used as a protein vaccine in vivo to induce a GD2-specific humoral immune response. In summary, we report generation and characterization of a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id Ab ganglidiximab for active immunotherapy against NB. This Ab may be useful to tailor immune responses to the paratope regions mimicking GD2 overexpressed in NB

  7. Generation and Characterization of a Human/Mouse Chimeric GD2-Mimicking Anti-Idiotype Antibody Ganglidiximab for Active Immunotherapy against Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Eger, Christin; Siebert, Nikolai; Seidel, Diana; Zumpe, Maxi; Jüttner, Madlen; Brandt, Sven; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lode, Holger N.

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination with proteins mimicking GD2 that is highly expressed on neuroblastoma (NB) cells is a promising strategy in treatment of NB, a pediatric malignancy with poor prognosis. We previously showed efficacy of ganglidiomab in vivo, a murine anti-idiotype (anti-Id) IgG1. In order to tailor immune responses to variable regions, we generated a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id antibody (Ab) ganglidiximab by replacing murine constant fragments with corresponding human IgG1 regions. DNA sequences encoding for variable regions of heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) were synthesized by RT-PCR from total RNA of ganglidiomab-producing hybridoma cells and further ligated into mammalian expression plasmids with coding sequences for constant regions of human IgG1 heavy and light chains, respectively. We established a stable production cell line using Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells co-transfected with two expression plasmids driving the expression of either ganglidiximab heavy or light chain. After purification from supernatants, anti-idiotypic characteristics of ganglidiximab were demonstrated. Binding of ganglidiximab to anti-GD2 Abs of the 14.18 family as well as to NK-92tr cells expressing a GD2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (scFv(ch14.18)-zeta) was shown using standard ELISA and flow cytometry analysis, respectively. Ganglidiximab binding affinities to anti-GD2 Abs were further determined by surface plasmon resonance technique. Moreover, binding of anti-GD2 Abs to the nominal antigen GD2 as well as GD2-specific Ab-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC, CDC) was competitively inhibited by ganglidiximab. Finally, ganglidiximab was successfully used as a protein vaccine in vivo to induce a GD2-specific humoral immune response. In summary, we report generation and characterization of a new human/mouse chimeric anti-Id Ab ganglidiximab for active immunotherapy against NB. This Ab may be useful to tailor immune responses to the paratope regions mimicking GD2 overexpressed in NB

  8. Multi-petal cyclamen flowers produced by AGAMOUS chimeric repressor expression

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuri; Oshima, Yoshimi; Yamamura, Tomomichi; Sugiyama, Masao; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohtsubo, Norihiro; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Terakawa, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Cyclamen persicum (cyclamen) is a commercially valuable, winter-blooming perennial plant. We cloned two cyclamen orthologues of AGAMOUS (AG), CpAG1 and CpAG2, which are mainly expressed in the stamen and carpel, respectively. Cyclamen flowers have 5 petals, but expression of a chimeric repressor of CpAG1 (CpAG1-SRDX) caused stamens to convert into petals, resulting in a flower with 10 petals. By contrast, CpAG2-SRDX only caused incomplete formation of stamens and carpels. Expression in Arabidopsis thaliana showed similar effects on flower organ specification. Simultaneous expression of CpAG1-SRDX and CpAG2-SRDX in cyclamen induced rose-like, multi-petal flowers, a potentially valuable trait in commercial ornamental varieties. Expression of CpAG2-SRDX in a cyclamen mutant lacking expression of CpAG1 more effectively produced multi-petal flowers. Here, we controlled the number of petals in cyclamen by simple genetic engineering with a chimeric repressor. This strategy may be applicable useful for other ornamental plants with two distinct AG orthologues. PMID:24026510

  9. Expression of kenaf mitochondrial chimeric genes HM184 causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liao, Xiaofang; Huang, Zhipeng; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Bujin; Liu, Dongmei; Kong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2015-08-01

    Chimeric genes resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome were generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In the study, earlier we reported that identifying a 47 bp deletion at 3'- flanking of atp9 that was linked to male sterile cytoplasm in kenaf. The truncated fragment was fused with atp9, a mitochondrial transit signal (MTS) and/or GFP, comprised two chimeric genes MTS-HM184-GFP and MTS-HM184. The plant expression vector pBI121 containing chimeric genes were then introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation. The result showed that certain transgenic plants were male sterility or semi-sterility, while some were not. The expression analysis further demonstrated that higher level of expression were showed in the sterility plants, while no expression or less expression in fertility plants, the levels of expression of semi-sterility were in between. And the sterile plant (containing MTS-HM184-GFP) had abnormal anther produced malformed/shriveled pollen grains stained negative that failed to germinate (0%), the corresponding fruits was shrunken, the semi-sterile plants having normal anther shape produced about 10-50% normal pollen grains, the corresponding fruits were not full, and the germination rate was 58%. Meanwhile these transgenic plants which altered on fertility were further analyzed in phenotype. As a result, the metamorphosis leaves were observed in the seedling stage, the plant height of transgenic plants was shorter than wild type. The growth duration of transgenic tobacco was delayed 30-45 days compared to the wild type. The copy numbers of target genes of transgenic tobacco were analyzed using the real-time quantitative method. The results showed that these transgenic plants targeting-expression in mitochondrial containing MTS-HM184-GFP had 1 copy and 2 copies, the other two plants containing MTS-HM184 both had 3 copies, but 0 copy in wild type. In

  10. Engineering, Expression in Transgenic Plants and Characterisation of E559, a Rabies Virus-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    van Dolleweerd, Craig J.; Teh, Audrey Y-H.; Banyard, Ashley C.; Both, Leonard; Lotter-Stark, Hester C. T.; Tsekoa, Tsepo; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Chakauya, Ereck; Sabeta, Claude T.; Gruber, Clemens; Fooks, Anthony R.; Chikwamba, Rachel K.; Ma, Julian K-C.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) currently comprises administration of rabies vaccine together with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) of either equine or human origin. In the developing world, RIG preparations are expensive, often in short supply, and of variable efficacy. Therefore, we are seeking to develop a monoclonal antibody cocktail to replace RIG. Here, we describe the cloning, engineering and production in plants of a candidate monoclonal antibody (E559) for inclusion in such a cocktail. The murine constant domains of E559 were replaced with human IgG1κ constant domains and the resulting chimeric mouse-human genes were cloned into plant expression vectors for stable nuclear transformation of Nicotiana tabacum. The plant-expressed, chimeric antibody was purified and biochemically characterized, was demonstrated to neutralize rabies virus in a fluorescent antibody virus neutralization assay, and conferred protection in a hamster challenge model. PMID:24511101

  11. Engineering, expression in transgenic plants and characterisation of E559, a rabies virus-neutralising monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Teh, Audrey Y-H; Banyard, Ashley C; Both, Leonard; Lotter-Stark, Hester C T; Tsekoa, Tsepo; Phahladira, Baby; Shumba, Wonderful; Chakauya, Ereck; Sabeta, Claude T; Gruber, Clemens; Fooks, Anthony R; Chikwamba, Rachel K; Ma, Julian K-C

    2014-07-15

    Rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) currently comprises administration of rabies vaccine together with rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) of either equine or human origin. In the developing world, RIG preparations are expensive, often in short supply, and of variable efficacy. Therefore, we are seeking to develop a monoclonal antibody cocktail to replace RIG. Here, we describe the cloning, engineering and production in plants of a candidate monoclonal antibody (E559) for inclusion in such a cocktail. The murine constant domains of E559 were replaced with human IgG1κ constant domains and the resulting chimeric mouse-human genes were cloned into plant expression vectors for stable nuclear transformation of Nicotiana tabacum. The plant-expressed, chimeric antibody was purified and biochemically characterized, was demonstrated to neutralize rabies virus in a fluorescent antibody virus neutralization assay, and conferred protection in a hamster challenge model. PMID:24511101

  12. Expression and biological characterization of an anti-CD20 biosimilar candidate antibody

    PubMed Central

    Dorvignit, Denise; Palacios, Julio L.; Merino, Maylin; Hernández, Tays; Sosa, Katya; Casacó, Angel; López-Requena, Alejandro; Mateo de Acosta, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The CD20 molecule is a non-glycosylated protein expressed mainly on the surface of B lymphocytes. In some pathogenic B cells, it shows an increased expression, thus becoming an attractive target for diagnosis and therapy. Rituximab is a chimeric antibody that specifically recognizes the human CD20 molecule. This antibody is indicated for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this work, we describe the stable expression and biological evaluation of an anti-CD20 biosimilar antibody. While rituximab is produced in fed-batch culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, our biosimilar antibody expression process consists of continuous culture of recombinant murine NS0 myeloma cells. The ability of the purified biosimilar antibody to recognize the CD20 molecule on human tumor cell lines, as well as on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from humans and primates, was demonstrated by flow cytometry. The biosimilar antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis on human cell lines with high expression of CD20. In addition, this antibody depleted CD20-positive B lymphocytes from peripheral blood in monkeys. These results indicate that the biological properties of the biosimilar antibody compare favorably with those of the innovator product, and that it should be evaluated in future clinical trials. PMID:22647435

  13. Expression and biological characterization of an anti-CD20 biosimilar candidate antibody: a case study.

    PubMed

    Dorvignit, Denise; Palacios, Julio L; Merino, Maylin; Hernández, Tays; Sosa, Katya; Casaco, Angel; López-Requena, Alejandro; Mateo de Acosta, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The CD20 molecule is a non-glycosylated protein expressed mainly on the surface of B lymphocytes. In some pathogenic B cells, it shows an increased expression, thus becoming an attractive target for diagnosis and therapy. Rituximab is a chimeric antibody that specifically recognizes the human CD20 molecule. This antibody is indicated for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphomas and autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this work, we describe the stable expression and biological evaluation of an anti-CD20 biosimilar antibody. While rituximab is produced in fed-batch culture of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, our biosimilar antibody expression process consists of continuous culture of recombinant murine NS0 myeloma cells. The ability of the purified biosimilar antibody to recognize the CD20 molecule on human tumor cell lines, as well as on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from humans and primates, was demonstrated by flow cytometry. The biosimilar antibody induced complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis on human cell lines with high expression of CD20. In addition, this antibody depleted CD20-positive B lymphocytes from peripheral blood in monkeys. These results indicate that the biological properties of the biosimilar antibody compare favorably with those of the innovator product, and that it should be evaluated in future clinical trials. PMID:22647435

  14. Redirecting T-Cell Specificity to EGFR Using mRNA to Self-limit Expression of Chimeric Antigen Receptor.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Hillary G; Torikai, Hiroki; Zhang, Ling; Maiti, Sourindra; Dai, Jianliang; Do, Kim-Anh; Singh, Harjeet; Huls, Helen; Lee, Dean A; Champlin, Richard E; Heimberger, Amy B; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2016-06-01

    Potential for on-target, but off-tissue toxicity limits therapeutic application of genetically modified T cells constitutively expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) from tumor-associated antigens expressed in normal tissue, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Curtailing expression of CAR through modification of T cells by in vitro-transcribed mRNA species is one strategy to mitigate such toxicity. We evaluated expression of an EGFR-specific CAR coded from introduced mRNA in human T cells numerically expanded ex vivo to clinically significant numbers through coculture with activating and propagating cells (AaPC) derived from K562 preloaded with anti-CD3 antibody. The density of AaPC could be adjusted to affect phenotype of T cells such that reduced ratio of AaPC resulted in higher proportion of CD8 and central memory T cells that were more conducive to electrotransfer of mRNA than T cells expanded with high ratios of AaPC. RNA-modified CAR T cells produced less cytokine, but demonstrated similar cytolytic capacity as DNA-modified CAR T cells in response to EGFR-expressing glioblastoma cells. Expression of CAR by mRNA transfer was transient and accelerated by stimulation with cytokine and antigen. Loss of CAR abrogated T-cell function in response to tumor and normal cells expressing EGFR. We describe a clinically applicable method to propagate and modify T cells to transiently express EGFR-specific CAR to target EGFR-expressing tumor cells that may be used to limit on-target, off-tissue toxicity to normal tissue. PMID:27163741

  15. Isolation and Characterization Of Chimeric Human Fc-expressing Proteins Using Protein A Membrane Adsorbers And A Streamlined Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Monica M.; Reynolds, Nathan M.; Martin, Eric W.; Hawes, Jacquelyn V.; Carlson, Grady E.; Cuckler, Chaz M.; Bates, Michael C.; Barthel, Steven R.; Dimitroff, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory scale to industrial scale purification of biomolecules from cell culture supernatants and lysed cell solutions can be accomplished using affinity chromatography. While affinity chromatography using porous protein A agarose beads packed in columns is arguably the most common method of laboratory scale isolation of antibodies and recombinant proteins expressing Fc fragments of IgG, it can be a time consuming and expensive process. Time and financial constraints are especially daunting in small basic science labs that must recover hundreds of micrograms to milligram quantities of protein from dilute solutions, yet lack access to high pressure liquid delivery systems and/or personnel with expertise in bioseparations. Moreover, product quantification and characterization may also excessively lengthen processing time over several workdays and inflate expenses (consumables, wages, etc.). Therefore, a fast, inexpensive, yet effective protocol is needed for laboratory scale isolation and characterization of antibodies and other proteins possessing an Fc fragment. To this end, we have devised a protocol that can be completed by limited-experience technical staff in less than 9 hr (roughly one workday) and as quickly as 4 hr, as opposed to traditional methods that demand 20+ work hours. Most required equipment is readily available in standard biomedical science, biochemistry, and (bio)chemical engineering labs, and all reagents are commercially available. To demonstrate this protocol, representative results are presented in which chimeric murine galectin-1 fused to human Fc (Gal-1hFc) from cell culture supernatant was isolated using a protein A membrane adsorber. Purified Gal-1hFc was quantified using an expedited Western blotting analysis procedure and characterized using flow cytometry. The streamlined workflow can be modified for other Fc-expressing proteins, such as antibodies, and/or altered to incorporate alternative quantification and characterization

  16. Tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression of a chimeric actin-globin gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Shani, M

    1986-01-01

    A chimeric plasmid containing about 2/3 of the rat skeletal muscle actin gene plus 730 base pairs of its 5' flanking sequences fused to the 3' end of a human embryonic globin gene (D. Melloul, B. Aloni, J. Calvo, D. Yaffe, and U. Nudel, EMBO J. 3:983-990, 1984) was inserted into mice by microinjection into fertilized eggs. Eleven transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene with or without plasmid pBR322 DNA sequences were identified. The majority of these mice transmitted the injected DNA to about 50% of their progeny. However, in transgenic mouse CV1, transmission to progeny was associated with amplification or deletion of the injected DNA sequences, while in transgenic mouse CV4 transmission was distorted, probably as a result of insertional mutagenesis. Tissue-specific expression was dependent on the removal of the vector DNA sequences from the chimeric gene sequences prior to microinjection. None of the transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene together with plasmid pBR322 sequences expressed the introduced gene in striated muscles. In contrast, the six transgenic mice carrying the chimeric gene sequences alone expressed the inserted gene specifically in skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, expression of the chimeric gene was not only tissue specific, but also developmentally regulated. Similar to the endogenous skeletal muscle actin gene, the chimeric gene was expressed at a relatively high level in cardiac muscle of neonatal mice and at a significantly lower level in adult cardiac muscle. These results indicate that the injected DNA included sufficient cis-acting control elements for its tissue-specific and developmentally regulated expression in transgenic mice. Images PMID:3023942

  17. Development of β-Lactoglobulin-Specific Chimeric Human IgEκ Monoclonal Antibodies for In Vitro Safety Assessment of Whey Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Buelens-Sleumer, Laura S.; Cox, Linda; den Hartog, Marcel; de Jong, Niels; Teshima, Reiko; Garssen, Johan; Boon, Louis; Knippels, Léon M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cow’s milk-derived whey hydrolysates are nutritional substitutes for allergic infants. Safety or residual allergenicity assessment of these whey hydrolysates is crucial. Currently, rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells expressing the human IgE receptor α-chain (huFcεRIα-RBL-2H3), sensitized with serum IgE from cow’s milk allergic children, are being employed to assess in vitro residual allergenicity of these whey hydrolysates. However, limited availability and inter-lot variation of these allergic sera impede standardization of whey hydrolysate safety testing in degranulation assays. Objective An oligoclonal pool of chimeric human (chu)IgE antibodies against bovine β-lactoglobulin (a major allergen in whey) was generated to increase sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of existing degranulation assays. Methods Mice were immunized with bovine β-lactoglobulin, and subsequently the variable domains of dissimilar anti-β-lactoglobulin mouse IgG antibodies were cloned and sequenced. Six chimeric antibodies were generated comprising mouse variable domains and human constant IgE/κ domains. Results After sensitization with this pool of anti-β-lactoglobulin chuIgEs, huFcεRIα-expressing RBL-2H3 cells demonstrated degranulation upon cross-linking with whey, native 18 kDa β-lactoglobulin, and 5–10 kDa whey hydrolysates, whereas a 3 kDa whey hydrolysate and cow’s milk powder (mainly casein) showed no degranulation. In parallel, allergic serum IgEs were less sensitive. In addition, our pool anti-β-lactoglobulin chuIgEs recognized multiple allergenic immunodominant regions on β-lactoglobulin, which were also recognized by serum IgEs from cow’s milk allergic children. Conclusion Usage of our ‘unlimited’ source and well-defined pool of β-lactoglobulin-specific recombinant chuIgEs to sensitize huFcεRIα on RBL-2H3 cells showed to be a relevant and sensitive alternative for serum IgEs from cow’s milk allergic patients to assess safety

  18. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of metuzumab, a novel CD147 human-mouse chimeric and glycoengineered antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yang; Sun, Qian; Feng, Fei; Huhe, Muren; Mi, Li; Chen, Zhinan

    2015-01-01

    Metuzumab is an affinity-optimized and nonfucosylated anti-CD147 human-mouse chimeric IgG1 monoclonal antibody with enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics, safety, and antitumor activities of metuzumab in mouse, rat, and monkey. The ADCC activity was assessed by a lactate dehydrogenase release assay. The pharmacokinetics of metuzumab were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats and in cynomolgus monkeys. Single- and repeat-dose toxicology studies of the i.v. administration of high-dose metuzumab were conducted in cynomolgus monkeys. Mice bearing human tumor xenografts were used to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of metuzumab. The ADCC potency of metuzumab was enhanced compared with the nonglycoengineered parental antibody. Metuzumab also effectively inhibited tumor growth in A549 and NCI-H520 xenograft models. In the monkey model, the total clearance of metuzumab decreased with increasing dose. The nonspecific clearance in monkeys was estimated to be 0.53 to 0.92 mL/h/kg. In single- and repeat-dose toxicology studies in cynomolgus monkeys, metuzumab did not induce any distinct or novel adverse findings and was well tolerated at all tested doses. These preclinical safety data facilitated the initiation of an ongoing clinical trial of metuzumab for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. PMID:25376611

  19. Transcriptome analysis revealed chimeric RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms and allele-specific expression in porcine prenatal skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yalan; Tang, Zhonglin; Fan, Xinhao; Xu, Kui; Mu, Yulian; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal skeletal muscle development genetically determines postnatal muscle characteristics such as growth and meat quality in pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development remain unclear. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of chimeric RNAs, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and allele-specific expression (ASE) in prenatal skeletal muscle in pigs. We identified 14,810 protein coding genes and 163 high-confidence chimeric RNAs expressed in prenatal skeletal muscle. More than 94.5% of the chimeric RNAs obeyed the canonical GT/AG splice rule and were trans-splicing events. Ten and two RNAs were aligned to human and mouse chimeric transcripts, respectively. We detected 106,457 high-quality SNPs (6,955 novel), which were mostly (89.09%) located within QTLs for production traits. The high proportion of non-exonic SNPs revealed the incomplete annotation status of the current swine reference genome. ASE analysis revealed that 11,300 heterozygous SNPs showed allelic imbalance, whereas 131 ASE variants were located in the chimeric RNAs. Moreover, 4 ASE variants were associated with various economically relevant traits of pigs. Taken together, our data provide a source for studies of chimeric RNAs and biomarkers for pig breeding, while illuminating the complex transcriptional events underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development in mammals. PMID:27352850

  20. Transcriptome analysis revealed chimeric RNAs, single nucleotide polymorphisms and allele-specific expression in porcine prenatal skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yalan; Tang, Zhonglin; Fan, Xinhao; Xu, Kui; Mu, Yulian; Zhou, Rong; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal skeletal muscle development genetically determines postnatal muscle characteristics such as growth and meat quality in pigs. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development remain unclear. Here, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of chimeric RNAs, single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs) and allele-specific expression (ASE) in prenatal skeletal muscle in pigs. We identified 14,810 protein coding genes and 163 high-confidence chimeric RNAs expressed in prenatal skeletal muscle. More than 94.5% of the chimeric RNAs obeyed the canonical GT/AG splice rule and were trans-splicing events. Ten and two RNAs were aligned to human and mouse chimeric transcripts, respectively. We detected 106,457 high-quality SNPs (6,955 novel), which were mostly (89.09%) located within QTLs for production traits. The high proportion of non-exonic SNPs revealed the incomplete annotation status of the current swine reference genome. ASE analysis revealed that 11,300 heterozygous SNPs showed allelic imbalance, whereas 131 ASE variants were located in the chimeric RNAs. Moreover, 4 ASE variants were associated with various economically relevant traits of pigs. Taken together, our data provide a source for studies of chimeric RNAs and biomarkers for pig breeding, while illuminating the complex transcriptional events underlying prenatal skeletal muscle development in mammals. PMID:27352850

  1. The B-cell tumor–associated antigen ROR1 can be targeted with T cells modified to express a ROR1-specific chimeric antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Thomas M.; Baskar, Sivasubramanian; Lupo-Stanghellini, Maria Teresa; Nishida, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Tori N.; Bleakley, Marie; Turtle, Cameron J.; Chang, Wen-Chung; Greisman, Harvey A.; Wood, Brent; Maloney, David G.; Jensen, Michael C.; Rader, Christoph; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies and T cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors specific for B-cell lineage surface molecules such as CD20 exert antitumor activity in B-cell malignancies, but deplete normal B cells. The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) was identified as a highly expressed gene in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL), but not normal B cells, suggesting it may serve as a tumor-specific target for therapy. We analyzed ROR1-expression in normal nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells including B-cell precursors, and in hematopoietic malignancies. ROR1 has characteristics of an oncofetal gene and is expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells, B-CLL and mantle cell lymphoma, but not in major adult tissues apart from low levels in adipose tissue and at an early stage of B-cell development. We constructed a ROR1-specific chimeric antigen receptor that when expressed in T cells from healthy donors or CLL patients conferred specific recognition of primary B-CLL and mantle cell lymphoma, including rare drug effluxing chemotherapy resistant tumor cells that have been implicated in maintaining the malignancy, but not mature normal B cells. T-cell therapies targeting ROR1 may be effective in B-CLL and other ROR1-positive tumors. However, the expression of ROR1 on some normal tissues suggests the potential for toxi-city to subsets of normal cells. PMID:20702778

  2. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called “China wood oil” is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through different heterologous expression strategies and fermentation techniques, the highest expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae reached 1334 U/mL in Pichia pastoris, which is still not optimistic for industry applications. Results The prosequence of lipases from Rhizopus sp. is very important for the folding and secretion of an active lipase. A chimeric lipase from R. oryzae was constructed by replacing the prosequence with that from the R. chinensis lipase and expressed in P. pastoris. The maximum activity of the chimera reached 4050 U/mL, which was 11 fold higher than that of the parent. The properties of the chimera were studied. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil, which achieved higher FAME yield compared with the free chimeric lipase, non-chimeric lipase and mature lipase. By response surface methodology, three variables, water content, methanol to tung oil molar ratio and enzyme dosage were proved to be crucial parameters for biosynthesis of FAME and the FAME yield reached 91.9±2.5% at the optimized conditions by adding 5.66 wt.% of the initial water based on oil weight, 3.88 of methanol to tung oil molar ratio and 13.24 wt.% of enzyme concentration based on oil weight at 40°C. Conclusions This is the first report on improving the expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae by replacing prosequences. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil. Using tung oil as non-edible raw

  3. The chimeric antibody chLpMab-7 targeting human podoplanin suppresses pulmonary metastasis via ADCC and CDC rather than via its neutralizing activity

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Oki, Hiroharu; Fukayama, Masashi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Kaneko, Mika K.

    2015-01-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN/Aggrus/T1α) binds to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and induces platelet aggregation. PDPN is associated with malignant progression, tumor metastasis, and poor prognosis in several types of cancer. Although many anti-human PDPN (hPDPN) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), such as D2-40 and NZ-1, have been established, these epitopes are limited to the platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domain (amino acids 29-54) of hPDPN. Recently, we developed a novel mouse anti-hPDPN mAb, LpMab-7, which is more sensitive than D2-40 and NZ-1, using the Cancer-specific mAb (CasMab) method. The epitope of LpMab-7 was shown to be entirely different from that of NZ-1, a neutralizing mAb against the PLAG domain according to an inhibition assay and lectin microarray analysis. In the present study, we produced a mouse-human chimeric anti-hPDPN mAb, chLpMab-7. ChLpMab-7 showed high antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Furthermore, chLpMab-7 inhibited the growth of hPDPN-expressing tumors in vivo. Although chLpMab-7 recognizes a non-PLAG domain of hPDPN, it suppressed the hematogenous metastasis of hPDPN-expressing tumors. These results indicated that chLpMab-7 suppressed tumor development and hematogenous metastasis in a neutralization-independent manner. In conclusion, hPDPN shows promise as a target in the development of a novel antibody-based therapy. PMID:26416352

  4. Purification and characterization of chimeric human IgA1 and IgA2 expressed in COS and Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Morton, H C; Atkin, J D; Owens, R J; Woof, J M

    1993-11-01

    Ag-specific chimeric human IgA molecules, of the two human subclasses, IgA1 and IgA2, have been expressed in two mammalian cell systems. Analysis of the secreted IgA molecules, purified in milligram quantities from stable Chinese hamster ovary transfectants by Ag affinity chromatography, has allowed a direct comparison of the biologic properties of the two subclasses. HPLC gel filtration analysis revealed that in both subclasses, the IgA molecules associate predominantly into dimers. The monomer units are presumed to interact noncovalently, inasmuch as no dimers are evident when the antibodies are subjected to SDS-PAGE. The recombinant antibodies are glycosylated, inasmuch as a lectin blotting procedure revealed that the H chains of both subclasses are recognized by Con A. When subjected to digestion by preparations of IgA1-specific proteases secreted by two pathogenic streptococcal strains, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus oralis, the recombinant IgA molecules behave just as their natural equivalents. Thus, only the chimeric IgA1 molecule is cleaved, with the IgA2 remaining intact. In terms of interaction with natural effector molecules, both recombinant IgA isotypes were shown to interact with Fc alpha receptors on calcitriol-stimulated HL-60 cells with similar affinity, but neither antibody was found to interact with human C1q. The expression system described readily permits manipulation of the human IgA genes, which should lead to a fuller molecular understanding of how this important antibody mediates its function. PMID:8409433

  5. Comparative biodistributions of indium-111-labelled macrocycle chimeric B72.3 antibody conjugates in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, A.; King, D. J.; Farnsworth, A. P.; Rhind, S. K.; Pedley, R. B.; Boden, J.; Boden, R.; Millican, T. A.; Millar, K.; Boyce, B.

    1994-01-01

    A novel 111In ligand (a C-functionalised derivative of 1,4,7-triazacyclononanetriacetic acid), termed 9N3, was covalently attached to chimeric B72.3, labelled with 111In and compared with 111In-labelled chimeric B72.3 diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) cyclic anhydride conjugate (cDTPA) and a C-linked derivative of DTPA (CT-DTPA) in athymic mice bearing human colon carcinoma xenografts. Significant differences in biodistribution were observed between 9N3 and cDTPA conjugates especially in the tumour uptake and blood, liver, femur and colon levels at 24, 48 and 144 h. Significantly higher tumour uptake was observed for 111In-cB72.3-9N3 compared with 111In-cB72.3-cDTPA at all time points. Radiolocalisation (RI) indices increased with time for the 9N3 conjugate but remained constant for the cDTPA conjugate. The biodistribution of 111In-labelled cB72.3-CT-DTPA was similar to that of 111In-labelled cB72.3-9N3 except for elevated kidney levels. A 12N4 macrocycle (a C-functionalised derivative of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid) was also tested for its ability to chelate 111In and its biodistribution examined. Labelled conjugates with this macrocycle were more difficult to prepare in a stable form but gave a very similar biodistribution to the 9N3 macrocycle conjugate. Macrocycle-antibody conjugates of this type offer considerable promise for tumour imaging in patients. PMID:8018538

  6. A tool kit for rapid cloning and expression of recombinant antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Dodev, Tihomir S.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gilbert, Amy E.; Josephs, Debra H.; Bowen, Holly; James, Louisa K.; Bax, Heather J.; Beavil, Rebecca; Pang, Marie O.; Gould, Hannah J.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.; Beavil, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, molecular cloning has evolved tremendously. Efficient products allowing assembly of multiple DNA fragments have become available. However, cost-effective tools for engineering antibodies of different specificities, isotypes and species are still needed for many research and clinical applications in academia. Here, we report a method for one-step assembly of antibody heavy- and light-chain DNAs into a single mammalian expression vector, starting from DNAs encoding the desired variable and constant regions, which allows antibodies of different isotypes and specificity to be rapidly generated. As a proof of principle we have cloned, expressed and characterized functional recombinant tumor-associated antigen-specific chimeric IgE/κ and IgG1/κ, as well as recombinant grass pollen allergen Phl p 7 specific fully human IgE/λ and IgG4/λ antibodies. This method utilizing the antibody expression vectors, available at Addgene, has many applications, including the potential to support simultaneous processing of antibody panels, to facilitate mechanistic studies of antigen-antibody interactions and to conduct early evaluations of antibody functions. PMID:25073855

  7. Intracellular delivery of antibodies by chimeric Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV) virus like particles

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Ambily; Natraj, Usha; Karande, Anjali A.; Gulati, Ashutosh; Murthy, Mathur R. N.; Murugesan, Sathyabalan; Mukunda, Pavithra; Savithri, Handanahal S.

    2016-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of antibodies has not been fully exploited as they fail to cross cell membrane. In this article, we have tested the possibility of using plant virus based nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of antibodies. For this purpose, Sesbania mosaic virus coat protein (CP) was genetically engineered with the B domain of Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) at the βH-βI loop, to generate SeMV loop B (SLB), which self-assembled to virus like particles (VLPs) with 43 times higher affinity towards antibodies. CP and SLB could internalize into various types of mammalian cells and SLB could efficiently deliver three different monoclonal antibodies–D6F10 (targeting abrin), anti-α-tubulin (targeting intracellular tubulin) and Herclon (against HER2 receptor) inside the cells. Such a mode of delivery was much more effective than antibodies alone treatment. These results highlight the potential of SLB as a universal nanocarrier for intracellular delivery of antibodies. PMID:26905902

  8. A foundation for universal T-cell based immunotherapy: T cells engineered to express a CD19-specific chimeric-antigen-receptor and eliminate expression of endogenous TCR

    PubMed Central

    Torikai, Hiroki; Reik, Andreas; Liu, Pei-Qi; Zhou, Yuanyue; Zhang, Ling; Maiti, Sourindra; Huls, Helen; Miller, Jeffrey C.; Kebriaei, Partow; Rabinovitch, Brian; Lee, Dean A.; Champlin, Richard E.; Bonini, Chiara; Naldini, Luigi; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Holmes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical-grade T cells are genetically modified ex vivo to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to redirect specificity to a tumor associated antigen (TAA) thereby conferring antitumor activity in vivo. T cells expressing a CD19-specific CAR recognize B-cell malignancies in multiple recipients independent of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) because the specificity domains are cloned from the variable chains of a CD19 monoclonal antibody. We now report a major step toward eliminating the need to generate patient-specific T cells by generating universal allogeneic TAA-specific T cells from one donor that might be administered to multiple recipients. This was achieved by genetically editing CD19-specific CAR+ T cells to eliminate expression of the endogenous αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) to prevent a graft-versus-host response without compromising CAR-dependent effector functions. Genetically modified T cells were generated using the Sleeping Beauty system to stably introduce the CD19-specific CAR with subsequent permanent deletion of α or β TCR chains with designer zinc finger nucleases. We show that these engineered T cells display the expected property of having redirected specificity for CD19 without responding to TCR stimulation. CAR+TCRneg T cells of this type may potentially have efficacy as an off-the-shelf therapy for investigational treatment of B-lineage malignancies. PMID:22535661

  9. Antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer to NMDA NR1-containing neurons in rat neocortex by helper virus-free HSV-1 vector particles containing a chimeric HSV-1 glycoprotein C--Staphylococcus A protein

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Haiyan; Zhang, Guo-rong; Geller, Alfred I.

    2010-01-01

    Because of the heterogeneous cellular composition of the brain, and especially the forebrain, cell type-specific expression will benefit many potential applications of direct gene transfer. The two prevalent approaches for achieving cell type-specific expression are using a cell type-specific promoter or targeting gene transfer to a specific cell type. Targeted gene transfer with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors modifies glycoprotein C (gC) to replace the heparin binding domain, which binds to many cell types, with a binding activity for a specific cell surface protein. We previously reported targeted gene transfer to nigrostriatal neurons using chimeric gC--glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor or gC--brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein. Unfortunately, this approach is limited to cells that express the cognate receptor for either neurotrophic factor. Thus, a general strategy for targeting gene transfer to many different types of neurons is desirable. Antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer has been developed for targeting specific virus vectors to specific peripheral cell types; a specific vector particle protein is modified to contain the Staphylococcus A protein ZZ domain, which binds immunoglobulin (Ig) G. Here, we report antibody-mediated targeted gene transfer of HSV-1 vectors to a specific type of forebrain neuron. We constructed a chimeric gC--ZZ protein, and showed this protein is incorporated into vector particles and binds Ig G. Complexes of these vector particles and an antibody to the NMDA receptor NR1 subunit supported targeted gene transfer to NR1-containing neocortical neurons in the rat brain, with long-term (2 months) expression. PMID:20599821

  10. Vector-Mediated In Vivo Antibody Expression.

    PubMed

    Schnepp, Bruce C; Johnson, Philip R

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on a novel vaccine strategy known as vector-mediated antibody gene transfer, with a particular focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This strategy provides a solution to the problem of current vaccines that fail to generate neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Antibody gene transfer allows for predetermination of antibody affinity and specificity prior to "immunization" and avoids the need for an active humoral immune response against the HIV envelope protein. This approach uses recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, which have been shown to transduce muscle with high efficiency and direct the long-term expression of a variety of transgenes, to deliver the gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into the muscle. Following rAAV vector gene delivery, the broadly neutralizing antibodies are endogenously synthesized in myofibers and passively distributed to the circulatory system. This is an improvement over classical passive immunization strategies that administer antibody proteins to the host to provide protection from infection. Vector-mediated gene transfer studies in mice and monkeys with anti-HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-neutralizing antibodies demonstrated long-lasting neutralizing activity in serum with complete protection against intravenous challenge with virulent HIV and SIV. These results indicate that existing potent anti-HIV antibodies can be rapidly moved into the clinic. However, this methodology need not be confined to HIV. The general strategy of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can be applied to other difficult vaccine targets such as hepatitis C virus, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. PMID:26104192

  11. Anti-ALK Antibodies in Patients with ALK-Positive Malignancies Not Expressing NPM-ALK

    PubMed Central

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Siddiqi, Faraz; Fischer, Matthias; Hero, Barbara; Narayanan, Vignesh; Camidge, David Ross; Harris, Michael; Burke, Amos; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Pulford, Karen; Oschlies, Ilske; Siebert, Reiner; Turner, Suzanne; Woessmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Nucleophosmin (NPM)- Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) fusion positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma produce autoantibodies against ALK indicative of an immune response against epitopes of the chimeric fusion protein. We asked whether ALK-expression in other malignancies induces specific antibodies. Antibodies against ALK were detected in sera of one of 50 analysed ALK-expressing neuroblastoma patients, 13 of 21 ALK positive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, 13 of 22 ALK translocation-positive, but NPM-ALK-negative lymphoma patients and one of one ALK-positive rhabdomyosarcoma patient, but not in 20 healthy adults. These data suggest that boosting a pre-existent anti-ALK immune response may be more feasible for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC, lymphomas and rhabdomyosarcomas than for tumours expressing wild-type ALK. PMID:27471553

  12. Pharmacologic suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Vallina, L; Yañez, R; Blanco, B; Gil, M; Russell, S J

    2000-04-01

    Adoptive therapy with autologous T cells expressing chimeric T-cell receptors (chTCRs) is of potential interest for the treatment of malignancy. To limit possible T-cell-mediated damage to normal tissues that weakly express the targeted tumor antigen (Ag), we have tested a strategy for the suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells. Jurkat T cells were transduced with an anti-hapten chTCR tinder the control of a tetracycline-suppressible promoter and were shown to respond to Ag-positive (hapten-coated) but not to Ag-negative target cells. The engineered T cells were then reacted with hapten-coated target cells at different effector to target cell ratios before and after exposure to tetracycline. When the engineered T cells were treated with tetracycline, expression of the chTCR was greatly decreased and recognition of the hapten-coated target cells was completely suppressed. Tetracycline-mediated suppression of target cell recognition by engineered T cells may be a useful strategy to limit the toxicity of the approach to cancer gene therapy. PMID:10811469

  13. A Chimeric HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein Trimer with an Embedded Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor (GM-CSF) Domain Induces Enhanced Antibody and T Cell Responses*

    PubMed Central

    van Montfort, Thijs; Melchers, Mark; Isik, Gözde; Menis, Sergey; Huang, Po-Ssu; Matthews, Katie; Michael, Elizabeth; Berkhout, Ben; Schief, William R.; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2011-01-01

    An effective HIV-1 vaccine should ideally induce strong humoral and cellular immune responses that provide sterilizing immunity over a prolonged period. Current HIV-1 vaccines have failed in inducing such immunity. The viral envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) can be targeted by neutralizing antibodies to block infection, but several Env properties limit the ability to induce an antibody response of sufficient quantity and quality. We hypothesized that Env immunogenicity could be improved by embedding an immunostimulatory protein domain within its sequence. A stabilized Env trimer was therefore engineered with the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) inserted into the V1V2 domain of gp120. Probing with neutralizing antibodies showed that both the Env and GM-CSF components of the chimeric protein were folded correctly. Furthermore, the embedded GM-CSF domain was functional as a cytokine in vitro. Mouse immunization studies demonstrated that chimeric EnvGM-CSF enhanced Env-specific antibody and T cell responses compared with wild-type Env. Collectively, these results show that targeting and activation of immune cells using engineered cytokine domains within the protein can improve the immunogenicity of Env subunit vaccines. PMID:21515681

  14. Induction of protective immunity in chickens immunized with plant-made chimeric Bamboo mosaic virus particles expressing very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Hsien; Chen, Ten-Hong; Hu, Chung-Chi; Liao, Jia-Teh; Lee, Chin-Wei; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Lin, Maw-Yeong; Liu, Hung-Jen; Wang, Min-Ying; Lin, Na-Sheng; Hsu, Yau-Heiu

    2012-06-01

    Very virulent Infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes a highly contagious disease in young chickens and leads to significant economic loss in the poultry industry. Effective new vaccines are urgently needed. Autonomously replicating plant virus-based vector provides attractive means for producing chimeric virus particles (CVPs) in plants that can be developed into vaccines. In this study, we demonstrate the potential for vaccine development of Bamboo mosaic virus (BaMV) epitope-presentation system, where the antigen from vvIBDV VP2 was fused to the N-terminus of BaMV coat protein. Accordingly, an infections plasmid, pBIBD2, was constructed. Inoculation of the recombinant BaMV clone pBIBD2 enabled the generation of chimeric virus, BIBD2, and stable expression of IBDV VP2 antigen on its coat protein. After intramuscular immunization with BIBD2 CVPs, chickens produced antibodies against IBDV and were protected from vvIBDV (V263/TW strain) challenges. These results corroborate the feasibility of BaMV-based CVP platform in plants for the development and production of vaccines against IBDV. PMID:22406128

  15. Enhancing Antitumor Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Through Constitutive CD40L Expression

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kevin J; Seinstra, Beatrijs A; Nikhamin, Yan; Yeh, Raymond; Usachenko, Yelena; van Leeuwen, Dayenne G; Purdon, Terence; Pegram, Hollie J; Brentjens, Renier J

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy with genetically modified T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is a promising therapy for patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, CAR-modified T cells (CAR T cells) have mostly failed in patients with solid tumors or low-grade B-cell malignancies including chronic lymphocytic leukemia with bulky lymph node involvement. Herein, we enhance the antitumor efficacy of CAR T cells through the constitutive expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154). T cells genetically modified to constitutively express CD40L (CD40L-modified T cells) demonstrated increased proliferation and secretion of proinflammatory TH1 cytokines. Further, CD40L-modified T cells augmented the immunogenicity of CD40+ tumor cells by the upregulated surface expression of costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86), adhesion molecules (CD54, CD58, and CD70), human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules (Class I and HLA-DR), and the Fas-death receptor (CD95). Additionally, CD40L-modified T cells induced maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 by monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Finally, tumor-targeted CD19-specific CAR/CD40L T cells exhibited increased cytotoxicity against CD40+ tumors and extended the survival of tumor-bearing mice in a xenotransplant model of CD19+ systemic lymphoma. This preclinical data supports the clinical application of CAR T cells additionally modified to constitutively express CD40L with anticipated enhanced antitumor efficacy. PMID:25582824

  16. Crystal Structure of PG16 and Chimeric Dissection with Somatically Related PG9: Structure-Function Analysis of Two Quaternary-Specific Antibodies That Effectively Neutralize HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Pancera, Marie; McLellan, Jason S.; Wu, Xueling; Zhu, Jiang; Changela, Anita; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Yang, Yongping; Zhou, Tongqing; Phogat, Sanjay; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-11-03

    HIV-1 resists neutralization by most antibodies. Two somatically related human antibodies, PG9 and PG16, however, each neutralize 70 to 80% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. Here we present the structure of the antigen-binding fragment of PG16 in monoclinic and orthorhombic lattices at 2.4 and 4.0 {angstrom}, respectively, and use a combination of structural analysis, paratope dissection, and neutralization assessment to determine the functional relevance of three unusual PG9/PG16 features: N-linked glycosylation, extensive affinity maturation, and a heavy chain-third complementarity-determining region (CDR H3) that is one of the longest observed in human antibodies. Glycosylation extended off the side of the light chain variable domain and was not required for neutralization. The CDR H3 formed an axe-shaped subdomain, which comprised 42% of the CDR surface, with the axe head looming {approx}20 {angstrom} above the other combining loops. Comprehensive sets of chimeric swaps between PG9 and PG16 of light chain, heavy chain, and CDR H3 were employed to decipher structure-function relationships. Chimeric swaps generally complemented functionally, with differences in PG9/PG16 neutralization related primarily to residue differences in CDR H3. Meanwhile, chimeric reversions to genomic V genes showed isolate-dependent effects, with affinity maturation playing a significant role in augmenting neutralization breadth (P = 0.036) and potency (P < 0.0001). The structural and functional details of extraordinary CDR H3 and extensive affinity maturation provide insights into the neutralization mechanism of and the elicitation pathway for broadly neutralizing antibodies like PG9 and PG16.

  17. Evolution and expression of chimeric POTE–actin genes in the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoomi; Ise, Tomoko; Ha, Duc; Saint Fleur, Ashley; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Liu, Xiu-Fen; Nagata, Satoshi; Lee, Byungkook; Bera, Tapan K.; Pastan, Ira

    2006-01-01

    We previously described a primate-specific gene family, POTE, that is expressed in many cancers but in a limited number of normal organs. The 13 POTE genes are dispersed among eight different chromosomes and evolved by duplications and remodeling of the human genome from an ancestral gene, ANKRD26. Based on sequence similarity, the POTE gene family members can be divided into three groups. By genome database searches, we identified an actin retroposon insertion at the carboxyl terminus of one of the ancestral POTE paralogs. By Northern blot analysis, we identified the expected 7.5-kb POTE–actin chimeric transcript in a breast cancer cell line. The protein encoded by the POTE–actin transcript is predicted to be 120 kDa in size. Using anti-POTE mAbs that recognize the amino-terminal portion of the POTE protein, we detected the 120-kDa POTE–actin fusion protein in breast cancer cell lines known to express the fusion transcript. These data demonstrate that insertion of a retroposon produced an altered functional POTE gene. This example indicates that new functional human genes can evolve by insertion of retroposons. PMID:17101985

  18. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor in Multiple Leukocyte Lineages in Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Yong, Carmen S M; Westwood, Jennifer A; Schröder, Jan; Papenfuss, Anthony T; von Scheidt, Bianca; Moeller, Maria; Devaud, Christel; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified CD8+ T lymphocytes have shown significant anti-tumor effects in the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer, with recent studies highlighting a potential role for a combination of other immune subsets to enhance these results. However, limitations in present genetic modification techniques impose difficulties in our ability to fully explore the potential of various T cell subsets and assess the potential of other leukocytes armed with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). To address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse model using a pan-hematopoietic promoter (vav) to drive the expression of a CAR specific for a tumor antigen. Here we present a characterization of the immune cell compartment in two unique vav-CAR transgenic mice models, Founder 9 (F9) and Founder 38 (F38). We demonstrate the vav promoter is indeed capable of driving the expression of a CAR in cells from both myeloid and lymphoid lineage, however the highest level of expression was observed in T lymphocytes from F38 mice. Lymphoid organs in vav-CAR mice were smaller and had reduced cell numbers compared to the wild type (WT) controls. Furthermore, the immune composition of F9 mice differed greatly with a significant reduction in lymphocytes found in the thymus, lymph node and spleen of these mice. To gain insight into the altered immune phenotype of F9 mice, we determined the chromosomal integration site of the transgene in both mouse strains using whole genome sequencing (WGS). We demonstrated that compared to the 7 copies found in F38 mice, F9 mice harbored almost 270 copies. These novel vav-CAR models provide a ready source of CAR expressing myeloid and lymphoid cells and will aid in facilitating future experiments to delineate the role for other leukocytes for adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. PMID:26505904

  19. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor in Multiple Leukocyte Lineages in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Carmen S. M.; Westwood, Jennifer A.; Schröder, Jan; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; von Scheidt, Bianca; Moeller, Maria; Devaud, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified CD8+ T lymphocytes have shown significant anti-tumor effects in the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer, with recent studies highlighting a potential role for a combination of other immune subsets to enhance these results. However, limitations in present genetic modification techniques impose difficulties in our ability to fully explore the potential of various T cell subsets and assess the potential of other leukocytes armed with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). To address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse model using a pan-hematopoietic promoter (vav) to drive the expression of a CAR specific for a tumor antigen. Here we present a characterization of the immune cell compartment in two unique vav-CAR transgenic mice models, Founder 9 (F9) and Founder 38 (F38). We demonstrate the vav promoter is indeed capable of driving the expression of a CAR in cells from both myeloid and lymphoid lineage, however the highest level of expression was observed in T lymphocytes from F38 mice. Lymphoid organs in vav-CAR mice were smaller and had reduced cell numbers compared to the wild type (WT) controls. Furthermore, the immune composition of F9 mice differed greatly with a significant reduction in lymphocytes found in the thymus, lymph node and spleen of these mice. To gain insight into the altered immune phenotype of F9 mice, we determined the chromosomal integration site of the transgene in both mouse strains using whole genome sequencing (WGS). We demonstrated that compared to the 7 copies found in F38 mice, F9 mice harbored almost 270 copies. These novel vav-CAR models provide a ready source of CAR expressing myeloid and lymphoid cells and will aid in facilitating future experiments to delineate the role for other leukocytes for adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. PMID:26505904

  20. Treatment of Cancer Patients With a Serotype 5/3 Chimeric Oncolytic Adenovirus Expressing GMCSF

    PubMed Central

    Koski, Anniina; Kangasniemi, Lotta; Escutenaire, Sophie; Pesonen, Sari; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Diaconu, Iulia; Nokisalmi, Petri; Raki, Mari; Rajecki, Maria; Guse, Kilian; Ranki, Tuuli; Oksanen, Minna; Holm, Sirkka-Liisa; Haavisto, Elina; Karioja-Kallio, Aila; Laasonen, Leena; Partanen, Kaarina; Ugolini, Matteo; Helminen, Andreas; Karli, Eerika; Hannuksela, Päivi; Pesonen, Saila; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Hemminki, Akseli

    2010-01-01

    Augmenting antitumor immunity is a promising way to enhance the potency of oncolytic adenoviral therapy. Granulocyte–macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GMCSF) can mediate antitumor effects by recruiting natural killer cells and by induction of tumor-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. Serotype 5 adenoviruses (Ad5) are commonly used in cancer gene therapy. However, expression of the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor is variable in many advanced tumors and preclinical data have demonstrated an advantage for replacing the Ad5 knob with the Ad3 knob. Here, a 5/3 capsid chimeric and p16-Rb pathway selective oncolytic adenovirus coding for GMCSF was engineered and tested preclinically. A total of 21 patients with advanced solid tumors refractory to standard therapies were then treated intratumorally and intravenously with Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF, which was combined with low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide to reduce regulatory T cells. No severe adverse events occurred. Analysis of pretreatment samples of malignant pleural effusion and ascites confirmed the efficacy of Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF in transduction and cell killing. Evidence of biological activity of the virus was seen in 13/21 patients and 8/12 showed objective clinical benefit as evaluated by radiology with Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Antiadenoviral and antitumoral immune responses were elicited after treatment. Thus, Ad5/3-D24-GMCSF seems safe in treating cancer patients and promising signs of efficacy were seen. PMID:20664527

  1. Phase II clinical trial of amatuximab, a chimeric anti-mesothelin antibody with pemetrexed and cisplatin in advanced unresectable pleural mesothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Raffit; Kindler, Hedy L.; Jahan, Thierry; Bazhenova, Lyudmila; Reck, Martin; Thomas, Anish; Pastan, Ira; Parno, Jeff; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Fatato, Penny; Maltzman, Julia D.; Wallin, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Amatuximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody to mesothelin, a cell surface glycoprotein highly expressed in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Based on its synergy with chemotherapy in pre-clinical studies, we evaluated the antitumor activity of amatuximab plus pemetrexed and cisplatin in patients with unresectable MPM. Experimental Design In a single-arm phase II study, amatuximab 5 mg/kg was administered on days 1 and 8 with pemetrexed, 500 mg/m2 and cisplatin, 75 mg/m2 on day 1 of 21-day cycles for up to 6 cycles. Patients with response or stable disease received amatuximab maintenance until disease progression. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), response rate and safety. Results Eighty nine patients were enrolled at 26 centers. Median of five cycles (range 1–6) of combination treatment was administered and 56 (63%) patients received amatuximab maintenance. Combination therapy resulted in no overlapping toxicities. Eleven patients (12.4%) had amatuximab-related hypersensitivity reactions. Responses included partial responses in 33 (40%) and stable disease in 42 (51%). Six month-PFS rate was 51% (95% CI: 39.1, 62.3), median PFS 6.1 months (95% CI: 5.8, 6.4) and median OS 14.8 months (95% CI: 12.4, 18.5) with 29 patients alive at data cut-off. Conclusions Amatuximab with pemetrexed and cisplatin was well-tolerated with objective tumor response or stable disease rate of 90% by independent radiological review. Although PFS was not significantly different from historical controls, the median OS was 14.8 months with a third of patients alive and 5 continuing to receive amatuximab at the time of analysis. PMID:25231400

  2. Interaction of human IgG chimeric antibodies with the human FcRI and FcRII receptors: requirements for antibody-mediated host cell-target cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Walker, M R; Woof, J M; Brüggemann, M; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R

    1989-04-01

    Chimeric monoclonal antibodies (McAb), specific for the hapten 5-iodo-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl (NIP), expressing human IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 subclass constant domains, have been examined for their ability to interact with the human FcRII receptor. Human red blood cells (RBC) sensitized by each of these McAbs have been assayed for their ability to form rosettes with the human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cell line, human B cell line Daudi and erythroblastoid K562 cell line. IgG1 and IgG3 sensitized RBC formed significant rosettes with the FcR- and FcRII+ Daudi and K562 cell lines, the percentage of cells forming rosettes being directly proportional to the degree of sensitization of the RBC. Bromelin treating Daudi cells did not alter this pattern of reactivity, whereas bromelin treated FcRI+ and FcRII+ U937 cells formed significant resettes with IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 sensitized RBC, demonstrating a difference in the IgG subclass specificity between human FcRI and FcRII. Murine IgG2b anti-NIP sensitized RBC did not form rosettes with any cell line tested; however, RBC sensitized by some members of a panel of murine IgG1 McAb, specific for the glycophorin A molecule, were able to form rosettes with Daudi, U937 and K562 cells. This interaction was enhanced by bromelin treating the Daudi or U937 cells and can be correlated to the disposition of the epitopes recognized, relative to the target cell membrane, those McAbs recognizing epitopes furthest from the RBC surface being most effective in interacting with FcRII. The data are interpreted in terms of a simple model for antibody-mediated cell--cell interaction. PMID:2716734

  3. Regression of established renal cell carcinoma in nude mice using lentivirus-transduced human T cells expressing a human anti-CAIX chimeric antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Agnes Shuk-Yee; Xu, Chen; Murakami, Akikazu; Marasco, Wayne A

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a tumor-associated antigen and marker of hypoxia that is overexpressed on > 90% of clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but not on neighboring normal kidney tissue. Here, we report on the construction of two chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that utilize a carbonic anhydrase (CA) domain mapped, human single chain antibody (scFv G36) as a targeting moiety but differ in their capacity to provide costimulatory signaling for optimal T cell proliferation and tumor cell killing. The resulting anti-CAIX CARs were expressed on human primary T cells via lentivirus transduction. CAR-transduced T cells (CART cells) expressing second-generation G36-CD28-TCRζ exhibited more potent in vitro antitumor effects on CAIX+ RCC cells than first-generation G36-CD8-TCRζ including cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and clonal expansion. Adoptive G36-CD28-TCRζ CART cell therapy combined with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 injection also lead to superior regression of established RCC in nude mice with evidence of tumor cell apoptosis and tissue necrosis. These results suggest that the fully human G36-CD28-TCRζ CARs should provide substantial improvements over first-generation mouse anti-CAIX CARs in clinical use through reduced human anti-mouse antibody responses against the targeting scFv and administration of lower doses of T cells during CART cell therapy of CAIX+ RCC. PMID:27119093

  4. Regression of established renal cell carcinoma in nude mice using lentivirus-transduced human T cells expressing a human anti-CAIX chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Lo, Agnes Shuk-Yee; Xu, Chen; Murakami, Akikazu; Marasco, Wayne A

    2014-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) is a tumor-associated antigen and marker of hypoxia that is overexpressed on > 90% of clear-cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC) but not on neighboring normal kidney tissue. Here, we report on the construction of two chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that utilize a carbonic anhydrase (CA) domain mapped, human single chain antibody (scFv G36) as a targeting moiety but differ in their capacity to provide costimulatory signaling for optimal T cell proliferation and tumor cell killing. The resulting anti-CAIX CARs were expressed on human primary T cells via lentivirus transduction. CAR-transduced T cells (CART cells) expressing second-generation G36-CD28-TCRζ exhibited more potent in vitro antitumor effects on CAIX(+) RCC cells than first-generation G36-CD8-TCRζ including cytotoxicity, cytokine secretion, proliferation, and clonal expansion. Adoptive G36-CD28-TCRζ CART cell therapy combined with high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 injection also lead to superior regression of established RCC in nude mice with evidence of tumor cell apoptosis and tissue necrosis. These results suggest that the fully human G36-CD28-TCRζ CARs should provide substantial improvements over first-generation mouse anti-CAIX CARs in clinical use through reduced human anti-mouse antibody responses against the targeting scFv and administration of lower doses of T cells during CART cell therapy of CAIX(+) RCC. PMID:27119093

  5. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures on a chimeric respiratory syncytial virus protein expressed in insect cell line Sf9

    SciTech Connect

    Wathen, M.W.; Aeed, P.A.; Elhammer, A.P. )

    1991-03-19

    The oligosaccharide structures added to a chimeric protein (FG) composed of the extracellular domains of respiratory syncytial virus F and G proteins, expressed in the insect cell line Sf9, were investigated. Cells were labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)glucosamine and infected wit a recombinant baculovirus containing the FG gene. The secreted chimeric protein was isolated by immunoprecipitation and subjected to oligosaccharide analysis. The FG protein contains two types of O-linked oligosaccharides: GalNAc and Gal{beta}1-3GalNAc constituting 17 and 66% of the total number of structures respectively. Only one type of N-linked oligosaccharide, constituting the remaining 17% of the structures on FG, was detected: a trimannosyl core structure with a fucose residue linked {alpha}1-6 to the asparagine-linked N-acetylglucosamine.

  6. Expression of a recombinant chimeric protein of hepatitis A virus VP1-Fc using a replicating vector based on Beet curly top virus in tobacco leaves and its immunogenicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Yong; Lee, Hyun Ho; Kim, Kyung Il; Chung, Ha Young; Hwang-Bo, Jeon; Park, Jong Hwa; Sunter, Garry; Kim, Jong Bum; Shon, Dong Hwa; Kim, Wonyong; Chung, In Sik

    2011-08-01

    We describe the expression and immunogenicity of a recombinant chimeric protein (HAV VP1-Fc) consisting of human hepatitis A virus VP1 and an Fc antibody fragment using a replicating vector based on Beet curly top virus (BCTV) in Agrobacterium-infiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Recombinant HAV VP1-Fc was expressed with a molecular mass of approximately 68 kDa. Recombinant HAV VP1-Fc, purified using Protein A Sepharose affinity chromatography, elicited production of specific IgG antibodies in the serum after intraperitoneal immunization. Following vaccination with recombinant HAV VP1-Fc protein, expressions of IFN-γ and IL-4 were increased in splenocytes at the time of sacrifice. Recombinant VP1-Fc from infiltrated tobacco plants can be used as an effective experimental immunogen for research into vaccine development. PMID:21442402

  7. Generation and evaluation of a chimeric classical swine fever virus expressing a visible marker gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Yuan; Li, Lian-Feng; Zhang, Lingkai; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is a noncytopathogenic virus, and the incorporation of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) tag into the viral genome provides a means of direct monitoring of viral infection without immunostaining. It is well established that the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the CSFV plays an important role in viral RNA replication. Although CSFV carrying a reporter gene and chimeric CSFV have been generated and evaluated, a chimeric CSFV with a visible marker has not yet been reported. Here, we generated and evaluated a chimeric virus containing the EGFP tag and the 3'-UTR from vaccine strain HCLV (C-strain) in the genetic background of the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain. The chimeric marker CSFV was fluorescent and had an approximately 100-fold lower viral titer, lower replication level of viral genome, and weaker fluorescence intensity than the recombinant CSFV with only the EGFP tag or the parental virus. Furthermore, the marker chimera was avirulent and displayed no viremia in inoculated pigs, which were completely protected from lethal CSFV challenge as early as 15 days post-inoculation. The chimeric marker virus was visible in vitro and attenuated in vitro and in vivo, which suggests that CSFV can be engineered to produce attenuated variants with a visible marker to facilitate in vitro studies of CSFV infection and replication and to develop of novel vaccines against CSF. PMID:26614259

  8. Selective inhibition of tumor growth by clonal NK cells expressing an ErbB2/HER2-specific chimeric antigen receptor.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, Kurt; Sahm, Christiane; Zhang, Congcong; Naundorf, Sonja; Brendel, Christian; Odendahl, Marcus; Nowakowska, Paulina; Bönig, Halvard; Köhl, Ulrike; Kloess, Stephan; Köhler, Sylvia; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Jauch, Anna; Schmidt, Manfred; Schubert, Ralf; Kühlcke, Klaus; Seifried, Erhard; Klingemann, Hans G; Rieger, Michael A; Tonn, Torsten; Grez, Manuel; Wels, Winfried S

    2015-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an important effector cell type for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Similar to T cells, NK cells can be modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to enhance antitumor activity, but experience with CAR-engineered NK cells and their clinical development is still limited. Here, we redirected continuously expanding and clinically usable established human NK-92 cells to the tumor-associated ErbB2 (HER2) antigen. Following GMP-compliant procedures, we generated a stable clonal cell line expressing a humanized CAR based on ErbB2-specific antibody FRP5 harboring CD28 and CD3ζ signaling domains (CAR 5.28.z). These NK-92/5.28.z cells efficiently lysed ErbB2-expressing tumor cells in vitro and exhibited serial target cell killing. Specific recognition of tumor cells and antitumor activity were retained in vivo, resulting in selective enrichment of NK-92/5.28.z cells in orthotopic breast carcinoma xenografts, and reduction of pulmonary metastasis in a renal cell carcinoma model, respectively. γ-irradiation as a potential safety measure for clinical application prevented NK cell replication, while antitumor activity was preserved. Our data demonstrate that it is feasible to engineer CAR-expressing NK cells as a clonal, molecularly and functionally well-defined and continuously expandable cell therapeutic agent, and suggest NK-92/5.28.z cells as a promising candidate for use in adoptive cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25373520

  9. Selective Inhibition of Tumor Growth by Clonal NK Cells Expressing an ErbB2/HER2-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Kurt; Sahm, Christiane; Zhang, Congcong; Naundorf, Sonja; Brendel, Christian; Odendahl, Marcus; Nowakowska, Paulina; Bönig, Halvard; Köhl, Ulrike; Kloess, Stephan; Köhler, Sylvia; Holtgreve-Grez, Heidi; Jauch, Anna; Schmidt, Manfred; Schubert, Ralf; Kühlcke, Klaus; Seifried, Erhard; Klingemann, Hans G; Rieger, Michael A; Tonn, Torsten; Grez, Manuel; Wels, Winfried S

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are an important effector cell type for adoptive cancer immunotherapy. Similar to T cells, NK cells can be modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) to enhance antitumor activity, but experience with CAR-engineered NK cells and their clinical development is still limited. Here, we redirected continuously expanding and clinically usable established human NK-92 cells to the tumor-associated ErbB2 (HER2) antigen. Following GMP-compliant procedures, we generated a stable clonal cell line expressing a humanized CAR based on ErbB2-specific antibody FRP5 harboring CD28 and CD3ζ signaling domains (CAR 5.28.z). These NK-92/5.28.z cells efficiently lysed ErbB2-expressing tumor cells in vitro and exhibited serial target cell killing. Specific recognition of tumor cells and antitumor activity were retained in vivo, resulting in selective enrichment of NK-92/5.28.z cells in orthotopic breast carcinoma xenografts, and reduction of pulmonary metastasis in a renal cell carcinoma model, respectively. γ-irradiation as a potential safety measure for clinical application prevented NK cell replication, while antitumor activity was preserved. Our data demonstrate that it is feasible to engineer CAR-expressing NK cells as a clonal, molecularly and functionally well-defined and continuously expandable cell therapeutic agent, and suggest NK-92/5.28.z cells as a promising candidate for use in adoptive cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25373520

  10. Comparison of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated with visible or near-infrared fluorescent dyes for imaging pancreatic cancer in orthotopic nude mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a set of visible and near-infrared dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific chimeric antibody for high-resolution tumor imaging in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. BxPC-3 human pancreatic cancer was orthotopically implanted into pancreata of nude mice. Mice received a single intravenous injection of a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody conjugated to one of the following fluorophores: 488-nm group (Alexa Fluor 488 or DyLight 488); 550-nm group (Alexa Fluor 555 or DyLight 550); 650-nm group (Alexa Fluor 660 or DyLight 650), or the 750-nm group (Alexa Fluor 750 or DyLight 755). After 24 h, the Olympus OV100 small-animal imaging system was used for noninvasive and intravital fluorescence imaging of mice. Dyes were compared with respect to depth of imaging, resolution, tumor-to-background ratio (TBR), photobleaching, and hemoglobin quenching. The longer wavelength dyes had increased depth of penetration and ability to detect the smallest tumor deposits and provided the highest TBRs, resistance to hemoglobin quenching, and specificity. The shorter wavelength dyes were more photostable. This study showed unique advantages of each dye for specific cancer imaging in a clinically relevant orthotopic model.

  11. [Rhabdomyosarcoma lysis by T cells expressing a human autoantibody based chimeric receptor targeting the fetal acetylcholine receptors].

    PubMed

    Gattenlöhner, S

    2006-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs) are the most frequent malignant soft tissue tumors of childhood. Since even aggressive multimodality treatments including autologous stem cell rescue have failed to improve the < 20 % overall survival rate of children with metastatic RMS, novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. Looking for potential targets for immunotherapies, we identified the gamma subunit of the fetal acetylcholine receptor (fAChR) as a specific and overexpressed membrane antigen in RMS. Additionally we established a duplex RT-PCR with simultaneous amplification of alpha and gamma subunit message of the fAChR and the quantification of both transcripts resulting in alpha/gammaAChR ratio > 1 was 100% sensitive in alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Since the fAChR was the first extracellular tumor marker that can distinguish rhabdomyosarcomas from nonrhabdomyomatous tumors and from normal muscle and therefore implies, that the fAChR may be a target for immunotherapeutic strategies, we synthesized a scFv antibody fragment directed against the fAChR and enigineered both a Pseudomonas exotoxin A based immunotoxin as well as a chimeric T cell receptor composed of the antigen-binding domain of the scFv fragment joined to the signaling domain of the T cell receptor zeta chain. The interaction of fAChzeta-transduced T cells with several RMS cell lines but not with fAChR-negative controls induced strong T cell activation, characterized by secretion of high amounts of interferon-gamma. Moreover after co-incubations with RMS cell lines fAChRzeta-transduced T cells as well fAChR specific immunotoxin induced specific receptor-concentration dependent tumor cell lysis. Therefore, fAChRzeta-transduced T cells and the fAChR specific immunotoxin respectively are promising new tools for the immunotherapy of rhabdomyosarcomas and may provide an effective complementary approach to eradicate residual or metastatic RMS cells in patients, since 1. RMS-direceted chemotherapies

  12. Expression of chimeric antigen receptors in natural killer cells with a regulatory-compliant non-viral method

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linhong; Liu, Linda N; Feller, Stephanie; Allen, Cornell; Shivakumar, Rama; Fratantoni, Joseph; Wolfraim, Lawrence A.; Fujisaki, Hiroyuki; Campana, Dario; Chopas, Nicholas; Dzekunov, Sergey; Peshwa, Madhusudan

    2009-01-01

    Natural killer1 cells hold promise for cancer therapy. NK cytotoxicity can be enhanced by expression of chimeric antigen receptors that re-direct specificity toward target cells by engaging cell surface molecules expressed on target cells. We developed a regulatory-compliant, scalable non-viral approach to engineer NK cells to be target-specific based on transfection of mRNA encoding chimeric receptors. Transfection of eGFP mRNA into ex vivo expanded NK cells (N=5) or purified unstimulated NK cells from peripheral blood (N=4) resulted in good cell viability with eGFP expression in 85% ± 6% and 86% ± 4%, 24 hours after transfection, respectively. An mRNA encoding a receptor directed against CD19 (anti-CD19-BB-z) was also transfected into NK cells efficiently. Ex vivo expanded and purified unstimulated NK cells expressing anti-CD19-BB-z exhibited enhanced cytotoxicity against CD19+ target cells resulting in ≥80% lysis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and B-lineage chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells at effector target ratios lower than 10:1. The target-specific cytotoxicity for anti-CD19-BB-z mRNA-transfected NK cells was observed as early as 3 hours after transfection and persisted for up to 3 days. The method described here should facilitate the clinical development of NK-based antigen-targeted immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:19745843

  13. Synergy of Taxol and radioimmunotherapy with yttrium-90-labeled chimeric L6 antibody: Efficacy and toxicity in breast cancer xenografts

    PubMed Central

    DeNardo, Sally J.; Kukis, David L.; Kroger, Linda A.; O’Donnell, Robert T.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Miers, Laird A.; DeNardo, David G.; Meares, Claude F.; DeNardo, Gerald L.

    1997-01-01

    Synergistic multimodality therapy is needed for breast cancer. Breast cancer frequently has p53 mutations that result in cells less likely to undergo apoptosis when exposed to DNA damaging therapies. Taxol (paclitaxel) is more effective in the presence of mutant p53. 90Y-labeled DOTA-peptide-ChL6 (90Y-ChL6, where ChL6 is chimeric L6 antibody and DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′,N",N‴-tetraacetic acid) is a novel radioimmunoconjugate for targeting radiation to cancer. It has a stable metal chelator and a peptide linker that can be catabolized by hepatic lysozymes. This study was designed to assess potential synergism between Taxol and 90Y-ChL6 in a highly anaplastic breast cancer model, HBT 3477. There was no tumor response in mice receiving ChL6 or Taxol alone. In mice receiving 90Y-ChL6 alone, 79% (15 of 19) of tumors responded although none were cured. If Taxol was administered 24–72 hours before 90Y-ChL6, again, 79% (23 of 29) of tumors responded but 21% were cured. When Taxol was administered 6 or 24 hours after 90Y-ChL6, 100% (46 of 46) of tumors responded and 48% were cured. Taxol given with 90Y-ChL6 did not substantially increase toxicity. Enhancement of the therapeutic effect when Taxol was added to 90Y-ChL6 therapy for HBT 3477 xenografts was striking. The synergistic therapeutic effect of Taxol with 90Y-ChL6 may relate to the p53 mutant status and BCL2 expression in HBT 3477 cells, observations that increase the likelihood that the results of this study are relevant to therapy for breast cancer in patients. In conclusion, Taxol seemed to be synergistic with 90Y-ChL6 in this human breast cancer model. Up to 50% of these anaplastic breast cancer xenografts were cured by combined modality therapy. PMID:9108094

  14. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Okada, Naoki

    2016-04-22

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. PMID:26993168

  15. Antigenic properties of a transport-competent influenza HA/HIV Env chimeric protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Ling; Sun Yuliang; Lin Jianguo; Bu Zhigao; Wu Qingyang; Jiang, Shibo; Steinhauer, David A.; Compans, Richard W.; Yang Chinglai . E-mail: chyang@emory.edu

    2006-08-15

    The transmembrane subunit (gp41) of the HIV Env glycoprotein contains conserved neutralizing epitopes which are not well-exposed in wild-type HIV Env proteins. To enhance the exposure of these epitopes, a chimeric protein, HA/gp41, in which the gp41 of HIV-1 89.6 envelope protein was fused to the C-terminus of the HA1 subunit of the influenza HA protein, was constructed. Characterization of protein expression showed that the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins were expressed on cell surfaces and formed trimeric oligomers, as found in the HIV Env as well as influenza HA proteins. In addition, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein expressed on the cell surface can also be cleaved into 2 subunits by trypsin treatment, similar to the influenza HA. Moreover, the HA/gp41 chimeric protein was found to maintain a pre-fusion conformation. Interestingly, the HA/gp41 chimeric proteins on cell surfaces exhibited increased reactivity to monoclonal antibodies against the HIV Env gp41 subunit compared with the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the two broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 4E10. Immunization of mice with a DNA vaccine expressing the HA/gp41 chimeric protein induced antibodies against the HIV gp41 protein and these antibodies exhibit neutralizing activity against infection by an HIV SF162 pseudovirus. These results demonstrate that the construction of such chimeric proteins can provide enhanced exposure of conserved epitopes in the HIV Env gp41 and may represent a novel vaccine design strategy for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV.

  16. Development of a chimeric Plasmodium berghei strain expressing the repeat region of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein for in vivo evaluation of vaccine efficacy.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Diego A; Yadava, Anjali; Angov, Evelina; Maurizio, Paul L; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Zavala, Fidel

    2013-08-01

    The development of vaccine candidates against Plasmodium vivax-the most geographically widespread human malaria species-is challenged by technical difficulties, such as the lack of in vitro culture systems and availability of animal models. Chimeric rodent Plasmodium parasites are safe and useful tools for the preclinical evaluation of new vaccine formulations. We report the successful development and characterization of chimeric Plasmodium berghei parasites bearing the type I repeat region of P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP). The P. berghei-P. vivax chimeric strain develops normally in mosquitoes and produces highly infectious sporozoites that produce patent infection in mice that are exposed to the bites of as few as 3 P. berghei-P. vivax-infected mosquitoes. Using this transgenic parasite, we demonstrate that monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against P. vivax CSP strongly inhibit parasite infection and thus support the notion that these antibodies play an important role in protective immunity. The chimeric parasites we developed represent a robust model for evaluating protective immune responses against P. vivax vaccines based on CSP. PMID:23716612

  17. Vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric proteins of human immunodeficiency virus and gamma interferon are attenuated for nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Giavedoni, L D; Jones, L; Gardner, M B; Gibson, H L; Ng, C T; Barr, P J; Yilma, T

    1992-01-01

    We have developed a method for attenuating vaccinia virus recombinants by expressing a fusion protein of a lymphokine and an immunogen. Chimeric genes were constructed that coded for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and structural proteins of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In this study, we describe the biological and immunological properties of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing chimeric genes of murine or human IFN-gamma with glycoprotein gp120, gag, and a fragment of gp41. All fusion proteins retained the antigenic characteristics of both IFN-gamma and HIV as shown by immunoblot analysis. However, the antiviral activity of IFN-gamma could be demonstrated only for the IFN-gamma-gag fusion protein. In contrast, the attenuating activity of IFN-gamma for nude mice was retained by all of the recombinants, albeit at various rates. Unlike the antiviral activity, the attenuating activity of IFN-gamma was not species specific. Implications for the development of attenuated live recombinant vaccines for AIDS are discussed. Images PMID:1565633

  18. Serum half-life and tumor localization of a chimeric antibody deleted of the C sub H 2 domain and directed against the disialoganglioside GD2

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.M.; Reisfeld, R.A. ); Gillies, S.D. )

    1990-08-01

    Recombinant techniques allow one to engineer an antibody molecule and, in this way, manipulate its properties and functions. The authors engineered a chimeric human/mouse antibody to the tumor-associated antigen ganglioside GD2, with the aim of decreasing its serum half-life, maintaining its full antigen-binding capacity, and deleting its effector functions, thus making it a potentially useful reagent for the radioimaging of tumors. To this end, the constant region of the human {gamma}1 chain was mutated by deleting the second domain (C{sub H}2). Here the authors show that the C{sub H}2-deleted antibody (ch14.18-{Delta}CH2) was cleared from the blood of athymic (nu/nu) mice bearing human melanoma tumors with the same kinetics as human IgG F(ab{prime}){sub 2}. At a {beta} t{sub 1/2} of 12 hr, 0.9% of the injected dose of {sup 125}I-labeled ch14.18-{Delta}CH2 was found per milliliter of blood 24 hr after i.v. injection. In biodistribution experiments, {sup 125}I-labeled ch14.18-{Delta}CH2 targeted specifically to melanoma xenografts, achieving optimal tumor-to-tissue ratios 12-16 hr after i.v. injection. ch14.18-{Delta}CH2 was localized to the melanoma tumors more rapidly and with better localization ratios than the intact chimeric antibody ch14.18. Sixteen hours after i.v. injection, the tumor-to-blood and tumor-to-liver ratios of ch14.18-{Delta}CH2 were 5 and 12, respectively, while optimal localization ratios obtained for ch14.18 were 1 and 5, respectively, but 96 hr after injection. A reagent such as ch14.18-{Delta}CH2 should be useful for radioimmunodetection of human tumors because of reduced immunogenicity, increased targeting specificity, and rapid clearance from circulation.

  19. Redirecting Specificity of T cells Using the Sleeping Beauty System to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Mix-and-Matching of VL and VH Domains Targeting CD123+ Tumors.

    PubMed

    Thokala, Radhika; Olivares, Simon; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra; Deniger, Drew; Huls, Helen; Torikai, Hiroki; Singh, Harjeet; Champlin, Richard E; Laskowski, Tamara; McNamara, George; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy infusing T cells with engineered specificity for CD19 expressed on B- cell malignancies is generating enthusiasm to extend this approach to other hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). CD123, or interleukin 3 receptor alpha, is overexpressed on most AML and some lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and has been an effective target for T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The prototypical CAR encodes a VH and VL from one monoclonal antibody (mAb), coupled to a transmembrane domain and one or more cytoplasmic signaling domains. Previous studies showed that treatment of an experimental AML model with CD123-specific CAR T cells was therapeutic, but at the cost of impaired myelopoiesis, highlighting the need for systems to define the antigen threshold for CAR recognition. Here, we show that CARs can be engineered using VH and VL chains derived from different CD123-specific mAbs to generate a panel of CAR+ T cells. While all CARs exhibited specificity to CD123, one VH and VL combination had reduced lysis of normal hematopoietic stem cells. This CAR's in vivo anti-tumor activity was similar whether signaling occurred via chimeric CD28 or CD137, prolonging survival in both AML and ALL models. Co-expression of inducible caspase 9 eliminated CAR+ T cells. These data help support the use of CD123-specific CARs for treatment of CD123+ hematologic malignancies. PMID:27548616

  20. Redirecting Specificity of T cells Using the Sleeping Beauty System to Express Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Mix-and-Matching of VL and VH Domains Targeting CD123+ Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Simon; Mi, Tiejuan; Maiti, Sourindra; Deniger, Drew; Huls, Helen; Torikai, Hiroki; Singh, Harjeet; Champlin, Richard E.; Laskowski, Tamara; McNamara, George; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy infusing T cells with engineered specificity for CD19 expressed on B- cell malignancies is generating enthusiasm to extend this approach to other hematological malignancies, such as acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). CD123, or interleukin 3 receptor alpha, is overexpressed on most AML and some lymphoid malignancies, such as acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and has been an effective target for T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The prototypical CAR encodes a VH and VL from one monoclonal antibody (mAb), coupled to a transmembrane domain and one or more cytoplasmic signaling domains. Previous studies showed that treatment of an experimental AML model with CD123-specific CAR T cells was therapeutic, but at the cost of impaired myelopoiesis, highlighting the need for systems to define the antigen threshold for CAR recognition. Here, we show that CARs can be engineered using VH and VL chains derived from different CD123-specific mAbs to generate a panel of CAR+ T cells. While all CARs exhibited specificity to CD123, one VH and VL combination had reduced lysis of normal hematopoietic stem cells. This CAR’s in vivo anti-tumor activity was similar whether signaling occurred via chimeric CD28 or CD137, prolonging survival in both AML and ALL models. Co-expression of inducible caspase 9 eliminated CAR+ T cells. These data help support the use of CD123-specific CARs for treatment of CD123+ hematologic malignancies. PMID:27548616

  1. Immunogenicity screening assay development for a novel human-mouse chimeric anti-CD147 monoclonal antibody (Metuzumab).

    PubMed

    Mi, Li; Li, Wei; Li, Maohua; Chen, Tao; Wang, Muyang; Sun, Le; Chen, Zhinan

    2016-06-01

    The clinical effect of patient immune responses to therapeutic antibodies affect product safety and efficacy, which makes the development of valid, sensitive immune assays a key aspect of antibody drug development. In this paper, we reported the generations of mouse monoclonal and Cynomolgus monkey polyclonal antibodies against the anti-CD147 antibody (Metuzumab) as the internal standards and the positive controls. Seven mouse monoclonal antibodies were shown to recognize both (Fab)2 and full length of Metuzumab, but not the control normal human IgGs, and monoclonal anti-Metuzumab, Clone 2D9 was chosen to be used as the internal standard for anti-Metuzumab study. A Bridging ELISA assay was developed by coating the wells with the antibody drug, and the anti-drug antibody (ADA) in the animal sera were detected by enzyme-labeled antibody. Its limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.39ng/ml of anti-Metuzumab antibody (ADA) with linear range between 0.39-50ng/ml and R(2)=0.994. For normal monkey sera, a minimal dilution was determined to be 1:80. However, very different from peptide or other protein drugs, strong interferences from the residual antibody drugs were observed from most of the testing monkey sera in the preclinical study. It was experimentally determined that the concentration of the residual antibody drug in the assay have to be lower than 1μg/ml, so the assays were carried out at 1:100 dilution of the monkey sera. In the pre-clinical study, 32 monkeys were treated with escalating doses of Metuzumab between 0, 10, 50, 200mg/kg for 13 times over 13weeks of time period. 16 of them were terminated right after the last injection, while the other 16 were rested for additional 4weeks before termination. Afraid to miss any positive response to antibody drug, sera samples were collected at six time points, including 2-, 6- and 10-weeks post 1st dose, prior to last dose, and 2-, 4-weeks into recovery. The highest positive rates were seen with the Medium

  2. Co-expression of xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance in chimeric sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Feng, Rui-Jun; Wang, Suo-Min; Wang, Chun-Mei; Bao, Ai-Ke; Wei, Li; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit the growth and productivity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). To improve sugar beet's salinity tolerance, the ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes encoding tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and H(+)-PPase from xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum were co-expressed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. It is showed here that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance to the transformed sugar beet plants compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The chimeric plants grew well in the presence of high salinity (400 mM NaCl), whereas WT plants displayed chlorosis and died within 8 days. Compared to WT plants, the chimeric plants co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 accumulated more proline, Na(+) and K(+) in their leaves and petioles when exposed to high salinity, which caused lower solute potential, retained more water and thus subjected to lesser cell membrane damage. Interestingly, the chimeric plants accumulated higher sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in their storage roots than WT plants in the absence or presence of high salinity. Our results suggested that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 improved the osmoregulatory capacity in chimeric sugar beet through increased compartmentalization of ions into the vacuoles by enhancing the activity of proton pumps and thus mitigated Na(+)-toxicity for plants. PMID:26284097

  3. Eradication of B-ALL using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells targeting the TSLPR oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Qin, Haiying; Cho, Monica; Haso, Waleed; Zhang, Ling; Tasian, Sarah K; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Negri, Gian Luca; Lin, Yongshun; Zou, Jizhong; Mallon, Barbara S; Maude, Shannon; Teachey, David T; Barrett, David M; Orentas, Rimas J; Daugaard, Mads; Sorensen, Poul H B; Grupp, Stephan A; Fry, Terry J

    2015-07-30

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the CD19 B cell-associated protein have demonstrated potent activity against relapsed/refractory B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Not all patients respond, and CD19-negative relapses have been observed. Overexpression of the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR; encoded by CRLF2) occurs in a subset of adults and children with B-ALL and confers a high risk of relapse. Recent data suggest the TSLPR signaling axis is functionally important, suggesting that TSLPR would be an ideal immunotherapeutic target. We constructed short and long CARs targeting TSLPR and tested efficacy against CRLF2-overexpressing B-ALL. Both CARs demonstrated activity in vitro, but only short TSLPR CAR T cells mediated leukemia regression. In vivo activity of the short CAR was also associated with long-term persistence of CAR-expressing T cells. Short TSLPR CAR treatment of mice engrafted with a TSLPR-expressing ALL cell line induced leukemia cytotoxicity with efficacy comparable with that of CD19 CAR T cells. Short TSLPR CAR T cells also eradicated leukemia in 4 xenograft models of human CRLF2-overexpressing ALL. Finally, TSLPR has limited surface expression on normal tissues. TSLPR-targeted CAR T cells thus represent a potent oncoprotein-targeted immunotherapy for high-risk ALL. PMID:26041741

  4. Targeting of folate receptor β on acute myeloid leukemia blasts with chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cells.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Rachel C; Poussin, Mathilde; Kalota, Anna; Feng, Yang; Low, Philip S; Dimitrov, Dimiter S; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-05-28

    T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) can produce dramatic results in lymphocytic leukemia patients; however, therapeutic strategies for myeloid leukemia remain limited. Folate receptor β (FRβ) is a myeloid-lineage antigen expressed on 70% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of the first CARs specific for human FRβ (m909) in vitro and in vivo. m909 CAR T cells exhibited selective activation and lytic function against engineered C30-FRβ as well as endogenous FRβ(+) AML cell lines in vitro. In mouse models of human AML, m909 CAR T cells mediated the regression of engrafted FRβ(+) THP1 AML in vivo. In addition, we demonstrated that treatment of AML with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) enhanced FRβ expression, resulting in improved immune recognition by m909 CAR T cells. Because many cell surface markers are shared between AML blasts and healthy hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs), we evaluated FRβ expression and recognition of HSCs by CAR T cells. m909 CAR T cells were not toxic against healthy human CD34(+) HSCs in vitro. Our results indicate that FRβ is a promising target for CAR T-cell therapy of AML, which may be augmented by combination with ATRA. PMID:25887778

  5. Eradication of B-ALL using chimeric antigen receptor–expressing T cells targeting the TSLPR oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Haiying; Cho, Monica; Haso, Waleed; Zhang, Ling; Tasian, Sarah K.; Oo, Htoo Zarni; Negri, Gian Luca; Lin, Yongshun; Zou, Jizhong; Mallon, Barbara S.; Maude, Shannon; Teachey, David T.; Barrett, David M.; Orentas, Rimas J.; Daugaard, Mads; Sorensen, Poul H. B.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2015-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the CD19 B cell–associated protein have demonstrated potent activity against relapsed/refractory B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Not all patients respond, and CD19-negative relapses have been observed. Overexpression of the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR; encoded by CRLF2) occurs in a subset of adults and children with B-ALL and confers a high risk of relapse. Recent data suggest the TSLPR signaling axis is functionally important, suggesting that TSLPR would be an ideal immunotherapeutic target. We constructed short and long CARs targeting TSLPR and tested efficacy against CRLF2-overexpressing B-ALL. Both CARs demonstrated activity in vitro, but only short TSLPR CAR T cells mediated leukemia regression. In vivo activity of the short CAR was also associated with long-term persistence of CAR-expressing T cells. Short TSLPR CAR treatment of mice engrafted with a TSLPR-expressing ALL cell line induced leukemia cytotoxicity with efficacy comparable with that of CD19 CAR T cells. Short TSLPR CAR T cells also eradicated leukemia in 4 xenograft models of human CRLF2-overexpressing ALL. Finally, TSLPR has limited surface expression on normal tissues. TSLPR-targeted CAR T cells thus represent a potent oncoprotein-targeted immunotherapy for high-risk ALL. PMID:26041741

  6. Targeting of folate receptor β on acute myeloid leukemia blasts with chimeric antigen receptor–expressing T cells

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Rachel C.; Poussin, Mathilde; Kalota, Anna; Feng, Yang; Low, Philip S.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2015-01-01

    T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) can produce dramatic results in lymphocytic leukemia patients; however, therapeutic strategies for myeloid leukemia remain limited. Folate receptor β (FRβ) is a myeloid-lineage antigen expressed on 70% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples. Here, we describe the development and evaluation of the first CARs specific for human FRβ (m909) in vitro and in vivo. m909 CAR T cells exhibited selective activation and lytic function against engineered C30-FRβ as well as endogenous FRβ+ AML cell lines in vitro. In mouse models of human AML, m909 CAR T cells mediated the regression of engrafted FRβ+ THP1 AML in vivo. In addition, we demonstrated that treatment of AML with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) enhanced FRβ expression, resulting in improved immune recognition by m909 CAR T cells. Because many cell surface markers are shared between AML blasts and healthy hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs), we evaluated FRβ expression and recognition of HSCs by CAR T cells. m909 CAR T cells were not toxic against healthy human CD34+ HSCs in vitro. Our results indicate that FRβ is a promising target for CAR T-cell therapy of AML, which may be augmented by combination with ATRA. PMID:25887778

  7. Targeting vaccinia virus-expressed secretory beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin to the cell surface induces antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, J; Singh, O; Chakrabarti, S; Talwar, G P

    1995-01-01

    We carried out experiments designed to study the effect of a protein's localization on its immunogenicity. A novel cell-surface protein was generated from a small, glycosylated secretory protein. The DNA sequence encoding the entire precursor of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta (beta hCG) subunit was fused in the correct reading frame to the DNA sequence encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. This chimeric gene was introduced into the vaccinia virus genome to generate a recombinant virus. The recombinant virus, when used to infect animal cells, expressed a 135-amino-acid beta hCG subunit anchored in cellular membranes by the 48 carboxy-terminal amino acids of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The immunogenicity of this recombinant virus with respect to its ability to generate anti-hCG antibodies was compared with that of a second recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG. All animals immunized with the vaccinia virus expressing beta hCG on the cell surface elicited high titers of anti-hCG antibodies. Even after a single immunization with the recombinant vaccinia virus, the anti-hCG antibody titers persisted for a long period of time (more than 6 months). None of the animals immunized with vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG showed any hCG-specific antibody response. PMID:7591154

  8. Chimeric DNA methyltransferases target DNA methylation to specific DNA sequences and repress expression of target genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuyang; Papworth, Monika; Minczuk, Michal; Rohde, Christian; Zhang, Yingying; Ragozin, Sergei; Jeltsch, Albert

    2007-01-01

    Gene silencing by targeted DNA methylation has potential applications in basic research and therapy. To establish targeted methylation in human cell lines, the catalytic domains (CDs) of mouse Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b DNA methyltransferases (MTases) were fused to different DNA binding domains (DBD) of GAL4 and an engineered Cys2His2 zinc finger domain. We demonstrated that (i) Dense DNA methylation can be targeted to specific regions in gene promoters using chimeric DNA MTases. (ii) Site-specific methylation leads to repression of genes controlled by various cellular or viral promoters. (iii) Mutations affecting any of the DBD, MTase or target DNA sequences reduce targeted methylation and gene silencing. (iv) Targeted DNA methylation is effective in repressing Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection in cell culture with the viral titer reduced by at least 18-fold in the presence of an MTase fused to an engineered zinc finger DBD, which binds a single site in the promoter of HSV-1 gene IE175k. In short, we show here that it is possible to direct DNA MTase activity to predetermined sites in DNA, achieve targeted gene silencing in mammalian cell lines and interfere with HSV-1 propagation. PMID:17151075

  9. Construction of bioactive chimeric MHC class I tetramer by expression and purification of human-murine chimeric MHC heavy chain and beta(2)m as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ding; Wang, Fang; He, Xiaowen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Dean; Ying, He; Sun, Shuhan

    2006-12-01

    Major histocompatibility (MHC) class I tetramers are used in the quantitative analysis of epitope peptide-specific CD8+ T-cells. An MHC class I tetramer was composed of 4 MHC class I complexes and a fluorescently labeled streptavidin (SA) molecule. Each MHC class I complex consists of an MHC heavy chain, a beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) molecule and a synthetic epitope peptide. In most previous studies, an MHC class I complex was formed in the refolding buffer with an expressed MHC heavy chain molecule and beta(2)m, respectively. This procedure inevitably resulted in the disadvantages of forming unwanted multimers and self-refolding products, and the purification of each kind of monomer was time-consuming. In the present study, the genes of a human/murine chimeric MHC heavy chain (HLA-A2 alpha1, HLA-A2 alpha2 and MHC-H2D alpha3) and beta(2)m were tandem-cloned into plasmid pET17b and expressed as a fusion protein. The recombinant fusion protein was refolded with each of the three HLA-A2 restricted peptides (HBc18-27 FLPSDFFPSI, HBx52-60 HLSLRGLPV, and HBx92-100 VLHKRTLGL) and thus three chimeric MHC class I complexes were obtained. Biotinylation was performed, and its level of efficiency was observed via a band-shift assay in non-reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Such chimeric MHC class I tetramers showed a sensitive binding activity in monitoring HLA/A2 restrictive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in immunized HLA/A*0201 transgenic mice. PMID:17046278

  10. Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of human mouse chimeric anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody in Chinese patients with CD22-positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Su; Zhang, Dongsheng; Sun, Jian; Li, Zhinming; Deng, Liting; Zou, Benyan; Zhan, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The safety and pharmacokinetics assessment of antibodies targeting CD22 (e.g., epratuzumab) have been established in western Caucasian populations, but there are no reports of the effects in Chinese populations. This dose-escalation study examines the safety, pharmacokinetics and biologic effects of multiple doses of anti-CD22 human-murine chimeric monoclonal antibody SM03 in 21 Chinese patients with CD22-positive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Most of drug-related adverse events (AEs) were mild and reversible. Two patients experienced serious AEs (hemorrhage); one patient had grade 4 neutropenia; one patient had asymptomatic grade III prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). Major AEs included fever (71%), prolongation of APTT (42.8%), leukocytopenia (44.4%), alanine transaminase elevation (28.6%), elevated serum creatinine (23.8%) and injection site skin redness (14.3%). Circulating B cells transiently decreased without significant effects on T cells or immunoglobulin levels. Pharmacokinetic data revealed that mean maximum observed SM03 concentration and mean AUC from time zero to infinity increased in a dose-dependent manner up to 360 mg/m2 SM03. Mean clearance was similar at doses ≤360 mg/m2 and decreased significantly at dose 480 mg/m2, supporting saturation of B-cell binding at 360 mg/m2. Across all dose levels and histologies, one patient achieved partial response at 480 mg/m2 dose; 14 patients had stable disease as best response and four patients progressed. Overall, SM03 was tolerated at doses ranging from 60–480 mg/m2 and had potential efficacy in Chinese patients with follicular lymphoma. PMID:22453099

  11. Uncoupling of Molecular Maturation from Peripheral Target Innervation in Nociceptors Expressing a Chimeric TrkA/TrkC Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gorokhova, Svetlana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Urien, Louise; Malapert, Pascale; Legha, Wassim; Baronian, Grégory; Desvignes, Jean-Pierre; Alonso, Serge; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors control a number of cellular processes, such as survival, gene expression and axonal growth, by activating multiple signalling pathways in peripheral neurons. Whether each of these pathways controls a distinct developmental process remains unknown. Here we describe a novel knock-in mouse model expressing a chimeric TrkA/TrkC (TrkAC) receptor from TrkA locus. In these mice, prospective nociceptors survived, segregated into appropriate peptidergic and nonpeptidergic subsets, projected normally to distinct laminae of the dorsal spinal cord, but displayed aberrant peripheral target innervation. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that intracellular parts of different Trk receptors are interchangeable to promote survival and maturation of nociceptors and shows that these developmental processes can be uncoupled from peripheral target innervation. Moreover, adult homozygous TrkAC knock-in mice displayed severe deficits in acute and tissue injury-induced pain, representing the first viable adult Trk mouse mutant with a pain phenotype. PMID:24516396

  12. T Cells Expressing CD19/CD20 Bispecific Chimeric Antigen Receptors Prevent Antigen Escape by Malignant B Cells.

    PubMed

    Zah, Eugenia; Lin, Meng-Yin; Silva-Benedict, Anne; Jensen, Michael C; Chen, Yvonne Y

    2016-06-01

    The adoptive transfer of T cells expressing anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown remarkable curative potential against advanced B-cell malignancies, but multiple trials have also reported patient relapses due to the emergence of CD19-negative leukemic cells. Here, we report the design and optimization of single-chain, bispecific CARs that trigger robust cytotoxicity against target cells expressing either CD19 or CD20, two clinically validated targets for B-cell malignancies. We determined the structural parameters required for efficient dual-antigen recognition, and we demonstrate that optimized bispecific CARs can control both wild-type B-cell lymphoma and CD19(-) mutants with equal efficiency in vivo To our knowledge, this is the first bispecific CAR capable of preventing antigen escape by performing true OR-gate signal computation on a clinically relevant pair of tumor-associated antigens. The CD19-OR-CD20 CAR is fully compatible with existing T-cell manufacturing procedures and implementable by current clinical protocols. These results present an effective solution to the challenge of antigen escape in CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, and they highlight the utility of structure-based rational design in the development of receptors with higher-level complexity. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 498-508. ©2016 AACRSee related Spotlight by Sadelain, p. 473. PMID:27059623

  13. Antigen 43/Fcε3 chimeric protein expressed by a novel bacterial surface expression system as an effective asthma vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Feng-Ying; Wang, Cai-Chun; Huang, Yong-Hao; Zhao, Huan-Ge; Guo, Jun-Li; Zhou, Song-Lin; Wang, Hua; Lin, Ying-Ying; Tan, Guang-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The IgE Fcε3 domain is an active immunotherapeutic target for asthma and other allergic diseases. However, previous methods for preparing IgE fusion protein vaccines are complex. Antigen 43 (Ag43) is a surface protein found in Escherichia coli that contains α and β subunits (the α subunit contains multiple T epitopes). Here we constructed a novel Ag43 surface display system (Ag43 system) to express Ag43 chimeric proteins to disrupt immune tolerance against IgE. The Ag43 system was constructed from the E. coli strain Tan109, in which the Ag43 gene was deleted and a recombinant plasmid (pETAg43) expressing a partial Ag43 gene was introduced. The Fcε3 domain of the IgE gene was then subcloned into plasmid pETAg43, resulting in a recombinant plasmid pETAg43/Fcε3, which was used to transform Tan109 for Ag43/Fcε3 surface expression. Thereafter, Ag43/Fcε3 was investigated as an asthma vaccine in a mouse model. Ag43/Fcε3 was expressed on and could be separated from the bacterial surface by heating to 60° while retaining activity. Ag43/Fcε3, as a protein vaccine, produced neutralizing autoantibodies to murine IgE, induced significant anti-asthma effects, and regulated IgE and T helper cytokines in a murine asthma model. Data show that Ag43/Fcε3 chimeric protein is a potential model vaccine for asthma treatment, and that the Ag43 system may be an effective tool for novel vaccine preparation to break immune tolerance to other self-molecules. PMID:24750112

  14. Cryo-electron Microscopy Structures of Chimeric Hemagglutinin Displayed on a Universal Influenza Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Erin E. H.; Podolsky, Kira A.; Bartesaghi, Alberto; Kuybeda, Oleg; Grandinetti, Giovanna; Wohlbold, Teddy John; Tan, Gene S.; Nachbagauer, Raffael; Palese, Peter; Krammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza viruses expressing chimeric hemagglutinins (HAs) are important tools in the quest for a universal vaccine. Using cryo-electron tomography, we have determined the structures of a chimeric HA variant that comprises an H1 stalk and an H5 globular head domain (cH5/1 HA) in native and antibody-bound states. We show that cH5/1 HA is structurally different from native HA, displaying a 60° rotation between the stalk and head groups, leading to a novel and unexpected “open” arrangement of HA trimers. cH5/1N1 viruses also display higher glycoprotein density than pH1N1 or H5N1 viruses, but despite these differences, antibodies that target either the stalk or head domains of hemagglutinins still bind to cH5/1 HA with the same consequences as those observed with native H1 or H5 HA. Our results show that a large range of structural plasticity can be tolerated in the chimeric spike scaffold without disrupting structural and geometric aspects of antibody binding. Importance Chimeric hemagglutinin proteins are set to undergo human clinical trials as a universal influenza vaccine candidate, yet no structural information for these proteins is available. Using cryo-electron tomography, we report the first three-dimensional (3D) visualization of chimeric hemagglutinin proteins displayed on the surface of the influenza virus. We show that, unexpectedly, the chimeric hemagglutinin structure differs from those of naturally occurring hemagglutinins by displaying a more open head domain and a dramatically twisted head/stalk arrangement. Despite this unusual spatial relationship between head and stalk regions, virus preparations expressing the chimeric hemagglutinin are fully infectious and display a high glycoprotein density, which likely helps induction of a broadly protective immune response. PMID:27006464

  15. Efficient expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by a chimeric promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinxia; Hu, Zhangli; Wang, Chaogang; Li, Shuangfei; Lei, Anping

    2008-08-01

    To improve the expression efficiency of exogenous genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a high efficient expression vector was constructed. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) was expressed in C. reinhardtii under the control of promoters: RBCS2 and HSP70A-RBCS2. Efficiency of transformation and expression were compared between two transgenic algae: RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-I and HSP70A-RBCS2 mediated strain Tran-II. Results show that HSP70A-RBCS2 could improve greatly the transformation efficiency by approximately eightfold of RBCS2, and the expression efficiency of GFP in Tran-II was at least double of that in Tran-I. In addition, a threefold increase of GFP in Tran-II was induced by heat shock at 40°C. All of the results demonstrated that HSP70A-RBCS2 was more efficient than RBCS2 in expressing exogenous gene in C. reinhardtii.

  16. A new microcolumn-type microchip for examining the expression of chimeric fusion genes using a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Michihiro; Sasaki, Naoyuki; Kishimoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Hidetoshi; Takagi, Masatoshi; Mizutani, Shuki; Kishii, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Akio

    2014-11-01

    We report a new type of microcolumn installed in a microchip. The architecture allows use of a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique to detect a messenger RNA (mRNA) chain as a target. Data are presented that demonstrate that the expression of a chimeric fusion gene can be detected. The microcolumn was filled with semi-transparent microbeads made of agarose gel that acted as carriers, allowing increased efficiency of the optical detection of fluorescence from the microcolumn. The hybrid between the target trapped on the microbeads and a probe DNA labeled with a fluorescent dye was detected by measuring the intensity of the fluorescence from the microcolumn directly. These results demonstrate an easy and simple method for determining the expression of chimeric fusion genes with no preamplification. PMID:25240923

  17. Expression of a Chimeric Allergen with High Rare Codons Content in Codon Bias-Adjusted Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)-Codon Plus RIL as an Efficient Host.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Hamid Reza; Karkhah, Ahmad; Varasteh, Abdolreza; Sankian, Mojtaba

    2016-07-01

    The expression of heterologous proteins in Escherichia coli (E. coli) is importantly affected by codon bias. Hence, the aim of the current study was to determine which codon bias-adjusted E. coli strain is sufficient for expression of a chimeric allergen coded by high rare codon content. To investigate the expression level, a chimeric protein of Chenopodium album (C. album) was used as an appropriate model. An expression construct was assembled and was transformed to four strains of codon bias-adjusted E. coli including origami, BL21 (DE3), BL21 (DE3)-codon plus RIL, and Rosetta. The level of expression and solubility of the chimeric allergen was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. In addition, the allergenicity of chimeric allergen was determined using immunoblotting. Our results showed that the chimeric allergen was expressed at high level in E. coli BL21 (DE3)-codon plus RIL and Rosetta. In detail, this recombinant allergen was isolated from soluble fraction in the codon bias-adjusted strains of E. coli BL21 (DE3)-codon plus RIL and Rosetta. Moreover, some lower molecular weight proteins were observed in Rosetta, which could be related to inappropriate expression or broken compartments of the chimeric allergen. The immunoblotting assay confirmed that the IgE-specific immune reactivity of our chimeric allergen expressed in BL21 (DE3)-codon plus RIL was significantly higher than the other strains. Our results showed that the expression of the chimeric allergen with high rare codons content in a codon bias-adjusted strain E. coli BL21 (DE3)-codon plus RIL improves the quality and solubility of the heterologous protein production. PMID:27040822

  18. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of a single chain chimeric peptide composed of hCGβ and oLHα for inhibition of the growth of hCGβ-expressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chu; Jiang, Yahong; Huang, Zheping; Shen, Weiying; Wang, Jian; Shen, Qingxiang

    2010-12-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a membrane-associated protein highly expressed in several types of human cancer cells. The expression in the cancer cells indicates that hCG may be a potential target molecule for cancer immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to develop a novel immunogenic molecule, which can efficiently induce the neutralizing antibody against hCG and which is also suitable for mass production. The immunogenicity of the recombinant single chain chimeric protein of hCGβ-oLHα expressed by yeast was examined. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of the anti-hCGβ-oLHα antibody on the growth of hCG-positive cancer cells were determined. It was found that hCGβ-oLHα yielded high titers of anti-hCG rabbit antibody that could effectively neutralize the bioactivity of hCG. The rabbit anti-hCGβ-oLHα IgG inhibited the proliferation of hCG-expressing human colorectal cancer cells (LS-174, HCT-116, HCT-15 and KM-12) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, an intact anti-tumor vaccine was prepared by conjugating hCGβ-oLHα with tetanus toxoid (TT) and this was used to immunize Balb/c mice bearing hCG-expressing SP2/0 tumor cells. The progression of tumors in these immunized mice was remarkably inhibited. These results suggest that hCGβ-oLHα is a new promising immunogenic molecule for the development of an anti-hCG-based cancer vaccine. PMID:20809357

  19. Co-expression of xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance in chimeric sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Feng, Rui-Jun; Wang, Suo-Min; Wang, Chun-Mei; Bao, Ai-Ke; Wei, Li; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit the growth and productivity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). To improve sugar beet’s salinity tolerance, the ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes encoding tonoplast Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-PPase from xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum were co-expressed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. It is showed here that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance to the transformed sugar beet plants compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The chimeric plants grew well in the presence of high salinity (400 mM NaCl), whereas WT plants displayed chlorosis and died within 8 days. Compared to WT plants, the chimeric plants co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 accumulated more proline, Na+ and K+ in their leaves and petioles when exposed to high salinity, which caused lower solute potential, retained more water and thus subjected to lesser cell membrane damage. Interestingly, the chimeric plants accumulated higher sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in their storage roots than WT plants in the absence or presence of high salinity. Our results suggested that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 improved the osmoregulatory capacity in chimeric sugar beet through increased compartmentalization of ions into the vacuoles by enhancing the activity of proton pumps and thus mitigated Na+-toxicity for plants. PMID:26284097

  20. A Tet-On Inducible System for Controlling CD19-Chimeric Antigen Receptor Expression upon Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Sakemura, Reona; Terakura, Seitaro; Watanabe, Keisuke; Julamanee, Jakrawadee; Takagi, Erina; Miyao, Kotaro; Koyama, Daisuke; Goto, Tatsunori; Hanajiri, Ryo; Nishida, Tetsuya; Murata, Makoto; Kiyoi, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    T cells genetically modified with a CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CD19CAR) are remarkably effective against B-cell malignancies in clinical trials. However, major concerns remain regarding toxicities, such as hypogammaglobulinemia, due to B-cell aplasia or severe cytokine release syndrome after overactivation of CAR T cells. To resolve these adverse events, we aimed to develop an inducible CAR system by using a tetracycline regulation system that would be activated only in the presence of doxycycline (Dox). In this study, the second-generation CD19CAR was fused into the third-generation Tet-On vector (Tet-CD19CAR) and was retrovirally transduced into primary CD8(+) T cells. Tet-CD19CAR T cells were successfully generated and had minimal background CD19CAR expression without Dox. Tet-CD19CAR T cells in the presence of Dox were equivalently cytotoxic against CD19(+) cell lines and had equivalent cytokine production and proliferation upon CD19 stimulation, compared with conventional CD19CAR T cells. The Dox(+) Tet-CD19CAR T cells also had significant antitumor activity in a xenograft model. However, without Dox, Tet-CD19CAR T cells lost CAR expression and CAR T-cell functions in vitro and in vivo, clearly segregating the "On" and "Off" status of Tet-CD19CAR cells by Dox administration. In addition to suicide-gene technology, controlling the expression and the functions of CAR with an inducible vector is a potential solution for CAR T-cell therapy-related toxicities, and may improve the safety profile of CAR T-cell therapy. This strategy might also open the way to treat other malignancies in combination with other CAR or TCR gene-modified T cells. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(8); 658-68. ©2016 AACRSee related Spotlight by June, p. 643. PMID:27329987

  1. Preserved Activity of CD20-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing T Cells in the Presence of Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Rufener, Gregory A; Press, Oliver W; Olsen, Philip; Lee, Sang Yun; Jensen, Michael C; Gopal, Ajay K; Pender, Barbara; Budde, Lihua E; Rossow, Jeffrey K; Green, Damian J; Maloney, David G; Riddell, Stanley R; Till, Brian G

    2016-06-01

    CD20 is an attractive immunotherapy target for B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and adoptive transfer of T cells genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting CD20 is a promising strategy. A theoretical limitation is that residual serum rituximab might block CAR binding to CD20 and thereby impede T cell-mediated anti-lymphoma responses. The activity of CD20 CAR-modified T cells in the presence of various concentrations of rituximab was tested in vitro and in vivo CAR-binding sites on CD20(+) tumor cells were blocked by rituximab in a dose-dependent fashion, although at 37°C blockade was incomplete at concentrations up to 200 μg/mL. T cells with CD20 CARs also exhibited modest dose-dependent reductions in cytokine secretion and cytotoxicity, but not proliferation, against lymphoma cell lines. At rituximab concentrations of 100 μg/mL, CAR T cells retained ≥50% of baseline activity against targets with high CD20 expression, but were more strongly inhibited when target cells expressed low CD20. In a murine xenograft model using a rituximab-refractory lymphoma cell line, rituximab did not impair CAR T-cell activity, and tumors were eradicated in >85% of mice. Clinical residual rituximab serum concentrations were measured in 103 lymphoma patients after rituximab therapy, with the median level found to be only 38 μg/mL (interquartile range, 19-72 μg/mL). Thus, despite modest functional impairment in vitro, the in vivo activity of CD20-targeted CAR T cells remains intact at clinically relevant levels of rituximab, making use of these T cells clinically feasible. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(6); 509-19. ©2016 AACRSee related Spotlight by Sadelain, p. 473. PMID:27197068

  2. Co-expression of interleukin 12 enhances antitumor effects of a novel chimeric promoter-mediated suicide gene therapy in an immunocompetent mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yu; Liu, Zhengchun; Kong, Haiyan; Sun, Wenjie; Liao, Zhengkai; Zhou, Fuxiang; Xie, Conghua; and others

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} A novel chimeric promoter consisting of CArG element and hTERT promoter was developed. {yields} The promoter was characterized with radiation-inducibility and tumor-specificity. {yields} Suicide gene system driven by the promoter showed remarkable cytotoxicity in vitro. {yields} Co-expression of IL12 enhanced the promoter mediated suicide gene therapy in vivo. -- Abstract: The human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter has been widely used in target gene therapy of cancer. However, low transcriptional activity limited its clinical application. Here, we designed a novel dual radiation-inducible and tumor-specific promoter system consisting of CArG elements and the hTERT promoter, resulting in increased expression of reporter genes after gamma-irradiation. Therapeutic and side effects of adenovirus-mediated horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/indole-3-acetic (IAA) system downstream of the chimeric promoter were evaluated in mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma, combining with or without adenovirus-mediated interleukin 12 (IL12) gene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. The combination treatment showed more effective suppression of tumor growth than those with single agent alone, being associated with pronounced intratumoral T-lymphocyte infiltration and minor side effects. Our results suggest that the combination treatment with HRP/IAA system driven by the novel chimeric promoter and the co-expression of IL12 might be an effective and safe target gene therapy strategy of cancer.

  3. Construction and Evaluation of a Maize Chimeric Promoter with Activity in Kernel Endosperm and Embryo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chimeric promoters contain DNA sequences from different promoters. Chimeric promoters are developed to increase the level of recombinant protein expression, precisely control transgene activity, or to escape homology-based gene silencing. Sets of chimeric promoters, each containing different lengt...

  4. HSV-Mediated Transgene Expression of Chimeric Constructs to Study Behavioral Function of GPCR Heteromers in Mice.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Terrell; Moreno, Jose L; González-Maeso, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The heteromeric receptor complex between 5-HT2A and mGlu2 has been implicated in some of the behavioral phenotypes in mouse models of psychosis(1,2). Consequently, investigation of structural details of the interaction between 5-HT2A and mGlu2 affecting schizophrenia-related behaviors represents a powerful translational tool. As previously shown, the head-twitch response (HTR) in mice is elicited by hallucinogenic drugs and this behavioral response is absent in 5-HT2A knockout (KO) mice(3,4). Additionally, by conditionally expressing the 5-HT2A receptor only in cortex, it was demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptor-dependent signaling pathways on cortical pyramidal neurons are sufficient to elicit head-twitch behavior in response to hallucinogenic drugs(3). Finally, it has been shown that the head-twitch behavioral response induced by the hallucinogens DOI and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is significantly decreased in mGlu2-KO mice(5). These findings suggest that mGlu2 is at least in part necessary for the 5-HT2A receptor-dependent psychosis-like behavioral effects induced by LSD-like drugs. However, this does not provide evidence as to whether the 5-HT2A-mGlu2 receptor complex is necessary for this behavioral phenotype. To address this question, herpes simplex virus (HSV) constructs to express either mGlu2 or mGlu2ΔTM4N (mGlu2/mGlu3 chimeric construct that does not form the 5-HT2A-mGlu2 receptor complex) in the frontal cortex of mGlu2-KO mice were used to examine whether this GPCR heteromeric complex is needed for the behavioral effects induced by LSD-like drugs(6). PMID:27501227

  5. Phase I study of chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody in Chinese patients with CD20-positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Lin; Han, Xiaohong; He, Xiaohui; Song, Yuanyuan; Yao, Jiarui; Yang, Jianliang; Liu, Peng; Qin, Yan; Zhang, Shuxiang; Zhang, Weijing; Gai, Wenlin; Xie, Liangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the safety, pharmacokinetics and biologic effects of a human-mouse chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (SCT400) in Chinese patients with CD20-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (CD20+ B-cell NHL). SCT400 has an identical amino acid sequence as rituximab, with the exception of one amino acid in the CH1 domain of the heavy chain, which is common in Asians. Methods: Fifteen patients with CD20+ B-cell NHL received dose-escalating SCT400 infusions (250 mg/m2: n=3; 375 mg/m2: n=9; 500 mg/m2: n=3) once weekly for 4 consecutive weeks with a 24-week follow-up period. The data of all patients were collected for pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics analyses. Results: No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Most drug-related adverse events were grade 1 or 2. Two patients had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. Under premedication, the drug-related infusion reaction was mild. A rapid, profound and durable depletion of circulating B cells was observed in all dose groups without significant effects on T cell count, natural killer (NK) cell count or immunoglobulin levels. No patient developed anti-SCT400 antibodies during the course of the study. SCT400 serum half-life (T1/2), maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC) generally increased between the first and fourth infusions (P<0.05). At the 375 mg/m2 dose, the T1/2 was 122.5±46.7 h vs. 197.0±75.0 h, respectively, and the Cmax was 200.6±20.2 g/mL vs. 339.1±71.0 g/mL, respectively. From 250 mg/m2 to 500 mg/m2, the Cmax and AUC increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). Patients with a high tumor burden had markedly lower serum SCT400 concentrations compared with those without or with a low tumor burden. Of the 9 assessable patients, 1 achieved complete response and 2 achieved partial responses. Conclusions: SCT400 is well-tolerated and has encouraging preliminary efficacy in Chinese patients with CD20+ B-cell NHL. PMID:27199517

  6. A Chimeric Affinity Tag for Efficient Expression and Chromatographic Purification of Heterologous Proteins from Plants.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Frank; Jutras, Philippe V; Vorster, Juan; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The use of plants as expression hosts for recombinant proteins is an increasingly attractive option for the production of complex and challenging biopharmaceuticals. Tools are needed at present to marry recent developments in high-yielding gene vectors for heterologous expression with routine protein purification techniques. In this study, we designed the Cysta-tag, a new purification tag for immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) of plant-made proteins based on the protein-stabilizing fusion partner SlCYS8. We show that the Cysta-tag may be used to readily purify proteins under native conditions, and then be removed enzymatically to isolate the protein of interest. We also show that commonly used protease recognition sites for linking purification tags are differentially stable in leaves of the commonly used expression host Nicotiana benthamiana, with those linkers susceptible to cysteine proteases being less stable then serine protease-cleavable linkers. As an example, we describe a Cysta-tag experimental scheme for the one-step purification of a clinically useful protein, human α1-antitrypsin, transiently expressed in N. benthamiana. With potential applicability to the variety of chromatography formats commercially available for IMAC-based protein purification, the Cysta-tag provides a convenient means for the efficient and cost-effective purification of recombinant proteins from plant tissues. PMID:26913045

  7. A Chimeric Affinity Tag for Efficient Expression and Chromatographic Purification of Heterologous Proteins from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sainsbury, Frank; Jutras, Philippe V.; Vorster, Juan; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Michaud, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The use of plants as expression hosts for recombinant proteins is an increasingly attractive option for the production of complex and challenging biopharmaceuticals. Tools are needed at present to marry recent developments in high-yielding gene vectors for heterologous expression with routine protein purification techniques. In this study, we designed the Cysta-tag, a new purification tag for immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) of plant-made proteins based on the protein-stabilizing fusion partner SlCYS8. We show that the Cysta-tag may be used to readily purify proteins under native conditions, and then be removed enzymatically to isolate the protein of interest. We also show that commonly used protease recognition sites for linking purification tags are differentially stable in leaves of the commonly used expression host Nicotiana benthamiana, with those linkers susceptible to cysteine proteases being less stable then serine protease-cleavable linkers. As an example, we describe a Cysta-tag experimental scheme for the one-step purification of a clinically useful protein, human α1-antitrypsin, transiently expressed in N. benthamiana. With potential applicability to the variety of chromatography formats commercially available for IMAC-based protein purification, the Cysta-tag provides a convenient means for the efficient and cost-effective purification of recombinant proteins from plant tissues. PMID:26913045

  8. Neutralizing Antibodies in Sera from Macaques Infected with Chimeric Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Containing the Envelope Glycoproteins of either a Laboratory-Adapted Variant or a Primary Isolate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Montefiori, David C.; Reimann, Keith A.; Wyand, Michael S.; Manson, Kelledy; Lewis, Mark G.; Collman, Ronald G.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Bolognesi, Dani P.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1998-01-01

    The magnitude and breadth of neutralizing antibodies raised in response to infection with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in rhesus macaques were evaluated. Infection with either SHIV-HXB2, SHIV-89.6, or SHIV-89.6PD raised high-titer neutralizing antibodies to the homologous SHIV (SHIV-89.6P in the case of SHIV-89.6PD-infected animals) and significant titers of neutralizing antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains MN and SF-2. With few exceptions, however, titers of neutralizing antibodies to heterologous SHIV were low or undetectable. The antibodies occasionally neutralized heterologous primary isolates of HIV-1; these antibodies required >40 weeks of infection to reach detectable levels. Notable was the potent neutralization of the HIV-1 89.6 primary isolate by serum samples from SHIV-89.6-infected macaques. These results demonstrate that SHIV-HXB2, SHIV-89.6, and SHIV-89.6P possess highly divergent, strain-specific neutralization epitopes. The results also provide insights into the requirements for raising neutralizing antibodies to primary isolates of HIV-1. PMID:9525675

  9. Designing a recombinant chimeric construct contain MUC1 and HER2 extracellular domain for prediagnostic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gheybi, Elaheh; Amani, Jafar; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Mashayekhi, Farhad; Khodi, Samaneh

    2014-11-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the world. One of the approaches for diagnosis of breast cancer is detection of its tumor-associated markers. Mucin 1 (MUC1), a tumor-associated antigen, is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by normal epithelial cells and overexpressed by carcinomas of epithelial origin. Also, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/erbB-2) belongs to the one of four members of tyrosin kinase type 1 family in which overexpression of HER2 is associated with malignancy in breast cancer. This study was aimed to bioinformatics analysis and designing a recombinant chimeric protein containing MUC1 and HER2 antigens to express in prokaryotic host (Escherichia coli) as breast cancer diagnosis tools. The immunogenic sequences of MUC1 and HER2 were extracted and fused together by a linker. The chimeric construct was analyzed by bioinformatics softwares. The optimization and purification, evaluation of the expression of chimeric protein was performed using Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the chimeric construct was stable and immunogenic domains were exposed. The pET-28a vector containing chimeric gene had high level of protein expression. The recombinant chimeric protein was confirmed using Western blotting, and it was investigated using ELISA and IHC. Then, the MUC1 and HER2 combined peptides can be used as coating antigens in ELISA for detection of antibodies against MUC1 or HER2 in human serum. PMID:25128064

  10. An optimization of protocol for mixed chimerism induction in mice model.

    PubMed

    Baśkiewicz-Masiuk, M; Grymuła, K; Pius, E; Hałasa, M; Dziedziejko, V; Schmidt, Ch; Walczak, M; Machaliński, B

    2009-01-01

    Studies on mixed chimerism are currently focused primarily on obtaining less toxic conditioning protocols. With these issues in mind, we have undertaken the attempt to optimize the procedure of mixed chimerism induction in mice. In order to reduce toxicity, we used decreasing doses of total body irradiation (TBI) together with combination of blocking antibodies. We also tried to eliminate immunosuppression (cyclophosphamide - CP) treatment after bone marrow transplantation. B6.SJL-PtprcaPep3b mice were injected with 20-30 x 106 bone marrow cells from Balb C mice. Mice were treated with TBI (3 - 1.5 - 0 Gy) on "-1" day of the experiment and blocking antibodies against CD40L ("0", and "4" days) and additionally anti-CD8 ("-2" day) and/or anti-NK1.1 ("-3" day). Mice in certain groups also received CP (175 mg/kg) on "2" day. Presence of mixed chimerism was assessed in peripheral blood cells by flow cytometry on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks of the experiment by detecting of CD45.1 (characteristic for B6.SJL-PtprcaPep3b strain) and CD45.2 (characteristic for Balb C strain) antigens expression. We also analyzed the percentage of peripheral blood CD8 T-cells (CD3e/CD8a) and NK cells (Ly-49D/NK1.1). We found that reduction of TBI dose and elimination of CP decrease the rate of mixed chimerism formation. The highest percentage of donor cells was obtained in the group of animals treated with 3 Gy of TBI, CP and combination of anti-CD40L, anti-CD8, and anti-NK1.1 antibodies. The 3 Gy TBI was necessary to induce stable mixed chimerism, but it could be obtained without the CP use. The percentage of CD3e/CD8a and Ly-49D/NK1.1 cells was significantly lower in the groups of mice treated by corresponding antibodies. Moreover, we observed the lowest number of peripheral blood Ly-49D/NK1.1 cells in the group of animals with highest mixed chimerism. Our experiments in mice model can help in better understanding of mixed chimerism phenomenon and in selecting the method of

  11. Mixed donor chimerism and low level iduronidase expression may be adequate for neurodevelopmental protection in Hurler Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jennifer; Dyack, Sarah; Crooks, Bruce N A; Fernandez, Conrad V

    2005-07-01

    Hurler syndrome is a lysosomal storage disease resulting in fatal cardiac or neurologic sequelae unless alpha-iduronidase production is reconstituted with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We report on a 4-year, 6-month-old boy with mixed donor chimerism and low enzyme levels but a normal neurodevelopmental trajectory. PMID:16027706

  12. Chimeric hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) subviral envelope particles induce efficient anti-HCV antibody production in animals pre-immunized with HBV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Elodie; Roingeard, Philippe

    2015-02-18

    The development of an effective, affordable prophylactic vaccine against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a medical priority. The recently described chimeric HBV-HCV subviral envelope particles could potentially be used for this purpose, as they could be produced by industrial procedures adapted from those established for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine. We show here, in an animal model, that pre-existing immunity acquired through HBV vaccination does not influence the immunogenicity of the HCV E2 protein presented by these chimeric particles. Thus, these chimeric HBV-HCV subviral envelope particles could potentially be used as a booster in individuals previously vaccinated against HBV, to induce protective immunity to HCV. PMID:25596457

  13. Design, expression and evaluation of a novel humanized single chain antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

    PubMed

    Akbari, Bahman; Farajnia, Safar; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Mahdieh, Nejat; Rahmati, Mohammad; Khosroshahi, Shiva Ahdi; Rahbarnia, Leila

    2016-11-01

    Various strategies have been attempted for targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as an essential biomarker in a variety of cancers. Several anti-EGFR antibodies including cetuximab are used in clinics for treatment of EGFR-overexpressing colorectal and head and neck cancers but the efficiency of these antibodies is threatened by their large size and chimeric nature. Humanized single chains antibodies (huscFv) are smaller generation of antibodies with lower immunogenicity may overcome these limitations. This article reports production and evaluation of a novel humanized anti-EGFR scFv. The CDRs of cetuximab heavy and light chains were grafted onto human antibody frameworks as framework donors. To maintain the antigen binding affinity of murine antibody, the murine vernier zone residues were retained in framework regions of huscFv. Additionally, two point mutations in CDR-L1 and CDR-L3 and three point mutations in CDR-H2 and CDR-H3 loops of the humanized scFv (huscFv) were introduced to increase affinity of the huscFv to EGFR. Analysis of results demonstrated that the humanness degree of resultant huscFv was increased as 19%. HuscFv was expressed in BL21 (DE3) and affinity purified via Ni-NTA column. The reactivity of huscFv with EGFR was evaluated by ELISA and dot blot techniques. Analysis by ELISA and dot blot showed that the huscFv was able to recognize and react with EGFR. Toxicity analysis by MTT assay indicated an inhibitory effect on growth of EGFR-overexpressing A431 cells. In conclusion, the huscFv produced in this study revealed decreased immunogenicity while retained growth inhibitory effect on EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. PMID:27298212

  14. Chimeric MicroRNA-1291 Biosynthesized Efficiently in Escherichia coli Is Effective to Reduce Target Gene Expression in Human Carcinoma Cells and Improve Chemosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei-Mei; Addepalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Tu, Mei-Juan; Chen, Qiu-Xia; Wang, Wei-Peng; Limbach, Patrick A.; LaSalle, Janine M.; Zeng, Su; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the growing interests in studying noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as microRNA (miRNA or miR) pharmacoepigenetics, there is a lack of efficient means to cost effectively produce large quantities of natural miRNA agents. Our recent efforts led to a successful production of chimeric pre-miR-27b in bacteria using a transfer RNA (tRNA)–based recombinant RNA technology, but at very low expression levels. Herein, we present a high-yield expression of chimeric pre-miR-1291 in common Escherichia coli strains using the same tRNA scaffold. The tRNA fusion pre-miR-1291 (tRNA/mir-1291) was then purified to high homogeneity using affinity chromatography, whose primary sequence and post-transcriptional modifications were directly characterized by mass spectrometric analyses. Chimeric tRNA/mir-1291 was readily processed to mature miR-1291 in human carcinoma MCF-7 and PANC-1 cells. Consequently, recombinant tRNA/mir-1291 reduced the protein levels of miR-1291 target genes, including ABCC1, FOXA2, and MeCP2, as compared with cells transfected with the same doses of control methionyl-tRNA scaffold with a sephadex aptamer (tRNA/MSA). In addition, tRNA-carried pre-miR-1291 suppressed the growth of MCF-7 and PANC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly enhanced the sensitivity of ABCC1-overexpressing PANC-1 cells to doxorubicin. These results indicate that recombinant miR-1291 agent is effective in the modulation of target gene expression and chemosensitivity, which may provide insights into high-yield bioengineering of new ncRNA agents for pharmacoepigenetics research. PMID:25934574

  15. Isolation, identification and expression of specific human CD133 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jing; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Jun; Zhu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Yafen; Zhang, Jianqiong; Zhao, Gang

    2013-01-01

    CD133, a 120 KDa glycoprotein is a transmembrane glycoprotein which has been recently used as a cancer stem cell (CSCs) marker in a variety of carcinomas. CD133(+) cells possess strong tumorigenicity, responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. Therefore, the goal of our study was to develop a novel CD133 humanized antibody as a promising target for cancer therapy. CD133 purified proteins were used for panning the naive human-semi-synthetic Tomlinson I + J phagemid library. The second extracellular domain (loop1) and the third extracellular domain (loop2) of CD133 were expressed in E. coli. In this study, we adopted a novel five-round selection strategy based on moderate stringent selection during the first rounds. This unique strategy was aimed at avoiding the loss of rare phages with high affinity to target proteins. After the five rounds of specific panning, six phage-antibody clones which specifically recognized recombinant human CD133 protein were obtained. The desirable phage clone named CD133-scFv-1 was cloned into the expression vector, then induced and purified. We show that CD133-scFv-1 and commercial murine antibody 293C3 could compete with each other in the indirect competitive immunoassay. Our work may lay the groundwork for future studies involving biological functions and applications of the CD133 humanized antibody. PMID:24271022

  16. Chimeric NK-receptor–bearing T cells mediate antitumor immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Lemoi, Bethany A.; Sentman, Charles L.

    2005-01-01

    NKG2D is an activating cell-surface receptor expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and some T-cell subsets. Its ligands are primarily expressed on tumor cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether chimeric NK-receptor—bearing T cells would directly kill tumor cells and lead to induction of host immunity against tumors. Chimeric NK receptors were produced by linking NKG2D or DNAX activating protein of 10 kDa (Dap10) to the cytoplasmic portion of the CD3ζ chain. Our results showed that chimeric (ch) NKG2D-bearing T cells responded to NKG2D-ligand–bearing tumor cells (RMA/Rae-1β, EG7) but not to wild-type tumor cells (RMA). This response was dependent upon ligand expression on the target cells but not on expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and the response could be blocked by anti-NKG2D antibodies. These T cells produced large amounts of T-helper 1 (Th1) cytokines and proinflammatory chemokines and killed ligand–expressing tumor cells. Adoptive transfer of chNKG2D-bearing T cells inhibited RMA/Rae-1β tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, mice that had remained tumor-free were resistant to subsequent challenge with the wild-type RMA tumor cells, suggesting the generation of immunity against other tumor antigens. Taken together, our findings indicate that modification of T cells with chimeric NKG2D receptors represents a promising approach for immunotherapy against cancer. PMID:15890688

  17. Expression of Recombinant Vaccines and Antibodies in Plants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Plants are able to perform post-translational maturations of therapeutic proteins required for their functional biological activity and suitable in vivo pharmacokinetics. Plants can be a low-cost, large-scale production platform of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins such as vaccines and antibodies. Plants, however, lack mechanisms of processing authentic human N-glycosylation, which imposes a major limitation in their use as an expression system for therapeutic glycoproducts. Efforts have been made to circumvent plant-specific N-glycosylation, as well as to supplement the plant's endogenous system with human glycosyltransferases for non-immunogenic and humanized N-glycan production. Herein we review studies on the potential of plants to serve as production systems for therapeutic and prophylactic biopharmaceuticals. We have especially focused on recombinant vaccines and antibodies and new expression strategies to overcome the existing problems associated with their production in plants. PMID:24937251

  18. Downregulation of transferrin receptor surface expression by intracellular antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Jilin; Wu Sha; Zhao Xiaoping; Wang Min; Li Wenhan; Shen Xin; Liu Jing; Lei Ping; Zhu Huifen; Shen Guanxin . E-mail: guanxin_shen@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-03-23

    To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4 {+-} 2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For First time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors.

  19. Chimeric Lyssavirus Glycoproteins with Increased Immunological Potential

    PubMed Central

    Jallet, Corinne; Jacob, Yves; Bahloul, Chokri; Drings, Astrid; Desmezieres, Emmanuel; Tordo, Noël; Perrin, Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The rabies virus glycoprotein molecule (G) can be divided into two parts separated by a flexible hinge: the NH2 half (site II part) containing antigenic site II up to the linear region (amino acids [aa] 253 to 275 encompassing epitope VI [aa 264]) and the COOH half (site III part) containing antigenic site III and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. The structural and immunological roles of each part were investigated by cell transfection and mouse DNA-based immunization with homogeneous and chimeric G genes formed by fusion of the site II part of one genotype (GT) with the site III part of the same or another GT. Various site II-site III combinations between G genes of PV (Pasteur virus strain) rabies (GT1), Mokola (GT3), and EBL1 (European bat lyssavirus 1 [GT5]) viruses were tested. Plasmids pGPV-PV, pGMok-Mok, pGMok-PV, and pGEBL1-PV induced transient expression of correctly transported and folded antigens in neuroblastoma cells and virus-neutralizing antibodies against parental viruses in mice, whereas, pG-PVIII (site III part only) and pGPV-Mok did not. The site III part of PV (GT1) was a strong inducer of T helper cells and was very effective at presenting the site II part of various GTs. Both parts are required for correct folding and transport of chimeric G proteins which have a strong potential value for immunological studies and development of multivalent vaccines. Chimeric plasmid pGEBL1-PV broadens the spectrum of protection against European lyssavirus genotypes (GT1, GT5, and GT6). PMID:9847325

  20. Production and characterization of a recombinant chimeric antigen consisting botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A, B and E binding subdomains.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Firouz; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad; Mousavi, Seyed Latif; Babaeipour, Valiollah

    2010-02-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxicant proteins composed of a heavy chain (100 kDa) and a light chain (50 kDa) of seven (A-G) serotypes that is responsible for botulism syndrome. In this study, polypeptides from C-terminal heavy chain of BoNTs serotypes A, B and E to the length of 54, 45 and 48 amino acid respectively were selected, linked together using a hydrophobic linker and expressed in E. coli. The expression efficiency of the chimeric protein was found to be 51%. The chimeric protein was produced in the form of inclusion body (IB) both at two studied temperatures, 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C. This IB was extracted by ultracentrifugation and followed for chimeric protein solubilization and purification using of ultrafiltration and preparative electrophoresis. The purified chimeric protein was characterized using blotting and ELISA. To evaluate the protection ability of this chimeric antigen against their active toxins, it was injected to mice and the antibody titer as well as the extent of protectivity were determined. Mice given three injections (10 microg/mice) of the antigen were protected against an intra-peritoneal administration of 10 LD(50 )of serotypes A and E, but 100 LD(50) of serotype B. We conclude that a significant correlation exists between the antigenic characteristics and protection capability of the chimeric protein prepared in this study. PMID:20118620

  1. Reengineering chimeric antigen receptor T cells for targeted therapy of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Ellebrecht, Christoph T; Bhoj, Vijay G; Nace, Arben; Choi, Eun Jung; Mao, Xuming; Cho, Michael Jeffrey; Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Seykora, John T; Cotsarelis, George; Milone, Michael C; Payne, Aimee S

    2016-07-01

    Ideally, therapy for autoimmune diseases should eliminate pathogenic autoimmune cells while sparing protective immunity, but feasible strategies for such an approach have been elusive. Here, we show that in the antibody-mediated autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV), autoantigen-based chimeric immunoreceptors can direct T cells to kill autoreactive B lymphocytes through the specificity of the B cell receptor (BCR). We engineered human T cells to express a chimeric autoantibody receptor (CAAR), consisting of the PV autoantigen, desmoglein (Dsg) 3, fused to CD137-CD3ζ signaling domains. Dsg3 CAAR-T cells exhibit specific cytotoxicity against cells expressing anti-Dsg3 BCRs in vitro and expand, persist, and specifically eliminate Dsg3-specific B cells in vivo. CAAR-T cells may provide an effective and universal strategy for specific targeting of autoreactive B cells in antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. PMID:27365313

  2. Tolerance and efficacy of autologous or donor-derived T cells expressing CD19 chimeric antigen receptors in adult B-ALL with extramedullary leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Zhang, Wenying; Li, Xiaolei; Han, Qingwang; Guo, Yelei; Zhang, Yajing; Wang, Yao; Wang, Chunmeng; Shi, Fengxia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Meixia; Feng, Kaichao; Wang, Quanshun; Zhu, Hongli; Fu, Xiaobing; Li, Suxia; Han, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    The engineering of T lymphocytes to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) aims to establish T cell-mediated tumor immunity rapidly. In this study, we conducted a pilot clinical trial of autologous or donor- derived T cells genetically modified to express a CAR targeting the B-cell antigen CD19 harboring 4-1BB and the CD3ζ moiety. All enrolled patients had relapsed or chemotherapy-refractory B-cell lineage acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL). Of the nine patients, six had definite extramedullary involvement, and the rate of overall survival at 18 weeks was 56%. One of the two patients who received conditioning chemotherapy achieved a three-month durable complete response with partial regression of extramedullary lesions. Four of seven patients who did not receive conditioning chemotherapy achieved dramatic regression or a mixed response in the haematopoietic system and extramedullary tissues for two to nine months. Grade 2–3 graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was observed in two patients who received substantial donor-derived anti-CD19 CART (chimeric antigen receptor-modified T) cells 3–4 weeks after cell infusions. These results show for the first time that donor-derived anti-CD19 CART cells can cause GVHD and regression of extramedullary B-ALL. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01864889. PMID:26451310

  3. Optimization of expression and purification of two biologically active chimeric fusion proteins that consist of human interleukin-13 and Pseudomonas exotoxin in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Bharat H; Puri, Raj K

    2005-02-01

    We have previously reported that a variety of solid human tumor cell lines express a large number of receptors for interleukin-13 (IL-13). These receptors could be targeted with a chimeric fusion protein consisting of human IL-13 and a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). We describe here optimization of critical steps involved in high yield expression of two recombinant chimeric fusion proteins for obtaining highly purified and biologically active cytotoxins in Escherichia coli. The chimeric constructs of human IL-13 and two 38 kDa truncated PEs: (i) PE38 and (ii) PE38QQR, (three lysine residues in PE38 at 590, 606, and 613 substituted with two glutamine and one arginine) were used for protein expression in pET prokaryotic expression vector system with kanamycin as a selection antibiotic. Our results suggest that fresh transformation of E. coli and induction by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) for 6 h resulted in maximum protein expression. To further improve the yield, we used a genetically modified E. coli strain, BL21(DE3)pLysS, which carries a plasmid for lysozyme with a weak promoter that inhibits T7 RNA polymerase and minimizes protein production in the absence of IPTG. Use of this strain eliminated the need for lysozyme digestion of the induced bacteria to release inclusion bodies, which resulted in expression of purer protein as compared to the conventional BL21(DE3) strain. Additional protocol optimizations included 16 h solubilization of inclusion bodies, constitution of refolding buffer, and timing of dialysis. These proteins were finally purified by Q-Sepharose, mono-Q, and gel filtration chromatography. Between 14-22 and 21-28 mg highly purified and biologically active protein was obtained from 1L of BL21 (DE3) and BL21 (DE3) pLysS bacteria culture, respectively. As IL-13R targeting for brain tumor therapy offers an exciting treatment option, optimization of production of IL-13PE will enhance production of clinical grade material

  4. The construction of chimeric T-Cell receptor with spacer base of modeling study of VHH and MUC1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Pirooznia, Nazanin; Hasannia, Sadegh; Taghdir, Majid; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Eskandani, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive cell immunotherapy with the use of chimeric receptors leads to the best and most specific response against tumors. Chimeric receptors consist of a signaling fragment, extracellular spacer, costimulating domain, and an antibody. Antibodies cause immunogenicity; therefore, VHH is a good replacement for ScFv in chimeric receptors. Since peptide sequences have an influence on chimeric receptors, the effect of peptide domains on each other's conformation were investigated. CD3Zeta, CD28, VHH and CD8α, and FcgIIα are used as signaling moieties, costimulating domain, antibody, and spacers, respectively. To investigate the influence of the ligation of spacers on the conformational structure of VHH, models of VHH were constructed. Molecular dynamics simulation was run to study the influence of the presence of spacers on the conformational changes in the binding sites of VHH. Root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation of critical segments in the binding site showed no noticeable differences with those in the native VHH. Results from molecular docking revealed that the presence of spacer FcgIIα causes an increasing effect on VHH with MUC1 interaction. Each of the constructs was transformed into the Jurkat E6.1. Expression analysis and evaluation of their functions were examined. The results showed good expression and function. PMID:21869862

  5. Construction and evaluation of a chimeric protein made from Fasciola hepatica leucine aminopeptidase and cathepsin L1.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Guzmán, K; Sahagún-Ruiz, A; Vallecillo, A J; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Quiroz-Romero, H

    2016-01-01

    Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and cathepsin L1 (CL1) are important enzymes for the pathogenesis and physiology of Fasciola hepatica. These enzymes were analysed in silico to design a chimeric protein containing the most antigenic sequences of LAP (GenBank; AAV59016.1; amino acids 192-281) and CL1 (GenBank CAC12806.1; amino acids 173-309). The cloned 681-bp chimeric fragment (rFhLAP-CL1) contains 270 bp from LAP and 411 bp from CL1, comprising three epitopes, DGRVVHLKY (amino acids 54-62) from LAP, VTGYYTVHSGSEVELKNLV (amino acids 119-137) and YQSQTCLPF (amino acids 161-169) from CL1. The ~25 kDa rFhLAP-CL1 chimeric protein was expressed from the pET15b plasmid in the Rosetta (DE3) Escherichia coli strain. The chimeric protein rFhLAP-CL1, which showed antigenic and immunogenic properties, was recognized in Western blot assays using F. hepatica-positive bovine sera, and induced strong, specific antibody responses following immunization in rabbits. The newly generated chimeric protein may be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of antibodies against F. hepatica in bovine sera and as an immunogen to induce protection against bovine fasciolosis. PMID:25274570

  6. Development of protective anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies after immunization of guinea pigs with the combination of a P1-P30 chimeric recombinant protein and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Hausner, Marius; Schamberger, Anna; Naumann, Wolfgang; Jacobs, Enno; Dumke, Roger

    2013-11-01

    The attachment organelle of the human respiratory tract pathogen Mycoplasma pneumoniae is essential for colonization of the host mucosa. Furthermore, adherence-related proteins such as the major adhesin P1 and protein P30 represent vaccine candidates. Using the chimeric recombinant protein HP14/30, which combines surface-localized and adherence-involved regions of both proteins, we developed an optimized strategy to immunize guinea pigs. The vaccination protocol includes subcutaneous prime immunization followed by presentation of the antigen directly to the respiratory mucosa by two intranasal (i.n.) administrations and combination of antigen with the mucosal adjuvant chitosan. The immunization scheme induced high, consistent and long-lasting IgA levels in respiratory tract samples (BAL, nasal and throat washing fluid) from the animals. In comparison with a preimmune serum, incubation of M. pneumoniae cells with sera from these animals reduced the mean adhesion of bacteria to HeLa cells to 6%. After i.n. infection, immunized animals showed significantly decreased numbers of M. pneumoniae-specific genome copies, especially in the upper respiratory tract, in comparison with the control group. The results demonstrated that optimized immunization with the chimeric protein HP14/30 is promising for further vaccination efforts to prevent host colonization with M. pneumoniae. PMID:23948467

  7. PiggyBac-mediated Cancer Immunotherapy Using EBV-specific Cytotoxic T-cells Expressing HER2-specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Nakazawa, Yozo; Huye, Leslie E; Salsman, Vita S; Leen, Ann M; Ahmed, Nabil; Rollins, Lisa; Dotti, Gianpietro; Gottschalk, Stephen M; Wilson, Matthew H; Rooney, Cliona M

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can be modified to function as heterologous tumor directed effector cells that survive longer in vivo than tumor directed T cells without virus specificity, due to chronic stimulation by viral antigens expressed during persistent infection in seropositive individuals. We evaluated the nonviral piggyBac (PB) transposon system as a platform for modifying EBV-CTLs to express a functional human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-specific chimeric antigen receptor (HER2-CAR) thereby directing virus-specific, gene modified CTLs towards HER2-positive cancer cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were nucleofected with transposons encoding a HER2-CAR and a truncated CD19 molecule for selection followed by specific activation and expansion of EBV-CTLs. HER2-CAR was expressed in ~40% of T cells after CD19 selection with retention of immunophenotype, polyclonality, and function. HER2-CAR-modified EBV-CTLs (HER2-CTLs) killed HER2-positive brain tumor cell lines in vitro, exhibited transient and reversible increases in HER2-CAR expression following antigen-specific stimulation, and stably expressed HER2-CAR beyond 120 days. Adoptive transfer of PB-modified HER2-CTLs resulted in tumor regression in a murine xenograft model. Our results demonstrate that PB can be used to redirect virus-specific CTLs to tumor targets, which should prolong tumor-specific T cell survival in vivo producing more efficacious immunotherapy. PMID:21772253

  8. Improved expression of single-chain antibodies in Ustilago maydis.

    PubMed

    Sarkari, Parveen; Reindl, Michèle; Stock, Janpeter; Müller, Olaf; Kahmann, Regine; Feldbrügge, Michael; Schipper, Kerstin

    2014-12-10

    To produce the full repertoire of biopharmaceutical proteins, alternative expression platforms are required. Systems that enable secretion of the target protein are favored because this facilitates downstream processing. Ustilago maydis is a promising fungal model organism for future applications in protein expression. Recently, we described the exploitation of a novel unconventional secretion mechanism for the export of heterologous proteins. In this mode of secretion, the endochitinase Cts1 functions as a carrier for export with the main advantage of avoiding potentially harmful N-glycosylation. The major limitation until now was a low yield of secreted full-length protein. For optimization, we identified two bottlenecks: mRNA amount and extracellular proteolytic activity. By generating novel expression vectors harboring a strong constitutive promoter as well as eliminating harmful proteases, yields were increased significantly. A scFv antibody fragment against the cMyc epitope served as proof-of-principle and could be purified in its active, full-length form from the culture supernatant. Thus, we improved the novel expression system in U. maydis such that it can now be investigated with respect to other targets with potential applications for instance in diagnostics and medicine. PMID:24997354

  9. Alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein B: recombinant expression and antibody recognition.

    PubMed

    Dry, Inga; Todd, Helen; Deane, David; Percival, Ann; Mclean, Kevin; Inglis, Neil F; Manson, Erin D T; Haig, David M; Nayuni, Shilpa; Hutt-Fletcher, Lindsey M; Grant, Dawn M; Bartley, Kathryn; Stewart, James P; Russell, George C

    2016-03-01

    The gammaherpesvirus alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) causes fatal malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in susceptible species including cattle, but infects its reservoir host, wildebeest, without causing disease. Pathology in cattle may be influenced by virus-host cell interactions mediated by the virus glycoproteins. Cloning and expression of a haemagglutinin-tagged version of the AlHV-1 glycoprotein B (gB) was used to demonstrate that the AlHV-1-specific monoclonal antibody 12B5 recognised gB and that gB was the main component of the gp115 complex of AlHV-1, a glycoprotein complex of five components identified on the surface of AlHV-1 by immunoprecipitation and radiolabelling. Analysis of AlHV-1 virus particles showed that the native form of gB was detected by mAb 12B5 as a band of about 70 kDa, whilst recombinant gB expressed by transfected HEK293T cells appeared to be subject to additional cleavage and incomplete post-translational processing. Antibody 12B5 recognised an epitope on the N-terminal furin-cleaved fragment of gB on AlHV-1 virus particles. It could be used to detect recombinant and virus-expressed gB on western blots and on the surface of infected cells by flow cytometry, whilst recombinant gB was detected on the surface of transfected cells by immunofluorescence. Recombinant gB has potential as an antigen for ELISA detection of MCF virus infection and as a candidate vaccine antigen. PMID:26650040

  10. Enhanced Neutralizing Antibody Response Induced by Respiratory Syncytial Virus Prefusion F Protein Expressed by a Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Bo; Surman, Sonja; Amaro-Carambot, Emerito; Kabatova, Barbora; Mackow, Natalie; Lingemann, Matthias; Yang, Lijuan; McLellan, Jason S.; Graham, Barney S.; Kwong, Peter D.; Schaap-Nutt, Anne; Collins, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are the first and second leading viral agents of severe respiratory tract disease in infants and young children worldwide. Vaccines are not available, and an RSV vaccine is particularly needed. A live attenuated chimeric recombinant bovine/human PIV3 (rB/HPIV3) vector expressing the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein from an added gene has been under development as a bivalent vaccine against RSV and HPIV3. Previous clinical evaluation of this vaccine candidate suggested that increased genetic stability and immunogenicity of the RSV F insert were needed. This was investigated in the present study. RSV F expression was enhanced 5-fold by codon optimization and by modifying the amino acid sequence to be identical to that of an early passage of the original clinical isolate. This conferred a hypofusogenic phenotype that presumably reflects the original isolate. We then compared vectors expressing stabilized prefusion and postfusion versions of RSV F. In a hamster model, prefusion F induced increased quantity and quality of RSV-neutralizing serum antibodies and increased protection against wild-type (wt) RSV challenge. In contrast, a vector expressing the postfusion F was less immunogenic and protective. The genetic stability of the RSV F insert was high and was not affected by enhanced expression or the prefusion or postfusion conformation of RSV F. These studies provide an improved version of the previously well-tolerated rB/HPIV3-RSV F vaccine candidate that induces a superior RSV-neutralizing serum antibody response. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are two major causes of pediatric pneumonia and bronchiolitis. The rB/HPIV3 vector expressing RSV F protein is a candidate bivalent live vaccine against HPIV3 and RSV. Previous clinical evaluation indicated the need to increase the immunogenicity and genetic stability of the RSV F

  11. Pre-clinical evaluation of CD38 chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Drent, Esther; Groen, Richard W J; Noort, Willy A; Themeli, Maria; Lammerts van Bueren, Jeroen J; Parren, Paul W H I; Kuball, Jürgen; Sebestyen, Zsolt; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost; van de Donk, Niels W C J; Martens, Anton C M; Lokhorst, Henk M; Mutis, Tuna

    2016-05-01

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. The CD38 molecule, with its high expression on multiple myeloma cells, appears a suitable target for antibody therapy. Prompted by this, we used three different CD38 antibody sequences to generate second-generation retroviral CD38-chimeric antigen receptor constructs with which we transduced T cells from healthy donors and multiple myeloma patients. We then evaluated the preclinical efficacy and safety of the transduced T cells. Irrespective of the donor and antibody sequence, CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells proliferated, produced inflammatory cytokines and effectively lysed malignant cell lines and primary malignant cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and multi-drug resistant multiple myeloma in a cell-dose, and CD38-dependent manner, despite becoming CD38-negative during culture. CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells also displayed significant anti-tumor effects in a xenotransplant model, in which multiple myeloma tumors were grown in a human bone marrow-like microenvironment. CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells also appeared to lyse the CD38(+) fractions of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, and to a lesser extent T and B cells but did not inhibit the outgrowth of progenitor cells into various myeloid lineages and, furthermore, were effectively controllable with a caspase-9-based suicide gene. These results signify the potential importance of CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells as therapeutic tools for CD38(+) malignancies and warrant further efforts to diminish the undesired effects of this immunotherapy using appropriate strategies. PMID:26858358

  12. Expression of a chimeric human/salmon calcitonin gene integrated into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome using rDNA sequences as recombination sites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hengyi; Zang, Xiaonan; Liu, Yuantao; Cao, Xiaofei; Wu, Fei; Huang, Xiaoyun; Jiang, Minjie; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2015-12-01

    Calcitonin participates in controlling homeostasis of calcium and phosphorus and plays an important role in bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to endow an industrial strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with the ability to express chimeric human/salmon calcitonin (hsCT) without the use of antibiotics. To do so, a homologous recombination plasmid pUC18-rDNA2-ura3-P pgk -5hsCT-rDNA1 was constructed, which contains two segments of ribosomal DNA of 1.1 kb (rDNA1) and 1.4 kb (rDNA2), to integrate the heterologous gene into host rDNA. A DNA fragment containing five copies of a chimeric human/salmon calcitonin gene (5hsCT) under the control of the promoter for phosphoglycerate kinase (P pgk ) was constructed to express 5hsCT in S. cerevisiae using ura3 as a selectable auxotrophic marker gene. After digestion by restriction endonuclease HpaI, a linear fragment, rDNA2-ura3-P pgk -5hsCT-rDNA1, was obtained and transformed into the △ura3 mutant of S. cerevisiae by the lithium acetate method. The ura3-P pgk -5hsCT sequence was introduced into the genome at rDNA sites by homologous recombination, and the recombinant strain YS-5hsCT was obtained. Southern blot analysis revealed that the 5hsCT had been integrated successfully into the genome of S. cerevisiae. The results of Western blot and ELISA confirmed that the 5hsCT protein had been expressed in the recombinant strain YS-5hsCT. The expression level reached 2.04 % of total proteins. S. cerevisiae YS-5hsCT decreased serum calcium in mice by oral administration and even 0.01 g lyophilized S. cerevisiae YS-5hsCT/kg decreased serum calcium by 0.498 mM. This work has produced a commercial yeast strain potentially useful for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26254786

  13. Manufacture of clinical-grade CD19-specific T cells stably expressing chimeric antigen receptor using Sleeping Beauty system and artificial antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J; Dawson, Margaret J; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-ζ endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on γ-irradiated aAPC ∼10(10) T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

  14. Manufacture of Clinical-Grade CD19-Specific T Cells Stably Expressing Chimeric Antigen Receptor Using Sleeping Beauty System and Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J.; Dawson, Margaret J.; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E.; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-ζ endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on γ-irradiated aAPC ∼1010 T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

  15. Effect of homologous serotonin receptor loop substitutions on the heterologous expression in Pichia of a chimeric acetylcholine-binding protein with alpha-bungarotoxin-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Joao A; Hawrot, Edward

    2009-10-01

    The molluscan acetylcholine-binding protein (AChBP) is a soluble homopentameric homolog of the extracellular domain of various ligand-gated ion channels. Previous studies have reported that AChBP, when fused to the ion pore domain of the serotonin receptor (5HT(3A)R), can form a functional ligand-gated chimeric channel only if the AChBP loop regions between beta-strands beta1 and beta2 (beta1-beta2), beta6 and beta7 (beta6-beta7), and beta8 and beta9 (beta8-beta9) are replaced with those of the 5HT(3A)R. To investigate further the potential interactions among these three important loop regions in a membrane- and detergent-free system, we designed AChBP constructs in which loops beta1-beta2, beta6-beta7, and beta8-beta9 of the AChBP were individually and combinatorially substituted in all permutations with the analogous loops of the 5HT(3A)R. These chimeras were expressed as secreted proteins using the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system. [(125)I]-alpha-Bungarotoxin-binding was detected in the culture media obtained from homologous recombinant clones expressing the wild-type AChBP, the beta1-beta2 loop-only chimera, and the chimera containing all three 5HT(3A)R loop substitutions. The remaining chimeras failed to show [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin binding, and further analysis of cellular extracts allowed us to determine that these binding-negative chimeric constructs accumulated intracellularly and were not secreted into the culture medium. Our results demonstrate that coordinated interactions among loops beta1-beta2, beta6-beta7, and beta8-beta9 are essential for the formation of a functional ligand-binding site, as evidenced by [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin-binding, and for efficient protein secretion. In addition, the constructs described here demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing soluble scaffolds to explore functionally important interactions within the extracellular domain of membrane-bound proteins. PMID:19427904

  16. Specific tumor labeling enhanced by polyethylene glycol linkage of near infrared dyes conjugated to a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody in a nude mouse model of human pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maawy, Ali A.; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Zhang, Yong; Luiken, George A.; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Labeling of metastatic tumors can aid in their staging and resection of cancer. Near infrared (NIR) dyes have been used in the clinic for tumor labeling. However, there can be a nonspecific uptake of dye by the liver, lungs, and lymph nodes, which hinders detection of metastasis. In order to overcome these problems, we have used two NIR dyes (DyLight 650 and 750) conjugated to a chimeric anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibody to evaluate how polyethylene glycol linkage (PEGylation) can improve specific tumor labeling in a nude mouse model of human pancreatic cancer. The conjugated PEGylated and non-PEGylated DyLight 650 and 750 dyes were injected intravenously into non-tumor-bearing nude mice. Serum samples were collected at various time points in order to determine serum concentrations and elimination kinetics. Conjugated PEGylated dyes had significantly higher serum dye concentrations than non-PEGylated dyes (p=0.005 for the 650 dyes and p<0.001 for the 750 dyes). Human pancreatic tumors subcutaneously implanted into nude mice were labeled with antibody-dye conjugates and serially imaged. Labeling with conjugated PEGylated dyes resulted in significantly brighter tumors compared to the non-PEGylated dyes (p<0.001 for the 650 dyes; p=0.01 for 750 dyes). PEGylation of the NIR dyes also decreased their accumulation in lymph nodes, liver, and lung. These results demonstrate enhanced selective tumor labeling by PEGylation of dyes conjugated to a tumor-specific antibody, suggesting their future clinical use in fluorescence-guided surgery.

  17. Synthetic Ciguatoxins Selectively Activate Nav1.8-derived Chimeric Sodium Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Kaoru; Inoue, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro; Kondo, Chie; Kinoshita, Eiji; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Seyama, Issei

    2009-01-01

    The synthetic ciguatoxin CTX3C has been shown to activate tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels (Nav1.2, Nav1.4, and Nav1.5) by accelerating activation kinetics and shifting the activation curve toward hyperpolarization (Yamaoka, K., Inoue, M., Miyahara, H., Miyazaki, K., and Hirama, M. (2004) Br. J. Pharmacol. 142, 879–889). In this study, we further explored the effects of CTX3C on the TTX-resistant sodium channel Nav1.8. TTX-resistant channels have been shown to be involved in transducing pain and related sensations (Akopian, A. N., Sivilotti, L., and Wood, J. N. (1996) Nature 379, 257–262). Thus, we hypothesized that ciguatoxin-induced activation of the Nav1.8 current would account for the neurological symptoms of ciguatera poisoning. We found that 0.1 μm CTX3C preferentially affected the activation process of the Nav1.8 channel compared with those of the Nav1.2 and Nav1.4 channels. Importantly, without stimulation, 0.1 μm CTX3C induced a large leakage current (IL). The conductance of the IL calculated relative to the maximum conductance (Gmax) was 10 times larger than that of Nav1.2 or Nav1.4. To determine the molecular domain of Nav1.8 responsible for conferring higher sensitivity to CTX3C, we made two chimeric constructs from Nav1.4 and Nav1.8. Chimeras containing the N-terminal half of Nav1.8 exhibited a large response similar to wild-type Nav1.8, indicating that the region conferring high sensitivity to ciguatoxin action is located in the D1 or D2 domains. PMID:19164297

  18. Structural defect linked to nonrandom mutations in the matrix gene of Biden strain subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus defined by cDNA cloning and expression of chimeric genes

    SciTech Connect

    Ayata, M.; Hirano, A.; Wong, T.C.

    1989-03-01

    Biken strain, a nonproductive measles viruslike agent isolated from a subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) patient, contains a posttranscriptional defect affecting matrix (M) protein. A putative M protein was translated in vitro with RNA from Biken strain-infected cells. A similar protein was detected in vivo by an antiserum against a peptide synthesized from the cloned M gene of Edmonston strain measles virus. By using a novel method, full-length cDNAs of the Biken M gene were selectively cloned. The cloned Biken M gene contained an open reading frame which encoded 8 extra carboxy-terminal amino acid residues and 20 amino acid substitutions predicted to affect both the hydrophobicity and secondary structure of the gene product. The cloned gene was expressed in vitro and in vivo into a 37,500 M/sub r/ protein electrophoretically and antigenically distinct from the M protein of Edmonston strain but identical to the M protein in Biken strain-infected cells. Chimeric M proteins synthesized in vitro and in vivo showed that the mutations in the carboxy-proximal region altered the local antigenicity and those in the amino region affected the overall protein conformation. The protein expressed from the Biken M gene was unstable in vivo. Instability was attributed to multiple mutations. These results offer insights into the basis of the defect in Biken strain and pose intriguing questions about the evolutionary origins of SSPE viruses in general.

  19. Site-targeted mutagenesis for stabilization of recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants

    PubMed Central

    Hehle, Verena K.; Paul, Matthew J.; Roberts, Victoria A.; van Dolleweerd, Craig J.; Ma, Julian K.-C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degradation pattern of a murine IgG1κ monoclonal antibody expressed in and extracted from transformed Nicotiana tabacum. Gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts revealed a consistent pattern of recombinant immunoglobulin bands, including intact and full-length antibody, as well as smaller antibody fragments. N-terminal sequencing revealed these smaller fragments to be proteolytic cleavage products and identified a limited number of protease-sensitive sites in the antibody light and heavy chain sequences. No strictly conserved target sequence was evident, although the peptide bonds that were susceptible to proteolysis were predominantly and consistently located within or near to the interdomain or solvent-exposed regions in the antibody structure. Amino acids surrounding identified cleavage sites were mutated in an attempt to increase resistance. Different Guy’s 13 antibody heavy and light chain mutant combinations were expressed transiently in N. tabacum and demonstrated intensity shifts in the fragmentation pattern, resulting in alterations to the full-length antibody-to-fragment ratio. The work strengthens the understanding of proteolytic cleavage of antibodies expressed in plants and presents a novel approach to stabilize full-length antibody by site-directed mutagenesis.—Hehle, V. K., Paul, M. J., Roberts, V. A., van Dolleweerd, C. J., Ma, J. K.-C. Site-targeted mutagenesis for stabilization of recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. PMID:26712217

  20. Site-targeted mutagenesis for stabilization of recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.

    PubMed

    Hehle, Verena K; Paul, Matthew J; Roberts, Victoria A; van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Ma, Julian K-C

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the degradation pattern of a murine IgG1κ monoclonal antibody expressed in and extracted from transformedNicotiana tabacum Gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts revealed a consistent pattern of recombinant immunoglobulin bands, including intact and full-length antibody, as well as smaller antibody fragments. N-terminal sequencing revealed these smaller fragments to be proteolytic cleavage products and identified a limited number of protease-sensitive sites in the antibody light and heavy chain sequences. No strictly conserved target sequence was evident, although the peptide bonds that were susceptible to proteolysis were predominantly and consistently located within or near to the interdomain or solvent-exposed regions in the antibody structure. Amino acids surrounding identified cleavage sites were mutated in an attempt to increase resistance. Different Guy's 13 antibody heavy and light chain mutant combinations were expressed transiently inN. tabacumand demonstrated intensity shifts in the fragmentation pattern, resulting in alterations to the full-length antibody-to-fragment ratio. The work strengthens the understanding of proteolytic cleavage of antibodies expressed in plants and presents a novel approach to stabilize full-length antibody by site-directed mutagenesis.-Hehle, V. K., Paul, M. J., Roberts, V. A., van Dolleweerd, C. J., Ma, J. K.-C. Site-targeted mutagenesis for stabilization of recombinant monoclonal antibody expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. PMID:26712217

  1. Antibody

    MedlinePlus

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  2. Hepatitis C virus dynamics and cellular gene expression in uPA-SCID chimeric mice with humanized livers during intravenous silibinin monotherapy.

    PubMed

    DebRoy, S; Hiraga, N; Imamura, M; Hayes, C N; Akamatsu, S; Canini, L; Perelson, A S; Pohl, R T; Persiani, S; Uprichard, S L; Tateno, C; Dahari, H; Chayama, K

    2016-09-01

    Legalon SIL (SIL) is a chemically hydrophilized version of silibinin, an extract of milk thistle (Silybum marianum) seeds that has exhibited hepatoprotective and antiviral effectiveness against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in patients leading to viral clearance in combination with ribavirin. To elucidate the incompletely understood mode of action of SIL against HCV, mathematical modelling of HCV kinetics and human hepatocyte gene expression studies were performed in uPA-SCID-chimeric mice with humanized livers. Chronically HCV-infected mice (n = 15) were treated for 14 days with daily intravenous SIL at 469, 265 or 61.5 mg/kg. Serum HCV and human albumin (hAlb) were measured frequently, and liver HCV RNA was analysed at days 3 and 14. Microarray analysis of human hepatocyte gene expression was performed at days 0, 3 and 14 of treatment. While hAlb remained constant, a biphasic viral decline in serum was observed consisting of a rapid 1st phase followed by a second slower phase (or plateau with the two lower SIL dosings). SIL effectiveness in blocking viral production was similar among dosing groups (median ε = 77%). However, the rate of HCV-infected hepatocyte decline, δ, was dose-dependent. Intracellular HCV RNA levels correlated (r = 0.66, P = 0.01) with serum HCV RNA. Pathway analysis revealed increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes in SIL-treated mice. The results suggest that SIL could lead to a continuous second-phase viral decline, that is potentially viral clearance, in the absence of adaptive immune response along with increased anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative gene expression in human hepatocytes. PMID:27272497

  3. Expression of anti-SRP19 antibody in muscle tissues from patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Duan, F; Liu, P; Wang, P F; Wang, M X

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of anti-SRP19 antibody in muscle tissues of patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. Immunohistochemistry staining was used to determine the expression of anti-SRP19 antibodies in muscle tissues of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy patients. Results demonstrated that anti-SRP19 antibody was expressed in 71.4% (20/28) of muscle tissue specimens from patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy. Anti-SRP19 antibody expression was mainly localized in cytoplasm of necrotic muscle fibers surrounding the small blood vessels and interstitial cells. There were no significant differences in the age, course of disease, muscle, and creatine kinase levels between patients with positive or negative expression of anti-SRP19 antibodies. The expression levels of anti-SRP19, serum anti-nuclear antibodies, as well as anti-Ro-52, anti- SSA, anti-Sm, and anti-Jo-1 antibodies were not significantly different among groups. This study demonstrates that anti-SRP19 antibody is highly expressed in muscle tissues of patients with autoimmune necrotizing myopathy, and suggests that this protein may be involved in the origin and progression of the disease. PMID:27525944

  4. Positron Emission Tomography and Optical Imaging of Tumor CD105 Expression with a Dual-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Engle, Jonathan W.; Yang, Yunan; Theuer, Charles P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2012-01-01

    CD105 (endoglin) is an independent prognostic marker for poor prognosis in > 10 solid tumor types, including breast cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a CD105-specific agent for both positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, which can have potential clinical applications in diagnosis and imaged-guided surgery of breast cancer. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was labeled with both a NIRF dye (i.e. 800CW) and 64Cu to yield 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no difference in CD105 binding affinity/specificity between TRC105 and NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Serial PET imaging revealed that the 4T1 murine breast tumor uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW was 5.2 ± 2.7, 11.0 ± 1.4, and 13.0 ± 0.4 %ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h post-injection respectively. Tumor uptake as measured by ex vivo NIRF imaging exhibited a good linear correlation with the %ID/g values obtained from PET (R = 0.74). Biodistribution data were consistent with the PET/NIRF findings. Blocking experiments, control studies with dual-labeled cetuximab (an isotype-matched control antibody), and histology confirmed the CD105 specificity of 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Successful PET/NIRF imaging of CD105 expression warrants further investigation and clinical translation of dual-labeled TRC105-based imaging agents. PMID:22292418

  5. Positron emission tomography and optical imaging of tumor CD105 expression with a dual-labeled monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Engle, Jonathan W; Yang, Yunan; Theuer, Charles P; Barnhart, Todd E; Cai, Weibo

    2012-03-01

    CD105 (endoglin) is an independent prognostic marker for poor prognosis in >10 solid tumor types, including breast cancer. The goal of this study was to develop a CD105-specific agent for both positron emission tomography (PET) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging, which can have potential clinical applications in diagnosis and imaged-guided surgery of breast cancer. TRC105, a chimeric anti-CD105 monoclonal antibody, was labeled with both a NIRF dye (i.e., 800CW) and (64)Cu to yield (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no difference in CD105 binding affinity/specificity between TRC105 and NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Serial PET imaging revealed that the 4T1 murine breast tumor uptake of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW was 5.2 ± 2.7, 11.0 ± 1.4, and 13.0 ± 0.4% ID/g at 4, 24, and 48 h postinjection respectively. Tumor uptake as measured by ex vivo NIRF imaging exhibited a good linear correlation with the % ID/g values obtained from PET (R = 0.74). Biodistribution data were consistent with the PET/NIRF findings. Blocking experiments, control studies with dual-labeled cetuximab (an isotype-matched control antibody), and histology confirmed the CD105 specificity of (64)Cu-NOTA-TRC105-800CW. Successful PET/NIRF imaging of CD105 expression warrants further investigation and clinical translation of dual-labeled TRC105-based imaging agents. PMID:22292418

  6. Immunization of N terminus of enterovirus 71 VP4 elicits cross-protective antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease. Large epidemics of EV71 infection have been recently reported in the Asian-Pacific region. Currently, no vaccine is available to prevent EV71 infection. Results The peptide (VP4N20) consisting of the first 20 amino acids at the N-terminal of VP4 of EV71 genotype C4 were fused to hepatitis B core (HBcAg) protein. Expression of fusion proteins in E. coli resulted in the formation of chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs). Mice immunized with the chimeric VLPs elicited anti-VP4N20 antibody response. In vitro microneutralization experiments showed that anti-chimeric VLPs sera were able to neutralize not only EV71 of genotype C4 but also EV71 of genotype A. Neonatal mice model confirmed the neutralizing ability of anti-chimeric VLPs sera. Eiptope mapping led to the identification of a “core sequence” responsible for antibody recognition within the peptide. Conclusions Immunization of chimeric VLPs is able to elicit antibodies displaying a broad neutralizing activity against different genotypes of EV71 in vitro. The “core sequence” of EV71-VP4 is highly conserved across EV71 genotypes. The chimeric VLPs have a great potential to be a novel vaccine candidate with a broad cross-protection against different EV71 genotypes. PMID:24320792

  7. Pathogenesis of Alfalfa mosaic virus in Soybean (Glycine max) and Expression of Chimeric Rabies Peptide in Virus-Infected Soybean Plants.

    PubMed

    Fleysh, N; Deka, D; Drath, M; Koprowski, H; Yusibov, V

    2001-10-01

    ABSTRACT Infection of soybean (Glycine max) plants inoculated with particles of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) isolate 425 at 12 days after germination was monitored throughout the life cycle of the plant (vegetative growth, flowering, seed formation, and seed maturation) by western blot analysis of tissue samples. At 8 to 10 days after inoculation, the upper uninoculated leaves showed symptoms of virus infection and accumulation of viral coat protein (CP). Virus CP was detectable in leaves, stem, roots, seedpods, and seed coat up to 45 days postinoculation (dpi), but only in the seedpod and seed coat at 65 dpi. No virus accumulation was detected in embryos and cotyledons at any time during infection, and no seed transmission of virus was observed. Soybean plants inoculated with recombinant AlMV passaged from upper uninoculated leaves of infected plants showed accumulation of full-length chimeric AlMV CP containing rabies antigen in systemically infected leaves and seed coat. These results suggest the potential usefulness of plants and plant viruses as vehicles for producing proteins of biomedical importance in a safe and inexpensive manner. Moreover, even the soybean seed coat, treated as waste tissue during conventional processing for oil and other products, may be utilized for the expression of value-added proteins. PMID:18944120

  8. T cells expressing CD123-specific chimeric antigen receptors exhibit specific cytolytic effector functions and antitumor effects against human acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mardiros, Armen; Dos Santos, Cedric; McDonald, Tinisha; Brown, Christine E.; Wang, Xiuli; Budde, L. Elizabeth; Hoffman, Lauren; Aguilar, Brenda; Chang, Wen-Chung; Bretzlaff, William; Chang, Brenda; Jonnalagadda, Mahesh; Starr, Renate; Ostberg, Julie R.; Jensen, Michael C.; Bhatia, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Induction treatments for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have remained largely unchanged for nearly 50 years, and AML remains a disease of poor prognosis. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation can achieve cures in select patients and highlights the susceptibility of AML to donor-derived immunotherapy. The interleukin-3 receptor α chain (CD123) has been identified as a potential immunotherapeutic target because it is overexpressed in AML compared with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Therefore, we developed 2 chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) containing a CD123-specific single-chain variable fragment, in combination with a CD28 costimulatory domain and CD3-ζ signaling domain, targeting different epitopes on CD123. CD123-CAR–redirected T cells mediated potent effector activity against CD123+ cell lines as well as primary AML patient samples. CD123 CAR T cells did not eliminate granulocyte/macrophage and erythroid colony formation in vitro. Additionally, T cells obtained from patients with active AML can be modified to express CD123 CARs and are able to lyse autologous AML blasts in vitro. Finally, CD123 CAR T cells exhibited antileukemic activity in vivo against a xenogeneic model of disseminated AML. These results suggest that CD123 CAR T cells are a promising immunotherapy for the treatment of high-risk AML. PMID:24030378

  9. Human placenta: relative content of antibodies of different classes and subclasses (IgG1-IgG4) containing lambda- and kappa-light chains and chimeric lambda-kappa-immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Lekchnov, Evgenii A; Sedykh, Sergey E; Dmitrenok, Pavel S; Buneva, Valentina N; Nevinsky, Georgy A

    2015-06-01

    The specific organ placenta is much more than a filter: it is an organ that protects, feeds and regulates the growth of the embryo. Affinity chromatography, ELISA, SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry were used. Using 10 intact human placentas deprived of blood, a quantitative analysis of average relative content [% of total immunoglobulins (Igs)] was carried out for the first time: (92.7), IgA (2.4), IgM (2.5), kappa-antibodies (51.4), lambda-antibodies (48.6), IgG1 (47.0), IgG2 (39.5), IgG3 (8.8) and IgG4 (4.3). It was shown for the first time that placenta contains sIgA (2.5%). In the classic paradigm, Igs represent products of clonal B-cell populations, each producing antibodies recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, similarly to human milk Igs, placenta antibodies undergo extensive half-molecule exchange and the IgG pool consists of 43.5 ± 15.0% kappa-kappa-IgGs and 41.6 ± 17.0% lambda-lambda-IgGs, while 15.0 ± 4.0% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda-light chains. Kappa-kappa-IgGs and lambda-lambda-IgGs contained, respectively (%): IgG1 (47.7 and 34.4), IgG2 (36.3 and 44.5), IgG3 (7.4 and 11.8) and IgG4 (7.5 and 9.1), while chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of (%): 43.5 IgG1, 41.0 IgG2, 5.6 IgG3 and 7.9 IgG4. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between placenta IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens, which explains a very well-known polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of different human IgGs. PMID:25644595

  10. Role of plant expression systems in antibody production for passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Virdi, Vikram; Depicker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunization is a method to achieve immediate protection against infectious agents by administering pathogen-specific antibodies. It has proven to be lifesaving for many acute infections, and it is now also used for cancer treatment. Passive immunization therapies, however, are extremely expensive because they require large amounts of specific antibodies that are produced predominantly in mammalian expression systems. The cost for manufacturing plant-made antibodies is estimated to be comparatively low since plant production systems require relatively less capital investments. In addition, they are not prone to mammalian pathogens, which also eases downstream processing along with making it a safe expression system. Moreover, some of the recent developments in transient expression have enabled rapid, cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practices) compliant manufacturing of antibodies. Whether lower production costs will be reflected in a lower market price for purified antibodies will be known when more plant-produced antibodies come to the market. Promisingly, the current molecular techniques in the field of in planta expression have enabled high-level production of a variety of antibodies in different plant organs, like roots/tubers/fruits, leaves and seeds, of a variety of plants, like potato, tobacco, maize, rice, tomato and pea, providing a very wide range of possible plant-based passive immunization therapies. For instance, the production of antibodies in edible tissues would allow for a unique, convenient, needle-less, oral passive immunization at the gastric mucosal surface. The technological advances, together with the innate capacity of plant tissues to assemble complex antibodies, will enable carving a niche in the antibody market. This non-exhaustive review aims to shed light on the role of plants as a flexible expression system for passive immunotherapy, which we envisage to progress alongside the conventional production platforms to manufacture

  11. Expression and purification of recombinant antibody formats and antibody fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Siegemund, Martin; Richter, Fabian; Seifert, Oliver; Unverdorben, Felix; Kontermann, Roland E

    2014-01-01

    In the laboratory-scale production of antibody fragments or antibody fusion proteins, it is often difficult to keep track on the most suitable affinity tags for protein purification from either prokaryotic or eukaryotic host systems. Here, we describe how such recombinant proteins derived from Escherichia coli lysates as well as HEK293 cell culture supernatants are purified by IMAC and by different affinity chromatography methods based on fusions to FLAG-tag, Strep-tag, and Fc domains. PMID:24515473

  12. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells for the immunotherapy of patients with EGFR-expressing advanced relapsed/refractory non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kaichao; Guo, Yelei; Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Li, Xiang; Jia, Hejin; Han, Weidong

    2016-05-01

    The successes achieved by chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR-T) cells in hematological malignancies raised the possibility of their use in non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). In this phase I clinical study (NCT01869166), patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive (>50% expression), relapsed/refractory NSCLC received escalating doses of EGFR-targeted CAR-T cell infusions. The EGFR-targeted CAR-T cells were generated from peripheral blood after a 10 to 13-day in vitro expansion. Serum cytokines in peripheral blood and copy numbers of CAR-EGFR transgene in peripheral blood and in tissue biopsy were monitored periodically. Clinical responses were evaluated with RECIST1.1 and immune- related response criteria, and adverse events were graded with CTCAE 4.0. The EGFR-targeted CAR-T cell infusions were well-tolerated without severe toxicity. Of 11 evaluable patients, two patients obtained partial response and five had stable disease for two to eight months. The median dose of transfused CAR(+) T cells was 0.97×10(7) cells kg(-1) (interquartile range (IQR), 0.45 to 1.09×10(7) cells kg(-1)). Pathological eradication of EGFR positive tumor cells after EGFR-targeted CAR-T cell treatment can be observed in tumor biopsies, along with the CAR-EGFR gene detected in tumor-infiltrating T cells in all four biopsied patients. The EGFR-targeted CAR-T cell therapy is safe and feasible for EGFR-positive advanced relapsed/refractory NSCLC. PMID:26968708

  13. [Expression and purification of GST-CML28 fusion protein and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xia; Zhang, Bing; Bai, Xue-Ling; Liu, Long-Long; Zhang, Dong-Hua

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression of GST-CML28 in Escherichia Coli and to prepare its antibody. The constructed recombinant expression vectors CML28-pGEX-3X were transformed into Escherichia Coli BL21 under IPTG induction. The protein was abstracted from the transformers, and purified by a GSTrap FF column. The rabbits were immunized by the purified fusion protein to produce serum with anti-CML28 antibody. The serum was purified by chromatographic column stuffed with glutathione Sephamse 4B to get the antibody. The specific antibody against CML28 was further identified by ELISA, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and quantum dot luminescence. The results indicated that GST-CML28 fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and its specific polyclonal antibody was obtained. It is concluded that the anti-CML28 polyclonal antibodies with high titer and specificity are successfully prepared. These antibodies provide an useful experimental tool to profoundly research the physiological significance and biological function of the CML28 gene. PMID:23257421

  14. Electroejaculation of chimeric rats

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Marina R.; Montonye, Daniel; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering of rodents came the need to assess fertility and germline competency, especially in chimeric rodents generated using embryonic stem cells. Traditional methods rely on natural mating and progeny testing, which is time- and cost-intensive. Electroejaculation is a faster method of collecting sperm for genetic analysis and offers the additional benefit of using fewer animals. This column describes a refined electroejaculation technique for chimeric rats using light gas anesthesia and a custom-made platform for sperm collection. PMID:23689457

  15. Electroejaculation of chimeric rats.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Marina R; Montonye, Daniel; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2013-06-01

    With the advent of genetic engineering of rodents came the need to assess fertility and germline competency, especially in chimeric rodents generated using embryonic stem cells. Traditional methods rely on natural mating and progeny testing, which is time- and cost-intensive. Electroejaculation is a faster method of collecting sperm for genetic analysis and offers the additional benefit of using fewer animals. This column describes a refined electroejaculation technique for chimeric rats using light gas anesthesia and a custom-made platform for sperm collection. PMID:23689457

  16. Expression of chimeric genes by the light-regulated cabII-1 promoter in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a cabII-1/nit1 gene functions as a dominant selectable marker in a nit1- nit2- strain.

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, J E; Kindle, K L

    1992-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, expression of the cabII-1 gene increases dramatically in response to light (cabII-1 encodes one of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of photosystem II). We have used a region upstream of the cabII-1 gene in translational fusions to the bacterial uidA gene (encodes beta-glucuronidase) and transcriptional fusions to the Chlamydomonas nitrate reductase gene (nit1). Chlamydomonas transformants carrying intact copies of the chimeric uidA gene do not express beta-glucuronidase at the level of enzyme activity or mRNA accumulation. Methylation in the cabII-1 promoter region of the introduced gene is extensive in these strains, suggesting that newly introduced foreign genes may be recognized and silenced by a cellular mechanism that is correlated with increased methylation. Transformants that express the chimeric cabII-1/nit1 gene have been recovered. In contrast to the endogenous nit1 gene, the chimeric cabII-1/nit1 gene is expressed in ammonium-containing medium. Moreover, nit1 mRNA accumulation is dramatically stimulated by light, with a time course that is indistinguishable from that of the endogenous cabII-1 gene. The cabII-1/nit1 gene has been used to select transformants in a nit1- nit2- Chlamydomonas strain (CC400G) and should be useful for transformation of the large number of mutants in the Ebersold-Levine lineage, which carry the same mutations. Images PMID:1406696

  17. Measuring ERCC1 protein expression in cancer specimens: validation of a novel antibody.

    PubMed

    Smith, David Hersi; Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Fogh, Louise; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Hansen, Tine Plato; Stenvang, Jan; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, Kirsten Vang; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Brünner, Nils; Jensen, Sussie Steen

    2014-01-01

    Platinum chemotherapy remains part of standard therapies in the management of a variety of cancers. Severe side effects and a high degree of resistance to platinum drugs have led numerous researchers to search for predictive biomarkers, which could aid in identifying patients that are the most likely to respond to therapy. The ERCC1-ERCC4 endonuclease plays a critical role in the repair of platinum-DNA damage and has widely been studied in relation to sensitivity to platinum chemotherapy. The standard method to evaluate ERCC1 protein expression is through the use of immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody 8F1, an antibody that was recently found to bind an unrelated protein. The present study determines the specificity of a novel antibody, monoclonal antibody 4F9, and presents a method to evaluate ERCC1 expression in colorectal tumor specimens. Using relevant cell lines as controls, the specificity of antibody 4F9 was tested by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Scoring guidelines to aid in the evaluation of ERCC1 tumor expression were developed and evaluated in archival formalin-fixed paraffin embedded colorectal cancer specimens. Antibody 4F9 was found to be specific by all methods applied and it was possible to evaluate the ERCC1 expression in the majority (85%) of colorectal cancer tumor specimens. PMID:24603753

  18. Evaluation of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus Capsid Protein as a New Carrier for Construction of Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Harboring Foreign Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Gedvilaite, Alma; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Lasickiene, Rita; Timinskas, Albertas; Vaitiekaite, Ausra; Ziogiene, Danguole; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2015-08-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising tool for protein engineering. Recently, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) viral protein 1 (VP1) was efficiently produced in yeast expression system and shown to self-assemble to VLPs. In the current study, TSPyV VP1 protein was exploited as a carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring selected B and T cell-specific epitopes and evaluated in comparison to hamster polyomavirus VP1 protein. Chimeric VLPs with inserted either hepatitis B virus preS1 epitope DPAFR or a universal T cell-specific epitope AKFVAAWTLKAAA were produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Target epitopes were incorporated either at the HI or BC loop of the VP1 protein. The insertion sites were selected based on molecular models of TSPyV VP1 protein. The surface exposure of the insert positions was confirmed using a collection of monoclonal antibodies raised against the intact TSPyV VP1 protein. All generated chimeric proteins were capable to self-assemble to VLPs, which induced a strong immune response in mice. The chimeric VLPs also activated dendritic cells and T cells as demonstrated by analysis of cell surface markers and cytokine production profiles in spleen cell cultures. In conclusion, TSPyV VP1 protein represents a new potential carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring target epitopes. PMID:26230706

  19. Evaluation of Trichodysplasia Spinulosa-Associated Polyomavirus Capsid Protein as a New Carrier for Construction of Chimeric Virus-Like Particles Harboring Foreign Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Gedvilaite, Alma; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Lasickiene, Rita; Timinskas, Albertas; Vaitiekaite, Ausra; Ziogiene, Danguole; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising tool for protein engineering. Recently, trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV) viral protein 1 (VP1) was efficiently produced in yeast expression system and shown to self-assemble to VLPs. In the current study, TSPyV VP1 protein was exploited as a carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring selected B and T cell-specific epitopes and evaluated in comparison to hamster polyomavirus VP1 protein. Chimeric VLPs with inserted either hepatitis B virus preS1 epitope DPAFR or a universal T cell-specific epitope AKFVAAWTLKAAA were produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Target epitopes were incorporated either at the HI or BC loop of the VP1 protein. The insertion sites were selected based on molecular models of TSPyV VP1 protein. The surface exposure of the insert positions was confirmed using a collection of monoclonal antibodies raised against the intact TSPyV VP1 protein. All generated chimeric proteins were capable to self-assemble to VLPs, which induced a strong immune response in mice. The chimeric VLPs also activated dendritic cells and T cells as demonstrated by analysis of cell surface markers and cytokine production profiles in spleen cell cultures. In conclusion, TSPyV VP1 protein represents a new potential carrier for construction of chimeric VLPs harboring target epitopes. PMID:26230706

  20. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics. PMID:26458840

  1. Chimeric 2C10R4 anti-CD40 antibody therapy is critical for long-term survival of GTKO.hCD46.hTBM pig-to-primate cardiac xenograft.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Muhammad M; Singh, Avneesh K; Corcoran, Philip C; Thomas, Marvin L; Clark, Tannia; Lewis, Billeta G; Hoyt, Robert F; Eckhaus, Michael; Pierson, Richard N; Belli, Aaron J; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Phelps, Carol; Reimann, Keith A; Ayares, David; Horvath, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Preventing xenograft rejection is one of the greatest challenges of transplantation medicine. Here, we describe a reproducible, long-term survival of cardiac xenografts from alpha 1-3 galactosyltransferase gene knockout pigs, which express human complement regulatory protein CD46 and human thrombomodulin (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM), that were transplanted into baboons. Our immunomodulatory drug regimen includes induction with anti-thymocyte globulin and αCD20 antibody, followed by maintenance with mycophenolate mofetil and an intensively dosed αCD40 (2C10R4) antibody. Median (298 days) and longest (945 days) graft survival in five consecutive recipients using this regimen is significantly prolonged over our recently established survival benchmarks (180 and 500 days, respectively). Remarkably, the reduction of αCD40 antibody dose on day 100 or after 1 year resulted in recrudescence of anti-pig antibody and graft failure. In conclusion, genetic modifications (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM) combined with the treatment regimen tested here consistently prevent humoral rejection and systemic coagulation pathway dysregulation, sustaining long-term cardiac xenograft survival beyond 900 days. PMID:27045379

  2. Chimeric 2C10R4 anti-CD40 antibody therapy is critical for long-term survival of GTKO.hCD46.hTBM pig-to-primate cardiac xenograft

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Muhammad M.; Singh, Avneesh K.; Corcoran, Philip C.; Thomas III, Marvin L.; Clark, Tannia; Lewis, Billeta G.; Hoyt, Robert F.; Eckhaus, Michael; Pierson III, Richard N.; Belli, Aaron J.; Wolf, Eckhard; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Phelps, Carol; Reimann, Keith A.; Ayares, David; Horvath, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Preventing xenograft rejection is one of the greatest challenges of transplantation medicine. Here, we describe a reproducible, long-term survival of cardiac xenografts from alpha 1-3 galactosyltransferase gene knockout pigs, which express human complement regulatory protein CD46 and human thrombomodulin (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM), that were transplanted into baboons. Our immunomodulatory drug regimen includes induction with anti-thymocyte globulin and αCD20 antibody, followed by maintenance with mycophenolate mofetil and an intensively dosed αCD40 (2C10R4) antibody. Median (298 days) and longest (945 days) graft survival in five consecutive recipients using this regimen is significantly prolonged over our recently established survival benchmarks (180 and 500 days, respectively). Remarkably, the reduction of αCD40 antibody dose on day 100 or after 1 year resulted in recrudescence of anti-pig antibody and graft failure. In conclusion, genetic modifications (GTKO.hCD46.hTBM) combined with the treatment regimen tested here consistently prevent humoral rejection and systemic coagulation pathway dysregulation, sustaining long-term cardiac xenograft survival beyond 900 days. PMID:27045379

  3. Escherichia coli K88ac Fimbriae Expressing Heat-Labile and Heat-Stable (STa) Toxin Epitopes Elicit Antibodies That Neutralize Cholera Toxin and STa Toxin and Inhibit Adherence of K88ac Fimbrial E. coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chengxian; Zhang, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Bacterial adhesins and heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. It is believed that vaccines inducing anti-adhesin immunity to inhibit bacterial adherence and anti-toxin immunity to eliminate toxin activity would provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. In this study, an ETEC fimbrial adhesin was used as a platform to express LT and STa for adhesin-toxin fusion antigens to induce anti-toxin and anti-adhesin immunity. An epitope from the B subunit of LT toxin (LTP1, 8LCSEYRNTQIYTIN21) and an STa toxoid epitope (5CCELCCNPQCAGCY18) were embedded in the FaeG major subunit of E. coli K88ac fimbriae. Constructed K88ac-toxin chimeric fimbriae were harvested and used for rabbit immunization. Immunized rabbits developed anti-K88ac, anti-LT, and anti-STa antibodies. Moreover, induced antibodies not only inhibited adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli to porcine small intestinal enterocytes but also neutralized cholera toxin and STa toxin. Data from this study demonstrated that K88ac fimbriae expressing LT and STa epitope antigens elicited neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies and anti-adhesin antibodies and suggested that E. coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. PMID:20980482

  4. Escherichia coli K88ac fimbriae expressing heat-labile and heat-stable (STa) toxin epitopes elicit antibodies that neutralize cholera toxin and STa toxin and inhibit adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengxian; Zhang, Weiping

    2010-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains are a major cause of diarrheal disease in humans and animals. Bacterial adhesins and heat-labile (LT) and heat-stable (ST) enterotoxins are the virulence determinants in ETEC diarrhea. It is believed that vaccines inducing anti-adhesin immunity to inhibit bacterial adherence and anti-toxin immunity to eliminate toxin activity would provide broad-spectrum protection against ETEC. In this study, an ETEC fimbrial adhesin was used as a platform to express LT and STa for adhesin-toxin fusion antigens to induce anti-toxin and anti-adhesin immunity. An epitope from the B subunit of LT toxin (LTP1, (8)LCSEYRNTQIYTIN(21)) and an STa toxoid epitope ((5)CCELCCNPQCAGCY(18)) were embedded in the FaeG major subunit of E. coli K88ac fimbriae. Constructed K88ac-toxin chimeric fimbriae were harvested and used for rabbit immunization. Immunized rabbits developed anti-K88ac, anti-LT, and anti-STa antibodies. Moreover, induced antibodies not only inhibited adherence of K88ac fimbrial E. coli to porcine small intestinal enterocytes but also neutralized cholera toxin and STa toxin. Data from this study demonstrated that K88ac fimbriae expressing LT and STa epitope antigens elicited neutralizing anti-toxin antibodies and anti-adhesin antibodies and suggested that E. coli fimbriae could serve as a platform for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines against ETEC. PMID:20980482

  5. Envelope-chimeric Entry-targeted Measles Virus Escapes Neutralization and Achieves Oncolysis

    PubMed Central

    Miest, Tanner S; Yaiw, Koon-Chu; Frenzke, Marie; Lampe, Johanna; Hudacek, Andrew W; Springfeld, Christoph; von Messling, Veronika; Ungerechts, Guy; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) is a promising vector for cancer therapy and multivalent vaccination, but high prevalence of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies may reduce therapeutic efficacy, particularly following systemic administration. MV has only one serotype, but here we show that its envelope glycoproteins can be exchanged with those of the closely related canine distemper virus (CDV), generating a chimeric virus capable of escaping neutralization. To target its entry, we displayed on the CDV attachment protein a single-chain antibody specific for a designated receptor. To enhance oncolytic efficacy we armed the virus with a prodrug convertase gene capable of locally activating chemotherapeutic prodrugs. The new virus achieved high titers, was genetically stable, and was resistant to neutralization by sera from both MV-immunized mice and MV-immune humans. The new virus targeted syngeneic murine tumor cells expressing the designated receptor implanted in immunocompetent mice, and synergized with a chemotherapeutic prodrug in a model of oncolysis. Importantly, the chimeric MV remained oncolytic when administered systemically even in the presence of anti-MV antibodies capable of abrogating the therapeutic efficacy of the parental, nonshielded MV. This work shows that targeting, arming, and shielding can be combined to generate a tumor-specific, neutralization-resistant virus that can synergize with chemotherapeutics. PMID:21610701

  6. Interference with virus and bacteria replication by the tissue specific expression of antibodies and interfering molecules.

    PubMed

    Enjuanes, L; Sola, I; Izeta, A; Sánchez-Morgado, J M; González, J M; Alonso, S; Escors, D; Sánchez, C M

    1999-01-01

    Historically, protection against virus infections has relied on the use of vaccines, but the induction of an immune response requires several days and in certain situations, like in newborn animals that may be infected at birth and die in a few days, there is not sufficient time to elicit a protective immune response. Immediate protection in new born could be provided either by vectors that express virus-interfering molecules in a tissue specific form, or by the production of animals expressing resistance to virus replication. The mucosal surface is the largest body surface susceptible to virus infection that can serve for virus entry. Then, it is of high interest to develop strategies to prevent infections of these areas. Virus growth can be interfered intracellularly, extracellularly or both. The antibodies neutralize virus intra- and extracellularly and their molecular biology is well known. In addition, antibodies efficiently neutralize viruses in the mucosal areas. The autonomy of antibody molecules in virus neutralization makes them functional in cells different from those that produce the antibodies and in the extracellular medium. These properties have identified antibodies as very useful molecules to be expressed by vectors or in transgenic animals to provide resistance to virus infection. A similar role could be played by antimicrobial peptides in the case of bacteria. Intracellular interference with virus growth (intracellular immunity) can be mediated by molecules of very different nature: (i) full length or single chain antibodies; (ii) mutant viral proteins that strongly interfere with the replication of the wild type virus (dominant-negative mutants); (iii) antisense RNA and ribozyme sequences; and (iv) the product of antiviral genes such as the Mx proteins. All these molecules inhibiting virus replication may be used to obtain transgenic animals with resistance to viral infection built in their genomes. We have developed two strategies to target

  7. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-Engineered Lymphocytes for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Carlos A.; Dotti, Gianpietro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) usually combine the antigen binding site of a monoclonal antibody with the signal activating machinery of a T cell, freeing antigen recognition from major histocompatibility complex restriction and thus breaking one of the barriers to more widespread application of cellular therapy. Similar to treatment strategies employing monoclonal antibodies, T cells expressing CARs are highly targeted, but additionally offer the potential benefits of active trafficking to tumor sites, in vivo expansion and long term persistence. Furthermore, gene transfer allows the introduction of countermeasures to tumor immune evasion and of safety mechanisms. Areas covered The authors review the basic structure of so-called first and later generation CARs and their potential advantages over other immune therapy systems. It is described how these molecules can be grafted into immune cells (including retroviral and non-retroviral transduction methods) and strategies to improve the in vivo persistence and function of immune cells expressing CARs are discussed. Examples of tumor associated antigens that have been targeted in preclinical models are presented and clinical experience with these modified cells is summarized. Finally, a discussion on safety issues surrounding CAR gene transfer into T cells and potential solutions to them, are presented. Expert opinion Because of recent advances in immunology, genetics and cell processing, CAR-modified T cells will likely play an increasing role in the cellular therapy of cancer, chronic infections and autoimmune disorders. PMID:21463133

  8. Primary structure and functional scFv antibody expression of an antibody against the human protooncogen c-myc.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, P; Breitling, F; Little, M; Dübel, S

    1997-06-01

    The immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain variable region (Vh and Vl) genes were isolated from Myc1-9E10 hybridoma cells, which secreted monoclonal antibody against human oncogen c-myc. The expression vector pOPE52-c-myc was constructed for the recombinant production in E. coli. A 30 kDa single chain fragment (scFv) expression product was found in the periplasmic space by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting. A significant fraction was processed correctly as demonstrated with an antiserum recognizing the processed aminoterminus only. The specific binding of the scFv fragment to the peptide epitope of the maternal monoclonal antibody was demonstrated and the primary sequence of the variable regions was determined. Sequence comparison with previously published partial Vh and Vl sequences from this hybridoma cell line revealed a genetic heterogeneity for the light chain variable region. The potential use of this scFv as a new tool for detection and purification of tagged proteins, for adding costimulatory signals to the surface of cancer cells as well as for analyzing c-myc function in the living cell by cytoplasmic expression is discussed. PMID:9219032

  9. IL-12 release by engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors can effectively Muster an antigen-independent macrophage response on tumor cells that have shut down tumor antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Chmielewski, Markus; Kopecky, Caroline; Hombach, Andreas A; Abken, Hinrich

    2011-09-01

    During malignant progression cancer cells tend to lose cell surface expression of MHC and other immune antigens, making them invisible to cytotoxic T cells and therefore inaccessible to tumor antigen-directed immunotherapy. Moreover, cancer cell variants that have lost antigen expression frequently contribute to deadly tumor relapses that occur following treatments that had been initially effective. In an effort to destroy antigen-loss cancer cells in tumors, we created a strategy that combines a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-redirected T-cell attack with an engineered local release of the cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12), which recruits and reinforces macrophage function. Cytotoxic T cells were engineered to release inducible IL-12 upon CAR engagement in the tumor lesion, resulting in destruction of antigen-loss cancer cells that would normally escape. Importantly, elimination of the antigen-loss cancer cells was accompanied by an accumulation of activated macrophages that was critical to the antitumor response, because removing the macrophages abolished the response and restoring them reengaged it. Neutralizing TNF-α also abrogated the elimination of antigen-loss cancer cells, implying this proinflammatory factor in the process. Taken together, our results show how IL-12 supplementation by CAR T cells can target otherwise inaccessible tumor lesions, in a manner associated with reduced systemic toxicity, by recruiting and activating innate immune cells for a proinflammatory response. PMID:21742772

  10. Femtosecond spectroscopy probes the folding quality of antibody fragments expressed as GFP fusions in the cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Didier, P.; Weiss, E.; Sibler, A.-P.; Philibert, P.; Martineau, P.; Bigot, J.-Y.; Guidoni, L.

    2008-02-22

    Time-resolved femtosecond spectroscopy can improve the application of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) as protein-folding reporters. The study of ultrafast excited-state dynamics (ESD) of GFP fused to single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody fragments, allowed us to define and measure an empirical parameter that only depends on the folding quality (FQ) of the fusion. This method has been applied to the analysis of genetic fusions expressed in the bacterial cytoplasm and allowed us to distinguish folded and thus functional antibody fragments (high FQ) with respect to misfolded antibody fragments. Moreover, these findings were strongly correlated to the behavior of the same scFvs expressed in animal cells. This method is based on the sensitivity of the ESD to the modifications in the tertiary structure of the GFP induced by the aggregation state of the fusion partner. This approach may be applicable to the study of the FQ of polypeptides over-expressed under reducing conditions.

  11. The distribution of saponins in vivo affects their synergy with chimeric toxins against tumours expressing human epidermal growth factor receptors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bachran, C; Weng, A; Bachran, D; Riese, SB; Schellmann, N; Melzig, MF; Fuchs, H

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Certain saponins synergize with antitumour drugs to enhance their efficacy, but the mechanisms underlying this synergy in vivo are not well studied. Here, we describe the distribution of Saponinum album (Spn) from Gypsophila paniculata L. in mice after subcutaneous injection. Experimental approach: The [3H]-labelled Spn used for in vivo experiments was biologically active, as it still increased the cytotoxicity of a chimeric toxin in vitro. Distribution of [3H]-Spn was measured in BALB/c mice, with or without subcutaneous tumours in the flank. Labelled Spn was subcutaneously injected in the neck, and samples of organs, blood, urine and tumour tissue were analysed for radioactivity, 5–240 min after the injection. Key results: The majority of [3H]-Spn distributed within 10 min throughout the entire animal, with high levels of radioactivity in the urine by 30 min. No preferential accumulation in tumour tissue or other organs was observed. In tumour-bearing mice, using a sequential combination of Spn (given first) and a chimeric toxin against the epidermal growth factor receptor, ErbB1, we tested two different pretreatment times for Spn. There was high antitumour efficacy (66% inhibition of tumour growth) after 60 min pre treatment with Spn, but no significant inhibition after 10 min pre treatment with Spn. Conclusions and implications: [3H]-Spn was rapidly cleared from the mice after s.c. injection, and antitumour synergy with chimeric toxins was correlated with the removal of excess Spn from tissues. Disposition of Spn in vivo may critically determine antitumour synergy with chimeric toxins. PMID:20015087

  12. Iron as the Key Modulator of Hepcidin Expression in Erythroid Antibody-Mediated Hypoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, J. C.; Garrido, P.; Ribeiro, S.; Rocha-Pereira, P.; Bronze-da-Rocha, E.; Belo, L.; Costa, E.; Reis, F.; Santos-Silva, A.

    2014-01-01

    Erythroid hypoplasia (EH) is a rare complication associated with recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) therapies, due to development of anti-rHuEPO antibodies; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly clarified. Our aim was to manage a rat model of antibody-mediated EH induced by rHuEPO and study the impact on iron metabolism and erythropoiesis. Wistar rats treated during 9 weeks with a high rHuEPO dose (200 IU) developed EH, as shown by anemia, reduced erythroblasts, reticulocytopenia, and plasmatic anti-rHuEPO antibodies. Serum iron was increased and associated with mRNA overexpression of hepatic hepcidin and other iron regulatory mediators and downregulation of matriptase-2; overexpression of divalent metal transporter 1 and ferroportin was observed in duodenum and liver. Decreased EPO expression was observed in kidney and liver, while EPO receptor was overexpressed in liver. Endogenous EPO levels were normal, suggesting that anti-rHuEPO antibodies blunted EPO function. Our results suggest that anti-rHuEPO antibodies inhibit erythropoiesis causing anemia. This leads to a serum iron increase, which seems to stimulate hepcidin expression despite no evidence of inflammation, thus suggesting iron as the key modulator of hepcidin synthesis. These findings might contribute to improving new therapeutic strategies against rHuEPO resistance and/or development of antibody-mediated EH in patients under rHuEPO therapy. PMID:25580431

  13. Anti-myelin antibodies modulate clinical expression of childhood multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K C; Lopez-Amaya, C; Gagne, D; Lovato, L; Moore-Odom, N H; Kennedy, J; Krupp, L; Tenembaum, S; Ness, J; Belman, A; Boyko, A; Bykova, O; Mah, J K; Stoian, C A; Waubant, E; Kremenchutzky, M; Ruggieri, M; Bardini, M R; Rensel, M; Hahn, J; Weinstock-Guttman, B; Yeh, E A; Farrell, K; Freedman, M S; Iivanainen, M; Bhan, V; Dilenge, M; Hancock, M A; Gano, D; Fattahie, R; Kopel, L; Fournier, A E; Moscarello, M; Banwell, B; Bar-Or, A

    2010-06-01

    Anti-myelin basic protein (MBP) antibodies in pediatric-onset MS and controls were characterized. Serum samples were obtained from 94 children with MS and 106 controls. Paired CSF and serum were obtained from 25 children with MS at time of their initial episode of acute demyelinating syndrome (ADS). Complementary assays were applied across samples to evaluate the presence, and the physical binding properties, of anti-MBP antibodies. While the prevalence and titers of serum anti-MBP antibodies against both immature and mature forms of MBP were similar in children with MS and in controls, binding characteristics and formal Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) studies indicated surprisingly high binding affinities of all pediatric anti-MBP antibodies. Serum levels of anti-MBP antibodies correlated significantly with their CSF levels, and their presence in children with MS was associated with significantly increased risk of an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like initial clinical presentation. While antibodies to both immature and mature forms of MBP can be present as part of the normal pediatric humoral repertoire, these anti-myelin antibodies are of surprisingly high affinity, can access the CNS during inflammation, and have the capacity to modulate disease expression. Our findings identify an immune mechanism that could contribute to the observed heterogeneity in spectrum of clinical presentations in early-onset MS. PMID:20381173

  14. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody and Expression Analysis of GR in Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhu, Benzhong; Luo, Yunbo; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Hongxing

    The fruit ripening of Green-ripe (Gr) mutant tomato was inhibited dramatically. To determine the expression patterns of Gr in tomato, we first produced the polyclonal antibody of Gr protein. RT-PCR was used to amplify the Gr gene from green ripe tomato fruit. And the PCR product was subcloned into prokaryotic protein expression vectors pET-30a to generate recombinant plasmid. The Gr protein was induced by IPTG in BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA agarose column. The anti-Gr serum was produced by immunizing rabbits, and the titer of the anti-Gr serum was above 5000 by ELISA analysis. Purified by the DEAE-52 ion-column, the high purification level of anti-Gr polyclonal antibody was obtained. Furthermore, RT-CPR was used in the RNA level to demonstrate that the expression of Gr gene was specialized in some cultures of tomato. For example, the expressions of Gr were higher in seed, flower and green ripe fruit than others, and the expression level were reduced by exogenous ethylene treatment in the flower and green ripe fruit. Moreover, Polyclonal antibody of Gr was used to investigate the expression pattern of Gr in protein level by the Western blotting. Our results show that the expression level of Gr in protein level was complied with the expressions in RNA. So, we suggested that the regulation of Gr was transcriptional.

  15. Chronic Mycoplasma conjunctivitis in house finches: host antibody response and M. gallisepticum VlhA expression.

    PubMed

    Grodio, Jessica L; Ley, David H; Schat, Karel A; Hawley, Dana M

    2013-08-15

    Previous studies have shown that house finch field isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vary in virulence and ability to induce an antibody response. After experimental inoculation, MG causes persistent, severe disease in a subset of individuals. In this study, we further characterized MG infection using five field isolates, with an emphasis on chronically diseased birds. After experimental inoculation of house finches, MG load was measured by quantitative PCR and anti-MG antibody responses were measured by ELISAs. Birds with chronic disease had significantly higher pathogen loads and antibody responses than did birds without chronic disease. Using a monoclonal antibody (MAb86) specific for a variant of the MG VlhA adhesin and immunodominant surface protein, we show that VlhA expression differs among MG isolates in this study, and that in vivo VlhA changes occur in house finches infected with MG. Overall, our results suggest that chronic MG disease has a strong pathogen-mediated component. PMID:23764469

  16. Development of a recombinant antibody to target peptides and proteins to sialoadhesin-expressing macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sialoadhesin (Sn)-expressing monocytes/macrophages have been associated with several diseases like inflammatory and autoimmune disorders as well as viral infections, and they also appear to play a role in the initiation of an adaptive immune response. This makes Sn-expressing cells not only attractive targets for cell-directed therapies, but also an appealing target for vaccination. Furthermore, since Sn was shown to be an endocytic receptor, the conjugation of effector molecules to an Sn-specific ligand should allow intracellular delivery of these conjugates. Previously, we developed functional Sn-specific immunoconjugates that were generated via chemical coupling. Although successful, the system requires significant optimization for each immunoconjugate to be made. To generate a more flexible and controlled system, we developed a recombinant antibody vector allowing the creation of genetic antibody fusion constructs. This paper reports on the characterization of the recombinant antibody and the evaluation of its use for Sn-directed targeting. Results The variable domains of the porcine Sn-specific monoclonal antibody 41D3 were sequenced and cloned in frame with a mouse IgG1 backbone. Transfection of HEK293T cells with the resulting plasmid led to the secretion of fully assembled IgG into the culture medium. This recombinant antibody rec41D3 was shown to specifically bind to porcine Sn with a comparable affinity as the native monoclonal antibody. In addition, rec41D3 also induced Sn endocytosis in primary macrophages and resided for prolonged times in early/late endosomes. To allow the generation of antibody fusion constructs, a multiple cloning site was introduced at the C-terminus of the heavy chain. Two fusion constructs were generated, one containing a V5 peptide tag and one containing an eGFP molecule. Both constructs were shown to be efficiently produced in HEK293T cells and easily purified using standard protein G chromatography. In addition

  17. Expression and antibody generation of the cancer-testis antigen, BIOT2-S.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Cao, M; Guo, M-R; Li, S; Yang, X-F; Wang, M; Fang, J; Zhao, J

    2015-01-01

    Biot2-S is a mouse cancer-testis antigen gene that was identified using the cross-reactive serological analysis of recombinant cDNA expression libraries (SEREX) technique in the State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University. To express BIOT2-S and generate its antibody for further investigation, the Biot2-S prokaryotic recombinant expression vector Biot2-S/pGEX6P-1 was constructed with Escherichia coli DH5α as a cloning vector, and BIOT2-S was expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3). The recombinant BIOT2-S was expressed in the form of an inclusion body and the targeted recombinant BIOT2-S was produced at the level of approximately 25% total bacterial proteins after being induced with optimum conditions (0.2 mM isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside for 6 h at 37°C). The target protein was purified by glutathione S-transferase (GST)-trap FF affinity chromatography and detected by western blot. The purified recombinant protein was further confirmed by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry after removal of the GST-tags. Then the purified BIOT2-S was used to immunize adult rabbits to generate its antibody. The antibody was purified and its specificity determined. The titer of the antibody was shown to reach 10(4) and the antibody was demonstrated to be able recognize the corresponding protein in the testes of mouse and chicken; the tumor cell lines CT-26 and S180 also reacted with the antibody. This study provides a valuable foundation for further research on the cancer-testis antigen BIOT2-S. PMID:26345800

  18. Tissue factor expression in ovarian cancer: implications for immunotherapy with hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGF(c) chimeric protein targeting tissue factor.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Emiliano; Varughese, Joyce; Buza, Natalia; Bellone, Stefania; Lin, Ken-Yu; Bellone, Marta; Todeschini, Paola; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Rutherford, Thomas J; Carrara, Luisa; Tassi, Renata; Pecorelli, Sergio; Lockwood, Charles J; Santin, Alessandro D

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated the expression of tissue factor (TF) in ovarian cancer (EOC) and the potential of hI-con1, an antibody-like molecule targeting TF, as a novel form of therapy against chemotherapy-resistant ovarian disease. We studied the expression of TF in 88 EOC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the levels of membrane-bound-complement-regulatory-proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 in primary EOC cell lines by flow-cytometry. Sensitivity to hI-con1-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity (IDCC), complement-dependent-cell-cytotoxicity and inhibition of IDCC by γ-immunoglobulin were evaluated in 5-h (51)chromium-release-assays. Cytoplasmic and/or membrane TF expression was observed in 24 out of 25 (96%) of the EOC samples tested by IHC, but not in normal ovarian-tissue. EOC with clear cell histology significantly overexpress TF when compared to serous, endometrioid, or undifferentiated tumors by qRT-PCR. With a single exception, all primary EOC that overexpressed TF demonstrated high levels of CD46, CD55 and CD59 and regardless of their histology or resistance to chemotherapy, were highly sensitive to IDCC. The effect of complement and physiologic doses of γ-immunoglobulin on IDCC in ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing TF was tumor specific and related to the overexpression of CD59 on tumor cells. Small-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown of CD59 expression in ovarian tumors significantly increased hI-con1-mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro. Finally, low doses of interleukin-2 further increased the cytotoxic effect induced by hI-con1 (P < 0.01). hI-con1 molecule induces strong cytotoxicity against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing TF and may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian tumors refractory to standard treatment modalities. PMID:21725665

  19. Tissue factor expression in ovarian cancer: implications for immunotherapy with hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGFc chimeric protein targeting tissue factor

    PubMed Central

    Cocco, Emiliano; Varughese, Joyce; Buza, Natalia; Bellone, Stefania; Lin, Ken-Yu; Bellone, Marta; Todeschini, Paola; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E.; Rutherford, Thomas J.; Carrara, Luisa; Tassi, Renata; Pecorelli, Sergio; Lockwood, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the expression of tissue factor (TF) in ovarian cancer (EOC) and the potential of hI-con1, an antibody-like molecule targeting TF, as a novel form of therapy against chemotherapy-resistant ovarian disease. We studied the expression of TF in 88 EOC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the levels of membrane-bound-complement-regulatory-proteins CD46, CD55 and CD59 in primary EOC cell lines by flow-cytometry. Sensitivity to hI-con1-dependent-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity (IDCC), complement-dependent-cell-cytotoxicity and inhibition of IDCC by γ-immunoglobulin were evaluated in 5-h 51chromium-release-assays. Cytoplasmic and/or membrane TF expression was observed in 24 out of 25 (96%) of the EOC samples tested by IHC, but not in normal ovarian-tissue. EOC with clear cell histology significantly overexpress TF when compared to serous, endometrioid, or undifferentiated tumors by qRT-PCR. With a single exception, all primary EOC that overexpressed TF demonstrated high levels of CD46, CD55 and CD59 and regardless of their histology or resistance to chemotherapy, were highly sensitive to IDCC. The effect of complement and physiologic doses of γ-immunoglobulin on IDCC in ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing TF was tumor specific and related to the overexpression of CD59 on tumor cells. Small-interfering-RNA-mediated knockdown of CD59 expression in ovarian tumors significantly increased hI-con1-mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro. Finally, low doses of interleukin-2 further increased the cytotoxic effect induced by hI-con1 (P < 0.01). hI-con1 molecule induces strong cytotoxicity against primary chemotherapy-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines overexpressing TF and may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian tumors refractory to standard treatment modalities. PMID:21725665

  20. Internalization and re-expression of antigens of human melanoma cells following exposure to monoclonal antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.S.; Lumanglas, A.L.; Silva, J.; Ruszala-Mallon, V.; Durr, F.E.

    1987-04-15

    Modulation of the surface membrane of human Sk-Mel-28 melanoma cells by monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 96.5 recognizing p97 determinants was examined using direct radioimmunoassay and indirect fluorescent antibody-staining techniques. It was determined that the majority of /sup 111/In-labeled antibody that remained associated with cells after a 24-hr incubation at 37 degrees C had been internalized because MoAb 96.5 was no longer visible on the cell surface. A second treatment of these cells with the same antibody 24 hr later not only increased the cell-associated radioactivity, reflecting an increase of total antibody bound, but also rendered these cells membrane immunofluorescent again, indicating the re-expression of surface antigens. Autoradiographs of the electrophoretically analyzed membrane components of Sk-Mel-28 cells further demonstrated the appearance of newly synthesized 97-kDa proteins that were immunoprecipitable with MoAb 96.5. Taken together, the present findings suggest that p97 antigens undergo endocytosis in Sk-Mel-28 cells following exposure to MoAb 96.5. However, the same antigens were regenerated and expressed on the cell surface within a period of 24 hr. The re-expression of tumor cell surface antigen following initial internalization of the MoAb-antigen complex may have implications for diagnosis and therapy.

  1. Chimerism in piglets developed from aggregated cloned embryos.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongye; Li, Zhanjun; Wang, Anfeng; Han, Xiaolei; Song, Yuning; Yuan, Lin; Li, Tianye; Wang, Bing; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2016-04-01

    Porcine chimeras are valuable in the study of pluripotency, embryogenesis and development. It would be meaningful to generate chimeric piglets from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos. In this study, two cell lines expressing the fluorescent markers enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and tdTomato were used as donor cells to produce reconstructed embryos. Chimeric embryos were generated by aggregating two EGFP-cell derived embryos with two tdTomato-cell derived embryos at the 4-cell stage, and embryo transfer was performed when the aggregated embryos developed into blastocysts. Live porcine chimeras were successfully born and chimerism was observed by their skin color, gene integration, microsatellite loci composition and fluorescent protein expression. The chimeric piglets were largely composed of EGFP-expressing cells, and this phenomenon was possibly due to the hyper-methylation of the promoter of the tdTomato gene. In addition, the expression levels of tumorigenicity-related genes were altered after tdTomato transfection in bladder cancer cells. The results show that chimeric pigs can be produced by aggregating cloned embryos and that the developmental capability of the cloned embryo in the subsequent chimeric development could be affected by the growth characteristics of its donor cell. PMID:27239442

  2. Bi20 (fBTA05), a novel trifunctional bispecific antibody (anti-CD20 x anti-CD3), mediates efficient killing of B-cell lymphoma cells even with very low CD20 expression levels.

    PubMed

    Stanglmaier, Michael; Faltin, Margot; Ruf, Peter; Bodenhausen, Annette; Schröder, Petra; Lindhofer, Horst

    2008-09-01

    Trifunctional bispecific antibodies can efficiently mediate tumor cell killing by redirecting T cells and immune accessory cells to the tumor cell. Here, we describe the new trifunctional antibody, Bi20 (FBTA05, anti-CD20 x anti-CD3), that connects B cells and T cells via its variable regions and recruits FcgammaRI(+) accessory immune cells via its Fc region. Bi20 mediated efficient and specific lysis of B-cell lines and of B cells with low CD20 expression levels that were derived from CLL patients. Remarkably, T-cell activation and tumor cell killing occurred in an entirely autologous setting without additional effector cells in 5 of 8 samples. In comparison, rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal CD20 antibody, demonstrated a significantly lower B-cell eradication rate. Additionally, Bi20, but not rituximab, upregulated the activation markers CD25 and CD69 on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the presence of accessory immune cells. CD14(+) accessory cells and the monocyte cell line THP-1 were activated via binding of the Fc region of Bi20, given that T cells were simultaneously engaged by the antibody. Bi20 induced a strong Th1 cytokine pattern characterized by high IFN-gamma and very low IL-4 secretion. In conclusion, Bi20 may offer new immunotherapeutic options for the treatment of B-cell lymphomas. PMID:18546289

  3. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells strike back.

    PubMed

    Frigault, Matthew J; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are engineered molecules designed to endow a polyclonal T-cell population with the ability to recognize tumor-associated surface antigens. In their simplest form, CARs comprise a targeting moiety in the form of a single-chain variable fragment from an antibody connected to various intracellular signaling domains allowing for T-cell activation. This powerful approach combines the specificity of an antibody with the cytotoxic ability of a T cell. There has been much excitement since early phase trials of CAR-T cells targeting CD19 expressed on B-cell malignancies demonstrated remarkable efficacy in inducing long-term, stable remissions in otherwise relapsed/refractory disease. Despite these successes, we have just begun to understand the intricacies of CAR biology with efforts underway to utilize this platform in the treatment of other, previously refractory malignancies. Challenges currently include identification of viable cancer targets, management strategies for potentially severe and irreversible toxicities and overcoming the immunosuppressive nature of the tumor microenvironment. This review will focus on basic CAR structure and function, previous success and new approaches aimed at the broader application of CAR-T-cell therapy. PMID:27021308

  4. Pituitary expression of CTLA-4 mediates hypophysitis secondary to administration of CTLA-4 blocking antibody.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Shintaro; De Remigis, Alessandra; Callahan, Margaret K; Slovin, Susan F; Wolchok, Jedd D; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2014-04-01

    Hypophysitis is a chronic inflammation of the pituitary gland of unknown (primary forms) or recognizable (secondary forms) etiology, such as the use of ipilimumab in cancer immunotherapy. Ipilimumab, which blocks the T cell inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4), induces hypophysitis in about 4% of patients through unknown mechanisms. We first established a model of secondary hypophysitis by repeated injections of a CTLA-4 blocking antibody into SJL/J or C57BL/6J mice, and showed that they developed lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland and circulating pituitary antibodies. We next assessed the prevalence of pituitary antibodies in a cohort of 20 patients with advanced melanoma or prostate cancer, 7 with a clinical diagnosis of hypophysitis, before and after ipilimumab administration. Pituitary antibodies, negative at baseline, developed in the 7 patients with hypophysitis but not in the 13 without it; these antibodies predominantly recognized thyrotropin-, follicle-stimulating hormone-, and corticotropin-secreting cells. We then hypothesized that the injected CTLA-4 antibody could cause pituitary toxicity if bound to CTLA-4 antigen expressed "ectopically" on pituitary endocrine cells. Pituitary glands indeed expressed CTLA-4 at both RNA and protein levels, particularly in a subset of prolactin- and thyrotropin-secreting cells. Notably, these cells became the site of complement activation, featuring deposition of C3d and C4d components and an inflammatory cascade akin to that seen in type II hypersensitivity. In summary, the study offers a mechanism to explain the pituitary toxicity observed in patients receiving ipilimumab, and highlights the utility of measuring pituitary antibodies in this form of secondary hypophysitis. PMID:24695685

  5. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Methods: In the present study, several prediction programs were used to predict B and T-cells epitopes, secondary and tertiary structures, antigenicity ability and enzymatic degradation sites. Finally, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 antigen was constructed. It was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+) expression vector. The recombinant pET32a(+)-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E.oli BL21CodonPlus (DE3) as expression host. The recombinant VP8-S2 protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Results: The results of colony PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the VP8-S2 chimeric antigen has been successfully cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+).The results showed that E.coli was able to express VP8-S2 protein appropriately. This protein was expressed by induction of IPTG at concentration of 1mM and it was confirmed by Ni–NTA column, dot-blotting analysis and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that E.coli can be used as an appropriate host to produce the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. This recombinant protein may be suitable to investigate to produce immunoglobulin, recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit in future studies after it passes biological activity tests in vivo in animal model and or other suitable procedure. PMID:27123423

  6. Lack of interference with immunogenicity of a chimeric alphavirus replicon particle-based influenza vaccine by preexisting antivector immunity.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, Yasushi; Vajdy, Michael; Lian, Ying; Perri, Silvia; Greer, Catherine E; Legg, Harold S; Galli, Grazia; Saletti, Giulietta; Otten, Gillis R; Rappuoli, Rino; Barnett, Susan W; Polo, John M

    2012-07-01

    Antivector immunity has been recognized as a potential caveat of using virus-based vaccines. In the present study, an alphavirus-based replicon particle vaccine platform, which has demonstrated robust immunogenicity in animal models, was tested for effects of antivector immunity on immunogenicity against hemagglutinin of influenza virus as a target antigen and efficacy for protection against lethal challenge with the virus. Chimeric alphavirus-based replicon particles, comprising Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus nonstructural and Sindbis virus structural components, induced efficient protective antibody responses, which were not adversely influenced after multiple immunizations with the same vector expressing various antigens. PMID:22623651

  7. Characterization of a humanized monoclonal antibody recognizing clumping factor A expressed by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Domanski, Paul J; Patel, Pratiksha R; Bayer, Arnold S; Zhang, Li; Hall, Andrea E; Syribeys, Peter J; Gorovits, Elena L; Bryant, Dawn; Vernachio, John H; Hutchins, Jeff T; Patti, Joseph M

    2005-08-01

    We report the humanization and characterization of monoclonal antibody (MAb) T1-2 or tefibazumab, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes clumping factor A expressed on the surface of Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrate that the binding kinetics of MAb T1-2 is indistinguishable compared to that of its murine parent. Furthermore, MAb T1-2 is shown to enhance the opsonophagocytic uptake of ClfA-coated latex beads, protect against an intravenous challenge in a prophylactic model of rabbit infective endocarditis, and enhance the efficacy of vancomycin therapy in a therapeutic model of established infective endocarditis. PMID:16041045

  8. B cell priming for extrafollicular antibody responses requires Bcl-6 expression by T cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sau K; Rigby, Robert J; Zotos, Dimitra; Tsai, Louis M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Marshall, Jennifer L; Ramiscal, Roybel R; Chan, Tyani D; Gatto, Dominique; Brink, Robert; Yu, Di; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Tarlinton, David M; Cunningham, Adam F; Vinuesa, Carola G

    2011-07-01

    T follicular helper cells (Tfh cells) localize to follicles where they provide growth and selection signals to mutated germinal center (GC) B cells, thus promoting their differentiation into high affinity long-lived plasma cells and memory B cells. T-dependent B cell differentiation also occurs extrafollicularly, giving rise to unmutated plasma cells that are important for early protection against microbial infections. Bcl-6 expression in T cells has been shown to be essential for the formation of Tfh cells and GC B cells, but little is known about its requirement in physiological extrafollicular antibody responses. We use several mouse models in which extrafollicular plasma cells can be unequivocally distinguished from those of GC origin, combined with antigen-specific T and B cells, to show that the absence of T cell-expressed Bcl-6 significantly reduces T-dependent extrafollicular antibody responses. Bcl-6(+) T cells appear at the T-B border soon after T cell priming and before GC formation, and these cells express low amounts of PD-1. Their appearance precedes that of Bcl-6(+) PD-1(hi) T cells, which are found within the GC. IL-21 acts early to promote both follicular and extrafollicular antibody responses. In conclusion, Bcl-6(+) T cells are necessary at B cell priming to form extrafollicular antibody responses, and these pre-GC Tfh cells can be distinguished phenotypically from GC Tfh cells. PMID:21708925

  9. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Dolzhikova, Inna V.; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N.; Zubkova, Olga V.; Ivanova, Tatiana I.; Tukhvatulin, Amir I.; Shmarov, Maxim M.; Logunov, Denis Y.; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L.

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  10. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Burmistrova, Daria A; Tillib, Sergey V; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N; Zubkova, Olga V; Ivanova, Tatiana I; Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Shmarov, Maxim M; Logunov, Denis Y; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  11. Expression, purification and antibody preparation of PCV2 Rep and ORF3 proteins.

    PubMed

    Peng, Zhiyuan; Ma, Teng; Pang, Daxin; Su, Dan; Chen, Fuwang; Chen, Xinrong; Guo, Ning; Ouyang, Ting; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Ren, Linzhu

    2016-05-01

    Rep and ORF3 proteins are important functional proteins of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2). Here, Rep and ORF3 genes were cloned, expressed and used to raise polyclonal antibodies. The result showed the recombinant plasmids of Rep and ORF3 genes constructed in this study were expressed efficiently in the prokaryotic system, and the recombinant proteins had antigenicity and immunogenicity. Furthermore, reactivity and specificity of the antiserums were characterized by western blot and indirect immunofluorescent assays. The results elucidated that polyclonal antiserum prepared with Rep or ORF3 had good reactivity and specificity against PCV2, or the Rep and ORF3 expressed in PK-15 cells, respectively. The Rep protein is promising for PCV2 antibody and vaccine development. These results will be helpful for further studies focusing on pathogenesis of PCV2 and serology diagnostic test or vaccine development against PCV2. PMID:26812108

  12. Dual-Function Vaccine for Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Characterization of Chimeric Exotoxin A-Pilin Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Mrsny, Randall; Fitzgerald, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major infectious agent of concern for cystic fibrosis patients. Strategies to prevent colonization by this bacterium and/or neutralize its virulence factors are clearly needed. Here we characterize a dual-function vaccine designed to generate antibodies to reduce bacterial adherence and to neutralize the cytotoxic activity of exotoxin A. To construct the vaccine, key sequences from type IV pilin were inserted into a vector encoding a nontoxic (active-site deletion) version of exotoxin A. The chimeric protein, termed PE64Δ553pil, was expressed in Escherichia coli, refolded to a near-native conformation, and then characterized by various biochemical and immunological assays. PE64Δ553pil bound specifically to asialo-GM1, and, when injected into rabbits, produced antibodies that reduced bacterial adherence and neutralized the cell-killing activity of exotoxin A. Results support further evaluation of this chimeric protein as a vaccine to prevent Pseudomonas colonization in susceptible individuals. PMID:11598071

  13. Low-Dose Adenovirus Vaccine Encoding Chimeric Hepatitis B Virus Surface Antigen-Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 Proteins Induces Enhanced E7-Specific Antibody and Cytotoxic T-Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Báez-Astúa, Andrés; Herráez-Hernández, Elsa; Garbi, Natalio; Pasolli, Hilda A.; Juárez, Victoria; zur Hausen, Harald; Cid-Arregui, Angel

    2005-01-01

    Induction of effective immune responses may help prevent cancer progression. Tumor-specific antigens, such as those of human papillomaviruses involved in cervical cancer, are targets with limited intrinsic immunogenicity. Here we show that immunization with low doses (106 infectious units/dose) of a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 encoding a fusion of the E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus type 16 to the carboxyl terminus of the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) induces remarkable E7-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The HBsAg/E7 fusion protein assembled efficiently into virus-like particles, which stimulated antibody responses against both carrier and foreign antigens, and evoked antigen-specific kill of an indicator cell population in vivo. Antibody and T-cell responses were significantly higher than those induced by a control adenovirus vector expressing wild-type E7. Such responses were not affected by preexisting immunity against either HBsAg or adenovirus. These data demonstrate that the presence of E7 on HBsAg particles does not interfere with particle secretion, as it occurs with bigger proteins fused to the C terminus of HBsAg, and results in enhancement of CD8+-mediated T-cell responses to E7. Thus, fusion to HBsAg is a convenient strategy for developing cervical cancer therapeutic vaccines, since it enhances the immunogenicity of E7 while turning it into an innocuous secreted fusion protein. PMID:16188983

  14. Evaluation of a chimeric multi-epitope-based DNA vaccine against subgroup J avian leukosis virus in chickens.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingqing; Cui, Ning; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2016-07-19

    The prokaryotic expressed recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) had been evaluated with good immunogenicity and protective efficacy against subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in our previous study. In the present research, we cloned the chimeric multi-epitope gene X into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 to evaluate its potency as a DNA vaccine. The purified recombinant gp85 protein and rCMEPX were used as positive controls and a DNA prime-protein boost strategy was also studied. Six experimental groups of 7-day-old chickens (20 per group) were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2weeks interval with PBS, gp85, rCMEPX, pVAX1, pVAX-X and pVAX-X+rCMEPX respectively. The antibody titers and cellular immune responses were assayed after immunization. The efficacy of immunoprotection against the challenge of ALV-J NX0101 strain was also examined. The results showed that the DNA vaccine could elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses. Immune-challenge experiments showed good protection efficacy against ALV-J infection. Particularly, the regimen involving one priming pVAX-X and twice recombinant rCMEPX boosting, induced the highest antibody titers in all immunized groups. Our results suggest that the constructed chimeric multi-epitope DNA has potential for a candidate vaccine against ALV-J when used in proper prime-boost combinations. The data presented here may provide an alternative strategy for vaccine design in chicken ALV-J prevention. PMID:27318415

  15. Development of chimeric laccases by directed evolution.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Isabel; Vicente, Ana Isabel; Mate, Diana M; Alcalde, Miguel; Camarero, Susana

    2012-12-01

    DNA recombination methods are useful tools to generate diversity in directed evolution protein engineering studies. We have designed an array of chimeric laccases with high-redox potential by in vitro and in vivo DNA recombination of two fungal laccases (from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and PM1 basidiomycete), which were previously tailored by laboratory evolution for functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The laccase fusion genes (including the evolved α-factor prepro-leaders for secretion in yeast) were subjected to a round of family shuffling to construct chimeric libraries and the best laccase hybrids were identified in dual high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. Using this approach, we identified chimeras with up to six crossover events in the whole sequence, and we obtained active hybrid laccases with combined characteristics in terms of pH activity and thermostability. PMID:22729887

  16. Efficient expression of full-length antibodies in the cytoplasm of engineered bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Michael-Paul; Ke, Na; Lobstein, Julie; Peterson, Cristen; Szkodny, Alana; Mansell, Thomas J.; Tuckey, Corinna; Riggs, Paul D.; Colussi, Paul A.; Noren, Christopher J.; Taron, Christopher H.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Berkmen, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Current methods for producing immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in engineered cells often require refolding steps or secretion across one or more biological membranes. Here, we describe a robust expression platform for biosynthesis of full-length IgG antibodies in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. Synthetic heavy and light chains, both lacking canonical export signals, are expressed in specially engineered E. coli strains that permit formation of stable disulfide bonds within the cytoplasm. IgGs with clinically relevant antigen- and effector-binding activities are readily produced in the E. coli cytoplasm by grafting antigen-specific variable heavy and light domains into a cytoplasmically stable framework and remodelling the fragment crystallizable domain with amino-acid substitutions that promote binding to Fcγ receptors. The resulting cytoplasmic IgGs—named ‘cyclonals'—effectively bypass the potentially rate-limiting steps of membrane translocation and glycosylation. PMID:26311203

  17. A Polyclonal Antibody Against Recombinant Bovine Haptoglobin Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Donghua; Zhang, Hong; Li, Chunqiu

    2013-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the predicted immunodominant region of bovine haptoglobin (pirBoHp), without the signal peptide sequence, was synthesized based on the codon usage bias of Escherichia coli. The synthesized pirBoHp gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a (+), which contains a His-tag. The recombinant pirBoHp protein was successfully expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Western blot analysis showed that the purified recombinant pirBoHp protein could be recognized by an anti-His-tag monoclonal antibody. Further investigations indicated that a polyclonal antibody against the recombinant pirBoHp protein could recognize the α and β chains of native bovine haptoglobin in a pooled plasma sample from dairy cattle suffering from foot rot. PMID:24328747

  18. Engineering of chimeric class II polyhydroxyalkanoate synthases.

    PubMed

    Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Delamarre, Soazig C; Kim, Young-Rok; Batt, Carl A

    2004-11-01

    PHA synthase is a key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). Using a combinatorial genetic strategy to create unique chimeric class II PHA synthases, we have obtained a number of novel chimeras which display improved catalytic properties. To engineer the chimeric PHA synthases, we constructed a synthetic phaC gene from Pseudomonas oleovorans (phaC1Po) that was devoid of an internal 540-bp fragment. Randomly amplified PCR products (created with primers based on conserved phaC sequences flanking the deleted internal fragment) were generated using genomic DNA isolated from soil and were substituted for the 540-bp internal region. The chimeric genes were expressed in a PHA-negative strain of Ralstonia eutropha, PHB(-)4 (DSM 541). Out of 1,478 recombinant clones screened for PHA production, we obtained five different chimeric phaC1Po genes that produced more PHA than the native phaC1Po. Chimeras S1-71, S4-8, S5-58, S3-69, and S3-44 exhibited 1.3-, 1.4-, 2.0-, 2.1-, and 3.0-fold-increased levels of in vivo activity, respectively. All of the mutants mediated the synthesis of PHAs with a slightly increased molar fraction of 3-hydroxyoctanoate; however, the weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of the PHAs in all cases remained almost the same. Based upon DNA sequence analyses, the various phaC fragments appear to have originated from Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas aureofaciens. The amino acid sequence analyses showed that the chimeric proteins had 17 to 20 amino acid differences from the wild-type phaC1Po, and these differences were clustered in the same positions in the five chimeric clones. A threading model of PhaC1Po, developed based on homology of the enzyme to the Burkholderia glumae lipase, suggested that the amino acid substitutions found in the active chimeras were located mostly on the protein model surface. Thus, our combinatorial genetic engineering strategy proved to be broadly useful for improving the catalytic

  19. A novel single-chain antibody redirects adenovirus to IL13Rα2-expressing brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Julius W.; Young, Jacob S.; Solomaha, Elena; Kanojia, Deepak; Lesniak, Maciej S.; Balyasnikova, Irina V.

    2015-01-01

    The generation of a targeting agent that strictly binds to IL13Rα2 will significantly expand the therapeutic potential for the treatment of IL13Rα2-expressing cancers. In order to fulfill this goal, we generated a single-chain antibody (scFv47) from our parental IL13Rα2 monoclonal antibody and tested its binding properties. Furthermore, to demonstrate the potential therapeutic applicability of scFv47, we engineered an adenovirus by incorporating scFv47 as the targeting moiety in the viral fiber and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. The scFv47 binds to human recombinant IL13Rα2, but not to IL13Rα1 with a high affinity of 0.9 · 10−9 M, similar to that of the parental antibody. Moreover, the scFv47 successfully redirects adenovirus to IL13Rα2 expressing glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our data validate scFv47 as a highly selective IL13Rα2 targeting agent and justify further development of scFv47-modified oncolytic adenovirus and other therapeutics for the treatment of IL13Rα2-expressing glioma and other malignancies. PMID:26656559

  20. A novel single-chain antibody redirects adenovirus to IL13Rα2-expressing brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julius W; Young, Jacob S; Solomaha, Elena; Kanojia, Deepak; Lesniak, Maciej S; Balyasnikova, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    The generation of a targeting agent that strictly binds to IL13Rα2 will significantly expand the therapeutic potential for the treatment of IL13Rα2-expressing cancers. In order to fulfill this goal, we generated a single-chain antibody (scFv47) from our parental IL13Rα2 monoclonal antibody and tested its binding properties. Furthermore, to demonstrate the potential therapeutic applicability of scFv47, we engineered an adenovirus by incorporating scFv47 as the targeting moiety in the viral fiber and characterized its properties in vitro and in vivo. The scFv47 binds to human recombinant IL13Rα2, but not to IL13Rα1 with a high affinity of 0.9 · 10(-9) M, similar to that of the parental antibody. Moreover, the scFv47 successfully redirects adenovirus to IL13Rα2 expressing glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our data validate scFv47 as a highly selective IL13Rα2 targeting agent and justify further development of scFv47-modified oncolytic adenovirus and other therapeutics for the treatment of IL13Rα2-expressing glioma and other malignancies. PMID:26656559

  1. Chimeras taking shape: potential functions of proteins encoded by chimeric RNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Lacroix, Vincent; Ezkurdia, Iakes; Levin, Yishai; Gabashvili, Alexandra; Prilusky, Jaime; Del Pozo, Angela; Tress, Michael; Johnson, Rory; Guigo, Roderic; Valencia, Alfonso

    2012-07-01

    Chimeric RNAs comprise exons from two or more different genes and have the potential to encode novel proteins that alter cellular phenotypes. To date, numerous putative chimeric transcripts have been identified among the ESTs isolated from several organisms and using high throughput RNA sequencing. The few corresponding protein products that have been characterized mostly result from chromosomal translocations and are associated with cancer. Here, we systematically establish that some of the putative chimeric transcripts are genuinely expressed in human cells. Using high throughput RNA sequencing, mass spectrometry experimental data, and functional annotation, we studied 7424 putative human chimeric RNAs. We confirmed the expression of 175 chimeric RNAs in 16 human tissues, with an abundance varying from 0.06 to 17 RPKM (Reads Per Kilobase per Million mapped reads). We show that these chimeric RNAs are significantly more tissue-specific than non-chimeric transcripts. Moreover, we present evidence that chimeras tend to incorporate highly expressed genes. Despite the low expression level of most chimeric RNAs, we show that 12 novel chimeras are translated into proteins detectable in multiple shotgun mass spectrometry experiments. Furthermore, we confirm the expression of three novel chimeric proteins using targeted mass spectrometry. Finally, based on our functional annotation of exon organization and preserved domains, we discuss the potential features of chimeric proteins with illustrative examples and suggest that chimeras significantly exploit signal peptides and transmembrane domains, which can alter the cellular localization of cognate proteins. Taken together, these findings establish that some chimeric RNAs are translated into potentially functional proteins in humans. PMID:22588898

  2. Chimeric Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus with Attachment and Fusion Glycoproteins Replaced by Bovine Parainfluenza Virus Type 3 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase and Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stope, Matthias B.; Karger, Axel; Schmidt, Ulrike; Buchholz, Ursula J.

    2001-01-01

    Chimeric bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (BRSV) expressing glycoproteins of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV-3) instead of BRSV glycoproteins were generated from cDNA. In the BRSV antigenome cDNA, the open reading frames of the major BRSV glycoproteins, attachment protein G and fusion protein F, were replaced individually or together by those of the BPIV-3 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and/or fusion (F) glycoproteins. Recombinant virus could not be recovered from cDNA when the BRSV F open reading frame was replaced by the BPIV-3 F open reading frame. However, cDNA recovery of the chimeric virus rBRSV-HNF, with both glycoproteins replaced simultaneously, and of the chimeric virus rBRSV-HN, with the BRSV G protein replaced by BPIV-3 HN, was successful. The replication rates of both chimeras were similar to that of standard rBRSV. Moreover, rBRSV-HNF was neutralized by antibodies specific for BPIV-3, but not by antibodies specific to BRSV, demonstrating that the BRSV glycoproteins can be functionally replaced by BPIV-3 glycoproteins. In contrast, rBRSV-HN was neutralized by BRSV-specific antisera, but not by BPIV-3 specific sera, showing that infection of rBRSV-HN is mediated by BRSV F. Hemadsorption of cells infected with rBRSV-HNF and rBRSV-HN proved that BPIV-3 HN protein expressed by rBRSV is functional. Colocalization of the BPIV-3 glycoproteins with BRSV M protein was demonstrated by confocal laser scan microscopy. Moreover, protein analysis revealed that the BPIV-3 glycoproteins were present in chimeric virions. Taken together, these data indicate that the heterologous glycoproteins were not only expressed but were incorporated into the envelope of recombinant BRSV. Thus, the envelope glycoproteins derived from a member of the Respirovirus genus can together functionally replace their homologs in a Pneumovirus background. PMID:11533200

  3. A humanized antibody for imaging immune checkpoint ligand PD-L1 expression in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielson, Matthew; Lisok, Ala; Wharram, Bryan; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Azad, Babak Behnam; Pomper, Martin G.; Nimmagadda, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint lead to tumor regression and improved survival in several cancers. PD-L1 expression in tumors may be predictive of response to checkpoint blockade therapy. Because tissue samples might not always be available to guide therapy, we developed and evaluated a humanized antibody for non-invasive imaging of PD-L1 expression in tumors. Radiolabeled [111In]PD-L1-mAb and near-infrared dye conjugated NIR-PD-L1-mAb imaging agents were developed using the mouse and human cross-reactive PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A. We tested specificity of [111In]PD-L1-mAb and NIR-PD-L1-mAb in cell lines and in tumors with varying levels of PD-L1 expression. We performed SPECT/CT imaging, biodistribution and blocking studies in NSG mice bearing tumors with constitutive PD-L1 expression (CHO-PDL1) and in controls (CHO). Results were confirmed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (MDAMB231 and SUM149) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (H2444 and H1155) xenografts with varying levels of PD-L1 expression. There was specific binding of [111In]PD-L1-mAb and NIR-PD-L1-mAb to tumor cells in vitro, correlating with PD-L1 expression levels. In mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic tumors, there was specific and persistent high accumulation of signal intensity in PD-L1 positive tumors (CHO-PDL1, MDAMB231, H2444) but not in controls. These results demonstrate that [111In]PD-L1-mAb and NIR-PD-L1-mAb can detect graded levels of PD-L1 expression in human tumor xenografts in vivo. As a humanized antibody, these findings suggest clinical translation of radiolabeled versions of MPDL3280A for imaging. Specificity of NIR-PD-L1-mAb indicates the potential for optical imaging of PD-L1 expression in tumors in relevant pre-clinical as well as clinical settings. PMID:26848870

  4. Heterogeneous expression of A33 in colorectal cancer: possible explanation for A33 antibody treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Baptistella, Antuani R; Salles Dias, Marcos Vinicios; Aguiar, Samuel; Begnami, Maria D; Martins, Vilma R

    2016-09-01

    The A33 protein, expressed in colorectal tumors, is a target for improving treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Over the last decade, studies have tested anti-A33 antibody as a therapeutic agent for these patients. Preclinical results were promising, but clinical trials did not confirm positive results. Here, immunohistochemistry in colorectal cancer tissue showed that samples from well-differentiated tumors presented a strong A33 membrane staining, whereas poorly differentiated tumors and mucinous adenocarcinomas showed weak cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. Moderately differentiated tumors presented variable staining. We suggest that in future clinical trials, patients should be selected on the basis of membrane expression of A33. PMID:27272411

  5. Isotype restricted exceptionally long CDR3H expression and extensive somatic mutations contribute to antibody diversification in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibody diversification in IgM and IgG antibodies was analyzed in an 18-month old bovine (Bos taurus) suffering from naturally occurring chronic and recurrent infections due to bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) involving impaired leukocyte Beta-2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) expression in le...

  6. Design and screening of a chimeric survivin-specific nanobody and its anticancer activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Guo, Hua; Zheng, Wenyun; Wang, Tianwen; Ma, Xingyuan

    2016-10-01

    Survivin is a strong inhibitor of apoptosis protein and a promising target for cancer prevention and treatment. Here, we report the design and preparation of novel chimeric nanobodies (Nbs) that could specifically bind to survivin. We screened the peptides from phage-displayed libraries (7-mer, 12-mer) for nonconserved sequences of complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) in the scaffold of the Nb. By a combination of the nonconserved sequences for CDRs, the corresponding chimeric Nbs (10 Nbs) were prepared with genetic operations. The antisurvivin Nb TAT-Nb4A (a fusion with cellular transduction peptide TAT) was found to be the most efficient antibody on the basis of the results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, MTT, and flow cytometry when these nanobodies were tested with hepatoma carcinoma cell HepG2. TAT-Nb4A could inhibit the growth of HepG2 and promote cancer cell apoptosis significantly in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner: the apoptosis rate reached 52.5% when the concentration of TAT-Nb4A was 120 μg/ml. Western blotting with cells expressing survivin showed that the prepared nanobody could efficiently bind to expressed survivin and blocked the signaling pathway in which survivin played a role. This study provided a convenient and feasible method of obtaining a novel specific Nb with the case of survivin as a good example. PMID:27362789

  7. Global selection of Plasmodium falciparum virulence antigen expression by host antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Abdirahman I.; Warimwe, George M.; Muthui, Michelle K.; Kivisi, Cheryl A.; Kiragu, Esther W.; Fegan, Gregory W.; Bull, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite proteins called PfEMP1 that are inserted on the surface of infected erythrocytes, play a key role in the severe pathology associated with infection by the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. These proteins mediate binding of infected cells to the endothelial lining of blood vessels as a strategy to avoid clearance by the spleen and are major targets of naturally acquired immunity. PfEMP1 is encoded by a large multi-gene family called var. Mutually-exclusive transcriptional switching between var genes allows parasites to escape host antibodies. This study examined in detail the patterns of expression of var in a well-characterized sample of parasites from Kenyan Children. Instead of observing clear inverse relationships between the expression of broad sub-classes of PfEMP1, we found that expression of different PfEMP1 groups vary relatively independently. Parasite adaptation to host antibodies also appears to involve a general reduction in detectable var gene expression. We suggest that parasites switch both between different PfEMP1 variants and between high and low expression states. Such a strategy could provide a means of avoiding immunological detection and promoting survival under high levels of host immunity. PMID:26804201

  8. EXPRESSION OF CYP4F2 IN HUMAN LIVER AND KIDNEY: ASSESSMENT USING TARGETED PEPTIDE ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Vandana; Yarovoy, Anton; Kozeska, Anita; Magnusson, Ronald P.; Lasker, Jerome M.

    2008-01-01

    P450 enzymes comprising the human CYP4F gene subfamily are catalysts of eicosanoid (e.g., 20-HETE and leukotriene B4) formation and degradation, although the role that individual CYP4F proteins play in these metabolic processes is not well defined. Thus, we developed antibodies to assess the tissue-specific expression and function of CYP4F2, one of four CYP4F P450s found in human liver and kidney. Peptide antibodies elicited in rabbits to CYP4F2 amino acid residues 61–74 (WGHQGMVNPTEEG) and 65–77 (GMVNPTEEGMRVL) recognized on immunoblots only CYP4F2 and not CYP4F3b, CYP4F11 or CYP4F12. Immunoquantitation with anti-CYP4F2 peptide IgG showed highly-variable CYP4F2 expression in liver (16.4 ± 18.6 pmol/mg microsomal protein; n = 29) and kidney cortex (3.9 ± 3.8 pmol/mg; n = 10), with two subjects lacking the hepatic or renal enzyme entirely. CYP4F2 content in liver microsomes was significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.63; p < 0.05) with leukotriene B4 and arachidonate ω-hydroxylase activities, which are both CYP4F2-catalyzed. Our study provides the first example of a peptide antibody that recognizes a single CYP4F P450 expressed in human liver and kidney, namely CYP4F2. Immunoquantitation and correlation analyses performed with this antibody suggest that CYP4F2 functions as a predominant LTB4 and arachidonate ω-hydroxylase in human liver. PMID:18662666

  9. Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus by protein microarray using nucleoprotein expressed in insect cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, Yuhui; WANG, Xiurong; CHEN, Pucheng; ZENG, Xianying; BAO, Hongmei; WANG, Yunhe; XU, Xiaolong; JIANG, Yongping; CHEN, Hualan; LI, Guangxing

    2014-01-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease caused by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) which belong to the influenza virus A group. AI causes tremendous economic losses in poultry industry and pose great threatens to human health. Active serologic surveillance is necessary to prevent and control the spread of AI. In this study, a protein microarray using nucleoprotein (NP) of H5N1 AIV expressed in insect cells was developed to detect antibodies against AIV NP protein. The protein microarray was used to test Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), AIV positive and negative sera. The results indicated that the protein microarray could hybridize specifically with antibodies against AIV with strong signals and without cross-hybridization. Moreover, 76 field serum samples were detected by microarray, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The positive rate was 92.1% (70/76), 93.4% (71/76) and 89.4% (68/76) by protein microarray, ELISA and HI test, respectively. Compared with ELISA, the microarray showed 100% (20/20) agreement ratio in chicken and 98.2% (55/56) in ornamental bird. In conclusion, this method provides an alternative serological diagnosis for influenza antibody screening and will provide a basis for the development of protein microarrays that can be used to respectively detect antibodies of different AIV subtypes and other pathogens. PMID:25650059

  10. Site-specific proteolytic degradation of IgG monoclonal antibodies expressed in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Hehle, Verena K; Lombardi, Raffaele; van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Paul, Mathew J; Di Micco, Patrizio; Morea, Veronica; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello; Ma, Julian K-C

    2015-02-01

    Plants are promising hosts for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, proteolytic degradation of antibodies produced both in stable transgenic plants and using transient expression systems is still a major issue for efficient high-yield recombinant protein accumulation. In this work, we have performed a detailed study of the degradation profiles of two human IgG1 mAbs produced in plants: an anti-HIV mAb 2G12 and a tumour-targeting mAb H10. Even though they use different light chains (κ and λ, respectively), the fragmentation pattern of both antibodies was similar. The majority of Ig fragments result from proteolytic degradation, but there are only a limited number of plant proteolytic cleavage events in the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains. All of the cleavage sites identified were in the proximity of interdomain regions and occurred at each interdomain site, with the exception of the VL /CL interface in mAb H10 λ light chain. Cleavage site sequences were analysed, and residue patterns characteristic of proteolytic enzymes substrates were identified. The results of this work help to define common degradation events in plant-produced mAbs and raise the possibility of predicting antibody degradation patterns 'a priori' and designing novel stabilization strategies by site-specific mutagenesis. PMID:25283551

  11. Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus by protein microarray using nucleoprotein expressed in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Wang, Xiurong; Chen, Pucheng; Zeng, Xianying; Bao, Hongmei; Wang, Yunhe; Xu, Xiaolong; Jiang, Yongping; Chen, Hualan; Li, Guangxing

    2015-04-01

    Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease caused by avian influenza viruses (AIVs) which belong to the influenza virus A group. AI causes tremendous economic losses in poultry industry and pose great threatens to human health. Active serologic surveillance is necessary to prevent and control the spread of AI. In this study, a protein microarray using nucleoprotein (NP) of H5N1 AIV expressed in insect cells was developed to detect antibodies against AIV NP protein. The protein microarray was used to test Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), AIV positive and negative sera. The results indicated that the protein microarray could hybridize specifically with antibodies against AIV with strong signals and without cross-hybridization. Moreover, 76 field serum samples were detected by microarray, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The positive rate was 92.1% (70/76), 93.4% (71/76) and 89.4% (68/76) by protein microarray, ELISA and HI test, respectively. Compared with ELISA, the microarray showed 100% (20/20) agreement ratio in chicken and 98.2% (55/56) in ornamental bird. In conclusion, this method provides an alternative serological diagnosis for influenza antibody screening and will provide a basis for the development of protein microarrays that can be used to respectively detect antibodies of different AIV subtypes and other pathogens. PMID:25650059

  12. Bioengineering Novel Chimeric microRNA-34a for Prodrug Cancer Therapy: High-Yield Expression and Purification, and Structural and Functional Characterization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Peng; Ho, Pui Yan; Chen, Qiu-Xia; Addepalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Limbach, Patrick A; Li, Mei-Mei; Wu, Wen-Juan; Jilek, Joseph L; Qiu, Jing-Xin; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Li, Tianhong; Wun, Theodore; White, Ralph DeVere; Lam, Kit S; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Development of anticancer treatments based on microRNA (miRNA/miR) such as miR-34a replacement therapy is limited to the use of synthetic RNAs with artificial modifications. Herein, we present a new approach to a high-yield and large-scale biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli using transfer RNA (tRNA) scaffold, of chimeric miR-34a agent, which may act as a prodrug for anticancer therapy. The recombinant tRNA fusion pre-miR-34a (tRNA/mir-34a) was quickly purified to a high degree of homogeneity (>98%) using anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, whose primary sequence and post-transcriptional modifications were directly characterized by mass spectrometric analyses. Chimeric tRNA/mir-34a showed a favorable cellular stability while it was degradable by several ribonucleases. Deep sequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that tRNA-carried pre-miR-34a was precisely processed to mature miR-34a within human carcinoma cells, and the same tRNA fragments were produced from tRNA/mir-34a and the control tRNA scaffold (tRNA/MSA). Consequently, tRNA/mir-34a inhibited the proliferation of various types of human carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and to a much greater degree than the control tRNA/MSA, which was mechanistically attributable to the reduction of miR-34a target genes. Furthermore, tRNA/mir-34a significantly suppressed the growth of human non-small-cell lung cancer A549 and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 xenograft tumors in mice, compared with the same dose of tRNA/MSA. In addition, recombinant tRNA/mir-34a had no or minimal effect on blood chemistry and interleukin-6 level in mouse models, suggesting that recombinant RNAs were well tolerated. These findings provoke a conversation on producing biologic miRNAs to perform miRNA actions, and point toward a new direction in developing miRNA-based therapies. PMID:26022002

  13. Bioengineering Novel Chimeric microRNA-34a for Prodrug Cancer Therapy: High-Yield Expression and Purification, and Structural and Functional Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Peng; Ho, Pui Yan; Chen, Qiu-Xia; Addepalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Limbach, Patrick A.; Li, Mei-Mei; Wu, Wen-Juan; Jilek, Joseph L.; Qiu, Jing-Xin; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Li, Tianhong; Wun, Theodore; White, Ralph DeVere; Lam, Kit S.

    2015-01-01

    Development of anticancer treatments based on microRNA (miRNA/miR) such as miR-34a replacement therapy is limited to the use of synthetic RNAs with artificial modifications. Herein, we present a new approach to a high-yield and large-scale biosynthesis, in Escherichia coli using transfer RNA (tRNA) scaffold, of chimeric miR-34a agent, which may act as a prodrug for anticancer therapy. The recombinant tRNA fusion pre–miR-34a (tRNA/mir-34a) was quickly purified to a high degree of homogeneity (>98%) using anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography, whose primary sequence and post-transcriptional modifications were directly characterized by mass spectrometric analyses. Chimeric tRNA/mir-34a showed a favorable cellular stability while it was degradable by several ribonucleases. Deep sequencing and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that tRNA-carried pre–miR-34a was precisely processed to mature miR-34a within human carcinoma cells, and the same tRNA fragments were produced from tRNA/mir-34a and the control tRNA scaffold (tRNA/MSA). Consequently, tRNA/mir-34a inhibited the proliferation of various types of human carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner and to a much greater degree than the control tRNA/MSA, which was mechanistically attributable to the reduction of miR-34a target genes. Furthermore, tRNA/mir-34a significantly suppressed the growth of human non–small-cell lung cancer A549 and hepatocarcinoma HepG2 xenograft tumors in mice, compared with the same dose of tRNA/MSA. In addition, recombinant tRNA/mir-34a had no or minimal effect on blood chemistry and interleukin-6 level in mouse models, suggesting that recombinant RNAs were well tolerated. These findings provoke a conversation on producing biologic miRNAs to perform miRNA actions, and point toward a new direction in developing miRNA-based therapies. PMID:26022002

  14. Non-viral adeno-associated virus-based platform for stable expression of antibody combination therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wilmes, Gwendolyn M; Carey, Kimberly L; Hicks, Stuart W; Russell, Hugh H; Stevenson, Jesse A; Kocjan, Paulina; Lutz, Stephen R; Quesenberry, Rachel S; Shulga-Morskoy, Sergey V; Lewis, Megan E; Clark, Ethan; Medik, Violetta; Cooper, Anthony B; Reczek, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    Antibody combination therapeutics (ACTs) are polyvalent biopharmaceuticals that are uniquely suited for the control of complex diseases, including antibiotic resistant infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancers. However, ACTs also represent a distinct manufacturing challenge because the independent manufacture and subsequent mixing of monoclonal antibodies quickly becomes cost prohibitive as more complex mixtures are envisioned. We have developed a virus-free recombinant protein expression platform based on adeno-associated viral (AAV) elements that is capable of rapid and consistent production of complex antibody mixtures in a single batch format. Using both multiplexed immunoassays and cation exchange (CIEX) chromatography, cell culture supernatants generated using our system were assessed for stability of expression and ratios of the component antibodies over time. Cultures expressing combinations of three to ten antibodies maintained consistent expression levels and stable ratios of component antibodies for at least 60 days. Cultures showed remarkable reproducibility following cell banking, and AAV-based cultures showed higher stability and productivity than non-AAV based cultures. Therefore, this non-viral AAV-based expression platform represents a predictable, reproducible, quick and cost effective method to manufacture or quickly produce for preclinical testing recombinant antibody combination therapies and other recombinant protein mixtures. PMID:24758837

  15. A Lentiviral Vector Allowing Physiologically Regulated Membrane-anchored and Secreted Antibody Expression Depending on B-cell Maturation Status.

    PubMed

    Fusil, Floriane; Calattini, Sara; Amirache, Fouzia; Mancip, Jimmy; Costa, Caroline; Robbins, Justin B; Douam, Florian; Lavillette, Dimitri; Law, Mansun; Defrance, Thierry; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc

    2015-11-01

    The development of lentiviral vectors (LVs) for expression of a specific antibody can be achieved through the transduction of mature B-cells. This approach would provide a versatile tool for active immunotherapy strategies for infectious diseases or cancer, as well as for protein engineering. Here, we created a lentiviral expression system mimicking the natural production of these two distinct immunoglobulin isoforms. We designed a LV (FAM2-LV) expressing an anti-HCV-E2 surface glycoprotein antibody (AR3A) as a membrane-anchored Ig form or a soluble Ig form, depending on the B-cell maturation status. FAM2-LV induced high-level and functional membrane expression of the transgenic antibody in a nonsecretory B-cell line. In contrast, a plasma cell (PC) line transduced with FAM2-LV preferentially produced the secreted transgenic antibody. Similar results were obtained with primary B-cells transduced ex vivo. Most importantly, FAM2-LV transduced primary B-cells efficiently differentiated into PCs, which secreted the neutralizing anti-HCV E2 antibody upon adoptive transfer into immunodeficient NSG (NOD/SCIDγc(-/-)) recipient mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the conditional FAM2-LV allows preferential expression of the membrane-anchored form of an antiviral neutralizing antibody in B-cells and permits secretion of a soluble antibody following B-cell maturation into PCs in vivo. PMID:26281898

  16. Non-viral adeno-associated virus-based platform for stable expression of antibody combination therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wilmes, Gwendolyn M; Carey, Kimberly L; Hicks, Stuart W; Russell, Hugh H; Stevenson, Jesse A; Kocjan, Paulina; Lutz, Stephen R; Quesenberry, Rachel S; Shulga-Morskoy, Sergey V; Lewis, Megan E; Clark, Ethan; Medik, Violetta; Cooper, Anthony B; Reczek, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    Antibody combination therapeutics (ACTs) are polyvalent biopharmaceuticals that are uniquely suited for the control of complex diseases, including antibiotic resistant infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancers. However, ACTs also represent a distinct manufacturing challenge because the independent manufacture and subsequent mixing of monoclonal antibodies quickly becomes cost prohibitive as more complex mixtures are envisioned. We have developed a virus-free recombinant protein expression platform based on adeno-associated viral (AAV) elements that is capable of rapid and consistent production of complex antibody mixtures in a single batch format. Using both multiplexed immunoassays and cation exchange (CIEX) chromatography, cell culture supernatants generated using our system were assessed for stability of expression and ratios of the component antibodies over time. Cultures expressing combinations of three to ten antibodies maintained consistent expression levels and stable ratios of component antibodies for at least 60 days. Cultures showed remarkable reproducibility following cell banking, and AAV-based cultures showed higher stability and productivity than non-AAV based cultures. Therefore, this non-viral AAV-based expression platform represents a predictable, reproducible, quick and cost effective method to manufacture or quickly produce for preclinical testing recombinant antibody combination therapies and other recombinant protein mixtures. PMID:24758837

  17. Immunization of cattle with recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein D induces mucosal and serum antibody responses and provides partial protection against BHV-1

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Sunil K.; Collins, Peter L.; Samal, Siba K.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) is a major cause of respiratory tract diseases in cattle. Vaccination of cattle against BHV-1 is a high priority. A major concern of currently modified live BHV-1 vaccines is their ability to cause latent infection and subsequent reactivation resulting in many outbreaks. Thus, there is a need for alternative strategies. We generated two recombinant Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) expressing the glycoprotein D (gD) of BHV-1 from an added gene. One recombinant, rLaSota/gDFL, expressed gD without any modification. The other recombinant, rLaSota/gDF, expressed a chimeric gD in which the ectodomain of gD was fused with the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of the NDV fusion F glycoprotein. Remarkably, the native gD expressed by rLaSota/gDFL virus was incorporated into the NDV virion 2.5-fold more efficiently than the native NDV proteins, whereas the chimeric gD was not detectably incorporated even though it was abundantly expressed on the infected cell surface. The expression of gD did not increase the virulence of the rNDV vectors in chickens. A single intranasal and intratracheal inoculation of calves with either recombinant NDV elicited mucosal and systemic antibodies specific to BHV-1, with the responses to rLaSota/gDFL being higher than those to rLaSota/gDF. Following challenge with BHV-1, calves immunized with the recombinant NDVs had lower titers and earlier clearance of challenge virus compared to the empty vector control, and reduced disease was observed with rLaSota/gDFL. Following challenge, the titers of serum antibodies specific to BHV-1 were higher in the animals immunized with the rNDV vaccines compared to the rNDV parent virus, indicating that the vaccines primed for secondary responses. Our data suggest that NDV can be used as a vaccine vector in bovines and that BHV-1 gD may be useful in mucosal vaccine against BHV-1 infection, but might require augmentation by a second dose or the inclusion of additional BHV-1

  18. Influence of FcγRIIa-Expressing Cells on the Assessment of Neutralizing and Enhancing Serum Antibodies Elicited by a Live-Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Byers, Anthony M; Broder, Ryan; Haupfear, Kelly; Timiryasova, Tatyana M; Hu, Branda T; Boaz, Mark; Warren, William L; Jackson, Nicholas; Moser, Janice M; Guy, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Background.  Recent trials of recombinant, live-attenuated chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue disease with higher point estimates of efficacy toward dengue virus (DENV)3 and DENV4 and moderate levels toward DENV1 and DENV2. It is interesting to note that serotype-specific efficacy did not correlate with absolute neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titer (GMT) values measured in a Vero-based plaque reduction neutralization test assay. The absence of Fcγ receptors on Vero cells may explain this observation. Methods.  We performed parallel seroneutralization assays in Vero cells and CV-1 cells that express FcγRIIa (CV-1-Fc) to determine the neutralizing and enhancing capacity of serotype-specific DENV Abs present in CYD-TDV clinical trial sera. Results.  Enhancement of DENV infection was observed in CV-1-Fc cells in naturally exposed nonvaccine sera, mostly for DENV3 and DENV4, at high dilutions. The CYD-TDV-vaccinated sera showed similar enhancement patterns. The CV-1-Fc nAb GMT values were 2- to 9-fold lower than Vero for all serotypes in both naturally infected individuals and CYD-TDV-vaccinated subjects with and without previous dengue immunity. The relative (CV-1-Fc/Vero) GMT decrease for anti-DENV1 and anti-DENV2 responses was not greater than for the other serotypes. Conclusions.  In vitro neutralization assays utilizing FcγRIIa-expressing cells provide evidence that serotype-specific Ab enhancement may not be a primary factor in the serotype-specific efficacy differences exhibited in the CYD-TDV trials. PMID:26719844

  19. A Novel Self-Replicating Chimeric Lentivirus-Like Particle

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kelly R.; Madden, Victoria J.; Johnson, Philip R.; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Successful live attenuated vaccines mimic natural exposure to pathogens without causing disease and have been successful against several viruses. However, safety concerns prevent the development of attenuated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a vaccine candidate. If a safe, replicating virus vaccine could be developed, it might have the potential to offer significant protection against HIV infection and disease. Described here is the development of a novel self-replicating chimeric virus vaccine candidate that is designed to provide natural exposure to a lentivirus-like particle and to incorporate the properties of a live attenuated virus vaccine without the inherent safety issues associated with attenuated lentiviruses. The genome from the alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) was modified to express SHIV89.6P genes encoding the structural proteins Gag and Env. Expression of Gag and Env from VEE RNA in primate cells led to the assembly of particles that morphologically and functionally resembled lentivirus virions and that incorporated alphavirus RNA. Infection of CD4+ cells with chimeric lentivirus-like particles was specific and productive, resulting in RNA replication, expression of Gag and Env, and generation of progeny chimeric particles. Further genome modifications designed to enhance encapsidation of the chimeric virus genome and to express an attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) protease for particle maturation improved the ability of chimeric lentivirus-like particles to propagate in cell culture. This study provides proof of concept for the feasibility of creating chimeric virus genomes that express lentivirus structural proteins and assemble into infectious particles for presentation of lentivirus immunogens in their native and functional conformation. PMID:22013035

  20. Expression, purification of IL-38 in Escherichia coli and production of polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonglan; Chen, Zhenyu; Huang, Nongyu; Teng, Xiu; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Wei, Xiaoqiong; Qin, Ke; Liu, Xiao; Wu, Xueping; Tang, Huan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cui, Kaijun; Li, Jiong

    2015-03-01

    Members of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family play important roles in inflammation and host defense against pathogens. Here, we describe a novel member of the IL-1 family, interleukin-38 (IL-38, IL-1F10, or IL-1HY2), which was discovered in 2001. Although the functional role of IL-38 remains unclear, recent reports show that IL-38 binds to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) which is also targeted by the IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). Consequently, these two molecules have similar effects on immune cells. Here, we describe the expression of soluble and active recombinant IL-38 in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The IL-38 gene sequence was optimized for expression in E. coli and then cloned into a pEHISTEV expression vector, which has an N-terminal 6-His affinity tag under control of the T7 lac strong promoter. Optimization of culture conditions allowed induction of the recombinant fusion protein with 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thio galactoside (IPTG) at 37°C for 4h. The recombinant fusion protein was purified using an Ni affinity column and was further digested with TEV protease; the cleaved protein was purified by molecular-exclusion chromatography. Next, we measured IL-38 binding ability using functional ELISA. The purified proteins were used to immunize a New Zealand white rabbit four times to enable the production of polyclonal antibodies. The specificity of the prepared polyclonal antibodies was determined using Western blot, and the results showed they have high specificity against IL-38. Here, we describe the development of an effective and reliable method to express and purify IL-38 and anti-IL-38 antibodies. This will enable the function and structure of IL-38 to be determined. PMID:25448591

  1. Mokola virus glycoprotein and chimeric proteins can replace rabies virus glycoprotein in the rescue of infectious defective rabies virus particles.

    PubMed Central

    Mebatsion, T; Schnell, M J; Conzelmann, K K

    1995-01-01

    A reverse genetics approach which allows the generation of infectious defective rabies virus (RV) particles entirely from plasmid-encoded genomes and proteins (K.-K. Conzelmann and M. Schnell, J. Virol. 68:713-719, 1994) was used to investigate the ability of a heterologous lyssavirus glycoprotein (G) and chimeric G constructs to function in the formation of infectious RV-like particles. Virions containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene (SDI-CAT) were generated in cells simultaneously expressing the genomic RNA analog, the RV N, P, M, and L proteins, and engineered G constructs from transfected plasmids. The infectivity of particles was determined by a CAT assay after passage to helper virus-infected cells. The heterologous G protein from Eth-16 virus (Mokola virus, lyssavirus serotype 3) as well as a construct in which the ectodomain of RV G was fused to the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the Eth-16 virus G rescued infectious SDI-CAT particles. In contrast, a chimeric protein composed of the amino-terminal half of the Eth-16 virus G and the carboxy-terminal half of RV G failed to produce infectious particles. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to convert the antigenic site III of RV G to the corresponding sequence of Eth-16 G. This chimeric protein rescued infectious SDI-CAT particles as efficiently as RV G. Virions containing the chimeric protein were specifically neutralized by an anti-Eth-16 virus serum and escaped neutralization by a monoclonal antibody directed against RV antigenic site III. The results show that entire structural domains as well as short surface epitopes of lyssavirus G proteins may be exchanged without affecting the structure required to mediate infection of cells. PMID:7853476

  2. Intracellular reprogramming of expression, glycosylation, and function of a plant-derived antiviral therapeutic monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Hwan; Park, Da-Young; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young-Kwan; So, Yang-Kang; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Oh, Seung-Han; Han, Yeon-Soo; Ko, Kinarm; Choo, Young-Kug; Park, Sung-Joo; Brodzik, Robert; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Hwang, Kyung-A; Koprowski, Hilary; Lee, Yong Seong; Ko, Kisung

    2013-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering, which has led to the production of plant-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAb(P)s), provides a safe and economically effective alternative to conventional antibody expression methods. In this study, the expression levels and biological properties of the anti-rabies virus mAb(P) SO57 with or without an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retention peptide signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu; KDEL) in transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) were analyzed. The expression levels of mAb(P) SO57 with KDEL (mAb(P)K) were significantly higher than those of mAb(P) SO57 without KDEL (mAb(P)) regardless of the transcription level. The Fc domains of both purified mAb(P) and mAb(P)K and hybridoma-derived mAb (mAb(H)) had similar levels of binding activity to the FcγRI receptor (CD64). The mAb(P)K had glycan profiles of both oligomannose (OM) type (91.7%) and Golgi type (8.3%), whereas the mAb(P) had mainly Golgi type glycans (96.8%) similar to those seen with mAb(H). Confocal analysis showed that the mAb(P)K was co-localized to ER-tracker signal and cellular areas surrounding the nucleus indicating accumulation of the mAb(P) with KDEL in the ER. Both mAb(P) and mAb(P)K disappeared with similar trends to mAb(H) in BALB/c mice. In addition, mAb(P)K was as effective as mAb(H) at neutralizing the activity of the rabies virus CVS-11. These results suggest that the ER localization of the recombinant mAb(P) by KDEL reprograms OM glycosylation and enhances the production of the functional antivirus therapeutic antibody in the plant. PMID:23967055

  3. A recombinant chimeric protein containing B chains of ricin and abrin is an effective vaccine candidate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junhong; Gao, Shan; Zhang, Tao; Kang, Lin; Cao, Wuchun; Xu, Na; Liu, Wensen; Wang, Jinglin

    2014-01-01

    Both ricin toxin (RT) and abrin toxin (AT) are 2 important toxin agents as potantial bioweapons. A dual subunit vaccine against RT and AT exposure is a promising option for developing prophylactic vaccination. In this study, we constructed a dual vaccine with RT B chain and AT B chain named RTB-ATB. The RTB-ATB chimeric protein was expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), and the purified protein was used to evaluate the immune response by a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design. The main effects included dose of RTB-ATB, route of immunization injection, immunization time interval, and dose of native toxins challenge. For 2 × LD50 challenge of RT or AT, 100% of the RTB-ATB immunized mice survived and regained or exceeded their initial weights within 10 days. For 4 × LD50 challenge, different routes of immunization injection caused significant difference (P < 0.05), intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of immunogen protected mice better than the subcutaneous (s.c.) administration. In conclusion, when administered i.p. to mice with 25 μg per mouse and immunization time interval Π in the absence of adjuvant, the chimeric protein elicited a stronger immune response and protected the animals from a dose of native toxins which was 4 times higher than their LD50 in unvaccinated mice. Besides, the RTB-ATB chimeric protein could induce specific neutralizing antibodies against these 2 toxins. We anticipate that this study will open new possibilities in the preparation of RTB-ATB dual subunit vaccine against the exposure to deadly RT and AT. PMID:24509607

  4. A comparative antibody analysis of pannexin1 expression in four rat brain regions reveals varying subcellular localizations.

    PubMed

    Cone, Angela C; Ambrosi, Cinzia; Scemes, Eliana; Martone, Maryann E; Sosinsky, Gina E

    2013-01-01

    Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels release cytosolic ATP in response to signaling pathways. Panx1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system. We used four antibodies with different Panx1 anti-peptide epitopes to analyze four regions of rat brain. These antibodies labeled the same bands in Western blots and had highly similar patterns of immunofluorescence in tissue culture cells expressing Panx1, but Western blots of brain lysates from Panx1 knockout and control mice showed different banding patterns. Localizations of Panx1 in brain slices were generated using automated wide field mosaic confocal microscopy for imaging large regions of interest while retaining maximum resolution for examining cell populations and compartments. We compared Panx1 expression over the cerebellum, hippocampus with adjacent cortex, thalamus, and olfactory bulb. While Panx1 localizes to the same neuronal cell types, subcellular localizations differ. Two antibodies with epitopes against the intracellular loop and one against the carboxy terminus preferentially labeled cell bodies, while an antibody raised against an N-terminal peptide highlighted neuronal processes more than cell bodies. These labeling patterns may be a reflection of different cellular and subcellular localizations of full-length and/or modified Panx1 channels where each antibody is highlighting unique or differentially accessible Panx1 populations. However, we cannot rule out that one or more of these antibodies have specificity issues. All data associated with experiments from these four antibodies are presented in a manner that allows them to be compared and our claims thoroughly evaluated, rather than eliminating results that were questionable. Each antibody is given a unique identifier through the NIF Antibody Registry that can be used to track usage of individual antibodies across papers and all image and metadata are made available in the public repository, the Cell Centered Database, for on-line viewing, and

  5. A Comparative Antibody Analysis of Pannexin1 Expression in Four Rat Brain Regions Reveals Varying Subcellular Localizations

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Angela C.; Ambrosi, Cinzia; Scemes, Eliana; Martone, Maryann E.; Sosinsky, Gina E.

    2012-01-01

    Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels release cytosolic ATP in response to signaling pathways. Panx1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system. We used four antibodies with different Panx1 anti-peptide epitopes to analyze four regions of rat brain. These antibodies labeled the same bands in Western blots and had highly similar patterns of immunofluorescence in tissue culture cells expressing Panx1, but Western blots of brain lysates from Panx1 knockout and control mice showed different banding patterns. Localizations of Panx1 in brain slices were generated using automated wide field mosaic confocal microscopy for imaging large regions of interest while retaining maximum resolution for examining cell populations and compartments. We compared Panx1 expression over the cerebellum, hippocampus with adjacent cortex, thalamus, and olfactory bulb. While Panx1 localizes to the same neuronal cell types, subcellular localizations differ. Two antibodies with epitopes against the intracellular loop and one against the carboxy terminus preferentially labeled cell bodies, while an antibody raised against an N-terminal peptide highlighted neuronal processes more than cell bodies. These labeling patterns may be a reflection of different cellular and subcellular localizations of full-length and/or modified Panx1 channels where each antibody is highlighting unique or differentially accessible Panx1 populations. However, we cannot rule out that one or more of these antibodies have specificity issues. All data associated with experiments from these four antibodies are presented in a manner that allows them to be compared and our claims thoroughly evaluated, rather than eliminating results that were questionable. Each antibody is given a unique identifier through the NIF Antibody Registry that can be used to track usage of individual antibodies across papers and all image and metadata are made available in the public repository, the Cell Centered Database, for on-line viewing, and

  6. Virus-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody Expressed in Milk of Transgenic Mice Provides Full Protection against Virus-Induced Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Andreas F.; Pewe, Lecia; Webster, John; Perlman, Stanley; Whitelaw, C. Bruce A.; Siddell, Stuart G.

    2001-01-01

    Neutralizing antibodies represent a major host defense mechanism against viral infections. In mammals, passive immunity is provided by neutralizing antibodies passed to the offspring via the placenta or the milk as immunoglobulin G and secreted immunoglobulin A. With the long-term goal of producing virus-resistant livestock, we have generated mice carrying transgenes that encode the light and heavy chains of an antibody that is able to neutralize the neurotropic JHM strain of murine hepatitis virus (MHV-JHM). MHV-JHM causes acute encephalitis and acute and chronic demyelination in susceptible strains of mice and rats. Transgene expression was targeted to the lactating mammary gland by using the ovine β-lactoglobulin promoter. Milk from these transgenic mice contained up to 0.7 mg of recombinant antibody/ml. In vitro analysis of milk derived from different transgenic lines revealed a linear correlation between antibody expression and virus-neutralizing activity, indicating that the recombinant antibody is the major determinant of MHV-JHM neutralization in murine milk. Offspring of transgenic and control mice were challenged with a lethal dose of MHV-JHM. Litters suckling nontransgenic dams succumbed to fatal encephalitis, whereas litters suckling transgenic dams were fully protected against challenge, irrespective of whether they were transgenic. This demonstrates that a single neutralizing antibody expressed in the milk of transgenic mice is sufficient to completely protect suckling offspring against MHV-JHM-induced encephalitis. PMID:11222704

  7. A tyrosine hydroxylase-neurofilament chimeric promoter enhances long-term expression in rat forebrain neurons from helper virus-free HSV-1 vectors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G R; Wang, X; Yang, T; Sun, M; Zhang, W; Wang, Y; Geller, A I

    2000-12-01

    Helper virus-free herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) plasmid vectors are attractive for neural gene transfer, but a promoter that supports neuronal-specific, long-term expression is required. Although expression from many promoters is unstable, a 6.8-kb, but not a 766-bp, fragment of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) promoter supports long-term expression. Thus, 5' upstream sequences in this promoter may enhance expression. In this study, we evaluated expression from vectors that contain 5' upstream sequences from this promoter (-0.5 to -6.8 kb) inserted at the 5' end of either a neurofilament heavy subunit (NF-H) promoter or the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early promoter. The TH-NFH promoter supported expression for 6 months in the striatum, 2 months in the hippocampus, and for 1 month in both perirhinal and postrhinal cortex (the longest time points examined). Expression was targeted to neurons. The enhanced expression may require specific sequences in the TH promoter fragment because replacing this fragment with a similar sized fragment of bacteriophage lambda DNA did not enhance expression. The reverse orientation of the TH promoter fragment also enhanced expression. Insertion of insulators from the chicken beta-globin locus between the TH-NFHlac transcription unit and the vector backbone may support a modest additional enhancement in expression. Other eucaryotic sequences may also enhance expression; a S. cerevisiae (40-kb fragment)-NFH promoter enhanced expression. In contrast, the TH-CMV promoter did not enhance expression. Thus, the TH-NFH promoter may support some physiological studies that require long-term expression in forebrain neurons. PMID:11113528

  8. A single-domain antibody-linked Fab bispecific antibody Her2-S-Fab has potent cytotoxicity against Her2-expressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifen; Xing, Jieyu; Li, Li; Zhou, Changhua; Dong, Bin; He, Ping; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Her2, which is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer, is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer therapy. Anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, has achieved significant clinical benefits in metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we describe a novel bispecific antibody Her2-S-Fab targeting Her2 by linking a single domain anti-CD16 VHH to the trastuzumab Fab. The Her2-S-Fab antibody can be efficiently expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and drive potent cancer cell killing in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. In xenograft model, the Her2-S-Fab suppresses tumor growth in the presence of human immune cells. Our results suggest that the bispecific Her2-S-Fab may provide a valid alternative to Her2 positive cancer therapy. PMID:27112931

  9. A Chimeric Pneumovirus Fusion Protein Carrying Neutralizing Epitopes of Both MPV and RSV

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaolin; Pickens, Jennifer; Mousa, Jarrod J.; Leser, George P.; Lamb, Robert A.; Crowe, James E.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are paramyxoviruses that are responsible for substantial human health burden, particularly in children and the elderly. The fusion (F) glycoproteins are major targets of the neutralizing antibody response and studies have mapped dominant antigenic sites in F. Here we grafted a major neutralizing site of RSV F, recognized by the prophylactic monoclonal antibody palivizumab, onto HMPV F, generating a chimeric protein displaying epitopes of both viruses. We demonstrate that the resulting chimeric protein (RPM-1) is recognized by both anti-RSV and anti-HMPV F neutralizing antibodies indicating that it can be used to map the epitope specificity of antibodies raised against both viruses. Mice immunized with the RPM-1 chimeric antigen generate robust neutralizing antibody responses to MPV but weak or no cross-reactive recognition of RSV F, suggesting that grafting of the single palivizumab epitope stimulates a comparatively limited antibody response. The RPM-1 protein provides a new tool for characterizing the immune responses resulting from RSV and HMPV infections and provides insights into the requirements for developing a chimeric subunit vaccine that could induce robust and balanced immunity to both virus infections. PMID:27224013

  10. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R.; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-25

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2{gamma}C, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2{gamma}C and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis.

  11. Chimeric antigen receptors: driving immunology towards synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Sadelain, Michel

    2016-08-01

    The advent of second generation chimeric antigen receptors and the CD19 paradigm have ushered a new therapeutic modality in oncology. In contrast to earlier forms of adoptive cell therapy, which were based on the isolation and expansion of naturally occurring T cells, CAR therapy is based on the design and manufacture of engineered T cells with optimized properties. A new armamentarium, comprising not only CARs but also chimeric costimulatory receptors, chimeric cytokine receptors, inhibitory receptors and synthetic Notch receptors, expressed in naïve, central memory or stem cell-like memory T cells, is being developed for clinical use in a wide range of cancers. Immunological principles are thus finding a new purpose thanks to advances in genetic engineering, synthetic biology and cell manufacturing sciences. PMID:27372731

  12. Monoclonal antibodies to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 reveal differential expression patterns in cancer and low antigen expression in normal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bujak, Emil; Pretto, Francesca; Ritz, Danilo; Gualandi, Laura; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

    2014-09-10

    There is a considerable interest for the discovery and characterization of tumor-associated antigens, which may facilitate antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies. Thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 are homologous secreted proteins, which have previously been reported to be overexpressed during remodeling typical for wound healing and tumor progression and to possibly play a functional role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. To our knowledge, a complete immunohistochemical characterization of thrombospondins levels in normal rodent tissues has not been reported so far. Using antibody phage technology, we have generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies specific to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2, two antigens which share 62% aminoacid identity. An immunofluorescence analysis revealed that both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues, except for a weak staining of heart tissue by antibodies specific to thrombospondin-1. The analysis also showed that thrombospondin-1 was strongly expressed in 5/7 human tumors xenografted in nude mice, while it was only barely detectable in 3/8 murine tumors grafted in immunocompetent mice. By contrast, a high-affinity antibody to thrombospondin-2 revealed a much lower level of expression of this antigen in cancer specimens. Our analysis resolves ambiguities related to conflicting reports on thrombosponding expression in health and disease. Based on our findings, thrombospondin-1 (and not thrombospondin-2) may be considered as a target for antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies, in consideration of its low expression in normal tissues and its upregulation in cancer. - Highlights: • High affinity monoclonal antibodies to murine and human TSP1 and 2 were raised. • Both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues. • Strong positivity of human tumor xenografts for TSP1 was detected. • Study revealed much lower level of TSP2 expression in cancer specimens

  13. Construction and Immunogenicity Evaluation of Recombinant Influenza A Viruses Containing Chimeric Hemagglutinin Genes Derived from Genetically Divergent Influenza A H1N1 Subtype Viruses

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Kara; Jiang, Zhiyong; Zhu, Longchao; Lawson, Steven R.; Langenhorst, Robert; Ransburgh, Russell; Brunick, Colin; Tracy, Miranda C.; Hurtig, Heather R.; Mabee, Leah M.; Mingo, Mark; Li, Yanhua; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Influenza A viruses cause highly contagious diseases in a variety of hosts, including humans and pigs. To develop a vaccine that can be broadly effective against genetically divergent strains of the virus, in this study we employed molecular breeding (DNA shuffling) technology to create a panel of chimeric HA genes. Methods and Results Each chimeric HA gene contained genetic elements from parental swine influenza A viruses that had a history of zoonotic transmission, and also from a 2009 pandemic virus. Each parental virus represents a major phylogenetic clade of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Nine shuffled HA constructs were initially screened for immunogenicity in mice by DNA immunization, and one chimeric HA (HA-129) was expressed on both a A/Puerto Rico/8/34 backbone with mutations associated with a live, attenuated phenotype (PR8LAIV-129) and a A/swine/Texas/4199-2/98 backbone (TX98-129). When delivered to mice, the PR8LAIV-129 induced antibodies against all four parental viruses, which was similar to the breadth of immunity observed when HA-129 was delivered as a DNA vaccine. This chimeric HA was then tested as a candidate vaccine in a nursery pig model, using inactivated TX98-129 virus as the backbone. The results demonstrate that pigs immunized with HA-129 developed antibodies against all four parental viruses, as well as additional primary swine H1N1 influenza virus field isolates. Conclusion This study established a platform for creating novel genes of influenza viruses using a molecular breeding approach, which will have important applications toward future development of broadly protective influenza virus vaccines. PMID:26061265

  14. Chimeric T-cell receptors: new challenges for targeted immunotherapy in hematologic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Ettore; Marin, Virna; Giordano Attianese, Greta Maria Paola; Dander, Erica; D'Amico, Giovanna; Biondi, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Chimeric T-cell receptors (ChTCR), are a fascinating technological step in the field of immunotherapy for orienting the activity of immune cells towards specific molecular targets expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, including hematologic malignancies. The main characteristics of ChTCR are their ability to redirect T-cell specificity and their killing/effector activity toward a selected target in a non MHC-restricted manner, exploiting the antigen binding properties of monoclonal antibodies. ChTCR are, in fact, artificial T-cell receptors constituted by an antigen-recognizing antibody molecule linked to a T-cell triggering domain. Various hematologic malignancies represent optimal targets for the exploitation of ChTCR, because of the bright expression of specific antigens on the surface of tumor cells. Thus, CD19 and CD20 have been targeted for B-cell lymphoid tumors (acute lymphoblastic leukemia-ALL, lymphomas and chronic lymphocytic leukemia-CLL), CD33 for myeloid leukemia, and CD30 for lymphomas. Even though technical and safety progresses are still needed to improve the profile of gene transfer and protein expression of ChTCR, phase 1 trials will be carried out in the near future to demonstrate the feasibility of their clinical translation and, it is be hoped, give preliminary indications about their anti-tumor efficacy. PMID:17339188

  15. Conditional expression of full-length humanized anti-prion protein antibodies in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Daniel A; Heinig, Lars; Ramljak, Sanja; Krueger, Astrid; Schulte, Reiner; Wrede, Arne; Stuke, Andreas W

    2010-12-01

    Because of their high antigen specificity and metabolic stability, genetically engineered human monoclonal antibodies are on the way to becoming one of the most promising medical diagnostics and therapeutics. In order to establish an in vitro system capable of producing such biosimilar antibodies, we used human constant chain sequences to design the novel human antibody expressing vector cassette pMAB-ABX. A bidirectional tetracycline (tet)-controllable promotor was used for harmonized expression of immunoglobulin type G (IgG) heavy and light chains. As an example we used anti-prion protein (anti-PrP) IgGs. Therefore, the variable heavy (V(H)) and light chain (V(L)) sequences of anti-PrP antibodies, previously generated in our laboratory by DNA immunization of prion protein knock-out mice, were isolated from murine hybridoma cell lines and inserted into pMAB-ABX vector. After transfection of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, a number of stable antibody producing cell clones were selected. One cell line (pMAB-ABX-13F10/3B5) stably expressing the recombinant humanized antibody (rechuAb) 13F10/3B5 was selected for detailed characterization by Western blot, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometric analyses. The full-length recombinant humanized IgG antibody showed a high level of expression in the cytoplasm. In conclusion, the new cell system described here is a suitable tool to produce functional intact full-length humanized IgG antibodies. PMID:21087094

  16. Chimeric enzymes with improved cellulase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Qi; Baker, John O; Himmel, Michael E

    2015-03-31

    Nucleic acid molecules encoding chimeric cellulase polypeptides that exhibit improved cellulase activities are disclosed herein. The chimeric cellulase polypeptides encoded by these nucleic acids and methods to produce the cellulases are also described, along with methods of using chimeric cellulases for the conversion of cellulose to sugars such as glucose.

  17. SPECT imaging of neuropilin receptor type-1 expression with 131I-labeled monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Dou, Xiaofeng; Yan, Jianghua; Zhang, Yafei; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yizhen; Lv, Sha; Zeng, Fanwei; Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Shengyu; Zhang, Haipeng; Wu, Hua; Zhang, Hong; Ouyang, Lin; Su, Xinhui

    2016-09-01

    As a novel co-receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neuropilin receptor type-1 (NRP-1) is overexpressed in several cancers and metastases, and serves as an attractive target for cancer molecular imaging and therapy. Previous single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies demonstrated that the small NRP-1-targeting peptides 99mTc-MA-ATWLPPR and 99mTc-CK3 showed poor tumor imaging quality, because of their rapid blood clearance and very low tumor uptake. Compared with small peptides, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can improve imaging of NRP-1-expression, due to their high affinity, specificity and slow extraction. A6-11-26 is a novel monoclonal antibody against NRP-1 b1b2 domain that exhibits inhibition of tumor growth in NPR-1-expressing preclinical models. The aim of the present study was to develop the 131I-labeled anti-NRP-1 monoclonal antibody A6-11-26 as a SPECT probe for imaging of NRP-1-positive tumor. An anti-NRP-1 monoclonal antibody (A6-11-26) was produced by hybridomas and was labeled with iodine-131 by the iodogen method. In vitro, the radiolabeling efficiency, radiochemical purity, immunoreactive fraction and stability were assessed. Binding affinity and specificity of 131I‑A6-11-26 to NRP-1 were evaluated using human glioblastoma U87MG cells. In vivo, biodistribution and SPECT/CT studies were conducted on mice bearing U87MG xenografts after the injection of 131I-A6-11-26 with or without co-injection of unlabeled A6-11-26 antibody. A6-11-26 was generated successfully by hybridoma with high purity (>95%) and was labeled with iodine-131 within 60 min with high labelling efficiency (95.46±3.34%), radiochemical purity (98.23±1.41%). 131I-A6-11-26 retained its immunoreactivity and also displayed excellent stability in mouse serum and PBS solution during 1 to 96 h. Cell uptake assays showed high NRP-1-specific uptake (15.80±1.30% applied activity at 6 h) in U87MG cells. 131I-A6-11-26 bound to NRP-1 with low nanomolar

  18. Nonviral RNA transfection to transiently modify T cells with chimeric antigen receptors for adoptive therapy.

    PubMed

    Riet, Tobias; Holzinger, Astrid; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels; Schuler, Gerold; Abken, Hinrich

    2013-01-01

    Redirecting T cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) of predefined specificity showed remarkable efficacy in the adoptive therapy trials of malignant diseases. The CAR consists of a single chain fragment of variable region (scFv) antibody targeting domain covalently linked to the CD3ζ signalling domain of the T cell receptor complex to mediate T cell activation upon antigen engagement. By using an antibody-derived targeting domain a CAR can potentially redirect T cells towards any target expressed on the cell surface as long as a binding domain is available. Antibody-mediated targeting moreover circumvents MHC restriction of the targeted antigen, thereby broadening the potential of applicability of adoptive T cell therapy. While T cells were so far genetically modified by viral transduction, transient modification with a CAR by RNA transfection gained increasing interest during the last years. This chapter focuses on methods to modify human T cells from peripheral blood with a CAR by electroporation of in vitro transcribed RNA and to test modified T cells for function for use in adoptive immunotherapy. PMID:23296935

  19. Intracellular expression of a single domain antibody reduces cytotoxicity of 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol in yeast.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Patrick J; Saeed, Hanaa; Hermans, Anne; Gleddie, Steve C; Hussack, Greg; Arbabi-Ghahroudi, Mehdi; Seguin, Charles; Savard, Marc E; Mackenzie, C Roger; Hall, J Christopher

    2009-12-11

    15-Acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON) is a low molecular weight sesquiterpenoid trichothecene mycotoxin associated with Fusarium ear rot of maize and Fusarium head blight of small grain cereals. The accumulation of mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and 15-AcDON within harvested grain is subject to stringent regulation as both toxins pose dietary health risks to humans and animals. These toxins inhibit peptidyltransferase activity, which in turn limits eukaryotic protein synthesis. To assess the ability of intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) to modulate mycotoxin-specific cytotoxocity, a gene encoding a camelid single domain antibody fragment (V(H)H) with specificity and affinity for 15-AcDON was expressed in the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. Cytotoxicity and V(H)H immunomodulation were assessed by continuous measurement of cellular growth. At equivalent doses, 15-AcDON was significantly more toxic to wild-type P. pastoris than was DON. In turn, DON was orders of magnitude more toxic than 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Intracellular expression of a mycotoxin-specific V(H)H within P. pastoris conveyed significant (p = 0.01) resistance to 15-AcDON cytotoxicity at doses ranging from 20 to 100 mug.ml(-1). We also documented a biochemical transformation of DON to 15-AcDON to account for the attenuation of DON cytotoxicity at 100 and 200 mug.ml(-1). The proof of concept established within this eukaryotic system suggests that in planta V(H)H expression may lead to enhanced tolerance to mycotoxins and thereby limit Fusarium infection of commercial agricultural crops. PMID:19783651

  20. Chimeric aptamers in cancer cell-targeted drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jagat R; Roy, Kislay; Kanwar, Rupinder K

    2011-01-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded structured oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) that can bind to a wide range of targets ("apatopes") with high affinity and specificity. These nucleic acid ligands, generated from pools of random-sequence by an in vitro selection process referred to as systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), have now been identified as excellent tools for chemical biology, therapeutic delivery, diagnosis, research, and monitoring therapy in real-time imaging. Today, aptamers represent an interesting class of modern Pharmaceuticals which with their low immunogenic potential mimic extend many of the properties of monoclonal antibodies in diagnostics, research, and therapeutics. More recently, chimeric aptamer approach employing many different possible types of chimerization strategies has generated more stable and efficient chimeric aptamers with aptamer-aptamer, aptamer-nonaptamer biomacromolecules (siRNAs, proteins) and aptamer-nanoparticle chimeras. These chimeric aptamers when conjugated with various biomacromolecules like locked nucleic acid (LNA) to potentiate their stability, biodistribution, and targeting efficiency, have facilitated the accurate targeting in preclinical trials. We developed LNA-aptamer (anti-nucleolin and EpCAM) complexes which were loaded in iron-saturated bovine lactofeerin (Fe-blf)-coated dopamine modified surface of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (SPIONs). This complex was used to deliver the specific aptamers in tumor cells in a co-culture model of normal and cancer cells. This review focuses on the chimeric aptamers, currently in development that are likely to find future practical applications in concert with other therapeutic molecules and modalities. PMID:21955150

  1. Cleavage efficient 2A peptides for high level monoclonal antibody expression in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Chng, Jake; Wang, Tianhua; Nian, Rui; Lau, Ally; Hoi, Kong Meng; Ho, Steven C L; Gagnon, Peter; Bi, Xuezhi; Yang, Yuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Linking the heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) genes required for monoclonal antibodies (mAb) production on a single cassette using 2A peptides allows control of LC and HC ratio and reduces non-expressing cells. Four 2A peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (F2A), equine rhinitis A virus (E2A), porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) and Thosea asigna virus (T2A), respectively, were compared for expression of 3 biosimilar IgG1 mAbs in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. HC and LC were linked by different 2A peptides both in the absence and presence of GSG linkers. Insertion of a furin recognition site upstream of 2A allowed removal of 2A residues that would otherwise be attached to the HC. Different 2A peptides exhibited different cleavage efficiencies that correlated to the mAb expression level. The relative cleavage efficiency of each 2A peptide remains similar for expression of different IgG1 mAbs in different CHO cells. While complete cleavage was not observed for any of the 2A peptides, GSG linkers did enhance the cleavage efficiency and thus the mAb expression level. T2A with the GSG linker (GT2A) exhibited the highest cleavage efficiency and mAb expression level. Stably amplified CHO DG44 pools generated using GT2A had titers 357, 416 and 600 mg/L for the 3 mAbs in shake flask batch cultures. Incomplete cleavage likely resulted in incorrectly processed mAb species and aggregates, which were removed with a chromatin-directed clarification method and protein A purification. The vector and methods presented provide an easy process beneficial for both mAb development and manufacturing. PMID:25621616

  2. Cleavage efficient 2A peptides for high level monoclonal antibody expression in CHO cells

    PubMed Central

    Chng, Jake; Wang, Tianhua; Nian, Rui; Lau, Ally; Hoi, Kong Meng; Ho, Steven CL; Gagnon, Peter; Bi, Xuezhi; Yang, Yuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Linking the heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) genes required for monoclonal antibodies (mAb) production on a single cassette using 2A peptides allows control of LC and HC ratio and reduces non-expressing cells. Four 2A peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (F2A), equine rhinitis A virus (E2A), porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) and Thosea asigna virus (T2A), respectively, were compared for expression of 3 biosimilar IgG1 mAbs in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. HC and LC were linked by different 2A peptides both in the absence and presence of GSG linkers. Insertion of a furin recognition site upstream of 2A allowed removal of 2A residues that would otherwise be attached to the HC. Different 2A peptides exhibited different cleavage efficiencies that correlated to the mAb expression level. The relative cleavage efficiency of each 2A peptide remains similar for expression of different IgG1 mAbs in different CHO cells. While complete cleavage was not observed for any of the 2A peptides, GSG linkers did enhance the cleavage efficiency and thus the mAb expression level. T2A with the GSG linker (GT2A) exhibited the highest cleavage efficiency and mAb expression level. Stably amplified CHO DG44 pools generated using GT2A had titers 357, 416 and 600 mg/L for the 3 mAbs in shake flask batch cultures. Incomplete cleavage likely resulted in incorrectly processed mAb species and aggregates, which were removed with a chromatin-directed clarification method and protein A purification. The vector and methods presented provide an easy process beneficial for both mAb development and manufacturing. PMID:25621616

  3. Recombinant bovine herpesvirus-1 expressing p23 protein of Cryptosporidium parvum induces neutralizing antibodies in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Yasuhiro; Xuan, Xuenan; Kimata, Isao; Iseki, Motohiro; Kodama, Yoshikatsu; Nagane, Noriko; Nagasawa, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Mikami, Takeshi; Otsuka, Haruki

    2003-04-01

    In order to develop a vaccine against cryptosporidiosis in cattle, we constructed a recombinant bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) expressing an immunodominant surface protein, p23, of Cryptosporidium parvum sporozoites. In the recombinant virus, the p23 gene under the control of a CAG promoter and a gene coding for an enhanced green fluorescent protein were integrated into the gG gene of BHV-1. Despite a low frequency of homologous recombination, cloning of the recombinants was easy because of the specific fluorescence of the plaques formed by recombinants. These plaques were among the plaques of the nonfluorescent parental virus. All clones selected for fluorescence also contained the p23 gene. In MDBK cells infected with the recombinant BHV-1, the antibody against the p23 protein recognized the p23 protein as an approximately 23-kDa specific band in Western blotting analysis. Rabbits immunized with the recombinant produced IgG against the p23 protein. It was also demonstrated that the sera of immunized rabbits reduced infection of C. parvum sporozoites in HCT-8 cells. The serum of an immunized rabbit reduced infection compared with the normal rabbit serum control. These results indicate that the recombinant BHV-1 induces neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. PMID:12760641

  4. Purification of monoclonal antibody against Ebola GP1 protein expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Andrew; Lai, Huafang; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Chenming

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are one of the fastest growing drug molecules targeting the treatment of diseases ranging from arthritis, immune disorders, and infectious diseases to cancer. Due to its unique application principle, antibodies are commonly produced in large quantities. Plants, such as Nicotiana benthamiana, offer a unique production platform for bio-therapeutics due to their ability to produce large amounts of biomolecules in a relatively quick manner. However, purification of a target protein from plant is an arduous task due to the presence of toxic compounds in ground plant tissue and the large quantities of plant tissues to be processed. Here, a process was developed prior to the chromatographic purification of a mAb against Ebola GP1 protein expressed in N. benthamiana. The process includes a diafiltration step and a charged polyelectrolyte precipitation. The diafiltration step significantly improved the precipitation efficiency, reducing the usage of polyelectrolyte by more than 2000 fold while improving the native plant protein removed from 60% to 80%. The mAb can then be purified to near homogeneity judging from SDS-PAGE by either Protein A affinity chromatography or a tandem of hydrophobic interaction chromatography and a hydrophobic charge induction chromatography. The purified mAbs were shown to retain their binding specificity to irradiated Ebola virus. PMID:25746758

  5. Chimerism in transfusion medicine

    PubMed Central

    Brunker, Patricia AR

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion therapy is complicated by the production of alloantibodies to antigens present in the donor and lacking in the recipient through the poorly-understood but likely multi-factorial process of alloimmunization. The low prevalence of alloimmunization in transfused patients (6.1%)1 suggests that processes central to immunologic tolerance may be operating in the vast majority of transfused patients who do not produce alloantibodies. Using RhD as a prototype, evidence is reviewed that the ability to make antibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens may result in part from immunologic tolerance acquired in utero. These ideas are extended to other examples of maternal microchimerism (MMc) of other non-inherited maternal antigens (NIMA). An evolutionary argument is offered that multi-generational immunity supports the hypothesis that MMc may partly explain the “non-responder” phenotype in RBC alloimmunization. PMID:24196285

  6. Bovine IgG2a antibodies to Haemophilus somnus and allotype expression.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Gogolewski, R P; Kacskovics, I; Nielsen, K H; Corbeil, R R; Morrill, J L; Greenwood, R; Butler, J E

    1997-01-01

    Bovine IgG2a has been implicated in protection against pyogenic infections, including those caused by Haemophilus somnus. To further investigate the role of IgG2a in defense against H. somnus, IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were purified from antiserum against an immunodominant 40 kDa outer membrane protein (p40) of H. somnus, which was previously shown to passively protect calves against H. somnus pneumonia. The passive protective capacity of anti-p40 IgG1 or IgG2a was evaluated in vivo in calves. Purified anti-p40 IgG1 or IgG2a was incubated with H. somnus for 15 min before intrabronchial inoculation of calves. Bacteria incubated with anti-p40 IgG1 or IgG2a were inoculated into one caudal lung lobe and bacteria incubated with IgG1 or IgG2a from the respective preimmunization serum were inoculated into the contralateral lobe. The volumes of pneumonia in the right and left lungs were determined 24 h later. The difference in volume of pneumonia with H. somnus preincubated in IgG1 pre- and postimmunization anti p40 was less (16 cm3, P = 0.298) than the difference in volume of pneumonia with H. somnus preincubated in IgG2a pre- and postimmunization anti p40 (30 cm3, P = 0.146). Although the differences in lesion size between pre- and postimmunization serum were not statistically significant, the trend suggests IgG2a may be more protective than IgG1. To examine this further, the peptide specificity of these IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies to p40 was examined. After limited proteolysis of p40, IgG2a antibodies reacted with 2 peptides not recognized by IgG1 antibodies. Other peptides were recognized by both isotypes. Since these studies suggested that IgG2a may be important in protection against infection, we then investigated some aspects of the role of the 2 IgG2a allotypes, A1 and A2. In retrospective studies of age differences in expression of IgG2a allotypes, no heterozygotes were detected in calves of 60 d old or less, and fewer heterozygotes were detected in calves 61-120 d

  7. Secretory signal peptide modification for optimized antibody-fragment expression-secretion in Leishmania tarentolae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Secretory signal peptides (SPs) are well-known sequence motifs targeting proteins for translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. After passing through the secretory pathway, most proteins are secreted to the environment. Here, we describe the modification of an expression vector containing the SP from secreted acid phosphatase 1 (SAP1) of Leishmania mexicana for optimized protein expression-secretion in the eukaryotic parasite Leishmania tarentolae with regard to recombinant antibody fragments. For experimental design the online tool SignalP was used, which predicts the presence and location of SPs and their cleavage sites in polypeptides. To evaluate the signal peptide cleavage site as well as changes of expression, SPs were N-terminally linked to single-chain Fragment variables (scFv’s). The ability of L. tarentolae to express complex eukaryotic proteins with highly diverse post-translational modifications and its easy bacteria-like handling, makes the parasite a promising expression system for secretory proteins. Results We generated four vectors with different SP-sequence modifications based on in-silico analyses with SignalP in respect to cleavage probability and location, named pLTEX-2 to pLTEX-5. To evaluate their functionality, we cloned four individual scFv-fragments into the vectors and transfected all 16 constructs into L. tarentolae. Independently from the expressed scFv, pLTEX-5 derived constructs showed the highest expression rate, followed by pLTEX-4 and pLTEX-2, whereas only low amounts of protein could be obtained from pLTEX-3 clones, indicating dysfunction of the SP. Next, we analysed the SP cleavage sites by Edman degradation. For pLTEX-2, -4, and -5 derived scFv’s, the results corresponded to in-silico predictions, whereas pLTEX-3 derived scFv’s contained one additional amino-acid (AA). Conclusions The obtained results demonstrate the importance of SP-sequence optimization for efficient expression-secretion of sc

  8. Petunia AGAMOUS enhancer-derived chimeric promoters specify a carpel-, stamen- and petal-specific expression pattern sufficient for engineering male and female sterility in tobacco

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have shown that the AtAGIP promoter derived from the Arabidopsis AGAMOUS (AG) second intron/enhancer specifies a carpel- and stamen-specific pattern of expression in its native host species but not in heterologous species, such as tobacco which restricts its application in the engin...

  9. Tubular and endothelial chimerism in renal allografts using fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH, CISH) technology.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsuzsanna; Gaspert, Ariana; Behnke, Silvia; von Teichman, Adriana; Fritzsche, Florian; Fehr, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    The role of endothelial and tubular chimerism in renal allograft adaptation and rejection varies in different studies. We addressed the correlation between different clinico-pathological settings and sex-chromosomal endothelial and/or tubular chimerism in renal allografts. We examined the presence or absence of the X and Y chromosomes by fluorescence and chromogenic in situ hybridization (FISH, CISH) methodology on paraffin embedded kidney biopsies in 16 gender mismatched renal transplants (1 to 12 years post-transplantation). Twelve patients were male, four female. Four groups were selected: (i) Vascular calcineurin inhibitor toxicity without rejection; (ii) T-cell mediated vascular rejection; (iii) antibody mediated rejection; and (iv) C4d-positivity in AB0-incompatible transplants with or without rejection. Twelve non-transplant kidney biopsies (8 female, 4 male) were used as controls. Tubular chimerism was detected more frequently (69%) than endothelial chimerism (12%) in renal transplants. One of 12 control patients had tubular and endothelial chimeric cells (8%). The Y chromosome occurred in 8/12 male recipients (67%) in tubular epithelial cells and in 5/12 male recipients (42%) in endothelial cells. Double X chromosomes were detected in 3/4 female recipients in tubular epithelium. Tubular chimerism occurred more often with endothelial chimerism and capillaritis without correlation with other parameters, such as rejection. Combined Y chromosomal tubular and lymphatic endothelial chimerism correlated with T-cell mediated vascular rejection in two out of three patients (66%). Combined Y chromosomal tubular and peritubular capillary chimerism correlated with antibody mediated C4d+ rejection in one out of two patients (50%). Tubular and/or endothelial chimerism occur frequently in gender mismatched renal allografts and, when combined, this is associated with T-cell mediated rejection. PMID:22449229

  10. Expression Enhancement in Trastuzumab Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody Production using Genomic Amplification with Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh-Sharbaf, Soudabeh; Yakhchali, Bagher; Minuchehr, Zarrin; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Zeinali, Sirous

    2013-01-01

    Background Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is a humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) which is used for specific treatment of metastatic breast cancer in patients with overexpression of HER2/neu receptor. In this study, we have attempted to develop a biosimilar version of trastuzumab mAb. Methods According to in silico studies, the heavy and light chains of trastuzumab mAb were designed and constructed. The recombinant constructs were co-transfected in CHO DG44 cell line. Stable transformants were selected on a semi solid medium. Genomic amplification with methotrexate was achieved for heavy chain gene amplification. Biological activity of produced antibody in comparison with Herceptin was tested by flow cytometry method. Results Three folds of amplification were obtained after seven rounds of methotrexate treatments. The results indicated the equal expression level of heavy and light chains. The yield of purified mAb was between 50 to 60 mg/l /day. According to the results, the produced mAb had similar affinity to HER2+ tumor cells to that of Herceptin. Conclusion High-level recombinant protein expression can be achieved by amplification of the recombinant gene with a selectable marker, such as Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR). It is usually accepted that DHFR gene can be amplified in DHFR- CHO cells, which consequently leads to amplification of the co-linked target gene, and finally amplification of recombinant protein. In this research, with the aim of producing a biosimilar version of herceptin, the effect of genomic amplification was investigated on the increasing the gene copy number using quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:23799177

  11. Influence of protein expression system on elicitation of IgE antibody responses: experience with lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Almond, Rachael J; Flanagan, Brian F; Kimber, Ian; Dearman, Rebecca J

    2012-11-15

    With increased interest in genetically modified (GM) crop plants there is an important need to understand the properties that contribute to the ability of such novel proteins to provoke immune and/or allergic responses. One characteristic that may be relevant is glycosylation, particularly as novel expression systems (e.g. bacterial to plant) will impact on the protein glycoprofile. The allergenicity (IgE inducing) and immunogenicity (IgG inducing) properties of wild type native human lactoferrin (NLF) from human milk (hm) and neutrophil granules (n) and a recombinant molecule produced in rice (RLF) have been assessed. These forms of lactoferrin have identical amino acid sequences, but different glycosylation patterns: hmNLF and nNLF have complex glycoprofiles including Lewis (Le)(x) structures, with particularly high levels of Le(x) expressed by nNLF, whereas RLF is simpler and rich in mannose residues. Antibody responses induced in BALB/c strain mice by intraperitoneal exposure to the different forms of lactoferrin were characterised. Immunisation with both forms of NLF stimulated substantial IgG and IgE antibody responses. In contrast, the recombinant molecule was considerably less immunogenic and failed to stimulate detectable IgE, irrespective of endotoxin and iron content. The glycans did not contribute to epitope formation, with equivalent IgE and IgG binding recorded for high titre anti-NLF antisera regardless of whether the immunising NLF or the recombinant molecule were used substrates in the analyses. These data demonstrate that differential glycosylation profiles can have a profound impact on protein allergenicity and immunogenicity, with mannose and Le(x) exhibiting opposing effects. These results have clear relevance for characterising the allergenic hazards of novel proteins in GM crops. PMID:22813905

  12. Oncogenic KRAS Impairs EGFR Antibodies' Efficiency by C/EBPβ-Dependent Suppression of EGFR Expression12

    PubMed Central

    Derer, Stefanie; Berger, Sven; Schlaeth, Martin; Schneider-Merck, Tanja; Klausz, Katja; Lohse, Stefan; Overdijk, Marije B; Dechant, Michael; Kellner, Christian; Nagelmeier, Iris; Scheel, Andreas H; Lammerts van Bueren, Jeroen J; van de Winkel, Jan GJ; Parren, Paul WHI; Peipp, Matthias; Valerius, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with lack of benefit from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed antibody (Ab) therapy. However, the mechanisms by which constitutively activated KRAS (KRASG12V) impairs effector mechanisms of EGFR-Abs are incompletely understood. Here, we established isogenic cell line models to systematically investigate the impact of KRASG12V on tumor growth in mouse A431 xenograft models as well as on various modes of action triggered by EGFR-Abs in vitro. KRASG12V impaired EGFR-Ab-mediated growth inhibition by stimulating receptor-independent downstream signaling. KRASG12V also rendered tumor cells less responsive to Fc-mediated effector mechanisms of EGFR-Abs—such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Impaired CDC and ADCC activities could be linked to reduced EGFR expression in KRAS-mutated versus wild-type (wt) cells, which was restored by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of KRAS4b. Immunohistochemistry experiments also revealed lower EGFR expression in KRAS-mutated versus KRAS-wt harboring CRC samples. Analyses of potential mechanisms by which KRASG12V downregulated EGFR expression demonstrated significantly decreased activity of six distinct transcription factors. Additional experiments suggested the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) family to be implicated in the regulation of EGFR promoter activity in KRAS-mutated tumor cells by suppressing EGFR transcription through up-regulation of the inhibitory family member C/EBPβ-LIP. Thus, siRNA-mediated knockdown of C/EBPβ led to enhanced EGFR expression and Ab-mediated cytotoxicity against KRAS-mutated cells. Together, these results demonstrate that KRASG12V signaling induced C/EBPβ-dependent suppression of EGFR expression, thereby impairing Fc-mediated effector mechanisms of EGFR-Abs and rendering KRAS-mutated tumor cells less sensitive to these therapeutic agents. PMID

  13. Design of Switchable Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Targeting Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Rodgers, David T; Du, Juanjuan; Ahmad, Insha; Hampton, Eric N; Ma, Jennifer S Y; Mazagova, Magdalena; Choi, Sei-Hyun; Yun, Hwa Young; Xiao, Han; Yang, Pengyu; Luo, Xiaozhou; Lim, Reyna K V; Pugh, Holly M; Wang, Feng; Kazane, Stephanie A; Wright, Timothy M; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Schultz, Peter G; Young, Travis S

    2016-06-20

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells have demonstrated promising results against hematological malignancies, but have encountered significant challenges in translation to solid tumors. To overcome these hurdles, we have developed a switchable CAR-T cell platform in which the activity of the engineered cell is controlled by dosage of an antibody-based switch. Herein, we apply this approach to Her2-expressing breast cancers by engineering switch molecules through site-specific incorporation of FITC or grafting of a peptide neo-epitope (PNE) into the anti-Her2 antibody trastuzumab (clone 4D5). We demonstrate that both switch formats can be readily optimized to redirect CAR-T cells (specific for the corresponding FITC or PNE) to Her2-expressing tumor cells, and afford dose-titratable activation of CAR-T cells ex vivo and complete clearance of the tumor in rodent xenograft models. This strategy may facilitate the application of immunotherapy to solid tumors by affording comparable efficacy with improved safety owing to switch-based control of the CAR-T response. PMID:27145250

  14. Application of bluetongue Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine for different serotypes by VP2 exchange or incorporation of chimeric VP2.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Femke; Pap, Janny S; van Rijn, Piet A

    2015-02-01

    Bluetongue is a disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). Bluetongue outbreaks can be controlled by vaccination, however, currently available vaccines have several drawbacks. Further, there are at least 26 BTV serotypes, with low cross protection. A next-generation vaccine based on live-attenuated BTV without expression of non-structural proteins NS3/NS3a, named Disabled Infectious Single Animal (DISA) vaccine, was recently developed for serotype 8 by exchange of the serotype determining outer capsid protein VP2. DISA vaccines are replicating vaccines but do not cause detectable viremia, and induce serotype specific protection. Here, we exchanged VP2 of laboratory strain BTV1 for VP2 of European serotypes 2, 4, 8 and 9 using reverse genetics, without observing large effects on virus growth. Exchange of VP2 from serotype 16 and 25 was however not possible. Therefore, chimeric VP2 proteins of BTV1 containing possible immunogenic regions of these serotypes were studied. BTV1, expressing 1/16 chimeric VP2 proteins was functional in virus replication in vitro and contained neutralizing epitopes of both serotype 1 and 16. For serotype 25 this approach failed. We combined VP2 exchange with the NS3/NS3a negative phenotype in BTV1 as previously described for serotype 8 DISA vaccine. DISA vaccine with 1/16 chimeric VP2 containing amino acid region 249-398 of serotype 16 raised antibodies in sheep neutralizing both BTV1 and BTV16. This suggests that DISA vaccine could be protective for both parental serotypes present in chimeric VP2. We here demonstrate the application of the BT DISA vaccine platform for several serotypes and further extend the application for serotypes that are unsuccessful in single VP2 exchange. PMID:25510389

  15. Activation/proliferation and apoptosis of bystander goat lymphocytes induced by a macrophage-tropic chimeric caprine arthritis encephalitis virus expressing SIV Nef

    SciTech Connect

    Bouzar, Baya Amel; Rea, Angela; Hoc-Villet, Stephanie; Garnier, Celine; Guiguen, Francois; Jin Yuhuai; Narayan, Opendra; Chebloune, Yahia . E-mail: ychebloune@kumc.edu

    2007-08-01

    Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) is the natural lentivirus of goats, well known for its tropism for macrophages and its inability to cause infection in lymphocytes. The viral genome lacks nef, tat, vpu and vpx coding sequences. To test the hypothesis that when nef is expressed by the viral genome, the virus became toxic for lymphocytes during replication in macrophages, we inserted the SIVsmm PBj14 nef coding sequences into the genome of CAEV thereby generating CAEV-nef. This recombinant virus is not infectious for lymphocytes but is fully replication competent in goat macrophages in which it constitutively expresses the SIV Nef. We found that goat lymphocytes cocultured with CAEV-nef-infected macrophages became activated, showing increased expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R). Activation correlated with increased proliferation of the cells. Interestingly, a dual effect in terms of apoptosis regulation was observed in exposed goat lymphocytes. Nef was found first to induce a protection of lymphocytes from apoptosis during the first few days following exposure to infected macrophages, but later it induced increased apoptosis in the activated lymphocytes. This new recombinant virus provides a model to study the functions of Nef in the context of infection of macrophages, but in absence of infection of T lymphocytes and brings new insights into the biological effects of Nef on lymphocytes.

  16. Production, purification, and characterization of human scFv antibodies expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Jane M.; Gray, Sean A.; Siegel, Robert W.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2005-08-01

    Single chain (scFv) antibodies are used as affinity reagents for diagnostics, therapeutics, and proteomic analyses. The antibody discovery platform we use to identify novel antigen binders involves discovery, characterization, and production. The discovery and characterization components have previously been characterized but in order to fully utilize the capabilities of affinity reagents from our yeast surface display library, efforts were focused on developing a production component to obtain purified, soluble, and active scFvs. Instead of optimizing conditions to achieve maximum yield, efforts were focused on using a system that could quickly and easily produce and process hundreds of scFv antibodies. Heterologous protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli were evaluated for their ability to rapidly, efficaciously, and consistently produce scFv antibodies for use in downstream proteomic applications. Following purification, the binding activity of several scFv antibodies were quantified using a novel Biacore assay. All three systems produced soluble scFv antibodies which ranged in activity from 0-99%. scFv antibody yields from Saccharomyces, Pichia, and E. coli were 1.5-4.2, 0.4-7.3, and 0.63-16.4 mg L-1 culture, respectively. For our purposes, expression in E. coli proved to be the quickest and most consistent way to obtain and characterize purified scFv for downstream applications. The E. coli expression system was also used to compare scFv production levels from the periplasm, inclusion bodies, and culture media. The E. coli production system was then used to produce variants of several scFv to determine structure function relationships.

  17. Monoclonal Antibody Analysis of Keratin Expression in the Central Nervous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franko, Maryellen C.; Gibbs, Clarence J.; Rhoades, Dorothy A.; Carleton Gajdusek, D.

    1987-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody directed against a 65-kDa brain protein demonstrates an epitope found in keratin from human epidermis. By indirect immunofluorescence, the antibody decorates intracytoplasmic filaments in a subclass of astrocytes and Purkinje cells of adult hamster brain. Double-label immunofluorescence study using antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein and this antibody reveals the 65-kDa protein to be closely associated with glial filaments in astrocytes of fetal mouse brain cultures. Immunoblot analysis of purified human epidermal keratin and hamster brain homogenate confirms the reactivity of this antibody to epidermal keratin polypeptides. All the major epidermal keratins were recognized by this antibody. It did not bind to the remaining major intermediate filament proteins. These findings suggest that monoclonal antibody 34C9 recognizes a cytoskeletal structure connected with intermediate filaments. In addition, the monoclonal antibody demonstrates that epidermal keratins share an epitope not only among themselves but also with a ``neural keratin.''

  18. Polyclonal antibody effects on the human cardiac 5-HT4(e) receptors depend upon the expression system.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Emmanuella; Rose, Stéphanie; Hérault, Olivier; Argibay, Jorge; Cosnay, Pierre; Bozon, Véronique

    2004-01-01

    The initial objective of this work was to examine the effects of an antibody (Anti-G21V) directed against the second extracellular loop of human heart 5-HT4 receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The antibody anti-G21V had no effect upon either basal cAMP-or 5-HT-evoked increases in cAMP in CHO cells, whereas it had shown an agonist-like effect in COS-7 cells. Analysis of agonist fractions of h5-HT4(e) receptors in CHO and COS-7 cells revealed that equilibrium constant could underlie the different responses of the receptor toward the anti-G21V antibody. Therefore, different expression systems could give rise to functional differences in 5-HT4 receptor behavior. PMID:15512847

  19. Ligand-inducible dimeric antibody for selecting antibodies against a membrane protein based on mammalian cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Tomohiro; Nagamune, Teruyuki; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    A method for selecting antibodies against a membrane protein is important for attaining a variety of antibody-based diagnostics and therapies. In this study, we propose a novel system to select specific antibodies against a membrane protein based on mammalian cell proliferation as a readout. The system employs a chimeric membrane protein in which a target membrane protein of interest is fused to the intracellular signaling domain of a cytokine receptor. The chimeric membrane protein transduces a cell proliferation signal through dimerization when co-expressed with a specific single-chain Fv fused with a mutant of FK-binding protein 12 (scFv-Fk) that can be conditionally dimerized by a synthetic ligand AP20187. To demonstrate this system, ErbB2 and gp130 were chosen as the target membrane protein and cytokine receptor, respectively. Consequently, co-expression of the ErbB2/gp130 chimera and ErbB2-specific scFv-Fk rendered the cells proliferative in response to AP20187. The system also allowed selection of high-affinity binders from a mixture composed of dominant low-affinity binders. This system may be extended to affinity maturation of scFvs by modulating AP20187 concentration in the selection process. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1113-1123. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26479395

  20. Construction of a mouse Aos1-Uba2 chimeric SUMO-E1 enzyme, mAU, and its expression in baculovirus-insect cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tomofumi; Yuasa, Eri; Kanemaru, Ayumi; Saito, Masayuki; Saitoh, Hisato

    2014-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a highly conserved protein that is covalently attached to target proteins. This posttranslational modification, designated SUMOylation, is a major protein-conjugation-driven strategy designed to regulate structure and function of cellular proteins. SUMOylation consists of an enzymatic cascade involving the E1-activating enzyme and the E2-conjugating enzyme. The SUMO-E1 enzyme consists of two subunits, a heterodimer of activation of Smt3p 1 (Aos1) and ubiquitin activating enzyme 2 (Uba2), which resembles the N- and C-terminal halves of ubiquitin E1 (Uba1). Herein, we describe the rational design of a single polypeptide version of SUMO-E1, a chimera of mouse Aos1 and Uba2 subunits, termed mAU, in which the functional domains appear to be arranged in a fashion similar to Uba1. We also describe the construction of a mAU plasmid for expression in a baculovirus-insect cell system and present an in situ SUMOylation assay using the recombinant mAU. Our results showed that mAU has SUMO-E1 activity, thereby indicating that mAU can be expressed in baculovirus-insect cells and represents a suitable source of SUMO-E1. PMID:24637489

  1. Evaluation of the expression of sperm proteins in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men using monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Capkova, Jana; Kubatova, Alena; Ded, Lukas; Tepla, Olina; Peknicova, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that infertility affects estimated 15% of all couples. Male infertility is the primary or contributory cause in 60% of these cases. Consequently, the application of assisted reproduction is increasing. These methods could benefit from an extended evaluation of sperm quality. For this reason, we analyzed sperm proteins from 30 men with normal spermiograms and 30 men with asthenozoospermia. Ejaculates of both groups were tested by flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence with a set of well-characterized anti-human sperm Hs-monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), which were generated in our laboratory. No statistically significant differences were found between normospermics and asthenospermics in the expression of the sperm surface protein clusterin, evaluated with Hs-3 MoAb, and semenogelin, evaluated with Hs-9 MoAb. However, FCM revealed quantitative differences in the acrosomal proteins between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men, namely, in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, evaluated with Hs-8 MoAb, valosin-containing protein, evaluated with Hs-14 MoAb, and ATP synthase (cAMP-dependent protein kinase II, PRKAR2A), evaluated with MoAb Hs-36. Asthenozoospermic men displayed a highly reduced expression of intra-acrosomal proteins, with a likely decrease in sperm quality, and thus a negative impact on successful reproduction. Asthenozoospermia seems to be a complex disorder involving intra-acrosomal proteins. PMID:25926605

  2. Evaluation of the expression of sperm proteins in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Capkova, Jana; Kubatova, Alena; Ded, Lukas; Tepla, Olina; Peknicova, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that infertility affects estimated 15% of all couples. Male infertility is the primary or contributory cause in 60% of these cases. Consequently, the application of assisted reproduction is increasing. These methods could benefit from an extended evaluation of sperm quality. For this reason, we analyzed sperm proteins from 30 men with normal spermiograms and 30 men with asthenozoospermia. Ejaculates of both groups were tested by flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence with a set of well-characterized anti-human sperm Hs-monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), which were generated in our laboratory. No statistically significant differences were found between normospermics and asthenospermics in the expression of the sperm surface protein clusterin, evaluated with Hs-3 MoAb, and semenogelin, evaluated with Hs-9 MoAb. However, FCM revealed quantitative differences in the acrosomal proteins between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men, namely, in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, evaluated with Hs-8 MoAb, valosin-containing protein, evaluated with Hs-14 MoAb, and ATP synthase (cAMP-dependent protein kinase II, PRKAR2A), evaluated with MoAb Hs-36. Asthenozoospermic men displayed a highly reduced expression of intra-acrosomal proteins, with a likely decrease in sperm quality, and thus a negative impact on successful reproduction. Asthenozoospermia seems to be a complex disorder involving intra-acrosomal proteins. PMID:25926605

  3. Variable expression of epitopes on the surface of Mycoplasma gallisepticum demonstrated with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Bencina, D; Kleven, S H; Elfaki, M G; Snoj, A; Dovc, P; Dorrer, D; Russ, I

    1994-03-01

    Twelve monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (Mg) strains F, R, S6(208) and PET2 were used for analysis of epitopes of 22 Mg strains. Six Mabs recognized surface epitopes in the majority of strains, but did not react with variant strains like K 503 and K 703. Two Mabs reacted with epitopes on about 56 kilodalton (kDa) proteins and showing consistent expression on Mg colonies. Three Mabs recognized three different variable surface epitopes associated with about 67 kDa proteins and one Mab variable epitope on about 33 and 80 kDa proteins. Two-dimensional immunoblotting showed considerable differences in the charge of proteins bearing variable surface epitopes in different Mg strains. Subcloning of four low passage Mg strains using Mabs for screening populations that derived from a single colony with defined surface epitopes showed that some colonies may switch surface epitopes associated with 67 and 80 kDa proteins. This switching was reversible and generated subpopulations of Mg expressing different combinations of surface epitopes. Phenotypic switching of epitopes probably occurs also in vivo and may be the mechanism enabling Mg to evade the host immune response. PMID:18671069

  4. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the Enterococcus faecalis collagen-binding MSCRAMM Ace: conditional expression and binding analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Andrea E; Gorovits, Elena L; Syribeys, Peter J; Domanski, Paul J; Ames, Brenda R; Chang, Cathy Y; Vernachio, John H; Patti, Joseph M; Hutchins, Jeff T

    2007-01-01

    Enterococci are opportunistic pathogens known to cause numerous clinical infections and complications in humans. Adhesin-mediated binding to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of the host is thought to be a crucial step in the pathogenesis of these bacterial infections. Adhesin of collagen from Enterococcus faecalis (Ace) is a cell-wall anchored protein of E. faecalis that has been shown to be important for bacterial binding to the ECM. In this report, we characterize the conditions for Ace expression and demonstrate Ace binding to mammalian epithelial and endothelial cells as well as to collagens found in the ECM. To further characterize Ace expression and function, we report the generation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against this important E. faecalis virulence factor. Through the use of multiple in vitro assays, surface plasmon resonance and flow cytometry, we have characterized this panel of mAbs which may prove to be not only beneficial in studies that address the precise biological role of adhesion of E. faecalis, but may also serve as beneficial therapeutic agents against E. faecalis infections. PMID:17521860

  5. Generation of Chimeric Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Masahito; Sparman, Michelle; Ramsey, Cathy; Ma, Hong; Lee, Hyo-Sang; Penedo, Maria Cecilia T.; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2011-01-01

    Summary Totipotent cells in early embryos are progenitors of all stem cells and are capable of developing into a whole organism, including extraembryonic tissues such as placenta. Pluripotent cells in the inner cell mass (ICM) are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into any cell type of a body except extraembryonic tissues. The ability to contribute to chimeric animals upon reintroduction into host embryos is the key feature of murine totipotent and pluripotent cells. Here, we demonstrate that rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and isolated ICMs fail to incorporate into host embryos and develop into chimeras. However, chimeric offspring were produced following aggregation of totipotent cells of the 4-cell embryos. These results provide insights into the species-specific nature of primate embryos and suggest that a chimera assay using pluripotent cells may not be feasible. PMID:22225614

  6. IL-10-Expressing Th2 Cells Contribute to the Elevated Antibody Production in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinliang; Ma, Liheng; Yang, Shufeng; Wang, Shaohua; Wei, Xuan; Song, Shuchun

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease associated with progressive disability, systemic complications, and early death. Multiple lines of evidence have placed adaptive immune responses in the center of RA pathogenesis. However, the functional roles of T helper cells are insufficiently described. Here, we examined the Th2 cell subsets and their functions in RA patients. A downregulation of IL-4(+) cells in CD4(+) T cells were observed in RA patients, indicating a downregulation of Th2 cells, and these results were confirmed by using and CXCR3 and CCR6 surface markers. We then found that CXCR3(-)CCR6(-) Th2 cells can be separated into IL-4(+) (single positive), IL-10(+) (single positive), and IL-4(+)IL-10(+) (double positive) subsets. Further results showed that CXCR5 only expressed on IL-10+ Th2 cells. The CXCR5(+) and CXCR5(-) Th2 cells each exhibited distinctive features in helping B cell antibody secretion. CXCR5(+) Th2 cells were more potent at stimulating total Ig and IgM secretion, while CXCR5(-) Th2 cells were more potent at stimulating IgE. IL-10 was required for helping B cell total Ig, IgM, and IgE production, while IL-4 was required for total Ig and IgE. The frequencies of IL-10(+) and IL-4(+)IL-10(+) Th2 cells were positively correlated with rheumatoid factor titer in vivo. Together, our study demonstrated distinctive subsets within Th2 cells, each with different impacts on antibody production and RA disease. PMID:26956472

  7. Advances in chimeric antigen receptor immunotherapy for neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Heczey, Andras; Louis, Chrystal U

    2013-12-01

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor and has heterogeneous biology and behavior. Patients with high-risk disease have poor prognosis despite complex multimodal therapy; therefore, novel curative approaches are needed. Immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach that harnesses the inherent activity of the immune system to control and eliminate malignant cells. One form of immunotherapy uses chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) to target tumor-associated antigens. CARs are derived from the antigen-binding domain of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) coupled with the intracellular signaling portion of the T cell receptor. CARs can combine the specificity and effectiveness of MAbs with the active bio-distribution, direct cytotoxicity, and long-term persistence of T cells. NBL provides an attractive target for CAR immunotherapy as many of its tumor-associated antigens are not expressed at significant levels on normal tissues, thus decreasing potential treatment related toxicity. Two previous clinical trials utilizing L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1-CAM) and disialoganglioside (GD2) specific CARs (GD2-CAR) have demonstrated safety and anti-tumor efficacy in heavily pretreated relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma patients. Based on these promising results and on improved techniques that can further potentiate CAR therapies, two clinical trials are currently investigating the use of GD2-CARs in children with NBL. Several approaches may further enhance anti-tumor activity and persistence of CAR modified cells, and if these can be safely translated into the clinic, CAR-based immunotherapy could become a viable adjunct or potential alternative to conventional treatment options for patients with NBL. PMID:24333408

  8. Chimeric Antigens of Toxoplasma gondii: Toward Standardization of Toxoplasmosis Serodiagnosis Using Recombinant Products

    PubMed Central

    Beghetto, Elisa; Spadoni, Andrea; Bruno, Luca; Buffolano, Wilma; Gargano, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    We have evaluated the diagnostic utility of six antigenic regions of the Toxoplasma gondii MIC2, MIC3, M2AP, GRA3, GRA7, and SAG1 gene products, assembled in recombinant chimeric antigens by genetic engineering, in order to replace the soluble, whole-cell tachyzoite extract in serological assays. Serum samples from 100 adults with acquired T. gondii infection and from 30 infants born to mothers with primary toxoplasmosis contracted during pregnancy, of whom 20 were congenitally infected, were included. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against epitopes carried by chimeric antigens were measured by performing parallel enzyme immunoassays (recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays [Rec-ELISAs]), and the results obtained by standard commercial assays with the whole-cell Toxoplasma antigen and assays with the chimeric antigens were compared. Our results demonstrate that IgG and IgM Rec-ELISAs with individual chimeric antigens have performance characteristics comparable to those of the corresponding commercial assays. Furthermore, we show that IgM-capture assays based on chimeric antigens improve the ability to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis postnatally compared with the ability to diagnose congenital toxoplasmosis by the use of standard assays. The use of recombinant chimeric antigens is effective in distinguishing T. gondii-infected individuals from T. gondii-uninfected individuals and shows that immunoassays based on recombinant products could provide the basis for standardized commercial tests for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. PMID:16757610

  9. Induction of plasmacytomas secreting antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies with a retrovirus expressing v-abl and c-myc.

    PubMed Central

    Weissinger, E M; Mischak, H; Largaespada, D A; Kaehler, D A; Mitchell, T; Smith-Gill, S J; Risser, R; Mushinski, J F

    1991-01-01

    ABL-MYC, a recombinant murine retrovirus that expresses v-abl and c-myc, rapidly induces transplantable mono- or oligoclonal plasmacytomas in BALB/c mice. To determine if the targets for transformation of this retrovirus are antigen-committed B lymphocytes and to explore this system as an alternative technique for producing antigen-specific monoclonal antibodies, plasmacytomas were induced in mice that had been immunized with two different types of immunogens, hen egg white lysozyme and sheep red blood cells. The majority of these plasmacytomas secreted immunogen-specific antibodies. Plasmacytomas induced in unimmunized mice did not react with hen egg white lysozyme or sheep red blood cells. The specific antibodies were comparable in concentration, specificity, and affinity to monoclonal antibodies obtained with conventional hybridoma technology, but, in addition to IgGs and IgMs, they included specific IgA antibodies, which are rare among splenic-derived hybridomas. Our results demonstrate that a principal target for ABL-MYC is an antigen-committed B lymphocyte. In addition this procedure provides an alternative method for the production of monoclonal antibodies, without a requirement for hetero-caryon formation by cell fusion techniques. Images PMID:1924333

  10. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody Specific for BRD7 and Detection of Its Expression Pattern in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huaying; Li, Xiaoling; Niu, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Ming; Huang, He; He, Jiajin; Zhang, Wenling; Xiao, Lan; Tang, Yunlian; Wang, Li; Li, Guiyuan

    2008-01-01

    BRD7 is a novel bromodomain gene. It plays critical role in cell growth, cell cycle progression, and signal-dependent gene expression. Overexpression of the BRD7 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells is effective to inhibit cell growth and cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. However, little is known about its bio-functions because of the unavailability of a specific BRD7 antibody. In this study, for the first time, we generated a highly specific BRD7 antibody. It is able to specifically recognize recombinant GST-BRD7N protein with a molecular mass of 65 kDa and recognize BRD7-Myc and endogenously expressed BRD7 protein with an approximate molecular mass of 75 kDa, which corresponds well with the calculated molecular mass of the BRD7 protein. More importantly, with these antisera, we analyzed BRD7 distribution in the human fetus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Obvious nuclear expression of BRD7 protein presents in human cerebellum, pancreas, intestines, liver, and kidney. Cardiomyocyte shows high cytoplasm expression of the BRD7 protein. Weak nuclear expression of the BRD7 protein is found in human cerebrum, lung, and stomach. These data may help to further study the cellular role of the BRD7 gene. In particular, the prepared BRD7 antibody will be helpful for studying the bio-functions of endogenously expressed BRD7 protein. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:531–538, 2008) PMID:18071067

  11. Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongying; Takagi, Akira; Kayano, Hidekazu; Koyama, Isamu; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    In a previous study, we developed five kinds of monoclonal antibodies against different portions of human mEH: three, anti-N-terminal; one, anti-C-terminal; one, anti-conformational epitope. Using them, we stained the intact and the permeabilized human cells of various kinds and performed flow cytometric analysis. Primary hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed remarkable differences. On the surface, hepatocytes exhibited 4 out of 5 epitopes whereas PBMC did not show any of the epitopes. mEH was detected inside both cell types, but the most prominent expression was observed for the conformational epitope in the hepatocytes and the two N-terminal epitopes in PBMC. These differences were also observed between hepatocyte-derived cell lines and mononuclear cell-derived cell lines. In addition, among each group, there were several differences which may be related to the cultivation, the degree of differentiation, or the original cell subsets. We also noted that two glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked expression of the conformational epitope on the surface which seemed to correlate with the brain tumor-associated antigen reported elsewhere. Several cell lines also underwent selective permeabilization before flow cytometric analysis, and we noticed that the topological orientation of mEH on the ER membrane in those cells was in accordance with the previous report. However, the orientation on the cell surface was inconsistent with the report and had a great variation between the cells. These findings show the multiple mode of expression of mEH which may be possibly related to the multiple roles that mEH plays in different cells. -- Highlights: ► We examine expression of five mEH epitopes in human cells. ► Remarkable differences exist between hepatocytes and PBMC. ► mEH expression in cell lines differs depending on several factors. ► Some glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked surface expression of mEH. ► Topology of mEH on the cell

  12. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  13. Enhanced protective efficacy of a chimeric form of the schistosomiasis vaccine antigen Sm-TSP-2.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Mark S; Pickering, Darren A; McSorley, Henry J; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Tribolet, Leon; Dougall, Annette M; Hotez, Peter J; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The large extracellular loop of the Schistosoma mansoni tetraspanin, Sm-TSP-2, when fused to a thioredoxin partner and formulated with Freund's adjuvants, has been shown to be an efficacious vaccine against murine schistosomiasis. Moreover, Sm-TSP-2 is uniquely recognised by IgG(1) and IgG(3) from putatively resistant individuals resident in S. mansoni endemic areas in Brazil. In the present study, we expressed Sm-TSP-2 at high yield and in soluble form in E. coli without the need for a solubility enhancing fusion partner. We also expressed in E. coli a chimera called Sm-TSP-2/5B, which consisted of Sm-TSP-2 fused to the immunogenic 5B region of the hookworm aspartic protease and vaccine antigen, Na-APR-1. Sm-TSP-2 formulated with alum/CpG showed significant reductions in adult worm and liver egg burdens in two separate murine schistosomiasis challenge studies. Sm-TSP-2/5B afforded significantly greater protection than Sm-TSP-2 alone when both antigens were formulated with alum/CpG. The enhanced protection obtained with the chimeric fusion protein was associated with increased production of anti-Sm-TSP-2 antibodies and IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ from spleen cells of vaccinated animals. Sera from 666 individuals from Brazil who were infected with S. mansoni were screened for potentially deleterious IgE responses to Sm-TSP-2. Anti-Sm-TSP-2 IgE to this protein was not detected (also shown previously for Na-APR-1), suggesting that the chimeric antigen Sm-TSP-2/5B could be used to safely and effectively vaccinate people in areas where schistosomes and hookworms are endemic. PMID:22428079

  14. Development of a flatfish-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Fsh using a recombinant chimeric gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Chauvigné, François; Verdura, Sara; Mazón, María José; Boj, Mónica; Zanuy, Silvia; Gómez, Ana; Cerdà, Joan

    2015-09-15

    In flatfishes with asynchronous and semicystic spermatogenesis, such as the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis), the specific roles of the pituitary gonadotropins during germ cell development, particularly of the follicle-stimulating hormone (Fsh), are still largely unknown in part due to the lack of homologous immunoassays for this hormone. In this study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Senegalese sole Fsh was developed by generating a rabbit antiserum against a recombinant chimeric single-chain Fsh molecule (rFsh-C) produced by the yeast Pichia pastoris. The rFsh-C N- and C-termini were formed by the mature sole Fsh β subunit (Fshβ) and the chicken glycoprotein hormone common α subunit (CGA), respectively. Depletion of the antiserum to remove anti-CGA antibodies further enriched the sole Fshβ-specific antibodies, which were used to develop the ELISA using the rFsh-C for the standard curve. The sensitivity of the assay was 10 and 50 pg/ml for Fsh measurement in plasma and pituitary, respectively, and the cross-reactivity with a homologous recombinant single-chain luteinizing hormone was 1%. The standard curve for rFsh-C paralleled those of serially diluted plasma and pituitary extracts of other flatfishes, such as the Atlantic halibut, common sole and turbot. In Senegalese sole males, the highest plasma Fsh levels were found during early spermatogenesis but declined during enhanced spermiation, as found in teleosts with cystic spermatogenesis. In pubertal males, however, the circulating Fsh levels were as high as in adult spermiating fish, but interestingly the Fsh receptor in the developing testis containing only spermatogonia was expressed in Leydig cells but not in the primordial Sertoli cells. These results indicate that a recombinant chimeric Fsh can be used to generate specific antibodies against the Fshβ subunit and to develop a highly sensitive ELISA for Fsh measurements in diverse flatfishes. PMID:25449660

  15. Development of new versions of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies with potentially reduced immunogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Weizhu; Wang Ling; Li Bohua; Wang Hao; Hou Sheng; Hong Xueyu; Zhang Dapeng; Guo Yajun

    2008-03-07

    Despite the widespread clinical use of CD34 antibodies for the purification of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, all the current anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are murine, which have the potential to elicit human antimouse antibody (HAMA) immune response. In the present study, we developed three new mouse anti-human CD34 mAbs which, respectively, belonged to class I, class II and class III CD34 epitope antibodies. In an attempt to reduce the immunogenicity of these three murine mAbs, their chimeric antibodies, which consisted of mouse antibody variable regions fused genetically to human antibody constant regions, were constructed and characterized. The anti-CD34 chimeric antibodies were shown to possess affinity and specificity similar to that of their respective parental murine antibodies. Due to the potentially better safety profiles, these chimeric antibodies might become alternatives to mouse anti-CD34 antibodies routinely used for clinical application.

  16. Discovery of anti-claudin-1 antibodies as candidate therapeutics against hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Mayo; Iida, Manami; Tada, Minoru; Shirasago, Yoshitaka; Fukasawa, Masayoshi; Nagase, Shotaro; Watari, Akihiro; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Yagi, Kiyohito; Kondoh, Masuo

    2015-04-01

    Claudin-1 (CLDN1), a known host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry and cell-to-cell transmission, is a target molecule for inhibiting HCV infection. We previously developed four clones of mouse anti-CLDN1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) that prevented HCV infection in vitro. Two of these mAbs showed the highest antiviral activity. Here, we optimized the anti-CLDN1 mAbs as candidates for therapeutics by protein engineering. Although Fab fragments of the mAbs prevented in vitro HCV infection, their inhibitory effects were much weaker than those of the whole mAbs. In contrast, human chimeric IgG1 mAbs generated by grafting the variable domains of the mouse mAb light and heavy chains inhibited in vitro HCV infection as efficiently as the parental mouse mAbs. However, the chimeric IgG1 mAbs activated Fcγ receptor, suggesting that cytotoxicity against mAb-bound CLDN1-expressing cells occurred through the induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). To avoid ADCC-induced side effects, we prepared human chimeric IgG4 mAbs. The chimeric IgG4 mAbs did not activate Fcγ receptor or induce ADCC, but they prevented in vitro HCV infection as efficiently as did the parental mouse mAbs. These findings indicate that the IgG4 form of human chimeric anti-CLDN1 mAb may be a candidate molecule for clinically applicable HCV therapy. PMID:25628391

  17. Recombinant Outer Capsid Glycoprotein (VP7) of Rotavirus Expressed in Insect Cells Induces Neutralizing Antibodies in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Khodabandehloo, M; Shahrabadi, M Shamsi; Keyvani, H; Bambai, B; Sadigh, ZA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rotaviruses cause diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Rotavirus outer capsid protein, VP7 is major neutralizing antigen that is important component of subunit vaccine to prevent rotavirus infection. Many efforts have been done to produce recombinant VP7 that maintain native characteristics. We used baculovirus expression system to produce rotavirus VP7 protein and to study its immunogenicity. Methods: Simian rotavirus SA11 full-length VP7 ORF was cloned into a cloning plasmid and then the cloned gene was inserted into the linear DNA of baculovirus Autographa californica Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (AcNPV) downstream of the polyhedrin promoter by in vitro recombination reactions. The expressed VP7 in the insect cells was recognized by rabbit hyperimmune serum raised against SA11 rotavirus by Immunofluorescence and western blotting assays. Rabbits were immunized subcutaneously by cell extracts expressing VP7 protein. Results: Reactivity with anti-rotavirus antibody suggested that expressed VP7 protein had native antigenic determinants. Injection of recombinant VP7 in rabbits elicited the production of serum antibodies, which were able to recognize VP7 protein from SA11 rotavirus by Western blotting test and neutralized SA11 rotavirus in cell culture. Conclusion: Recombinant outer capsid glycoprotein (VP7) of rotavirus expressed in insect cells induces neutralizing antibodies in rabbits and may be a candidate of rotavirus vaccine. PMID:23113180

  18. CD19-Targeted chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell immunotherapy for B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Turtle, C J; Riddell, S R; Maloney, D G

    2016-09-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) comprise a tumor-targeting moiety, often in the form of a single chain variable fragment derived from a monoclonal antibody, fused to one or more intracellular T-cell signaling sequences. Lymphodepletion chemotherapy followed by infusion of T cells that are genetically modified to express a CD19-specific CAR is a promising therapy for patients with refractory CD19(+) B-cell malignancies, producing rates of complete remission that are remarkably high in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and encouraging in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Responses are often durable, although additional studies are needed to define the role of CAR-T cell immunotherapy in the context of other treatments. CAR-modified T-cell immunotherapy can be complicated by cytokine release syndrome and neurologic toxicity, which in most cases are manageable and reversible. Here we review recent clinical trial data and discuss issues for the field. PMID:27170467

  19. Novel in-ovo chimeric recombinant Newcastle disease vaccine protects against both Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Wen, Zhiyuan; Feng, Qiulin; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Bu, Zhigao

    2014-03-14

    Development of a safe and efficient in-ovo vaccine against Newcastle disease (NDV) and very virulent infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) is of great importance. In this study, a chimeric NDV LaSota virus with the L gene of Clone-30 (rLaC30L) was used to generate a recombinant chimeric virus expressing the VP2 protein of vvIBDV (rLaC30L-VP2). The safety and efficacy of rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination was then evaluated in 18-day-old special pathogen free (SPF) chicken embryos and commercial broiler embryos for prevention of NDV and vvIBDV. Hatchability and global survival rate of the hatched birds was not affected by in-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination. However, rLaC30L-VP2 in-ovo vaccination induced significant anti-IBDV and anti-NDV antibodies in SPF birds and commercial broilers, and 100% of vaccinated chickens were protected against a lethal NDV challenge. In-ovo rLaC30L-VP2 vaccination also provided resistance against vvIBDV challenge in a significant amount of animals. These results suggest that rLaC30L-VP2 is a safe and efficient bivalent live in-ovo vaccine against NDV and vvIBDV. PMID:24486349

  20. Design of chimeric antigen receptors with integrated controllable transient functions.

    PubMed

    Juillerat, Alexandre; Marechal, Alan; Filhol, Jean-Marie; Valton, Julien; Duclert, Aymeric; Poirot, Laurent; Duchateau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The ability to control T cells engineered to permanently express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) is a key feature to improve safety. Here, we describe the development of a new CAR architecture with an integrated switch-on system that permits to control the CAR T-cell function. This system offers the advantage of a transient CAR T-cell for safety while letting open the possibility of multiple cytotoxicity cycles using a small molecule drug. PMID:26750734

  1. CHIMERIC ALPHAVIRUS VACCINE CANDIDATES FOR CHIKUNGUNYA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eryu; Volkova, Eugenia; Adams, A. Paige; Forrester, Naomi; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Frolov, Ilya; Weaver, Scott C.

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging alphavirus that has caused major epidemics in India and islands off the east coast of Africa since 2005. Importations into Europe and the Americas, including one that led to epidemic transmission in Italy during 2007, underscore the risk of endemic establishment elsewhere. Because there is no licensed human vaccine, and an attenuated Investigational New Drug product developed by the U.S. Army causes mild arthritis in some vaccinees, we developed chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidates using either Venezuelan equine encephalitis attenuated vaccine strain TC-83, a naturally attenuated strain of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), or Sindbis virus as a backbone and the structural protein genes of CHIKV. All vaccine candidates replicated efficiently in cell cultures, and were highly attenuated in mice. All of the chimeras also produced robust neutralizing antibody responses, although the TC-83 and EEEV backbones appeared to offer greater immunogenicity. Vaccinated mice were fully protected against disease and viremia after CHIKV challenge. PMID:18692107

  2. Sigma-1 receptor expression in the dorsal root ganglion: Reexamination using a highly specific antibody.

    PubMed

    Mavlyutov, Timur A; Duellman, Tyler; Kim, Hung Tae; Epstein, Miles L; Leese, Charlotte; Davletov, Bazbek A; Yang, Jay

    2016-09-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a unique pluripotent modulator of living systems and has been reported to be associated with a number of neurological diseases including pathological pain. Intrathecal administration of S1R antagonists attenuates the pain behavior of rodents in both inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. However, the S1R localization in the spinal cord shows a selective ventral horn motor neuron distribution, suggesting the high likelihood of S1R in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) mediating the pain relief by intrathecally administered drugs. Since primary afferents are the major component in the pain pathway, we examined the mouse and rat DRGs for the presence of the S1R. At both mRNA and protein levels, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western confirmed that the DRG contains greater S1R expression in comparison to spinal cord, cortex, or lung but less than liver. Using a custom-made highly specific antibody, we demonstrated the presence of a strong S1R immuno-fluorescence in all rat and mouse DRG neurons co-localizing with the Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) marker, but not in neural processes or GFAP-positive glial satellite cells. In addition, S1R was absent in afferent terminals in the skin and in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Using immuno-electron microscopy, we showed that S1R is detected in the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of DRG cells. In contrast to other cells, S1R is also located directly at the plasma membrane of the DRG neurons. The presence of S1R in the nuclear envelope of all DRG neurons suggests an exciting potential role of S1R as a regulator of neuronal nuclear activities and/or gene expression, which may provide insight toward new molecular targets for modulating nociception at the level of primary afferent neurons. PMID:27339730

  3. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. PMID:24287424

  4. Engineering production of functional scFv antibody in E. coli by co-expressing the molecule chaperone Skp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rongzhi; Xiang, Shuangshuang; Feng, Youjun; Srinivas, Swaminath; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Mingshen; Wang, Shihua

    2013-01-01

    Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is a class of engineered antibodies generated by the fusion of the heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) of immunoglobulins through a short polypeptide linker. ScFv play a critical role in therapy and diagnosis of human diseases, and may in fact also be developed into a potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent. However, the fact that current scFv antibodies have poor stability, low solubility, and affinity, seriously limits their diagnostic and clinical implication. Here we have developed four different expression vectors, and evaluated their abilities to express a soluble scFv protein. The solubility and binding activity of the purified proteins were determined using both SDS-PAGE and ELISA. Amongst the four purified proteins, the Skp co-expressed scFv showed the highest solubility, and the binding activity to antigen TLH was 3-4 fold higher than the other three purified scFv. In fact, this scFv is specific for TLH and does not cross-react with other TLH-associated proteins and could be used to detect TLH directly in real samples. These results suggest that the pACYC-Duet-skp co-expression vector might be a useful tool for the production of soluble and functional scFv antibody. PMID:24224158

  5. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP): prokaryotic expression, purification, and preparation of a polyclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H L; Li, H; Sun, Y S; Yang, Z Y; Yu, Q

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) plays important roles in promoting cancer occurrence and in the development of bone metastases. To increase our knowledge of the biological functions of PTHrP, the prokaryotic expression vector pET-PTHrP was successfully constructed and the His-PTHrP fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. Anti-PTHrP polyclonal antibody was then prepared from rabbits. Finally, the goat tissue expression profile of PTHrP was analyzed by Western blot with the anti-PTHrP polyclonal antibody. The results showed that the expression of PTHrP in goat mammary glands was significantly higher than that in other organs. This indicates that PTHrP may play important roles in the goat mammary gland. The antibody prepared will be a useful tool for detecting PTHrP and will be valuable in future studies investigating the role of PTHrP in calcium metabolism in the goat model. PMID:25158263

  6. Nucleocapsid protein N of Lelystad virus: expression by recombinant baculovirus, immunological properties, and suitability for detection of serum antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Meulenberg, J J; Bende, R J; Pol, J M; Wensvoort, G; Moormann, R J

    1995-01-01

    The ORF7 gene, encoding the nucleocapsid protein N of Lelystad virus (LV), was inserted downstream of the P10 promoter into Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (baculovirus). The resulting recombinant baculovirus, designated bac-ORF7, expressed a 15-kDa protein in insect cells. This protein was similar in size to the N protein expressed by LV in CL2621 cells when it was analyzed on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. The N protein expressed by bac-ORF7 was immunoprecipitated with anti-ORF7 was immunoprecipitated with anti-ORF7 peptide serum, porcine convalescent-phase anti-LV serum, and N protein-specific monoclonal antibodies, indicating that this N protein had retained its native antigenic structure. The recombinant N protein was immunogenic in pigs, and the porcine antibodies raised against this protein recognized LV in an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay. However, pigs vaccinated twice with approximately 20 micrograms of N protein were not protected against a challenge with 10(5) 50% tissue culture infective doses of LV. Experimental and field sera directed against various European and North American isolates reacted with the N protein expressed by bac-ORF7 in a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Therefore, the recombinant N protein may be useful for developing diagnostic assays for the detection of serum antibodies directed against different isolates of LV. PMID:8574824

  7. Harnessing Gene Conversion in Chicken B Cells to Create a Human Antibody Sequence Repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Schusser, Benjamin; Yi, Henry; Collarini, Ellen J.; Izquierdo, Shelley Mettler; Harriman, William D.; Etches, Robert J.; Leighton, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic chickens expressing human sequence antibodies would be a powerful tool to access human targets and epitopes that have been intractable in mammalian hosts because of tolerance to conserved proteins. To foster the development of the chicken platform, it is beneficial to validate transgene constructs using a rapid, cell culture-based method prior to generating fully transgenic birds. We describe a method for the expression of human immunoglobulin variable regions in the chicken DT40 B cell line and the further diversification of these genes by gene conversion. Chicken VL and VH loci were knocked out in DT40 cells and replaced with human VK and VH genes. To achieve gene conversion of human genes in chicken B cells, synthetic human pseudogene arrays were inserted upstream of the functional human VK and VH regions. Proper expression of chimeric IgM comprised of human variable regions and chicken constant regions is shown. Most importantly, sequencing of DT40 genetic variants confirmed that the human pseudogene arrays contributed to the generation of diversity through gene conversion at both the Igl and Igh loci. These data show that engineered pseudogene arrays produce a diverse pool of human antibody sequences in chicken B cells, and suggest that these constructs will express a functional repertoire of chimeric antibodies in transgenic chickens. PMID:24278246

  8. Recombinant Pvs48/45 Antigen Expressed in E. coli Generates Antibodies that Block Malaria Transmission in Anopheles albimanus Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vallejo, Andrés F.; Rubiano, Kelly; Solarte, Yezid; Marin, Catherin; Castellanos, Angélica; Céspedes, Nora; Herrera, Sócrates

    2015-01-01

    Transmission of malaria parasites from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes can be inhibited by specific antibodies elicited during malaria infection, which target surface Plasmodium gametocyte/gamete proteins. Some of these proteins may have potential for vaccine development. Pvs48/45 is a P. vivax gametocyte surface antigen orthologous to Pfs48/45, which may play a role during parasite fertilization and thus has potential for transmission blocking (TB) activity. Here we describe the expression of a recombinant Pvs48/45 protein expressed in Escherichia coli as a ∼60kDa construct which we tested for antigenicity using human sera and for its immunogenicity and transmission blocking activity of specific anti-mouse and anti-monkey Pvs48/45 antibodies. The protein reacted with sera of individuals from malaria-endemic areas and in addition induced specific IgG antibody responses in BALB/c mice and Aotus l. griseimembra monkeys. Sera from both immunized animal species recognized native P. vivax protein in Western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, sera from immunized mice and monkeys produced significant inhibition of parasite transmission to An. Albimanus mosquitoes as shown by membrane feeding assays. Results indicate the presence of reactive epitopes in the Pvs48/45 recombinant product that induce antibodies with TB activity. Further testing of this protein is ongoing to determine its vaccine potential. PMID:25775466

  9. Production of bispecific antibodies in “knobs-into-holes” using a cell-free expression system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiren; Lee, John; Tran, Cuong; Heibeck, Tyler H; Wang, Willie D; Yang, Junhao; Stafford, Ryan L; Steiner, Alexander R; Sato, Aaron K; Hallam, Trevor J; Yin, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies have emerged in recent years as a promising field of research for therapies in oncology, inflammable diseases, and infectious diseases. Their capability of dual target recognition allows for novel therapeutic hypothesis to be tested, where traditional mono-specific antibodies would lack the needed mode of target engagement. Among extremely diverse architectures of bispecific antibodies, knobs-into-holes (KIHs) technology, which involves engineering CH3 domains to create either a “knob” or a “hole” in each heavy chain to promote heterodimerization, has been widely applied. Here, we describe the use of a cell-free expression system (Xpress CF) to produce KIH bispecific antibodies in multiple scaffolds, including 2-armed heterodimeric scFv-KIH and one-armed asymmetric BiTE-KIH with tandem scFv. Efficient KIH production can be achieved by manipulating the plasmid ratio between knob and hole, and further improved by addition of prefabricated knob or hole. These studies demonstrate the versatility of Xpress CF in KIH production and provide valuable insights into KIH construct design for better assembly and expression titer. PMID:25427258

  10. Method of rapid production of hybridomas expressing monoclonal antibodies on the cell surface

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; Laterza, Vince

    2006-12-12

    The present invention relates to genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells. The invention also relates to utilizing genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells in methods of making monoclonal antibodies. The present invention also provides populations of hybridomas and B cells that can be utilized to make a monoclonal antibody of interest.

  11. Antibodies as stratagems against cancer.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Louis; Cuong, Nguyen Tien; Vlachakis, Dimitrios

    2016-06-21

    Antibodies have been in the frontline of anticancer research during the last few decades, since a number of different ways have been discovered to utilize them as parts or main components of anticancer drugs. Antibodies are used as the only component of some anticancer drugs, but they can also be conjugated with a variety of substances. Antibody engineering methods such as humanization, chimerization and Fc engineering are applied in order to modify their properties according to the requirements of anticancer drug application. Given the continuous advances in biology and informatics, the role of antibodies in anticancer treatment is expected to be prominent. PMID:26738941

  12. The Cloning and Expression of Human Monoclonal Antibodies: Implications for Allergen Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    James, Louisa K

    2016-02-01

    Allergic responses are dependent on the highly specific effector functions of IgE antibodies. Conversely, antibodies that block the activity of IgE can mediate tolerance to allergen. Technologies that harness the unparalleled specificity of antibody responses have revolutionized the way that we diagnose and treat human disease. This area of research continues to advance at a rapid pace and has had a significant impact on our understanding of allergic disease. This review will present an overview of humoral responses and provide an up-to-date summary of technologies used in the generation of human monoclonal antibodies. The impact that monoclonal antibodies have on allergic disease will be discussed, with a particular focus on allergen immunotherapy, which remains the only form of treatment that can modulate the underlying immune mechanisms and induce long-term clinical tolerance. PMID:26780523

  13. CD40 Blockade Combines with CTLA4Ig and Sirolimus To Produce Mixed Chimerism in an MHC-defined Rhesus Macaque Transplant Model

    PubMed Central

    Page, Andrew; Srinivasan, Swetha; Singh, Karnail; Russell, Maria; Hamby, Kelly; Deane, Taylor; Sen, Sharon; Stempora, Linda; Leopardi, Frank; Price, Andrew A.; Strobert, Elizabeth; Reimann, Keith A.; Kirk, Allan D.; Larsen, Christian P.; Kean, Leslie S.

    2011-01-01

    In murine models, T-cell costimulation blockade of the CD28:B7 and CD154:CD40 pathways synergistically promotes immune tolerance after transplantation. While CD28 blockade has been successfully translated to the clinic, translation of blockade of the CD154:CD40 pathway has been less successful, in large part due to thromboembolic complications associated with anti-CD154 antibodies. Translation of CD40 blockade has also been slow, in part due to the fact that synergy between CD40 blockade and CD28 blockade had not yet been demonstrated in either primate models or humans. Here we show that a novel, non-depleting CD40 monoclonal antibody, 3A8, can combine with combined CTLA4Ig and sirolimus in a well-established primate bone marrow chimerism-induction model. Prolonged engraftment required the presence of all three agents during maintenance therapy, and resulted in graft acceptance for the duration of immunosuppressive treatment, with rejection resulting upon immunosuppression withdrawal. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that upregulation of CD95 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells correlated with rejection, suggesting that CD95 may be a robust biomarker of graft loss. These results are the first to demonstrate prolonged chimerism in primates treated with CD28/mTOR blockade and non-depletional CD40 blockade, and support further investigation of combined costimulation blockade targeting the CD28 and CD40 pathways. PMID:21929643

  14. Antibody formation and mannose-6-phosphate receptor expression impact the efficacy of muscle-specific transgene expression in murine Pompe disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Yi, Haiqing; Kemper, Alex; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lysosomal storage disorders such as Pompe disease can be more effectively treated, if immune tolerance to enzyme or gene replacement therapy can be achieved. Alternatively, immune responses against acid α-glucosidase (GAA) might be evaded in Pompe disease through muscle-specific expression of GAA with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. METHODS An AAV vector containing the MHCK7 regulatory cassette to drive muscle-specific GAA expression was administered to GAA knockout (KO) mice, immune tolerant GAA-KO mice, and mannose-6-phosphate deficient GAA-KO mice. GAA activity and glycogen content were analyzed in striated muscle to determine biochemical efficacy. RESULTS The biochemical efficacy from GAA expression was slightly reduced in GAA-KO mice, as demonstrated by higher residual glycogen content in skeletal muscles. Next immune tolerance to GAA was induced in GAA-KO mice by co-administration of a second AAV vector encoding liver-specific GAA along with the AAV vector encoding muscle-specific GAA. Antibody formation was prevented by liver-specific GAA, and the biochemical efficacy of GAA expression was improved in absence of antibodies as evidenced by significantly reduced glycogen content in the diaphragm. Efficacy was reduced in old GAA-KO mice despite the absence of antibodies. The greatest impact upon gene therapy was observed in GAA-KO mice lacking the mannose-6-phosphate receptor in muscle. The clearance of stored glycogen was markedly impaired despite high GAA expression in receptor-deficient Pompe disease mice. CONCLUSIONS Overall, antibody formation had a subtle effect upon efficacy, while the absence of mannose-6-phosphate receptors markedly impaired muscle-targeted gene therapy in murine Pompe disease. PMID:20967919

  15. Expression of functional single-chain variable domain fragment antibody (scFv) against mycotoxin zearalenone in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2008-10-01

    A synthetic gene coding for single-chain variable domain fragment antibody against mycotoxin zearalenone (scFv-ZEN) has been designed, constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The native scFv-ZEN sequence was optimized to Pichia preference codon usage. The expression level of codon-optimized scFv-ZEN was slightly higher than that of native scFv-ZEN, and its maximum yield reached 328 mg total protein/l in flask culture. The binding activities of two selected clones to ZEN using surface plasmon resonance analysis were comparable or better than that of monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate the potential of soluble scFv-ZEN for developing a rapid and affordable immunoassay for detection of ZEN in food and feedstuff. PMID:18575809

  16. Analysis of the human tissue-specific expression by genome-wide integration of transcriptomics and antibody-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Oksvold, Per; Kampf, Caroline; Djureinovic, Dijana; Odeberg, Jacob; Habuka, Masato; Tahmasebpoor, Simin; Danielsson, Angelika; Edlund, Karolina; Asplund, Anna; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Lundberg, Emma; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Skogs, Marie; Takanen, Jenny Ottosson; Berling, Holger; Tegel, Hanna; Mulder, Jan; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M; Lindskog, Cecilia; Danielsson, Frida; Mardinoglu, Adil; Sivertsson, Asa; von Feilitzen, Kalle; Forsberg, Mattias; Zwahlen, Martin; Olsson, IngMarie; Navani, Sanjay; Huss, Mikael; Nielsen, Jens; Ponten, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias

    2014-02-01

    Global classification of the human proteins with regards to spatial expression patterns across organs and tissues is important for studies of human biology and disease. Here, we used a quantitative transcriptomics analysis (RNA-Seq) to classify the tissue-specific expression of genes across a representative set of all major human organs and tissues and combined this analysis with antibody-based profiling of the same tissues. To present the data, we launch a new version of the Human Protein Atlas that integrates RNA and protein expression data corresponding to ∼80% of the human protein-coding genes with access to the primary data for both the RNA and the protein analysis on an individual gene level. We present a classification of all human protein-coding genes with regards to tissue-specificity and spatial expression pattern. The integrative human expression map can be used as a starting point to explore the molecular constituents of the human body. PMID:24309898

  17. Analysis of the Human Tissue-specific Expression by Genome-wide Integration of Transcriptomics and Antibody-based Proteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Oksvold, Per; Kampf, Caroline; Djureinovic, Dijana; Odeberg, Jacob; Habuka, Masato; Tahmasebpoor, Simin; Danielsson, Angelika; Edlund, Karolina; Asplund, Anna; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Lundberg, Emma; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Skogs, Marie; Takanen, Jenny Ottosson; Berling, Holger; Tegel, Hanna; Mulder, Jan; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M.; Lindskog, Cecilia; Danielsson, Frida; Mardinoglu, Adil; Sivertsson, Åsa; von Feilitzen, Kalle; Forsberg, Mattias; Zwahlen, Martin; Olsson, IngMarie; Navani, Sanjay; Huss, Mikael; Nielsen, Jens; Ponten, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Global classification of the human proteins with regards to spatial expression patterns across organs and tissues is important for studies of human biology and disease. Here, we used a quantitative transcriptomics analysis (RNA-Seq) to classify the tissue-specific expression of genes across a representative set of all major human organs and tissues and combined this analysis with antibody-based profiling of the same tissues. To present the data, we launch a new version of the Human Protein Atlas that integrates RNA and protein expression data corresponding to ∼80% of the human protein-coding genes with access to the primary data for both the RNA and the protein analysis on an individual gene level. We present a classification of all human protein-coding genes with regards to tissue-specificity and spatial expression pattern. The integrative human expression map can be used as a starting point to explore the molecular constituents of the human body. PMID:24309898

  18. Chimeric Newcastle Disease Virus Protects Chickens against Avian Influenza in the Presence of Maternally Derived NDV Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Steglich, Constanze; Grund, Christian; Ramp, Kristina; Breithaupt, Angele; Höper, Dirk; Keil, Günther; Veits, Jutta; Ziller, Mario; Granzow, Harald; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Römer-Oberdörfer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus type 1, is a promising vector for expression of heterologous proteins from a variety of unrelated viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV). However, pre-existing NDV antibodies may impair vector virus replication, resulting in an inefficient immune response against the foreign antigen. A chimeric NDV-based vector with functional surface glycoproteins unrelated to NDV could overcome this problem. Therefore, an NDV vector was constructed which carries the fusion (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) proteins of avian paramyxovirus type 8 (APMV-8) instead of the corresponding NDV proteins in an NDV backbone derived from the lentogenic NDV Clone 30 and a gene expressing HPAIV H5 inserted between the F and HN genes. After successful virus rescue by reverse genetics, the resulting chNDVFHN PMV8H5 was characterized in vitro and in vivo. Expression and virion incorporation of the heterologous proteins was verified by Western blot and electron microscopy. Replication of the newly generated recombinant virus was comparable to parental NDV in embryonated chicken eggs. Immunization with chNDVFHN PMV8H5 stimulated full protection against lethal HPAIV infection in chickens without as well as with maternally derived NDV antibodies. Thus, tailored NDV vector vaccines can be provided for use in the presence or absence of routine NDV vaccination. PMID:24023747

  19. Comprehensive Exploration of Novel Chimeric Transcripts in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinomas Using Whole Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Arai, Eri; Chiku, Suenori; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Hiramoto, Masaki; Nammo, Takao; Yasuda, Kazuki; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the participation of expression of chimeric transcripts in renal carcinogenesis. Whole transcriptome analysis (RNA sequencing) and exploration of candidate chimeric transcripts using the deFuse program were performed on 68 specimens of cancerous tissue (T) and 11 specimens of non-cancerous renal cortex tissue (N) obtained from 68 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) in an initial cohort. As positive controls, two RCCs associated with Xp11.2 translocation were analyzed. After verification by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and Sanger sequencing, 26 novel chimeric transcripts were identified in 17 (25%) of the 68 clear cell RCCs. Genomic breakpoints were determined in five of the chimeric transcripts. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA expression levels for the MMACHC, PTER, EPC2, ATXN7, FHIT, KIFAP3, CPEB1, MINPP1, TEX264, FAM107A, UPF3A, CDC16, MCCC1, CPSF3, and ASAP2 genes, being partner genes involved in the chimeric transcripts in the initial cohort, were significantly reduced in 26 T samples relative to the corresponding 26 N samples in the second cohort. Moreover, the mRNA expression levels for the above partner genes in T samples were significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness and poorer patient outcome, indicating that reduced expression of these genes may participate in malignant progression of RCCs. As is the case when their levels of expression are reduced, these partner genes also may not fully function when involved in chimeric transcripts. These data suggest that generation of chimeric transcripts may participate in renal carcinogenesis by inducing dysfunction of tumor-related genes. PMID:25230976

  20. Enveloped Virus-Like Particle Expression of Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein B Antigen Induces Antibodies with Potent and Broad Neutralizing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kirchmeier, Marc; Fluckiger, Anne-Catherine; Soare, Catalina; Bozic, Jasminka; Ontsouka, Barthelemy; Ahmed, Tanvir; Diress, Abebaw; Pereira, Lenore; Schödel, Florian; Plotkin, Stanley; Dalba, Charlotte; Klatzmann, David

    2014-01-01

    A prophylactic vaccine to prevent the congenital transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in newborns and to reduce life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed recipients of HCMV-infected solid organ transplants is highly desirable. Neutralizing antibodies against HCMV confer significant protection against infection, and glycoprotein B (gB) is a major target of such neutralizing antibodies. However, one shortcoming of past HCMV vaccines may have been their failure to induce high-titer persistent neutralizing antibody responses that prevent the infection of epithelial cells. We used enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs), in which particles were produced in cells after the expression of murine leukemia virus (MLV) viral matrix protein Gag, to express either full-length CMV gB (gB eVLPs) or the full extracellular domain of CMV gB fused with the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G protein (gB-G eVLPs). gB-G-expressing eVLPs induced potent neutralizing antibodies in mice with a much greater propensity toward epithelial cell-neutralizing activity than that induced with soluble recombinant gB protein. An analysis of gB antibody binding titers and T-helper cell responses demonstrated that high neutralizing antibody titers were not simply due to enhanced immunogenicity of the gB-G eVLPs. The cells transiently transfected with gB-G but not gB plasmid formed syncytia, consistent with a prefusion gB conformation like those of infected cells and viral particles. Two of the five gB-G eVLP-induced monoclonal antibodies we examined in detail had neutralizing activities, one of which possessed particularly potent epithelial cell-neutralizing activity. These data differentiate gB-G eVLPs from gB antigens used in the past and support their use in a CMV vaccine candidate with improved neutralizing activity against epithelial cell infection. PMID:24334684

  1. Enveloped virus-like particle expression of human cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B antigen induces antibodies with potent and broad neutralizing activity.

    PubMed

    Kirchmeier, Marc; Fluckiger, Anne-Catherine; Soare, Catalina; Bozic, Jasminka; Ontsouka, Barthelemy; Ahmed, Tanvir; Diress, Abebaw; Pereira, Lenore; Schödel, Florian; Plotkin, Stanley; Dalba, Charlotte; Klatzmann, David; Anderson, David E

    2014-02-01

    A prophylactic vaccine to prevent the congenital transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in newborns and to reduce life-threatening disease in immunosuppressed recipients of HCMV-infected solid organ transplants is highly desirable. Neutralizing antibodies against HCMV confer significant protection against infection, and glycoprotein B (gB) is a major target of such neutralizing antibodies. However, one shortcoming of past HCMV vaccines may have been their failure to induce high-titer persistent neutralizing antibody responses that prevent the infection of epithelial cells. We used enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs), in which particles were produced in cells after the expression of murine leukemia virus (MLV) viral matrix protein Gag, to express either full-length CMV gB (gB eVLPs) or the full extracellular domain of CMV gB fused with the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains from vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-G protein (gB-G eVLPs). gB-G-expressing eVLPs induced potent neutralizing antibodies in mice with a much greater propensity toward epithelial cell-neutralizing activity than that induced with soluble recombinant gB protein. An analysis of gB antibody binding titers and T-helper cell responses demonstrated that high neutralizing antibody titers were not simply due to enhanced immunogenicity of the gB-G eVLPs. The cells transiently transfected with gB-G but not gB plasmid formed syncytia, consistent with a prefusion gB conformation like those of infected cells and viral particles. Two of the five gB-G eVLP-induced monoclonal antibodies we examined in detail had neutralizing activities, one of which possessed particularly potent epithelial cell-neutralizing activity. These data differentiate gB-G eVLPs from gB antigens used in the past and support their use in a CMV vaccine candidate with improved neutralizing activity against epithelial cell infection. PMID:24334684

  2. Differential transgene expression patterns in Alzheimer mouse models revealed by novel human amyloid precursor protein-specific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Höfling, Corinna; Morawski, Markus; Zeitschel, Ulrike; Zanier, Elisa R; Moschke, Katrin; Serdaroglu, Alperen; Canneva, Fabio; von Hörsten, Stephan; De Simoni, Maria-Grazia; Forloni, Gianluigi; Jäger, Carsten; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Roßner, Steffen; Lichtenthaler, Stefan F; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik

    2016-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is histopathologically characterized by neurodegeneration, the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular Aβ deposits that derive from proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). As rodents do not normally develop Aβ pathology, various transgenic animal models of AD were designed to overexpress human APP with mutations favouring its amyloidogenic processing. However, these mouse models display tremendous differences in the spatial and temporal appearance of Aβ deposits, synaptic dysfunction, neurodegeneration and the manifestation of learning deficits which may be caused by age-related and brain region-specific differences in APP transgene levels. Consequentially, a comparative temporal and regional analysis of the pathological effects of Aβ in mouse brains is difficult complicating the validation of therapeutic AD treatment strategies in different mouse models. To date, no antibodies are available that properly discriminate endogenous rodent and transgenic human APP in brains of APP-transgenic animals. Here, we developed and characterized rat monoclonal antibodies by immunohistochemistry and Western blot that detect human but not murine APP in brains of three APP-transgenic mouse and one APP-transgenic rat model. We observed remarkable differences in expression levels and brain region-specific expression of human APP among the investigated transgenic mouse lines. This may explain the differences between APP-transgenic models mentioned above. Furthermore, we provide compelling evidence that our new antibodies specifically detect endogenous human APP in immunocytochemistry, FACS and immunoprecipitation. Hence, we propose these antibodies as standard tool for monitoring expression of endogenous or transfected APP in human cells and APP expression in transgenic animals. PMID:27470171

  3. Intracellularly Expressed Single-Domain Antibody against p15 Matrix Protein Prevents the Production of Porcine Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Sylvia; Toussaint, Wendy; Panayotou, George; de Wit, Ton; Visser, Pim; Grosveld, Frank; Drabek, Dubravka

    2003-01-01

    The presence of porcine endogenous retroviruses presents a potential risk of transmission of infectious diseases (xenozoonosis) if tissues and organs from genetically modified pigs are to be used in xenotransplantation. Here, we report that intracellular expression of a llama single-domain antibody against p15, the matrix domain protein of the porcine endogenous retrovirus Gag polyprotein, blocks retrovirus production, providing the possibility of eliminating the risk of infection in xenotransplantation. PMID:14581550

  4. CHIMERIC SINDBIS/EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VACCINE CANDIDATES ARE HIGHLY ATTENUATED AND IMMUNOGENIC IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eryu; Petrakova, Olga; Adams, A. Paige; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Kang, Wenli; Paessler, Slobodan; Volk, Sara M.; Frolov, Ilya; Weaver, Scott C.

    2007-01-01

    We developed chimeric Sindbis (SINV)/Eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) viruses and investigated their potential for use as live virus vaccines against EEEV. One vaccine candidate contained structural protein genes from a typical North American EEEV strain, while the other had structural proteins from a naturally attenuated Brazilian isolate. Both chimeric viruses replicated efficiently in mammalian and mosquito cell cultures and were highly attenuated in mice. Vaccinated mice did not develop detectable disease or viremia, but developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with EEEV, mice vaccinated with >104PFU of the chimeric viruses were completely protected from disease. These findings support the potential use of these SIN/EEEV chimeras as safe and effective vaccines. PMID:17904699

  5. Targeted gene transfer to nigrostriatal neurons in the rat brain by helper virus-free HSV-1 vector particles that contain either a chimeric HSV-1 glycoprotein C-GDNF or a gC-BDNF protein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaodan; Kong, Lingxin; Zhang, Guo-rong; Sun, Mei; Geller, Alfred I.

    2006-01-01

    Direct gene transfer into neurons has potential for both studying neuronal physiology and for developing gene therapy treatments for specific neurological conditions. Due to the heterogeneous cellular composition of the brain, cell-type-specific recombinant gene expression is required for many potential applications of neuronal gene transfer. The two prevalent approaches for achieving cell-type-specific expression are to use a cell-type-specific promoter to control recombinant gene expression or to modify a virus vector particle to target gene transfer to a specific cell type. Targeted gene transfer to multiple peripheral cell types has been described, but targeted gene transfer to a specific type of neuron in the brain has yet to be reported. Targeted gene transfer approaches with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) vectors have focused on modifying glycoprotein C (gC) to remove the heparin binding domain and add a binding activity for a specific protein on the cell surface. This study was designed to develop HSV-1 vectors that target gene transfer to cells that contain receptors for either glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), such as nigrostriatal neurons. We isolated chimeric gC-GDNF or chimeric gC-BDNF constructs, and the resulting proteins were incorporated into HSV-1 virus particles. We performed helper virus-free HSV-1 vector packaging in the presence of each chimeric protein. The resulting vector stocks supported 2.2- to 5.0-fold targeted gene transfer to nigrostriatal neurons in the rat brain, compared to vector particles that contained wild-type (wt) gC. Gene transfer to nigrostriatal neurons by vector particles that contained chimeric gC-BDNF was reduced by preincubation with an anti-BDNF antibody. Targeted gene transfer to neurons that contain specific neurotrophic factor receptors may benefit specific physiological and gene therapy studies. PMID:15993510

  6. Characterization of NADPH oxidase 5 expression in human tumors and tumor cell lines with a novel mouse monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Smitha; Wu, Yongzhong; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Anver, Miriam R.; Butcher, Donna; Jiang, Guojian; Meitzler, Jennifer L.; Liu, Han; Juhasz, Agnes; Lu, Jiamo; Roy, Krishnendu K.; Doroshow, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated by NADPH oxidase 5 (Nox5) have been implicated in physiological and pathophysiological signaling pathways, including cancer development and progression. However, because immunological tools are lacking, knowledge of the role of Nox5 in tumor biology has been limited; the expression of Nox5 protein across tumors and normal tissues is essentially unknown. Here, we report the characterization and use of a mouse monoclonal antibody against a recombinant Nox5 protein (600–746) for expression profiling of Nox5 in human tumors by tissue microarray analysis. Using our novel antibody, we also report the detection of endogenous Nox5 protein in human UACC-257 melanoma cells. Immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy, and immunohistochemical techniques were employed to demonstrate Nox5 localization throughout UACC-257 cells, with perinuclear enhancement. Tissue microarray analysis revealed, for the first time, substantial Nox5 overexpression in several human cancers including those of prostate, breast, colon, lung, brain, and ovary as well as in malignant melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma; expression in most non-malignant tissues was negative to weak. This validated mouse monoclonal antibody will promote further exploration of the functional significance of Nox5 in human pathophysiology, including tumor cell growth and proliferation. PMID:23851018

  7. Glycosylation Patterns of HIV-1 gp120 Depend on the Type of Expressing Cells and Affect Antibody Recognition*

    PubMed Central

    Raska, Milan; Takahashi, Kazuo; Czernekova, Lydie; Zachova, Katerina; Hall, Stacy; Moldoveanu, Zina; Elliott, Matt C.; Wilson, Landon; Brown, Rhubell; Jancova, Dagmar; Barnes, Stephen; Vrbkova, Jana; Tomana, Milan; Smith, Phillip D.; Mestecky, Jiri; Renfrow, Matthew B.; Novak, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry is mediated by the interaction between a variably glycosylated envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and host-cell receptors. Approximately half of the molecular mass of gp120 is contributed by N-glycans, which serve as potential epitopes and may shield gp120 from immune recognition. The role of gp120 glycans in the host immune response to HIV-1 has not been comprehensively studied at the molecular level. We developed a new approach to characterize cell-specific gp120 glycosylation, the regulation of glycosylation, and the effect of variable glycosylation on antibody reactivity. A model oligomeric gp120 was expressed in different cell types, including cell lines that represent host-infected cells or cells used to produce gp120 for vaccination purposes. N-Glycosylation of gp120 varied, depending on the cell type used for its expression and the metabolic manipulation during expression. The resultant glycosylation included changes in the ratio of high-mannose to complex N-glycans, terminal decoration, and branching. Differential glycosylation of gp120 affected envelope recognition by polyclonal antibodies from the sera of HIV-1-infected subjects. These results indicate that gp120 glycans contribute to antibody reactivity and should be considered in HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:20439465

  8. Mycobacterium bovis BCG priming induces a strong potentiation of the antibody response induced by recombinant BCG expressing a foreign antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghiu, M; Lagranderie, M R; Gicquel, B M; Leclerc, C D

    1994-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that strong cellular or humoral immune responses can be induced against foreign antigens expressed by recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG. It has therefore been suggested that BCG could represent one of the best candidate vectors for live recombinant vaccines. However, a large percentage of the human population has been immunized by BCG, and this priming could modify the immune response to future recombinant BCG vaccines. In the present study, we have therefore compared the immune responses induced in naive and BCG-primed mice by two recombinant BCG vaccines expressing either beta-galactosidase or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef antigens. Our results demonstrated that BCG priming limits the growth of recombinant BCG in mouse spleen or lymph nodes. This reduction in BCG growth was associated with decreased proliferative responses against Nef or beta-galactosidase antigens. This suppression, however, never exceeded 50%. Interestingly, in contrast to these reduced T-cell responses, BCG-primed mice developed high levels of anti-beta-galactosidase antibodies after immunization with recombinant BCG expressing this antigen. This stimulation of antibody responses was not due to polyclonal stimulation or to a nonspecific adjuvant effect of BCG. The isotypic patterns of anti-beta-galactosidase antibody responses induced by the recombinant BCG were similar in naive and BCG-primed mice. These results indicate that priming with BCG will not be a limitation for the use of recombinant BCG vaccines in humans. PMID:7927686

  9. Expression of a single-chain variable-fragment antibody against a Fusarium virguliforme toxin peptide enhances tolerance to sudden death syndrome in transgenic soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Brar, Hargeet K; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2012-06-01

    Plants do not produce antibodies. However, plants can correctly assemble functional antibody molecules encoded by mammalian antibody genes. Many plant diseases are caused by pathogen toxins. One such disease is the soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS). SDS is a serious disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium virguliforme. The pathogen, however, has never been isolated from diseased foliar tissues. Thus, one or more toxins produced by the pathogen have been considered to cause foliar SDS. One of these possible toxins, FvTox1, was recently identified. We investigated whether expression of anti-FvTox1 single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) antibody in transgenic soybean can confer resistance to foliar SDS. We have created two scFv antibody genes, Anti-FvTox1-1 and Anti-FvTox1-2, encoding anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies from RNAs of a hybridoma cell line that expresses mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Both anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies interacted with an antigenic site of FvTox1 that binds to mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Binding of FvTox1 by the anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies, expressed in either Escherichia coli or transgenic soybean roots, was initially verified on nitrocellulose membranes. Expression of anti-FvTox1-1 in stable transgenic soybean plants resulted in enhanced foliar SDS resistance compared with that in nontransgenic control plants. Our results suggest that i) FvTox1 is an important pathogenicity factor for foliar SDS development and ii) expression of scFv antibodies against pathogen toxins could be a suitable biotechnology approach for protecting crop plants from toxin-induced diseases. PMID:22397408

  10. A Lentiviral Vector Expressing Japanese Encephalitis Virus-like Particles Elicits Broad Neutralizing Antibody Response in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Souque, Philippe; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Paulous, Sylvie; Garcìa-Nicolàs, Obdulio; Summerfield, Artur; Charneau, Pierre; Desprès, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia. Vaccination of domestic pigs has been suggested as a “one health” strategy to reduce viral disease transmission to humans. The efficiency of two lentiviral TRIP/JEV vectors expressing the JEV envelope prM and E glycoproteins at eliciting protective humoral response was assessed in a mouse model and piglets. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the envelope proteins prM and E from a genotype 3 JEV strain was inserted into a lentiviral TRIP vector. Two lentiviral vectors TRIP/JEV were generated, each expressing the prM signal peptide followed by the prM protein and the E glycoprotein, the latter being expressed either in its native form or lacking its two C-terminal transmembrane domains. In vitro transduction of cells with the TRIP/JEV vector expressing the native prM and E resulted in the efficient secretion of virus-like particles of Japanese encephalitis virus. Immunization of BALB/c mice with TRIP/JEV vectors resulted in the production of IgGs against Japanese encephalitis virus, and the injection of a second dose one month after the prime injection greatly boosted antibody titers. The TRIP/JEV vectors elicited neutralizing antibodies against JEV strains belonging to genotypes 1, 3, and 5. Immunization of piglets with two doses of the lentiviral vector expressing JEV virus-like particles led to high titers of anti-JEV antibodies, that had efficient neutralizing activity regardless of the JEV genotype tested. Conclusions/Significance Immunization of pigs with the lentiviral vector expressing JEV virus-like particles is particularly efficient to prime antigen-specific humoral immunity and trigger neutralizing antibody responses against JEV genotypes 1, 3, and 5. The titers of neutralizing antibodies elicited by the TRIP/JEV vector are sufficient to confer protection in domestic pigs against different genotypes of JEV and this could be of a great

  11. Identification and expression of an allergen Asp f 13 from Aspergillus fumigatus and epitope mapping using human IgE antibodies and rabbit polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Chow, L P; Liu, S L; Yu, C J; Liao, H K; Tsai, J J; Tang, T K

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus genus of fungi is known to be one of the most prevalent aeroallergens. On two-dimensional immunoblotting using patients' sera containing IgE specific for Asp f 13, an allergen with a molecular mass of 33 kDa and a pI of 6.2 was identified. This allergen was also present in A. fumigatus culture filtrates. Furthermore, the sequence of the Asp f 13 cDNA was identical to that for alkaline protease isolated from A. fumigatus and showed 42-49% identity of amino acids with two proteases from P. cyclopium and T. album and with the Pen c 1 allergen from P. citrinum. Asp f 13 coding sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli as a [His](6)-tagged fusion protein which was purified by Ni(2+)-chelate affinity chromatography. Recombinant Asp f 13 was recognized by rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Asp f 13 and by IgE antibodies from subject allergic to A. fumigatus. To identify and characterize the linear epitopes of this allergen, a combination of chemical and enzymatic cleavage and immunoblotting techniques, with subsequent N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry, were performed. At least 13 different linear epitopes reacting with the rabbit anti-Asp f 13 antiserum were identified, located throughout the entire molecule. In contrast, IgE from A. fumigatus-sensitive patients bound to three immunodominant epitopes at the C-terminal of the protein. PMID:10677362

  12. Adjuvanted Intranasal Norwalk Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Elicits Antibodies and Antibody-Secreting Cells That Express Homing Receptors for Mucosal and Peripheral Lymphoid Tissues

    PubMed Central

    El-Kamary, Samer S.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Mendelman, Paul M.; Frey, Sharon E.; Bernstein, David I.; Treanor, John J.; Ferreira, Jennifer; Chen, Wilbur H.; Sublett, Richard; Richardson, Charles; Bargatze, Robert F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Tacket, Carol O.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Noroviruses cause significant morbidity and mortality from acute gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. Methods.We conducted 2 phase 1 double-blind, controlled studies of a virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine derived from norovirus GI.1 genotype adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and the mucoadherent chitosan. Healthy subjects 18–49 years of age were randomized to 2 doses of intranasal Norwalk VLP vaccine or controls 21 days apart. Study 1 evaluated 5-, 15-, and 50-μg dosages of Norwalk antigen, and study 2 evaluated 50-and 100-μg dosages. Volunteers recorded symptoms for 7 days after dosing, and safety was followed up for 180 days. Blood samples were collected for serological profile, antibody secreting cells (ASCs), and analysis of ASC homing receptors. Results. The most common symptoms were nasal stuffiness, discharge, and sneezing. No vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. Norwalk VLP-specific immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A antibodies increased 4.8-and 9.1-fold, respectively, for the 100-μg dosage level. All subjects tested who received the 50-or 100-μg vaccine dose developed immunoglobulin A ASCs. These cells expressed molecules associated with homing to mucosal and peripheral lymphoid tissues. Conclusions. The intranasal monovalent adjuvanted Norwalk VLP vaccine was well tolerated and highly immunogenic and is a candidate for additional study. Trial Registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00806962. PMID:20979455

  13. A novel multipurpose monoclonal antibody for evaluating human c-MET expression in preclinical and clinical settings

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Beatrice S.; Zhao, Ping; Resau, James; Cottingham, Sandra; Gherardi, Ermanno; Xu, Eric; Berghuis, Bree; Daugherty, Jennifer; Grabinski, Tessa; Toro, Jose; Giambernardi, Troy; Skinner, R. Scot; Gross, Milton; Hudson, Eric; Kort, Eric; Lengyel, Ernst; Ventura, Aviva; Xie, Qian; Hay, Rick; Woude, George Vande; Cao, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The inappropriate expression of the c-MET cell surface receptor in many human solid tumors necessitates the development of companion diagnostics to identify those patients who could benefit from c-MET targeted therapies. Tumor tissues are formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) for histopathological evaluation, making the development of an antibody against c-MET that accurately and reproducibly detects the protein in FFPE samples an urgent need. We have developed a monoclonal antibody, designated MET4, from a panel of MET-avid monoclonal antibodies, based on its specific staining pattern in FFPE preparations of normal human prostate tissues. The accuracy of MET4 immunohistochemistry (MET4-IHC) was assessed by comparing MET4-IHC in FFPE cell pellets with immunoblotting analysis. The technical reproducibility of MET4-IHC possessed a percentage coefficient of variability (%CV) of 6.25% in intra-assay and inter-assay testing. Comparison with other commercial c-MET antibody detection reagents demonstrated equal specificity and increased sensitivity for c-MET detection in prostate tissues. In two cohorts of ovarian cancers and gliomas, MET4 reacted with ovarian cancers of all histological subtypes (strong staining in 25%) and with 63% of gliomas. In addition, MET4 bound c-Met on the surfaces of cultured human cancer cells and tumor xenografts. In summary, the MET4 monoclonal antibody accurately and reproducibly measures c-MET expression by IHC in FFPE tissues and can be used for molecular imaging in-vivo. These properties encourage further development of MET4 as a multipurpose molecular diagnostics reagent to help to guide appropriate selection of patients being considered for treatment with c-MET-antagonistic drugs. PMID:18815565

  14. The antibody paradox: trying on a pair of genes.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, J B

    1985-01-01

    Rodney Porter's separation of antibody molecules into Fab and Fc fragments engendered the notion that a single antibody polypeptide chain might be coded by two or more genes. This concept profoundly influenced the development of molecular immunology over the past 25 years. Our current knowledge of antibody gene organization has enabled investigators to recombine antibody genes to create 'chimeric' antibodies with a number of potentially useful applications. PMID:3938300

  15. ChiTaRS 2.1--an improved database of the chimeric transcripts and RNA-seq data with novel sense-antisense chimeric RNA transcripts.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Gorohovski, Alessandro; Vucenovic, Dunja; Maestre, Lorena; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric RNAs that comprise two or more different transcripts have been identified in many cancers and among the Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) isolated from different organisms; they might represent functional proteins and produce different disease phenotypes. The ChiTaRS 2.1 database of chimeric transcripts and RNA-Seq data (http://chitars.bioinfo.cnio.es/) is the second version of the ChiTaRS database and includes improvements in content and functionality. Chimeras from eight organisms have been collated including novel sense-antisense (SAS) chimeras resulting from the slippage of the sense and anti-sense intragenic regions. The new database version collects more than 29,000 chimeric transcripts and indicates the expression and tissue specificity for 333 entries confirmed by RNA-seq reads mapping the chimeric junction sites. User interface allows for rapid and easy analysis of evolutionary conservation of fusions, literature references and experimental data supporting fusions in different organisms. More than 1428 cancer breakpoints have been automatically collected from public databases and manually verified to identify their correct cross-references, genomic sequences and junction sites. As a result, the ChiTaRS 2.1 collection of chimeras from eight organisms and human cancer breakpoints extends our understanding of the evolution of chimeric transcripts in eukaryotes as well as their functional role in carcinogenic processes. PMID:25414346

  16. A fully human chimeric antigen receptor with potent activity against cancer cells but reduced risk for off-tumor toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Song, De-Gang; Ye, Qunrui; Poussin, Mathilde; Liu, Lin; Figini, Mariangela; Powell, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells against antigen-expressing tumors in an HLA-independent manner. To date, various CARs have been constructed using mouse single chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) of high affinity that are immunogenic in humans and have the potential to mediate “on-target” toxicity. Here, we developed and evaluated a fully human CAR comprised of the human C4 folate receptor-alpha (αFR)-specific scFv coupled to intracellular T cell signaling domains. Human T cells transduced to express the C4 CAR specifically secreted proinflammatory cytokine and exerted cytolytic functions when cultured with αFR-expressing tumors in vitro. Adoptive transfer of C4 CAR T cells mediated the regression of large, established human ovarian cancer in a xenogeneic mouse model. Relative to a murine MOv19 scFv-based αFR CAR, C4 CAR T cells mediated comparable cytotoxic tumor activity in vitro and in vivo but had lower affinity for αFR protein and exhibited reduced recognition of normal cells expressing low levels of αFR. Thus, T cells expressing a fully human CAR of intermediate affinity can efficiently kill antigen-expressing tumors in vitro and in vivo and may overcome issues of transgene immunogenicity and “on-target off-tumor” toxicity that plague trials utilizing CARs containing mouse-derived, high affinity scFvs. PMID:26101914

  17. Expression of Tissue factor in Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Implications for immunotherapy with hI-con1, a factor VII-IgGFc chimeric protein targeting tissue factor

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer continues to be an important worldwide health problem for women. Up to 35% of patients who are diagnosed with and appropriately treated for cervical cancer will recur and treatment results are poor for recurrent disease. Given these sobering statistics, development of novel therapies for cervical cancer remains a high priority. We evaluated the expression of Tissue Factor (TF) in cervical cancer and the potential of hI-con1, an antibody-like-molecule targeted against TF, as a novel form of immunotherapy against multiple primary cervical carcinoma cell lines with squamous- and adenocarcinoma histology. Methods Because TF is a transmembrane receptor for coagulation factor VII/VIIa (fVII), in this study we evaluated the in vitro expression of TF in cervical carcinoma cell lines by immunohistochemistry (IHC), real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Sensitivity to hI-con1-dependent cell-mediated-cytotoxicity (IDCC) was evaluated in 5-hrs-51chromium-release-assays against cervical cancer cell lines in vitro. Results Cytoplasmic and/or membrane TF expression was observed in 8 out of 8 (100%) of the tumor tissues tested by IHC and in 100% (11 out of 11) of the cervical carcinoma cell lines tested by real-time-PCR and flow cytometry but not in normal cervical keratinocytes (p = 0.0023 qRT-PCR; p = 0.0042 flow cytometry). All primary cervical cancer cell lines tested overexpressing TF, regardless of their histology, were highly sensitive to IDCC (mean killing ± SD, 56.2% ± 15.9%, range, 32.4%-76.9%, p < 0.001), while negligible cytotoxicity was seen in the absence of hI-con1 or in the presence of rituximab-control-antibody. Low doses of interleukin-2 further increased the cytotoxic effect induced by hI-con1 (p = 0.025) while human serum did not significantly decrease IDCC against cervical cancer cell lines (p = 0.597). Conclusions TF is highly expressed in squamous and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. hI-con1 induces strong cytotoxicity

  18. Immunization with recombinantly expressed glycan antigens from Schistosoma mansoni induces glycan-specific antibodies against the parasite

    PubMed Central

    Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Luyai, Anthony E; Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Mandalasi, Msano; Mickum, Megan; Smith, David F; Nyame, A Kwame; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by infection with parasitic helminths of Schistosoma spp. is a major global health problem due to inadequate treatment and lack of a vaccine. The immune response to schistosomes includes glycan antigens, which could be valuable diagnostic markers and vaccine targets. However, no precedent exists for how to design vaccines targeting eukaryotic glycoconjugates. The di- and tri-saccharide motifs LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1,4GlcNAc; LDN) and fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1,4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc; LDNF) are the basis for several important schistosome glycan antigens. They occur in monomeric form or as repeating units (poly-LDNF) and as part of a variety of different glycoconjugates. Because chemical synthesis and conjugation of such antigens is exceedingly difficult, we sought to develop a recombinant expression system for parasite glycans. We hypothesized that presentation of parasite glycans on the cell surface would induce glycan-specific antibodies. We generated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Lec8 cell lines expressing poly-LDN (L8-GT) and poly-LDNF (L8-GTFT) abundantly on their membrane glycoproteins. Sera from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were highly cross-reactive with the cells and with cell-surface N-glycans. Immunizing mice with L8-GT and L8-GTFT cells induced glycan-specific antibodies. The L8-GTFT cells induced a sustained booster response, with antibodies that bound to S. mansoni lysates and recapitulated the exquisite specificity of the anti-parasite response for particular presentations of LDNF antigen. In summary, this recombinant expression system promotes successful generation of antibodies to the glycans of S. mansoni, and it can be adapted to study the role of glycan antigens and anti-glycan immune responses in many other infections and pathologies. PMID:24727440

  19. Low dose busulfan facilitates chimerism and tolerance in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Anam, Khairul; Black, Alfred T; Hale, Douglas A

    2006-01-01

    T cell depletion, sirolimus and "mega" dose donor specific bone marrow (DSBM) infusion promotes stable multilineage chimerism and indefinite survival of skin allografts in completely mismatched mice. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the addition of low dose busulfan can reduce the amount of DSBM required while preserving efficacy. C57BL/6 recipients of BALB/c skin allografts were treated with alphaCD4 and alphaCD8 monoclonal antibodies, DSBM, sirolimus and various doses of busulfan. The kinetics and phenotype of chimerism and the presence of clonal deletion of alloreactive T-cells were defined using flow cytometry. In vitro reactivity was determined using mixed lymphocyte culture. Second skin grafts confirmed the presence of tolerance. All doses of busulfan resulted in engraftment when combined with this regimen using a reduced dose of donor marrow. The level, kinetics and character of chimerism observed were dose related. Chimerism was associated with indefinite allograft acceptance (>200 days). Tolerance was documented both in vitro/in vivo and was associated with clonal deletion. Addition of a single low dose of busulfan to an established tolerance protocol reduced the required DSBM dose by over 80% while still promoting comparable levels of donor chimerism and donor-specific tolerance. PMID:16431286

  20. Modification of Expanded NK Cells with Chimeric Antigen Receptor mRNA for Adoptive Cellular Therapy.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yaya; Flower, Allyson; Cairo, Mitchell S

    2016-01-01

    NK cells are bone marrow-derived cytotoxic lymphocytes that play a major role in the rejection of tumors and cells infected by viruses. The regulation of NK activation vs inhibition is regulated by the expression of a variety of NK receptors (NKRs) and specific NKRs' ligands expressed on their targets. However, factors limiting NK therapy include small numbers of active NK cells in unexpanded peripheral blood and lack of specific tumor targeting. Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) usually include a single-chain Fv variable fragment from a monoclonal antibody, a transmembrane hinge region, and a signaling domain such as CD28, CD3-zeta, 4-1BB (CD137), or 2B4 (CD244) endodimers. Redirecting NK cells with a CAR will circumvent the limitations of the lack of NK targeting specificity. This chapter focuses on the methods to expand human NK cells from peripheral blood by co-culturing with feeder cells and to modify the expanded NK cells efficiently with the in vitro transcribed CAR mRNA by electroporation and to test the functionality of the CAR-modified expanded NK cells for use in adoptive cellular immunotherapy. PMID:27177669

  1. Characterization of Tula virus antigenic determinants defined by monoclonal antibodies raised against baculovirus-expressed nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Lundkvist, A; Vapalahti, O; Plyusnin, A; Sjölander, K B; Niklasson, B; Vaheri, A

    1996-11-01

    Tula virus was recently discovered by RT-PCR in lung samples from European common voles (Microtus arvalis and M. rossiaemeridionalis). Since virus isolation attempts had been unsuccessful, no antigen was available for analysis or for use in immunoassays. To circumvent this, complete Tula virus nucleocapsid protein (bac-TUL-N) was expressed in recombinant baculovirus. Rodent antibody end-point titers to bac-TUL-N and to truncated N fragments indicated that the NH2-terminal region is the major antigenic target and revealed a high cross-reactivity to Puumala virus N. Immunizations with crude bac-TUL-N preparations evoked high antibody responses to native hantavirus N in Balb/c mice and six monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) were generated. Epitope mapping of the Mabs, based on a competitive assay, reactivities to truncated recombinant N fragments, and reactivity patterns to different hantavirus strains, identified five recognition sites on Tula virus N. One epitope, which was identified as specific for Tula virus, was located in a region of N which is highly variable among the hantaviruses (aa 226-293), and four epitopes were mapped to the NH2-terminal region of the protein (aa 1-61). One epitope was expressed only in Tula and Prospect Hill viruses, one epitope in Tula, Prospect Hill, Khabarovsk, and Sin Nombre viruses, while two epitopes were conserved in all examined hantaviruses carried by rodents within the subfamily Arvicolinae of the Muridae family. PMID:8896239

  2. Construction and Periplasmic Expression of the Anti-EGFRvIII ScFv Antibody Gene in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika Sari; Retnoningrum, Debbie Sofie; Riani, Catur; Fuad, Asrul Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    In the previous study, we constructed an expression vector carrying the anti-EGFRvIII scFv antibody gene with VH-linker-VL orientation. The proteins were successfully produced in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli. In this study, we substituted the inserted DNA with VL-linker-VH orientation of the anti-EGFRvIII scFv gene and analyzed its expression in E. coli. The DNA fragment was amplified from its cloning vector (pTz-rscFv), subsequently cloned into a previous expression vector containing the pelB signal sequence and his-tag, and then transformed into E. coli TOP10. The recombinant plasmids were characterized by restriction, PCR, and DNA sequencing analyses. The new anti-EGFRvIII scFv antibody proteins have been successfully expressed in the periplasmic compartment of E. coli Nico21(DE3) using 0.1 mM final concentration of IPTG induction. Total proteins, soluble periplasmic and cytoplasmic proteins, solubilized inclusion bodies, and extracellular proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analyses. The results showed that soluble scFv proteins were found in all fractions except from the cytoplasmic space. PMID:27110505

  3. Construction and Periplasmic Expression of the Anti-EGFRvIII ScFv Antibody Gene in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Dewi, Kartika Sari; Retnoningrum, Debbie Sofie; Riani, Catur; Fuad, Asrul Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    In the previous study, we constructed an expression vector carrying the anti-EGFRvIII scFv antibody gene with VH-linker-VL orientation. The proteins were successfully produced in the periplasmic space of Escherichia coli. In this study, we substituted the inserted DNA with VL-linker-VH orientation of the anti-EGFRvIII scFv gene and analyzed its expression in E. coli. The DNA fragment was amplified from its cloning vector (pTz-rscFv), subsequently cloned into a previous expression vector containing the pelB signal sequence and his-tag, and then transformed into E. coli TOP10. The recombinant plasmids were characterized by restriction, PCR, and DNA sequencing analyses. The new anti-EGFRvIII scFv antibody proteins have been successfully expressed in the periplasmic compartment of E. coli Nico21(DE3) using 0.1 mM final concentration of IPTG induction. Total proteins, soluble periplasmic and cytoplasmic proteins, solubilized inclusion bodies, and extracellular proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western Blot analyses. The results showed that soluble scFv proteins were found in all fractions except from the cytoplasmic space. PMID:27110505

  4. The present state of the art in expression, production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb's) have become one the most powerful therapeutic and diagnostic tools in modern medicine. Some estimates target the worldwide market of MAb's on the order of $125 billion in the next four years. Recent advances in molecular biology, immunology, and development of robust production platforms will drive the development of more MAb's suitable to treat an ever increasing number of disease states. This circumstance combined with the fact that many of the original antibody therapies from the 1980 s and 1990 s will soon be coming off patent will attract a great deal of investment in the development of larger industrial facilities to increase monoclonal antibody to meet increasing demand. In this review, the present state of the science that underlies the development of new antibodies therapies in Chinese hamster ovary cells combined with a description of the present challenges facing the industry in terms of the limitations of output and compliance with current good manufacturing practices and FDA regulations. Also addressed are future challenges to overcome production bottlenecks, description of critical quality control attributes particular to antibodies, and detailed treatment of scale-up considerations. PMID:26299798

  5. Cloning, Expression, and Purification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Flagellin, and Characterization of the Elicited Anti-Flagellin Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Behrouz, Bahador; Amirmozafari, Nour; Khoramabadi, Nima; Bahroudi, Mahboobeh; Legaee, Parisa; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic human pathogen that causes serious infections in immunocompromised hosts. The single polar flagellum is an important factor in both virulence and colonization. Objectives As flagellin is the major component of the flagellar filament, the main aims of the present study are to identify, clone, express, and purify the recombinant type B flagellin (r-B-flagellin) of P. aeruginosa, as well as to evaluate the functional activity of the rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against this r-B-flagellin. Materials and Methods In the current experimental study, the r-B-flagellin gene was isolated from the P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain by PCR. It was cloned into the pET-28a vector and then transformed into the E. coli BL21 strain. Next, r-B-flagellin was overexpressed and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose-affinity chromatography, followed by on-column resolubilization. Polyclonal antisera against the recombinant flagellin were raised in rabbits, and the functional activity of the anti-r-B-flagellin antibody was determined by in vitro assays. Results The polyclonal antibodies raised against this r-B-flagellin inhibited the motility of the homologous PAO1 strain of P. aeruginosa, which significantly decreased the invasion of the PAO1 strain into the A549 cells and also enhanced the opsonophagocytosis of this strain. However, our polyclonal antibody showed little effect on the heterologous PAK strain. Conclusions The r-B-flagellin carried antigenic epitopes just like the native flagellin, while the polyclonal antibody raised against it exhibited functional activity. PMID:27621933

  6. Molecular basis for expression of the A48 regulatory idiotope on antibodies encoded by immunoglobulin variable-region genes from various families.

    PubMed Central

    Zaghouani, H; Bonilla, F A; Meek, K; Bona, C

    1989-01-01

    The idiotype defined by the levan-specific BALB/c myeloma protein ABPC48 (A48) has previously been encountered only in antibodies the variable regions of which derive from the VHX24 and V kappa 10 gene families. We have demonstrated expression of the idiotope recognized by the monoclonal anti-A48 idiotype antibody IDA10 on five monoclonal antibodies from different mouse strains, with different specificities including foreign and self antigens and deriving their variable regions from families other than VHX24 and V kappa 10. We analyzed variable region protein structure (deduced from nucleotide sequences) and hydrophilicity profiles of idiotype+ and idiotype- antibodies. We identified four surface-exposed areas (one in the heavy chain and three in the light chain) that may contribute to expression of the idiotope defined by antibody IDA10. Images PMID:2494665

  7. Expression and purification of a Tuber borchii fruitbody-specific protein, TBF-1, from Escherichia coli: generation of polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Palma, Francesco; Agostini, Deborah; Cerigini, Emanuela; Polidori, Emanuela; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2005-01-01

    TBF-1 is a fruitbody-specific protein present in the white truffle species Tuber borchii Vittad. A similar protein has been found only in the closely related species Tuber dryophilum (TDF-1), but not in other truffles. The protein from T. borchii was overexpressed as fusion protein in E. coli and was purified to homogeneity by affinity chromatography. Recombinant protein was used for generating polyclonal antibodies. The antiserum strongly reacted with TBF-1, weakly recognized TDF-1, and did not detect correlate band in the other white truffle species. The high level of expression of this protein in the fruitbody and the specificity of the antibody anti-TBF-1 make it possible to set up a diagnostic tool for detecting these species in natural samples and foodstuffs. PMID:15881596

  8. IFN-adjuvanted DNA vaccine against infectious salmon anemia virus: Antibody kinetics and longevity of IFN expression.

    PubMed

    Robertsen, Børre; Chang, Chia-Jung; Bratland, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Plasmids expressing interferon (IFN) have recently been shown to function as adjuvants in Atlantic salmon when co-injected with a DNA vaccine encoding hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) from infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). In this work we have compared the antibody kinetics and the systemic Mx/ISG15 response of fish vaccinated with HE-plasmid using either IFNa plasmid (pIFNa) or pIFNc as adjuvants over a longer time period, i.e. 22 weeks post vaccination (pv). The results showed that the antibody response against ISAV with pIFNa as adjuvant arose earlier (7 weeks pv) than with pIFNc as adjuvant (10 weeks pv), peaked at week 10 and declined at week 22. The antibody response with pIFNc as adjuvant peaked at 16 weeks and kept at this level 22 weeks pv. Fish injected with pIFNc alone expressed high levels of Mx and ISG15 in liver throughout the 22 week period. In contrast, fish injected with pIFNc together with HE-plasmid expressed high levels of Mx and ISG15 in liver for the first 10 weeks, but at week 16 this response was absent in two of three fish at week 16 and was absent in all tested fish at week 22 pv. This suggests that cells expressing HE and IFNc are intact at week 10 pv, but are eliminated by adaptive immune responses after week 10 due to recognition of HE. The longevity of the Mx/ISG15 response in pIFNc treated fish is likely due to the fact that IFNc is a self-antigen of salmon and is not attacked by the adaptive immune system. PMID:27108379

  9. Chaperone-Assisted Soluble Expression of a Humanized Anti-EGFR ScFv Antibody in E. Coli

    PubMed Central

    Veisi, Kamal; Farajnia, Safar; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Khoram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Samadi, Nasser; Ahdi Khosroshahi, Shiva; Zarei Jaliani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Formation of inclusion bodies is a considerable obstacle threatening the advantages of E. coli expression system to serve as the most common and easiest system in recombinant protein production. To solve this problem, several strategies have been proposed among which application of molecular chaperones is of remarkable consideration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of molecular chaperones on soluble expression of aggregation-prone humanized single chain antibody. Methods: To increase the solubility of a humanized single chain antibody (hscFv), different chaperone plasmids including PG-tf2 (GroES- GroEL- tig), ptf16 (tig) and pGro7 (GroES- GroEL) were co-expressed in BL21 cells containing pET-22b- hscFv construct. The solubility of recombinant hscFv was analyzed by SDS-PAGE. After purification of soluble hscFv by Ni-NTA column, the biological activity and cytotoxicity of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and MTT assay, respectively. Results: SDS-PAGE analysis of the hscFv revealed that chaperone utility remarkably increased (up to 50%) the solubility of the protein. ELISA test and MTT assay analyses also confirmed the biological activity of the gained hscFv in reaction with A431 cells (OD value: 2.6) and inhibition of their proliferation, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that co-expression of chaperones with hscFv leads to remarkable increase in the solubility of the recombinant hscFv, which could be of great consideration for large scale production of recombinant single chain antibodies. PMID:26793607

  10. A modular strategy for engineering orthogonal chimeric RNA transcription regulators

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Melissa K.; Lucks, Julius B.

    2013-01-01

    Antisense RNA transcription attenuators are a key component of the synthetic biology toolbox, with their ability to serve as building blocks for both signal integration logic circuits and transcriptional cascades. However, a central challenge to building more sophisticated RNA genetic circuitry is creating larger families of orthogonal attenuators that function independently of each other. Here, we overcome this challenge by developing a modular strategy to create chimeric fusions between the engineered transcriptional attenuator from plasmid pT181 and natural antisense RNA translational regulators. Using in vivo gene expression assays in Escherichia coli, we demonstrate our ability to create chimeric attenuators by fusing sequences from five different translational regulators. Mutagenesis of these functional attenuators allowed us to create a total of 11 new chimeric attenutaors. A comprehensive orthogonality test of these culminated in a 7 × 7 matrix of mutually orthogonal regulators. A comparison between all chimeras tested led to design principles that will facilitate further engineering of orthogonal RNA transcription regulators, and may help elucidate general principles of non-coding RNA regulation. We anticipate that our strategy will accelerate the development of even larger families of orthogonal RNA transcription regulators, and thus create breakthroughs in our ability to construct increasingly sophisticated RNA genetic circuitry. PMID:23761434

  11. Expression of CR2/EBV receptors on human thymocytes detected by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, C D; Lambris, J D

    1988-08-01

    The biologic effects of the third component of complement, C3, are mediated via receptors which specifically bind the enzymatic degradation products resulting from the cleavage of C3. One of the products, C3d, has been associated with binding to the second complement receptor CR2 (CD21). This receptor, which is identical to the receptor for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), has been primarily found on cells of the B lineage, but not on mature T cells or other cells of erythroid or myeloid lineages. In the present investigation, we report the presence of CR2 on human thymocytes. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis employing monoclonal anti-CR2 antibodies revealed a range of thymocyte reactivity from 15% to 63% in thirteen experiments using cells of different donors. Reactivity was always greater with the monoclonal anti-CR2 (CD21) antibody HB-5 than with two other antibodies which recognize distinct epitopes on the CR2 molecule. Two-color immunofluorescence analysis indicated that the brightest of the HB-5-stained thymocytes also reacted with the monoclonal anti-CD1 antibody T6 (immature thymocyte marker) while some of the duller HB-5-staining cells reacted with the monoclonal anti-CD3 antibody Leu-4 (mature thymocyte marker). Immunoprecipitation of CR2 on thymocytes with antibody HB-5 and polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed a protein of 145 kDa molecular mass which is consistent with the size of CR2 found on B lymphocytes. These findings raise several questions regarding the biologic role of CR2-EBV receptor on cells of the T lineage. PMID:2970972

  12. Antiphospholipid antibodies in a large population-based cohort: genome-wide associations and effects on monocyte gene expression.

    PubMed

    Müller-Calleja, Nadine; Rossmann, Heidi; Müller, Christian; Wild, Philipp; Blankenberg, Stefan; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Beutel, Manfred E; Manukyan, Davit; Zeller, Tanja; Lackner, Karl J

    2016-07-01

    The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterised by venous and/or arterial thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in women combined with the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). We aimed to identify genetic factors associated with the presence of aPL in a population based cohort. Furthermore, we wanted to clarify if the presence of aPL affects gene expression in circulating monocytes. Titres of IgG and IgM against cardiolipin, β2glycoprotein 1 (anti-β2GPI), and IgG against domain 1 of β2GPI (anti-domain 1) were determined in approx. 5,000 individuals from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) a population based cohort of German descent. Genotyping was conducted on Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 arrays. Monocyte gene expression was determined in a subgroup of 1,279 individuals by using the Illumina HT-12 v3 BeadChip. Gene expression data were confirmed in vitro and ex vivo by qRT-PCR. Genome wide analysis revealed significant associations of anti-β2GPI IgG and APOH on chromosome 17, which had been previously identified by candidate gene approaches, and of anti-domain1 and MACROD2 on chromosome 20 which has been listed in a previous GWAS as a suggestive locus associated with the occurrence of anti-β2GPI antibodies. Expression analysis confirmed increased expression of TNFα in monocytes and identified and confirmed neuron navigator 3 (NAV3) as a novel gene induced by aPL. In conclusion, MACROD2 represents a novel genetic locus associated with aPL. Furthermore, we show that aPL induce the expression of NAV3 in monocytes and endothelial cells. This will stimulate further research into the role of these genes in the APS. PMID:27098658

  13. Autoantibodies induced by chimeric cytokine - HIV envelope glycoprotein immunogens

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Gözde; van Montfort, Thijs; Chung, Nancy P.Y.; Moore, John P.; Sanders, Rogier W.

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are often used as adjuvants to increase the immunogenicity of vaccines as they can improve the immune response and/or direct it into a desired direction. As an alternative to co-delivering antigens and cytokines separately they can be fused into a composite protein, with the advantage that both moieties act on the same immune cells. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike, located on the outside of virus particles and the only relevant protein for the induction of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), is poorly immunogenic. The induction of anti-Env Abs can be improved by coupling Env proteins to co-stimulatory molecules such as a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL). Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of chimeric molecules containing uncleaved Env gp140 fused to the species-matched cytokines IL-21 or GM-CSF in rabbits and mice. Each cytokine was either fused to the C-terminus of Env or embedded within Env at the position of the variable loops 1 and 2 (V1V2). The cytokine components of the chimeric Env-GM-CSF and Env-IL-21 molecules were functional in vitro, but none of the Env-cytokine fusion proteins resulted in improved Ab responses in vivo. Both the Env-GM-CSF and the Env-IL-21 molecules induced strong anti-cytokine Ab responses, in both test species. These autoimmune responses were independent of the location of the cytokine in the chimeric Env molecules; in that they were induced by cytokines inserted within the V1V2 of Env or fused to its Ct. The induction of undesired autoimmune responses should be considered when using cytokines as co-stimulatory molecules in fusion proteins. PMID:24729614

  14. Expression and characterization of genetically engineered human immunodeficiency virus-like particles containing modified envelope glycoproteins: implications for development of a cross-protective AIDS vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rovinski, B; Haynes, J R; Cao, S X; James, O; Sia, C; Zolla-Pazner, S; Matthews, T J; Klein, M H

    1992-07-01

    Noninfectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruslike particles containing chimeric envelope glycoproteins were expressed in mammalian cells by using inducible promoters. We engineered four expression vectors in which a synthetic oligomer encoding gp120 residues 306 to 328 (amino acids YNKRKRIHIGP GRAFYTTKNIIG) from the V3 loop of the MN viral isolate was inserted at various positions within the endogenous HIV-1LAI env gene. Expression studies revealed that insertion of the heterologous V3(MN) loop segment at two different locations within the conserved region 2 (C2) of gp120, either 173 or 242 residues away from the N terminus of the mature subunit, resulted in the secretion of fully assembled HIV-like particles containing chimeric LAI/MN envelope glycoproteins. Both V3 loop epitopes were recognized by loop-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, insertion of the V3(MN) loop segment into other regions of gp120 led to the production of envelope-deficient viruslike particles. Immunization with HIV-like particles containing chimeric envelope proteins induced specific antibody responses against both the autologous and heterologous V3 loop epitopes, including cross-neutralizing antibodies against the HIV-1LAI and HIV-1MN isolates. This study, therefore, demonstrates the feasibility of genetically engineering optimized HIV-like particles capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing antibodies. PMID:1602531

  15. Structure-Function Analysis of Peroxisomal ATP-binding Cassette Transporters Using Chimeric Dimers*

    PubMed Central

    Geillon, Flore; Gondcaille, Catherine; Charbonnier, Soëli; Van Roermund, Carlo W.; Lopez, Tatiana E.; Dias, Alexandre M. M.; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Arnould, Christine; Wanders, Ronald J.; Trompier, Doriane; Savary, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    ABCD1 and ABCD2 are two closely related ATP-binding cassette half-transporters predicted to homodimerize and form peroxisomal importers for fatty acyl-CoAs. Available evidence has shown that ABCD1 and ABCD2 display a distinct but overlapping substrate specificity, although much remains to be learned in this respect as well as in their capability to form functional heterodimers. Using a cell model expressing an ABCD2-EGFP fusion protein, we first demonstrated by proximity ligation assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay that ABCD1 interacts with ABCD2. Next, we tested in the pxa1/pxa2Δ yeast mutant the functionality of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers by expressing chimeric proteins mimicking homo- or heterodimers. For further structure-function analysis of ABCD1/ABCD2 dimers, we expressed chimeric dimers fused to enhanced GFP in human skin fibroblasts of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients. These cells are devoid of ABCD1 and accumulate very long-chain fatty acids (C26:0 and C26:1). We checked that the chimeric proteins were correctly expressed and targeted to the peroxisomes. Very long-chain fatty acid levels were partially restored in transfected X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy fibroblasts regardless of the chimeric construct used, thus demonstrating functionality of both homo- and heterodimers. Interestingly, the level of C24:6 n-3, the immediate precursor of docosahexaenoic acid, was decreased in cells expressing chimeric proteins containing at least one ABCD2 moiety. Our data demonstrate for the first time that both homo- and heterodimers of ABCD1 and ABCD2 are functionally active. Interestingly, the role of ABCD2 (in homo- and heterodimeric forms) in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids is clearly evidenced, and the chimeric dimers provide a novel tool to study substrate specificity of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. PMID:25043761

  16. Enhancement of antibody fragment secretion into the Escherichia coli periplasm by co-expression with the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, FkpA, in the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Levy, Raphael; Ahluwalia, Kiran; Bohmann, David J; Giang, Hoa M; Schwimmer, Lauren J; Issafras, Hassan; Reddy, Nithin B; Chan, Chung; Horwitz, Arnold H; Takeuchi, Toshihiko

    2013-08-30

    Improper protein folding or aggregation can frequently be responsible for low expression and poor functional activity of antibody fragments secreted into the Escherichia coli periplasm. Expression issues also can affect selection of antibody candidates from phage libraries, since antibody fragments displayed on phage also are secreted into the E. coli periplasm. To improve secretion of properly folded antibody fragments into the periplasm, we have developed a novel approach that involves co-expressing the antibody fragments with the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, FkpA, lacking its signal sequence (cytFkpA) which consequently is expressed in the E. coli cytosol. Cytoplasmic expression of cytFkpA improved secretion of functional Fab fragments into the periplasm, exceeding even the benefits from co-expressing Fab fragments with native, FkpA localized in the periplasm. In addition, panning and subsequent screening of large Fab and scFv naïve phage libraries in the presence of cytFkpA significantly increased the number of unique clones selected, as well as their functional expression levels and diversity. PMID:23624043

  17. CHO-S Antibody Titers >1 Gram/Liter Using Flow Electroporation-Mediated Transient Gene Expression followed by Rapid Migration to High-Yield Stable Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Brady, James; Wang, Weili; Duskin, Meg; Donato, Karen; Peshwa, Madhusudan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, researchers have turned to transient gene expression (TGE) as an alternative to CHO stable cell line generation for early-stage antibody development. Despite advances in transfection methods and culture optimization, the majority of CHO-based TGE systems produce insufficient antibody titers for extensive use within biotherapeutic development pipelines. Flow electroporation using the MaxCyte STX Scalable Transfection System is a highly efficient, scalable means of CHO-based TGE for gram-level production of antibodies without the need for specialized expression vectors or genetically engineered CHO cell lines. CHO cell flow electroporation is easily scaled from milligram to multigram quantities without protocol reoptimization while maintaining transfection performance and antibody productivity. In this article, data are presented that demonstrate the reproducibility, scalability, and antibody production capabilities of CHO-based TGE using the MaxCyte STX. Data show optimization of posttransfection parameters such as cell density, media composition, and feed strategy that result in secreted antibody titers >1 g/L and production of multiple grams of antibody within 2 weeks of a single CHO-S cell transfection. In addition, data are presented to demonstrate the application of scalable electroporation for the rapid generation of high-yield stable CHO cell lines to bridge the gap between early- and late-stage antibody development activities. PMID:25520372

  18. Co-Expression of Anti-Rotavirus Proteins (Llama VHH Antibody Fragments) in Lactobacillus: Development and Functionality of Vectors Containing Two Expression Cassettes in Tandem

    PubMed Central

    Günaydın, Gökçe; Álvarez, Beatriz; Lin, Yin; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is an important pediatric pathogen, causing severe diarrhea and being associated with a high mortality rate causing approximately 500 000 deaths annually worldwide. Even though some vaccines are currently available, their efficacy is lower in the developing world, as compared to developed countries. Therefore, alternative or complementary treatment options are needed in the developing countries where the disease burden is the largest. The effect of Lactobacillus in promoting health and its use as a vehicle for delivery of protein and antibody fragments was previously shown. In this study, we have developed co-expression vectors enabling Lactobacillus paracasei BL23 to produce two VHH fragments against rotavirus (referred to as anti-rotavirus proteins 1 and 3, ARP1 and ARP3) as secreted and/or surface displayed products. ARP1 and ARP3 fragments were successfully co-expressed as shown by Western blot and flow cytometry. In addition, engineered Lactobacillus produced VHH antibody fragments were shown to bind to a broad range of rotavirus serotypes (including the human rotavirus strains 69M, Va70, F45, DS1, Wa and ST3 and simian rotavirus strains including RRV and SA11), by flow cytometry and ELISA. Hereby, we have demonstrated for the first time that when RRV was captured by one VHH displayed on the surface of co-expressor Lactobacillus, targeting other epitope was possible with another VHH secreted from the same bacterium. Therefore, Lactobacillus producing two VHH antibody fragments may potentially serve as treatment against rotavirus with a reduced risk of development of escape mutants. This co-expression and delivery platform can also be used for delivery of VHH fragments against a variety of mucosal pathogens or production of other therapeutic molecules. PMID:24781086

  19. A Novel PET Imaging Using 64Cu-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody against Mesothelin Commonly Expressed on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuko; Sasaki, Takanori; Takenaka, Fumiaki; Yakushiji, Hiromasa; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Kishi, Yoshiro; Kita, Shoichi; Shen, Lianhua; Kumon, Hiromi; Matsuura, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Mesothelin (MSLN) is a 40-kDa cell differentiation-associated glycoprotein appearing with carcinogenesis and is highly expressed in many human cancers, including the majority of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, ovarian cancers, and mesotheliomas, while its expression in normal tissue is limited to mesothelial cells lining the pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum. Clone 11-25 is a murine hybridoma secreting monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human MSLN. In this study, we applied the 11-25 mAb to in vivo imaging to detect MSLN-expressing tumors. In in vitro and ex vivo immunochemical studies, we demonstrated specificity of 11-25 mAb to membranous MSLN expressed on several pancreatic cancer cells. We showed the accumulation of Alexa Fluor 750-labeled 11-25 mAb in MSLN-expressing tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice. Then, 11-25 mAb was labeled with 64Cu via a chelating agent DOTA and was used in both in vitro cell binding assay and in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the tumor-bearing mice. We confirmed that 64Cu-labeled 11-25 mAb highly accumulated in MSLN-expressing tumors as compared to MSLN-negative ones. The 64Cu-labeled 11-25 mAb is potentially useful as a PET probe capable of being used for wide range of tumors, rather than 18F-FDG that occasionally provides nonspecific accumulation into the inflammatory lesions. PMID:25883990

  20. Optimizing the expression of a monoclonal antibody fragment under the transcriptional control of the Escherichia coli lac promoter.

    PubMed

    Donovan, R S; Robinson, C W; Glick, B R

    2000-06-01

    The expression of a monoclonal antibody Fab fragment in Escherichia coli strain RB791/pComb3, induced with either lactose or isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), was compared to determine if lactose might provide an inexpensive alternative to induction with IPTG. Induction of Fab expression imposed a metabolic load on the recombinant cells, resulting in lower final cell yields compared to the non-induced controls. An IPTG concentration of 0.05 mM was sufficient to achieve maximal expression of soluble Fab protein when inducing in the early-, mid-, or late-log phases of batch cultures grown using either glucose or glycerol as a carbon source. The largest overall yield of Fab fragments when using 0.05 mM IPTG was achieved by increasing the final yield of cells through glycerol feeding following induction in late-log phase. Lactose was as effective as IPTG for inducing Fab expression in E. coli RB791/pComb3. The greatest overall level of Fab expression was found when cells grown on glycerol were induced with 2 g/L lactose in late-log phase. Since the cost of 0.05 mM of IPTG is significantly greater than the cost of 2 g/L lactose, lactose provides an inexpensive alternative to IPTG for inducing the expression of Fab fragments, and possibly other recombinant proteins, from the E. coli lac promoter. PMID:10913975

  1. Molecular Pathways: Breaking the Epithelial Cancer Barrier for Chimeric Antigen Receptor and T-cell Receptor Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Christian S

    2016-04-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically engineered to express a tumor-targeting chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or T-cell receptor (TCR) can mediate cancer regression in some patients. CARs are synthetic single-chain proteins that use antibody domains to target cell surface antigens. TCRs are natural heterodimeric proteins that can target intracellular antigens through recognition of peptides bound to human leukocyte antigens. CARs have shown promise in B-cell malignancies and TCRs in melanoma, but neither approach has achieved clear success in an epithelial cancer. Treatment of epithelial cancers may be particularly challenging because of a paucity of target antigens expressed by carcinomas and not by important healthy tissues. In addition, epithelial cancers may be protected by inhibitory ligands and soluble factors in the tumor microenvironment. One strategy to overcome these negative regulators is to modulate expression of T-cell genes to enhance intrinsic T-cell function. Programmable nucleases, which can suppress inhibitory genes, and inducible gene expression systems, which can enhance stimulatory genes, are entering clinical testing. Other work is delineating whether control of genes for immune checkpoint receptors (e.g.,PDCD1, CTLA4) and cytokine and TCR signaling regulators (e.g.,CBLB, CISH, IL12, IL15) can increase the antitumor activity of therapeutic T cells.Clin Cancer Res; 22(7); 1559-64. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27037253

  2. A novel anti-GD2/4-1BB chimeric antigen receptor triggers neuroblastoma cell killing.

    PubMed

    Prapa, Malvina; Caldrer, Sara; Spano, Carlotta; Bestagno, Marco; Golinelli, Giulia; Grisendi, Giulia; Petrachi, Tiziana; Conte, Pierfranco; Horwitz, Edwin M; Campana, Dario; Paolucci, Paolo; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-09-22

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells are a promising therapeutic option for patients with cancer. We developed a new CAR directed against the disialoganglioside GD2, a surface molecule expressed in neuroblastoma and in other neuroectoderm-derived neoplasms. The anti-GD2 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a murine antibody of IgM class was linked, via a human CD8α hinge-transmembrane domain, to the signaling domains of the costimulatory molecules 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3-ζ. The receptor was expressed in T lymphocytes by retroviral transduction and anti-tumor activities were assessed by targeting GD2-positive neuroblastoma cells using in vitro cytotoxicity assays and a xenograft model. Transduced T cells expressed high levels of anti-GD2 CAR and exerted a robust and specific anti-tumor activity in 4- and 48-hour cultures with neuroblastoma cells. Cytotoxicity was associated with the release of pro-apoptotic molecules such as TRAIL and IFN-γ. These results were confirmed in a xenograft model, where anti-GD2 CAR T cells infiltrating tumors and persisting into blood circulation induced massive apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells and completely abrogated tumor growth. This anti-GD2 CAR represents a powerful new tool to redirect T cells against GD2. The preclinical results of this study warrant clinical testing of this approach in neuroblastoma and other GD2-positive malignancies. PMID:26298772

  3. A novel anti-GD2/4-1BB chimeric antigen receptor triggers neuroblastoma cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Prapa, Malvina; Caldrer, Sara; Spano, Carlotta; Bestagno, Marco; Golinelli, Giulia; Grisendi, Giulia; Petrachi, Tiziana; Conte, Pierfranco; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Campana, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells are a promising therapeutic option for patients with cancer. We developed a new CAR directed against the disialoganglioside GD2, a surface molecule expressed in neuroblastoma and in other neuroectoderm-derived neoplasms. The anti-GD2 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from a murine antibody of IgM class was linked, via a human CD8α hinge-transmembrane domain, to the signaling domains of the costimulatory molecules 4-1BB (CD137) and CD3-ζ. The receptor was expressed in T lymphocytes by retroviral transduction and anti-tumor activities were assessed by targeting GD2-positive neuroblastoma cells using in vitro cytotoxicity assays and a xenograft model. Transduced T cells expressed high levels of anti-GD2 CAR and exerted a robust and specific anti-tumor activity in 4- and 48-hour cultures with neuroblastoma cells. Cytotoxicity was associated with the release of pro-apoptotic molecules such as TRAIL and IFN-γ. These results were confirmed in a xenograft model, where anti-GD2 CAR T cells infiltrating tumors and persisting into blood circulation induced massive apoptosis of neuroblastoma cells and completely abrogated tumor growth. This anti-GD2 CAR represents a powerful new tool to redirect T cells against GD2. The preclinical results of this study warrant clinical testing of this approach in neuroblastoma and other GD2-positive malignancies. PMID:26298772

  4. Expression of bioactive anti-CD20 antibody fragments and induction of ER stress response in Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dezhong; Ma, Jisheng; Sun, Difei; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Chao; Li, Xiaokun

    2015-08-01

    Seed-based expression system is an attractive platform for the production of recombinant proteins in molecular farming. Despite the many advantages of molecular farming, little is known about the effect of the different subcellular accumulation of recombinant proteins on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control system in host plants. In this study, we analyzed the expression of anti-CD20 antibody fragments in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Columbia) and corresponding glycosylation mutants, and evaluated the influence of three different signal sequences on the expression levels of scFv-Fc of C2B8. The highest protein accumulation level, with a maximum of 6.12 % total soluble proteins, was observed upon fusing proteins to the signal peptide of Arabidopsis seed storage albumin 2. The ER stress responses in developing seeds at 13 days post-anthesis were also compared across different transgenic lines under normal and heat shock conditions. Based on the gene expression profiles of ER stress transducers, our results suggest that accumulation of antibody fragments in the ER exerts more stress on ER homeostasis. In addition, quantitative PCR results also implicate enhanced activation of ER-associated degradation in transgenic lines. Last but not the least, we also demonstrate the anti-tumor potency of plant-derived proteins by showing the anti-tumor activity of purified scFv-Fc proteins against Daudi cells. Together, our data implies that better understanding of the interaction between exogenous protein production and the cellular quality control system of the host plant is necessary for the development of an optimal expression strategy that will be especially beneficial to commercial protein manufacturing. PMID:25957150

  5. Expression of human protein S100A7 (psoriasin), preparation of antibody and application to human larynx squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Up-regulation of S100A7 (Psoriasin), a small calcium-binding protein, is associated with the development of several types of carcinomas, but its function and possibility to serve as a diagnostic or prognostic marker have not been fully defined. In order to prepare antibodies to the protein for immunohistochemical studies we produced the recombinant S100A7 protein in E. coli. mRNA extracted from human tracheal tumor tissue which was amplified by RT-PCR to provide the region coding for the S100A7 gene. The amplified fragment was cloned in the vector pCR2.1-TOPO and sub-cloned in the expression vector pAE. The protein rS100A7 (His-tag) was expressed in E. coli BL21::DE3, purified by affinity chromatography on an Ni-NTA column, recovered in the 2.0 to 3.5 mg/mL range in culture medium, and used to produce a rabbit polyclonal antibody anti-rS100A7 protein. The profile of this polyclonal antibody was evaluated in a tissue microarray. Results The rS100A7 (His-tag) protein was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry and was used to produce an anti-recombinant S100A7 (His-tag) rabbit serum (polyclonal antibody anti-rS100A7). The molecular weight of rS100A7 (His-tag) protein determined by linear MALDI-TOF-MS was 12,655.91 Da. The theoretical mass calculated for the nonapeptide attached to the amino terminus is 12,653.26 Da (delta 2.65 Da). Immunostaining with the polyclonal anti-rS100A7 protein generated showed reactivity with little or no background staining in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells, detecting S100A7 both in nucleus and cytoplasm. Lower levels of S100A7 were detected in non-neoplastic tissue. Conclusions The polyclonal anti-rS100A7 antibody generated here yielded a good signal-to-noise contrast and should be useful for immunohistochemical detection of S100A7 protein. Its potential use for other epithelial lesions besides human larynx squamous cell carcinoma and non-neoplastic larynx should be explored in future. PMID:22082027

  6. Innovative immunization protocols using chimeric recombinant protein for the production of polyspecific loxoscelic antivenom in horses.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luís F M; Dias-Lopes, Camila; Alvarenga, Larissa M; Mendes, Thais M; Machado-de-Ávila, Ricardo A; McCormack, Jessica; Minozzo, João C; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    A chimeric protein (rCpLi) was constructed expressing three epitopes of rLiD1, a dermonecrotic toxin from the venom of Loxosceles intermedia spider. We have analyzed the neutralization potential of sera obtained by immunization of horses with rCpLi and rCpLi combined with initial doses of venoms and compared these with antivenom traditionally produced in horses using crude Loxosceles gaucho, Loxosceles laeta and L. intermedia venoms as antigens. We have demonstrated by ELISA that horses immunized with three initial doses of crude venom containing mixtures of L. intermedia, L. gaucho and L. laeta followed by nine doses of rCpLi generate antibodies with the same reactivity as those produced following immunization with traditional antivenom, towards the venoms of the three Loxosceles sp. species. Results from in vivo and in vitro neutralization assays showed that the new horse sera are able to neutralize the dermonecrotic activity of Loxosceles venoms, which are of medical importance in Brazil and some of these sera are capable of meeting the necessary potency requirements that could allow for their therapeutic use in humans. This immunization strategy combining both antigens used approximately 67% less crude Loxosceles venoms compared to traditional immunization protocol and can mean the development of Loxosceles antivenoms with the consequent reduction of devastation of arachnid fauna. PMID:24878371

  7. Immunological characterization of a chimeric form of Schistosoma mansoni aquaporin in the murine model.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Barbara Castro Pimentel; De Assis, Natan Raimundo Gonçalves; De Morais, Suellen Batistoni; Martins, Vicente Paulo; Ricci, Natasha Delaqua; Bicalho, Rodrigo Marques; Pinheiro, Carina Da Silva; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2014-09-01

    Aquaporin (SmAQP) is the most abundant transmembrane protein in the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni. This protein is expressed in all developmental stages and seems to be essential in parasite survival since it plays a crucial role in osmoregulation, nutrient transport and drug uptake. In this study, we utilized the murine model to evaluate whether this protein was able to induce protection against challenge infection with S. mansoni cercariae. A chimeric (c) SmAQP was formulated with Freund's adjuvant for vaccination trial and evaluation of the host's immune response was performed. Our results demonstrated that immunization with cSmAQP induced the production of high levels of specific anti-cSmAQP IgG antibodies and a Th1/Th17 type of immune response characterized by IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 cytokines. However, vaccination of mice with cSmAQP failed to reduce S. mansoni worm burden and liver pathology. Finally, we were unable to detect humoral immune response anti-cSmAQP in the sera of S. mansoni-infected human patients. Our results lead us to believe that SmAQP, as formulated in this study, may not be a good target in the search for an anti-schistosomiasis vaccine. PMID:24786243

  8. Efficacy of a Tetravalent Chimeric Dengue Vaccine (DENVax) in Cynomolgus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Brewoo, Joseph N.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Arguello, John; Moldovan, Ioana R.; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Powell, Tim D.; Livengood, Jill A.; Kinney, Richard M.; Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Stinchcomb, Dan T.

    2011-01-01

    Three tetravalent formulations of chimeric dengue (DENVax) viruses containing the pre-membrane and envelope genes of serotypes 1–4 expressed by the attenuated DENV-2 PDK-53 genome were tested for safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Subcutaneous injection of the DENVax formulations was well-tolerated. Low levels of viremia of only one of the four vaccine viruses were detected yet virus neutralizing antibody titers were induced against all four dengue virus serotypes after one or two administrations of vaccine. All animals immunized with the high-dose formulation were protected from viremia, and all immunized animals were completely protected from DENV-3 and DENV-4 challenge. A lower dose of DENVax formulation partially protected animals from DENV-1 or DENV-2 challenge. In contrast, all control animals developed high levels of viremia for multiple days after challenge with DENV 1–4. This study highlights the immunogenicity and efficacy of the tetravalent DENVax formulations in nonhuman primates. PMID:21633037

  9. Performance-enhancing drugs: design and production of redirected chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells.

    PubMed

    Levine, B L

    2015-03-01

    Performance enhancement of the immune system can now be generated through ex vivo gene modification of T cells in order to redirect native specificity to target tumor antigens. This approach combines the specificity of antibody therapy, the expanded response of cellular therapy and the memory activity of vaccine therapy. Recent clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed toward CD19 as a stand-alone therapy have shown sustained complete responses in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. As these drug products are individually derived from a patient's own cells, a different manufacturing approach is required for this kind of personalized therapy compared with conventional drugs. Key steps in the CAR T-cell manufacturing process include the selection and activation of isolated T cells, transduction of T cells to express CARs, ex vivo expansion of modified T cells and cryopreservation in infusible media. In this review, the steps involved in isolating, genetically modifying and scaling-out the CAR T cells for use in a clinical setting are described in the context of in-process and release testing and regulatory standards. PMID:25675873

  10. Chimeric antigen receptor–engineered T cells as oncolytic virus carriers

    PubMed Central

    VanSeggelen, Heather; Tantalo, Daniela GM; Afsahi, Arya; Hammill, Joanne A; Bramson, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The use of engineered T cells in adoptive transfer therapies has shown significant promise in treating hematological cancers. However, successes treating solid tumors are much less prevalent. Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have the capacity to induce specific lysis of tumor cells and indirectly impact tumor growth via vascular shutdown. These viruses bear natural abilities to associate with lymphocytes upon systemic administration, but therapeutic doses must be very high in order to evade antibodies and other components of the immune system. As T cells readily circulate through the body, using these cells to deliver OVs directly to tumors may provide an ideal combination. Our studies demonstrate that loading chimeric antigen receptor–engineered T cells with low doses of virus does not impact receptor expression or function in either murine or human T cells. Engineered T cells can deposit virus onto a variety of tumor targets, which can enhance the tumoricidal activity of the combination treatment. This concept appears to be broadly applicable, as we observed similar results using murine or human T cells, loaded with either RNA or DNA viruses. Overall, loading of engineered T cells with OVs represents a novel combination therapy that may increase the efficacy of both treatments. PMID:27119109

  11. Construction, purification, and characterization of a chimeric TH1 antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Rivero, Iraldo; Torrez-Ruiz, Yeny; Blanco-Garcés, Elizabeth; Pentón-Rol, Giselle; Fernández-Batista, Osmani; Javier-González, Luís; Gerónimo-Perez, Haydee; López-Saura, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Background TH1 immune response antagonism is a desirable approach to mitigate some autoimmune and inflammatory reactions during the course of several diseases where IL-2 and IFN-γ are two central players. Therefore, the neutralization of both cytokines could provide beneficial effects in patients suffering from autoimmune or inflammatory illnesses. Results A chimeric antagonist that can antagonize the action of TH1 immunity mediators, IFN-γ and IL-2, was designed, engineered, expressed in E. coli, purified and evaluated for its in vitro biological activities. The TH1 antagonist molecule consists of the extracellular region for the human IFNγ receptor chain 1 fused by a four-aminoacid linker peptide to human 60 N-terminal aminoacid residues of IL-2. The corresponding gene fragments were isolated by RT-PCR and cloned in the pTPV-1 vector. E. coli (W3110 strain) was transformed with this vector. The chimeric protein was expressed at high level as inclusion bodies. The protein was partially purified by pelleting and washing. It was then solubilized with strong denaturant and finally refolded by gel filtration. In vitro biological activity of chimera was demonstrated by inhibition of IFN-γ-dependent HLA-DR expression in Colo 205 cells, inhibition of IFN-γ antiproliferative effect on HEp-2 cells, and by a bidirectional effect in assays for IL-2 T-cell dependent proliferation: agonism in the absence versus inhibition in the presence of IL-2. Conclusion TH1 antagonist is a chimeric protein that inhibits the in vitro biological activities of human IFN-γ, and is a partial agonist/antagonist of human IL-2. With these attributes, the chimera has the potential to offer a new opportunity for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:16716222

  12. Differential expression of anti-glycan antibodies in schistosome-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice

    PubMed Central

    Luyai, Anthony E; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Nyame, A Kwame; Wilkins, Patricia; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A; Smith, David F; Van Die, Irma; Secor, W Evan; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of humans, endemic in tropical areas, for which no vaccine is available. Evidence points to glycan antigens as being important in immune responses to infection. Here we describe our studies on the comparative humoral immune responses to defined schistosome-type glycan epitopes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice. Rhesus anti-glycan responses over the course of infection were screened on a defined glycan microarray comprising semi-synthetic glycopeptides terminating with schistosome-associated or control mammalian-type glycan epitopes, as well as a defined glycan microarray of mammalian-type glycans representing over 400 glycan structures. Infected rhesus monkeys generated a high immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose epitope of N-glycans, which peaked at 8–11 weeks post infection, coinciding with maximal ability to kill schistosomula in vitro. By contrast, infected humans generated low antibody levels to this epitope. At 18 months following praziquantel therapy to eliminate the parasite, antibody levels were negligible. Mice chronically infected with S. mansoni generated high levels of anti-fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1, 4(Fucα1, 3)GlcNAc) IgM antibodies, but lacked a robust response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose N-glycan antigens compared with other species studied, and their sera demonstrated an intermediate level of schistosomula killing in vitro. These differential responses to parasite glycan antigens may be related to the ability of rhesus monkeys to self-cure in contrast to the chronic infection seen in humans and mice. Our results validate defined glycan microarrays as a useful technology to evaluate diagnostic and vaccine antigens for schistosomiasis and perhaps other infections. PMID:24727442

  13. Monoclonal antibody-escape variant of dengue virus serotype 1: Genetic composition and envelope protein expression.

    PubMed

    Chem, Y K; Chua, K B; Malik, Y; Voon, K

    2015-06-01

    Monoclonal antibody-escape variant of dengue virus type 1 (MabEV DEN-1) was discovered and isolated in an outbreak of dengue in Klang Valley, Malaysia from December 2004 to March 2005. This study was done to investigate whether DEN152 (an isolate of MabEV DEN-1) is a product of recombination event or not. In addition, the non-synonymous mutations that correlate with the monoclonal antibody-escape variant were determined in this study. The genomes of DEN152 and two new DEN-1 isolates, DENB04 and DENK154 were completely sequenced, aligned, and compared. Phylogenetic tree was plotted and the recombination event on DEN152 was investigated. DEN152 is sub-grouped under genotype I and is closely related genetically to a DEN-1 isolated in Japan in 2004. DEN152 is not a recombinant product of any parental strains. Four amino acid substitutions were unique only to DEN 152. These amino acid substitutions were (Ser)[326](Leu), (Ser)[340](Leu) at the deduced E protein, (Ile)[250](Thr) at NS1 protein, and (Thr)[41](Ser) at NS5 protein. Thus, DEN152 is an isolate of the emerging monoclonal antibody-escape variant DEN-1 that escaped diagnostic laboratory detection. PMID:26691263

  14. Functional expression of a single-chain antibody to ErbB-2 in plants and cell-free systems

    PubMed Central

    Galeffi, Patrizia; Lombardi, Alessio; Pietraforte, Immacolata; Novelli, Flavia; Di Donato, Monica; Sperandei, Maria; Tornambé, Andrea; Fraioli, Rocco; Martayan, Aline; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Benevolo, Maria; Mottolese, Marcella; Ylera, Francisco; Cantale, Cristina; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2006-01-01

    Background Aberrant signaling by ErbB-2 (HER 2, Neu), a member of the human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor family, is associated with an aggressive clinical behaviour of carcinomas, particularly breast tumors. Antibodies targeting the ErbB-2 pathway are a preferred therapeutic option for patients with advanced breast cancer, but a worldwide deficit in the manufacturing capacities of mammalian cell bioreactors is foreseen. Methods Herein, we describe a multi-platform approach for the production of recombinant Single chain Fragments of antibody variable regions (ScFvs) to ErbB-2 that involves their functional expression in (a) bacteria, (b) transient as well as stable transgenic tobacco plants, and (c) a newly developed cell-free transcription-translation system. Results An ScFv (ScFv800E6) was selected by cloning immunoglobulin sequences from murine hybridomas, and was expressed and fully functional in all the expression platforms, thereby representing the first ScFv to ErbB-2 produced in hosts other than bacteria and yeast. ScFv800E6 was optimized with respect to redox synthesis conditions. Different tags were introduced flanking the ScFv800E6 backbone, with and without spacer arms, including a novel Strep II tag that outperforms conventional streptavidin-based detection systems. ScFv800E6 was resistant to standard chemical radiolabeling procedures (i.e. Chloramine T), displayed a binding ability extremely similar to that of the parental monovalent Fab' fragment, as well as a flow cytometry performance and an equilibrium binding affinity (Ka approximately 2 × 108 M-1) only slightly lower than those of the parental bivalent antibody, suggesting that its binding site is conserved as compared to that of the parental antibody molecule. ScFv800E6 was found to be compatible with routine reagents for immunohistochemical staining. Conclusion ScFv800E6 is a useful reagent for in vitro biochemical and immunodiagnostic applications in oncology, and a candidate for

  15. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna *

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-01-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  16. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-02-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  17. Detection and downregulation of type I IGF receptor expression by antibody-conjugated quantum dots in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Sachdev, Deepali; Wang, Chun; Hubel, Allison; Gaillard-Kelly, Martine; Yee, Douglas

    2009-03-01

    The type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF) receptor (IGF1R) is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase involved in breast cancer proliferation, survival, and metastasis. Several monoclonal antibodies directed against the receptor are in clinical trials. In order to develop a methodology to detect and measure IGF1R levels in breast cancer cells, we covalently conjugated an IGF1R antibody, AVE-1642, with quantum dots (Qdots), which are nanocrystals that emit fluorescence upon excitation. AVE-1642 Qdots only bound to cells that express IGF1R, and measured IGF1R levels by fluorescence emission at 655 nm. After binding to the cell surface, AVE-1642 Qdots underwent receptor mediated endocytosis, localized to endosome, and later translocated into the nucleus. Treating MCF-7 cells with AVE-1642 Qdots, but not unconjugated Qdots alone, downregulated IGF1R levels and rendered cells refractory to IGF-I stimulation. Furthermore, cell proliferation was slightly inhibited by AVE-1642 Qdots, but not the unconjugated Qdots. Our data suggest that AVE-1642 Qdots can be used to detect IGF1R expression and measure changes in cell surface receptor levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of AVE-1642 Qdots to cell proliferation implies that it may serve as a traceable therapeutic agent. PMID:18418709

  18. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun

    2016-01-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  19. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun; Han, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy. PMID:26819347

  20. Chimeric Antigen Receptors Modified T-Cells for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hanren; Wang, Yao; Lu, Xuechun

    2016-01-01

    The genetic modification and characterization of T-cells with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) allow functionally distinct T-cell subsets to recognize specific tumor cells. The incorporation of costimulatory molecules or cytokines can enable engineered T-cells to eliminate tumor cells. CARs are generated by fusing the antigen-binding region of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) or other ligand to membrane-spanning and intracellular-signaling domains. They have recently shown clinical benefit in patients treated with CD19-directed autologous T-cells. Recent successes suggest that the modification of T-cells with CARs could be a powerful approach for developing safe and effective cancer therapeutics. Here, we briefly review early studies, consider strategies to improve the therapeutic potential and safety, and discuss the challenges and future prospects for CAR T-cells in cancer therapy.

  1. The trifunctional antibody ertumaxomab destroys tumor cells that express low levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Michael; Schoberth, Alexandra; Ruf, Peter; Hess, Jürgen; Lindhofer, Horst

    2009-05-15

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) is an important target for the treatment of the breast cancers in which it is overexpressed. However, no approved anti-HER2/neu therapy is available for the majority of breast cancer patients, who express HER2/neu at low levels (with scores of 1+ or 2+/fluorescence in situ hybridization-negative). The trifunctional antibody ertumaxomab targets HER2/neu, CD3, and activating Fcgamma receptors. In presence of ertumaxomab, tri-cell complexes consisting of tumor cells, T cells, and accessory cells form to cause tumor cell lysis. In a phase I trial with metastatic breast cancer patients, ertumaxomab could be applied safely and resulted in radiographically confirmed clinical responses. In this study, we compare ertumaxomab- and trastuzumab-mediated killing of cancer cell lines that express HER2/neu at low and high levels. Under optimal conditions for trastuzumab-mediated destruction of HER2/neu-overexpressing cells, only ertumaxomab was able to mediate the elimination of tumor cell lines that express HER2/neu at low levels (1+). Ertumaxomab-mediated activity was accompanied by a Th1-based cytokine release, a unique mode of action of trifunctional antibodies. Competitive binding studies with trastuzumab and 520C9 mapped the binding site of ertumaxomab to the extracellular regions II and III of the HER2/neu ectodomain. This site is distinct from the binding site of trastuzumab, so that HER2/neu-expressing tumor cells can be eliminated by ertumaxomab in the presence of high amounts of trastuzumab. The ability of ertumaxomab to induce cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, including those with low HER2/neu antigen density, may provide a novel therapeutic option for breast cancer patients who are not eligible for trastuzumab treatment. PMID:19435924

  2. Oral delivery of Acid Alpha Glucosidase epitopes expressed in plant chloroplasts suppresses antibody formation in treatment of Pompe mice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Doerfler, Phillip A.; Byrne, Barry J.; Herzog, Roland W.; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease in which the patients systemically accumulate lysosomal glycogen in muscles and nervous systems, often resulting in infant mortality. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is effective in treating patients with Pompe disease, formation of antibodies against rhGAA complicates treatment. In this report, we investigated induction of tolerance by oral administration of GAA expressed in chloroplasts. Because full-length GAA could not be expressed, N-terminal 410-amino acids of GAA (as determined by T-cell epitope mapping) were fused with the transmucosal carrier CTB. Tobacco transplastomic lines expressing CTB-GAA were generated through site-specific integration of transgenes into the chloroplast genome. Homoplasmic lines were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Despite low-level expression of CTB-GAA in chloroplasts, yellow or albino phenotype of transplastomic lines was observed due to binding of GAA to a chloroplast protein that has homology to mannose-6 phosphate receptor. Oral administration of the plant-made CTB-GAA fusion protein even at 330-fold lower dose (1.5 μg) significantly suppressed immunoglobulin formation against GAA in Pompe mice injected with 500 μg rhGAA per dose, with several-fold lower titre of GAA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a. Lyophilization increased CTB-GAA concentration by 30-fold (up to 190 μg per g of freeze-dried leaf material), facilitating long-term storage at room temperature and higher dosage in future investigations. This study provides the first evidence that oral delivery of plant cells is effective in reducing antibody responses in ERT for lysosomal storage disorders facilitating further advances in clinical investigations using plant cell culture system or in vitro propagation. PMID:26053072

  3. Application of chimeric glucanase comprising mutanase and dextranase for prevention of dental biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Ryoko; Imai, Susumu; Murata, Takatoshi; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsumori, Hideaki; Kakuta, Erika; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Momoi, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble glucan (WIG) produced by mutans streptococci, an important cariogenic pathogen, plays an important role in the formation of dental biofilm and adhesion of biofilm to tooth surfaces. Glucanohydrolases, such as mutanase (α-1,3-glucanase) and dextranase (α-1,6-glucanase), are able to hydrolyze WIG. The purposes of this study were to construct bi-functional chimeric glucanase, composed of mutanase and dextranase, and to examine the effects of this chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm. The mutanase gene from Paenibacillus humicus NA1123 and the dextranase gene from Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were cloned and ligated into a pE-SUMOstar Amp plasmid vector. The resultant his-tagged fusion chimeric glucanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and partially purified. The effects of chimeric glucanase on the formation and decomposition of biofilm formed on a glass surface by Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 glucosyltransferases were then examined. This biofilm was fractionated into firmly adherent, loosely adherent, and non-adherent WIG fractions. Amounts of WIG in each fraction were determined by a phenol-sulfuric acid method, and reducing sugars were quantified by the Somogyi-Nelson method. Chimeric glucanase reduced the formation of the total amount of WIG in a dose-dependent manner, and significant reductions of WIG in the adherent fraction were observed. Moreover, the chimeric glucanase was able to decompose biofilm, being 4.1 times more effective at glucan inhibition of biofilm formation than a mixture of dextranase and mutanase. These results suggest that the chimeric glucanase is useful for prevention of dental biofilm formation. PMID:25411090

  4. DNA vaccines expressing soluble CD4-envelope proteins fused to C3d elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Joseph F.; Green, Thomas D.; Ross, Ted M. . E-mail: tmr15@pitt.edu

    2004-10-25

    DNA vaccines expressing the envelope (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been relatively ineffective at generating high-titer, long-lasting, neutralizing antibodies in a variety of animal models. In this study, DNA vaccines were constructed to express a fusion protein of the soluble human CD4 (sCD4) and the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope. To enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed fusion protein, three copies of the murine C3d (mC3d{sub 3}) were added to the carboxyl terminus of the complex. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize CD4-induced epitopes on gp120 efficiently bound to sCD4-gp120 or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}. In addition, both sCD4-gp120 and sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} bound to cells expressing appropriate coreceptors in the absence of cell surface hCD4. Mice (BALB/c) vaccinated with DNA vaccines expressing either gp120-mC3d{sub 3} or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} elicited antibodies that neutralized homologous virus infection. However, the use of sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}-DNA elicited the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies that persisted after depletion of anti-hCD4 antibodies. Interestingly, only mice vaccinated with DNA expressing sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} had antibodies that elicited cross-protective neutralizing antibodies. The fusion of sCD4 to the HIV-1 envelope exposes neutralizing epitopes that elicit broad protective immunity when the fusion complex is coupled with the molecular adjuvant, C3d.

  5. Optimized Expression, Purification of Herpes B Virus gD Protein in Escherichia coli, and Production of Its Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zian; Sun, Tao; Xia, Xueshan; Wei, Qiujiang; Song, Yuzhu; Han, Qinqin; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Juan; Zhang, Jinyang

    2016-01-01

    Background Herpes B virus (BV) is a zoonotic disease caused by double-stranded enveloped DNA virus with cercopithecidae as its natural host. The mortality rate of infected people could be up to 70% with fatal encephalitis and encephalomyelitis. Up to now, there are no effective treatments for BV infection. Among the various proteins encoded by monkey B virus, gD, a conserved structural protein, harbors important application value for serological diagnosis of frequent variations of the monkey B virus. Objectives This study aimed to expressed the gD protein of BV in Escherichia coli by a recombinant vector, and prepare specific monoclonal antibodies against gD of BV to pave the way for effective and quick diagnosis reagent research. Materials and Methods The gD gene of BV was optimized by OptimWiz to improve codon usage bias and synthesis, and the recombinant plasmid, pET32a/gD, was constructed and expressed in E. coli Rosetta (DE3). The expressed fusion protein, His-gD, was purified and the BALB/c mice were immunized by this protein. Spleen cells from the immunized mice and SP2/0 myeloma cells were fused together, and the monoclonal cell strains were obtained by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening, followed by preparation of monoclonal antibody ascetic fluid. Results The optimized gD protein was highly expressed in E. coli and successfully purified. Five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against BV were obtained and named as 4E3, 3F8, 3E7, 1H3 and 4B6, and with ascetic fluid titers of 2 × 106, 2 × 105, 2 × 105, 2 × 103 and 2 × 102, respectively. The 1H3 and 4E3 belonged to the IgG2b subclass, while 3E7, 3F8 and 4B6 belonged to the IgG1 subclass. Conclusions The cell lines obtained in this work secreted potent, stable and specific anti-BV mAbs, which were suitable for the development of herpes B virus diagnosis reagents. PMID:27226876

  6. Blood chimerism in a dizygotic dichorionic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ja-Hyun; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Park, Won-Soon; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2010-10-01

    Blood chimerism in twins is known to occur through the transfer of hematopoietic stem cells between the fetuses via a common placenta. We present a case of blood chimerism in a dizygotic dichorionic twin pregnancy. The female twin was delivered at 34 weeks of gestation, and the male twin was stillborn. Pathologic examination confirmed dichorionic diamniotic placentas. The karyotype of the female child was obtained using peripheral blood sample, and it revealed a mixture of 46,XX and 46,XY cells (chi 46,XY[13]/46,XX[7]). FISH analysis performed on the buccal cells by using CEP X/Y probe (Abbott Molecular Inc., USA) revealed 100% XX signals (nuc ish Xcen(DXZ1x2)[500]). Gross examination of the external genitalia and abdominal ultrasonography revealed no definitive abnormal findings in relation to sex differentiation. When XX/XY chimerism is present in blood lymphocytes, careful examination of external genitalia and reproductive organs and further studies are required to detect chimerism in non-hematopoetic tissues. This is a rare case of blood chimerism in dichorionic placentas, in contrast to those in monochorionic placentas. PMID:20890086

  7. Identification of novel proteins synthesized in bone cells by antibody screening of a cDNA expression library.

    PubMed

    Nutt, E; Dunwiddie, C; Jacobs, J W; Simpson, E

    1988-02-29

    Novel proteins synthesize predominantly in bone have been identified by antibody screening of bone cell cDNA expression libraries. Two unique cDNAs were identified whose structures do not match any known nucleic acid or protein sequence in the NIH computer bank. The first cDNA clone, BP-I, encoded a mRNA of 2300 bases in size which was expressed at high levels in 17/2.8 rat osteosarcoma cells, rat calvarial bone cells and placenta. A second clone, BP-II, encoded a mRNA of 1500 bases which was expressed at high levels in 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells and in salivary gland. Expression of both mRNAs in osteosarcoma cells was modulated by the calciotropic hormone, vitamin D. Southern blot analyses indicated that the two cDNAs represented distinct, single copy genes in the rat genome. These novel gene products may serve as potential new markers to study bone turnover in metabolic bone disease. PMID:3162363

  8. A Live Vector Expressing HPV16 L1 Generates an Adjuvant-Induced Antibody Response In-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shirbaghaee, Zeinab; Bolhassani, Azam; Mirshafiey, Abbas; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Zohrei, Negar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer has suggested the design of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against genital warts. The HPV capsid has made of two L1 and L2 coat proteins that have produced late in viral infections. Regarding to the recent studies, two commercial prophylactic vaccines have based on L1 viral like particles (VLPs) could strongly induce antibody responses, and protect human body from HPV infections. However, the use of these HPV vaccines has hindered due to their high cost and some limitations. Currently, among various vaccination strategies, live vector-based vaccines have attracted a great attention. Objectives: Herein, a non-pathogenic strain of the protozoan organism known as Leishmania tarentolae has utilized to induce potent humoral immunity in mice model. Materials and Methods: At first, cloning of HPV16 L1 gene into Leishmania expression vector has performed and confirmed by PCR and digestion with restriction enzymes. The promastigotes of Leishmania tarentolae (L.tar) have transfected with linearized DNA construct by electroporation. Protein expression has analyzed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Then, the immunogenicity of leishmania expressing L1 protein (L.tar-L1) has assessed in mice model. Results: Our data has indicated that subcutaneous immunization of mice with the recombinant L.tar-L1 has led to enhance the levels of IgG1 and lgG2a in comparison with control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant increase in antibody levels between two and three times of immunizations. Conclusions: The recombinant live vector was able to induce humoral immunity in mice without need of any adjuvant. However, further studies have required to increase its efficiency. PMID:26855722

  9. Expression in systemic lupus erythematosus of an idiotype common to DNA-binding and nonbinding monoclonal antibodies produced by normal human lymphoid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, E; Massicotte, H; Bell, D A

    1989-01-01

    Rabbit antiserum raised against a normal-derived monoclonal anti-DNA antibody KIM 4.6.3 (IgM lambda) was used for idiotype analyses. This anti-serum (anti-4.6.3 ID) was rendered specific for KIM 4.6.3 idiotype (4.6.3 ID) by absorption with normal human IgM and IgG. The specificity of anti-4.6.3 was shown by its ability to bind to KIM 4.6.3 antibody but not to normal human IgM and IgG, by inhibition of anti-4.6.3 ID reactivity with KIM 4.6.3 antibody by the homologous monoclonal antibody and by the ability of anti-4.6.3 ID to inhibit the binding of single stranded DNA with KIM 4.6.3 antibody. The 4.6.3 ID was found to be commonly expressed since it was detected among 33% (10/30) DNA and 32% (23/72) non-DNA-reactive monoclonal antibodies that were obtained from five different unrelated normal individuals. The binding to ssDNA of the majority of idiotype positive anti-DNA antibodies however was not blocked by anti-4.6.3 ID suggesting that among these other monoclonal antibodies its expression is outside of the antigen binding site. The 4.6.3 ID, which was present among some normal-derived monoclonal IgM molecules was also found at a high frequency (90%) in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but only at a low frequency (24%) and concentration in normal sera. The level of 4.6.3 ID in SLE did not correlate with serum IgM and IgG nor with anti-DNA antibody concentrations. Idiotypic relatedness between SLE serum antibodies and monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies of normals implies the existence of a cross-reactive idiotype family and implies that a conserved common gene or closely related genes exist in the germ line encoding these 4.6.3 ID positive antibodies some of which are not exclusively associated with nucleic acid reactivity. The expression of these germ line genes in vivo thus distinguishes SLE from normals. PMID:2493481

  10. Low-dose immunization with adenovirus expressing the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor A-subunit deviates the antibody response toward that of autoantibodies in human Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Rong; Pichurin, Pavel; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D; Aliesky, Holly; Nagayama, Yuji; McLachlan, Sandra M; Rapoport, Basil

    2004-01-01

    Immunization with adenovirus expressing the TSH receptor (TSHR) induces hyperthyroidism in 25-50% of mice. Even more effective is immunization with a TSHR A-subunit adenovirus (65-84% hyperthyroidism). Nevertheless, TSHR antibody characteristics in these mice do not mimic accurately those of autoantibodies in typical Graves' patients, with a marked TSH-blocking antibody response. We hypothesized that this suboptimal antibody response was consequent to the standard dose of TSHR-adenovirus providing too great an immune stimulus. To test this hypothesis, we compared BALB/c mice immunized with the usual number (10(11)) and with far fewer viral particles (10(9) and 10(7)). Regardless of viral dose, hyperthyroidism developed in a similar proportion (68-80%) of mice. We then examined the qualitative nature of TSHR antibodies in each group. Sera from all mice had TSH binding-inhibitory (TBI) activity after the second immunization, with TBI values in proportion to the viral dose. After the third injection, all groups had near-maximal TBI values. Remarkably, in confirmation of our hypothesis, immunization with progressively lower viral doses generated TSHR antibodies approaching the characteristics of autoantibodies in human Graves' disease as follows: 1) lower TSHR antibody titers on ELISA and 2) lower TSH-blocking antibody activity without decrease in thyroid-stimulating antibody activity. In summary, low-dose immunization with adenovirus expressing the free TSHR A-subunit provides an induced animal model with a high prevalence of hyperthyroidism as well as TSHR antibodies more closely resembling autoantibodies in Graves' disease. PMID:14576177

  11. Experimental and In Silico Modelling Analyses of the Gene Expression Pathway for Recombinant Antibody and By-Product Production in NS0 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Emma J.; Chiverton, Lesley M.; Spurgeon, Sarah K.; Martin, Elaine B.; Montague, Gary A.; Smales, C. Mark; von der Haar, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are commercially important, high value biotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. These complex molecules consist of two heavy chain and two light chain polypeptides covalently linked by disulphide bonds. They are usually expressed as recombinant proteins from cultured mammalian cells, which are capable of correctly modifying, folding and assembling the polypeptide chains into the native quaternary structure. Such recombinant cell lines often vary in the amounts of product produced and in the heterogeneity of the secreted products. The biological mechanisms of this variation are not fully defined. Here we have utilised experimental and modelling strategies to characterise and define the biology underpinning product heterogeneity in cell lines exhibiting varying antibody expression levels, and then experimentally validated these models. In undertaking these studies we applied and validated biochemical (rate-constant based) and engineering (nonlinear) models of antibody expression to experimental data from four NS0 cell lines with different IgG4 secretion rates. The models predict that export of the full antibody and its fragments are intrinsically linked, and cannot therefore be manipulated individually at the level of the secretory machinery. Instead, the models highlight strategies for the manipulation at the precursor species level to increase recombinant protein yields in both high and low producing cell lines. The models also highlight cell line specific limitations in the antibody expression pathway. PMID:23071804

  12. Experimental and in silico modelling analyses of the gene expression pathway for recombinant antibody and by-product production in NS0 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma J; Chiverton, Lesley M; Spurgeon, Sarah K; Martin, Elaine B; Montague, Gary A; Smales, C Mark; von der Haar, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are commercially important, high value biotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. These complex molecules consist of two heavy chain and two light chain polypeptides covalently linked by disulphide bonds. They are usually expressed as recombinant proteins from cultured mammalian cells, which are capable of correctly modifying, folding and assembling the polypeptide chains into the native quaternary structure. Such recombinant cell lines often vary in the amounts of product produced and in the heterogeneity of the secreted products. The biological mechanisms of this variation are not fully defined. Here we have utilised experimental and modelling strategies to characterise and define the biology underpinning product heterogeneity in cell lines exhibiting varying antibody expression levels, and then experimentally validated these models. In undertaking these studies we applied and validated biochemical (rate-constant based) and engineering (nonlinear) models of antibody expression to experimental data from four NS0 cell lines with different IgG4 secretion rates. The models predict that export of the full antibody and its fragments are intrinsically linked, and cannot therefore be manipulated individually at the level of the secretory machinery. Instead, the models highlight strategies for the manipulation at the precursor species level to increase recombinant protein yields in both high and low producing cell lines. The models also highlight cell line specific limitations in the antibody expression pathway. PMID:23071804

  13. Yellow Fever/Japanese Encephalitis Chimeric Viruses: Construction and Biological Properties

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Thomas J.; Nestorowicz, Ann; Mason, Peter W.; Rice, Charles M.

    1999-01-01

    A system has been developed for generating chimeric yellow fever/Japanese encephalitis (YF/JE) viruses from cDNA templates encoding the structural proteins prM and E of JE virus within the backbone of a molecular clone of the YF17D strain. Chimeric viruses incorporating the proteins of two JE strains, SA14-14-2 (human vaccine strain) and JE Nakayama (JE-N [virulent mouse brain-passaged strain]), were studied in cell culture and laboratory mice. The JE envelope protein (E) retained antigenic and biological properties when expressed with its prM protein together with the YF capsid; however, viable chimeric viruses incorporating the entire JE structural region (C-prM-E) could not be obtained. YF/JE(prM-E) chimeric viruses grew efficiently in cells of vertebrate or mosquito origin compared to the parental viruses. The YF/JE SA14-14-2 virus was unable to kill young adult mice by intracerebral challenge, even at doses of 106 PFU. In contrast, the YF/JE-N virus was neurovirulent, but the phenotype resembled parental YF virus rather than JE-N. Ten predicted amino acid differences distinguish the JE E proteins of the two chimeric viruses, therefore implicating one or more residues as virus-specific determinants of mouse neurovirulence in this chimeric system. This study indicates the feasibility of expressing protective antigens of JE virus in the context of a live, attenuated flavivirus vaccine strain (YF17D) and also establishes a genetic system for investigating the molecular basis for neurovirulence determinants encoded within the JE E protein. PMID:10074160

  14. Incorporation of chimeric gag protein into retroviral particles.

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, R A; Erdie, C R; Oliver, M G; Wills, J W

    1990-01-01

    The product of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) gag gene, Pr76gag, is a polyprotein precursor which is cleaved by the viral protease to yield the major structural proteins of the virion during particle assembly in avian host cells. We have recently shown that myristylated forms of the RSV Gag protein can induce particle formation with very high efficiency when expressed in mammalian cells (J. W. Wills, R. C. Craven, and J. A. Achacoso, J. Virol. 63:4331-4343, 1989). We made use of this mammalian system to examine the abilities of foreign antigens to be incorporated into particles when fused directly to the myristylated Gag protein. Our initial experiments showed that removal of various portions of the viral protease located at the carboxy terminus of the RSV Gag protein did not disrupt particle formation. We therefore chose this region for coupling of iso-1-cytochrome c from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Gag. This was accomplished by constructing an in-frame fusion of the CYC1 and gag coding sequences at a common restriction endonuclease site. Expression of the chimeric gene resulted in synthesis of the Gag-cytochrome fusion protein and its release into the cell culture medium. The chimeric particles were readily purified by simple centrifugation, and transmission electron microscopy of cells that produced them revealed a morphology similar to that of immature type C retrovirions. Images PMID:2166812

  15. Dermatopathologic advances in clinical research. The expression of antibody to CD34 in mucocutaneous lesions. off.

    PubMed

    Cohen, P R; Rapini, R P; Farhood, A I

    1997-01-01

    The human progenitor cell antigen, CD34, is selectively expressed in most hematopoietic colony-forming cells from normal human bone marrow, and in a significant proportion of acute leukemias. Within the dermis, CD34 is normally expressed by endothelial cells, dendritic cells, and the spindle-shaped cells around adnexal structures. Benign and malignant vascular lesions, adnexal tumors differentiating toward the external root sheath (trichilemmomas and pilar tumors), specific benign soft tissue tumors (spindle cell lipoma and solitary fibrous tumors), and many of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors uniformly express CD34 antigen. CD34 expression is also often present in benign tumors of neural origin; however, it is less consistently present in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. PMID:9001869

  16. Recombinant human antibodies: linkage of an Fab fragment from a combinatorial library to an Fc fragment for expression in mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Bender, E; Woof, J M; Atkin, J D; Barker, M D; Bebbington, C R; Burton, D R

    1993-04-01

    The combinatorial phage library approach to immunoglobulin repertoire cloning recently made it possible to isolate gene fragments encoding human immunoglobulin G1 Fabs binding with high affinity to specific antigens. Here we describe the construction of genes encoding whole human anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies based on one of these gene fragments and the efficient expression of these constructs by co-transfection of separate heavy and light chain vectors into a Chinese hamster ovary cell line constitutively expressing a viral transactivator protein. This system will be generally useful for the rapid analysis of recombinant antibodies derived from combinatorial libraries. PMID:8518367

  17. Replication Competent Molecular Clones of HIV-1 Expressing Renilla Luciferase Facilitate the Analysis of Antibody Inhibition in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Tara G.; Ding, Haitao; Yuan, Xing; Wei, Qing; Smith, Kendra S.; Conway, Joan A.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Brown, Bruce; Polonis, Victoria; West, John T.; Montefiori, David C.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Effective vaccine development for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will require assays that ascertain the capacity of vaccine immunogens to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to diverse HIV-1 strains. To facilitate NAb assessment in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assays, we developed an assay-adaptable platform based on a Renilla luciferase (LucR) expressing HIV-1 proviral backbone. LucR was inserted into pNL4-3 DNA, preserving all viral open reading frames. The proviral genome was engineered to facilitate expression of diverse HIV-1 env sequences, allowing analysis in an isogenic background. The resulting Env-IMC-LucR viruses are infectious, and LucR is stably expressed over multiple replications in PBMC. HIV-1 neutralization, targeting TZM-bl cells, was highly correlative comparing virus (LucR) and cell (firefly luciferase) readouts. In PBMC, NAb activity can be analyzed either within a single or multiple cycles of replication. These results represent advancement toward a standardizable PBMC-based neutralization assay for assessing HIV-1 vaccine immunogen efficacy. PMID:20863545

  18. Surface-epitope masking (SEM): an immunological subtraction approach for developing monoclonal antibodies targeting surface-expressed molecules.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Neil I; Fisher, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    An immunological subtraction approach, surface-epitope masking (SEM), is described that permits the efficient and selective production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reacting with both known and unknown molecules expressed on the cell surface. The tenet underlying SEM involves blocking (masking) of shared antigens between two target populations, a "driver" and a "tester," and using appropriately modified surface-masked "tester" cells to generate MAbs reacting with surface antigens unique to the "tester population" that differentiate the two antigen sources. SEM has been employed to develop MAbs that react with the multidrug resistance surface-expressed P-glycoprotein (MDR-1) and the human interferon-gamma receptor and two potentially novel tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) expressed on the surface of prostate carcinoma and breast carcinoma cells. In principle, the SEM approach provides an uncomplicated and effective means of developing MAbs, which can also be used to identify genes, associated with important cellular processes involved in normal physiology, such as growth, aging, differentiation, and development. In addition, this strategy is amenable to produce MAbs and identify genes associated with specific disease states, including cancer, neurodegeneration, autoimmunity, and infection with pathogenic agents. PMID:18217690

  19. Expression of meningococcal epitopes in LamB of Escherichia coli and the stimulation of serosubtype-specific antibody responses.

    PubMed

    McCarvil, J; McKenna, A J; Grief, C; Hoy, C S; Sesardic, D; Maiden, M C; Feavers, I M

    1993-10-01

    The class 1 outer membrane protein (OMP), a major variable surface antigen of Neisseria meningitidis, is a component of novel meningococcal vaccines currently in field trials. Serological variants of the protein are also used to serosubtype meningococci. Most of the amino acid changes that give rise to antigenic variants of the protein occur in two variable regions (VR1 and VR2) that are thought to form loops on the cell surface. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the nucleotide sequences encoding VR1 and VR2 from the chromosomal DNA of N. meningitidis strain M1080. These were cloned in frame into the lamB gene of the Escherichia coli expression vector pAJC264. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), using monoclonal antibodies, and SDS-PAGE confirmed that, upon induction, strains of E. coli carrying these constructs expressed hybrid LamB proteins containing the N. meningitidis surface loops. These strains were used to immunize rabbits and the resultant polyclonal antisera reacted specifically with the class 1 OMP of reference strain M1080 (P1.7). Immunogold labelling of meningococcal cells and whole-cell dot-blot analyses with these antisera showed that the variable epitopes were exposed on the cell surface and confirmed that this approach could be used to obtain serosubtype-specific antisera. The binding profiles of the antisera were determined from their reactions with overlapping synthetic peptides and their reactivity compared with that of relevant serosubtype-specific monoclonal antibodies. This approach was used successfully to raise antisera against two other class 1 OMP VR2s. A fourth antiserum raised against a VR2, including the P1.1 epitope, was not subtype specific. PMID:7526119

  20. Familial expression of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan antibodies in affected and unaffected relatives of patients with Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, C; Yang, H; Li, Z; Rotter, J; Targan, S; Braun, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Crohn's disease is a familial disorder, and antiglycan antibodies to the cell wall mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) are highly correlated with Crohn's disease.
AIMS—To determine whether there is a familial pattern for expression of serum levels of anti-mannan Ig, and whether this trait is expressed in clinically unaffected Crohn's disease family members.
METHODS—349 patients with Crohn's disease, 87 Crohn's disease affected relatives, 333 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) free relatives, 58 spouses, and 190 healthy control patients were studied. Serum IgG and IgA binding activity to S cerevisiae cell wall mannan was quantitated by ELISA.
RESULTS—A high percentage of patients with Crohn's disease (51.9%) and affected family members (56.3%) were seropositive for anti-mannan Ig, compared with the normal control population (3.7%). Seropositive and seronegative phenotypes of Crohn's disease probands were correlated among all affected relatives, and this association was stronger in affected first degree relatives. Statistical intraclass correlations of quantitative anti-mannan Ig levels revealed significantly less variation within, rather than between families. A significant familial aggregation was observed for affected relatives; this was even stronger for unaffected relatives. While a significant familial aggregation was observed among unaffected siblings pairs, there was no significant correlation among marital pairs.
CONCLUSION—Results show that anti-mannan Ig in family members affected and unaffected with Crohn's disease is a familial trait for both affected and unaffected relatives. The lack of concordance in marital pairs indicates that familiality is due in part to a genetic factor or childhood environmental exposure.


Keywords: Crohn's disease; inflammatory bowel disease; ulcerative colitis; anti-mannan antibodies; intraclass correlation; statistical genetics PMID:10601056

  1. IRES-mediated Tricistronic vectors for enhancing generation of high monoclonal antibody expressing CHO cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ho, Steven C L; Bardor, Muriel; Feng, Huatao; Mariati; Tong, Yen Wah; Song, Zhiwei; Yap, Miranda G S; Yang, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    A Tricistronic vector utilizing internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements to express the light chain (LC), heavy chain (HC), and a neomycin phosphotransferase (NPT) selection marker from one transcript is designed for generation of mAb expressing CHO cell lines. As compared to the commonly used vectors, benefits of this design include: (1) minimized non-expressing clones, (2) enhanced stable mAb productivity without gene amplification, (3) control of LC and HC expression at defined ratios, and (4) consistent product quality. After optimization of the LC and HC arrangement and increasing selection stringency by weakening the NPT selection marker, this Tricistronic vector is able to generate stably transfected pools with specific productivity (qmAb) greater than 5pg/cell/day (pcd) and titers over 150mg/L. 5% of clones from these pools have qmAb greater than 20pcd and titers ranging from 300 to more than 500mg/L under non-optimized shake flask batch cultures using commercially available protein-free medium. The mAb produced by these clones have low aggregation and consistent glycosylation profiles. The entire process of transfection to high-expressing clones requires only 6 months. The IRES-mediated Tricistronic vector provides an attractive alternative to commonly used vectors for fast generation of mAb CHO cell lines with high productivity. PMID:22024589

  2. Anti-human protein S antibody induces tissue factor expression through a direct interaction with platelet phosphofructokinase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changyi; Liao, Dan; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengdong; Yao, Qizhi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Autoantibodies including anti-human protein S antibody (anti-hPS Ab) and anti-human protein C antibody (anti-hPC Ab) can be detected in patients with autoimmune diseases with hypercoagulability. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects and molecular pathways of these autoantibodies on tissue factor (TF) expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Materials and Methods HCAECs were treated with anti-hPS Ab or anti-hPC Ab for 3 hours. TF expression was measured by real-time PCR and Western blot. TF-mediated procoagulant activity was determined by a commercial kit. MAPK phosphorylation was analyzed by Bio-Plex luminex immunoassay and Western blot. The potential proteins interacting with anti-hPS Ab were studied by immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry and in vitro pull-down assay. Results Anti-hPS Ab, but not anti-hPC Ab, specifically induced TF expression and TF-mediated procoagulant activity in HCAECs in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was confirmed in human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs). ERK1/2 phosphorylation was induced by anti-hPS Ab treatment, while inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0216 partially blocked anti-hPS Ab-induced TF upregulation (P<0.05). In addition, anti-hPS Ab specifically cross-interacted with platelet phosphofructokinase (PFKP) in HCAECs. Anti-hPS Ab was able to directly inhibit PFKP activities in HCAECs. Furthermore, silencing of PFKP by PFKP shRNA resulted in TF upregulation in HCAECs, while activation of PFKP by fructose-6-phosphate partially blocked the effect of anti-hPS Ab on TF upregulation (P<0.05). Conclusions Anti-hPS Ab induces TF expression through a direct interaction with PFKP and ERK1/2 activation in HCAECs. Anti-hPS Ab may directly contribute to vascular thrombosis in the patient with autoimmune disorders. PMID:24331211

  3. Western blot analysis of BK channel β1‐subunit expression should be interpreted cautiously when using commercially available antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Fernandes, Roxanne; Kadrofske, Mark M.; Lockwood, Lizbeth R.; Galligan, James J.; Xu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Large conductance Ca2+‐activated K+ (BK) channels consist of pore‐forming α‐ and accessory β‐subunits. There are four β‐subunit subtypes (β1–β4), BK β1‐subunit is specific for smooth muscle cells (SMC). Reduced BK β1‐subunit expression is associated with SMC dysfunction in animal models of human disease, because downregulation of BK β1‐subunit reduces channel activity and increases SMC contractility. Several anti‐BK β1‐subunit antibodies are commercially available; however, the specificity of most antibodies has not been tested or confirmed in the tissues from BK β1‐subunit knockout (KO) mice. In this study, we tested the specificity and sensitivity of six commercially available antibodies from five manufacturers. We performed western blot analysis on BK β1‐subunit enriched tissues (mesenteric arteries and colons) and non‐SM tissue (cortex of kidney) from wild‐type (WT) and BK β1‐KO mice. We found that antibodies either detected protein bands of the appropriate molecular weight in tissues from both WT and BK β1‐KO mice or failed to detect protein bands at the appropriate molecular weight in tissues from WT mice, suggesting that these antibodies may lack specificity for the BK β1‐subunit. The absence of BK β1‐subunit mRNA expression in arteries, colons, and kidneys from BK β1‐KO mice was confirmed by RT‐PCR analysis. We conclude that these commercially available antibodies might not be reliable tools for studying BK β1‐subunit expression in murine tissues under the denaturing conditions that we have used. Data obtained using commercially available antibodies should be interpreted cautiously. Our studies underscore the importance of proper negative controls in western blot analyses. PMID:25355855

  4. [Expression of specific antibodies against platelet glycoproteins in patients with mds and its significance].

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan-Dong; Pan, Xiang-Lin; Yin, Zhe; Sun, Jun-Hua; Kong, Gui-Xiang; Chen, Ying-Jie; Jiang, Cui-Ying; Dou, Ai-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Lun

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to find platelet specific autoantibodies against glycoproteins in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and to explore its role in pathogenesis of MDS. The plasma autoantibodies against GP IIb/IIIa and GP Ib/IX were measured by using a modified monoclonal antibody specific immobolization platelet antigens assay (MAIPA). Absorbance greater than mean value plus tripled standard deviation recorded from the normal controls were regarded as positive. The results indicated that the total positive rate in patients with MDS was 16.67% (5/30), the total positive rate in patients with ITP was 46.67% (14/30), the difference between MDS group and ITP group was significant (P < 0.05). It is concluded that partial patients with MDS have plasma specific autoantibodies against platelet GP II b/III a and GP Ib/IX, indicating correlation of thrombocytopenia of patients with immune factors and the autoantibody-mediated platelet destruction may be involved in the pathogenesis of MDS. It provides a new basis for immunosuppression therapy for MDS. PMID:17490530

  5. Making Better Chimeric Antigen Receptors for Adoptive T-cell Therapy.

    PubMed

    Maus, Marcela V; June, Carl H

    2016-04-15

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) are engineered fusion proteins constructed from antigen recognition, signaling, and costimulatory domains that can be expressed in cytotoxic T cells with the purpose of reprograming the T cells to specifically target tumor cells. CAR T-cell therapy uses gene transfer technology to reprogram a patient's own T cells to stably express CARs, thereby combining the specificity of an antibody with the potent cytotoxic and memory functions of a T cell. In early-phase clinical trials, CAR T cells targeting CD19 have resulted in sustained complete responses within a population of otherwise refractory patients with B-cell malignancies and, more specifically, have shown complete response rates of approximately 90% in patients with relapsed or refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Given this clinical efficacy, preclinical development of CAR T-cell therapy for a number of cancer indications has been actively investigated, and the future of the CAR T-cell field is extensive and dynamic. Several approaches to increase the feasibility and safety of CAR T cells are currently being explored, including investigation into the mechanisms regulating the persistence of CAR T cells. In addition, numerous early-phase clinical trials are now investigating CAR T-cell therapy beyond targeting CD19, especially in solid tumors. Trials investigating combinations of CAR T cells with immune checkpoint blockade therapies are now beginning and results are eagerly awaited. This review evaluates several of the ongoing and future directions of CAR T-cell therapy.Clin Cancer Res; 22(8); 1875-84. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CCR FOCUS SECTION, "OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN CANCER IMMUNOTHERAPY". PMID:27084741

  6. Monoclonal antibody therapy for Junin virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zeitlin, Larry; Geisbert, Joan B; Deer, Daniel J; Fenton, Karla A; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Hiatt, Andrew; Pauly, Michael H; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J; Altmann, Friedrich; Gruber, Clemens; Steinkellner, Herta; Honko, Anna N; Kuehne, Ana I; Aman, M Javad; Sahandi, Sara; Enterlein, Sven; Zhan, Xiaoguo; Enria, Delia; Geisbert, Thomas W

    2016-04-19

    Countermeasures against potential biothreat agents remain important to US Homeland Security, and many of these pharmaceuticals could have dual use in the improvement of global public health. Junin virus, the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), is an arenavirus identified as a category A high-priority agent. There are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs available for preventing or treating AHF, and the current treatment option is limited to administration of immune plasma. Whereas immune plasma demonstrates the feasibility of passive immunotherapy, it is limited in quantity, variable in quality, and poses safety risks such as transmission of transfusion-borne diseases. In an effort to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based alternative to plasma, three previously described neutralizing murine mAbs were expressed as mouse-human chimeric antibodies and evaluated in the guinea pig model of AHF. These mAbs provided 100% protection against lethal challenge when administered 2 d after infection (dpi), and one of them (J199) was capable of providing 100% protection when treatment was initiated 6 dpi and 92% protection when initiated 7 dpi. The efficacy of J199 is superior to that previously described for all other evaluated drugs, and its high potency suggests that mAbs like J199 offer an economical alternative to immune plasma and an effective dual use (bioterrorism/public health) therapeutic. PMID:27044104

  7. Monoclonal antibody therapy for Junin virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, Larry; Geisbert, Joan B.; Deer, Daniel J.; Fenton, Karla A.; Bohorov, Ognian; Bohorova, Natasha; Goodman, Charles; Kim, Do; Hiatt, Andrew; Pauly, Michael H.; Velasco, Jesus; Whaley, Kevin J.; Altmann, Friedrich; Gruber, Clemens; Steinkellner, Herta; Honko, Anna N.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Aman, M. Javad; Sahandi, Sara; Enterlein, Sven; Zhan, Xiaoguo; Enria, Delia; Geisbert, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Countermeasures against potential biothreat agents remain important to US Homeland Security, and many of these pharmaceuticals could have dual use in the improvement of global public health. Junin virus, the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), is an arenavirus identified as a category A high-priority agent. There are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs available for preventing or treating AHF, and the current treatment option is limited to administration of immune plasma. Whereas immune plasma demonstrates the feasibility of passive immunotherapy, it is limited in quantity, variable in quality, and poses safety risks such as transmission of transfusion-borne diseases. In an effort to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based alternative to plasma, three previously described neutralizing murine mAbs were expressed as mouse-human chimeric antibodies and evaluated in the guinea pig model of AHF. These mAbs provided 100% protection against lethal challenge when administered 2 d after infection (dpi), and one of them (J199) was capable of providing 100% protection when treatment was initiated 6 dpi and 92% protection when initiated 7 dpi. The efficacy of J199 is superior to that previously described for all other evaluated drugs, and its high potency suggests that mAbs like J199 offer an economical alternative to immune plasma and an effective dual use (bioterrorism/public health) therapeutic. PMID:27044104

  8. Co-transformation of canola by chimeric chitinase and tlp genes towards improving resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Rustam; Zamani, Mohammadreza; Motallebi, Mostafa; Moradyar, Mehdi; Moghadassi Jahromi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) plants were co-transformed with two pathogenesis-related protein genes expressing a Trichoderma atroviride chitinase with a chitin-binding domain (chimeric chitinase) and a thaumatin-like protein (tlp) from Oryza sativa conferring resistance to phytopatogenic fungi by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The putative transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR. After measuring the specific activity of the chimeric chitinase and glucanase activity for tlp genes, transgenic plants with high specific activity were selected for southern blot analysis to confirm the copy number of the genes. In vitro assays, the antifungal activity of crude extracted protein against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum showed that the inhibition percentage in double transgenic plants was between 55 and 62, whereas the inhibition percentage in single-gene transformants (chimeric chitinase) ranged from 35 to 45 percent. Importantly, in greenhouse conditions, the double transgenic plants showed significant resistance than the single-gene transformant and wild type plants. The results in T2 generation using the intact leaf inoculation method showed that the average lesion diameters were 10, 14.7 and 29 mm for the double transformant, single-gene transformant and non-transgenic plants, respectively. Combined expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp in transgenic plants showed significantly enhanced resistance against S. sclerotiorum than the one that express single-gene transformant plants. These results suggest that the co-expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp can confer enhanced disease resistance in canola plant. PMID:27430511

  9. The translocation (6;9), associated with a specific subtype of acute myeloid leukemia, results in the fusion of two genes, dek and can, and the expression of a chimeric, leukemia-specific dek-can mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    von Lindern, M; Fornerod, M; van Baal, S; Jaegle, M; de Wit, T; Buijs, A; Grosveld, G

    1992-01-01

    The translocation (6;9) is associated with a specific subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Previously, it was found that breakpoints on chromosome 9 are clustered in one of the introns of a large gene named Cain (can). cDNA probes derived from the 3' part of can detect an aberrant, leukemia-specific 5.5-kb transcript in bone marrow cells from t(6;9) AML patients. cDNA cloning of this mRNA revealed that it is a fusion of sequences encoded on chromosome 6 and 3' can. A novel gene on chromosome 6 which was named dek was isolated. In dek the t(6;9) breakpoints also occur in one intron. As a result the dek-can fusion gene, present in t(6;9) AML, encodes an invariable dek-can transcript. Sequence analysis of the dek-can cDNA showed that dek and can are merged without disruption of the original open reading frames and therefore the fusion mRNA encodes a chimeric DEK-CAN protein of 165 kDa. The predicted DEK and CAN proteins have molecular masses of 43 and 220 kDa, respectively. Sequence comparison with the EMBL data base failed to show consistent homology with any known protein sequences. Images PMID:1549122

  10. Expression of anti-VEGF antibody together with anti-EGFR or anti-FAP enhances tumor regression as a result of vaccinia virotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ting; Wang, Huiqiang; Chen, Nanhai G; Frentzen, Alexa; Minev, Boris; Szalay, Aladar A

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in tumor growth and progression. Here we demonstrate that vaccinia virus-mediated, constitutively expressed intratumoral antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and fibroblast activation protein (FAP) significantly improved tumor regression and oncolytic virotherapy through suppression of angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and stromagenesis in virus-colonized tumors. In contrast to the tumor growth inhibition by the three tumor growth-inhibiting antibodies individually, when two of the three antibodies were expressed simultaneously by single vaccinia virus strains tumor regression was further enhanced. These findings strongly indicate that interference with the two tumor growth-stimulating mechanisms did in fact result in enhanced therapeutic efficacy in tumor xenograft models and may lead to an effective therapy in patients with cancer. PMID:27119102

  11. A hybrid protein-polymer nanoworm potentiates apoptosis better than a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Aluri, Suhaas Rayudu; Shi, Pu; Gustafson, Joshua A; Wang, Wan; Lin, Yi-An; Cui, Honggang; Liu, Shuanglong; Conti, Peter S; Li, Zibo; Hu, Peisheng; Epstein, Alan L; MacKay, John Andrew

    2014-03-25

    B-cell lymphomas continue to occur with a high incidence. The chimeric antibody known as Rituximab (Rituxan) has become a vital therapy for these patients. Rituximab induces cell death via binding and clustering of the CD20 receptor by Fcγ expressing effector cells. Because of the limited mobility of effector cells, it may be advantageous to cluster CD20 directly using multivalent nanostructures. To explore this strategy, this manuscript introduces a nanoparticle that assembles from a fusion between a single chain antibody and a soluble protein polymer. These hybrid proteins express in Escherichia coli and do not require bioconjugation between the antibody and a substrate. Surprisingly a fusion between an anti-CD20 single chain antibody and a soluble protein polymer assemble worm-like nanostructures, which were characterized using light scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. These nanoworms competitively bind CD20 on two B-cell lymphoma cell lines, exhibit concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis, and induce apoptosis better than Rituximab alone. Similar activity was observed in vivo using a non-Hodgkin lymphoma xenograft model. In comparison to Rituximab, systemic nanoworms significantly slowed tumor growth. These findings suggest that hybrid nanoworms targeted at CD20 may be useful treatments for B-cell related malignancies. Because of the ubiquity of antibody therapeutics, related nanoworms may have uses against other molecular targets. PMID:24484356

  12. Determination of Carbohydrate Structure Recognized by Prostate-specific F77 Monoclonal Antibody through Expression Analysis of Glycosyltransferase Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Motohiro; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Gao, Chao; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Hongtao; Greene, Mark I.; Peehl, Donna M.; Feizi, Ten; Fukuda, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the determination of the carbohydrate epitope of monoclonal antibody F77 previously raised against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells (Zhang, G., Zhang, H., Wang, Q., Lal, P., Carroll, A. M., de la Llera-Moya, M., Xu, X., and Greene, M. I. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107, 732–737). We performed a series of co-transfections using mammalian expression vectors encoding specific glycosyltransferases. We thereby identified branching enzymes and FUT1 (required for Fucα1→2Gal linkage) as being essential for F77 antigen formation. When immortalized normal prostate 267B1 cells were transfected with FUT1 alone, cells showed weak expression of F77 antigen. By contrast, cells co-transfected with FUT1 plus either GCNT1, GCNT2, or GCNT3 (an enzyme required to form GlcNAcβ1→6Gal/GalNAc) showed robust F77 antigen expression, suggesting that F77 specifically binds to Fucα1→2Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→6Gal/GalNAc. RT-PCR for FUT1, GCNT1, GCNT2, and GCNT3 showed that F77-positive cell lines indeed express transcripts encoding FUT1 plus one GCNT. F77-positive prostate cancer cells transfected with siRNAs targeting FUT1, GCNT2, and GCNT3 showed significantly reduced F77 antigen, confirming the requirement of these enzymes for epitope synthesis. We also found that hypoxia induces F77 epitope expression in immortalized prostate RWPE1 cells, which express F77 antigen moderately under normoxia but at an elevated level under hypoxia. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated up-regulation of FUT1, GCNT2, and GCNT3 transcripts in RWPE1 cells under hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia up-regulates glycosyltransferase expression required for F77 antigen synthesis. These results define the F77 epitope and provide a potential mechanism for F77 antigen synthesis in malignant prostate cancer. PMID:24753248

  13. Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells for Sustained Remissions in Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Maude, Shannon L.; Frey, Noelle; Shaw, Pamela A.; Aplenc, Richard; Barrett, David M.; Bunin, Nancy J.; Chew, Anne; Gonzalez, Vanessa E.; Zheng, Zhaohui; Lacey, Simon F.; Mahnke, Yolanda D.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; Rheingold, Susan R.; Shen, Angela; Teachey, David T.; Levine, Bruce L.; June, Carl H.; Porter, David L.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is difficult to treat despite the availability of aggressive therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor–modified T cells targeting CD19 may overcome many limitations of conventional therapies and induce remission in patients with refractory disease. METHODS We infused autologous T cells transduced with a CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CTL019) lentiviral vector in patients with relapsed or refractory ALL at doses of 0.76×106 to 20.6×106 CTL019 cells per kilogram of body weight. Patients were monitored for a response, toxic effects, and the expansion and persistence of circulating CTL019 T cells. RESULTS A total of 30 children and adults received CTL019. Complete remission was achieved in 27 patients (90%), including 2 patients with blinatumomab-refractory disease and 15 who had undergone stem-cell transplantation. CTL019 cells proliferated in vivo and were detectable in the blood, bone marrow, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had a response. Sustained remission was achieved with a 6-month event-free survival rate of 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51 to 88) and an overall survival rate of 78% (95% CI, 65 to 95). At 6 months, the probability that a patient would have persistence of CTL019 was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 92) and the probability that a patient would have relapse-free B-cell aplasia was 73% (95% CI, 57 to 94). All the patients had the cytokine-release syndrome. Severe cytokine-release syndrome, which developed in 27% of the patients, was associated with a higher disease burden before infusion and was effectively treated with the anti–interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab. CONCLUSIONS Chimeric antigen receptor–modified T-cell therapy against CD19 was effective in treating relapsed and refractory ALL. CTL019 was associated with a high remission rate, even among patients for whom stem-cell transplantation had failed, and durable remissions up to 24 months were observed. (Funded by

  14. Expression and characterization of single-chain variable fragment antibody against staphylococcal enterotoxin A in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weifeng; Hu, Li; Liu, Aiping; Li, Jinquan; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-11-01

    The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are potent gastrointestinal exotoxins synthesized by Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for various diseases including septicemia, food poisoning, and toxic shock syndrome, as well as bovine mastitis. Among them, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is one of the most commonly present serotypes in staphylococcal food poisoning cases. In this study, the stable hybridoma 3C12 producing anti-SEA monoclonal antibody was established with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 1.48 × 10(-8) mol·L(-1), its ScFv-coding genes were obtained and then the anti-SEA single chain variable fragment (ScFv) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. Characterization of the expressed target ScFv protein was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrated that the recombinant anti-SEA ScFv protein retained a specific binding activity for SEA, and the KD value of the soluble ScFv was about 3.75 × 10(-7) mol·L(-1). The overall yield of bioactive anti-SEA ScFv in E. coli flask culture was more than 10 mg·L(-1). PMID:25322256

  15. Expression and Purification of the scFv from Hybridoma Cells Secreting a Monoclonal Antibody Against S Protein of PEDV

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qinghe; Guo, Donghua; Feng, Li

    2013-01-01

    The variable regions of the heavy chain (VH) and light chain (VL) were amplified by RT-PCR from the hybridoma 6E6, which secretes the monoclonal antibody against PEDV S protein. The VL and VH amplicons were combined using SOE-PCR by a 12 amino acid flexible linker (SSGGGGSGGGGS), which produced the scFv gene (named scFv/6E6). After sequence analysis, the scFv/6E6 gene was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-6p-1 with a GST-tag. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was successfully expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli by IPTG induction. Moreover, the recombinant scFv/6E6 protein was purified from the inclusion body form by the gel-cutting measure followed by electroelution and dialysis. The recombinant scFv/6E6 protein reported here will provide some basis for further antiviral drug research based on the scFv molecule. PMID:23600505

  16. Preparation and characterization of a novel chimeric protein VEGI-CTT in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jiping; Wei, Ruili; Cheng, Jinwei

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cell growth inhibitor (VEGI) is a recently identified antiangiogenic cytokine that belongs to the TNF superfamily, and could effectively inhibit endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Synthetic peptide CTT (CTTHWGFTLC) has been found to suppress invasion and migration of both tumor and endothelial cells by potent and selective inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9. To prepare chimeric protein VEGI-CTT for more potent antitumor therapy, the recombinant expression vector pET-VEGI-CTT was constructed. This fusion protein was expressed in inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21 (DE3), and was refolded and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography using His-tag. Purified VEGI-CTT protein was characterized by proliferation assays of the endothelial cells and casein degradation assay in vitro. The results demonstrated that chimeric protein VEGI-CTT had a potent activity of antiangiogenesis through inhibiting the proliferation of endothelial cells, and could effectively reduce the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. The preliminarily in vivo study demonstrated that chimeric protein VEGI-CTT had more potent antitumor activity than VEGI and/or CTT peptide against CA46 human lymphoma xenografts in nude mice. Thus, these facts that are derived from the present study suggest that the chimeric protein VEGI-CTT may be used for tumor therapy in the future. PMID:18769489

  17. Intracellular Expression of Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies Specific for Influenza Virus Nucleoprotein Uncovers Distinct Features of Its Nuclear Localization

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Joseph; Schmidt, Florian I.; Hanke, Leo; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Cavallari, Marco; Altenburg, Arwen; Brewer, Rebeccah; Ingram, Jessica; Shoemaker, Charles

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Perturbation of protein-protein interactions relies mostly on genetic approaches or on chemical inhibition. Small RNA viruses, such as influenza A virus, do not easily lend themselves to the former approach, while chemical inhibition requires that the target protein be druggable. A lack of tools thus constrains the functional analysis of influenza virus-encoded proteins. We generated a panel of camelid-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs) against influenza virus nucleoprotein (NP), a viral protein essential for nuclear trafficking and packaging of the influenza virus genome. We show that these VHHs can target NP in living cells and perturb NP's function during infection. Cytosolic expression of NP-specific VHHs (αNP-VHHs) disrupts virus replication at an early stage of the life cycle. Based on their specificity, these VHHs fall into two distinct groups. Both prevent nuclear import of the viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex without disrupting nuclear import of NP alone. Different stages of the virus life cycle thus rely on distinct nuclear localization motifs of NP. Their molecular characterization may afford new means of intervention in the virus life cycle. IMPORTANCE Many proteins encoded by RNA viruses are refractory to manipulation due to their essential role in replication. Thus, studying their function and determining how to disrupt said function through pharmaceutical intervention are difficult. We present a novel method based on single-domain-antibody technology that permits specific targeting and disruption of an essential influenza virus protein in the absence of genetic manipulation of influenza virus itself. Characterization of such interactions may help identify new targets for pharmaceutical intervention. This approach can be extended to study proteins encoded by other viral pathogens. PMID:25540369

  18. Activated human B lymphocytes express cyclooxygenase-2 and cyclooxygenase inhibitors attenuate antibody production.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Elizabeth P; Pollock, Stephen J; Pollack, Stephen J; Murant, Thomas I; Bernstein, Steven H; Felgar, Raymond E; Phipps, Richard P

    2005-03-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and target cyclooxygenases 1 and 2 (Cox-1, Cox-2) that are responsible for PG production. Newer Cox-2-selective drugs have been heavily prescribed to quench inflammation. Little is known about whether or not these drugs influence human B lymphocytes and their ability to produce Ab. We report herein that activated human B cells not only highly express Cox-2 and produce PGs, but that the NSAID indomethacin and Cox-2-selective drugs profoundly inhibit the ability of human B cells to produce IgG and IgM in vitro. Human blood B cells highly express Cox-2 mRNA and protein and produce PGs after activation with CD40L, pansorbin, or CD40L plus BCR engagement. Cox-2 is also highly expressed by human tonsil B cells, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Cox-inhibiting drugs modestly affect purified B cell proliferation but profoundly reduce Ab production. The ability of whole blood to produce IgM and IgG following stimulation is also strongly inhibited. In support that Cox-2 plays a seminal role in B lymphocyte Ab production, Cox-2 knockout mice have 64% less IgM and 35% less IgG than normal littermate controls. These findings support that NSAIDs and the new Cox-2-selective drugs have an unsuspected target, the B cell, and attenuate Ab production in humans. Use of NSAIDs may therefore influence autoantibody production in autoimmune diseases and may dampen humoral immunity in response to antigenic challenge/vaccination. PMID:15728468

  19. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ricklin, Meret E; Vielle, Nathalie J; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4(+) T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value. PMID:27446083

  20. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Meret E.; Vielle, Nathalie J.; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4+ T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value. PMID:27446083

  1. Surface expression of protein A on magnetosomes and capture of pathogenic bacteria by magnetosome/antibody complexes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Hu, Junying; Liu, Lingzi; Li, Li; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Huiyuan; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Jiesheng; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2014-01-01

    Magnetosomes are membrane-enclosed magnetite nanocrystals synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). They display chemical purity, narrow size ranges, and species-specific crystal morphologies. Specific transmembrane proteins are sorted to the magnetosome membrane (MM). MamC is the most abundant MM protein of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1. MamF is the second most abundant MM protein of MSR-1 and forms stable oligomers. We expressed staphylococcal protein A (SPA), an immunoglobulin-binding protein from the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, on MSR-1 magnetosomes by fusion with MamC or MamF. The resulting recombinant magnetosomes were capable of self-assembly with the Fc region of mammalian antibodies (Abs) and were therefore useful for functionalization of magnetosomes. Recombinant plasmids pBBR-mamC-spa and pBBR-mamF-spa were constructed by fusing spa (the gene that encodes SPA) with mamC and mamF, respectively. Recombinant magnetosomes with surface expression of SPA were generated by introduction of these fusion genes into wild-type MSR-1 or a mamF mutant strain. Studies with a Zeta Potential Analyzer showed that the recombinant magnetosomes had hydrated radii significantly smaller than those of WT magnetosomes and zeta potentials less than −30 mV, indicating that the magnetosome colloids were relatively stable. Observed conjugation efficiencies were as high as 71.24 μg Ab per mg recombinant magnetosomes, and the conjugated Abs retained most of their activity. Numbers of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (a common pathogenic bacterium in seafood) captured by recombinant magnetosome/Ab complexes were measured by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR. One mg of complex was capable of capturing as many as 1.74 × 107 Vibrio cells. The surface expression system described here will be useful for design of functionalized magnetosomes from MSR-1 and other MTB. PMID:24765089

  2. Conversion of murine antibodies to human antibodies and their optimization for ovarian cancer therapy targeted to the folate receptor.

    PubMed

    Figini, Mariangela; Martin, Franck; Ferri, Renata; Luison, Elena; Ripamonti, Elena; Zacchetti, Alberto; Mortarino, Mimosa; Di Cioccio, Vito; Maurizi, Giovanni; Allegretti, Marcello; Canevari, Silvana

    2009-04-01

    We previously developed murine and chimeric antibodies against a specific epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) marker, named folate receptor (FR), and promising results were obtained in phase II trials. More recently, we successfully generated a completely human Fab fragment, C4, by conversion of one of the murine anti-FR antibodies to human antibody using phage display and guided selection. However, subsequent efforts to obtain C4 in a dimer format, which seems especially desirable for EOC locoregional treatment, resulted in a highly heterogeneous product upon natural dimerization and in a very poor production yield upon chemical dimerization by a non-hydrolyzable linker to a di-Fab-maleimide (DFM). We therefore designed, constructed and characterized a large Fab dual combinatorial human antibody phage display library obtained from EOC patients and potentially biased toward an anti-tumor response in an effort to obtain new anti-FR human antibodies suitable for therapy. Using this library and guiding the selection on FR-expressing cells with murine/human antibody chains, we generated four new human anti-FR antibody (AFRA) Fab fragments, one of which was genetically and chemically manipulated to obtain a chemical dimer, designated AFRA-DFM5.3, with high yield production and the capability for purification scaled-up to clinical grade. Overall affinity of AFRA-DFM5.3 was in the 2-digit nanomolar range, and immunohistochemistry indicated that the reagent recognized the FR expressed on EOC samples. (131)I-AFRA-DFM5.3 showed high immunoreactivity, in vitro stability and integrity, and specifically accumulated only in FR-expressing tumors in subcutaneous preclinical in vivo models. Overall, our studies demonstrate the successful conversion of murine to completely human anti-FR antibodies through the combined use of antibody phage display libraries biased toward an anti-tumor response, guided selection and chain shuffling, and point to the suitability of AFRA5.3 for future

  3. Baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo: an efficient expression system with an anti-gp64 antibody

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candidate genes for color pattern formation in butterfly wings have been known based on gene expression patterns since the 1990s, but their functions remain elusive due to a lack of a functional assay. Several methods of transferring and expressing a foreign gene in butterfly wings have been reported, but they have suffered from low success rates or low expression levels. Here, we developed a simple, practical method to efficiently deliver and express a foreign gene using baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo. Results A recombinant baculovirus containing a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into pupae of the blue pansy butterfly Junonia orithya (Nymphalidae). GFP fluorescence was detected in the pupal wings and other body parts of the injected individuals three to five days post-injection at various degrees of fluorescence. We obtained a high GFP expression rate at relatively high virus titers, but it was associated with pupal death before color pattern formation in wings. To reduce the high mortality rate caused by the baculovirus treatment, we administered an anti-gp64 antibody, which was raised against baculovirus coat protein gp64, to infected pupae after the baculovirus injection. This treatment greatly reduced the mortality rate of the infected pupae. GFP fluorescence was observed in pupal and adult wings and other body parts of the antibody-treated individuals at various degrees of fluorescence. Importantly, we obtained completely developed wings with a normal color pattern, in which fluorescent signals originated directly from scales or the basal membrane after the removal of scales. GFP fluorescence in wing tissues spatially coincided with anti-GFP antibody staining, confirming that the fluorescent signals originated from the expressed GFP molecules. Conclusions Our baculovirus-mediated gene transfer system with an anti-gp64 antibody is reasonably efficient, and it can be an invaluable tool to transfer

  4. Enhanced sialylation of a human chimeric IgG1 variant produced in human and rodent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Yusuke; Kelly, Ronan M; Unwin, Louise; Albrecht, Simone; Jefferis, Roy; Goodall, Margaret; Mizukami, Yoichi; Mimura-Kimura, Yuka; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Rudd, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation of the IgG-Fc is essential for optimal binding and activation of Fcγ receptors and the C1q component of complement. However, it has been reported that the effector functions are down-regulated when the Fc glycans terminate in sialic acid residues and that sialylated IgG mediates anti-inflammatory effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Although recombinant IgG is hypo-sialylated, Fc sialylation is shown to be markedly increased when a mouse/human chimeric IgG3 Phe243Ala (F243A) variant is expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cells. Here we investigate whether sialylation is increased in IgG1 F243A when expressed in CHO-K1, mouse myeloma J558L and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293. Although the sialylation level was 2-5% for IgG1 wild type (WT), it was increased to 31%, 10% and 33% for the variant from CHO-K1, J558L and HEK293 cells, respectively. Interestingly, an increased addition of bisecting GlcNAc and α(1-3)-galactose residues to the Fc glycan was observed for HEK293-derived and J558L-derived IgG1 F243A, respectively. Fucosylation of HEK293-derived IgG1 F243A was maintained despite increased bisecting GlcNAc content. Although sialic acid and bisecting GlcNAc residues are reported to have an opposing effect on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), IgG1 F243A showed 7 times lower ADCC activities than IgG1 WT, irrespective of bisecting GlcNAc residue. Thus, highly sialylated, human cell-derived IgG1 F243A with lowered ADCC activity may be of interest for the development of therapeutic antibodies with anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative to IVIG. PMID:26627984

  5. Multiple chimeric antigen receptors successfully target chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in several different cancer histologies and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of immunotherapy has led to significant progress in the treatment of metastatic cancer, including the development of genetic engineering technologies that redirect lymphocytes to recognize and target a wide variety of tumor antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are hybrid proteins combining antibody recognition domains linked to T cell signaling elements. Clinical trials of CAR-transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have induced remission of both solid organ and hematologic malignancies. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a promising target antigen that is overexpressed in multiple cancer histologies including melanoma, triple-negative breast cancer, glioblastoma, mesothelioma and sarcoma. Methods CSPG4 expression in cancer cell lines was assayed using flow cytometry (FACS) and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was utilized to assay resected melanomas and normal human tissues (n = 30) for CSPG4 expression and a reverse-phase protein array comprising 94 normal tissue samples was also interrogated for CSPG4 expression. CARs were successfully constructed from multiple murine antibodies (225.28S, TP41.2, 149.53) using second generation (CD28.CD3ζ) signaling domains. CAR sequences were cloned into a gamma-retroviral vector with subsequent successful production of retroviral supernatant and PBL transduction. CAR efficacy was assayed by cytokine release and cytolysis following coculture with target cell lines. Additionally, glioblastoma stem cells were generated from resected human tumors, and CSPG4 expression was determined by RT-PCR and FACS. Results Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent CSPG4 expression in melanoma tumors, but failed to demonstrate expression in any of the 30 normal human tissues studied. Two of 94 normal tissue protein lysates were positive by protein array. CAR constructs demonstrated cytokine secretion and cytolytic function after co-culture with tumor cell lines

  6. PET Imaging of CD105/Endoglin Expression with a 61/64Cu-Labeled Fab Antibody Fragment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Orbay, Hakan; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Nayak, Tapas R.; Theuer, Charles P.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Cai, Weibo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to generate and characterize the Fab fragment of TRC105, a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to human and murine CD105 (i.e. endoglin), and investigate its potential for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of tumor angiogenesis in a small animal model after 61/64Cu-labeling. Methods TRC105-Fab was generated by enzymatic papain digestion. The integrity and CD105 binding affinity of TRC105-Fab was evaluated before NOTA (i.e., 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) conjugation and 61/64Cu-labeling. Serial PET imaging and biodistribution studies were carried out in the syngeneic 4T1 murine breast cancer model to quantify tumor targeting efficacy and normal organ distribution of 61/64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab. Blocking studies with unlabeled TRC105 were performed to confirm CD105 specificity of the tracer in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining was also conducted to correlate tracer uptake in the tumor and normal tissues with CD105 expression. Results TRC105-Fab was produced with high purity through papain digestion of TRC105, as confirmed by SDS-PAGE, HPLC analysis, and mass spectrometry. 61/64Cu-labeling of NOTA-TRC105-Fab was achieved with ~50% yield (specific activity: ~44 GBq/µmol). PET imaging revealed rapid uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab in the 4T1 tumor (3.6 ± 0.4, 4.2 ± 0.5, 4.9 ± 0.3, 4.4 ± 0.7, and 4.6 ± 0.8 %ID/g at 0.5, 2, 5, 16, and 24 h post-injection respectively; n = 4). Since tumor uptake peaked soon after tracer injection, 61Cu-labeled TRC105-Fab was also able to provide tumor contrast at 3 and 8 h post-injection. CD105 specificity of the tracer was confirmed with blocking studies and histological examination. Conclusion Herein we report PET imaging of CD105 expression with 61/64Cu-NOTA-TRC105-Fab, which exhibited prominent and target specific uptake in the 4T1 tumor. The use of a Fab fragment led to much faster tumor uptake (which peaked at a few hours after tracer injection) compared to

  7. High-yield production of canine parvovirus virus-like particles in a baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hongli; Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Bing; Fu, Yu; Chen, Xianping; Wang, Huihui; Xia, Zhenqiang

    2016-03-01

    An optimized VP2 gene from the current prevalent CPV strain (new CPV-2a) in China was expressed in a baculovirus expression system. It was found that the VP2 proteins assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) with antigenic properties similar to those of natural CPV and with an especially high hemagglutination (HA) titer (1:2(20)). Dogs intramuscularly or orally immunized with VLPs produced antibodies against CPV with >1:80 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) units for at least 3 months. The CPV VLPs could be considered for use as a vaccine against CPV or as a platform for research on chimeric VLP vaccines against other diseases. PMID:26666439

  8. A new expression vector facilitating production and functional analysis of scFv antibody fragments selected from Tomlinson I+J phagemid libraries.

    PubMed

    Ossysek, Karolina; Uchański, Tomasz; Kulesza, Małgorzata; Bzowska, Monika; Klaus, Tomasz; Woś, Klaudia; Madej, Mariusz; Bereta, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Tomlinson I+J are synthetic phagemid human scFv libraries widely employed to obtain specific antibody fragments via a phage display method. The pIT2/HB2151 expression system proposed by the designers of the libraries has certain drawbacks which result in the lack of expression or low expression levels of numerous soluble scFvs. At the stage of scFv screening, this may lead to losing some excellent antibodies, which can be avoided but requires laborious and expensive work. Here we present a new, pET-30-based vector, which is compatible with Tomlinson libraries, retains all virtues of pIT2 used as a plasmid and eliminates all its flaws. We demonstrate that pET-scFv-T is frequently superior to pIT2 in terms of efficient scFv expression. Moreover, an amber suppressor bacterial strain, RosettaBlue(DE3)pLysS, transformed with the new vector, pET-scFv-T, coding for a number of scFvs, produces substantial amounts of functional, easy to purify recombinant antibody fragments, regardless of whether their coding sequences contain amber codons. Thus, pET-scFv-T/RosettaBlue(DE3)pLysS expression system seems to be a perfect tool for screening for the finest soluble scFvs selected from Tomlinson I+J, as well as from many other phagemid libraries. PMID:26219832

  9. Genetic Modification of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Express a Single-Chain Antibody Against EGFRvIII on the Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    Balyasnikova, Irina V.; Franco-Gou, Rosa; Mathis, J. Michael; Lesniak, Maciej S.

    2010-01-01

    Human adult mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are under active investigation as cellular carriers for gene therapy. hMSC possess natural tropism toward tumors, however, the targeting of hMSC to specific cell populations within tumors is unexplored. In the case of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), at least half of the tumors express EGFRvIII on the cell surface, an ideal target for antibody-mediated gene/drug delivery. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of genetically modifying hMSC to express a single-chain antibody (scFv) to EGFRvIII on their surface. Nucleofection was used to transfect hMSC with cDNA encoding scFv EGFRvIII fused with PDGFR or human B7-1 transmembrane domains. The expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface was assessed by FACS. A stable population of scFv EGFRvIII-expressing hMSC was selected based on antibiotic resistance and enriched using FACS. We found that nucleofection allows the efficient expression of scFv EGFRvIII on the cell surface of hMSC. hMSCs transfected with the construct encoding scFv EGFRvIII as a fusion with PDGFRtm showed scFv EGFRvIII expression in up to 86% of cells. Most importantly, human MSC expressing scFv against EGFRvIII demonstrated enhanced binding to U87-EGFRvIII cells in vitro and at least 7-fold increased retention in human U87-EGFRvIII expressing tumors in vivo. In summary, we provide the first conclusive evidence of genetic modification of hMSC with a single-chain antibody against an antigen expressed on the surface of tumor cells, thereby opening up a new venue for enhanced delivery of gene therapy applications in the context of malignant brain cancer. PMID:19937911

  10. The anti-CD74 humanized monoclonal antibody, milatuzumab, which targets the invariant chain of MHC II complexes, alters B-cell proliferation, migration, and adhesion molecule expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Targeting CD74 as the invariant chain of major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) became possible by the availability of a specific humanized monoclonal antibody, milatuzumab, which is under investigation in patients with hematological neoplasms. CD74 has been reported to regulate chemo-attractant migration of macrophages and dendritic cells, while the role of CD74 on peripheral naïve and memory B cells also expressing CD74 remains unknown. Therefore, the current study addressed the influence of milatuzumab on B-cell proliferation, chemo-attractant migration, and adhesion molecule expression. Methods Surface expression of CD74 on CD27- naïve and CD27+ memory B cells as well as other peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from normals, including the co-expression of CD44, CXCR4, and the adhesion molecules CD62L, β7-integrin, β1-integrin and CD9 were studied after binding of milatuzumab using multicolor flow cytometry. The influence of the antibody on B-cell proliferation and migration was analyzed in vitro in detail. Results In addition to monocytes, milatuzumab also specifically bound to human peripheral B cells, with a higher intensity on CD27+ memory versus CD27- naïve B cells. The antibody reduced B-cell proliferation significantly but moderately, induced enhanced spontaneous and CXCL12-dependent migration together with changes in the expression of adhesion molecules, CD44, β7-integrin and CD62L, mainly of CD27- naïve B cells. This was independent of macrophage migration-inhibitory factor as a ligand of CD74/CD44 complexes. Conclusions Milatuzumab leads to modestly reduced proliferation, alterations in migration, and adhesion molecule expression preferentially of CD27- naïve B cells. It thus may be a candidate antibody for the autoimmune disease therapy by modifying B cell functions. PMID:22404985

  11. Temporally chimeric mice reveal flexibility of circadian period-setting in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Smyllie, Nicola J.; Chesham, Johanna E.; Hamnett, Ryan; Maywood, Elizabeth S.; Hastings, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian clock controlling daily behavior in mammals. It consists of a heterogeneous network of neurons, in which cell-autonomous molecular feedback loops determine the period and amplitude of circadian oscillations of individual cells. In contrast, circuit-level properties of coherence, synchrony, and ensemble period are determined by intercellular signals and are embodied in a circadian wave of gene expression that progresses daily across the SCN. How cell-autonomous and circuit-level mechanisms interact in timekeeping is poorly understood. To explore this interaction, we used intersectional genetics to create temporally chimeric mice with SCN containing dopamine 1a receptor (Drd1a) cells with an intrinsic period of 24 h alongside non-Drd1a cells with 20-h clocks. Recording of circadian behavior in vivo alongside cellular molecular pacemaking in SCN slices in vitro demonstrated that such chimeric circuits form robust and resilient circadian clocks. It also showed that the computation of ensemble period is nonlinear. Moreover, the chimeric circuit sustained a wave of gene expression comparable to that of nonchimeric SCN, demonstrating that this circuit-level property is independent of differences in cell-intrinsic periods. The relative dominance of 24-h Drd1a and 20-h non-Drd1a neurons in setting ensemble period could be switched by exposure to resonant or nonresonant 24-h or 20-h lighting cycles. The chimeric circuit therefore reveals unanticipated principles of circuit-level operation underlying the emergent plasticity, resilience, and robustness of the SCN clock. The spontaneous and light-driven flexibility of period observed in chimeric mice provides a new perspective on the concept of SCN pacemaker cells. PMID:26966234

  12. Temporally chimeric mice reveal flexibility of circadian period-setting in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Smyllie, Nicola J; Chesham, Johanna E; Hamnett, Ryan; Maywood, Elizabeth S; Hastings, Michael H

    2016-03-29

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the master circadian clock controlling daily behavior in mammals. It consists of a heterogeneous network of neurons, in which cell-autonomous molecular feedback loops determine the period and amplitude of circadian oscillations of individual cells. In contrast, circuit-level properties of coherence, synchrony, and ensemble period are determined by intercellular signals and are embodied in a circadian wave of gene expression that progresses daily across the SCN. How cell-autonomous and circuit-level mechanisms interact in timekeeping is poorly understood. To explore this interaction, we used intersectional genetics to create temporally chimeric mice with SCN containing dopamine 1a receptor (Drd1a) cells with an intrinsic period of 24 h alongside non-Drd1a cells with 20-h clocks. Recording of circadian behavior in vivo alongside cellular molecular pacemaking in SCN slices in vitro demonstrated that such chimeric circuits form robust and resilient circadian clocks. It also showed that the computation of ensemble period is nonlinear. Moreover, the chimeric circuit sustained a wave of gene expression comparable to that of nonchimeric SCN, demonstrating that this circuit-level property is independent of differences in cell-intrinsic periods. The relative dominance of 24-h Drd1a and 20-h non-Drd1a neurons in setting ensemble period could be switched by exposure to resonant or nonresonant 24-h or 20-h lighting cycles. The chimeric circuit therefore reveals unanticipated principles of circuit-level operation underlying the emergent plasticity, resilience, and robustness of the SCN clock. The spontaneous and light-driven flexibility of period observed in chimeric mice provides a new perspective on the concept of SCN pacemaker cells. PMID:26966234

  13. Differential regulation of interleukin 4 and interleukin 5 gene expression: a comparison of T-cell gene induction by anti-CD3 antibody or by exogenous lymphokines.

    PubMed Central

    Bohjanen, P R; Okajima, M; Hodes, R J

    1990-01-01

    Murine T helper type 2 clones were stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3 antibody or with recombinant lymphokines to compare the expression of T-cell activation genes induced by these stimuli. Immobilized anti-CD3 antibody, recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2), and recombinant interleukin 4 (IL-4) all induced proliferation of the T helper type 2 clones 10-5-17 and D10. Proliferation of these clones induced by anti-CD3 antibody was completely inhibited by cyclosporine A, whereas cyclosporine A had little effect on proliferation induced by recombinant IL-2 or recombinant IL-4. Both immobilized anti-CD3 antibody, and recombinant IL-2 induced the expression of the protooncogenes c-myc and c-myb. Immobilized anti-CD3 antibody also induced expression of the lymphokine genes IL-4, interleukin 5 (IL-5), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In contrast, recombinant IL-2 induced IL-5 mRNA expression but did not induce detectable expression of IL-4 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA. Likewise, recombinant IL-4 induced expression of IL-5 but not IL-4 mRNA. Thus, the IL-4 and IL-5 genes appear to be differentially regulated after stimulation with recombinant lymphokines. Effects of cyclosporine A and the protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and anisomycin on IL-4 and IL-5 gene expression suggest that these genes are activated by different pathways after anti-CD3 stimulation. Cyclosporine A completely inhibited anti-CD3-induced expression of IL-4 mRNA but not of IL-5 mRNA, and protein-synthesis inhibitors completely inhibited induction of IL-5 mRNA but not of IL-4 mRNA. Together, our data show that T-cell receptor-mediated and lymphokine receptor-mediated signals induce different patterns of lymphokine gene expression and provide strong evidence that the IL-4 and IL-5 genes are differently regulated. Images PMID:2142529

  14. Interaction between hexon and L4-100K determines virus rescue and growth of hexon-chimeric recombinant Ad5 vectors

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jingyi; Dong, Jianing; Wu, Jiaxin; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Baoming; Wang, Lizheng; Wang, Zixuan; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Hui; Yu, Bin; Kong, Wei; Yu, Xianghui

    2016-01-01

    The immunogenicity of recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) vectors has been shown to be suppressed by neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) directed primarily against hexon hypervariable regions (HVRs). Preexisting immunity can be circumvented by replacing HVRs of rAd5 hexon with those derived from alternate adenovirus serotypes. However, chimeric modification of rAd5 hexon HVRs tends to cause low packaging efficiency or low proliferation of rAd5 vectors, but the related mechanism remains unclear. In this study, several Ad5-based vectors with precise replacement of HVRs with those derived from Ad37 and Ad43 were generated. We first observed that a HVR-exchanged rAd5 vector displayed a higher efficacy of the recombinant virus rescue and growth improvement compared with the rAd5 vector, although most hexon-chimeric rAd5 vectors constructed by us and other groups have proven to be nonviable or growth defective. We therefore evaluated the structural stability of the chimeric hexons and their interactions with the L4-100K chaperone. We showed that the viability of hexon-chimeric Ad5 vectors was not attributed to the structural stability of the chimeric hexon, but rather to the hexon maturation which was assisted by L4-100K. Our results suggested that the intricate interaction between hexon and L4-100K would determine the virus rescue and proliferation efficiency of hexon-chimeric rAd5 vectors. PMID:26934960

  15. Selection of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Harel Inbar, Noa; Benhar, Itai

    2012-10-15

    More than 2 dozen years had passed since the field of antibody engineering was established, with the first reports of bacterial [1-3] and mammalian cells [4] expression of recombinant antibody fragments, and in that time a lot of effort was dedicated to the development of efficient technological means, intended to assist in the creation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Research focus was given to two intertwined technological aspects: the selection platform and the recombinant antibody repertoires. In accordance with these areas of interest, it is the goal of this chapter to describe the various selection tools and antibody libraries existing, with emphasis on the later, and their applications. This chapter gives a far from exhaustive, subjective "historic account" of the field, describing the selection platforms, the different formats of antibody repertoires and the applications of both for selecting recombinant antibodies. Several excellent books provide detailed protocols for constructing antibody libraries and selecting antibodies from those libraries [5-13]. Such books may guide a newcomer to the field in the fine details of antibody engineering. We would like to offer advice to the novice: although seemingly simple, effective library construction and antibody isolation provide best benefits in the hands of professionals. It is an art as much as it is science. PMID:22244834

  16. Simple immunoblot and immunohistochemical detection of Penaeus stylirostris densovirus using monoclonal antibodies to viral capsid protein expressed heterologously.

    PubMed

    Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Hajimasalaeh, Warunee; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sridulyakul, Pattarin; Rukpratanporn, Sombat; Chaivisuthangkura, Parin

    2009-12-01

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), called formerly infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), is an important shrimp pathogen which can cause mortality in the blue shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris and stunting in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. Five monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against the 37kDa capsid protein 3 (CP3) of PstDNV expressed heterologously in the form of a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase called GST-CP3. All MAbs belonged to the IgG2b subclass and could bind to GST-CP3 at 300 pg/spot in immunodot-blot tests. They could detect CP3 in naturally infected shrimp extracts by Western blotting and dot blotting and in shrimp tissues by immunohistochemistry without cross-reactivity to extracts from uninfected shrimps or shrimps infected with several other viruses. Although dot blot assay sensitivity was approximately 1000 times lower than that of one step PCR for PstDNV, it easily detected PstDNV infections in field samples of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. PMID:19654023

  17. Characterization of antigen-express