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Sample records for chin ting-chuen pong

  1. Chin augmentation.

    PubMed

    Choe, K S; Stucki-McCormick, S U

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of facial aesthetic surgery is to restore, enhance, and rejuvenate the aging face to a more youthful appearance, achieving balance and harmony. The mental area must be addressed in order to have a complete synthesis of the face. The concept of augmenting the mental area with implants has evolved so significantly that it now stands by itself as an important procedure. Various autogenous implants for chin augmentation have been in use for over 100 years but have complications. The advent of synthetic materials has given rise to various types of alloplastic implants: Gore-Tex, Medpor, Supramid, Silastic, and Mersilene. No one implant is perfect for every face. This article overviews several alloplastic implants--their advantages, disadvantages, and complications, in addition to the different techniques of preparing and delivering the implants. PMID:11802346

  2. Numb Chin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan M; Hassan, Anhar; Robertson, Carrie E

    2015-09-01

    "Numb chin syndrome" (NCS) refers to new-onset numbness of the lower lip and chin within the distribution of the mental or inferior alveolar nerves. While this focal numbness may be downplayed or even overlooked by patients and clinicians, in the right clinical scenario this may be the presenting symptom of an underlying malignancy. In the absence of any obvious, temporally related dental cause, there are certain conditions that clinicians should consider including orofacial and systemic malignancies as well as several inflammatory disorders. Thorough diagnostic evaluation should always be performed when no clear cause is evident. This paper will discuss the differential, recommended evaluations, and the prognosis, for a patient presenting with NCS. PMID:26210355

  3. Chin force in violin playing.

    PubMed

    Obata, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    Force generated between the left mandible of violinists and the chinrest of the violin was examined using a force-sensing chinrest developed in this study. A strain-gauge force sensor was built, and it was fixed between the violin's top plate and a chin cup. Fifteen professional/amateur violinists held the violin statically, played musical scales with different sound properties and sounding techniques, as well as an excerpt from a Max Bruch concerto. Peak and mean forces were evaluated for each task. In a separate experiment, lateral movement of the lower teeth due to different levels of voluntary chin force exertion was measured. Static holding forces observed were 15 and 22 N with and without the help of the left hand, respectively. Peak force increased from 16 N at soft dynamics to 20 N at strong dynamics during scales. The force further increased to 29 N with the use of vibrato technique and 35 N during shifts. Tempo and hand position did not affect the force. Playing a Bruch concerto induced a mean peak force of 52 N, ranging from 31 to 82 N among the violinists. The developed force-sensing chinrest could accurately record the generated chin force. Typical chin force to stabilize the violin during ordinary musical performance was less than 30 N, but it could momentarily exceed 50 N when technically demanding musical pieces were performed. The lateral shift of the mandible was fairly small (<0.4 mm) even with high chin-force exertion, possibly due to clenching of the molars. PMID:21952980

  4. Ping-pong auto-zero amplifier with glitch reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Mark R.

    2008-01-22

    A ping-pong amplifier with reduced glitching is described. The ping-pong amplifier includes a nulling amplifier coupled to a switching network. The switching network is used to auto-zero a ping amplifier within a ping-pong amplifier. The nulling amplifier drives the output of a ping amplifier to a proper output voltage level during auto-zeroing of the ping amplifier. By being at a proper output voltage level, glitches associated with transitioning between a ping amplifier and a pong amplifier are reduced or eliminated.

  5. Launch Creativity with Ping-Pong Ball Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornoelje, Joanne; Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Educators at Thomas A. Edison Middle School have worked together to bring invention information and activities to life. One activity in particular, Ping-Pong Ball Invention Challenge, has proven a great success. The Ping-Pong Ball Invention Challenge was inspired by the basic rules for PBS's "Design Squad"'s "Pop Fly" activity. In this article,…

  6. 21 CFR 878.3550 - Chin prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chin prosthesis. 878.3550 Section 878.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3550 Chin prosthesis....

  7. 21 CFR 878.3550 - Chin prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chin prosthesis. 878.3550 Section 878.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3550 Chin prosthesis....

  8. 21 CFR 878.3550 - Chin prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chin prosthesis. 878.3550 Section 878.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3550 Chin prosthesis....

  9. 21 CFR 878.3550 - Chin prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chin prosthesis. 878.3550 Section 878.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3550 Chin prosthesis....

  10. 21 CFR 878.3550 - Chin prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chin prosthesis. 878.3550 Section 878.3550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 878.3550 Chin prosthesis....

  11. Numb chin syndrome in Ewing sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Antunes, N L; Gorlick, R; Callaja, E; Lis, E

    2000-01-01

    The numb chin syndrome consists of unilateral hypesthesia of the chin and lower lip. In adults, it is often associated with metastatic disease to the mandible, base of the skull, or leptomeninges. In children, it has been associated with infiltration of the inferior alveolar nerve by leukemic cells. We describe two cases of numb chin syndrome in children with Ewing sarcoma. In a child with a solid tumor, this symptom seems to have an ominous meaning and should lead to the investigation of progressive skeletal involvement. PMID:11132220

  12. "Ping-pong gaze" secondary to monoamine oxidase inhibitor overdose.

    PubMed

    Attaway, Amy; Sroujieh, Laila; Mersfelder, Tracey L; Butler, Christopher; Ouellette, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An infrequent manifestation of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) toxicity is "ping-pong gaze" (PPG). We describe the case of a 26-year-old female who was found unresponsive after taking 40 tablets of phenelzine. On presentation to the hospital, her eyes were moving in characteristic "ping pong" fashion. After 6 hours her gaze terminated. The following day her neurologic exam was benign and she had no long-term sequelae. While the etiology of PPG is unknown, it is most often seen with irreversible structural brain damage. However, a detailed literature review revealed that previous cases of MAOI toxicity where the patient survived have all had complete neurologic recovery. PMID:27127395

  13. Riffs on the Infinite Ping-Pong Ball Conundrum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamolo, Ami; Bogart, Tristram

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a novel re-conceptualisation to a well-known problem--The Ping-Pong Ball Conundrum. We introduce a variant of this super-task by considering it through the lens of "measuring infinity"--a conceptualisation of infinity that extrapolates measuring properties of numbers, rather than cardinal properties. This approach is…

  14. Intelligent Management of Intelligence Agencies: Beyond Accountability Ping-Pong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetlock, Philip E.; Mellers, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    The intelligence community (IC) is asked to predict outcomes that may often be inherently unpredictable--and is blamed for the inevitable forecasting failures, be they false positives or false negatives. To move beyond blame games of accountability ping-pong that incentivize bureaucratic symbolism over substantive reform, it is necessary to reach…

  15. Moment of Inertia of a Ping-Pong Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Xian-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This note describes how to theoretically calculate and experimentally measure the moment of inertia of a Ping-Pong[R] ball. The theoretical calculation results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements that can be reproduced in an introductory physics laboratory.

  16. Estimating implant size in chin augmentation: A simplified approach

    PubMed Central

    Fanous, Nabil; Yoskovitch, Adi

    2003-01-01

    A receding chin, colloquially known as a weak chin, is a significant aesthetic impediment to a pleasing face. Multiple techniques exist to evaluate the poorly projecting chin, but most are imprecise when it comes to choosing the proper implant size. This choice is further complicated by the impracticality of commercially available chin implants. Most implant manufacturers offer only three to four categories of implants (small, medium, large, etc) that differ in size from one company to another, making the choice of the proper implant size a real challenge. The present paper discusses a new approach to precise sizing of the chin implant, based primarily on the degree of chin convexity (curvature of the chin pad) in the profile view. Examples of mentoplasties performed using the chin convexity principle are presented. PMID:24115862

  17. Diversity, abundance, and evolutionary dynamics of Pong-like transposable elements in Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Markova, Dragomira N; Mason-Gamer, Roberta J

    2015-12-01

    Pong-like elements are members of the PIF/Harbinger superfamily of DNA transposons that has been described in many plants, animals, and fungi. Most Pong elements contain two open reading frames (ORFs). One encodes a transposase (ORF2) that catalyzes transposition of Pong and related non-autonomous elements, while the function of the second is unknown. Little is known about the evolutionary history of Pong elements in flowering plants. In this work, we present the first comprehensive analysis of the diversity, abundance, and evolution of the Pong-like transposase gene in the genomes of 21 diploid species from the wheat tribe, Triticeae, and we present the first convincing evidence of horizontal transfer of nuclear-encoded Pong elements in any organism. A phylogenetic analysis of nearly 300 Pong sequences based on a conserved region of the transposase domain revealed a complex evolutionary history of Pong elements that can be best explained by ancestral polymorphism, followed by differential evolutionary success of some transposase lineages, and by occasional horizontal transfer between phylogenetically distant genera. In addition, we used transposon display to estimate the abundance of the transposase gene within Triticeae genomes, and our results revealed varying levels of Pong proliferation, with numbers of transposase copies ranging from 22 to 92. Comparisons of Pong transposase abundance to flow cytometry estimates of genome size revealed that larger Triticeae genome size was not correlated with transposase abundance. PMID:26206730

  18. Biomechanical impact response of the human chin and manubrium.

    PubMed

    Stammen, Jason A; Bolte, John H; Shaw, Joshua

    2012-03-01

    Chin-to-chest impact commonly occurs in frontal crash simulations with restrained anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in non-airbag situations. This study investigated the biofidelity of this contact by evaluating the impact response of both the chin and manubrium of adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHSs). The adult PMHS data were scaled to a 10-year-old (YO) human size and then compared with the Hybrid III 10YO child (HIII-10C) ATD response with the same test configurations. For both the chin and manubrium, the responses of the scaled PMHS had different characteristics than the HIII-10C ATD responses. Elevated energy impact tests to the PMHS mandible provided a mean injury tolerance value for chin impact force. Chin contact forces in the HIII-10C ATD were calculated in previously conducted HYGE sled crash simulation tests, and these contact forces were strongly correlated with the Head Injury Criterion (HIC(36 ms)). The mean injurious force from the PMHS tests corresponded to a HIC(36 ms) value that would predict an elevated injury risk if it is assumed that fractures of the chin and skull are similarly correlated with HIC(36 ms). Given the rarity of same occupant-induced chin injury in booster-seated occupants in real crash data and the disparity in chin and manubrium stiffnesses between scaled PMHS and HIII-10C ATD, the data from this study can be made use of to improve biofidelity of chin-to-manubrium contact in ATDs. PMID:21971966

  19. A Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Mouth Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Kozisek, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped…

  20. [An infected necrosis of the chin].

    PubMed

    Muller, B S; van Goor, H F; Rosenberg, A J W P

    2016-07-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred by his dentist to a maxillofacial surgeon with complaints of illness and pain in the mandible, associated with a rapidly expanding area of black gingiva and mucosa surrounding the lower front teeth. Clinically and radiographically there was evidence of an infected necrosis of the chin and floor of mouth. Following debridement at the operating room, the patient was treated at the intensive care unit for septic shock leading to prolonged hospitalisation. Investigation of the bone marrow did not provide an explanation for pancytopenia or the severity of the illness. In addition, genetic investigation of thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene showed no mutations. This gene codes for an identically named protein enzyme that contributes in the metabolising of the medicine azathioprine, used daily for an autoimmune disease. A combination of the use of azathioprine, a folic acid deficiency and sepsis led to this exceptional course of illness. Therapeutic intervention consisted of surgical debridement and treatment of the bacteraemia. Afterwards several corrective surgeries were necessary to restore oral functions. PMID:27430038

  1. Phylogeography and taxonomy of White-chinned and Spectacled Petrels.

    PubMed

    Mareile Techow, N M S; Ryan, Peter G; O'Ryan, Colleen

    2009-07-01

    The genus Procellaria traditionally consists of four species, two restricted to New Zealand and two widespread in the Southern Ocean. All four are threatened because of incidental mortality on longlines and other fishing gear. The White-chinned Petrel P. aequinoctialis is the seabird killed in largest numbers by fisheries in the Southern Ocean. A spectacled form recently has been elevated to species status, Spectacled Petrel P. conspicillata, based on differences in morphometrics, vocalisations and breeding phenology. Cytochrome b sequences support species status for the Spectacled Petrel and show that the White-chinned Petrel has two regional populations, one around New Zealand and one throughout the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. White-chinned and Spectacled Petrels segregated approximately 0.90 million years ago by allopatric fragmentation, and the two populations within White-chinned Petrels diverged approximately 0.35 million years ago. Climate changes and corresponding changes in ocean currents are most likely responsible for these patterns. PMID:19364537

  2. pong: fast analysis and visualization of latent clusters in population genetic data

    PubMed Central

    Behr, Aaron A.; Liu, Katherine Z.; Liu-Fang, Gracie; Nakka, Priyanka; Ramachandran, Sohini

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: A series of methods in population genetics use multilocus genotype data to assign individuals membership in latent clusters. These methods belong to a broad class of mixed-membership models, such as latent Dirichlet allocation used to analyze text corpora. Inference from mixed-membership models can produce different output matrices when repeatedly applied to the same inputs, and the number of latent clusters is a parameter that is often varied in the analysis pipeline. For these reasons, quantifying, visualizing, and annotating the output from mixed-membership models are bottlenecks for investigators across multiple disciplines from ecology to text data mining. Results: We introduce pong, a network-graphical approach for analyzing and visualizing membership in latent clusters with a native interactive D3.js visualization. pong leverages efficient algorithms for solving the Assignment Problem to dramatically reduce runtime while increasing accuracy compared with other methods that process output from mixed-membership models. We apply pong to 225 705 unlinked genome-wide single-nucleotide variants from 2426 unrelated individuals in the 1000 Genomes Project, and identify previously overlooked aspects of global human population structure. We show that pong outpaces current solutions by more than an order of magnitude in runtime while providing a customizable and interactive visualization of population structure that is more accurate than those produced by current tools. Availability and Implementation: pong is freely available and can be installed using the Python package management system pip. pong’s source code is available at https://github.com/abehr/pong. Contact: aaron_behr@alumni.brown.edu or sramachandran@brown.edu Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27283948

  3. Ak-Chin Indian Community Biomass Feasiiblity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Moser, RCM Digesters, Inc.; Mark Randall, Daystar Consulting, LLC; Leonard S. Gold, Ak-Chin Energy Services & Utility Strategies Consulting Group

    2005-12-31

    Study of the conversion of chicken litter to biogas for the production of energy. There was an additional requirement that after extracting the energy from the chicken litter the nutrient value of the raw chicken litter had to be returned to the Ak-Chin Farms for use as fertilizer in a form and delivery method acceptable to the Farm.

  4. Mechanisms of Airway Protection during Chin-Down Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Phoebe; Anderson, Cheryl; Humbert, Ianessa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of chin-down swallowing on laryngeal vestibule closure. It also investigated the technique's rehabilitative impact, by assessing the stability of effects across multiple trials and aftereffects in neutral swallows on cessation of the technique. Method: Duration of laryngeal vestibule closure (dLVC) was…

  5. Taking a Swat at Physics with a Ping-Pong Paddle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graney, Chris M.

    1994-01-01

    A professor of physics discusses ideas on how to use physics to improve your ping-pong game. Describes how basic physics was used to analyze a simple ball-paddle collision problem and provide students with insight on the application of physics to a fun and real life situation. (ZWH)

  6. Modified dual guide catheter ("ping-pong") technique to treat left internal mammary artery graft perforation.

    PubMed

    Assad-Kottner, Christian; Hakeem, Abdul; Uretsky, Barry F

    2015-07-01

    Perforation of a left internal mammary artery (LIMA) graft during percutaneous coronary intervention is a rare event. We report a case of mid-LIMA perforation treated by a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent using a modification of the dual catheter ("ping pong") technique. We propose that use of this modification when possible will further improve safety of treating a perforation. PMID:25044448

  7. The French Reader's Relationship to Poetry in the Electronic Age: Ponge, Alferi, and Vassiliou

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlond-Schrader, Ellen Benton

    2010-01-01

    My dissertation investigates the twentieth and twenty-first century reader's relationship to poetic text as it is altered through daily exposure to technology in the rise of the information age, as seen in the works of Francis Ponge, Pierre Alferi and Veronique Vassiliou. My project also examines historical documents--radio and television…

  8. Localized Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum-like Changes on the Chin

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joong Sun; Kim, You Chan

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a rare, inherited, multisystem disorder characterized by progressive calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers. Typically, small, yellowish papules are located on the neck and flexural areas; however, localized acquired cutaneous PXE has been proposed as a non-heritable form of the disorder. We report a patient who had normal appearing skin on the chin with an itching sensation and had PXE-like changes by skin biopsy. PMID:27303205

  9. Loss of l(3)mbt leads to acquisition of the ping-pong cycle in Drosophila ovarian somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tetsutaro; Sato, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Iwasaki, Yuka W; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C

    2016-07-15

    In Drosophila germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are amplified through a PIWI slicer-dependent feed-forward loop termed the ping-pong cycle, yielding secondary piRNAs. However, the detailed mechanism remains poorly understood, largely because an ex vivo model system amenable to biochemical analyses has not been available. Here, we show that CRISPR-mediated loss of function of lethal (3) malignant brain tumor [l(3)mbt] leads to ectopic activation of the germ-specific ping-pong cycle in ovarian somatic cells. Perinuclear foci resembling nuage, the ping-pong center, appeared following l(3)mbt mutation. This activation of the ping-pong machinery in cultured cells will greatly facilitate elucidation of the mechanism underlying secondary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila. PMID:27474440

  10. Loss of l(3)mbt leads to acquisition of the ping-pong cycle in Drosophila ovarian somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Tetsutaro; Sato, Kaoru; Yamamoto, Hitomi; Iwasaki, Yuka W.; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C.

    2016-01-01

    In Drosophila germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are amplified through a PIWI slicer-dependent feed-forward loop termed the ping-pong cycle, yielding secondary piRNAs. However, the detailed mechanism remains poorly understood, largely because an ex vivo model system amenable to biochemical analyses has not been available. Here, we show that CRISPR-mediated loss of function of lethal (3) malignant brain tumor [l(3)mbt] leads to ectopic activation of the germ-specific ping-pong cycle in ovarian somatic cells. Perinuclear foci resembling nuage, the ping-pong center, appeared following l(3)mbt mutation. This activation of the ping-pong machinery in cultured cells will greatly facilitate elucidation of the mechanism underlying secondary piRNA biogenesis in Drosophila. PMID:27474440

  11. Arbovirus-Derived piRNAs Exhibit a Ping-Pong Signature in Mosquito Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vodovar, Nicolas; Bronkhorst, Alfred W.; van Cleef, Koen W. R.; Miesen, Pascal; Blanc, Hervé; van Rij, Ronald P.; Saleh, Maria-Carla

    2012-01-01

    The siRNA pathway is an essential antiviral mechanism in insects. Whether other RNA interference pathways are involved in antiviral defense remains unclear. Here, we report in cells derived from the two main vectors for arboviruses, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, the production of viral small RNAs that exhibit the hallmarks of ping-pong derived piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs) after infection with positive or negative sense RNA viruses. Furthermore, these cells produce endogenous piRNAs that mapped to transposable elements. Our results show that these mosquito cells can initiate de novo piRNA production and recapitulate the ping-pong dependent piRNA pathway upon viral infection. The mechanism of viral-piRNA production is discussed. PMID:22292064

  12. Measuring the image quality of digital-camera sensors by a ping-pong ball

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozo, Antonio M.; Rubiño, Manuel; Castro, José J.; Salas, Carlos; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    In this work, we present a low-cost experimental setup to evaluate the image quality of digital-camera sensors, which can be implemented in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. The method consists of evaluating the modulation transfer function (MTF) of digital-camera sensors by speckle patterns using a ping-pong ball as a diffuser, with two handmade circular apertures acting as input and output ports, respectively. To specify the spatial-frequency content of the speckle pattern, it is necessary to use an aperture; for this, we made a slit in a piece of black cardboard. First, the MTF of a digital-camera sensor was calculated using the ping-pong ball and the handmade slit, and then the MTF was calculated using an integrating sphere and a high-quality steel slit. Finally, the results achieved with both experimental setups were compared, showing a similar MTF in both cases.

  13. Odontogenic sinus tract to the chin: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Magliocca, Kelly R; Minehart, Stephen J; Brown, David L; Ward, Brent B

    2010-07-01

    Sinus tracts of odontogenic origin most commonly open into the oral cavity but occasionally may drain extraorally. The diagnosis is more difficult when necrosis of the tooth occurs in the absence of dental caries. We report a 23-year-old man with a long-standing chronic wound on the inferior aspect of the chin that was refractory to treatment. This case demonstrates the use of a simple technique to identify a necrotic mandibular incisor tooth as the source of infection. PMID:21049765

  14. Chin augmentation using minimally invasive technique and bioplastique.

    PubMed

    Ersek, R A; Stovall, R B; Vazquez-Salisbury, A

    1995-05-01

    The plethora of problematic techniques for improving minor chin recessions has left the plastic surgeon inevitably uncertain of the most effective remedy. Research we began in 1968 has led us to the development of a new biphasic polymer and minimally invasive implantation techniques aimed at solving the soft-tissue deficiency dilemma. Bioplastique consists of inert, textured particles of critical dimension dispersed within a bioexcretable gel vehicle. Previous experimentation in rabbit ears has shown that the gel component is rapidly phagocytosed, excreted, and replaced by a fibrin matrix within 3 days. The matrix is then replaced by host collagen, gradually forming a stable encasement around each microparticle. Further evaluation has revealed that the implant resists migration and absorption. Based on these encouraging results, a clinical phase was initiated. Thirteen patients lacking chin prominence have subsequently been improved with Bioplastique implants. The infection rate was 0 percent, and other complications were minor. At 26 months, no evidence of migration or absorption has been observed, and the aesthetic results remain. PMID:7732146

  15. Voice and Valence-Altering Operations in Falam Chin: A Role and Reference Grammar Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyzes voice and valence-altering operations in Falam Chin, a Tibeto-Burman language of Burma. The data is explained within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar (RRG), which supplies several key concepts particularly useful for generalizing the behavior of the Falam Chin operations. The first is RRG's…

  16. Static test of a fan-powered chin nozzle for V/STOl applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salemann, V.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a "chin" nozzle which diverts flow in a downward direction immediately downstream of a fan typical of designs suitable for V/STOL A applications was evaluated. Back pressure distortion to the fan and fan discharge pressure distortion were also measured. Results show that the distortion is significant at the closest spacing between the fan exit and cascade entrance tested, and that the chin nozzle performance deteriorates with increased flow diversion to the chin nozzle. Color oil flow visualization on video tape and still photos were also obtained. Tests were conducted behind a 12" model fan in the NASA-Lewis fan calibration facility.

  17. “Ping-pong gaze” secondary to monoamine oxidase inhibitor overdose

    PubMed Central

    Attaway, Amy; Sroujieh, Laila; Mersfelder, Tracey L.; Butler, Christopher; Ouellette, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An infrequent manifestation of monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) toxicity is “ping-pong gaze” (PPG). We describe the case of a 26-year-old female who was found unresponsive after taking 40 tablets of phenelzine. On presentation to the hospital, her eyes were moving in characteristic “ping pong” fashion. After 6 hours her gaze terminated. The following day her neurologic exam was benign and she had no long-term sequelae. While the etiology of PPG is unknown, it is most often seen with irreversible structural brain damage. However, a detailed literature review revealed that previous cases of MAOI toxicity where the patient survived have all had complete neurologic recovery. PMID:27127395

  18. Computer-games for gravitational wave science outreach: Black Hole Pong and Space Time Quest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, L.; Bond, C.; Brown, D.; Brückner, F.; Grover, K.; Lodhia, D.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Fulda, P.; Smith, R. J. E.; Unwin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Wang, M.; Whalley, L.; Freise, A.

    2012-06-01

    We have established a program aimed at developing computer applications and web applets to be used for educational purposes as well as gravitational wave outreach activities. These applications and applets teach gravitational wave physics and technology. The computer programs are generated in collaboration with undergraduates and summer students as part of our teaching activities, and are freely distributed on a dedicated website. As part of this program, we have developed two computer-games related to gravitational wave science: 'Black Hole Pong' and 'Space Time Quest'. In this article we present an overview of our computer related outreach activities and discuss the games and their educational aspects, and report on some positive feedback received.

  19. Security of modified Ping-Pong protocol in noisy and lossy channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yun-Guang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-05-01

    The ``Ping-Pong'' (PP) protocol is a two-way quantum key protocol based on entanglement. In this protocol, Bob prepares one maximally entangled pair of qubits, and sends one qubit to Alice. Then, Alice performs some necessary operations on this qubit and sends it back to Bob. Although this protocol was proposed in 2002, its security in the noisy and lossy channel has not been proven. In this report, we add a simple and experimentally feasible modification to the original PP protocol, and prove the security of this modified PP protocol against collective attacks when the noisy and lossy channel is taken into account. Simulation results show that our protocol is practical.

  20. Follicular keratosis of the chin treated with 1.24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ointment.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Makoto; Takeda, Kiminobu; Tanabe, Hiroshi; Abe, Shinya; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    In follicular keratosis of the chin, keratotic follicular papules occur on the chin and jaw due to localized prolonged pressure and friction on the naked skin. We present one patient with this disorder. The dermatoscopic examination revealed many well-demarcated yellow spindle bodies in the patchy lesion. Therapy with 1.24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 ointment was effective during the treatment but had no residual positive effect. PMID:17845168

  1. The ontogeny of the chin: an analysis of allometric and biomechanical scaling.

    PubMed

    Holton, N E; Bonner, L L; Scott, J E; Marshall, S D; Franciscus, R G; Southard, T E

    2015-06-01

    The presence of a prominent chin in modern humans has been viewed by some researchers as an architectural adaptation to buttress the anterior corpus from bending stresses during mastication. In contrast, ontogenetic studies of mandibular symphyseal form suggest that a prominent chin results from the complex spatial interaction between the symphysis and surrounding soft tissue and skeletal anatomy during development. While variation in chin prominence is clearly influenced by differential growth and spatial constraints, it is unclear to what degree these developmental dynamics influence the mechanical properties of the symphysis. That is, do ontogenetic changes in symphyseal shape result in increased symphyseal bending resistance? We examined ontogenetic changes in the mechanical properties and shape of the symphysis using subjects from a longitudinal cephalometric growth study with ages ranging from 3 to 20+ years. We first examined whether ontogenetic changes in symphyseal shape were correlated with symphyseal vertical bending and wishboning resistance using multivariate regression. Secondly, we examined ontogenetic scaling of bending resistance relative to bending moment arm lengths. An ontogenetic increase in chin prominence was associated with decreased vertical bending resistance, while wishboning resistance was uncorrelated with ontogenetic development of the chin. Relative to bending moment arm lengths, vertical bending resistance scaled with significant negative allometry whereas wishboning resistance scaled isometrically. These results suggest a complex interaction between symphyseal ontogeny and bending resistance, and indicate that ontogenetic increases in chin projection do not provide greater bending resistance to the mandibular symphysis. PMID:25865897

  2. Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin

    PubMed Central

    Coquerelle, Michael; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Rojo, Rosa; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bastir, Markus

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor – the space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies. PMID:24260566

  3. Short faces, big tongues: developmental origin of the human chin.

    PubMed

    Coquerelle, Michael; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; Rojo, Rosa; Mitteroecker, Philipp; Bastir, Markus

    2013-01-01

    During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence) that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies. PMID:24260566

  4. Kinetics of Spanish broom peroxidase obeys a Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism with competitive inhibition by substrates.

    PubMed

    Pérez Galende, Patricia; Hidalgo Cuadrado, Nazaret; Kostetsky, Eduard Ya; Roig, Manuel G; Villar, Enrique; Shnyrov, Valery L; Kennedy, John F

    2015-11-01

    In plants, adverse conditions often induce an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). H2O2 is reduced to water, and thus becomes detoxified by enzymes such as Cytisus multiflorus peroxidase (CMP). Here, the steady-state kinetics of the H2O2-supported oxidation of different organic substrates by CMP was investigated. Analysis of the initial rates vs. H2O2 and reducing substrate concentrations proved to be consistent with a substrate-inhibited Ping-Pong Bi-Bi reaction mechanism. The phenomenological approach expresses the peroxidase Ping-Pong mechanism in the form of the Michaelis-Menten equation and affords an interpretation of the effects in terms of the kinetic parameters [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] , kcat, [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] and of the microscopic rate constants, k1 and k3, of the shared three-step catalytic cycle of peroxidases. PMID:26416239

  5. Synergistic "ping-pong" energy transfer for efficient light activation in a chromophore-catalyst dyad.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Annamaria; Charalambidis, Georgios; Herrero, Christian; Margiola, Sofia; Leibl, Winfried; Coutsolelos, Athanassios; Aukauloo, Ally

    2015-10-01

    The synthesis of a porphyrin-Ru(II) polypyridine complex where the porphyrin acts as a photoactive unit and the Ru(II) polypyridine as a catalytic precursor is described. Comparatively, the free base porphyrin was found to outperform the ruthenium based chromophore in the yield of light induced electron transfer. Mechanistic insights indicate the occurrence of a ping-pong energy transfer from the (1)LC excited state of the porphyrin chromophore to the (3)MCLT state of the catalyst and back to the (3)LC excited state of the porphyrin unit. The latter, triplet-triplet energy transfer back to the chromophore, efficiently competes with fast radiationless deactivation of the excited state at the catalyst site. The energy thus recovered by the chromophore allows improved yield of formation of the oxidized form of the chromophore and concomitantly of the oxidation of the catalytic unit by intramolecular charge transfer. The presented results are among the rare examples where a porphyrin chromophore is successfully used to drive an oxidative activation process where reductive processes prevail in the literature. PMID:26327298

  6. Determining the Technical Standards of Ping Pong Table by Using Close Range Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, U.; Bayram, B.; Cetin, H. I.; Sanlı, F. B.

    2012-07-01

    In the presented study, quality measurements were made regarding three different ping pong tables that were produced with three different materials. Measurements were made on the purpose of confirming whether the tables can be used as a match table that is in the standard of International Table Tennis Federation or not. For this confirmation, bouncing height of the table tennis ball is measured which is approved by ITTF. Average bouncing height that is required by federation standards is minimum 23 cm for free falling table tennis ball from 30 cm. In order to locate the bounce on the tables, the table tennis ball is released from 30cm in free fall with equipment was. In the meantime, 24 video frames videos were shot with a Full HD (1920 × 1080) camera. Each frame of videos that were taken is separated from each other. Each frame is analyzed and highest bounce is measured. As a result of the study, the bouncing heights of the three tables were measured as 23.04 cm, 23.33 cm, 22.91 cm for table1, for table2 and for table3 respectively.

  7. A Dialogue with Lisa Chin: An Asian-American Feminist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The terms "Asian" and "Pacific Islanders" capture diverse historical relationships and a powerful cultural/linguistic diversity. Many Asian-Pacific Americans have succeeded despite monumental prejudices and obstacles, including the "model minority" myth promoted by conservatives to limit affirmative action. Chin's research explores a feminist…

  8. Seismic detections of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor from the dense ChinArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Peng, Zhigang; Wang, Weitao

    2016-07-01

    ChinArray is a dense portable broadband seismic network to cover the entire continental China, and the Phase I is deployed along the north-south seismic belt in southwest China. In this study, we analyze seismic data recorded on the ChinArray following the February 15, 2013 Chelyabinsk (Russia) meteor. This was the largest known object entering the Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska meteor. The seismic energy radiated from this event was recorded by seismic stations worldwide including the dense ChinArray that are more than 4000 km away. The weak signal from the meteor event was contaminated by a magnitude 5.8 Tonga earthquake occurred ~20 min earlier. To test the feasibility of detecting the weak seismic signals from the meteor event, we compute vespagram and perform F-K analysis to the surface-wave data. We identify a seismic phase with back azimuth (BAZ) of 329.7° and slowness of 34.73 s/deg, corresponding to the surface wave from the Russian meteor event (BAZ ~325.97°). The surface magnitude (M S) of the meteor event is 3.94 ± 0.18. We also perform similar analysis on the data from the broadband array F-net in Japan, and find the BAZ of the surface waves to be 316.61°. With the different BAZs of ChinArray and F-net, we locate the Russian meteor event at 58.80°N, 58.72°E. The relatively large mislocation (~438 km as compared with 55.15°N, 61.41°E by others) may be a result of the bending propagation path of surface waves, which deviates from the great circle path. Our results suggest that the dense ChinArray and its subarrays could be used to detect weak signals at teleseismic distances.

  9. Fiddler's neck: Chin rest-associated irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis in a violin player.

    PubMed

    Caero, Jennifer E; Cohen, Philip R

    2012-09-01

    Fiddler's neck refers to an irritant contact dermatitis on the submandibular neck of violin and viola players and an allergic contact dermatitis to nickel from the bracket attaching the violin to the chin rest on the violinist's supraclavicular neck. A 26-year-old woman developed submandibular and supraclavicular left neck lesions corresponding to the locations of the chin rest and bracket that was attached to her violin that held it against her neck when she played. Substitution of a composite chin rest, which did not contain nickel, and the short-term application of a low potency topical corticosteroid cream, resulted in complete resolution of the allergic contact dermatitis supraclavicular neck lesion. The irritant contact dermatitis submandibular neck lesion persisted. In conclusion, violin players are predisposed to developing irritant contact dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis from the chin rest. We respectfully suggest that the submandibular neck lesions from contact with the chin rest be referred to as 'fiddler's neck - type 1,' whereas the supraclavicular neck lesions resulting from contact of the bracket holding the chin rest in place be called 'fiddler's neck - type 2.' A composite chin rest should be considered in patients with a preceding history of allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. PMID:23031377

  10. Chinrest pressure in violin playing: type of music, chin rest, and shoulder pad as possible mediators.

    PubMed

    Okner, M; Kernozek, T

    1997-04-01

    INTRODUCTION:: This study was conducted to determine if there are differences in pressure on a violin chin rest during performance due to changes in shoulder pads, chin rests, or pieces of music performed. It was also hypothesized that these differences would correlate with anthropometric measurements made of the subjects' necks and shoulders. METHODS::: A Novel EMED pad was used over the chin rest, containing 120 sensors, each one centimetre squared. The sampling rate was 50 Hz. A total of ten subjects, all professional violinists, performed excerpts from a Bruch violin concerto and a Handel sonata. Anthropometric measurements were made of the subjects' necks and shoulders. Each subject began by using his own violin with his usual shoulder pad and chin rest set-up, and then with the author's violin. Two different shoulder pads and three different chin rests were placed on the violin, in all possible combinations, for both pieces of music. This resulted in a total of fourteen conditions given in randomized order for each subject. Subjects were asked to give verbal feedback regarding the comfort and ease of playing of each shoulder pad and chin rest. Data was collected for three trials of each condition, and a mean for the three trials was obtained for each dependent variable. The five dependent variables were: peak pressure, maximum force, pressure/time integral and force/time integral, and total contact area. Intraclass coefficients of reliability were calculated for the dependent variables. Pearson's correlation coefficients were computed to determine if there were significant relationships between the five dependent variables and violin height, shoulder width, and neck length. RESULTS:: Pressure/time integral achieved the highest reliability with a coefficient of 0.9310, followed by peak pressure at 0.9152, force/time integral at 0.8817, maximum force at 0.8685, and total area at 0.8571. Multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences in

  11. Numb Chin Syndrome as First Symptom of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Mario; Della Ferrera, Francesco; Carbone, Lucio; Gatti, Gaia; Carrozzo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Numb chin syndrome is a rare sensory neuropathy of the mental nerve characterized by numbness, hypoesthesia, paraesthesia, and very rarely pain. Dental causes, especially iatrogenic ones, maxillofacial trauma, or malignant neoplasm are etiologic factors for this rare syndrome. Many malignant and metastatic neoplasms are causing this syndrome, like primary osteosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and mandibular metastasis of primary carcinoma of breast, lung, thyroid, kidney, prostate, and nasopharynx. Haematological malignancies like acute lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and myeloma can cause this neuropathy. The authors report a case of a 71-year-old woman in which the numb chin syndrome was the first symptom of the diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which caused infiltration and reabsorption of the alveolar ridge and lower mandibular cortex. A biopsy of the mass was performed on fragments of tissue collected from the mandibular periosteum, medullary and cortical mandibular bone, and inferior alveolar nerve. PMID:25580308

  12. Method of induction could affect emotional outcomes: comment on markey, chin, vanepps, and loewenstein (2014 ).

    PubMed

    Bench, Shane W; Yaugher, Ashley C; Lench, Heather C

    2015-04-01

    Markey, Chin, Vanepps, and Loewenstein (2014) demonstrated six methods for the induction of boredom. However, a clear and testable definition of boredom should be established prior to experimental manipulation of the construct. Defining boredom from a functional emotion perspective is one approach that affords a definition separable from the outcomes associated with boredom and insight into which manipulations may effectively target the construct. PMID:25730196

  13. The effectiveness of the head-turn-plus-chin-down maneuver for eliminating vallecular residue.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Ahmed; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Valenzano, Teresa Josephine; Namasivayam, Ashwini Marini; Steele, Catriona Margaret

    2016-04-01

    Purpose When swallowing efficiency is impaired, residue accumulates in the pharynx. Cued or spontaneous swallows in the head neutral position do not always successfully clear residue. We investigated the impact of a novel maneuver on residue clearance by combining a head turn with the chin down posture. Methods Data were collected from 26 participants who demonstrated persistent vallecular residue after an initial head neutral clearance swallow in videofluoroscopy. Participants were cued to perform a head-turn-plus-chin-down swallow, with the direction of head turn randomized. Pixel-based measures of residue in the vallecular space before and after the maneuver were made on still frame lateral images using ImageJ software. Measures of % full and the Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS) were extracted. Univariate analyses of variance were used to detect significant reductions in residue. Results On average, pre-maneuver measures showed residue filling 56-73% of the valleculae, depending on stimulus consistency (NRRS scores: 0.2-0.4). More than 80% of pre-swallow measures displayed NRRS ratios > 0.06, a threshold previously linked to increased risk of post-swallow aspiration. Conclusion The head-turn-plus-chin-down maneuver achieved significant reductions in residue for thin and nectar-thick fluids, suggesting that this maneuver can be effective in reducing persistent vallecular residue with these consistencies. PMID:27191873

  14. Alveolar and Skeletal Chin Dimensions Associated with Lower Facial Height Among Different Divergent Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Khan, MD Yaser Ahmed; Kishore, M.S.V; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Sashidhar, Nagam Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alveolar and skeletal chin dimensions with facial height have an impact on diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontic patients and serves as a reference landmark for facial aesthetics. Aim To evaluate the alveolar and skeleton chin dimensions among different divergent patterns, to evaluate the lower face height in different divergent growth patterns, to give an estimate to the oral surgeon for any adjunctive procedure. Materials and Methods The study includes a total sample of 45 non-growing individuals (26 males and 19 females) from the archival records of the Orthodontic Department with age ranging between 18-25 years, classified into different divergent patterns based on the mandibular plane angle. The sample was divided into three groups, of which 15 patients in each group were evaluated: Group-1: Normodivergent, Group-2: Hypodivergent and Group-3: Hyperdivergent patterns respectively. Standardized digital lateral cephalograms and antero-posterior cephalograms of these patients were obtained in Natural Head Position (NHP). Results The results of the retrospective cephalometeric study were statistically analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple post hoc test which showed that hard tissue chin measurement were greater in hypodivergent group (13.7mm) and the increased lower facial height showed statistically significant difference in high mandibular plane angle group (59.6mm). In antero-posterior cephalograms the transverse width showed statistically significant difference in normodivergent group (32.60mm). Conclusion The anterio-posterior width of the symphysis was higher in hypodivergent growth pattern, whereas vertical height of the symphysis was greater in hyperdivergent group. The lower facial height among three groups showed statistically significant difference among hyperdivergent group. In comparison of all the three groups in Anterio-Posterior (AP) cephalograms, statistically significant difference was noted in normodivergent group

  15. Augmentation of the cheeks, chin and pre-jowl sulcus, and nasolabial folds.

    PubMed

    Romo, T; Baskin, J Z; Sclafani, A P

    2001-02-01

    The demand for augmentation of central and lower facial features continues to increase. There are several safe and effective materials available for this purpose, and techniques have become highly refined. The relative strengths and weaknesses of silicone, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and merseline mesh are discussed for augmentation of the chin/pre-jowl sulcus and cheek. Materials for augmentation of the nasolabial folds (NLF) are also discussed. There are various forms of solid ePTFE that have been developed for soft tissue augmentation. These are particularly well suited for the NLF. Techniques for facial skeletal and soft tissue augmentation are presented. PMID:11518979

  16. Effect of Addition of Chin Strap on PAP Compliance, Nightly Duration of Use, and Other Factors

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Shelley R.; O'Brien, Daniel T.; Zhang, Shiling; Devara, Anupama; Rowley, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: A chinstrap is potentially useful to reduce unintentional air leak by preventing mouth opening during PAP treatment. This study examines whether the addition of a chinstrap to PAP therapy has any effect on adherence, nightly duration of use, air leak, and residual AHI. Methods: This was a retrospective study performed at an AASM-accredited VAMC sleep center. Clinical sleep data of veterans (n = 124) prescribed PAP therapy for sleep apnea was evaluated, and the effect of chinstrap use vs non-use on the above parameters was assessed. Results: Chinstrap users had significantly greater PAP adherence, longer nightly duration of PAP use, lower residual AHI and lower leak compared to chinstrap non-users at first follow up visit. Conclusions: The addition of a chin strap to PAP therapy is a simple and inexpensive method of increasing PAP adherence. Citation: Knowles SR; O'Brien DT; Zhang S; Devara A; Rowley JA. Effect of addition of chin strap on PAP compliance, nightly duration of use, and other factors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(4):377-383. PMID:24733982

  17. Fracture in the chin area: an unusual case of mandibular torus fracture.

    PubMed

    Saura-Ingles, A; Garcia-Ballesta, C; Pérez-Lajarin, L; López-Jornet, P

    2005-07-01

    Mandibular torus fracture as a result of accidental trauma has not been reported to date in the dental literature. This study describes the case of a young adult male who suffered multiple fractures affecting the teeth and mandibular torus secondary to chin area trauma due to a bicycle accident; the first manifestation of bone damage being left unilateral paraesthesia of the lip. An occlusal x-ray study of the affected area was made to evaluate possible fracture, as unlike centred periapical x-rays and orthopantomography, it is able to reveal the existence of a fracture line of the alveolar wall. In the associated presence of paraesthesia, a computed tomographic study is advisable. PMID:16003417

  18. Children with Multiple Disabilities and Minimal Motor Behavior Using Chin Movements to Operate Microswitches to Obtain Environmental Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Tota, Alessia; Antonucci, Massimo; Oliva, Doretta

    2006-01-01

    In these two studies, two children with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior were assessed to see if they could use chin movements to operate microswitches to obtain environmental stimulation. In Study I, we applied an adapted version of a recently introduced electronic microswitch [Lancioni, G. E., O'Reilly, M. F., Singh, N. N.,…

  19. GM2 gangliosidosis associated with a HEXA missense mutation in Japanese Chin dogs: a potential model for Tay Sachs disease.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Douglas N; Zeng, Rong; Wenger, David A; Johnson, Gary S; Johnson, Gayle C; Decker, Jared E; Katz, Martin L; Platt, Simon R; O'Brien, Dennis P

    2013-01-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis is a fatal lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of β-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52). There are two major isoforms of the enzyme: hexosaminidase A composed of an α and a β subunit (encoded by HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively); and, hexosaminidase B composed of two β subunits. Hexosaminidase A requires an activator protein encoded by GM2A to catabolize GM2 ganglioside, but even in the absence of the activator protein, it can hydrolyze the synthetic substrates commonly used to assess enzyme activity. GM2 gangliosidosis has been reported in Japanese Chin dogs, and we identified the disease in two related Japanese Chin dogs based on clinical signs, histopathology and elevated brain GM2 gangliosides. As in previous reports, we found normal or elevated hexosaminidase activity when measured with the synthetic substrates. This suggested that the canine disease is analogous to human AB variant of G(M2) gangliosidosis, which results from mutations in GM2A. However, only common neutral single nucleotide polymorphisms were found upon sequence analysis of the canine ortholog of GM2A from the affected Japanese Chins. When the same DNA samples were used to sequence HEXA, we identified a homozygous HEXA:c967G>A transition which predicts a p.E323K substitution. The glutamyl moiety at 323 is known to make an essential contribution to the active site of hexosaminidase A, and none of the 128 normal Japanese Chins and 92 normal dogs of other breeds that we tested was homozygous for HEXA:c967A. Thus it appears that the HEXA:c967G>A transition is responsible for the GM2 gangliosidosis in Japanese Chins. PMID:23266199

  20. DHHC Protein S-Acyltransferases Use Similar Ping-Pong Kinetic Mechanisms but Display Different Acyl-CoA Specificities*

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Benjamin C.; Linder, Maurine E.

    2012-01-01

    DHHC proteins catalyze the reversible S-acylation of proteins at cysteine residues, a modification important for regulating protein localization, stability, and activity. However, little is known about the kinetic mechanism of DHHC proteins. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), fluorescent peptide-based assay for protein S-acylation activity was developed to characterize mammalian DHHC2 and DHHC3. Time courses and substrate saturation curves allowed the determination of Vmax and Km values for both the peptide N-myristoylated-GCG and palmitoyl-coenzyme A. DHHC proteins acylate themselves upon incubation with palmitoyl-CoA, which is hypothesized to reflect a transient acyl enzyme transfer intermediate. Single turnover assays with DHHC2 and DHHC3 demonstrated that a radiolabeled acyl group on the enzyme transferred to the protein substrate, consistent with a two-step ping-pong mechanism. Enzyme autoacylation and acyltransfer to substrate displayed the same acyl-CoA specificities, further supporting a two-step mechanism. Interestingly, DHHC2 efficiently transferred acyl chains 14 carbons and longer, whereas DHHC3 activity was greatly reduced by acyl-CoAs with chain lengths longer than 16 carbons. The rate and extent of autoacylation of DHHC3, as well as the rate of acyl chain transfer to protein substrate, were reduced with stearoyl-CoA when compared with palmitoyl-CoA. This is the first observation of lipid substrate specificity among DHHC proteins and may account for the differential S-acylation of proteins observed in cells. PMID:22247542

  1. Nightblindness-associated transient tonic downgaze (NATTD) in infant boys with chin-up head posture.

    PubMed

    Simonsz, H J; Florijn, R J; van Minderhout, H M; Bergen, A A B; Kamermans, M

    2009-01-01

    Eleven infant boys presented with chin-up head posture, tonic downgaze and, on attempted upgaze, large-amplitude upward saccades with deceleration during the slow phase downward. The gaze-evoked upward saccades disappeared at the age of 2 or 3 years. In addition, they had high-frequency, small-amplitude horizontal pendular nystagmus that remained. Among these infant boys were 2 pairs of maternally related half-brothers, 2 cousins, and 2 siblings. Visual acuity ranged from 0.1 to 0.6, ERG-amplitudes (both A- and B-wave) were reduced, and severe myopia was found in 5 cases. Eight boys had CACNA1F mutations, and 1 boy had a NYX mutation, compatible with incomplete or complete congenital stationary nightblindness (iCSNB or cCSNB), respectively. This points to a defective synapse between the rod and the ON-bipolar cell causing the motility disorder: CACNA1F is located on the rod side of this synapse, whereas NYX is located on the side of the ON-bipolar cell. The coexistence of horizontal and vertical nystagmus has been previously described in dark-reared cats. PMID:20001510

  2. Intractable Facial Pain and Numb Chin due to Metastatic Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Foad; Luke, Whitney; Elahi, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The etiologies of facial pain are innumerable, thus facial pain misdiagnosis and resultant mismanagement is common. Numb chin syndrome presents with hypoesthesia and/or anesthesia in the dermatomal distribution of the inferior alveolar or the mental nerve. In this case report, we will discuss a case of intractable facial pain in a 57-year-old male with a history of esophageal adenocarcinoma who was initially misdiagnosed and treated as trigeminal neuralgia. During clinical examination, the loss of sensation in the inferior alveolar nerve distribution was identified and led to the diagnosis of mandibular metastasis. The details of the clinical presentation will be discussed in the context of accurate identification and diagnosis. Focal radiation to the metastatic location along with sphenopalatine ganglion radiofrequency ablation and medication management provided significant pain relief. This case report provides additional information to the current medical knowledge and it enhances the clinical vigilance of the clinicians when they encounter similar cases. We concluded that patients with a history of neoplasms who present with atypical symptoms of facial pain should undergo further investigation with advanced imaging. Targeted treatment based on an accurate diagnosis is the foundation of pain management. PMID:25606033

  3. Orbital and Subcutaneous Emphysema Following Enucleation and Respiratory Distress in a Japanese Chin.

    PubMed

    Gornik, Kara R; Pirie, Christopher G; Alario, Anthony F

    2015-01-01

    A 7 yr old, neutered male Japanese chin presented to the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University (CSVMTU) for evaluation of chronic unilateral orbital swelling that worsened following an episode of respiratory distress. The left eye had been enucleated 5 yr previously. Intermittent mild-to-moderate left orbital swelling had been noted by the owner since the initial surgery. Examination demonstrated a moderate-to-severe, soft, fluctuant swelling involving the left orbit with erythema of the overlying skin. Crepitus was noted over the occipital tuberosity. Computed tomography revealed a large volume of gas involving the left orbit. The gas extended caudally within the subcutaneous tissues to both hemimandibles, dorsal to the cranium, and partially surrounded the cranial neck. The presence of a mucosa-lined, air-filled space with a patent nasolacrimal duct was noted on orbital exploration. The lining was removed and the duct closed. Histopathology confirmed the presence of an epithelial lining. No recurrence of the swelling was observed on examination 8 wk after surgery. This is the first report documenting acute worsening of orbital swelling following an episode of respiratory distress. This case highlights the importance of addressing the nasolacrimal duct while performing an enculeation in a brachycephalic dog. PMID:26535462

  4. Cytodiagnosis of a Cutaneous Clear Cell Malignancy: Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma on Chin

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Gyanendra; Chaturvedi, Sunanda; Khan, Shakir Ali

    2016-01-01

    Clear cell type of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is most common urological malignancy. Several diagnostic challenges arise when it presents as a cutaneous nodule, being an uncommon presentation. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of a cutaneous nodule is crucial for distinguishing primary tumours from metastatic tumours because cutaneous metastases represent a terminal stage of illness. Due to considerable overlap of cytomorphological features determination of primary warrants need of detailed clinical history and close inspection of every cytological detail. We report here a case of cutaneous metastasis of RCC on chin in a patient 11 years after nephrectomy. Though there are reports of RCC metastases diagnosed on histology, there are fewer cytology case reports. Cytological differential diagnosis has been discussed for arriving at the final diagnosis in case of clear cell tumours. Early and accurate diagnosis is mandatory for optimal treatment. Cytodiagnosis of cutaneous metastasis of RCC is uncommon due to its low suspicion index in cutaneous nodules. More so, it presents late and an unusual sites due to its resemblance to common dermatological diseases. PMID:26894079

  5. Vertical chin augmentation with interpositional porous polyethylene implants: a histologic study in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Magro-Filho, O; Kallal, R; Rangel-Garcia Júnior, I; Magro-Ernica, N

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate histologically the tissue reaction in the chin after a vertical augmentation using interpositional porous polyethylene (PPE) implants in monkeys. Six monkeys (Cebus apella) underwent an anterior horizontal mandibular osteotomy with implantation of an interpositional PPE implant to increase the vertical height. The animals were sacrificed 5 months postoperatively. Histologic preparations were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The perimeter of the interface between the implant and the bone, the implant and the trabecular space, and the implant and the fibrous capsule were quantified using the NIH Image Analysis System (Image 1.60/PPC). In addition, the Tukey test was done. The study demonstrated that bone growth takes place within the pores of the implant; a fibrous capsule exists in some animals, where the implant has contact with the periosteum and mentalis muscle with few chronic inflammatory cells; and the 3 different tissues responded in statistically different manners. Perimeter analysis revealed 68.9% implant-bone contact, 22.9% implant-fibrous tissue contact, and 8.2% implant-trabecular space contact. PMID:10686842

  6. Mobilization of the active MITE transposons mPing and Pong in rice by introgression from wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.).

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhenlan; Dong, Zhenying; Wang, Yongming; Chen, Yu; Lin, Xiuyun; Long, Likun; Han, Fangpu; Dong, Yingshan; Liu, Bao

    2005-04-01

    Hybridization between different species plays an important role in plant genome evolution, as well as is a widely used approach for crop improvement. McClintock has predicted that plant wide hybridization constitutes a "genomic shock" whereby cryptic transposable elements may be activated. However, direct experimental evidence showing a causal relationship between plant wide hybridization and transposon mobilization has not yet been reported. The miniature-Ping (mPing) is a recently isolated active miniature inverted-repeat transposable element transposon from rice, which is mobilized by tissue culture and gamma-ray irradiation. We show herein that mPing, together with its putative transposase-encoding partner, Pong, is mobilized in three homologous recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from hybridization between rice (cultivar Matsumae) and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.), harboring introgressed genomic DNA from wild rice. In contrast, both elements remain immobile in two lines sharing the same parentage to the RILs but possessing no introgressed DNA. Thus, we have presented direct evidence that is consistent with McClintock's insight by demonstrating a causal link between wide hybridization and transposon mobilization in rice. In addition, we report an atypical behavior of mPing/Pong mobilization in these lines, i.e., the exclusive absence of footprints after excision. PMID:15647520

  7. Lithospheric Structure in the southeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau by using ChinArray Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhifeng

    2016-04-01

    The China Seismic Array Program (ChinArray) is to understand the deep structures and their relationship to seismic activity in the continent of China. The first phase of the program was carried out in the region of Yunnan, in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. How is the relationship between the Plateau and surroundings blocks? How is the characteristics of the deep structures, especially along the faults we observed on the surface? We also want to know more about deep background structures where the strong earthquake occurred. The seismic array includes 350 broadband portable seismic stations, with the average interval of 35km. By using the seismic inversion methods, we obtained the 3-D seismic velocity structure, the shape of the Moho discontinuities, the seismic anisotropy of the lithospheric medium. These results could be used to build the 3-D model of the lithospheric structures. The low velocity zone in low crust was founded inside the Plateau area. Moho depth distribution was obtained from the seismic receiver function. They showed the different margins of the extension materials of Tibetan Plateau in deep from that on the surface. The Red River fault is the border of the blocks in crust. While it has no remarkable variation in mantle beneath the Red River fault. The seismic anisotropy figure showed that the directions of the splitted fast S waves are different in northern and southern part of the Yunnan area. We deduced that the extrusion of Tibetan Plateau was obstructed below the crust around the latitude of 26°N.

  8. Seismic Observations of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk Meteor from Dense ChinArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, L.; Wang, B.; Peng, Z.; Wang, W.

    2014-12-01

    Since the 1908 Tunguska event, the largest meteor was reported on 15 February 2013 around 03:20:00 UTC. The fireball exploded and dropped near Chelyabinsk, Russia. Massive energy released by meteor crash was recorded by the 500-station ChinArray deployed in southwest China at distances more than 4000 kilometers from the meteor event. About 20 minutes before the meteor event, an M5.8 event occurred in Tonga, and produced seismic waves that overlapped with the seismic signals from the meteor event. Here we separate the seismic phases from the two events using standard array processing techniques such as F-K analysis, beam-forming, and vespagram in the Generic Array Processing (GAP) code (Koper, 2005). F-K analysis provides an effective way to calculate the back azimuth and slowness of a seismic phase. With this method, we identify a phase with back azimuth of 339.1°and slowness of 37.46sec/deg as surface wave from meteor. Beam-forming technique can be used to amplify the signal of meteor generated surface wave and suppress incoherent noise and phases with different slowness from the Tonga event. Vespagram shows the appropriate slowness of ~35sec/deg at arrival of meteor's phase, confirming the F-K detection of surface wave. From the surface wave observation, we conclude that the seismic source of meteor is located on 61.39N 58.70E, which is ~700km away from the USGS location (55.15N 61.41E). Using the Praha relation [Karnik et al., 1962], we estimate a magnitude of Ms=3.94±0.18 in accordance with that of Ms~3.7 [Benoit Tauzin et al., 2013]. Our result is comparable to other observations with shorter epicentral distances, suggesting that dense seismic arrays can be used to detect weak seismic signals at long-range distances.

  9. Design on DDR caching control with ping-pong operation for high-speed data acquisition system with PCI Express interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhang, Yong; Han, Nan

    2008-10-01

    Data caching is an indispensable part of high-speed data acquisition system, and it makes an important effect on coordinating the speed of data transfer and data processing. In the article, a data caching controller with ping-pong operation is designed after discussion on the features of data transmission with PCI Express interface. The controller's structure and principle is described, as well as the control logic. Additionally, the controller shows the idea of pipeline, where the command sending and data transfer control are separated on controlling the DDR controllers. The result indicates that the design could be widely used in the seamless caching and high-speed data process system. System efficiency will be improved, and the logic design will be simplified.

  10. Health and Human Rights in Chin State, Western Burma: A Population-Based Assessment Using Multistaged Household Cluster Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Sollom, Richard; Richards, Adam K.; Parmar, Parveen; Mullany, Luke C.; Lian, Salai Bawi; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Background The Chin State of Burma (also known as Myanmar) is an isolated ethnic minority area with poor health outcomes and reports of food insecurity and human rights violations. We report on a population-based assessment of health and human rights in Chin State. We sought to quantify reported human rights violations in Chin State and associations between these reported violations and health status at the household level. Methods and Findings Multistaged household cluster sampling was done. Heads of household were interviewed on demographics, access to health care, health status, food insecurity, forced displacement, forced labor, and other human rights violations during the preceding 12 months. Ratios of the prevalence of household hunger comparing exposed and unexposed to each reported violation were estimated using binomial regression, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were constructed. Multivariate models were done to adjust for possible confounders. Overall, 91.9% of households (95% CI 89.7%–94.1%) reported forced labor in the past 12 months. Forty-three percent of households met FANTA-2 (Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance II project) definitions for moderate to severe household hunger. Common violations reported were food theft, livestock theft or killing, forced displacement, beatings and torture, detentions, disappearances, and religious and ethnic persecution. Self reporting of multiple rights abuses was independently associated with household hunger. Conclusions Our findings indicate widespread self-reports of human rights violations. The nature and extent of these violations may warrant investigation by the United Nations or International Criminal Court. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21346799

  11. Quantifying the uncertainties of climate change effects on the storage-yield and performance characteristics of the Pong multi-purpose reservoir, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundharajan, B.; Adeloye, A. J.; Remesan, R.

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is predicted to affect water resources infrastructure due to its effect on rainfall, temperature and evapotranspiration. However, there are huge uncertainties on both the magnitude and direction of these effects. The Pong reservoir on the Beas River in northern India serves irrigation and hydropower needs. The hydrology of the catchment is highly influenced by Himalayan seasonal snow and glaciers, and Monsoon rainfall; the changing pattern of the latter and the predicted disappearance of the former will have profound effects on the performance of the reservoir. This study employed a Monte-Carlo simulation approach to characterise the uncertainties in the future storage requirements and performance of the reservoir. Using a calibrated rainfall-runoff (R-R) model, the baseline runoff scenario was first simulated. The R-R inputs (rainfall and temperature) were then perturbed using plausible delta-changes to produce simulated climate change runoff scenarios. Stochastic models of the runoff were developed and used to generate ensembles of both the current and climate-change perturbed future scenarios. The resulting runoff ensembles were used to simulate the behaviour of the reservoir and determine "populations" of reservoir storage capacity and performance characteristics. Comparing these parameters between the current and the perturbed provided the population of climate change effects which was then analysed to determine the uncertainties. The results show that contrary to the usual practice of using single records, there is wide variability in the assessed impacts. This variability or uncertainty will, no doubt, complicate the development of climate change adaptation measures; however, knowledge of its sheer magnitude as demonstrated in this study will help in the formulation of appropriate policy and technical interventions for sustaining and possibly enhancing water security for irrigation and other uses served by Pong reservoir.

  12. Availability of ground water on Federal land near the Ak-Chin Indian Reservation, Arizona: a reconnaissance study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Richard P.

    1979-01-01

    Sufficient ground water to provide about 2.1 million acre-feet in a 25-year period is available for delivery to the Ak-Chin Indian Reservation from Federal land in the Vekol Valley, Waterman Wash area, and Bosque area in south-central Arizona. Withdrawal of 85,000 acre-feet per year as required by the Ak-Chin water-supply act--Public Law 95-328--will greatly deplete the amount of water in storage and may cause land subsidence in the areas. Study concurrent with well-field development will enable design changes to minimize pumping costs , water-level declines, movement of poor-quality water into the well fields, and potential land subsidence and associated earth fissures. Surface and bore-hole geophysical testing, aquifer tests, and the development of simulative mathematical models will accomplish these goals and permit quantitative evaluations of the potential deleterious effects resulting from development of the water supply. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Tales of Recombinant Femininity: "The Reincarnation of Golden Lotus," the "Chin P'ing Mei," and the Politics of Melodrama in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fore, Steve

    1993-01-01

    Examines the film "The Reincarnation of Golden Lotus" and the text upon which it is loosely based, the "Chin P'ing Mei," and the relationship between it and modern Chinese culture. States that the film's screenplay is much less an adaptation of the source novel than it is a female-centered reworking of a particular narrative and thematic elements.…

  14. Aub and Ago3 Are Recruited to Nuage through Two Mechanisms to Form a Ping-Pong Complex Assembled by Krimper.

    PubMed

    Webster, Alexandre; Li, Sisi; Hur, Junho K; Wachsmuth, Malte; Bois, Justin S; Perkins, Edward M; Patel, Dinshaw J; Aravin, Alexei A

    2015-08-20

    In Drosophila, two Piwi proteins, Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute-3 (Ago3), localize to perinuclear "nuage" granules and use guide piRNAs to target and destroy transposable element transcripts. We find that Aub and Ago3 are recruited to nuage by two different mechanisms. Aub requires a piRNA guide for nuage recruitment, indicating that its localization depends on recognition of RNA targets. Ago3 is recruited to nuage independently of a piRNA cargo and relies on interaction with Krimper, a stable component of nuage that is able to aggregate in the absence of other nuage proteins. We show that Krimper interacts directly with Aub and Ago3 to coordinate the assembly of the ping-pong piRNA processing (4P) complex. Symmetrical dimethylated arginines are required for Aub to interact with Krimper, but they are dispensable for Ago3 to bind Krimper. Our study reveals a multi-step process responsible for the assembly and function of nuage complexes in piRNA-guided transposon repression. PMID:26295961

  15. Nernst-ping-pong model for evaluating the effects of the substrate concentration and anode potential on the kinetic characteristics of bioanode.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sikan; Liang, Da-Wei; Diao, Peng; Liu, Yanyan; Lan, Fei; Yang, Yuhan; Lu, Shanfu; Xiang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the electron-transfer mechanism and kinetic characteristics of bioanodes is greatly significant to enhance the electron-generating efficiencies in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). A Nernst-ping-pong model is proposed here to investigate the kinetics and biochemical processes of bioanodes in a microbial electrolysis cell. This model can accurately describe the effects of the substrate (including substrate inhibition) and the anode potential on the current of bioanodes. Results show that the half-wave potential positively shifts as the substrate concentration increases, indicating that the rate-determining steps of anodic processes change from substrate oxidation to intracellular electron transport reaction. The anode potential has negligible effects on the enzymatic catalysis of anodic microbes in the range of -0.25 V to +0.1 V vs. a saturated calomel electrode. It turns out that to reduce the anodic energy loss caused by overpotential, higher substrate concentrations are preferred, if the substrate do not significantly and adversely affect the output current. PMID:23567738

  16. Growth data of underprivileged children living in rural areas of Chin State, Burma/Myanmar, compared to the WHO reference growth standards: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Prenkert, Malin; Ehnfors, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore growth data (height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age) of children living in poor socioeconomic conditions in rural areas of Chin State, Burma/Myanmar; and to compare these data with the growth and development z-score (GDZ) values for school-aged children and adolescents, provided by the WHO. Setting A support and educational programme, run by the Swedish association Chin Development and Research Society (CDRS), was carried out among underprivileged school-aged children, unable to attend school without economic and practical support, living in villages and remote areas in Chin State. Participants Community leaders who were well familiar with the citizens in the community identified children in need of this support. Other community members could also suggest or apply for this. The sample includes all participating children in the CDRS programme at the time of the data collection in six townships. The children were placed in host families, close to a suitable school. Two samples with a total of 639 children from 144 villages and remote areas were obtained: 1. Children in the CDRS Chin Programme (CCP) (2007–2010) comprised 558 children: 50% girls and boys. 2. Children in the Chin Society (CCS) (2010) comprised 81 children: 44% girls and 56% boys. Primary outcome measures Growth data. Results All growth data from both groups deviated significantly from the WHO standard references (p≤0.001). The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age ≤–2SD) was 52% among girls and 68% among boys. High levels of wasting (weight-for-age ≤–2SD) were found among girls 29% and boys 36% aged 5–10 years. In addition, severe thinness (BMI-for-age ≤–2SD) was found among girls 31% and boys 44%, all results to be compared to the expected 2.27%. Conclusions Many more than expected—according to the WHO reference values—in CCP and CCS suffered from stunting, wasting and thinness. PMID:26787249

  17. Comparative Analysis of Reproductive Traits in Black-Chinned Tilapia Females from Various Coastal Marine, Estuarine and Freshwater Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kantoussan, Justin; Ndiaye, Papa; Thiaw, Omar Thiom; Albaret, Jean-Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron is a marine teleost characterised by an extreme euryhalinity. However, beyond a certain threshold at very high salinity, the species exhibits impaired growth and precocious reproduction. In this study, the relationships between reproductive parameters, environmental salinity and condition factor were investigated in wild populations of this species that were sampled in two consecutive years (2003 and 2004) from three locations in Senegal with different salinities: Guiers lake (freshwater, 0 psu), Hann bay (seawater, 37 psu) and Saloum estuary (hypersaline water, 66–127 psu). The highest absolute fecundity and spawning weight were recorded in seawater by comparison to either freshwater or hypersaline water whereas the poorest condition factors were observed in the most saline sampling site. These results reflect higher resource allocation to the reproduction due to the lowest costs of adaptation to salinity in seawater (the natural environment of this species) rather than differences in food resources at sites and/or efficiency at foraging and prey availability. Fecundities, oocyte size as well as spawning weight were consistent from year to year. However, the relative fecundity in the Saloum estuary varied significantly between the dry and rainy raisons with higher values in the wet season, which seems to reflect seasonal variations in environmental salinity. Such a reproductive tactic of producing large amounts of eggs in the rainy season when the salinity in the estuary was lower, would give the fry a better chance at survival and therefore assures a high larval recruitment. An inverse correlation was found between relative fecundity and oocyte size at the two extreme salinity locations, indicating that S. melanotheron has different reproductive strategies in these ecosystems. The adaptive significance of these two reproductive modes is discussed in regard to the heavy osmotic constraint imposed by extreme

  18. Chin augmentation - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go to slide 5 out of 5 Normal anatomy Overview The mandible, or lower jaw, determines much ... M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn ...

  19. Tribute to Christine Chin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee; Tan, Aik-Ling

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 3 years since Christine left us. She has left a lasting legacy of her academic brilliance among the science education community. This paper pays tribute to Christine's fine research work that has shaped and continues to shape science education research in the field of questioning and argumentation.

  20. Tribute to Christine Chin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee; Tan, Aik-Ling

    2015-09-01

    It has been more than 3 years since Christine left us. She has left a lasting legacy of her academic brilliance among the science education community. This paper pays tribute to Christine's fine research work that has shaped and continues to shape science education research in the field of questioning and argumentation.

  1. Mystery behind Non-Healing Wound at Chin Region - Myiasis due to Neglected Trauma - A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Pulkit; Hajira, Neha

    2016-06-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of human beings with fly larvae which feed on host's living or dead tissue. Diagnosis of this condition is made by the presence of larvae in affected body parts. The standard treatment is the mechanical removal of the maggots from the lesion and management of the general systemic condition. This paper report a case of myiasis at the chin region in a 45-year-old male managed by manual removal of larvae after topical application of turpentine oil, surgical debridement of necrotic tissues and antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27504426

  2. Comment on “A Quantum Network System of QSS-QDC Using χ-Type Entangled States" [Chin. Phys. Lett. 29 (2012) 050303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu; Liu, Wen-Jie; Xu, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Two quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocols in a multiuser quantum direct communication (QDC) network system were put forward by Hong et al. [Chin. Phys. Lett. 29 (2012) 050303]. However, we find that either agent (Bob or Charlie) alone can obtain half the information about the sender's secret without collaboration with the other, which does not satisfy the security requirement of QSS. Moreover, the secret message sent by Alice in the second protocol can be eavesdropped on or its communication can be disturbed by the builder of quantum channels (Trent).

  3. Mystery behind Non-Healing Wound at Chin Region - Myiasis due to Neglected Trauma – A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hajira, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of human beings with fly larvae which feed on host’s living or dead tissue. Diagnosis of this condition is made by the presence of larvae in affected body parts. The standard treatment is the mechanical removal of the maggots from the lesion and management of the general systemic condition. This paper report a case of myiasis at the chin region in a 45-year-old male managed by manual removal of larvae after topical application of turpentine oil, surgical debridement of necrotic tissues and antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27504426

  4. Chin shield osteotomy--a new genioplasty technique avoiding a deep mento-labial fold in order to increase the labial competence.

    PubMed

    Triaca, A; Furrer, T; Minoretti, R

    2009-11-01

    The authors report a genioplasty technique in which the advancement of an anterior mandibular segment is executed with a specific osteotomy form that helps to avoid a deep mentolabial fold and improves labial competence. The osteotomy presented achieves this by creating a 'chin shield' where the mandibular segment advanced is relatively high on the side of the buccal cortex and lower on the lingual side and where the osteotomy or down-fracture in between is in an oblique angle in the sagittal plane. PMID:19640681

  5. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography-Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise.

    PubMed

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yoon, Wai Lam; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of two dysphagia interventions, the Chin Tuck against Resistance (CTAR) and Shaker exercises, were evaluated based on two principles in exercise science-muscle-specificity and training intensity. Both exercises were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer. Thirty-nine healthy adults performed two trials of both exercises in counter-balanced order. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings were simultaneously collected from suprahyoid muscle group and sternocleidomastoid muscle during the exercises. Converging results using sEMG amplitude analyses suggested that the CTAR was more specific in targeting the suprahyoid muscles than the Shaker exercise. Fatigue analyses on sEMG signals further indicated that the suprahyoid muscle group were equally or significantly fatigued (depending on metric), when participants carried out CTAR compared to the Shaker exercise. Importantly, unlike during Shaker exercise, the sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly less activated and fatigued during CTAR. Lowering the chin against resistance is therefore sufficiently specific and intense to fatigue the suprahyoid muscles. PMID:26837612

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fat samples from White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and Spectacled Petrels (P. conspicillata) off southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cipro, Caio V Z; Colabuono, Fernanda I; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-12-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been gaining much visibility in environmental chemical studies due to their similarity to PCBs and growing reports of harmful effects. The fact that these contaminants have not yet undergone bans or restrictions on the global level underscores the need for data on their occurrence. In the present study, fat samples from 26 White-chinned Petrels (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and 3 Spectacled Petrels (P. conspicillata) collected dead ashore or as bycatch of longline fisheries in southern Brazil were analyzed to determine concentrations of seven congeners (IUPAC #28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154 and 183). Concentrations of ΣPBDEs ranged from not detectable to 72.70 ng g(-1) (wet weight), comparatively lower than concentrations reported for seabird samples in northern hemisphere. The most detected congeners were 153, 154 and 183. This pattern is close to that previously reported for birds of the same group, but not those from the same region. PMID:24143957

  7. Structures of NADH and CH[subscript 3]-H[subscript 4] Folate Complexes of Escherichia coli Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Reveal a Spartan Strategy for a Ping-Pong Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Pejchal, Robert; Sargeant, Ryan; Ludwig, Martha L.

    2010-03-08

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductases (MTHFRs; EC 1.7.99.5) catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (CH{sub 2}-H{sub 4}folate) to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}folate) using flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) as a cofactor. The initial X-ray structure of Escherichia coli MTHFR revealed that this 33-kDa polypeptide is a ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrel that aggregates to form an unusual tetramer with only 2-fold symmetry. Structures of reduced enzyme complexed with NADH and of oxidized Glu28Gln enzyme complexed with CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}folate have now been determined at resolutions of 1.95 and 1.85 {angstrom}, respectively. The NADH complex reveals a rare mode of dinucleotide binding; NADH adopts a hairpin conformation and is sandwiched between a conserved phenylalanine, Phe223, and the isoalloxazine ring of FAD. The nicotinamide of the bound pyridine nucleotide is stacked against the si face of the flavin ring with C4 adjoining the N5 of FAD, implying that this structure models a complex that is competent for hydride transfer. In the complex with CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}folate, the pterin ring is also stacked against FAD in an orientation that is favorable for hydride transfer. Thus, the binding sites for the two substrates overlap, as expected for many enzymes that catalyze ping-pong reactions, and several invariant residues interact with both folate and pyridine nucleotide substrates. Comparisons of liganded and substrate-free structures reveal multiple conformations for the loops {beta}2-{alpha}2 (L2), {beta}3-{alpha}3 (L3), and {beta}4-{alpha}4 (L4) and suggest that motions of these loops facilitate the ping-pong reaction. In particular, the L4 loop adopts a 'closed' conformation that allows Asp120 to hydrogen bond to the pterin ring in the folate complex but must move to an 'open' conformation to allow NADH to bind.

  8. Influence of environmental factors on abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary, Samut Sakhon province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ritnim, Nittaya; Meksumpun, Charumas

    2011-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources was studied in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary located in Samut Sakhon province. The objectives were to analyze the status of abundance and temporal variation of the benthic fauna and to clarify the impacts from environmental factors (water and sediment quality). Field surveys were conducted monthly from August 2007 to March 2008 at 11 sampling stations in the estuary. Based on freshwater runoff volumes, the high-, medium-, and low-loading periods were categorized to be from August to October 2007, November to December 2007, and January to March 2008, respectively. The benthic fauna resources were composed of 57 species in eight phyla. Annelids were the dominant species (with the maximum density being 19,885 individuals/m2), followed by the mollusks. Both densities decreased during the low-loading period in 2008. Water quality deteriorated during the high-loading period. Land-based wastewater discharges decreased the levels of salinity and dissolved oxygen but dramatically increased various nutrients. Consequently, the sediment quality deteriorated during the medium-loading period. Bottom deposits during this time depicted high accumulation of acid volatile sulfides (more than 0.76 mg/g dry weight). Analyzing the environmental relationships, deposit feeders (for example, Nereis sp. and Prionospio sp.) and a clam (Arcuatula sp.) showed potential as bio-indicators for environmental monitoring. The overall results revealed the importance of changes in the water and sediment qualities that had an influence on related benthic resources. The increase in the level of NH4(+)-N had a negative impact on the economic clam species, while the sedimentary TOM showed positive correlation (P < 0.05) with this increase. The succession of groups based on feeding behavior seemed to correspond with stress in eutrophication along the salinity gradient and in different estuarine

  9. Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow

  10. An Atmospheric Pressure Ping-Pong "Ballometer"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazachkov, Alexander; Kryuchkov, Dmitriy; Willis, Courtney; Moore, John C.

    2006-01-01

    Classroom experiments on atmospheric pressure focus largely on demonstrating its existence, often in a most impressive way. A series of amusing physics demonstrations is widely known and practiced by educators teaching the topic. However, measuring the value of atmospheric pressure(P[subscript atm]) is generally done in a rather mundane way,…

  11. Ping-pong modes: a new form of multipactor.

    PubMed

    Kishek, R A

    2012-01-20

    The multipactor is a vacuum discharge based on a secondary electron emission. A novel resonant form is proposed that combines one- and two-surface impacts within a single period, provided the total transit time is an odd number of rf half-periods and the product of secondary yields exceeds unity. For low fD products, the simplest such mode is shown to significantly increase the upper electric field boundary of the multipacting region and lead to overlap of higher-order bands. The results agree nicely with 3D particle-in-cell code simulations. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22400751

  12. Ping-pong modes and higher-periodicity multipactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kishek, R. A.

    2013-05-15

    Multipactor is a vacuum discharge driven by secondary electron emission. Multiple period multipactors have long been known to exist but have been studied less extensively. In a period-n multipactor, electrons undergo multiple impacts in one rf period, with the synchronous phase alternating periodically between multiple values. A novel resonant form is proposed that combines one- and two-surface impacts within a single period, provided the total transit time is an odd number of rf half-periods and the product of secondary yields exceeds unity. For low fD products, the simplest such mode is shown to significantly increase the upper electric field boundary of the multipacting region and lead to overlap of higher-order bands. The results agree nicely with 3-D particle-in-cell code simulations. An alternative, map-based method is introduced for analyzing higher-periodicity multipactor. Practical implications of the findings are discussed, including consequences for multipactor suppression strategies using a dc magnetic field.

  13. Burkitt leukemia with numb chin syndrome and cavernous sinus involvement.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Daniela Vasconcelos; Lobo, Ana Luísa; Farinha, Nuno Jorge; Cavadas, Laurentina; Campos, Maria Manuel; Ayres-Basto, Margarida; Pimenta, Maria Teresa Lavandeira

    2006-05-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome is a rare event. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, are one possible cause. Neurological presentation of these lymphomas is also exceptional. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy that developed a right third cranial nerve palsy and numbness in the distribution of the right mental nerve, with normal CSF, and enlargement of cavernous sinus on the same side, who was diagnosed Burkitt leukemia. PMID:16621630

  14. Molecular ping-pong Game of Life on a two-dimensional DNA origami array.

    PubMed

    Jonoska, N; Seeman, N C

    2015-07-28

    We propose a design for programmed molecular interactions that continuously change molecular arrangements in a predesigned manner. We introduce a model where environmental control through laser illumination allows platform attachment/detachment oscillations between two floating molecular species. The platform is a two-dimensional DNA origami array of tiles decorated with strands that provide both, the floating molecular tiles to attach and to pass communicating signals to neighbouring array tiles. In particular, we show how algorithmic molecular interactions can control cyclic molecular arrangements by exhibiting a system that can simulate the dynamics similar to two-dimensional cellular automata on a DNA origami array platform. PMID:26078341

  15. Giant Dielectric Permittivity in Ferroelectric Thin Films: Domain Wall Ping Pong

    PubMed Central

    Quan Jiang, An; Jian Meng, Xiang; Wei Zhang, David; Hyuk Park, Min; Yoo, Sijung; Jin Kim, Yu; Scott, James F.; Seong Hwang, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric permittivity in ferroelectric thin films is generally orders of magnitude smaller than in their bulk. Here, we discover a way of increasing dielectric constants in ferroelectric thin films by ca. 500% by synchronizing the pulsed switching fields with the intrinsic switching time (nucleation of domain plus forward growth from cathode to anode). In a 170-nm lead zirconate titanate thin film with an average grain size of 850 nm this produces a dielectric constant of 8200 with the maximum nucleus density of 3.8 μm−2, which is one to three orders of magnitude higher than in other dielectric thin films. This permits smaller capacitors in memory devices and is a step forward in making ferroelectric domain-engineered nano-electronics. PMID:26440528

  16. Small RNA in the nucleus: the RNA-chromatin ping-pong

    PubMed Central

    Olovnikov, Ivan; Aravin, Alexei A.; Toth, Katalin Fejes

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotes use several classes of small RNA molecules to guide diverse protein machineries to target messenger RNA. The role of small RNA in post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA stability and translation is now well established. Small RNAs can also guide sequence-specific modification of chromatin structure and thus contribute to establishment and maintenance of distinct chromatin domains. In this review we summarize the model for the inter-dependent interaction between small RNA and chromatin that has emerged from studies on fission yeast and plants. We focus on recent results that link a distinct class of small RNAs, the piRNAs, to chromatin regulation in animals. PMID:22349141

  17. Giant Dielectric Permittivity in Ferroelectric Thin Films: Domain Wall Ping Pong.

    PubMed

    Quan Jiang, An; Jian Meng, Xiang; Wei Zhang, David; Hyuk Park, Min; Yoo, Sijung; Jin Kim, Yu; Scott, James F; Seong Hwang, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The dielectric permittivity in ferroelectric thin films is generally orders of magnitude smaller than in their bulk. Here, we discover a way of increasing dielectric constants in ferroelectric thin films by ca. 500% by synchronizing the pulsed switching fields with the intrinsic switching time (nucleation of domain plus forward growth from cathode to anode). In a 170-nm lead zirconate titanate thin film with an average grain size of 850 nm this produces a dielectric constant of 8200 with the maximum nucleus density of 3.8 μm(-2), which is one to three orders of magnitude higher than in other dielectric thin films. This permits smaller capacitors in memory devices and is a step forward in making ferroelectric domain-engineered nano-electronics. PMID:26440528

  18. Ping Pong: Competing Leadership for Reform in EU Higher Education 1998-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Anne

    2011-01-01

    How effective is EU cooperation in higher education? This article treats the issue as one of effectiveness in policy-making. What are the policy ideas which the EU wishes to feed into a policy domain where it has to operate largely through political cooperation and a modest degree of incentive funding? What outcomes are possible? The question is…

  19. Visceral Pseudoaneurysm Embolisation Using 'Ping-Pong' Technique: Importance of Dual Arterial Catheterisation to Prevent Rupture.

    PubMed

    Burrows, V; Zayyan, K S; Harding, J

    2015-01-01

    Supracolic peri-pancreatic visceral pseudoaneurysms combine the challenges of difficult location for open surgical repair with unpredictable risk of fatal exsanguination. Endovascular embolisation is a well-established method of safely decompressing these lesions using a variety of thrombogenic agents. A single catheter technique is commonly employed to achieve this outcome. However, there is also a risk of iatrogenic rupture during these procedures as a result of occlusion of one vessel allowing pressure to rise through any other vessel(s). Thus a thorough understanding of the flow dynamics prior to and during occlusion is essential for safe decompression. We report the adaptation of dual arterial catheter technique in treating these lesions in an 80-year old man with a large, leaking peripancreatic visceral pseudo-aneurysm. Our technique of alternating between intervention and observation of effect allows greater control of the potentially unpredictable haemodynamic situation. PMID:26158256

  20. "The Source of Learning Is Thought" Reading the "Chin-ssu lu" (???) with a "Western Eye"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenbach, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The contribution focuses on Neo-Confucian texts as collected by Zhu Xi (?? 1130-1200) and Lü Zuqian (1137-1181) and is a look from the "outside", from the perspective of German theories of Bildung ("self-cultivation"). It aims at demonstrating that among other insights that today's readers may gather from Neo-Confucian…

  1. One Loop to Rule Them All: The Ping-Pong Cycle and piRNA-Guided Silencing.

    PubMed

    Czech, Benjamin; Hannon, Gregory J

    2016-04-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is a conserved defense mechanism that protects the genetic information of animal germ cells from the deleterious effects of molecular parasites, such as transposons. Discovered nearly a decade ago, this small RNA silencing system comprises PIWI-clade Argonaute proteins and their associated RNA-binding partners, the piRNAs. In this review, we highlight recent work that has advanced our understanding of how piRNAs preserve genome integrity across generations. We discuss the mechanism of piRNA biogenesis, give an overview of common themes as well as differences in piRNA-mediated silencing between species, and end by highlighting known and emerging functions of piRNAs. PMID:26810602

  2. Ping-Pong, Endurance, Card and other Types of Drinking Games: Are These Games of the Same Feather?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Calvert, Barbara D.; O'Riordan, Siobhan S.; McCollum, Elan C.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the structural heterogeneity of drinking games with respect to beverage type consumed, competitiveness, intoxication level, and game duration, as well as the motives for participation in different games and their relevance to intoxication level while playing. Participants were female students ( N = 162; M…

  3. "Verbal Ping Pong" as Culturally Congruent Communication: Maximizing African American Students' Access and Engagement as Socially Just Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter Ford, Amy

    2013-01-01

    African American youth have been disciplined and dismissed from classrooms for engaging in culturally-based communication practices that teachers misinterpret and perceive as disruptive. Teachers have significant power in how they communicate with their students. White teachers should be especially aware of this power because misunderstandings…

  4. One Loop to Rule Them All: The Ping-Pong Cycle and piRNA-Guided Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Czech, Benjamin; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is a conserved defense mechanism that protects the genetic information of animal germ cells from the deleterious effects of molecular parasites, such as transposons. Discovered nearly a decade ago, this small RNA silencing system comprises PIWI-clade Argonaute proteins and their associated RNA-binding partners, the piRNAs. In this review, we highlight recent work that has advanced our understanding of how piRNAs preserve genome integrity across generations. We discuss the mechanism of piRNA biogenesis, give an overview of common themes as well as differences in piRNA-mediated silencing between species, and end by highlighting known and emerging functions of piRNAs. PMID:26810602

  5. Purely cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as an ulcer on the chin in an elderly man successfully treated with thalidomide

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniyan, Radhakrishnan; Ramachandran, Rajagopal; Rajangam, Gnanasekaran; Donaparthi, Navya

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare, clonal proliferative disorder of Langerhans’ cells of unknown etiology. Although the clinical presentation and therapeutic approach to the disease in children have been well established; limited data is available about the disease in adults. Purely cutaneous involvement of LCH in a man older than 70 years has rarely been described. Herein we report the case of a 71-year-old man with cutaneous LCH confined to the perioral region, scalp, and flexures successfully treated with thalidomide. PMID:26753141

  6. Holocene left-slip rate determined by cosmogenic surface dating on the Xidatan segment of the Kunlun Fault (Qinghai, Chin

    SciTech Connect

    Guoguang, Z; Caffee, M; Finkel, R; G,; demer, Y; Meriaux, A S; Qunlu,; Ryerson, F J; Tapponnier, P; Van der Woerd, J

    1998-09-01

    Cosmogenic dating, using in-situ 26A1 and 10Be in quartz pebbles from alluvial terrace surfaces, constrains the late Holocene slip rate on the Xidatan segment of the Kuniun fault in northeastern Tibet. Two terrace risers offset by 24 ± 3 and 33 f± 4m, having respective ages of 1788 ± 388 and 2914 ± 471 yr, imply a slip rate of 12.1 ± 2.6 mm/yr. The full range of ages obtained ((less than or equal to) 22.8 k.y., most of them between 6.7 and 1.4 k.y.) confirm that terrace deposition and incision, hence landform evolution, are modulated by post-glacial climate change. Coupled with minimum offsets of 9-12 m, this slip rate implies that great earthquakes (M-8) with a recurrence time of 800-1000 yr. rupture the Kunlun fault n

  7. Alveolar ridge augmentation using chin bone graft, bovine bone mineral, and titanium mesh: Clinical, histological, and histomorphomtric study

    PubMed Central

    Khamees, Jihad; Darwiche, Mohammad Atef; Kochaji, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Resorption of the alveolar ridge often leaves insufficient bone volume. Very few studies have investigated the quantity and quality of bone formation in humans, following alveolar ridge augmentation, using autogenous bone and bovine bone mineral (BBM) under titanium mesh. Materials and Methods: Sixteen alveolar bone defects divided into two groups; control group with symphyseal autogenous bone covered by titanium mesh; and test group with symphyseal autogenous bone mixed with BBM in 1: 1 ratio and covered by titanium mesh. The outcomes were evaluated clinically, histologically, and histomorphometrically. Results: Clinical measurements showed that the horizontal bone gain was 3.44±0.54 mm and 2.88±0.57 mm, on average, for control group and test group, respectively. While graft absorption was 2.66±0.98 mm (43.62%) and 1.67±1.00 mm (36.65%), on average, for control group and test group, respectively. In the test group, BBM particles were still recognizable, on histologic analysis. They were surrounded completely or partly by newly formed bone. Clear signs of resorption of the BBM were found, with osteoclast cell noticed in the area. Histomorphometrically, the newly formed bone was 78.40%±13.97% and 65.58%±6.59%, whereas connective tissue constituted 21.60%±13.97% and 23.87%±4.79% for control group and test group, respectively. The remaining BBM particles occupied 10.55%±1.80%. All differences between the control and test groups were not significant (P>.05). Conclusion: This investigation suggests that horizonal ridge augmentation with titanium mesh and autogenous bone alone or mixed with BBM are predictable and ridges were augmented even if mesh exposure occurs. PMID:23055591

  8. The architecture of the multi-planet system of υ And: υ And b - a super-inflated hot Jupiter in a cosmic ping-pong game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodler, Florian

    2015-12-01

    The gas giant Upsilon Andromeda b (υ And b) was one of the first discovered exoplanets. This planet orbits around a bright, similar to the Sun star only 13.5 parsecs away from us. υ And b is also the innermost planet of a confirmed three-planet system, all of them non-transiting. As with all non-transiting planets, their exact masses and sizes are unknown, with their orbital inclination being the key parameter to unveil those values. Astrometric measurements have placed constraints to the orbital inclinations of the two outer planets in this system, indicating that we look almost 'face-on' on the system (McArthur et al. 2010). However, the orbital inclination for the innermost planet remained unknown.Photometric monitoring of υ And b orbit at infrared wavelengths has revealed significant brightness changes between the day-side and the night-side of the planet (Crossfield et al. 2010). The amplitude of those brightness variations depends on the orbital inclination of the planet and on its radius, therefore we can tightly constrain the size of the planet if its inclination is known.Here we present the measurement of the orbital inclination for the innermost planet υ And b, 23 deg, obtained by monitoring the Doppler shift of carbon monoxide (CO) lines on the atmospheric day-side of the planet with Keck/NIRSPEC. From this measurement we establish a planet mass of 1.7 times the mass of Jupiter and a minimum planet radius of 1.8 times the size of Jupiter. This result reveals that υ And b is likely to be one of the most inflated giant planets discovered to date. In addition, the observed strong CO absorption suggests an atmosphere with temperature uniformly decreasing towards higher altitudes, which suggests the absence of an atmospheric thermal inversion (Rodler et al. 2015).

  9. The Forty-Eight-Hour Rule: Emotional Engagement and the Student Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Alan C. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several years ago, the author taught a course called First-Year experience. A student named Sean mentioned that he played "water pong." Sean, a high-achieving student who was also a member of the lacrosse team, explained that water pong was a game with the rules of beer pong, using water rather than beer. Sean volunteered an explanation of his…

  10. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a ... as a liquid to be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin) by a doctor. Your doctor will ...

  11. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  12. Assessing the Effectiveness of Gravitational Wave Outreach Video Games in High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Jonathan

    Students and faculty at the Gravitational Wave Group in Birmingham, UK developed a remake of the classic 1972 game of Pong. Black Hole Pong was developed to be used in events such as science fairs as a way to engage children and pique interest in black holes. I present the results of a study which assesses the utility of Black Hole Pong and its successors in raising awareness of gravitational wave research, and in fostering conceptual understanding of astrophysics and gravity. Of particular interest in this study is potential use in high school science classrooms during astrophysics units.

  13. Ideas by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Describes two new design ideas -- a combination study carrel-locker for use in high schools and a geodesic dome made of transparent vinyl for housing ping pong games in densely populated activity area on a college campus. (DN)

  14. Portion size

    MedlinePlus

    ... waffle is a compact disc Two tablespoons of peanut butter is a ping-pong ball You should ... apple with string cheese, whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter, or baby carrots with hummus. To control ...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NGC 2264 SCUBA-2 observations (Buckle+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, J. V.; Richer, J. S.

    2016-03-01

    The SCUBA-2 observations presented comprise 11h of data collected from 2013 January to December. Continuum observations at 850 and 450um were made using fully sampled 1° diameter circular regions (PONG3600 mapping mode). (2 data files).

  16. Football acne--an acneiform eruption.

    PubMed

    Farber, G A; Burks, J W; Hegre, A M; Brown, G R

    1977-09-01

    Football acne is a peculiar form of localized acneiform eruption of the chin that occurs in acne-prone individuals, as a result of the use of a protective chin strap under conditions of physical and emotional stress. Perhaps it is a locus minoris resistentiae phenomenon. The condition responds favorably to the removal of the chin strap and to the usual topical and systemic acne therapies. PMID:142615

  17. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-mounted (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Front-mounted or back-mounted (with approved particulate filter) 70 85 20 Chin-style (without particulate filter) 40 55 20 Chin-style (with approved particulate filter) 65 80 20 Escape (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Escape (with approved particulate...

  18. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-mounted (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Front-mounted or back-mounted (with approved particulate filter) 70 85 20 Chin-style (without particulate filter) 40 55 20 Chin-style (with approved particulate filter) 65 80 20 Escape (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Escape (with approved particulate...

  19. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-mounted (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Front-mounted or back-mounted (with approved particulate filter) 70 85 20 Chin-style (without particulate filter) 40 55 20 Chin-style (with approved particulate filter) 65 80 20 Escape (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Escape (with approved particulate...

  20. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-mounted (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Front-mounted or back-mounted (with approved particulate filter) 70 85 20 Chin-style (without particulate filter) 40 55 20 Chin-style (with approved particulate filter) 65 80 20 Escape (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Escape (with approved particulate...

  1. 42 CFR 84.122 - Breathing resistance test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-mounted (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Front-mounted or back-mounted (with approved particulate filter) 70 85 20 Chin-style (without particulate filter) 40 55 20 Chin-style (with approved particulate filter) 65 80 20 Escape (without particulate filter) 60 75 20 Escape (with approved particulate...

  2. The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Teaching Sociology: 1973-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paino, Maria; Blankenship, Chastity; Grauerholz, Liz; Chin, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This article updates and extends research by Baker and Chin, who tracked changes in studies published in Teaching Sociology from 1973 to 1983 (Baker) and 1984 to 1999 (Chin). The current study traces manuscripts published in "Teaching Sociology" from 2000 to 2009. We examine both who publishes in the journal and what gets published. In particular,…

  3. 75 FR 43199 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... approving the conveyance of surface estate for certain lands to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation, pursuant to... Doyon, Limited when the surface estate is conveyed to Beaver Kwit'chin Corporation. The lands are in the vicinity of Beaver, Alaska, and are located in: Fairbanks Meridian, Alaska T. 16 N., R. 1 E., Secs. 1 to...

  4. A new design of CAD/CAM surgical template system for two-piece narrowing genioplasty.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Shen, S G; Yu, H; Li, J; Xia, J J; Wang, X

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new chin template system for a two-piece narrowing genioplasty. Nine patients with wide chin deformities were enrolled. Surgeries were planned with the computer-aided surgical simulation (CASS) planning method. Surgical splints and chin templates were designed in a computer and fabricated using a three-dimensional printing technique. The chin template system included a cutting guide and a repositioning guide for a two-piece narrowing genioplasty. These guides were also designed to avoid the mental foramen area and inferior alveolar nerve loops during the osteotomy, for nerve protection. After surgery, the outcome evaluation was completed by first superimposing the postoperative computed tomography model onto the planned model, and then measuring the differences between the planned and actual outcomes. All surgeries were completed successfully using the chin template system. No inferior alveolar nerve damage was seen in this study. With the use of the chin templates, the largest linear root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the planned and the postoperative chin segments was 0.7mm and the largest angular RMSD was 4.5°. The results showed that the chin template system provides a reliable method of transfer for two-piece osseous narrowing genioplasty planning. PMID:26725914

  5. The Analog Atomic Force Microscope: Measuring, Modeling, and Graphing for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Valerie; Brandt, Sharon; Lieberman, Marya

    2013-01-01

    using an analog atomic force microscope (A-AFM) made from a cardboard box and mailing tubes. Varying numbers of ping pong balls inside the tubes mimic atoms on a surface. Students use a dowel to make macroscale measurements similar to those of a nanoscale AFM tip as it…

  6. Tricky Circuitry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Teaching children about circuits and the way electricity works is a "tricky business" because it is invisible. Just imagine all eyes are on the teacher as he or she produces for the class what looks like a ping-pong ball and then, with a wave of their hand, the incredible happens! This wonderful white sphere begins to glow red and a…

  7. Ikons for Mathematics, Part I. Problem Solving and Strategy Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melrose, Jean; Rowe, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Described are some designs in the playground of an infant school, and indicated are some mathematical activities that resulted from their use. Games included are Schlegel diagram of Dodecahedron, Pong Hau K'i, Ko No, Achi, Draughts, and Star with their diagrams. (YP)

  8. Assessing Uncertainties in a Simple and Cheap Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Paulo A., Jr.; Brasil, Gutemberg Hespanha

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes how to calculate measurement uncertainties using as a practical example the assessment of the thickness of ping-pong balls and their material density. The advantages of a randomized experiment are also discussed. This experiment can be reproduced in the physics laboratory for undergraduate students. (Contains 7 tables, 1…

  9. March Math Madness: The Mathematics of the NCAA Basketball Tournament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgan, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the mathematics involved in the NCAA basketball tournament including data analysis, basic probability, expected value, and the multiplication principle. A fun activity is presented that applies these concepts and involves students shooting Ping-Pong balls to discover a best strategy. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  10. The Stair-Step Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a model of a generic atom that is used to represent the movement of electrons from lower to higher levels and vice-versa due to excitation and de-excitation of the atom. As the process of de-excitation takes place, photons represented by colored ping-pong balls are emitted, indicating the emission of light. (MDH)

  11. Contribution of Race, Primary Language, Family Structure and Pre-Kindergarten Attendance to the Odds of Being Classified as Having a Specific Learning Disability by the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roring, Catherine Mary

    2013-01-01

    Many risk factors have been identified for children entering Kindergarten. Many at-risk children eventually get classified as having a Specific Learning disability. Some of these risk factors include having a primary home language other than English (Hosp & Reschly, 2004), having non-intact families (Pong, 1997), being of minority status…

  12. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  13. How to Act? a Question of Encapsulating Infinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamolo, Ami

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates some of the specific features involved in accommodating the idea of actual infinity as it appears in set theory. It focuses on the conceptions of two individuals with sophisticated mathematics background, as manifested in their engagement with variations of a well-known paradox: the ping-pong ball conundrum. The APOS…

  14. Sequence and properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase from Enterobacter cloacae PB2.

    PubMed Central

    French, C E; Nicklin, S; Bruce, N C

    1996-01-01

    Pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase, which reductively liberates nitrite from nitrate esters, is related to old yellow enzyme. Pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase follows a ping-pong mechanism with competitive substrate inhibition by NADPH, is strongly inhibited by steroids, and is capable of reducing the unsaturated bond of 2-cyclohexen-1-one. PMID:8932320

  15. These Kids Are Really on the Ball! Invention Competition Winners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Judge Harry T. Roman, an electrical engineer and inventor himself, has selected the best entries in the 2007-2008 "Tech Directions" Inventors Award Competition. This year's challenge called for students to devise new uses for the common Ping-Pong ball. Of the results, the judge notes "The ideas submitted were most interesting, with a high number…

  16. "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward." Disobedience-Based Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotin, Alison; Aguirre McGregor, Stella; Pellecchia, DeAnna; Schatz, Ingrid; Liu, Shaw Pong

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Alison Kotin, Stella Aguirre McGregor, DeAnna Pellecchia, Ingrid Schatz, and Shaw Pong Liu reflect on their experiences working with public high school students to create "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward.," a performative response to current and historical acts of civil disobedience. The authors--a group of instructors…

  17. Kick Stick Hands-on Challenge: Discover Circuits with PBS's "Design Squad Nation"[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the "Kick Stick" activity from Design Squad Nation, in which kids turn a wooden paint stirrer and circuit into a motorized, spinning arm--then use it to kick a Ping-Pong[R] ball across the floor. Teachers can enrich their students' exploration of circuits and emphasize the engineering design process with "Design Squad…

  18. Filling in the Gaps: Modelling Incomplete CBL Data Using a Graphing Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swingle, David A.; Pachnowski, Lynne M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a real-world problem-solving lesson that emerged when a high school math teacher used a motion detector with a CBL and graphing calculator to obtain the bounce data of a ping-pong ball. Describes the lesson in which students collect bad data then fill in the missing parabolas that result using critical components of parabolas and…

  19. X Marks the Spot: Creating and Managing a Single Service Point to Improve Customer Service and Maximize Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venner, Mary Ann; Keshmiripour, Seti

    2016-01-01

    This article will describe how merging service points in an academic library is an opportunity to improve customer service and utilize staffing resources more efficiently. Combining service points provides libraries with the ability to create a more positive library experience for patrons by minimizing the ping-pong effect for assistance. The…

  20. Academic Value of Non-Academics: The Case for Keeping Extracurriculars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2012-01-01

    With school districts struggling to keep their noses above choppy budget waters and voters howling about taxes, should schools be funding Ping-Pong and trading-card clubs? Swim teams, moot court, powder puff football? Latino unions, gay-straight alliances, the Future Business Leaders of America, the French Honors Society, the jazz band, the…

  1. Recoil Experiments Using a Compressed Air Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Brett

    2006-01-01

    Ping-Pong vacuum cannons, potato guns, and compressed air cannons are popular and dramatic demonstrations for lecture and lab. Students enjoy them for the spectacle, but they can also be used effectively to teach physics. Recently we have used a student-built compressed air cannon as a laboratory activity to investigate impulse, conservation of…

  2. Does Ease to Block a Ball Affect Perceived Ball Speed? Examination of Alternative Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Jessica K.; Sugovic, Mila

    2012-01-01

    According to an action-specific account of perception, the perceived speed of a ball can be a function of the ease to block the ball. Balls that are easier to stop look like they are moving slower than balls that are more difficult to stop. This was recently demonstrated with a modified version of the classic computer game Pong (Witt & Sugovic,…

  3. Action-Specific Effects in a Social Context: Others' Abilities Influence Perceived Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Jessica K.; Sugovic, Mila; Taylor, J. Eric T.

    2012-01-01

    According to the action-specific account of perception, perceivers see the environment relative to their ability to perform the intended action. For example, in a modified version of the computer game Pong, balls that were easier to block looked to be moving slower than balls that were more difficult to block (Witt & Sugovic, 2010). It is unknown,…

  4. Classroom Games in the Compulsory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus-Serbic, Eva

    1976-01-01

    Keeping the pupils' interest up throughout the year in a compulsory language class is a major problem and therefore, language-teaching games are very important. Some new suggestions for games to be used in the elementary school are: (1) The Parrot; (2) The Robot; (3) Ping-Pong; and (4) Telephone. Card games such as Happy Families can be played…

  5. Games People Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VerBruggen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…

  6. The "Collisions Cube" Molecular Dynamics Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, John J.; Smith, Paul E.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a molecular dynamics simulator that employs ping-pong balls as the atoms or molecules and is suitable for either large lecture halls or small classrooms. Discusses its use in illustrating many of the fundamental concepts related to molecular motion and dynamics and providing a three-dimensional perspective of molecular motion. (JRH)

  7. Assessing uncertainties in a simple and cheap experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Paulo A., Jr.; Brasil, Gutemberg Hespanha

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes how to calculate measurement uncertainties using as a practical example the assessment of the thickness of ping-pong balls and their material density. The advantages of a randomized experiment are also discussed. This experiment can be reproduced in the physics laboratory for undergraduate students.

  8. RNA helicase Spn-E is required to maintain Aub and AGO3 protein levels for piRNA silencing in the germline of Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ryazansky, Sergei S; Kotov, Alexei A; Kibanov, Mikhail V; Akulenko, Natalia V; Korbut, Alina P; Lavrov, Sergei A; Gvozdev, Vladimir A; Olenina, Ludmila V

    2016-09-01

    Germline-specific RNA helicase Spindle-E (Spn-E) is known to be essential for piRNA silencing in Drosophila that takes place mainly in the perinuclear nuage granules. Loss-of-function spn-E mutations lead to tandem Stellate genes derepression in the testes and retrotransposon mobilization in the ovaries. However, Spn-E functions in the piRNA pathway are still obscure. Analysis of total library of short RNAs from the testes of spn-E heterozygous flies revealed the presence of abundant piRNA ping-pong pairs originating from Su(Ste) transcripts. The abundance of these ping-pong pairs were sharply reduced in the library from the testes of spn-E mutants. Thus we found that ping-pong mechanism contributed to Su(Ste) piRNA generation in the testes. The lack of Spn-E caused a significant drop of protein levels of key ping-pong participants, Aubergine (Aub) and AGO3 proteins of PIWI subfamily, in the germline of both males and females, but did not disrupt of their assembly in nuage granules. We found that observed decline of the protein expression was not caused by suppression of aub and ago3 transcription as well as total transcription, indicating possible contribution of Spn-E to post-transcriptional regulation. PMID:27320195

  9. Apparatus Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Bruce G., Ed.

    1980-01-01

    This collection of notes describes (1) an optoelectronic apparatus for classroom demonstrations of mechanical laws, (2) a more efficient method for demonstrated nuclear chain reactions using electrically energized "traps" and ping-pong balls, and (3) an inexpensive demonstration for qualitative analysis of temperature-dependent resistance. (CS)

  10. The piRNA pathway is developmentally regulated during spermatogenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Quénerch'du, Emilie; Anand, Amit; Kai, Toshie

    2016-07-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are predominantly produced in animal gonads to suppress transposons during germline development. Our understanding about the piRNA biogenesis and function is predominantly from studies of the Drosophila female germline. piRNA pathway function in the male germline, however, remains poorly understood. To study overall and stage-specific features of piRNAs during spermatogenesis, we analyzed small RNAs extracted from entire wild-type testes and stage-specific arrest mutant testes enriched with spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes. We show that most active piRNA clusters in the female germline do not majorly contribute to piRNAs in testes, and abundance patterns of piRNAs mapping to different transposon families also differ between male and female germlines. piRNA production is regulated in a stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis. The piRNAs in spermatogonia-enriched testes are predominantly transposon-mapping piRNAs, and almost half of those exhibit a ping-pong signature. In contrast, the primary spermatocyte-enriched testes have a dramatically high amount of piRNAs targeting repeats like suppressor of stellate and AT-chX The transposon-mapping piRNAs in the primary spermatocyte stages lacking Argonaute3 expression also show a ping-pong signature, albeit to a lesser extent. Consistently, argonaute3 mutant testes also retain ping-pong signature-bearing piRNAs, suggesting that a noncanonical ping-pong cycle might act during spermatogenesis. Our study shows stage-specific regulation of piRNA biogenesis during spermatogenesis: An active ping-pong cycle produces abundant transposon-mapping piRNAs in spermatogonia, while in primary spermatocytes, piRNAs act to suppress the repeats and transposons. PMID:27208314

  11. Continuous Tracking of Behavioral Development in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Mark; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a strategy of continuous measurement of the frequency of the same infant behavior over time, which was applied to measuring infant development in the prone position, namely, chin lifting, chest lifting, and a creeping response. (BD/BR)

  12. Genioplasty.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Mohammad; Pour, Omid Barahmand

    2015-10-01

    With increasing aesthetic awareness, in addition to the forehead, nose, and cheekbone prominence, the chin nowadays is seen as one of the most important parts of the facial skeleton. The size and location of these areas of the skeleton in relation to the skull base and their three-dimensional positional relationship to each other are essential and contribute the individuality of a human face. The position of the chin has a strong influence on the assessment of the facial harmony; its different types and forms dominate the appearance. Furthermore, the expression of the chin is equated with character traits and thus it is an important component of the profile forms. Genioplasty is a routine procedure for the correction of aesthetic and functional deformity of the chin region. It is therefore one of the contour-enhancing surgical methods. PMID:26579866

  13. Rosacea (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Rosacea is a condition where the area of the cheeks, nose, chin, forehead, or eyelids become inflamed. ... vessels, swelling, or skin eruptions similar to acne. Rosacea occurs most often in fair skinned people, particularly ...

  14. CPAP Devices for Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPAP nose masks. In this case, a full-face mask that covers both the nose and the mouth ... could help. Types of CPAP Devices Nasal pillows Face mask Face mask with chin strap Written by familydoctor. ...

  15. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Non-Mandatory Guidelines for Hazard Assessment, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Selection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... officer should observe: (1) Sources of motion; for example, machinery or processes where any movement of... to keep the hard hat on an employee's head. (Chin straps should break at a reasonably low force...

  16. Ian Wallace (Profile).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stott, Jon C.

    1989-01-01

    Interviews Canadian children's author-illustrator Ian Wallace. Discusses the development of several of Wallace's books, including "Chin Chiang and the Dragon's Dance" and "The Sparrow's Song," as well as his development as an artist. (MM)

  17. 21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES... material intended to be implanted during surgery of the chin, jaw, nose, or bones or tissue near the eye...

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, September ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, September 15, 1936 GATE IN FRONT OF 201 GOVERNMENT STREET - 201 Government Street (Iron Gate), Moved to Spring Hill Avenue & Riviere du Chin Road, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  19. Bitter Melon

    MedlinePlus

    African Cucumber, Ampalaya, Balsam Pear, Balsam-Apple, Balsambirne, Balsamo, Bitter Apple, Bitter Cucumber, Bitter Gourd, Bittergurke, Carilla Fruit, Carilla Gourd, Cerasee, Chinli-Chih, Cundeamor, Fructus Mormordicae Grosvenori, Karavella, Kathilla, ...

  20. Dynamic Opposition of Clustered Proteins Stabilizes Cortical Polarity in the C. elegans Zygote.

    PubMed

    Sailer, Anne; Anneken, Alexander; Li, Younan; Lee, Sam; Munro, Edwin

    2015-10-12

    Dynamic maintenance of cell polarity is essential for development and physiology. Here we combine experiments and modeling to elucidate mechanisms that maintain cortical polarity in the C. elegans zygote. We show that polarity is dynamically stabilized by two coupled cross-inhibitory feedback loops: one involves the oligomeric scaffold PAR-3 and the kinase PAR-1, and the other involves CDC-42 and its putative GAP CHIN-1. PAR-3 and CDC-42 are both required locally to recruit PAR-6/PKC-3, which inhibits PAR-1 (shown previously) and inhibits local growth/accumulation of CHIN-1 clusters. Conversely, PAR-1 inhibits local accumulation of PAR-3 oligomers, while CHIN-1 inhibits CDC-42 (shown previously), such that either PAR-1 or CHIN-1 can prevent recruitment of PAR-6/PKC-3, but loss of both causes complete loss of polarity. Ultrasensitive dependence of CHIN-1 cluster growth on PAR-6/PKC-3 endows this core circuit with bistable dynamics, while transport of CHIN-1 clusters by cortical flow can stabilize the AP boundary against diffusive spread of PAR-6/PKC-3. PMID:26460948

  1. Noncoding RNA. piRNA-guided transposon cleavage initiates Zucchini-dependent, phased piRNA production.

    PubMed

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D

    2015-05-15

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germ line by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon "junkyards" (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the "ping-pong" pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nucleotides (nt) of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt become the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The ping-pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence. PMID:25977554

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Orion A North prestellar core properties (Salji+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salji, C. J.; Richer, J. S.; Buckle, J. V.; Hatchell, J.; Kirk, H.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Berry, D. S.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M. J.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Mottram, J. C.; Nutter, D.; Pattle, K.; Pineda, J. E.; Quinn, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; Di Francesco, J.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bastien, P.; Butner, H.; Chen, M.; Chrysostomou, A.; Coude, S.; Davis, C. J.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Fiege, J.; Friberg, P.; Friesen, R.; Fuller, G. A.; Graves, S.; Greaves, J.; Gregson, J.; Holland, W.; Joncas, G.; Kirk, J. M.; Knee, L. B. G.; Mairs, S.; Marsh, K.; Matthews, B. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G.; Rawlings, J.; Robertson, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Rumble, D.; Sadavoy, S.; Thomas, H.; Tothill, N.; Viti, S.; White, G. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Wouterloot, J.; Yates, J.; Zhu, M.

    2015-11-01

    Between 2011 November and 2013 October, a total of 23, ~40min observations at 850um and 450um were made of fully sampled 30 and 15 arcmin diameter circular regions using PONG1800 and 900 mapping modes. All observations of Orion A North were conducted during grade 1 or 2 weather defined according to the opacity at 225GHz {tau}225<0.08 and were made under Project IDs MJLSG22 and MJLSG31. (2 data files).

  3. Final design proposal: Delta Group-Nood Rider 821(tm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pastega, C. B.; Vahey, B. P.; Hoffman, K. W.; Doherty, M. C.; Fay, M. J.; Konesky, A. L.; Lilly, D. C.; Moody, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The Nood Rider 821 (trademark) twin-engine, prop passenger aircraft is described. It is argued that the aircraft is very economical to operate and maintain, offering competitive advantages in the air travel marketplace. The aircraft was designed to operate in 'Aeroworld', a fictional world where the passengers are ping pong balls and the distances between cites are on the order of thousands of feet.

  4. The Rolling Release Rulapult

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Joseph; Ross, Seth; Flesher, James

    2011-09-01

    The "rulapult" is a low-cost, easy-to-construct, ruler-based catapult for use in the classroom. It is made from durable, inexpensive items that are easy to store. Most of the components can be found with a visit to one or two local stores. A set of 12 complete rulapults can be constructed for less than 150, including the one-time cost of the only tool needed for construction, a single handheld one-hole paper punch. The unit price per rulapult approaches 10.25 as the number of rulapults constructed becomes "large." A rulapult can be constructed by a single middle school student in less than five minutes. Ping-Pong® balls or marshmallows are suggested for use as projectiles as they pose a minimal safety hazard. The range of a typical rulapult when firing a Ping-Pong ball is approximately 4.0 m, just right for classroom or hallway testing. The smaller (1-cm size) marshmallows have a range of about 5.0 m, but due to their "squishy" nature, the range is less consistent from shot to shot. For the rest of the discussion, it is presumed that the projectile is a Ping-Pong ball (the ball). The ball can easily knock over a large Styrofoam™ cup, but despite its impressive range and "knock-down power," the rulers used are "limp" enough that a direct hit to your hand by the ruler will not cause noticeable pain or injury.

  5. RNF17 blocks promiscuous activity of PIWI proteins in mouse testes

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, Kaja A.; Tam, Oliver H.; Knott, Simon R.; Falciatori, Ilaria; Hammell, Molly; Vagin, Vasily V.; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    PIWI proteins and their associated piRNAs protect germ cells from the activity of mobile genetic elements. Two classes of piRNAs—primary and secondary—are defined by their mechanisms of biogenesis. Primary piRNAs are processed directly from transcripts of piRNA cluster loci, whereas secondary piRNAs are generated in an adaptive amplification loop, termed the ping-pong cycle. In mammals, piRNA populations are dynamic, shifting as male germ cells develop. Embryonic piRNAs consist of both primary and secondary species and are mainly directed toward transposons. In meiotic cells, the piRNA population is transposon-poor and largely restricted to primary piRNAs derived from pachytene piRNA clusters. The transition from the embryonic to the adult piRNA pathway is not well understood. Here we show that RNF17 shapes adult meiotic piRNA content by suppressing the production of secondary piRNAs. In the absence of RNF17, ping-pong occurs inappropriately in meiotic cells. Ping-pong initiates piRNA responses against not only transposons but also protein-coding genes and long noncoding RNAs, including genes essential for germ cell development. Thus, the sterility of Rnf17 mutants may be a manifestation of a small RNA-based autoimmune reaction. PMID:26115953

  6. The Drosophila HP1 homolog Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual-strand clusters.

    PubMed

    Klattenhoff, Carla; Xi, Hualin; Li, Chengjian; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Khurana, Jaspreet S; Zhang, Fan; Schultz, Nadine; Koppetsch, Birgit S; Nowosielska, Anetta; Seitz, Herve; Zamore, Phillip D; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E

    2009-09-18

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons and maintain genome integrity during germline development. In Drosophila, transposon-rich heterochromatic clusters encode piRNAs either on both genomic strands (dual-strand clusters) or predominantly one genomic strand (uni-strand clusters). Primary piRNAs derived from these clusters are proposed to drive a ping-pong amplification cycle catalyzed by proteins that localize to the perinuclear nuage. We show that the HP1 homolog Rhino is required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of piRNAs. rhi mutations virtually eliminate piRNAs from the dual-strand clusters and block production of putative precursor RNAs from both strands of the major 42AB dual-strand cluster, but not of transcripts or piRNAs from the uni-strand clusters. Furthermore, Rhino protein associates with the 42AB dual-strand cluster,but does not bind to uni-strand cluster 2 or flamenco. Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. PMID:19732946

  7. shutdown is a component of the Drosophila piRNA biogenesis machinery

    PubMed Central

    Preall, Jonathan B.; Czech, Benjamin; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Muerdter, Felix; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    In animals, the piRNA pathway preserves the integrity of gametic genomes, guarding them against the activity of mobile genetic elements. This innate immune mechanism relies on distinct genomic loci, termed piRNA clusters, to provide a molecular definition of transposons, enabling their discrimination from genes. piRNA clusters give rise to long, single-stranded precursors, which are processed into primary piRNAs through an unknown mechanism. These can engage in an adaptive amplification loop, the ping-pong cycle, to optimize the content of small RNA populations via the generation of secondary piRNAs. Many proteins have been ascribed functions in either primary biogenesis or the ping-pong cycle, though for the most part the molecular functions of proteins implicated in these pathways remain obscure. Here, we link shutdown (shu), a gene previously shown to be required for fertility in Drosophila, to the piRNA pathway. Analysis of knockdown phenotypes in both the germline and somatic compartments of the ovary demonstrate important roles for shutdown in both primary biogenesis and the ping-pong cycle. shutdown is a member of the FKBP family of immunophilins. Shu contains domains implicated in peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity and in the binding of HSP90-family chaperones, though the relevance of these domains to piRNA biogenesis is unknown. PMID:22753781

  8. RNA clamping by Vasa assembles a piRNA amplifier complex on transposon transcripts.

    PubMed

    Xiol, Jordi; Spinelli, Pietro; Laussmann, Maike A; Homolka, David; Yang, Zhaolin; Cora, Elisa; Couté, Yohann; Conn, Simon; Kadlec, Jan; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Kaksonen, Marko; Cusack, Stephen; Ephrussi, Anne; Pillai, Ramesh S

    2014-06-19

    Germline-specific Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect animal genomes against transposons and are essential for fertility. piRNAs targeting active transposons are amplified by the ping-pong cycle, which couples Piwi endonucleolytic slicing of target RNAs to biogenesis of new piRNAs. Here, we describe the identification of a transient Amplifier complex that mediates biogenesis of secondary piRNAs in insect cells. Amplifier is nucleated by the DEAD box RNA helicase Vasa and contains the two Piwi proteins participating in the ping-pong loop, the Tudor protein Qin/Kumo and antisense piRNA guides. These components assemble on the surface of Vasa's helicase domain, which functions as an RNA clamp to anchor Amplifier onto transposon transcripts. We show that ATP-dependent RNP remodeling by Vasa facilitates transfer of 5' sliced piRNA precursors between ping-pong partners, and loss of this activity causes sterility in Drosophila. Our results reveal the molecular basis for the small RNA amplification that confers adaptive immunity against transposons. PMID:24910301

  9. The Drosophila HP1 homologue Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual strand clusters

    PubMed Central

    Klattenhoff, Carla; Xi, Hualin; Li, Chengjian; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Khurana, Jaspreet S.; Zhang, Fan; Schultz, Nadine; Koppetsch, Birgit S.; Nowosielska, Anetta; Seitz, Herve; Zamore, Phillip D.; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary piRNAs silence transposons and maintain genome integrity during germ-line development. In Drosophila, transposon-rich heterochromatic clusters encode piRNAs either on both genomic strands (dual-strand clusters) or predominantly one genomic strand (uni-strand clusters). Primary piRNAs derived from these clusters are proposed to drive a ping-pong amplification cycle catalyzed by proteins that localize to the perinuclear nuage. We show that the HP1 homologue Rhino is required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of piRNAs. rhi mutations virtually eliminate piRNAs from the dual-strand clusters and block production of putative precursor RNAs from both strands of the major 42AB dual-strand cluster, but do not block production of transcripts or piRNAs from the uni-strand clusters. Furthermore, Rhino protein associates with the 42AB dual-strand cluster, but does not bind to uni-strand cluster 2 or flamenco. Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. PMID:19732946

  10. Recombinant chimeric Japanese encephalitis virus/tick-borne encephalitis virus is attenuated and protective in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Jiang; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Li, Shi-Hua; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Xu, Yan-Peng; Ma, Jie; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2014-02-12

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) represents one of the most dangerous human pathogens circulating in Europe and East Asia. No effective treatment for TBEV infection currently exists, and vaccination is the primary preventive measure. Although several inactivated vaccines have been licensed, the development of novel vaccines against TBEV remains a high priority in disease-endemic countries. In the present study, a live chimeric recombinant TBEV (ChinTBEV) was created by substituting the major structural genes of TBEV for the corresponding regions of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) live vaccine strain SA14-14-2. The resulting chimera had a small-plaque phenotype, replicated efficiently in both mammalian and mosquito cells. The preliminary data from in vitro passaging indicated the potential for stability of ChinTBEV. ChinTBEV also exhibited significantly attenuated neuroinvasiveness in mice upon either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous inoculation in comparison with its parental TBEV. Importantly, a single immunisation with ChinTBEV elicited TBEV-specific IgG and neutralising antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner, providing significant protection against lethal TBEV challenge in mice. Taken together, the results of this proof-of-concept study indicate that ChinTBEV can be further developed as a potential vaccine candidate against TBEV infection. Moreover, the construction of this type of flavivirus chimera using a JEV vaccine strain as the genetic backbone represents a universal vaccine approach. PMID:24394443

  11. Osseous genioplasty in conjunction with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: a review of 262 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Posnick, J C; Choi, E; Chang, R P

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of osseous genioplasty with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. A retrospective consecutive case series of patients treated by a single surgeon between 2004 and 2013 was studied. All underwent Le Fort I, sagittal ramus osteotomies, septoplasty, inferior turbinate reduction, and osseous genioplasty. The outcome variables included the presenting chin dysmorphology, complications, and assessment of morphologic change. A Steiner analysis was completed for each subject's interval cephalogram. Two hundred sixty-two subjects met the inclusion criteria. Their mean age at operation was 25 (range 13-63) years. Chin osteotomy complications included one wound infection (0.4%), and two of the 1572 mandibular anterior teeth at risk sustained a pulpal injury. None of the subjects required revision. For subjects undergoing chin advancement, the mean change was +3.5 (range +3 to +6) mm. A majority also underwent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible (62%). For those undergoing chin lengthening, the mean change was +5 (range +3 to +12mm) mm, and for those undergoing vertical shortening, the mean change was -3.5 (range -3 to -7) mm. Osseous genioplasty is confirmed to be a safe method to reshape the chin. When osseous genioplasty is performed in conjunction with bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, only a modest horizontal change is required to achieve the preferred pogonion projection. PMID:26972157

  12. Gradient Symplectic Algorithms for Solving Quantum Dynamical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Siu A.; Chen, C. R.; Auer, J.; Krotscheck, E.

    2002-03-01

    Recent advances[1] in factorizing the classical and quantum evolution operator to fourth order with purely positive coefficients have produce a new class of Monte Carlo[2,3] and quantum dynamical algorithms[4,5] that are at least two orders of magnitude better than existing algorithms of comparble order. This talk will focus on solving the Schrodinger equation in real and imaginary time for the extraction of dynamical information and for the determination of eigenvalue-function pairs from large 3-D grids. References: [1]S. A. Chin, ``Symplectic Integrators From Composite Operator Factorizations" Phys. Lett. A226, 344 (1997). [2]H. A. Forbert and S. A. Chin ``Fourth-order algorithms for solving the multivariable Langevin equation and the Kramers equation", Phys. Rev. E63, 016703 (2001). [3]H. A. Forbert and S. A. Chin, ``Fourth-order diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms for solving quantum many-body problems", Phys. Rev. B63, 144518 (2001). [4]S. A. Chin and C. R. Chen, ``Fourth order gradient symplectic integrator methods for solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation", J. Chem. Phys. 114, 7338 (2001). [5]J. Auer, E. Krotscheck, and S. A. Chin, ``A fourth-order real-space algorithm for solving local Schrodinger equations", J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6841 (2001).

  13. Common Errors in Digital Panoramic Radiographs of Patients with Mixed Dentition and Patients with Permanent Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Peretz, Benjamin; Gotler, Maya; Kaffe, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To compare errors in digital panoramic radiographs of permanent and mixed dentitions. Methods. 143 and 146 digital radiographs of mixed and permanent dentitions were examined. Results. Significantly fewer errors presented in the mixed dentition. Positioning too forward significantly prevalent in the mixed dentition; slumped position and nonpositioning of chin properly were significantly prevailed in the permanent dentition. Blurred or shortened upper incisors were significantly more prevalent in the mixed dentition. Diagnostic ability could be improved by manipulating the brightness or contrast in nearly 45% of all radiographs. In the mixed dentition, tilting the chin down and a slumped position made the lower incisors significantly nondiagnostic. In the permanent dentition, tilting the chin down made the lower incisors to be significantly nondiagnostic. Conclusions. More errors were prevalent in panoramic radiographs of permanent dentitions. Properly positioning the patient is the most important factor in preventing a cascade of errors. PMID:22505905

  14. Augmentation mentoplasty using Mersilene mesh.

    PubMed

    McCollough, E G; Hom, D B; Weigel, M T; Anderson, J R

    1990-10-01

    Many different materials are available for augmentation mentoplasty. However, the optimal implant material for chin implantation has yet to be found. During the past several years, a number of experienced surgeons have turned to the use of Mersilene mesh. Mersilene mesh is a non-absorbable Dacron polyester fiber that can be conformed easily into layers to achieve tailored dimensions and shape. At the McCollough Plastic Surgery Clinic PA, Birmingham, Ala, 277 patients over a 10-year period underwent chin augmentation with Mersilene mesh implants. The material provides excellent tensile strength, durability, and surgical adaptability. The overall complication rate was 3.2% (nine patients); infection rate, 2.5% (seven patients); and removal secondary to infection, 1.7% (five patients). Based on this 10-year experience, Mersilene mesh remains our material of choice for chin augmentation. PMID:2206500

  15. A Chimeric Dengue Virus Vaccine using Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine Strain SA14-14-2 as Backbone Is Immunogenic and Protective against Either Parental Virus in Mice and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Hui-Qiang; Zhao, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Yu, Xue-Dong; Li, Shi-Hua; Ye, Qing; Zhu, Shun-Ya; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Jie; Yu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Qin, E-De; Shi, Pei-Yong

    2013-01-01

    The development of a safe and efficient dengue vaccine represents a global challenge in public health. Chimeric dengue viruses (DENV) based on an attenuated flavivirus have been well developed as vaccine candidates by using reverse genetics. In this study, based on the full-length infectious cDNA clone of the well-known Japanese encephalitis virus live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as a backbone, a novel chimeric dengue virus (named ChinDENV) was rationally designed and constructed by replacement with the premembrane and envelope genes of dengue 2 virus. The recovered chimeric virus showed growth and plaque properties similar to those of the parental DENV in mammalian and mosquito cells. ChinDENV was highly attenuated in mice, and no viremia was induced in rhesus monkeys upon subcutaneous inoculation. ChinDENV retained its genetic stability and attenuation phenotype after serial 15 passages in cultured cells. A single immunization with various doses of ChinDENV elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. When vaccinated monkeys were challenged with wild-type DENV, all animals except one that received the lower dose were protected against the development of viremia. Furthermore, immunization with ChinDENV conferred efficient cross protection against lethal JEV challenge in mice in association with robust cellular immunity induced by the replicating nonstructural proteins. Taken together, the results of this preclinical study well demonstrate the great potential of ChinDENV for further development as a dengue vaccine candidate, and this kind of chimeric flavivirus based on JE vaccine virus represents a powerful tool to deliver foreign antigens. PMID:24109223

  16. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Lower Facial Asymmetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate and Non-Cleft Patients with Class III Skeletal Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yifan; Chen, Gui; Fu, Zhen; Ma, Lian; Li, Weiran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), both the condylar-fossa relationships and the mandibular and condylar asymmetries between unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patients and non-cleft patients with class III skeletal relationship, and to investigate the factors of asymmetry contributing to chin deviation. Methods The UCLP and non-cleft groups consisted of 30 and 40 subjects, respectively, in mixed dentition with class III skeletal relationships. Condylar-fossa relationships and the dimensional and positional asymmetries of the condyles and mandibles were examined using CBCT. Intra-group differences were compared between two sides in both groups using a paired t-test. Furthermore, correlations between each measurement and chin deviation were assessed. Results It was observed that 90% of UCLP and 67.5% of non-cleft subjects had both condyles centered, and no significant asymmetry was found. The axial angle and the condylar center distances to the midsagittal plane were significantly greater on the cleft side than on the non-cleft side (P=0.001 and P=0.028, respectively) and were positively correlated with chin deviation in the UCLP group. Except for a larger gonial angle on the cleft side, the two groups presented with consistent asymmetries showing shorter mandibular bodies and total mandibular lengths on the cleft (deviated) side. The average chin deviation was 1.63 mm to the cleft side, and the average absolute chin deviation was significantly greater in the UCLP group than in the non-cleft group (P=0.037). Conclusion Compared with non-cleft subjects with similar class III skeletal relationships, the subjects with UCLP showed more severe lower facial asymmetry. The subjects with UCLP presented with more asymmetrical positions and rotations of the condyles on axial slices, which were positively correlated with chin deviation. PMID:26237311

  17. Efficient quantum secret sharing scheme with two-particle entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-Chao; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Fu, An-Min

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for multi-party quantum secret sharing utilizing four non-orthogonal two-particle entangled states following some ideas in the schemes proposed by Liu et al. (2006 Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 3148) and Zhang et al. (2009 Chin. Phys. B 18 2149) respectively. The theoretical efficiency for qubits of the new protocol is improved from 50% to approaching 100%. All the entangled states can be used for generating the private key except those used for the eavesdropping check. The validity of a probable attack called opaque cheat attack to this kind of protocols is considered in the paper for the first time.

  18. Pedagogy Journal, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marashio Paul, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This annual serial volume contains 19 articles offering practical pedagogical ideas from faculty at New Hampshire technical colleges. The following articles are presented: (1) "Goodbye Mr. Desrochers or What I Learned While Teaching My First Lit. Course," by Diane Chin; (2) "A Teacher Learns: Building a Fly Rod," by Walter Ryan; (3) "A Teacher in…

  19. English Teaching & Learning, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Teaching & Learning, 2003

    2003-01-01

    These four issues contain the following articles: "A Case Documentation of English Instruction at the Elementary School Level: The Cross-Cultural Impact of Native Speaker Teachers" (Hsien-Chin Liou) [written in Chinese]; "A Collaborative Tale with Two Taiwanese EFL College Groups" (Feng-Ming Chi); "A Developmental Study on Phonological Awareness…

  20. Identification of Physically Underdeveloped Pupils: Activities to Improve Their Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Screening tests consisting of observation procedures and simple physical exercises requiring only a chinning bar, stopwatch, and record forms are suggested for identifying pupils aged ten to seventeen who are underdeveloped in strength, flexibility, agility, or cardiorespiratory endurance. Classes should be divided into pairs with one pupil acting…

  1. Descriptions of four species of grenadier fishes of the genera Hymenocephalus and Hymenogadus (Teleostei, Gadiformes, Macrouridae) from the New Zealand region and Tasman Sea, including two new species of Hymenocephalus.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Peter; Iwamoto, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Hymenocephalus are described from the New Zealand region and Tasman Sea. Hymenocephalus fuscus sp. n. has 11-12 pelvic fin rays, is darkly pigmented, with enlarged bony ridges on the dorsal aspects of head, lacks a chin barbel, has few (16-19) gill rakers on inner side of first arch and is similar to other species in the H. aterrimus species group. Hymenocephalus maculicaudus sp. n. has 8 pelvic fin rays, a mid-lateral line of melanophores on body and tail that extends about a head length posterior to anal fin origin, a short (7-16 % HL) chin barbel and is similar to other species in the H. megalops species group. Hymenocephalus nascens has 12-14 pelvic fin rays, lacks a chin barbel, has a mid-lateral stripe of silvery (fresh) or brownish (preserved) pigment running along trunk and tail. Hymenogadus gracilis has a serrated (weak, near tip) first dorsal fin spine, 7-9 pelvic fin rays, long (20-30% HL) chin barbel, and one row of enlarged melanophores along lateral mid-line of the tail. Hymenocephalus nascens and Hymenogadus gracilis are recorded for the first time from the New Zealand region. A key to the known New Zealand species of Hymenocephalus and Hymenogadus is provided.  PMID:25284648

  2. Dermatitis artefacta in a 12-year-old girl mimicking cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Angus, Janet; Affleck, Andrew G; Croft, Jane C Ravens; Leach, Iain H; Slater, David N; Millard, Leslie G

    2007-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta or factitious disease may be unrecognized in children. We present a 12-year-old girl who had an unusual facial lesion on the chin, which was self-inflicted but histologically mimicked cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Our report emphasizes both the potential diagnostic pitfalls and the importance of clinicopathologic correlation. PMID:17542895

  3. Are We Ready to #MeetTheMoment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Maisie

    2015-01-01

    CADRE, an organization led by Maisie Chin, is a Human Right to Education Campaign. Between 2005 and 2013, CADRE played a lead role in using grassroots organizing and leadership development to create a seismic shift in public policy, debate, and narrative around school discipline, racial disparities, parents' roles, school climate, and closing the…

  4. Babesia sp. in Colombian bats (Microchiroptera).

    PubMed

    Marinkelle, C J

    1996-07-01

    Two leaf-chinned bats (Mormoops megalophylla) collected in 1963 in central Colombia were heavily infected with Babesia sp., probably Babesia vesperuginis. Both bats had pronounced splenomegaly. This is the first report of a Babesia sp. infection of a bat in the Americas. PMID:8827683

  5. Tracking Speech Sound Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a procedure to aid in the clinical appraisal of child speech. The approach, based on the work by Dinnsen, Chin, Elbert, and Powell (1990; Some constraints on functionally disordered phonologies: Phonetic inventories and phonotactics. "Journal of Speech and Hearing Research", 33, 28-37), uses a railway idiom to track gains in…

  6. Identification of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium alien disomic addition lines conferring resistance to stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thinopyrum intermedium carries many useful traits for wheat genetic improvement. To identify genes conferring resistance to stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in Zhong 4 (Z4) derived from a cross between common wheat and Th. intermedium, a cross was made between Z4 and a ‘Chin...

  7. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  8. High-Resolution Global Modeling of the Effects of Subgrid-Scale Clouds and Turbulence on Precipitating Cloud Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bogenschutz, Peter; Moeng, Chin-Hoh

    2015-10-13

    The PI’s at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Chin-Hoh Moeng and Peter Bogenschutz, have primarily focused their time on the implementation of the Simplified-Higher Order Turbulence Closure (SHOC; Bogenschutz and Krueger 2013) to the Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) global model and testing of SHOC on deep convective cloud regimes.

  9. An Emergent Curriculum in China: Collaborative Tolerance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The concept for the piloting of a contemporary early childhood kindergarten in China was visualised by the chief executive officer of TMC Academy, Dr Chin, in July 2002 when he participated in a Singaporean-led mission to Liaoning Province in China. Shenyang Creative Kindergarten is the result of that concept. It opened for children in September…

  10. Fundreds in Arkansas: An Interdisciplinary Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Porte, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Fundreds in Arkansas, an interactive cooperative in Arkansas to promote and support Mel Chin's nationwide interdisciplinary artwork, Operation Paydirt (The Fundred Dollar Bill Project). The artwork involves communities and educational institutions across the country, healthcare professionals, engineers, urban planners, and…

  11. Revisiting the Authoritative-Dialogic Tension in Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Teacher Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Booven, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Building on the "questioning-based discourse analytical" framework developed by Singapore-based science educator and discourse analyst, Christine Chin, this study investigated the extent to which fifth-grade science teachers' use of questions with either an authoritative or dialogic orientation differentially restricted or expanded the…

  12. Factor Structure of the Multidimensional Orientation toward Dying and Death Inventory among Hong Kong College Students: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittkowski, Joachim; Ho, Samuel M. Y.; Chan, Wallace C. H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the factor structures of the Chinese version of the Multidimensional Orientation Toward Dying and Death Inventory (MODDI-F/chin), originally established in German language, in a sample of Hong Kong college students (n = 256). Both confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed to examine the factor…

  13. Comment on 'Quantum teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit state and its relation to multipartite entanglement'

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Fuguo

    2005-09-15

    The multipartite state in the Rigolin's protocol [Phys. Rev. A 71, 032303 (2005)] for teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state is just a product state of N Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs in essence, not a genuine multipartite entangled state, and this protocol in principle is equivalent to the Yang-Guo protocol [Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 162 (2000)].

  14. Comparison of gene expression profiles in cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea) under strong artificial selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past five decades, cultivated peanut in China has been subjected to strong artificial selection in breeding programs. To investigate the impact of artificial selection on expression diversity, we compared gene expression profiles in pod and leaf of five widespread cultivars in Southern Chin...

  15. Gradient Shifts with Naturally Occurring Human Face Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derenne, Adam; Breitstein, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present research examined stimulus generalization and gradient shifts on a dimension involving human faces. Twenty undergraduates were instructed to examine the proportion of the total face length that lay between the tip of the nose and the end of the chin. The face stimuli were images of actual people shown on a computer screen; no face was…

  16. Investigation of Primary Students' Motivation Levels towards Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevinc, Betul; Ozmen, Haluk; Yigit, Nevzat

    2011-01-01

    The present research was conducted with 518 students enrolled at the 6th, 7th and 8th classes of primary schools. A likert-type scale developed by Tuan, Chin and Shieh (2005) and translated into Turkish by Yilmaz and Cavas (2007) was used to examine the motivation levels of students towards science learning. Research findings revealed that gender,…

  17. Lightweight Helmet For Eye/Balance Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcstravick, M. Catherine; Proctor, David R.; Wood, Scott J.

    1988-01-01

    Lightweight helmet serves as mounting platform for stimulus and sensor modules in experiments on role of vestibulo-ocular reflex in motion sickness and space-adaptation syndrome. Fitted liner and five inflatable air bladders stabilize helmet with respect to subject's head. Personal bite board attached to chin-bar assembly makes hard palate in subject's mouth serve as final position reference for helmet.

  18. 42 CFR 84.110 - Gas masks; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as follows: (1) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas mask. A gas mask which consists of a full facepiece.... (2) Chin-style gas mask. A gas mask which consists of a full facepiece, a canister which is usually attached to the facepiece, and associated connections. (3) Escape gas mask. A gas mask designed for...

  19. Studies Presented to Robert B. Lees by His Students. Papers in Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadock, Jerrold M.; Vanek, Anthony L.

    This volume, dedicated to Professor Robert B. Lees on the occasion of his departure from the University of Illinois, contains 15 papers on a variety of linguistic topics: C. L. Baker, "Problems of Polarity in Counterfactuals"; Lawrence F. Bouton, "Do So: Do+Adverb"; Chin-chuan Cheng, "Domains of Phonological Rule Application"; Joseph F. Foster,…

  20. Myanmar, Southeast Asia as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    View westward from Burma across a finger of India into the Ganges Delta in Bangladesh. The meandering stream in the foreground is the Chindwin River about 100 miles northwest of Mandalay; the stream having tiny meanders is the Myittha; and the stream in sunglint is the Manipur River flowing through the Chin Hills. Extensive hillside fires fill the valleys of Burma with smoke.

  1. Polyhydramnios and cerebellar atrophy: a prenatal presentation of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy caused by mutations in the FBXL4 gene.

    PubMed

    van Rij, Maartje C; Jansen, Fenna A R; Hellebrekers, Debby M E I; Onkenhout, W; Smeets, Hubert J M; Hendrickx, Alexandra T; Gottschalk, Ralph W H; Steggerda, Sylke J; Peeters-Scholte, Cacha M P C D; Haak, Monique C; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Severe recessive mitochondrial myopathy caused by FBXL4 gene mutations may present prenatally with polyhydramnios and cerebellar hypoplasia. Characteristic dysmorphic features are: high and arched eyebrows, triangular face, a slight upslant of palpebral fissures, and a prominent pointed chin. Metabolic investigations invariably show increased serum lactate and pyruvate levels. PMID:27099744

  2. The Grapefruit Race: Demonstrating the Influence of Competition on Gender Differences in Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebl, Mikki R.; King, Eden B.; McGuire, Julie; Turchin, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    We present an interactive demonstration of factors that mitigate gender differences. Male and female volunteers pass a grapefruit from one classmate to the next using only their chins. The speed of task completion depends on its framing; when the volunteers believe the task is an exercise, women tend to be faster than men, whereas the opposite…

  3. URBAN PARTICLE-INDUCED PULMONARY ARTERY CONSTRUCTION IS MEDIATED BY SUPEROXIDE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    URBAN PARTICLE-INDUCED PULMONARY ARTERY CONSTRICTION IS MEDIATED BY SUPEROXIDE PRODUCTION.Jacqueline D. Carter, Zhuowei Li, Lisa A. Dailey, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina, and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

    Exposure to particulate matter...

  4. Insecure Commitment and Resistance: An Examination of Change Leadership, Self-Efficacy, and Trust on the Relationship between Job Insecurity, Employee Commitment, and Resistance to Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Elijah

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the mediation role of self-efficacy and the moderating roles of change leadership strategy and trust on the change attitudes of job insecure employees. Using job insecurity theory (Greenhalgh, 1983), Chin & Benne's (1961) seminal classification of change leadership strategies and the tripartite model of…

  5. A Randomized Study of Three Interventions for Aspiration of Thin Liquids in Patients with Dementia or Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logemann, Jeri A.; Gensler, Gary; Robbins, JoAnne; Lindblad, Anne S.; Brandt, Diane; Hind, Jacqueline A.; Kosek, Steven; Dikeman, Karen; Kazandjian, Marta; Gramigna, Gary D.; Lundy, Donna; McGarvey-Toler, Susan; Miller Gardner, Patricia J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to identify which of 3 treatments for aspiration on thin liquids--chin-down posture, nectar-thickened liquids, or honey-thickened liquids--results in the most successful immediate elimination of aspiration on thin liquids during the videofluorographic swallow study in patients with dementia and/or Parkinson's…

  6. CALL Environments: Research, Practice, and Critical Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy, Ed.; Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Essays on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) include: "Computer-Enhanced Language Learning Environments" (Joy Egbert, Chin-chi Chao, Elizabeth Hanson-Smith); "Theory and Research Interaction via Computers" (Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Classroom Practice: Creating Interactive CALL Activities" (Joy Egbert); "CALL Issues: Building a…

  7. A new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients: A technical report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Woong; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Panoramic radiographs taken using conventional chin-support devices have often presented problems with positioning accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this report was to propose a new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients that better addresses these two issues. Materials and Methods A new panoramic radiography bite block similar to the bite block for dentulous patients was developed to enable proper positioning stability for edentulous patients. The new bite block was designed and implemented in light of previous studies. The height of the new bite block was 18 mm and to compensate for the horizontal edentulous space, its horizontal width was 7 mm. The panoramic radiographs using the new bite block were compared with those using the conventional chin-support device. Results Panoramic radiographs taken with the new bite block showed better stability and bilateral symmetry than those taken with the conventional chin-support device. Patients also showed less movement and more stable positioning during panoramic radiography with the new bite block. Conclusion Conventional errors in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients could be caused by unreliability of the chin-support device. The newly proposed bite block for panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients showed better reliability. Further study is required to evaluate the image quality and reproducibility of images with the new bite block. PMID:26125007

  8. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I to... - Non-mandatory Compliance Guidelines for Hazard Assessment and Personal Protective Equipment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (a) sources of motion; i.e., machinery or processes where any movement of tools, machine elements or.... (Chin straps should break at a reasonably low force, however, so as to prevent a strangulation hazard... caps and full brimmed hats. Beginning in 1997, Type I designated helmets designed to reduce the...

  9. Aesthetic plastic correction of incomplete testicular feminization.

    PubMed

    Hinderer, U T

    1979-12-01

    Surgery was performed for feminization of ambiguous (male) external genitalia in 1973 on a patient with incomplete testicular feminization (familial male hermaphroditism of mixed variety). Rhinoplasty and augmentation of the chin, the malar region, the breasts were also performed not only to improve the patient's sexual role but to enhance the aesthetic appearance, as an aid in better phychosocial adaptation. PMID:24173991

  10. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1130 - Respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respective vapors, or from the chemical reaction between their respective vapors and gases. (3) Air-purifying... reaction with sorbent material in the canister. (c) Pesticide respirators, including all completely...) Front-mounted or back-mounted gas masks; (2) Chin-style gas mask; (3) Chemical cartridge; (4)...

  14. The Evaluation and Treatment of Aggression Maintained by Attention and Automatic Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rachel H.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Kuhn, David E.

    1998-01-01

    A study used direct and indirect methods to assess and treat several topographies of the aggression of a 7-year-old boy with severe mental retardation and pervasive personality disorder. Functional communication training with extinction reduced all forms of aggression except chin grinding, which was reduced by an alternative treatment. (Author/CR)

  15. Movement Activity Levels on Traditional and Contemporary Playground Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; LeBlanc, Elizabeth

    This study investigated playground activity levels of children in grades K-4 and compared levels of use of traditional and creative playground apparatus. The traditional playground area consisted of climbing bars, slides, ladders, chin bars, swings, see saws, and a merry-go-round. The creative playground contained tire hurdles, tire walk, tire…

  16. On Developing an Art and Ecology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Cynthia L.

    1997-01-01

    Surveys the work of several ecological artists, describes their work, and includes a brief rational for their activity. Examines the artwork of Joseph Beuys in Germany, Andy Goldsworthy in Scotland, as well as Mierle Ukeles, Mel Chin, David Hanson, Ana Mendieta, and Helen and Newton Harrison in the United States. (MJP)

  17. Sovereignty and Inter-governmental Relations with Arizona Indian Tribes--A Report on the Indian Town Hall (2nd, White Mountain Apache Reservation, August 20-22, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    Established by the Arizona legislature in 1953 and serving as official link between tribal autonomies and State government, the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs has recently sponsored its second conference, the proceedings of which constituted this report. Conference participants, forming two panel discussion groups, represented the Ak-Chin,…

  18. In vitro and in vivo characterization of chimeric duck Tembusu virus based on Japanese encephalitis live vaccine strain SA14-14-2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Jiang; Liu, Long; Li, Xiao-Feng; Ye, Qing; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng

    2016-07-01

    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a newly identified flavivirus, has rapidly spread to China, Malaysia and Thailand. The potential threats to public health have been well-highlighted; however its virulence and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, by using reverse genetics, a recombinant chimeric DTMUV based on Japanese encephalitis live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 was obtained by substituting the corresponding prM and E genes (named ChinDTMUV). In vitro characterization demonstrated that ChinDTMUV replicated efficiently in mammalian cells with small-plaque phenotype in comparison with its parental viruses. Mouse tests showed ChinDTMUV exhibited avirulent phenotype in terms of neuroinvasiveness, while it retained neurovirulence from its parental virus DTMUV. Furthermore, immunization with ChinDTMUV was evidenced to elicit robust IgG and neutralizing antibody responses in mice. Overall, we successfully developed a viable chimeric DTMUV, and these results provide a useful platform for further investigation of the pathogenesis of DTMUV and development of a live attenuated DTMUV vaccine candidate. PMID:27100268

  19. International Symposium on Chinese Languages and Linguistics Proceedings (4th, Taipei, Taiwan, July 18-20, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Dah-an, Ed.; Tseng, Chiu-yu, Ed.

    This publication of proceedings, most in English and some in Chinese, of a conference on Chinese languages and linguistics include the following papers: "On Rule Effect and Dialect Classification" (Chin-Chuan Cheng); "Cross-Linguistic Typological Variation, Grammatical Relations, and the Chinese Language" (Bernard Comrie); "Is Chinese a Pragmatic…

  20. Periodontal Side Effect During Orthopedic Face Mask Therapy.

    PubMed

    Incerti-Parenti, Serena; Checchi, Vittorio; Molinari, Camilla; Alessandri-Bonetti, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    A 7-year-old patient exhibited gingival recession of tooth #41 and severe plaque accumulation after 3 months of face mask therapy. The recession improved only slightly after appropriate oral hygiene instructions and motivation. Decisive improvement began when the vertical chin pad extension was reduced to avoid pressure on the affected area. PMID:27029093

  1. Comprehension Questioning Small Group Reading Instruction for Urban Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    It is evident from reading research that students with learning disabilities (LD) greatly benefit from teacher-student interactions during small group comprehension instruction (e.g., Berkeley, Scruggs, & Mastropieri, 2010). Given that questioning takes up the vast majority of instructional interactions between teachers and students (Chin,…

  2. Can longer forest harvest intervals increase summer streamflow for salmon recovery?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mashel Streamflow Modeling Project in the Mashel River Basin, Washington, is using a watershed-scale ecohydrological model to assess whether longer forest harvest intervals can remediate summer low flow conditions that have contributed to sharply reduced runs of spawning Chin...

  3. First report of graft-transmission and PCR detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus from Atalantia buxifolia in Guangdong, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Atalantia buxifolia (Jiubingle), syn. Severinia buxifolia, is a common landscape plant and a popular Chinese medicinal herb known as Dongfengjie. It is unclear if this Rutaceous plant is a host for Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the pathogen of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) in Guangdong, P. R. Chin...

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 6, 1936 WROUGHT IRON GATE WITH CAST IRON ORNAMENTATION, 456 SO. CONCEPTION STREET - 456 South Conception Street (Iron Fence & Gate), (moved to 1802 Old Govt. & 3333 Riviere du Chin), Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  5. feature - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    "Cancer is a disease of the genome," noted Lynda Chin, M.D., professor of dermatology, Harvard Medical School and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. "And understanding the impact of genomic changes in the proteome is critically important for converting genomic knowledge into something that a clinician can use on their patients."

  6. Adaptation of the Students' Motivation towards Science Learning (SMTSL) Questionnaire in the Greek Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Vavougios, Denis; Kotsis, Konstantinos T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at adapting in the Greek language the Students' Motivation Towards Science Learning (SMTSL) questionnaire developed by Tuan, Chin, and Shieh ("INT J SCI EDUC" 27(6): 639-654, 2005a) into a different cultural context, a different age group, that is, in university students and with a focus on physics learning.…

  7. VANADL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS. Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and ORD, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
    V...

  8. VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF ENOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    VANADYL SULFATE INHIBITS NO PRODUCTION BY DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATING SERINE/THREONINE PHOSPHORYLATION OF eNOS.

    Zhuowei Li, Jacqueline D. Carter, Lisa A. Dailey, Joleen Soukup, Yuh-Chin T. Huang. CEMALB, University of North Carolina and NHEERL, US EPA, Chapel Hill, North Ca...

  9. Modified triaca-style wing osteotomy to correct facial asymmetry in a patient with horizontal growth-type condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Wenghoefer, Matthias; Peters, Armin; Reich, Rudolf Hermann

    2013-01-01

    In this short communication, we suggest a slight modification of Albino Triaca's chin-wing osteotomy to vertically correct the inferior border of the mandible in a patient with horizontal growth-type facial asymmetry due to condylar hyperplasia. PMID:24036777

  10. NITROTYROSINATION OF A TUBULIN INDUCES EPITHELIAL BARRIER DYSFUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosination of a-Tubulin Induces Epithelial Transport Dysfunction. Yuh-Chin Huang, Lisa Dailey, Wen-Li Zhang and Ilona Jaspers. ORD, Environmental Protection Agency and CEMLB, University of North Carolina

    a-Tubulin undergoes a cyclic removal and readdition of tyrosin...

  11. NITROTYROSINE ATTENUATES RSV-INDUCED INFLAMMATION IN AIRWAY EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrotyrosine attenuates RSV-induced inflammation in airway epithelial cells. Joleen Soukup, Zuowei Li, Susanne Becker and Yuh-Chin Huang. NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, North Carolina, CEMALB, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

    Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr) is a...

  12. A test for enhancement of cytotype regulation in Drosophila melanogaster by the transposase-encoding P element ∆2-3.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Peter J; Simmons, Michael J

    2013-10-01

    Transposable P elements are regulated in the germ line by piRNAs, which are small RNAs that associate with the Piwi class of proteins. This regulation, called the P cytotype, is enhanced by genetic interactions between P elements that are primary sources of these RNAs and other P elements. The enhanced regulation is thought to reflect amplification of the primary piRNAs by cleavage of mRNAs derived from the other P elements through a mechanism called the ping-pong cycle. We tested the transposase-encoding P element known as ∆2-3 for its ability to enhance cytotype regulation anchored in P elements inserted at the telomere of the left arm of the X chromosome (TP elements). The ∆2-3 P element lacks the intron between exons 2 and 3 in the structurally complete P element (CP). Unlike the CP element, it does not markedly enhance cytotype regulation anchored in TP elements, nor does it transmit transposase activity through the egg cytoplasm. However, mRNAs from both the CP and ∆2-3 elements are maternally deposited in embryos. These observations suggest that maternally transmitted CP mRNA enhances cytotype regulation by participating in the ping-pong cycle and that it encodes the P transposase in the embryonic germ line, whereas maternally transmitted ∆2-3 mRNA does not, possibly because it is not efficiently directed into the primordial embryonic germ line. Strong transposon regulation may, therefore, require ping-pong cycling with maternally inherited mRNAs in the embryo. PMID:23925475

  13. Target size matters: target errors contribute to the generalization of implicit visuomotor learning.

    PubMed

    Reichenthal, Maayan; Avraham, Guy; Karniel, Amir; Shmuelof, Lior

    2016-08-01

    The process of sensorimotor adaptation is considered to be driven by errors. While sensory prediction errors, defined as the difference between the planned and the actual movement of the cursor, drive implicit learning processes, target errors (e.g., the distance of the cursor from the target) are thought to drive explicit learning mechanisms. This distinction was mainly studied in the context of arm reaching tasks where the position and the size of the target were constant. We hypothesize that in a dynamic reaching environment, where subjects have to hit moving targets and the targets' dynamic characteristics affect task success, implicit processes will benefit from target errors as well. We examine the effect of target errors on learning of an unnoticed perturbation during unconstrained reaching movements. Subjects played a Pong game, in which they had to hit a moving ball by moving a paddle controlled by their hand. During the game, the movement of the paddle was gradually rotated with respect to the hand, reaching a final rotation of 25°. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: The high-target error group played the Pong with a small ball, and the low-target error group played with a big ball. Before and after the Pong game, subjects performed open-loop reaching movements toward static targets with no visual feedback. While both groups adapted to the rotation, the postrotation reaching movements were directionally biased only in the small-ball group. This result provides evidence that implicit adaptation is sensitive to target errors. PMID:27121580

  14. Economic evaluation techniques for the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, J.A.; Hufschmidt, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses the methods of evaluating seven case studies. Three chapters are introductory discussing a hypothetical case. The following seven chapters discuss respectively: Economic Evaluation of Tongonan Geothermal Power Plant Project in Leyte, Philippines; Evaluation of Losses of Marine Product Resources Caused by Coastal Development of Tokyo, Bay; Evaluation of Lumpinee Public Park in Bangkok, Thailand; The Pam Pong Water Resources Project in Thailand; Selected Policy Options for the Fuelwood Production and Use in the Philippines; and Systematic Analysis of Water Pollution Control Options in a Suburban Region of Beijing, China.

  15. A thioesterase from an iterative fungal polyketide synthase shows macrocylization and cross-coupling activity, and may play a role in controlling iterative cycling through product off loading†

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Zhou, Hui; Wirz, Monica; Tang, Yi; Boddy, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    Zearalenone, a fungal macrocyclic polyketide, is a member of the resorcylic acid lactone family. Herein, we characterize in vitro the thioesterase from PKS13 in zearalenone biosynthesis (Zea TE). The excised Zea TE catalyzes macrocyclization of a linear thioester activated model of zearalenone. Zea TE also catalyzes the cross coupling of a benzoyl thioester with alcohols and amines. Kinetic characterization of the cross coupling is consistent with a ping-pong bi-bi mechanism, confirming an acyl-enzyme intermediate. Finally, the substrate specificity of the Zea TE indicates the TE may help control iterative cycling on PKS13 by rapidly off loading the final resorcylate containing product. PMID:19530704

  16. Final design proposal: Beta Systems-El Toro. A proposal in response to a commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muenzberg, Steve; Gillespie, Shane; Coogan, Jim; Monahan, Pat; Bruen, Liam; Wincer, Bob; Wilkey, Rob

    1991-01-01

    El Toro is a remotely piloted airplane designed to operate as a commercial aircraft in a fictional 'Aeroworld' where the passengers are ping-pong balls and the distances between cities are on the order of thousands of feet. The present design for El Toro will profitably meet the requirements for operation in Aeroworld with a ticket price comparable the ticket prices of current transportation. The extended range of El Toro allows for numerous flights to be flown before the battery pack needs to be changed. This drastically reduces the operating costs to the airlines, allowing them to charge less for a ticket or else to realize a higher profit margin.

  17. Resonance in a head massager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical structures such as pendula, bridges, or buildings always exhibit one (or more) natural oscillation frequency.1 If that structure is subjected to oscillatory forces of this same frequency, resonance occurs, with consequent increase of the structure oscillation amplitude. There is no shortage of simple experiments for demonstrating resonance in high school classes using a variety of materials, such as saw blades,2 guitars,3 pendulums,4 wine glasses,5 bottles,6 Ping-Pong balls,7 and pearl strings.8 We present here an experimental demonstration using only an inexpensive head (or scalp) massager, which can be purchased for less than a dollar.

  18. SP.ACE: taking secondary school students' hearts and minds "up, up and away"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Schrijver, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Secondary school students were given the opportunity to build and fly "pongsats" (small experiments weighing under 100 grams each, and packed inside a ping pong ball) on high-altitude balloons bound for 100000 feet, or 30 km: the edge of space. The need to acquire the knowledge and know-how to build successful experiments gave birth to the SP.ACE project. Over their last 3 years of secondary education, students are now learning about flight vehicles, the physical conditions in space, microcontrollers, sensors, programming, data logging, flight path analysis, and much more.

  19. A sporting chance to fight haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Sometimes sports can open up the way for politicians to take action. Several decades ago, ping-pong diplomacy helped to ease tensions between China and the United States. Now, it appears that the upcoming Southeast Asia Games (SEA Games) also may be wielding some influence in policy making.Environment ministers from countries in the region and officials from the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), hoping to keep the skies clear during the sporting competition in Brunei in August, on July 6 announced a plan to try to prevent forest fires and avert the dangerous levels of smog and haze that enveloped the region 2 years ago.

  20. Improving the capacity of the Boström-Felbinger protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Qing-Yu; Li, Bai-Wen

    2004-05-01

    We show that the capacity of the Boström-Felbinger (ping-pong) protocol [

    Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 187902 (2002)
    ] can be doubled by introducing two additional unitary operations. In message mode, Alice can use one of the four unitary operations to encode two classical bits of information. Bob can decode Alice’s information by using a Bell-basis measurement. Security against eavesdropping attack can be ensured by using two conjugate measurement bases in control mode. A message authentification method can protect this communication against a man-in-the-middle attack without eavesdropping.

  1. One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper's attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the "Ping-pong" protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step. PMID:27357865

  2. W. W. "Mo" Cleland: a catalytic life.

    PubMed

    Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Holden, Hazel M; Raushel, Frank M

    2013-12-23

    Professor W. Wallace Cleland, the architect of modern steady-state enzyme kinetics, died on March 6, 2013, from injuries sustained in a fall outside of his home. He will be most remembered for giving the enzyme community Ping-Pong kinetics and the invention of dithiothreitol (DTT). He pioneered the utilization of heavy atom isotope effects for the elucidation of the chemical mechanisms of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. His favorite research journal was Biochemistry, in which he published more than 135 papers beginning in 1964 with the disclosure of DTT. PMID:24308306

  3. Numerical study of two classes of cellular automaton models for traffic flow on a two-lane roadway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, N.; Daoudia, A. K.

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, we present computer simulation results of traffic flow on a two-lane roadway with different types of vehicles, cars and trucks for example. We consider two classes of two-lane traffic cellular automaton models, namely the well known Nagel-Schreckenberg model and an extension of the Fukui-Ishibashi model. These two models, which differ in their acceleration limits, show an important differences in their fundamental diagrams, lane-changing and ping-pong behaviors. Moreover, we investigate the importance of braking noise and the proportion of trucks on the traffic flow of a two-lane roadway.

  4. Current-potential response and concentration profiles of redox polymer-mediated enzyme catalysis in biofuel cells - Estimation of Michaelis-Menten constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanakumar, K.; Rajendran, L.; Sangaranarayanan, M. V.

    2015-02-01

    The current-potential response of the enzyme-catalyzed, redox polymer mediated kinetic scheme pertaining to biofuel cells is analyzed. The ping-pong reaction scheme is solved analytically using the homotopy method for estimating the current density. The validity of the approach is demonstrated using the known experimental data for a series of osmium based redox polymers, involving oxygen as the substrate with laccase being the enzyme for biocathode fuel cell reactions. The significance of the results has been demonstrated by suggesting two new graphical procedures for estimating the Michaelis-Menten constants and catalytic rate constants from the experimental current densities.

  5. Purification and properties of human amniotic fluid diamine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Tufvesson, G

    1978-09-01

    Diamine oxidase (DAO) was purified from amniotic fluid. The activity was separated in two DAO fractions with pI values of 5.8 and 4.0. Molecular weight were found to be 245,000 and 485,000, respectively, with subunit molecular weight of 110,000. This indicated that they probably are dimer and tetramer of the same DAO subunit. The enzyme was active against putrescine and histamine and was strongly inhibited by carbonyl group reagents. A Ping Pong Bi Ter enzyme reaction mechanism is probable. The diamine, with one amino group protonized, is suggested to be responsible for interaction with the enzyme. PMID:30164

  6. Success for ``Physics on Stage'' Festival in Geneva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C.; West, R.

    2000-12-01

    Can you imagine how much physics is in a simple match of ping-pong, in throwing a boomerang, or in a musical concert? Physics is all around us and governs our lives. But who is going to maintain these technologies and develop new ones in the future? Recent surveys show a frightening decline of interest in physics and technology among E u r o p e 's citizens, especially school children. Fewer and fewer young people enrol in physics courses at Europe's universities while scepticism towards science and technology is spreading and causing great concern among governments and educators.

  7. One-trial object recognition memory in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Basurto, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    The spontaneous response to novelty is the basis of one-trial object recognition tests for the study of object recognition memory (ORM) in rodents. We describe an object recognition task for the rabbit, based on its natural tendency to scent-mark ("chin") novel objects. The object recognition task comprised a 15min sample phase in which the rabbit was placed into an open field arena containing two similar objects, then removed for a 5-360min delay, and then returned to the same arena that contained one object similar to the original ones ("Familiar") and one that differed from the original ones ("Novel"), for a 15min test phase. Chin-marks directed at each of the objects were registered. Some animals received injections (sc) of saline, ketamine (1mg/kg), or MK-801 (37μg/kg), 5 or 20min before the sample phase. We found that chinning decreased across the sample phase, and that this response showed stimulus specificity, a defining characteristic of habituation: in the test phase, chinning directed at the Novel, but not Familiar, object was increased. Chinning directed preferentially at the novel object, which we interpret as novelty-induced sensitization and the behavioral correlate of ORM, was promoted by tactile/visual and spatial novelty. ORM deficits were induced by pre-treatment with MK-801 and, to a lesser extent, ketamine. Novel object discrimination was not observed after delays longer than 5min. These results suggest that short-term habituation and sensitization, not long-term memory, underlie novel object discrimination in this test paradigm. PMID:23651879

  8. Ethnic and Gender Considerations in the Use of Facial Injectables: Male Patients.

    PubMed

    de Maio, Mauricio

    2015-11-01

    The contemporary male look includes sharp contours of the face with strong nose, significant malar-midface structure, and a powerful chin with well-defined jawline. Neurotoxins in the upper facial lines should preserve a lower position of the brows and flatter arch in men. Excessive lifting of the eyebrows and full correction of forehead and periorbital lines are not desirable. The use of dermal fillers is fully accepted into the nasolabial. Male patients with sagginess and hollowness related or not related to acquired lipodystrophies are candidates for cheek correction with volumizers. Female attractiveness lies in the cheekbones, and for men, it lies in the chin. The use of volumizers in the chin is very much appreciated by male patients, especially when it is recessed. A strong and masculine appearance is obtained by creating a square chin. Men present slight thinner lips, especially the upper one. Lip reshape in male patients is very much rejected. It requires expertise both in communication and in technical skills to convince male patients to undergo lip treatments with fillers. The use of injectables in male patients is growing. Neurotoxins in the upper facial lines and the use of dermal fillers in the nasolabial folds are widely accepted. The use of volumizers in the chin is highly appreciated. There is clear need of volumizers in the cheek to correct sagginess and hollowness in men. However, proper communication and technique are required. The same applies for the lips. Cheek and lip reshape is still considered a taboo for most patients and injectors. PMID:26441109

  9. Photographic Facial Soft Tissue Analysis by Means of Linear and Angular Measurements in an Adolescent Persian Population

    PubMed Central

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Fathinejad, Sheida; Pakizeh, Zeinab; Shamsa, Mohammad; Golkari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To obtain objective average measurements of the profile and frontal facial soft tissue to be used as a guide for aesthetic treatment goals. Methods and Materials : This observational study included 110 females and 130 males high school students aged 16-18 years. None of the subjects had any facial deformities. All of them and their parents gave consent to take part in this study. In each case, two standard photographs of profile and frontal views were taken 27 landmarks were digitized on photographs. The mean, standard deviation, and range for a total of 43 facial indices were calculated digitally by computer software. The Student’s t-test was used to compare males and females. Results : The ratio between the lower and middle facial thirds was one to one, but the height of the upper facial third was proportionally smaller than the other two-thirds in both sexes. Boys had greater nasal length, depth, and prominence than girls with statistically significant differences. Both upper and lower lips were more prominent in girls than in boys. All measurements of the chin showed sexual dimorphism characterized by greater chin height and prominence and deeper mentolabial sulcus. Boys had greater facial dimensions than girls. Mouth width, nasal base width, and intercanthal distance were significantly greater in boys. Conclusion : The labial, nasal, and chin areas showed sexual dimorphism in most of the parameters used in this study. Boys had larger faces, greater facial heights, longer nasal, labial, and chin lengths, and greater nasal, labial, and chin prominence. PMID:26464606

  10. [Facial femalization in transgenders].

    PubMed

    Yahalom, R; Blinder, D; Nadel, S

    2015-07-01

    Transsexualism is a gender identity disorder in which there is a strong desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex. In male-to-female transsexuals with strong masculine facial features, facial feminization surgery is performed as part of the gender reassignment. A strong association between femininity and attractiveness has been attributed to the upper third of the face and the interplay of the glabellar prominence of the forehead. Studies have shown that a certain lower jaw shape is characteristic of males with special attention to the strong square mandibular angle and chin and also suggest that the attractive female jaw is smaller with a more round shape mandibular angles and a pointy chin. Other studies have shown that feminization of the forehead through cranioplasty have the most significant impact in determining the gender of a patient. Facial feminization surgeries are procedures aimed to change the features of the male face to that of a female face. These include contouring of the forehead, brow lift, mandible angle reduction, genioplasty, rhinoplasty and a variety of soft tissue adjustments. In our maxillofacial surgery department at the Sheba Medical Center we perform forehead reshaping combining with brow lift and at the same surgery, mandibular and chin reshaping to match the remodeled upper third of the face. The forehead reshaping is done by cranioplasty with additional reduction of the glabella area by burring of the frontal bone. After reducing the frontal bossing around the superior orbital rims we manage the soft tissue to achieve the brow lift. The mandibular reshaping, is performed by intraoral approach and include contouring of the angles by osteotomy for a more round shape (rather than the manly square shape angles), as well as reshaping of the bone in the chin area in order to make it more pointy, by removing the lateral parts of the chin and in some cases performing also genioplasty reduction by AP osteotomy. PMID

  11. NADH peroxidase: kinetic mechanism and nucleotide specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, V.S.; Blanchard, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    NADH peroxidase is a flavoprotein reductase isolated from Streptococcus faecalis which catalyzes the pyridine nucleotide dependent reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water. Initial velocity, product and dead-end inhibition studies have been performed and all support a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. Further support for the ping-pong nature of the kinetic mechanism are the hydrogen peroxide independent transhydrogenase activity of the enzyme, measured either with thio-NAD or with radiolabeled NAD (isotope exchange studies). Kinetic parameters will be presented for a number of reduced pyridine nucleotide analogs. Analogs which have been modified in the adenine ring exhibit much higher K/sub m/'s relative to their adenine analogs. NADH peroxidase catalyzes the stereo-specific removal of the 4S hydrogen of NADH and primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects have been determined for a number of these substrates with 4S-deuterated molecules. There is a strong correlation between their steady-state K/sub m/ and /sup D/V/K. Small values for /sup D/V are interpreted as supporting rate-limitation in the oxidative half-reaction. These data will be discussed in terms of a kinetic and chemical mechanism proposed for NADH peroxidase.

  12. Establishment of Diagnostic Doses of Five Pyrethroids for Monitoring Physiological Resistance in Aedes Albopictus in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Thanispong, Kanutcharee; Sathantriphop, Sunaiyana; Malaithong, Naritsara; Bangs, Michael J; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring insecticide resistance of Aedes albopictus is required for implementing effective dengue and chikungunya vector control in Thailand. The World Health Organization standard susceptibility test for adult mosquitoes was used to determine the baseline susceptibility of a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain of Ae. albopictus to 5 different pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and α-cypermethrin). Subsequently, the respective established diagnostic doses (0.026% deltamethrin, 1.024% permethrin, 0.570% bifenthrin, 0.237% cypermethrin, and 0.035% α-cypermethrin) were used to test field-collected Ae. albopictus from Rayong, Koh Chang, and Pong Nom Ron. As expected, the laboratory strain was completely susceptible to all pyrethroid insecticides at the established concentrations. Rayong mosquitoes were found to be highly susceptible to bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and α-cypermethrin. Koh Chang mosquitoes were susceptible to only deltamethrin and permethrin. Pong Nom Ron mosquitoes were resistant to all pyrethroids tested. Routine assessment of these baseline results should guide future resistance monitoring to pyrethroid insecticides in Ae. albopictus in Thailand. PMID:26675456

  13. Rare white-flowered morphs increase the reproductive success of common purple morphs in a food-deceptive orchid.

    PubMed

    Dormont, L; Delle-Vedove, R; Bessière, J-M; Hossaert-Mc Key, M; Schatz, B

    2010-01-01

    How floral colour polymorphism can be maintained in evolutionary time is still debated. In rewardless orchids, it is unknown whether rare white-flowered morphs differ in scent chemistry from pigmented morphs, and whether such intraspecific variation in floral signals may have an impact on reproductive success. We compared the chemical composition of floral volatiles emitted by white- and purple-flowered morphs of Orchis mascula, and recorded the fruit set of both colour morphs. We also used white ping-pong balls to mimic white-flowered morphs in field bioassays. We found that colour polymorphism was not associated with floral odour polymorphism. Surprisingly, when populations of purple-flowered plants included a few white-flowered individuals, the fruit set of the purple morph increased significantly (from 6 to 27%), while that of the white morph remained low. We obtained the same fourfold increase in fruit set when using ping-pong balls as visual lures, demonstrating the association between colour variation and fruit set, and the key role of visual signals in pollinator attraction. Our results are incompatible with negative frequency-dependent selection, a hypothesis invoked to explain colour polymorphism in other rewardless orchids. We propose several hypotheses to explain the maintenance of white morphs in O. mascula. PMID:19825015

  14. Distinct sets of PIWI proteins produce arbovirus and transposon-derived piRNAs in Aedes aegypti mosquito cells.

    PubMed

    Miesen, Pascal; Girardi, Erika; van Rij, Ronald P

    2015-07-27

    The PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway is essential for transposon silencing in many model organisms. Its remarkable efficiency relies on a sophisticated amplification mechanism known as the ping-pong loop. In Alphavirus-infected Aedes mosquitoes, piRNAs with sequence features that suggest ping-pong-dependent biogenesis are produced from viral RNA. The PIWI family in Aedes mosquitoes is expanded when compared to other model organisms, raising the possibility that individual PIWI proteins have functionally diversified in these insects. Here, we show that Piwi5 and Ago3, but none of the other PIWI family members, are essential for piRNA biogenesis from Sindbis virus RNA in infected Aedes aegypti cells. In contrast, the production of piRNAs from transposons relies on a more versatile set of PIWI proteins, some of which do not contribute to viral piRNA biogenesis. These results indicate that functional specialization allows distinct mosquito PIWI proteins to process RNA from different endogenous and exogenous sources. PMID:26068474

  15. Malaria in tree crop plantations in south-eastern and western provinces of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singhasivanon, P; Thimasarn, K; Yimsamran, S; Linthicum, K; Nualchawee, K; Dawreang, D; Kongrod, S; Premmanisakul, N; Maneeboonyang, W; Salazar, N

    1999-09-01

    During the past three decades almost half of the existing natural tropical forests in Thailand were destroyed and replaced by cash crops, rubber, coffee, fruit orchards (durian, rambutan, mangosteen) and other commercial plantations. In order to determine the proportion of malaria cases contracted from such commercial plantations, an epidemiological study was conducted between June 1996 to May 1997 in two districts, one in Pong Nam Ron, located in a south-eastern province near the Cambodian border and another in Sai Yok, in a western province along the Myanmar border. Data were collected by passive case detection from patients attending the existing malaria clinics and active case detection by monthly malariometric survey in selected villages. All malaria cases were thoroughly investigated and classified according to exposure to different ecotypes prior to onset of malaria symptoms in the preceding two weeks. Malaria cases acquired from commercial plantations accounted for 35.2% and 11.2% in Pong Nam Ron and in Sai Yok districts respectively. In such plantations, most of the malaria cases were contracted from fruit orchards and to a lesser extent from rubber and teak plantations. From this study it is evident that commercial plantations provide a significant site of malaria transmission in addition to the forest and foothills areas in Southeast Asia where efficient vectors such as An. dirus and An. minimus are prevalent and have adapted to such changed ecosystems. PMID:10774642

  16. Steady-State Kinetic Mechanism of the Proline:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Activity of Proline Utilization A (PutA) from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Moxley, Michael A.; Tanner, John J.; Becker, Donald F.

    2011-01-01

    The multifunctional proline utilization A (PutA) flavoenzyme from Escherichia coli performs the oxidation of proline to glutamate in two catalytic steps using separate proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) dehydrogenase domains. In the first reaction, the oxidation of proline is coupled to the reduction of ubiquinone (CoQ) by the PRODH domain, which has a β8α8-barrel structure that is conserved in bacterial and eukaryotic PRODH enzymes. The structural requirements of the benzoquinone moiety were examined by steady-state kinetics using CoQ analogs. PutA displayed activity with all the analogs tested; the highest kcat/Km was obtained with CoQ2. The kinetic mechanism of the PRODH reaction was investigated use a variety of steady-state approaches. Initial velocity patterns measured using proline and CoQ1, combined with dead-end and product inhibition studies, suggested a two-site ping-pong mechanism for PutA. The kinetic parameters for PutA were not strongly influenced by solvent viscosity suggesting that diffusive steps do not significantly limit the overall reaction rate. In summary, the kinetic data reported here, along with analysis of the crystal structure data for the PRODH domain, suggest that the proline:ubiquinone oxidoreductase reaction of PutA occurs via a rapid equilibrium ping-pong mechanism with proline and ubiquinone binding at two distinct sites. PMID:22040654

  17. The mediator complex subunit Med10 regulates heart valve formation in zebrafish by controlling Tbx2b-mediated Has2 expression and cardiac jelly formation.

    PubMed

    Just, Steffen; Hirth, Sofia; Berger, Ina M; Fishman, Mark C; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    In search for novel key regulators of cardiac valve formation, we isolated the zebrafish cardiac valve mutant ping pong (png). We find that an insertional promoter mutation within the zebrafish mediator complex subunit 10 (med10) gene is leading to impaired heart valve formation. Expression of the T-box transcription factor 2b (Tbx2b), known to be essential in cardiac valve development, is severely reduced in png mutant hearts. We demonstrate here that transient reconstitution of Tbx2b expression rescues AV canal development in png mutant zebrafish. By contrast, overexpression of Forkhead box N4 (Foxn4), a known upstream regulator of Tbx2b, is not capable to reconstitute tbx2b expression and heart valve formation in Med10-deficient png mutant hearts. Interestingly, hyaluronan synthase 2 (has2), a known downstream target of Tbx2 and producer of hyaluronan (HA) - a major ECM component of the cardiac jelly and critical for proper heart valve development - is completely absent in ping pong mutant hearts. We propose here a rather unique role of Med10 in orchestrating cardiac valve formation by mediating Foxn4 dependent tbx2b transcription, expression of Has2 and subsequently proper development of the cardiac jelly. PMID:27343557

  18. Effects of asymmetric sitting on spinal balance

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hee Soon; Oh, Jong Chi; Won, Sung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of two common asymmetric sitting positions on spinal balance. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-seven healthy subjects in their twenties were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. Asymmetric positions of resting the chin on a hand and crossing the legs were performed by each group for 1 hour. After 1 hour, the subjects lay in the supine position again and spinal imbalance was measured using a device. [Results] After 1 hour of resting with the chin on a hand, sagittal imbalance, coronal imbalance, pelvic obliquity and lordosis angle presented spinal imbalance worsening of 1 hour of crossing legs, sagittal imbalance, pelvic torsion showed in mainly learned spinal imbalance living. [Conclusion] Good posture could be an innate ability, however it through habits. So this study is meaningful from the perspective of the importance of good posture. PMID:27065291

  19. Enhancement of the results of neck liposuction with the FAMI technique.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, Kimberly J

    2003-10-01

    Submental liposuction is an excellent procedure for improving the aging neck by reducing the cervicomental angle and increasing the definition of the mandibular border. However, it does not address the loss of volume of the chin and perioral areas caused by atrophy of hard and soft tissues. In this study, thirty patients underwent concomitant submental tumescent liposuction and fat augmentation with the FAMI (fat autograft muscle injection) technique in order to assess short-term results and complications associated with these two relatively noninvasive procedures. All patients had improvement in the cervicomental border, a smoother mandibular border, and a more proportioned chin following 3-5 days of swelling. Patients followed for 6 months to one year had long term retention of fat. There were no significant complications. In this preliminary series, submental tumescent liposuction with FAMI provided enhanced aesthetic results with little downtime and minimal complications. PMID:14558395

  20. Sex and age identification of palila

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffrey, J.J.; Fancy, S.G.; Lindsey, G.D.; Banko, P.C.; Pratt, T.K.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Methods to sex and age Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an endangered Hawaiian finch restricted to subalpine woodlands on Hawai'i, were identified on the basis of measurements and plumage characteristics of 17 museum specimens and 96 known-age, live Palila. Palila undergo a single annual molt during September-December following the breeding season. Presence of a complete or partial wingbar distinguishes hatch-year and second-year Palila from after-second-year birds. Adult male Palila are distinguished from females by a distinct napeline and lt 30% gray feathers intermixed with yellow feathers on the head. The black or gray feathers of the lores and chin of males are darker than those on the back, whereas the lores and chin of females are lighter or of the same shade as back feathers.

  1. Orocutaneous Fistula or Traumatic Infectious Skin Lesion: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Vermani, Mayank; Kalia, Vimal; Singh, Sumita; Garg, Sunny; Aggarwal, Shweta; Khurana, Richa; Kalra, Geeta

    2015-01-01

    Orocutaneous fistula (OCF) (of dental origin) is an uncommon but well-described condition in the literature. These are often misdiagnosed by physicians and dentists. Careful selection of investigating modality is important in case of diagnostically challenging cases. A 19-year-old female came with a complaint of a lesion on the chin reported with h/o trauma with the impact on chin presented as diagnostic dilemma because of unusual case history and clinical examination. Commonly used radiographic investigations like IOPA and orthopantomograph did not resolve the dilemma whereas advanced imaging modality like CT scan, 3D volume imaging, and contrast enhanced CT played an important role in the diagnosis of OCF and selecting the treatment plan. PMID:26618009

  2. Review of rapid eye movement behavior sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-03-01

    The spectrum of rapid eye movement behavior disorders (RBD) spans various age groups, with the greatest prevalence in elderly men. Major diagnostic features include harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity and dream enactment during rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD patients, the polysomnogram during rapid eye movement sleep demonstrates excessive augmentation of chin electromyogram or excessive chin or limb phasic electromyogram twitching. RBD may be associated with various neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Other co-morbid conditions may include narcolepsy, agrypnia excitata, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. RBD is hypothesized to be caused by primary dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus or other key brainstem structures associated with basal ganglia pathology or, alternatively, from abnormal afferent signals in the basal ganglia leading to dysfunction in the midbrain extrapyramidal area/ pedunculo-pontine nucleus regions. PMID:14984689

  3. Tracking cohesive subgroups over time in inferred social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Alvin; Chignell, Mark; Wang, Hao

    2010-04-01

    As a first step in the development of community trackers for large-scale online interaction, this paper shows how cohesive subgroup analysis using the Social Cohesion Analysis of Networks (SCAN; Chin and Chignell 2008) and Data-Intensive Socially Similar Evolving Community Tracker (DISSECT; Chin and Chignell 2010) methods can be applied to the problem of identifying cohesive subgroups and tracking them over time. Three case studies are reported, and the findings are used to evaluate how well the SCAN and DISSECT methods work for different types of data. In the largest of the case studies, variations in temporal cohesiveness are identified across a set of subgroups extracted from the inferred social network. Further modifications to the DISSECT methodology are suggested based on the results obtained. The paper concludes with recommendations concerning further research that would be beneficial in addressing the community tracking problem for online data.

  4. Penning trap mass measurement of 72Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valverde, A. A.; Bollen, G.; Cooper, K.; Eibach, M.; Gulyuz, K.; Izzo, C.; Morrissey, D. J.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Villari, A. C. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Low Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) Penning trap mass spectrometer was used to perform an improved-precision mass measurement of 72Br and the low-lying isomeric state, Brm72, giving mass excesses of -59 062.2 (1.0 )keV and -58 960.9 (1.2 )keV , respectively. These values are consistent with the values from the 2012 atomic mass evaluation [Chin. Phys. C 36, 1603 (2012), 10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003] and the Nubase2012 evaluation of nuclear properties [Chin. Phys. C 36, 1157 (2012), 10.1088/1674-1137/36/12/001]. The uncertainties on the mass of the ground state and isomeric state have been reduced by a factor of seven.

  5. Lightweight device to stimulate and monitor human vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McStravick, M. Catherine (Inventor); Proctor, David R. (Inventor); Wood, Scott J. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A helmet formed of a rigid shell is disclosed. The shell is lined with several air filled bladders to contact firmly the head of a user. The shell has a rigid chin bar supporting a bite bar connected fixedly to a mouthpiece bearing against the teeth and hard palate to firmly anchor the helmet without movement. The outer shell surface supports various air pumping bulbs and accelerometers. Separate left and right visor pivot on the side guided in a central tongue and groove track to move optical lens mounts into the user's field of vision. The chin bar is connected to the shell by a pair of releasable clasps. A safety lanyard connects to the clasps to quickly pull pins from the clasps to enable quick release in case of motion sickness.

  6. [Investigation of the effect of functional treatment in skeletal Class III cases on the profile facial esthetics].

    PubMed

    Altuğ, Z; Erdem, D; Rübendüz, M

    1990-04-01

    In this study, effects of chin-cap therapy on profile facial esthetics were investigated. 30 patients indicating skeletal and dental Cl III anomalies were divided into two groups. The first group, including 21 patients with the average age of 11 was treated by chin-cap therapy, average treatment time being 0.7 years. This group involved 10 females and 11 males. The second group involved 9 persons, 5 females and 4 males, with the average age of 9.7, average control period being 2 years. The investigation was carried out on the 60 lateral cephalometric films taken from both groups. 2 angular and 9 soft tissue cephalometric measurements were made on each film. The comparisons between the groups indicated that the treatment affected the soft tissue measurements positively. PMID:2101659

  7. Local ICA for the Most Wanted face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xin; Szu, Harold H.; Markowitz, Zvi

    2000-04-01

    Facial disguises of FBI Most Wanted criminals are inevitable and anticipated in our design of automatic/aided target recognition (ATR) imaging systems. For example, man's facial hairs may hide his mouth and chin but not necessarily the nose and eyes. Sunglasses will cover the eyes but not the nose, mouth, and chins. This fact motivates us to build sets of the independent component analyses bases separately for each facial region of the entire alleged criminal group. Then, given an alleged criminal face, collective votes are obtained from all facial regions in terms of 'yes, no, abstain' and are tallied for a potential alarm. Moreover, and innocent outside shall fall below the alarm threshold and is allowed to pass the checkpoint. Such a PD versus FAR called ROC curve is obtained.

  8. Combined Treatment with Botulinum Toxin and 595-nm Pulsed Dye Laser for Traumatic Scarring.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Ju; Jeong, Se Yeong; No, Yeon A; Park, Kui Young; Kim, Beom Joo

    2015-12-01

    Traumatic scars on skin covering areas of high movement, especially areas on the face, can be stressful for patients. We report two cases of traumatic scars that occurred on the chin, and that were successfully treated with a combined therapy of 595-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) and intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin. After the treatment, good cosmetic results were achieved in both patients. The only adverse effect during and after the treatments was mild pain, which resolved within several days without any additional treatment. In conclusion, the combination of 595-nm PDL and intramuscular botulinum toxin injection was shown to be a safe and effective treatment for traumatic scars on the mobile chin area in Korean patients. PMID:26719648

  9. Longitudinal study of combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of Class II malocclusion with deep overbite.

    PubMed

    Jäger, A; Kubein-Meesenburg, D; Luhr, H G

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-one patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment in combination with mandibular advancement surgery to treat Class II malocclusion and deep overbite were followed up. Median vertical relapse at the bony chin (after a mean followup of 16 months) was found to be 2.9 mm (44%). Sagittal advancement was found to have good stability; most of the patients exhibited some additional anterior movement of the chin during the follow-up period. At the same time, the entire mandible rotated counterclockwise and the gonial angle increased. Individual response to treatment varied greatly; two patients exhibited major horizontal relapse. Controlling the position of the mandibular proximal segment seemed to be the most important factor in posttreatment stability of this sample. PMID:1940537

  10. ASK Magazine. No. 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, Todd (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Most of this issue is about ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer). We've collected stories by four members of the ACE management team: Don Margolies, the mission manager from Goddard Space Flight Center; Frandsen, science payloads manager from the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory; Mary Chin, project manager in charge of spacecraft development at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory; and Frank Snow, operations and ground systems manager at Goddard.

  11. Vertical Localization of the Malar Prominence

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, John S.; Markarian, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background: During reconstruction or augmentation, it is important to localize the malar complex in a symmetrical and aesthetically pleasing position. Few studies have determined the location of this feature and none related the location to gender, age, or ethnicity. Some of these have attempted to relate the position to the aesthetically pleasing Golden Ratio φ. Methods: We assessed the vertical location of the malar prominence relative to other facial landmarks, determined consistency among individuals, and compared this with values used in artistry. Study population consisted of a convenience sample of 67 patients taken from an otolaryngology practice at a large urban medical center. Coordinates of the malar prominence were referenced to distinct facial landmarks from which the ratio of chin-to-malar prominence to chin-to-eye canthus was determined. Results: Average chin-to-malar prominence distance was 0.793 ± 0.023 (SD) of the chin-to-eye canthus distance. Variability due to the specific image chosen [coefficient of variation (CV) = 1.19%] and combined inter/intrareader variability (CV = 1.71%) validate the methodology. Variability among individuals (CV = 2.84%) indicates population consistency. No difference was found between gender and age groups or between whites and Hispanics. Individuals of other/unknown ethnicities were within the range common to whites and Hispanics. Our population’s value is not different from the value of 0.809 used in artistry, which is based on the Golden Ratio φ. Conclusions: The vertical position of the malar prominence is consistent among individuals, is clinically well-approximated by the value based on the Golden Ratio, and may be useful as a reference for surgical reconstruction or augmentation. PMID:26180712

  12. Immediate 3-dimensional ridge augmentation after extraction of periodontally hopeless tooth using chinblock graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Thomas, Raison; A. Baron, Tarunkumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of immediate ridge augmentation to reconstruct the vertical and horizontal dimensions at extraction sites of periodontally hopeless tooth using an autogenous chin block graft. Material and Methods A total of 11 patients (7 male & 4 female) with localized advanced bone loss around single rooted teeth having hopeless prognosis and indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The teeth were atraumatically extracted and deficient sites were augmented using autogenous chin block graft. Parameters like clinically soft tissue height - width and also radiographic ridge height -width were measured before and 6 months after augmentation. Obtained results were tabulated and analysed statistically. Results After 6 months of immediate ridge augmentation, the mean gain in radiographic vertical height and horizontal width was 7.64 + 1.47 mm (P = 0.005) and 5.28 + 0.46 mm (P = 0.007) respectively which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean change of width gain of 0.40mm and height loss of 0.40mm of soft tissue parameters, from the baseline till completion of the study at 6 months was observed. Conclusions The present study showed predictable immediate ridge augmentation with autogenous chin block graft at periodontally compromised extraction site. It can provide adequate hard and soft tissue foundation for perfect 3-Dimensional prosthetic positioning of implant in severely deficient ridges. Key words:Immediate ridge augmentation, periondontally hopeless tooth, autogenous chin graft, dental implant. PMID:26644832

  13. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned. PMID:21399536

  14. [Progress of study on the demodex blepharitis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Y; Sun, X G

    2016-04-11

    Demodex blepharitis is an infectious ocular disease which is common, but always to be neglected. There were a few related reports about this disease in China. The pathogenic mechanism of demodex blepharitis is not clear at present. Literatures held different ideas about its diagnosis, therapeutic methods and curative effect. This review will summarize the new development of demodex blepharitis in order to provide references for its basic and clinical researches.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 315-320). PMID:27094071

  15. Illusions in rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Younger, R A

    1999-08-01

    A good rhinoplasty surgeon attempts to enhance nasal performance through airway and appearance improvement. The great rhinoplasty surgeon routinely improves not only nasal performance but endeavors to achieve a higher level of overall facial aesthetic enhancement by manipulating the surgical illusions of the face. This cohesive interplay of science between the eyes, cheeks, nose, lips, and chin is known all to well by the master facial plastic surgeon who defines the art of rhinoplasty. PMID:10433660

  16. [The pros and cons of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery].

    PubMed

    Li, Z H; Ye, Z

    2016-02-11

    Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) is known as an innovative new technology. Compared with traditional surgical approach, FLACS is more accurate, more predictable and less energy used. However, in the current stage of development, there still may be intraoperative and postoperative complications, or even serious complications. FLACS has obvious advantages in certain surgical steps, but there are still clear disadvantages, so it still cannot completely replace the traditional phacoemulsification surgery. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 89-92). PMID:26906702

  17. 42 CFR 84.110 - Gas masks; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... front-mounted or back-mounted gas mask: Acid gas 1,2,3 Ammonia Carbon monoxide Organic Vapor 1,2,3 Other... of acid gas, ammonia, carbon monoxide, and organic vapors. 1,2,3 Type of chin-style gas mask: Acid... or more of the above gases and vapors. 1,2,3 Type of escape gas mask: Acid gas 1,2,3,4 Ammonia...

  18. Double aneuploidy: partial trisomy 21 and XO/XXX in a family with 12/21 translocation.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Tyrkus, M; Woolley, P V

    1978-09-01

    A female patient with mild mental retardation with spatial perceptual difficulties, microcephaly, depressed nasal root, receding chin, webbed neck, low hairline, shield chest, cubitus valgus, scoliosis and dermatoglyphic findings not characteristic of Down's syndrome is reported. In addition to X/XXX, she had a partial trisomy 21 of the short arm-centromere-proximal long arm segment due to maternal t(12;21) translocation. Two phenotypically normal siblings carried the balanced translocation. PMID:315194

  19. Condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Uma; Chandra, Subhash; Raju, B H V Rama Krishnam; Anitha, G; Srikanth, K Venkata; Laheji, Afshan

    2012-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH), as the name suggests, affects mandibular condyle producing overgrowth of condyle, which is characterized by a slowly progressive, usually unilateral enlargement of the mandible, facial asymmetry and deviation of chin to the unaffected side. The condition is known to be self-limiting, usually begins around puberty, but may not be recognized until later in life. This paper reports a case of severe facial asymmetry secondary to CH, which was successfully treated by high condylectomy only. PMID:23404027

  20. Interorganizational health care systems implementations: an exploratory study of early electronic commerce initiatives.

    PubMed

    Payton, F C; Ginzberg, M J

    2001-01-01

    Changing business practices, customers needs, and market dynamics have driven many organizations to implement interorganizational systems (IOSs). IOSs have been successfully implemented in the banking, cotton, airline, and consumer-goods industries, and recently attention has turned to the health care industry. This article describes an exploratory study of health care IOS implementations based on the voluntary community health information network (CHIN) model. PMID:11293008

  1. Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Li-Bao; Huang, Liu-Sheng; Yang, Wei; Xu, Rui

    2012-03-01

    We investigate the fair quantum blind signature scheme proposed by Wang and Wen [Wang T Y and Wen Q Y 2010 Chin. Phys. B 19 060307], which uses the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics and the availability of a trusted arbitrator. However, in this paper, we find that the protocol cannot satisfy the property of non-forgeability even under the condition that the trusted arbitrator is totally credible. Moreover, a simple feasible suggestion for improving the protocol is proposed.

  2. Epidermal electronics for electromyography: An application to swallowing therapy.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Jeong, Jae-Woong; Li, Xinda; Scott, Dylan K; Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Rogers, John A; Rieger, Jana

    2016-08-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment alters the anatomy and physiology of patients. Resulting swallowing difficulties can lead to serious health concerns. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is used as an adjuvant to swallowing therapy exercises. sEMG signal collected from the area under the chin provides visual biofeedback from muscle contractions and is used to help patients perform exercises correctly. However, conventional sEMG adhesive pads are relatively thick and difficult to effectively adhere to a patient's altered chin anatomy, potentially leading to poor signal acquisition in this population. Here, the emerging technology of epidermal electronics is introduced, where ultra-thin geometry allows for close contouring of the chin. The two objectives of this study were to (1) assess the potential of epidermal electronics technology for use with swallowing therapy and (2) assess the significance of the reference electrode placement. This study showed comparative signals between the new epidermal sEMG patch and the conventional adhesive patches used by clinicians. Furthermore, an integrated reference yielded optimal signal for clinical use; this configuration was more robust to head movements than when an external reference was used. Improvements for future iterations of epidermal sEMG patches specific to day-to-day clinical use are suggested. PMID:27255865

  3. Facial profile changes with various orthodontic premolar extraction sequences during growth.

    PubMed

    Steyn, C L; Maritz, J S; du Preez, R J; Harris, A M P

    2004-05-01

    The Visual Treatment Objective (VTO) is an extremely valuable tool in the process of working out the treatment plan for the individual. This is especially true for the inexperienced operator. Often it becomes clear that extractions are indicated, but there remains uncertainty as to which teeth should be chosen for extractions to give the best results. As it is necessary to express the expected change in profile due to growth of the nose and also of the chin, VTO construction is helpful in determining the extraction decision. Clinical experience and research projects have indicated that the use of mean values has definite limitations when constructing a VTO for an individual. The primary objective of this investigation was to provide formulae by means of which anteroposterior changes in the facial profile of growing individuals for whom four premolar extraction treatment is proposed can be predicted with a greater measure of certainty. The records of 248 growing Caucasian orthodontic patients (120 males and 128 females) were selected and divided into Group 44 (four first premolar extractions), Group 45 (upper first premolar and lower second premolar extractions) and Group 55 (four second premolar extractions). Formulae are presented for the prediction of the amount of incisor retraction, anteroposterior nose growth and for chin growth. The formulae were derived by regression of incisor retraction, anteroposterior nose growth and chin growth on various predictors, and could be used in the construction of VTO's for selected cases. PMID:15279088

  4. Simultaneous implant placement with ridge augmentation using an autogenous bone ring transplant.

    PubMed

    Omara, M; Abdelwahed, N; Ahmed, M; Hindy, M

    2016-04-01

    The severely defective socket, in which implant placement within the remaining bone will result in a significantly off-axis implant position, precludes immediate implant placement and requires bone grafting as an initial surgical intervention. The aims of this study were to evaluate autogenous chin bone ring consolidation after the augmentation of severely defective sockets and the clinical application of these rings in the premolar-molar region with simultaneous implant placement in a one-stage procedure. Ten patients with 12 defective sockets were included. Sockets were prepared with a trephine bur. Bone rings with a tapped implant osteotomy were harvested from the chin with a larger trephine bur. Bone rings were fitted in the prepared sockets. An implant drill was used to prepare the bone apical to the ring through its central osteotomy. Implants were screwed through the rings and the apical bone. Patients were examined clinically and radiographically immediately and at 6 months postoperative. Crestal bone changes were measured and evaluated statistically. All grafted sockets showed bone healing with no significant crestal bone resorption and no infection; only one ring showed dehiscence, which healed during the follow-up period. All implants showed radiographic evidence of osseointegration. The autogenous chin bone ring augmentation technique was found to be a reliable alternative method for the management of severely defective sockets. PMID:26644216

  5. Estimation of Delta Wave by Mutual Information of Heartbeat During Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Yosuke; Watanabe, Kajiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    The quality of sleep is evaluated based on the sleep stages judged by R-K method or the manual of American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The brainwaves, eye movements, and chin EMG of sleeping subjects are used for the judgment. These methods above, however, require some electrodes to be attached to the head and the face to obtain the brainwaves, eye movements, and chin EMG, thus making the measurements troublesome to be held on a daily basis. If non-invasive measurements of brainwaves, eye movements, and chin EMG are feasible, or their equivalent data can be estimated through other bio-signals, the monitoring of the quality of daily sleeps, which influences the health condition, will be easy. In this paper, we discuss the appearance rate of delta wave occurrences, which is deeply related with the depth of sleep, can be estimated based on the average amount of mutual information calculated by pulse wave signals and body movements measured non-invasively by the pneumatic method. As a result, the root mean square error between the appearance rate of delta wave occurrences measured with a polysomnography and the estimated delta pulse was 14.93%.

  6. Effects of mop handle height on shoulder muscle activity and perceived exertion during floor mopping using a figure eight method

    PubMed Central

    WALLIUS, Mari-Anne; RISSANEN, Saara M.; BRAGGE, Timo; VARTIAINEN, Paavo; KARJALAINEN, Pasi A.; RÄSÄNEN, Kimmo; JÄRVELIN-PASANEN, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of mop handle height on electromyographic (EMG) activities of the shoulder muscles and perceived exertion for the shoulder area during floor mopping using a figure eight method. An experimental study with 13 cleaners was conducted using surface EMG and category ratio (CR-10) scale. EMG activity was recorded unilaterally from the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, anterior and middle deltoid muscles. Each subject performed four trials of mopping and each trial consisted of using a different mop handle height (mop adjustment at the level of shoulder, chin, nose and eye) in randomized order. EMG data were normalized to a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). The muscle activities were assessed by estimating the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) of the EMG signals and analysed by linear mixed model analysis. Results showed that shoulder muscle activity was significantly lower when the mop handle height was adjusted to shoulder level or chin level as compared to eye level. These findings were supported by subjective ratings of exertion. It seems that mop handle height adjustment between shoulder and chin level may be recommended as a basis for figure eight mopping. PMID:26423328

  7. Effects of mop handle height on shoulder muscle activity and perceived exertion during floor mopping using a figure eight method.

    PubMed

    Wallius, Mari-Anne; Rissanen, Saara M; Bragge, Timo; Vartiainen, Paavo; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Räsänen, Kimmo; Järvelin-Pasanen, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of mop handle height on electromyographic (EMG) activities of the shoulder muscles and perceived exertion for the shoulder area during floor mopping using a figure eight method. An experimental study with 13 cleaners was conducted using surface EMG and category ratio (CR-10) scale. EMG activity was recorded unilaterally from the upper trapezius, infraspinatus, anterior and middle deltoid muscles. Each subject performed four trials of mopping and each trial consisted of using a different mop handle height (mop adjustment at the level of shoulder, chin, nose and eye) in randomized order. EMG data were normalized to a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). The muscle activities were assessed by estimating the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles of the amplitude probability distribution function (APDF) of the EMG signals and analysed by linear mixed model analysis. Results showed that shoulder muscle activity was significantly lower when the mop handle height was adjusted to shoulder level or chin level as compared to eye level. These findings were supported by subjective ratings of exertion. It seems that mop handle height adjustment between shoulder and chin level may be recommended as a basis for figure eight mopping. PMID:26423328

  8. Understanding the statistical persistence of dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals.

    PubMed

    Sejdić, Ervin; Steele, Catriona M; Chau, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing accelerometry is a biomechanical approach for the assessment of difficulties during deglutition. However, the effects of various swallowing tasks and different anthropometric/demographic variables on the statistical behavior of these accelerometric signals are unknown. In particular, to understand the statistical persistence of these signals, we used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to analyze accelerometric data collected from 408 healthy participants during dry, wet and wet chin tuck swallowing tasks. The results of DFA were then examined for potential influences of age, gender or body mass index. Several important conclusions were reached. First, the strongest persistence was observed for the wet chin tuck swallows. Second, the vibrations in the superior-inferior (S-I) direction generally have stronger temporal dependencies than those in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction. Both of these phenomena can be attributed to the dominating influence of head movements on the amplitude of vibrations in the S-I direction. Third, gender, age and body mass index of the participants did not impact the observed persistence for dry and wet chin tuck swallows, while a gender effect was identified for wet swallows. In particular, male participants experienced more Brownian-like statistical dependencies in their swallowing signals. Future developments in the field should attempt to remove signal components associated with strong statistical persistence, as they tend to be associated with non-swallowing phenomena. PMID:21035113

  9. A soft-tissue cephalometric analysis and its use in orthodontic treatment planning. Part II.

    PubMed

    Holdaway, R A

    1984-04-01

    To summarize, the soft-tissue profile can vary in many ways and still be in balance and harmony. There is a wide range of acceptability regarding soft-tissue chin position in the profile. Both the lips and the chin should line up near the H line, but we need to look at the upper lip from a different perspective or in its relation to a line perpendicular to the Frankfort plane and tangent to the vermilion border to be certain that we are planning the best possible lip support for the case at hand. The H angle, allowing a few degrees for soft-tissue thickness variability, must increase as the basic skeletal convexity increases, and as the convexity increases, the lower incisors will need to be left farther forward than in a straight or concave skeletal profile. A thick integumental covering in the chin area can also effectively align the lower facial profile where lower incisors are farther forward than we are accustomed to seeing them. This principle can also be applied by surgically moving the bony chin forward until the three key soft-tissue points line up. Because there are wide variations in skeletal convexity, standardizing the position of the lower incisor to its apical base support as measured in the Frankfort mandibular incisor angle fails to recognize that upper incisors can be retracted too far, leaving a "streamlined" upper lip which is not esthetically pleasing. Locating the lower incisor in relation to the expected point A to pogonion line is somewhat better but still fails to recognize the wide range of variability in the thickness of the lips and soft-tissue chin. We must also guard against "dishing" those cases having good facial balance with quite normal skeletal convexity and only 5 mm or 6 mm of lower arch length discrepancy. Finally, it is completely practical as a treatment-planning procedure to approach the proposed orthodontic changes from a soft-tissue analysis perspective, making changes only to the point where the best possible soft

  10. Structure and reaction mechanism of L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase.

    PubMed

    Humm, A; Fritsche, E; Steinbacher, S

    1997-01-01

    L-Arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AT) catalyzes the committed step in creatine biosynthesis by formation of guanidinoacetic acid, the direct precursor of creatine. The X-ray structure of the human enzyme shows a novel fold with fivefold pseudosymmetry of beta beta alphabeta-modules. These modules enclose the active site compartment of the basket-like structure. The active site of AT lies at the bottom of a very narrow channel and contains a catalytic triad with the residues Cys-His-Asp. The transamidination reaction follows a ping-pong mechanism and is accompanied by large conformational changes. During catalysis the amidino group is covalently attached to the active site cysteine to give an amidino-cysteine intermediate. PMID:9165070

  11. Flies as a source of enteric pathogens in a rural village in Thailand.

    PubMed Central

    Echeverria, P; Harrison, B A; Tirapat, C; McFarland, A

    1983-01-01

    The village of Ban Pong in northeastern Thailand was studied from January through December 1981 to determine the importance of flies as a source of enteric pathogens. The number of flies (predominantly Musca domestica) increased in kitchens and animal pens in the hot dry spring, when the incidence of diarrhea was highest in the village. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., non-O1 Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio fluvalis were isolated from fly pools in yards (69%), animal pens (38%), bathrooms (35%), and kitchens (8%). Enterotoxigenic E. coli was isolated from one fly pool in May and from another in June, when the incidence of such infections was highest in the village. Flies often carry and presumably disseminate enteric pathogens in rural Thailand. PMID:6351748

  12. [Skull fracture and cephalhematoma in a newborn--a case report].

    PubMed

    Zakanj, Zora

    2014-01-01

    Skull fractures and cephalhematoma in newborns belong to the group of birth injuries of the head and neck, accounting for 11.4 to 15% of the total number of birth injuries. We presented a fracture of the parietal bones in a newborn, associated with parietal cephalhematoma. The newborn had transient and mild neurological symptoms: vomiting and changes in muscle tone. Clinical examination confirmed a positive "ping-pong" phenomen, craniogram confirmed the fracture of parietal bones and shown cephalhematoma, as well as ultrasound (US) examinations of the brain showed peri-interventricular bleeding grade II. After the disappearance of all clinical symptoms in a newborn, we observed total bone healing at the end of the second week of life, and good perinatal outcome. Successful recovery from injury contributes to the ability of rapid bone modeling and remodeling, and brain plasticity. Further interdisciplinary monitoring is very important. PMID:25647994

  13. Implications of changing water cycle for the performance and yield characteristics of the multi-purpose Beas Reservoir in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeloye, A. J.; Ojha, C. S.; Soundharajan, B.; Remesan, R.

    2013-12-01

    There is considerable change in both the spatial and temporal patterns of monsoon rainfall in India, with implications for water resources availability and security. 'Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on India Agriculture' (MICCI) is one of five on-going scientific efforts being sponsored as part of the UK-NERC/India-MOES Changing Water Cycle (South Asia) initiative to further the understanding of the problem and proffer solutions that are robust and effective. This paper focuses on assessing the implications of projected climate change on the yield and performance characteristics of the Pong Reservoir on the Beas River, Himachal Pradesh, India. The Pong serves both hydropower and irrigation needs and is therefore strategic for the socio-economic well-being of the region as well as sustaining the livelihoods of millions of farmers that rely on it for irrigation. Simulated baseline and climate-change perturbed hydro-climate scenarios developed as part of a companion Work Package of MICCI formed the basis of the analysis. For both of these scenarios, reservoir analyses were carried out using the Sequent Peak Algorithm (SPA) and Pong's existing level of releases to derive rule curves for the reservoir. These rule curves then formed the basis of further reservoir behaviour simulations in WEAP and the resulting performance of the reservoir was summarised in terms of reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability. The whole exercise was implemented within a Monte Carlo framework for the benefit of characterising the variability in the assessments. The results show that the rule curves developed using future hydro-climate are significantly changed from the baseline in that higher storages will be required to be maintained in the Pong in the future to achieve reliable performance. As far as the overall performance of the reservoir is concerned, future reliability (both time-based and volume-based) is not significantly different from the baseline, provided

  14. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-likemore » subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.« less

  15. Production of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of the sunflower and soybean oils: modeling.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Fernando L P; Magalhães, Shayane P; Falcão, Pedro Wagner de Carvalho

    2010-05-01

    Biodiesel has become attractive due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional diesel. Although the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel requires low thermal energy, low conversions of enzymatic transesterification with ethanol (ethanolysis) of oils to produce biodiesel are reported as a result of deactivation of the enzyme depending on the reaction conditions. The synthesis of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of sunflower and soybean oils was investigated. Kinetic parameters for the overall reactions were fitted to experimental data available in the literature with the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism including the inhibition effect of the ethanol on the activity of lipase Novozyme 435. The model was applied to a batch reactor and the experimental conversions were successfully reproduced. The modeling of a semibatch reactor with continuous addition of ethanol was also performed and the results showed a reduction of roughly 3 h in the reaction time in comparison with the batch-wise operation. PMID:20033350

  16. Nonribosomal peptide synthesis in animals: the cyclodipeptide synthase of Nematostella.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Jérôme; Moutiez, Mireille; Li, Yan; Belin, Pascal; Lecoq, Alain; Fonvielle, Matthieu; Charbonnier, Jean-Baptiste; Pernodet, Jean-Luc; Gondry, Muriel

    2011-11-23

    Cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) are small enzymes structurally related to class-I aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). They divert aminoacylated tRNAs from their canonical role in ribosomal protein synthesis, for cyclodipeptide formation. All the CDPSs experimentally characterized to date are bacterial. We show here that a predicted CDPS from the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis is an active CDPS catalyzing the formation of various cyclodipeptides, preferentially containing tryptophan. Our findings demonstrate that eukaryotes encode active CDPSs and suggest that all CDPSs have a similar aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase-like architecture and ping-pong mechanism. They also raise questions about the biological roles of the cyclodipeptides produced in bacteria and eukaryotes. PMID:22118670

  17. Wide-area ATM networking for large-scale MPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Papadopoulos, P.M.; Geist, G.A. II

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents early experiences with using high-speed ATM interfaces to connect multiple Intel Paragons on both local and wide area networks. The testbed includes the 1024 and 512 node Paragons running the OSF operating system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the 1840 node Paragon running the Puma operating system at Sandia National Laboratories. The experimental OC-12 (622 Mbits/sec) interfaces are built by GigaNet and provide a proprietary API for sending AAL-5 encapsulated packets. PVM is used as the massaging infrastructure and significant modifications have been made to use the GigaNet API, operate in the Puma environment, and attain acceptable performance over local networks. These modifications are described along with a discussion of roadblocks to networking MPPs with high-performance interfaces. Our early prototype utilizes approximately 25 percent of an OC-12 circuit and 80 percent of an OC-3 circuit in send plus acknowledgment ping-pong tests.

  18. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    WE RECOMMEND Joule and Watt Meter This versatile tool is aimed at low-voltage DC devices. Wireless datalogger Bluetooth enables data to be downloaded to your computer. WORTH A LOOK Amusement Park Physics This handbook contains teaching materials to excite students. Copper in the Curriculum Two free CDs cover aspects of Key Stages 3, 4 and 5. Launchpad A kit for making 25 devices that fire ping-pong balls. Solar water-heating kit This kit provides a good introduction to green energy. Solar voltaic cell The unit is ideal for Key Stages 1, 2 and 3. Wind turbine kit An impressive turbine that has many educational uses. HANDLE WITH CARE Hurdles and Strategies in the Teaching of Algebra A collection of tips that is really just for maths teachers. WEB WATCH A wealth of resources on the Internet support physics activities for students at amusement parks.

  19. A New Web-based Application Optimization Model in Multicore Web Server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Guohua; Zhao, Ying

    More and more web servers adopt multi-core CPUs to improve performance because of the development of multi-core technology. However, web applications couldn't exploit the potential of multi-core web server efficiently because of traditional processing algorithm of requests and scheduling strategies of threads in O/S. In this paper, a new web-based application optimization model was proposed, which could classify and schedule the dynamic requests and static requests on scheduling core, and process the dynamic requests on the other cores. By this way, a simulation program, which is called SIM, was developed. Experiments have been done to validate the new model, and the results show that the new model can effectively improve the performance of multi-core web servers, and avoid the problems of ping-pong effect.

  20. piRNA-Guided Transposon Cleavage Initiljates Zucchini-Dependent, Phased piRNA Production

    PubMed Central

    Han, Bo W; Wang, Wei; Li, Chengjian; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2015-01-01

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect the animal germline by silencing transposons. Primary piRNAs, generated from transcripts of genomic transposon ‘junkyards’ (piRNA clusters), are amplified by the “Ping-Pong” pathway, yielding secondary piRNAs. We report that secondary piRNAs, bound to the PIWI protein Ago3, can initiate primary piRNA production from cleaved transposon RNAs. The first ~26 nt of each cleaved RNA becomes a secondary piRNA, but the subsequent ~26 nt becomes the first in a series of phased primary piRNAs that bind Piwi, allowing piRNAs to spread beyond the site of RNA cleavage. The Ping-Pong pathway increases only the abundance of piRNAs, whereas production of phased primary piRNAs from cleaved transposon RNAs adds sequence diversity to the piRNA pool, allowing adaptation to changes in transposon sequence. PMID:25977554

  1. Purification and some properties of alcohol oxidase from alkane-grown Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, F M; Wadforth, C

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol oxidase was purified to homogeneity from membrane fractions obtained from alkane-grown Candida tropicalis. The enzyme appears to be a dimer of equal-sized subunits of Mr 70000. The purified enzyme is photosensitive and contains flavin-type material which is released by a combination of boiling and proteolytic digestion. The identity of the flavin material is not yet known, but it is not FMN, FAD or riboflavin. The enzyme is most active with dodecan-I-ol, but other long-chain alcohols are also attacked. The enzyme shows a weak, but significant activity towards long-chain aldehydes. Detailed kinetic studies with decan-1-ol as substrate suggest a group-transfer (Ping-Pong)-type mechanism of catalysis. PMID:1546949

  2. Purification and characterization of NADPH--cytochrome c reductase from the midgut of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    PubMed

    Crankshaw, D L; Hetnarski, K; Wilkinson, C F

    1979-09-01

    1. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was solubilized with bromelain and purified about 400-fold from sucrose/pyrophosphate-washed microsomal fractions from southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) larval midguts. 2. The enzyme has a mol.wt. of 70 035 +/- 1300 and contained 2 mol of flavin/mol of enzyme consisting of almost equimolar amounts of FMN and FAD. 3. Aerobic titration of the enzyme with NADPH caused the formation of a stable half-reduced state at 0.5 mol of NADPH/mol of flavin. 4. Kinetic analysis showed that the reduction of cytochrome c proceeded by a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism. 5. Apparent Km values for NADPH and cytochrome c and Ki values for NADP+ and 2'-AMP were considerably higher for the insect reductase than for the mammalian liver enzyme. 6. These are discussed in relation to possible differences in the active sites of the enzymes. PMID:117798

  3. Purification and characterization of NADPH--cytochrome c reductase from the midgut of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    PubMed Central

    Crankshaw, D L; Hetnarski, K; Wilkinson, C F

    1979-01-01

    1. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was solubilized with bromelain and purified about 400-fold from sucrose/pyrophosphate-washed microsomal fractions from southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) larval midguts. 2. The enzyme has a mol.wt. of 70 035 +/- 1300 and contained 2 mol of flavin/mol of enzyme consisting of almost equimolar amounts of FMN and FAD. 3. Aerobic titration of the enzyme with NADPH caused the formation of a stable half-reduced state at 0.5 mol of NADPH/mol of flavin. 4. Kinetic analysis showed that the reduction of cytochrome c proceeded by a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism. 5. Apparent Km values for NADPH and cytochrome c and Ki values for NADP+ and 2'-AMP were considerably higher for the insect reductase than for the mammalian liver enzyme. 6. These are discussed in relation to possible differences in the active sites of the enzymes. Images Fig. 3. PMID:117798

  4. Tryptophanase-catalyzed L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka; Saito, Takeshi; Noriko, Fujii

    2009-06-01

    Tryptophanase, an enzyme with extreme absolute stereospecificity for optically active stereoisomers, catalyzes the synthesis of l-tryptophan from l-serine and indole through a beta-substitution mechanism of the ping-pong type, and has no activity on d-serine. We previously reported that tryptophanase changed its stereospecificity to degrade d-tryptophan in highly concentrated diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH(4))(2)HPO(4) solution. The present study provided the same stereospecific change seen in the d-tryptophan degradation reaction also occurs in tryptophan synthesis from d-serine. Tryptophanase became active to d-serine to synthesize l-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate. This reaction has never been reported before. d-serine seems to undergo beta-replacement via an enzyme-bonded alpha-aminoacylate intermediate to yield l-tryptophan. PMID:19582219

  5. The Cryptanalysis of Yuan et al.'s Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kejia; Qin, Sujuan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, Yuan et al. summarized some previous analysis of quantum secret sharing task and designed a multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol based on the continuous variable operations (CVO) with the ideas of dense coding and ping-pong technique (YMQSS). However, our research shows that the YMQSS protocol is unable to complete the quantum secret sharing task securely if the particular participant, Bob0, is dishonest. In order to show that, we describe the following two attack strategies: one is that Bob0 can get the accurate shared secrets himself and leave the other sharers get his forged ones; the other one is that Bob0 can conspire with another sharer Bob i ( i≠0) to get Alice’s secrets without anyone’s help. Finally, our discussions and conclusions are proposed.

  6. Quantum direct communication protocol strengthening against Pavičić’s attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei-Xu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2015-12-01

    A quantum circuit providing an undetectable eavesdropping of information in message mode, which compromises all two-state ψ-ϕ quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols, has been recently proposed by Pavičić [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 042326]. A modification of the protocol’s control mode is proposed, which improves users’ 25% detection probability of Eve to 50% at best, as that in ping-pong protocol. The modification also improves the detection probability of Wójcik’s attack [Phys. Rev. Lett 90 (2003) 157901] to 75% at best. The resistance against man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack as well as the discussion of security for four Bell state protocols is presented. As a result, the protocol security is strengthened both theoretically and practically, and quantum advantage of superdense coding is restored.

  7. The reaction pathway of membrane-bound rat liver mitochondrial monoamine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Houslay, Miles D.; Tipton, Keith F.

    1973-01-01

    1. A preparation of a partly purified mitochondrial outer-membrane fraction suitable for kinetic investigations of monoamine oxidase is described. 2. An apparatus suitable for varying the O2 concentration in a spectrophotometer cuvette is described. 3. The reaction catalysed by the membrane-bound enzyme is shown to proceed by a double-displacement (Ping Pong) mechanism, and a formal mechanism is proposed. 4. KCN, NaN3, benzyl cyanide and 4-cyanophenol are shown to be reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. 5. The non-linear reciprocal plot obtained with impure preparations of benzylamine, which is typical of high substrate inhibition, is shown to be due to aldehyde contamination of the substrate. PMID:4778271

  8. Experimental demonstration on the deterministic quantum key distribution based on entangled photons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Zangana, Alaa Jabbar Jumaah; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wu, Juan; Han, Yun-Guang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Tawfeeq, Shelan Khasro; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    As an important resource, entanglement light source has been used in developing quantum information technologies, such as quantum key distribution(QKD). There are few experiments implementing entanglement-based deterministic QKD protocols since the security of existing protocols may be compromised in lossy channels. In this work, we report on a loss-tolerant deterministic QKD experiment which follows a modified "Ping-Pong"(PP) protocol. The experiment results demonstrate for the first time that a secure deterministic QKD session can be fulfilled in a channel with an optical loss of 9 dB, based on a telecom-band entangled photon source. This exhibits a conceivable prospect of ultilizing entanglement light source in real-life fiber-based quantum communications. PMID:26860582

  9. Kinetic and thermodynamic investigation of enzymatic L-ascorbyl acetate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dong-Hao; Li, Chao; Zhi, Gao-Ying

    2013-12-01

    Kinetics and thermodynamics of lipase-catalyzed esterification of l-ascorbic acid in acetone were investigated by using vinyl acetate as acyl donor. The results showed that l-ascorbic acid could generate inhibition effect on lipase activity. A suitable model, Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism having substrate inhibition, was thus introduced to describe the enzymatic kinetics. Furthermore, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated from a series of experimental data according to the kinetic model. The inhibition constant of L-ascorbic acid was also obtained, which seemed to imply that enhancing reaction temperature could depress the substrate inhibition. Besides, the activation energy values of the first-step and the second-step reaction were estimated to be 37.31 and 4.94 kJ/mol, respectively, demonstrating that the first-step reaction was the rate-limiting reaction and could be easily improved by enhancing temperature. PMID:24211407

  10. Application of genetic algorithms to tuning fuzzy control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espy, Todd; Vombrack, Endre; Aldridge, Jack

    1993-01-01

    Real number genetic algorithms (GA) were applied for tuning fuzzy membership functions of three controller applications. The first application is our 'Fuzzy Pong' demonstration, a controller that controls a very responsive system. The performance of the automatically tuned membership functions exceeded that of manually tuned membership functions both when the algorithm started with randomly generated functions and with the best manually-tuned functions. The second GA tunes input membership functions to achieve a specified control surface. The third application is a practical one, a motor controller for a printed circuit manufacturing system. The GA alters the positions and overlaps of the membership functions to accomplish the tuning. The applications, the real number GA approach, the fitness function and population parameters, and the performance improvements achieved are discussed. Directions for further research in tuning input and output membership functions and in tuning fuzzy rules are described.

  11. Understanding the role of histidine in the GHSxG acyltransferase active site motif: Evidence for histidine stabilization of the malonyl-enzyme intermediate

    SciTech Connect

    Poust, Sean; Yoon, Isu; Adams, Paul D.; Katz, Leonard; Petzold, Christopher J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2014-10-06

    Acyltransferases determine which extender units are incorporated into polyketide and fatty acid products. Thus, the ping-pong acyltransferase mechanism utilizes a serine in a conserved GHSxG motif. However, the role of the conserved histidine in this motif is poorly understood. We observed that a histidine to alanine mutation (H640A) in the GHSxG motif of the malonyl-CoA specific yersiniabactin acyltransferase results in an approximately seven-fold higher hydrolysis rate over the wildtype enzyme, while retaining transacylation activity. We propose two possibilities for the reduction in hydrolysis rate: either H640 structurally stabilizes the protein by hydrogen bonding with a conserved asparagine in the ferredoxin-like subdomain of the protein, or a water-mediated hydrogen bond between H640 and the malonyl moiety stabilizes the malonyl-O-AT ester intermediate.

  12. Eavesdropping on quantum secure direct communication in quantum channels with arbitrarily low loss rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    Quantum attacks that provide an undetectable eavesdropping of the ping-pong protocol operating over lossy quantum channels have already been demonstrated by Wójcik (Phys Rev Lett 90(15):157901, 2003) and Zhang et al. (Phys Lett A 333(12):46-50, 2004). These attacks provide a maximum information gain of 0.311 bits per protocol cycle as long as the induced loss rate remains acceptable. Otherwise, the skipping of some protocol cycles is advised to stay within an accepted loss limit. Such policy leads to a reduction in information gain proportional to the number of skipped cycles. The attack transformation parametrized by the induced loss ratio is proposed. It provides smaller reduction in information gain when the losses accepted by the communicating parties are too low to mount the most effective attack. Other properties of the attack remain the same.

  13. A data acquisition system for coincidence imaging using a conventional dual head gamma camera

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, T.K.; Miyaoka, R.S.; Kaplan, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    A low cost data acquisition system (DAS) was developed to acquire coincidence data from an unmodified General Electric Maxxus dual head scintillation camera. A high impedance pick-off circuit provides position and energy signals to the DAS without interfering with normal camera operation. The signals are pulse-clipped to reduce pileup effects. Coincidence is determined with fast timing signals derived from constant fraction discriminators. A charge-integrating FERA 16 channel ADC feeds position and energy data to two CAMAC FERA memories operated as ping-pong buffers. A Macintosh PowerPC running Labview controls the system and reads the CAMAC memories. A CAMAC 12-channel scaler records singles and coincidence rate data. The system dead-time is approximately 10% at a coincidence rate of 4.0 kHz.

  14. Structure of Human Phosphopantothenoylcysteine Synthetase at 2.3 Å Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Manoj, N.; Strauss, E.; Begley, T.P.; Ealick, S.E.

    2010-12-01

    The structure of human phosphopantothenoylcysteine (PPC) synthetase was determined at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. PPC synthetase is a dimer with identical monomers. Some features of the monomer fold resemble a group of NAD-dependent enzymes, while other features resemble the ribokinase fold. The ATP, phosphopantothenate, and cysteine binding sites were deduced from modeling studies. Highly conserved ATP binding residues include Gly43, Ser61, Gly63, Gly66, Phe230, and Asn258. Highly conserved phosphopantothenate binding residues include Asn59, Ala179, Ala180, and Asp183 from one monomer and Arg55 from the adjacent monomer. The structure predicts a ping pong mechanism with initial formation of an acyladenylate intermediate, followed by release of pyrophosphate and attack by cysteine to form the final products PPC and AMP.

  15. A biophysically based mathematical model for the catalytic mechanism of glutathione reductase.

    PubMed

    Pannala, Venkat R; Bazil, Jason N; Camara, Amadou K S; Dash, Ranjan K

    2013-12-01

    Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) using NADPH as the reducing cofactor, and thereby maintains a constant GSH level in the system. GSH scavenges superoxide (O2(*-)) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) nonenzymatically or by serving as an electron donor to several enzymes involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification. In either case, GSH oxidizes to GSSG and is subsequently regenerated by the catalytic action of GR. Although the GR kinetic mechanism has been extensively studied under various experimental conditions with variable substrates and products, the catalytic mechanism has not been studied in terms of a mechanistic model that accounts for the effects of the substrates and products on the reaction kinetics. The aim of this study is therefore to develop a comprehensive mathematical model for the catalytic mechanism of GR. We use available experimental data on GR kinetics from various species/sources to develop the mathematical model and estimate the associated model parameters. The model simulations are consistent with the experimental observation that GR operates via both ping-pong and sequential branching mechanisms based on relevant concentrations of its reaction substrate GSSG. Furthermore, we show the observed pH-dependent substrate inhibition of GR activity by GSSG and bimodal behavior of GR activity with pH. The model presents a unique opportunity to understand the effects of products on the kinetics of GR. The model simulations show that under physiological conditions, where both substrates and products are present, the flux distribution depends on the concentrations of both GSSG and NADP(+), with ping-pong flux operating at low levels and sequential flux dominating at higher levels. The kinetic model of GR may serve as a key module for the development of integrated models for ROS-scavenging systems to understand protection of cells under normal and oxidative stress

  16. Mechanism of N[superscript 10]-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase derived from complexes with intermediates and inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Celeste, Lesa R.; Chai, Geqing; Bielak, Magdalena; Minor, Wladek; Lovelace, Leslie L.; Lebioda, Lukasz

    2012-09-05

    N{sup 10}-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) is a folate enzyme that catalyzes the formylation of tetrahydrofolate (THF) in an ATP dependent manner. Structures of FTHFS from the thermophilic homoacetogen, Moorella thermoacetica, complexed with (1) a catalytic intermediate-formylphosphate (XPO) and product-ADP; (2) with an inhibitory substrate analog-folate; (3) with XPO and an inhibitory THF analog, ZD9331, were used to analyze the enzyme mechanism. Nucleophilic attack of the formate ion on the gamma phosphate of ATP leads to the formation of XPO and the first product ADP. A channel that leads to the putative formate binding pocket allows for the binding of ATP and formate in random order. Formate binding is due to interactions with the gamma-phosphate moiety of ATP and additionally to two hydrogen bonds from the backbone nitrogen of Ala276 and the side chain of Arg97. Upon ADP dissociation, XPO reorients and moves to the position previously occupied by the beta-phosphate of ATP. Conformational changes that occur due to the XPO presence apparently allow for the recruitment of the third substrate, THF, with its pterin moiety positioned between Phe384 and Trp412. This position overlaps with that of the bound nucleoside, which is consistent with a catalytic mechanism hypothesis that FTHFS works via a sequential ping-pong mechanism. More specifically, a random bi uni uni bi ping-pong ter ter mechanism is proposed. Additionally, the native structure originally reported at a 2.5 {angstrom} resolution was redetermined at a 2.2 {angstrom} resolution.

  17. Transposable Element Targeting by piRNAs in Laurasiatherians with Distinct Transposable Element Histories.

    PubMed

    Vandewege, Michael W; Platt, Roy N; Ray, David A; Hoffmann, Federico G

    2016-01-01

    PIWI proteins and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are part of a cellular pathway that has evolved to protect genomes against the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs). PIWIs and piRNAs assemble into complexes that are involved in epigenetic and post-transcriptional repression of TEs. Most of our understanding of the mechanisms of piRNA-mediated TE silencing comes from fruit fly and mouse models. However, even in these well-studied animals it is unclear how piRNA responses relate to variable TE expression and whether the strength of the piRNA response affects TE content over time. Here, we assessed the evolutionary interactions between TE and piRNAs in a statistical framework using three nonmodel laurasiatherian mammals as a study system: dog, horse, and a vesper bat. These three species diverged ∼80 million years ago and have distinct genomic TE contents. By comparing species with distinct TE landscapes, we aimed to identify clear relationships among TE content, expression, and piRNAs. We found that the TE subfamilies that are the most transcribed appear to elicit the strongest "ping-pong" response. This was most evident among long interspersed elements, but the relationships between expression and ping-pong pilRNA (piRNA-like) expression were more complex among SINEs. SINE transcripts were equally abundant in the dog and horse yet new SINE insertions were relatively rare in the horse genome, where we identified a stronger piRNA response. Our analyses suggest that the piRNA response can have a strong impact on the TE composition of a genome. However, our results also suggest that the presence of a robust piRNA response is apparently not sufficient to stop TE mobilization and accumulation. PMID:27060702

  18. Transposon regulation in Drosophila: piRNA-producing P elements facilitate repression of hybrid dysgenesis by a P element that encodes a repressor polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Michael J; Thorp, Michael W; Buschette, Jared T; Becker, Jordan R

    2015-02-01

    The transposons of Drosophila melanogaster are regulated by small RNAs that interact with the Piwi family of proteins. These piRNAs are generated from transposons inserted in special loci such as the telomere-associated sequences at the left end of the X chromosome. Drosophila's P transposons can also be regulated by a polypeptide encoded by the KP element, a 1.15-kb-long member of the P family. Using piRNA-generating telomeric P elements (TPs) and repressor-producing transgenic KP elements, we demonstrate a functional connection between these two modes of regulation. By themselves, the TPs partially repress gonadal dysgenesis, a trait caused by rampant P-element activity in the germ line. This repression is manifested as a strictly maternal effect arising from the cytoplasmic transmission of P-specific piRNAs from mother to offspring. The repression is enhanced by genetic interactions between the TPs and other, non-telomeric P elements-a phenomenon attributable to ping-pong amplification of maternal piRNAs. KP elements, like other kinds of non-telomeric P elements, enhance regulation anchored in the TPs. However, with some TPs, the enhanced regulation is manifested as a strictly zygotic effect of the KP element. This effect is seen when the TP has few sequences in common with the KP element, a condition not conducive to ping-pong amplification of piRNAs; it can be attributed to the action of the KP repressor polypeptide. Because the effect is seen only when a TP was present in the mother's genotype, maternally generated P-element piRNAs could facilitate regulation by the KP repressor polypeptide. PMID:25159111

  19. Potential of Cerbera odollam as a bio-fungicide for post-harvest pathogen Penicilium digitatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Harbant; Yin-Chu, Sue; Al-Samarrai, Ghassan; Syarhabil, Muhammad

    2015-05-01

    Postharvest diseases due to fungal infection contribute to economic losses in agriculture industry during storage, transportation or in the market. Penicillium digitatum is one of the common pathogen responsible for the postharvest rot in fruits. This disease is currently being controlled by synthetic fungicides such as Guazatine and Imazalil. However, heavy use of fungicides has resulted in environmental pollution, such as residue in fruit that expose a significant risk to human health. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicide to raise customer confidence. In the current research, different concentrations (500 to 3000 ppm) of ethanol extract of Cerbera odollam or commonly known as Pong-pong were compared with Neem and the controls (Positive control/Guazatine; Negative control/DMSO) for the anti-fungicide activity in PDA media contained in 10 cm diameter Petri dishes, using a modification of Ruch and Worf's method. The toxicity (Lc50) of the C.odollam extract was determined by Brine-shrimp test (BST). The results of the research indicated that crude extraction from C.odollam showed the highest inhibition rate (93%) and smallest colony diameter (0.63 cm) at 3000 ppm in vitro compared with Neem (inhibition rate: 88%; colony diameter: 1.33 cm) and control (Positive control/Guazatine inhibition rate: 79%, colony diameter: 1.9 cm; Negative control/DMSO inhibition rate: 0%, colony diameter: 9.2 cm). C.odollam recorded Lc50 value of 5 µg/ml which is safe but to be used with caution (unsafe level: below 2 µg/ml). The above anti-microbial activity and toxicity value results indicate that C.odollam has a potential of being a future bio-fungicide that could be employed as an alternative to synthetic fungicide.

  20. Transpositional activation of mPing in an asymmetric nuclear somatic cell hybrid of rice and Zizania latifolia was accompanied by massive element loss.

    PubMed

    Shan, X H; Ou, X F; Liu, Z L; Dong, Y Z; Lin, X Y; Li, X W; Liu, B

    2009-11-01

    We have reported previously that the most active miniature inverted terminal repeat transposable element (MITE) of rice, mPing, was transpositionally mobilized in several rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an introgressive hybridization between rice and wild rice (Zizania latifolia Griseb.). To further study the phenomenon of hybridization-induced mPing activity, we undertook the present study to investigate the element's behavior in a highly asymmetric somatic nuclear hybrid (SH6) of rice and Z. latifolia, which is similar in genomic composition to that of the RILs, though probably contains more introgressed alien chromatins from the donor species than the RILs. We found that mPing, together with its transposase-donor, Pong, underwent rampant transpositional activation in the somatic hybrid (SH6). Because possible effects of protoplast isolation and cell culture can be ruled out, we attribute the transpositional activation of mPing and Pong in SH6 to the process of asymmetric somatic hybridization, namely, one-step introgression of multiple chromatin segments of the donor species Z. latifolia into the recipient rice genome. A salient feature of mPing transposition in the somatic hybrid is that the element's activation was accompanied by massive loss of its original copies, i.e., abortive transpositions, which was not observed in previously reported cases of mPing activity. These data not only corroborated our earlier finding that wide hybridization and introgression may trigger transpositional activation of otherwise quiescent transposable elements, but also suggest that transpositional mobilization of a MITE like mPing can be accompanied by dramatic reduction of its original copy numbers under certain conditions, thus provide novel insights into the dynamics of MITEs in the course of genome evolution. PMID:19711051

  1. Kinetic evaluation of the Na-K pump reaction mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, J R

    1977-01-01

    1. The ouabain-sensitive K influx was measured at varying external K concentrations ([K]o) and at several fixed internal Na concentrations ([Na]c). The cells were nominally K-free and the solutions Na-free. Both the apparent maximal velocity (VM) and the apparent Michaelis constant for K (KK) increased as Nac increased. The ratio app. VM/app. KK increased with increasing Nac. 2. The ouabain-sensitive Cs influx was measured at varying external Cs concentrations and at several fixed Nac in K-free cells and Na-free solutions. Both app. VM and app. Kcs increased as Nac increased and the ratio app. VM/app. Kcs increased with increasing Nac. 3. The data were evaluated in terms of ping-pong model and a simultaneous model for the pump reaction mechanism. The simultaneous model described the data adequately and the ping-pong models did not. 4. The K influx was measured at varying external K concentrations in solutions containing Na and at a low and high Nac; the cells contained K. The relation between the pump rate and the external K concentration was sigmoid. A Hill equation was fitted to the data. KK was higher in the high Nac cells, but the Hill coefficient (n) was not altered as Nac increased. 5. The K influx was measured at varying internal Na concentrations and two fixed external K concentrations; the cells contained K. The relation between the pump rate and Nac was sigmoid. When a Hill equation was fitted to the data, it was found that KNac was higher at the high external K concentration, but n was the same at both K concentrations. PMID:599454

  2. Evaluating the variability in surface water reservoir planning characteristics during climate change impacts assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soundharajan, Bankaru-Swamy; Adeloye, Adebayo J.; Remesan, Renji

    2016-07-01

    This study employed a Monte-Carlo simulation approach to characterise the uncertainties in climate change induced variations in storage requirements and performance (reliability (time- and volume-based), resilience, vulnerability and sustainability) of surface water reservoirs. Using a calibrated rainfall-runoff (R-R) model, the baseline runoff scenario was first simulated. The R-R inputs (rainfall and temperature) were then perturbed using plausible delta-changes to produce simulated climate change runoff scenarios. Stochastic models of the runoff were developed and used to generate ensembles of both the current and climate-change-perturbed future runoff scenarios. The resulting runoff ensembles were used to force simulation models of the behaviour of the reservoir to produce 'populations' of required reservoir storage capacity to meet demands, and the performance. Comparing these parameters between the current and the perturbed provided the population of climate change effects which was then analysed to determine the variability in the impacts. The methodology was applied to the Pong reservoir on the Beas River in northern India. The reservoir serves irrigation and hydropower needs and the hydrology of the catchment is highly influenced by Himalayan seasonal snow and glaciers, and Monsoon rainfall, both of which are predicted to change due to climate change. The results show that required reservoir capacity is highly variable with a coefficient of variation (CV) as high as 0.3 as the future climate becomes drier. Of the performance indices, the vulnerability recorded the highest variability (CV up to 0.5) while the volume-based reliability was the least variable. Such variabilities or uncertainties will, no doubt, complicate the development of climate change adaptation measures; however, knowledge of their sheer magnitudes as obtained in this study will help in the formulation of appropriate policy and technical interventions for sustaining and possibly enhancing

  3. Aromatic stacking interactions govern catalysis in aryl-alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Aitor; Lucas, Fátima; Carro, Juan; Herguedas, Beatriz; Borrelli, Kenneth W; Guallar, Victor; Martínez, Angel T; Medina, Milagros

    2015-08-01

    Aryl-alcohol oxidase (AAO, EC 1.1.3.7) generates H2 O2 for lignin degradation at the expense of benzylic and other π system-containing primary alcohols, which are oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes. Ligand diffusion studies on Pleurotus eryngii AAO showed a T-shaped stacking interaction between the Tyr92 side chain and the alcohol substrate at the catalytically competent position for concerted hydride and proton transfers. Bi-substrate kinetics analysis revealed that reactions with 3-chloro- or 3-fluorobenzyl alcohols (halogen substituents) proceed via a ping-pong mechanism. However, mono- and dimethoxylated substituents (in 4-methoxybenzyl and 3,4-dimethoxybenzyl alcohols) altered the mechanism and a ternary complex was formed. Electron-withdrawing substituents resulted in lower quantum mechanics stacking energies between aldehyde and the tyrosine side chain, contributing to product release, in agreement with the ping-pong mechanism observed in 3-chloro- and 3-fluorobenzyl alcohol kinetics analysis. In contrast, the higher stacking energies when electron donor substituents are present result in reaction of O2 with the flavin through a ternary complex, in agreement with the kinetics of methoxylated alcohols. The contribution of Tyr92 to the AAO reaction mechanism was investigated by calculation of stacking interaction energies and site-directed mutagenesis. Replacement of Tyr92 by phenylalanine does not alter the AAO kinetic constants (on 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol), most probably because the stacking interaction is still possible. However, introduction of a tryptophan residue at this position strongly reduced the affinity for the substrate (i.e. the pre-steady state Kd and steady-state Km increase by 150-fold and 75-fold, respectively), and therefore the steady-state catalytic efficiency, suggesting that proper stacking is impossible with this bulky residue. The above results confirm the role of Tyr92 in substrate binding, thus governing the kinetic mechanism

  4. Eye-rima oris distance and its relation to the vertical dimension of occlusion measured by two methods: Anthropometric study in a sample of Yemeni dental students

    PubMed Central

    Alhajj, Mohammed Nasser; Khalifa, Nadia; Amran, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the distance measured from the distal outer of the eye to the parting line of the lips and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measured by two methods. Methods: One hundred and fourteen dental students (76 males and 38 females) were recruited for this study with mean age (22.34 ± 1.83) years. The distance from distal canthus of the eye to rima oris (eye-RO) was compared with two different measurements of the OVD (nasal [N] to gnathion [Gn], and subnasal [Sn] to menton [Me]). All distances were measured using modified digital caliper. Results: Pearson correlation coefficient test for correlations and paired samples t-test for differences were used with a significant level of (P < 0.05). There was a positive significant correlation between the eye-RO distance and the two measurements of the OVD. However, this correlation was stronger between eye-RO and the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin than that between eye-RO and the distance from the septum of the nose to the under of the chin (r = 0.313 with P = 0.0007, r = 0.296 with P = 0.0014), respectively. Conclusion: The distance from the outer canthus of the eye to the parting of the lips seems to be a reliable method in predicting the OVD and should relate to the distance from the tip of the nose to the tip of the chin. PMID:27011736

  5. Functional foveae in an electrosensory system.

    PubMed

    Bacelo, Joao; Engelmann, Jacob; Hollmann, Michael; von der Emde, Gerhard; Grant, Kirsty

    2008-11-20

    Several species of Mormyrid weakly electric fish have a mobile chin protuberance that serves as a mobile antenna during prey detection, tracking behaviors, and foraging for food. It has been proposed that it constitutes a fovea of the electrosensory system. The distribution of the three types of receptor organs involved in active imaging of the local surroundings, prey detection, and passive electroreception, and their central projection to the electrosensory lobe (ELL), have been studied in Gnathonemus petersii. Density distributions were compared for different body regions. Primary afferent projections were labeled with biocytin or biotinylated dextrans. This showed that there is considerable central "over-representation" of the mandibular and nasal regions of the sensory surface involved in electrolocation, at the expense of the other body regions investigated. This over-representation is not a mere effect of the very high density of receptor organs in these areas, but is found to be due to central magnification. This magnification differs between the subclasses of electroreceptors, suggesting a functional segregation in the brain. We conclude that the chin protuberance and the nasal region are the regions of greatest sensitivity for the resistive, capacitive, and low-frequency characteristics of the environment, and are probably most important in prey detection, whereas other regions of the skin with a lesser resolution and sensitivity to phase distortion of the EOD, in particular the trunk, are probably designed for imaging larger, inanimate features of the environment. Our data support the hypothesis that the chin appendage and nasal region are functionally distinct electrosensory foveae. PMID:18803238

  6. ECBS & ICBS 2015 Joint Meeting: Bringing Chemistry to Life.

    PubMed

    Varon Silva, Daniel

    2016-03-15

    The European Chemical Biology Society (ECBS) and the International Chemical Biology Society (ICBS) recently organized a joint meeting in Berlin. This meeting had more than 250 participants. Four keynote lectures were given by Timothy Mitchison, David Tirrell, Carolyn Bertozzi and Jason Chin; in addition there were 13 invited speakers, 20 selected oral talks and 30 talks selected from 90 posters. The meeting was divided into six topics: chemoproteomics, epigenetics, conjugates for target delivering, anti-infectives, molecular imaging and probing the structure, and function of post-translational modifications. The highlights of the meeting are presented in this report. PMID:26710339

  7. [The immunomodulatory role of retinal microglial cells in age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Zhang, P F; Sun, X D

    2016-05-11

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of visual impairment in the elder population. Recent studies have revealed that retinal microgliacytes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AMD, and the activation of retinal microglia could regulate the progress of AMD. The immunomodulatory role of retinal microglial cells is reviewed in this article, so as to investigate the mechanism and provide new insight for prevention and treatment of AMD.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 386-390). PMID:27220713

  8. Deep-level diversity and leadership.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kristen M; Wang, Mo

    2010-12-01

    In the special issue on Diversity and Leadership (April 2010), the authors made a strong case for the importance of diversity in workplace leadership, rejected premature declarations that workplace discrimination is obsolete, and called for leadership theories that acknowledge and promote the value of diversity. We appreciate all authors' stressing that the glass ceiling still exists, not only for women but for other historically low-power groups as well. We also agree that modern theories of leadership can benefit immensely from increased participation by scholars and practitioners who are not Western, White, upper-class men (Chin, 2010). PMID:21133527

  9. Hypersonic airbreathing missile concepts under study at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Johnston, P. J.; Cubbage, J. M.; Dillon, J. L.; Richie, C. B.; Marcum, D. C., Jr.; Carlson, C. H.

    1982-01-01

    The design and performance of several tactical and strategic hypersonic airbreathing missile concepts under study at the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed from an evolutionary perspective. A mid- and chin inlet missile design, constrained to the Navy's vertical box launcher, was investigated; a performance comparison is presented that is favorable to the mid-inlet approach. Parasol wing, confined flow field, and spatula-like cruise missile configurations were examined with strategic applications in mind. The preliminary results are encouraging with respect to aerodynamic and volumetric efficiency and choice of engine integration schemes.

  10. [Surgical strategy for neck burns and their sequelae].

    PubMed

    Pradier, J-P; Duhamel, P; Brachet, M; Dantzer, E; Vourey, G; Bey, E

    2011-10-01

    Burns of the neck are common and expose them to functional and aesthetic complications which are sometimes very serious. Care in the acute stage and treatment of sequelae contribute to a common goal of restoration: Maintain or recreate a chin-neck angle and get a quality skin as close as possible to the original skin, in terms of flexibility, texture, thickness and color. The wide variety of cases encountered requires knowing the armamentarium available to us today, and the anatomical basis and clinical underlying indications. PMID:21899941

  11. Do you know this syndrome?*

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Gabriela Maria Abreu

    2013-01-01

    The Bourneville-Pringle syndrome is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the development of multiple hamartomas in various systems, especially brain, skin, retina, kidney, heart and lung. The case of a patient with brownish plaques on the forehead and temporal region, pink malar and chin papules, and hypopigmented macules on the back and trunk is described. The diagnosis of the Bourneville-Pringle syndrome is based on clinical criteria. Presence of two major criteria, such as facial angiofibromas, forehead fibrous plaques, three or more hypomelanotic macules establish the definitive diagnosis. The diagnosis should be made as early as possible in order to assess and treat the associated complications. PMID:23739690

  12. Comparison of eye movements over faces in photographic positives and negatives.

    PubMed

    Luria, S M; Strauss, M S

    1978-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed ordinary portraits and photographic negatives of those portraits. Under both conditions they first studied sixteen portraits and then tried to decide which of forty-eight portraits they had just seen. They made more errors of recognition while viewing negatives, and their fixation patterns were significantly altered: there was a decrease in the percentage of fixations directed to the eyes, nose, and mouth, and an increase for such details as the ears, cheeks, chin, cap, and necktie. There was also a decrease in the ratio of fixations to the most fixated detail compared to the least fixated detail. PMID:693234

  13. Comparison of eye movements over faces in photographic positives and negatives.

    PubMed

    Luria, Saul M; Strauss, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed ordinary portraits and photographic negatives of those portraits. Under both conditions they first studied sixteen portraits and then tried to decide which of forty-eight portraits they had just seen. They made more errors of recognition while viewing negatives, and their fixation patterns were significantly altered: there was a decrease in the percentage of fixations directed to the eyes, nose, and mouth, and an increase for such details as the ears, cheeks, chin, cap, and necktie. There was also a decrease in the ratio of fixations to the most fixated detail compared to the least fixated detail. PMID:24601026

  14. PubMed Central

    ALDIANO, C.; PENTENERO, M.; BERRONE, S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY This study describes an unusual case of mandibular asymmetry after fibula free flap reconstruction in a young man following major facial trauma that was corrected using a custom-made polyetheretherketone prosthesis. There is little information in the literature on the use of alloplasts to correct mandibular asymmetry as interest in 'aesthetic re-modelling' has traditionally focused on nasal, zygomatic and chin regions. This report demonstrates that this technique can be used successfully to address selected cases of mandibular asymmetry. PMID:26824216

  15. A New Brace for Maintaining the Neck in a Suitable Position Following Tracheal Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ziaian, Bizhan; Foroutan, Ali; Tahamtan, Maryam; Moslemi, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from tracheal stenosis for whom conservative management is not planned. A complication of this procedure is tension-induced anastomotic failure. To prevent this complication, maintaining the neck in full flexion by means of a suture between the chin and upper chest is a traditional approach. We have designed a new brace (Shiraz brace) that securely supports the neck in this position and decreases the bothersome use of the suture alone. PMID:24850991

  16. A new brace for maintaining the neck in a suitable position following tracheal reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ziaian, Bizhan; Foroutan, Ali; Tahamtan, Maryam; Moslemi, Sam

    2014-05-01

    Segmental resection and end-to-end anastomosis is the treatment of choice for patients suffering from tracheal stenosis for whom conservative management is not planned. A complication of this procedure is tension-induced anastomotic failure. To prevent this complication, maintaining the neck in full flexion by means of a suture between the chin and upper chest is a traditional approach. We have designed a new brace (Shiraz brace) that securely supports the neck in this position and decreases the bothersome use of the suture alone. PMID:24850991

  17. [Research advances of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and its association with myopia].

    PubMed

    Kang, M T; Ran, A R; Wang, N L; Li, S M

    2016-05-11

    Recently, the distribution characteristics of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in myopic population have raised scholars' attention. The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness is varied with different refractive statuses, and is correlated to many factors like age, eye elongation, and fundus changes. Further exploration of the relationship between myopia and retinal structure and function will promote our understanding and knowledge of the pathogenesis of myopia. The article reviews the structure characteristics of the retinal nerve fiber layer, its associations with demographic characteristics, its characteristics in myopia, and the structural-functional relationship.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 396-400). PMID:27220715

  18. Atypical rosacea in a male patient: case study.

    PubMed

    Debroy Kidambi, A; Tiffin, N J; Ramsay, H M

    2016-01-01

    Rosacea fulminans is a rare disorder of unknown cause, almost exclusively affecting women. There are only a few reported cases in men. The condition is characterized by the abrupt onset of pustules and nodules predominantly affecting the cheeks or chin without any systemic upset. We report the case of a 37-year-old man who presented with papulopustules, predominantly localized to his nose. Histopathological features were consistent with rosacea fulminans. The patient was managed with treatments including oral prednisolone, isotretinoin, and trimethioprim. PMID:27267199

  19. Revisiting Deng et al.'s Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Hwang, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chun-Wei; Li, Chuan-Ming

    2011-09-01

    The multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol [Deng et al. in Chin. Phys. Lett. 23: 1084-1087, 2006] is revisited in this study. It is found that the performance of Deng et al.'s protocol can be much improved by using the techniques of block-transmission and decoy single photons. As a result, the qubit efficiency is improved 2.4 times and only one classical communication, a public discussion, and two quantum communications between each agent and the secret holder are needed rather than n classical communications, n public discussions, and 3n/2 quantum communications required in the original scheme.

  20. Congenital muscular torticollis.

    PubMed

    Nilesh, Kumar; Mukherji, Srijon

    2013-07-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a rare congenital musculoskeletal disorder characterized by unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It presents in newborn infants or young children with reported incidence ranging from 0.3% to 2%. Owing to effective shortening of SCM on the involved side there is ipsilateral head tilt and contralateral rotation of the face and chin. This article reports a case of CMT in a 3½-year-old male child successfully managed by surgical release of the involved SCM followed by physiotherapy. PMID:24205484

  1. Neutrino Tunneling from NUT Kerr Newman de Sitter Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Nan; Yang, Juan; Li, Jin

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, the method of semi-classical is applied to explore the Hawking radiation of a NUT-Kerr-Newman de Sitter Black Hole from tunneling point of view. The Hamilton-Jacobi equation in NUT-Kerr-Newman de Sitter space time is derived by the method presented by Lin and Yang (Chin. Phys. B, 20:110403, 2011). We obtain the Hawking temperatures at the event horizon and cosmological horizon and we also obtain the tunneling probability of neutrino following the semi-classical quantum equation. The results show the common features of NUT-Kerr-Newman de Sitter Black Hole.

  2. All-on-4 concept implantation for mandibular rehabilitation of an edentulous patient with Parkinson disease: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang-Chun; Su, Wei-Chia; You, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurologic disorder. Compromised voluntary and involuntary muscle control of the orofacial-pharyngeal muscles of patients with PD may lead to difficulty in mastication, dysphagia, and tremor of the mouth and chin. All of these problems represent major challenges for the clinician with respect to the oral rehabilitation. This clinical report describes the use of the All-on-4 concept implantation for mandibular rehabilitation with a fixed detachable dental prosthesis in an edentulous patient with PD. The treatment steps, outcome, and limitations are discussed. PMID:26409584

  3. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Alternative Scheme for Generation of Atomic Schrödinger Cat States and Entangled Coherent States in an Optical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiu

    2010-05-01

    We propose an alternative scheme for generation of atomic Schrödinger cat states in an optical cavity. In the scheme the atoms are always populated in the two ground states and the cavity remains in the vacuum state. Therefore, the scheme is insensitive to the atomic spontaneous emission and cavity decay. The scheme may be generalized to the deterministic generation of entangled coherent states for two atomic samples. In contrast with the previously proposed schemes of [Commun. Theor. Phys. 40 (2003) 103 and Chin. Phys. B 18 (2009) 1045], the required interaction time in our scheme is greatly shortened and thus the decoherence can be effectively suppressed.

  4. Practical lessons in remote connectivity.

    PubMed Central

    Kouroubali, A.; Starren, J.; Barrows, R. C.; Clayton, P. D.

    1997-01-01

    Community Health Information Networks (CHINs) require the ability to provide computer network connections to many remote sites. During the implementation of the Washington Heights and Inwood Community Health Management Information System (WHICHIS) at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC), a number of remote connectivity issues have been encountered. Both technical and non-technical issues were significant during the installation. We developed a work-flow model for this process which may be helpful to any health care institution attempting to provide seamless remote connectivity. This model is presented and implementation lessons are discussed. PMID:9357643

  5. Chemical composition effects on the crazing of PS-PMMA block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won; Han, Junwon; Yang, Hoichang; Ryu, Chang

    2006-03-01

    Using a large scale separation technique adopting interaction chromatography, we have fractionated as-synthesized PS-PMMA block copolymers in terms of the average chemical composition difference, while maintaining the same average molecular weight. Copper grid technique with optical, atomic force and transmission electron microscopy has been employed for the fracture study to reveal how the composition-dependent morphology affect the crazing of the glassy-glassy block copolymers, while maintaining the same level of Chi*N. In addition, we study how the thermal annealing affects the median strains for crazing and catastrophic failure.

  6. Paraliparis hawaiiensis, a new species of snailfish (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) and the first described from the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Stein, D L; Drazen, J C

    2014-05-01

    Paraliparis hawaiiensis n.sp. is described from the north-western Hawaiian Islands from two specimens collected at 2196 and 3055 m. It differs from other North Pacific Ocean species in its chin pore arrangement, tooth pattern and body proportions. Although liparid specimens have previously been collected from Hawaii, they were undescribed and are now lost. Therefore, this is the first liparid species described from the archipelago. In situ photographs of Hawaiian snailfishes are also shown and discussed here. PMID:24697612

  7. Nonadiabatic production of spinor condensates with a QUIC trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Zhan; You, Li

    2006-05-01

    A recent experiment [Xiu-Quan Ma et al., Chin. Phys. Lett. 22, 1106 (2005)] reported the observation of a multi-component spinor condensate when the magnetic field of a QUIC trap containing a spin polarized condensate was switched off. Our theoretical study show that this phenomena can be described within a general framework of the nonadiabatic Landau-Zener transition theory. We will discuss the population transfers at the zero field level crossing for this interesting case involving more than two levels, and provide a detailed understanding of the relevant nonadiabatic behavior.

  8. Determination of hydraulic characteristics and yield of aquifers underlying Vekol Valley, Arizona, using several classical and current methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marie, James R.; Hollett, Kenneth J.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations were conducted in Arizona during the early 1980's to obtain hydrologic data in order to deliver 30,000 acre-feet of water annually to the Ak-Chin Indian Reservation. A recharge experiment produced infiltration rates for an ephemeral stream channel that ranged from 0.64 to 1.09 cubic feet per second per 1,000 feet of channel length. Water moved vertically through the 330-foot-thick unsaturated zone to the water table in less than 5 days.

  9. Body sculpture: the words become reality.

    PubMed

    Budo, J A

    1996-01-01

    The last decade has been marked by the development of liposuction. A better knowledge of the anatomy of fat tissue, together with an improvement in different devices, has made our results more predictable. However, such areas as the chin, anterior and inner thigh, and knee have remained "difficult." This is especially true when large volumes of fat need to be removed. Blood loss has remained a problem as well. The development of ultrasound (U.S.) liposuction is a big step toward even more predictable results and to where blood loss can be negligible. PMID:8929325

  10. A Dysmorphic Child with a Pericentric Inversion of Chromosome 8

    PubMed Central

    Ananthapur, Venkateshwari; Avvari, Srilekha; Madireddi, Sujatha; Nallari, Pratibha; Akka, Jyothy

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy was referred to our institute with dysmorphic features such as mild lupus, micrognathia, low hair line, hypoplasia, hemi atrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. MRI scan was found to be normal and EEG suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with 46, XY, and inv 8 (p11.2; q21.2) karyotype. PMID:22606536

  11. A dysmorphic child with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Ananthapur, Venkateshwari; Avvari, Srilekha; Madireddi, Sujatha; Nallari, Pratibha; Akka, Jyothy

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy was referred to our institute with dysmorphic features such as mild lupus, micrognathia, low hair line, hypoplasia, hemi atrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. MRI scan was found to be normal and EEG suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with 46, XY, and inv 8 (p11.2; q21.2) karyotype. PMID:22606536

  12. [When and how to perform the superior oblique tucking surgery].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W

    2016-08-01

    Either superior oblique weakening or strengthening surgery is the most complicated and most difficult to perform in the field of strabismus surgery. The effect of superior oblique surgery is also unpredictable. In addition, improper superior oblique strengthening surgery may produce limited elevation in adduction (iatrogenic Brown syndrome). In this article, we reviewed the history of superior oblique surgery, especially on when and how to perform the superior oblique strengthening surgery for providing reference to the clinicians in the field of strabismus and pediatric ophthalmology. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 565-567). PMID:27562275

  13. Congenital muscular torticollis

    PubMed Central

    Nilesh, Kumar; Mukherji, Srijon

    2013-01-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a rare congenital musculoskeletal disorder characterized by unilateral shortening of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). It presents in newborn infants or young children with reported incidence ranging from 0.3% to 2%. Owing to effective shortening of SCM on the involved side there is ipsilateral head tilt and contralateral rotation of the face and chin. This article reports a case of CMT in a 3½-year-old male child successfully managed by surgical release of the involved SCM followed by physiotherapy. PMID:24205484

  14. Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) as a Component of AERONET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Slutsker, I.; Giles, D. M.; McClain, C. R.; Eck, T. F.; Sakerin, S. M.; Macke, A.; Croot, P.; Zibordi, G.; Quinn, P. K.

    2008-01-01

    The World Ocean produces a large amount of natural aerosols that have all impact on the Earth's albedo and climate. Sea-salt is the major contributor to aerosol optical depth over the oceans. [Mahowald et al. 2006; Chin et al. 2002; Satheesh et al. 1999; Winter and Chylek, 1997] and therefore affects the radiative balance over the ocean through the direct [Haywood et al. 1999] and indirect aerosol effect [O'Dowd et al. 1999]. Aerosols over the oceans (produced marine and advected from land sources) are important for various atmospheric processes [Lewis and Schwartz, 2004] and remote sensing studies [Gordon, 1997].

  15. Twelve months of experience with Bioplastique.

    PubMed

    Mladick, R A

    1992-01-01

    Over a 12-month period, 40 patients were treated for various facial defects using a new, injectable microimplant material--Bioplastique. Areas treated included cheeks, chins, lips, nasolabial lines, nasoglabellar lines, infraoral lines, noses, and miscellaneous depressions. Patients were observed for overcorrection, inflammation, morbidity, allergic reaction, or other complications. Both patient and physician satisfaction were recorded. Use of Bioplastique was found to offer permanent results by means of a quick, simple procedure administered under local anesthesia without scarring. With proper training and a good "eye," subtle corrections are possible. The author anticipates wide application of Bioplastique for the treatment of numerous soft tissue deficiencies. PMID:1734634

  16. Cryptanalysis and Improvement on "Robust EPR-Pairs-Based Quantum Secure Communication with Authentication Resisting Collective Noise"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qiu-Ling; Yu, Chao-Hua; Liu, Bin; Wang, Qing-Le

    2016-05-01

    Recently, Chang et al. [Sci Chin-Phys Mech Astron. 57(10), 1907-1912, 2014] proposed two robust quantum secure communication protocols with authentication based on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, which can resist collective noise. In this paper, we analyze the security of their protocols, and show that there is a kind of security flaw in their protocols. By a kind of impersonation attack, the eavesdropper can obtain half of the message on average. Furthermore, an improved method of their protocols is proposed to close the security loophole.

  17. Surgical orthodontic correction of mandibular laterognathism

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Kapoor, Pranav; Sharma, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes the successful treatment of a patient with mandibular laterognathism and associated facial asymmetry with combined surgical orthodontic approach. After 7 months of presurgical orthodontic treatment, intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy, and straightening genioplasty were performed as two step surgeries to reposition the deviated mandible and chin, respectively. The total active treatment period was 14 months. After surgical orthodontic treatment, significant improvement in occlusion, masticatory function, and facial appearance was discernible. Posttreatment records at 3 years showed stable results with good occlusion. PMID:27127755

  18. Subsurface deformation measurements during a fast shallow landslide triggered by rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askarinejad, Amin; Springman, Sarah M.; Akca, Devrim; Bleiker, Ernst; Gruen, Armin

    2010-05-01

    A forested area in Ruedlingen, northern Switzerland, was selected to investigate the geotechnical and hydrological response of a steep slope prior to a rainfall induced failure. Artificial rainfall was applied according to a pre-planned schedule and parameters such as pore water pressure, volumetric water content, horizontal soil pressure, temperature, piezometric water level and subsurface deformations were monitored. The latter were determined from four deformation probes that were developed in the Institute for Geotechnical Engineering, ETHZ. Strain gauges have been attached at a regular spacing along a long, slender, flexible plate to enable measurements of bending strain to be made at different points along it. The strain gauges were connected as 'half bridges' to minimize the temperature effects. A biaxial inclinometer was also installed on the top of the plate, 20 cm above the soil surface, to measure the tilt above ground level, providing more boundary conditions to determine the deformed shape of the probe. The probe is installed vertically inside the soil, while the lowest part is grouted into the stiffer layer under the topsoil, and is assumed to be stable and without any rotation. Bending strains and the inclination at the top of the probe are sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz. These are input into an algorithm to determine a polynomial relationship of deformations and rotations with depth, so that the initiation of slow movements and propagation of failure during fast soil mass movements can be examined. A 4-camera arrangement was used for the image acquisition to monitor surface movements using photogrammetric analyses. Approximately 250 white ping-pong balls were attached to the ground and used as target points. Using a network simulation tool that was developed in-house, an a priori point positioning accuracy of the ping-pong balls was estimated to be ± 10.3 mm along the horizontal direction and ± 3.5 mm in the vertical direction. The cameras

  19. Recurrent head and neck desmoplastic melanoma with perineural spread along the nervus mandibularis revealed by 18F-FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Balink, H; de Visscher, J G A M; van der Meij, E H

    2014-08-01

    This report describes a rare case of recurrent head and neck desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma with perineural spread along the nervus mandibularis. An 87-year-old male presented with a rapidly growing mass on the right side of the chin, 4 years after surgical excision of a desmoplastic non-melanotic melanoma of the tip of the chin, with lymphadenectomy of the right side submental and submandibular areas. A panoramic X-ray showed extensive widening of the mandibular canal compatible with perineural tumour growth. (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) images revealed intense pathological uptake in the recurrent tumour mass located in the right lower buccal fold, and linear pathological uptake in the mandibular canal. Although magnetic resonance imaging is considered the standard of reference, recognition of perineural spread on (18)F-FDG PET/CT is important, as it usually leads to a change in patient management from cure to palliation and may avert further diagnostic procedures. PMID:24811290

  20. Dietary Exposure of Nigerians to Mutagens and Estrogen-Like Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Ahamioje, Derek; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-01-01

    Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future. PMID:25153465

  1. A genome-wide association scan implicates DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3, PAX1 and EDAR in human facial variation

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Camilo Chacón-Duque, Juan; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Lozano, Rodrigo Barquera; Pérez, Gastón Macín; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria- Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Cheeseman, Michael; Rosique, Javier; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Headon, Denis; González-José, Rolando; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan for facial features in ∼6,000 Latin Americans. We evaluated 14 traits on an ordinal scale and found significant association (P values<5 × 10−8) at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genomic regions for three nose-related traits: columella inclination (4q31), nose bridge breadth (6p21) and nose wing breadth (7p13 and 20p11). In a subsample of ∼3,000 individuals we obtained quantitative traits related to 9 of the ordinal phenotypes and, also, a measure of nasion position. Quantitative analyses confirmed the ordinal-based associations, identified SNPs in 2q12 associated to chin protrusion, and replicated the reported association of nasion position with SNPs in PAX3. Strongest association in 2q12, 4q31, 6p21 and 7p13 was observed for SNPs in the EDAR, DCHS2, RUNX2 and GLI3 genes, respectively. Associated SNPs in 20p11 extend to PAX1. Consistent with the effect of EDAR on chin protrusion, we documented alterations of mandible length in mice with modified Edar funtion. PMID:27193062

  2. Mandibular incisive canal in Han Chinese using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Kong, N; Hui, M; Miao, F; Yuan, H; Du, Y; Chen, N

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide reference information for implantology and chin bone harvesting in people of Han Chinese ethnicity by studying the mandibular incisive canal (MIC) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Fifty subjects were included in the study. CBCT scans were obtained for all subjects, and 22 also underwent panoramic radiography to evaluate the visibility of the MIC. The CBCT data of the 50 subjects were reconstructed to measure MIC diameter, length, and location within the mandible. A MIC was identified in 38.6% of panoramic radiographs, with good clarity in 13.6%, while a MIC was identified in 100% of CBCT images, with good clarity in 63.6%. The diameter of the MIC decreased from origin to end. The left and right average MIC lengths were 17.84mm and 17.73mm, respectively. The MIC was close to the buccal cortical border and lower margin of the mandible. In conclusion, the MIC is an anatomical structure in the mandible that can be identified reliably with CBCT. On insertion, implants should be inclined slightly towards the lingual aspect of the anterior mandible to protect the MIC. The chin bone harvesting depth should be limited to 4mm; the harvesting site can be adjusted to the region above or below the MIC. PMID:27184354

  3. Taiwanese Political Parties can be Categorized by Face, by Those Who Reported Making Face-To-Trait Inferences

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shun-Fu; Chang, Chien-Kai; Chen, Yu-Chen; Chien, Sarina Hui-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to replicate and extend Rule and Ambady (2010a)'s findings that Republicans and Democrats could be differentiated by face. In Experiment 1, undergraduates categorized 50 gray-scale full-face photos of candidates of the two major political parties in Taiwan, the Kuomingtang (KMT) and the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP). Using identical stimuli and procedure, Experiment 2 tested 25- to 57-year-olds. Experiment 3 tested undergraduates with cropped photos, Experiment 4, with photos devoid of the mouth and chin area. At the end of each Experiment, we interviewed the participants about the strategies used. Results showed that undergraduates could categorize KMT and DPP with accuracies significantly higher than chance in full-face photos (Experiment 1), M = 0.524, p = 0.045, cropped photos (Experiment 3), M = 0.534, p = 0.016, and photos devoid of the mouth-and-chin area (Experiment 4), M = 0.530, p = 0.048. Adults aged between 25 and 57 could also categorize full-face photos (Experiment 2), M = 0.557, p < 0.001. Analysis on strategy use revealed that the better-than-chance performance may be a unique contribution of those who reported making face-to-trait inferences. In sum, we replicated Rule and Ambady's (2010a) results in East Asian and found that face-to-trait inferences may be essential. PMID:26793130

  4. Possible Interbreeding in Late Italian Neanderthals? New Data from the Mezzena Jaw (Monti Lessini, Verona, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Condemi, Silvana; Mounier, Aurélien; Giunti, Paolo; Lari, Martina; Caramelli, David; Longo, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In this article we examine the mandible of Riparo Mezzena a Middle Paleolithic rockshelter in the Monti Lessini (NE Italy, Verona) found in 1957 in association with Charentian Mousterian lithic assemblages. Mitochondrial DNA analysis performed on this jaw and on other cranial fragments found at the same stratigraphic level has led to the identification of the only genetically typed Neanderthal of the Italian peninsula and has confirmed through direct dating that it belongs to a late Neanderthal. Our aim here is to re-evaluate the taxonomic affinities of the Mezzena mandible in a wide comparative framework using both comparative morphology and geometric morphometrics. The comparative sample includes mid-Pleistocene fossils, Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans. This study of the Mezzena jaw shows that the chin region is similar to that of other late Neanderthals which display a much more modern morphology with an incipient mental trigone (e.g. Spy 1, La Ferrassie, Saint-Césaire). In our view, this change in morphology among late Neanderthals supports the hypothesis of anatomical change of late Neanderthals and the hypothesis of a certain degree of interbreeding with AMHs that, as the dating shows, was already present in the European territory. Our observations on the chin of the Mezzena mandible lead us to support a non abrupt phylogenetic transition for this period in Europe. PMID:23544098

  5. Mathematical modelling of slow pyrolysis of a particle of treated wood waste.

    PubMed

    Ratte, J; Marias, F; Vaxelaire, J; Bernada, P

    2009-10-30

    Low-temperature pyrolysis is a possible method for the disposal of wood waste treated with chromated copper arsenic (CCA). A mathematical model (heat and mass transfer) including chemical reactions of the thermal degradation of a particle of wood is presented. A spherical particle is heated by a convective nitrogen flow. The progress of the pyrolysis process is characterized by three main steps: (1) drying of the wet sample; (2) heating of the sample until ignition of pyrolysis reactions; (3) pyrolysis and subsequent production of char and volatiles. The mathematical model is based on the volume averaging concept and it uses Shafizadeh and Chin [F. Shafizadeh, P.S. Chin, Thermal deterioration of wood, wood technology: chemical aspects, ACS Symposium Series 43 (1977) 57-81] pyrolysis model to describe the reaction pathway. It is solved by the line method, taking time as the preferred variable. Our model predicts intra-particle profiles for several variables (temperature, moisture content, concentration of wood). Simulations are presented with a spherical particle of 1cm radius. PMID:19535204

  6. Honest sexual signaling in turtles: experimental evidence of a trade-off between immune response and coloration in red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Alejandro; Polo-Cavia, Nuria; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2014-10-01

    Sexual signals can be evolutionarily stable if they are honest and condition dependent or costly to the signaler. One possible cost is the existence of a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. This hypothesis has been experimentally tested in some groups of animals but not in others such as turtles. We experimentally challenged the immune system of female red-eared sliders Trachemys scripta elegans, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide (LPS)) without pathogenic effects to explore whether the immune activation affected visual colorful ornaments of the head. The LPS injection altered the reflectance patterns of color ornaments. In comparison to the control animals, the yellow chin stripes of injected animals exhibited (1) reduced brightness, (2) lower long wavelength (>470 nm) reflectance, and (3) lower values for carotenoid chroma. The postorbital patches of injected individuals also showed reduced very long wavelength (>570 nm) reflectance but did not change in carotenoid chroma. Thus, experimental turtles showed darker and less "yellowish" chin stripes and less "reddish" postorbital patches at the end of the experiment, whereas control turtles did not change their coloration. This is the first experimental evidence supporting the existence of a trade-off between the immune system and the expression of visual ornaments in turtles. We suggest that this trade-off may allow turtles to honestly signal individual quality via characteristics of coloration, which may have an important role in intersexual selection processes.

  7. Comment on ``Adiabatic quantum computation with a one-dimensional projector Hamiltonian''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Alastair

    2013-10-01

    The partial adiabatic search algorithm was introduced in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] as a modification of the usual adiabatic algorithm for a quantum search with the idea that most of the interesting computation only happens over a very short range of the adiabatic path. By focusing on that restricted range, one can potentially gain an advantage by reducing the control requirements on the system, enabling a uniform rate of evolution. In this Comment, we point out an oversight in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] that invalidates its proof. However, the argument can be corrected, and the calculations in Tulsi's paper [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.80.052328 80, 052328 (2009)] are then sufficient to show that the scheme still works. Nevertheless, subsequent works [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.82.034304 82, 034304 (2010), Chin. Phys. BCPBHAJ1674-105610.1088/1674-1056/20/4/040309 20, 040309 (2011), Chin. Phys. BCPBHAJ1674-105610.1088/1674-1056/21/1/010306 21, 010306 (2012), AASRI Procedia 1, 5862 (2012), and Quantum Inf. Process.10.1007/s11128-013-0557-1 12, 2689 (2013)] cannot all be recovered in the same way.

  8. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy Secondary to Dropped Head Syndrome: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Soufiani, Housain F.; Rahimizadeh, Saghayegh

    2016-01-01

    The dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a disabling condition caused by severe weakness of the neck extensor muscles causing progressive reducible kyphosis of the cervical spine and the inability to hold the head up. Weakness can occur in isolation or in association with a generalized neuromuscular disorder. Isolated cases are owed to the late onset of noninflammatory myopathy designated as INEM, where persistent chin to chest deformity may gradually cause or aggravate preexisting degenerative changes of the cervical spine and ultimately result in myelopathy. In review of the literature, we could find only 5 cases, with no unique guidelines to address the management of these two concomitant pathologies. Herein, a 69-year-old man who had developed cervical myelopathy 2 years after being affected by isolated dropped head syndrome is presented. Chin to chest deformity and cervical myelopathy were managed through three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) combined with decompressive cervical laminectomy and stabilization with C2 to C7 pedicle screw-rod construct. At 4-month follow-up, despite recovery in patient's neurological status, flexion deformity reappeared with recurrence of dropped head due to C7 pedicle screws pull-out. However, this was successfully managed with extension of the construct to the upper thoracic levels. PMID:27034870

  9. Particle size-dependent leakage and losses of aerosols in respirators.

    PubMed

    Holton, P M; Tackett, D L; Willeke, K

    1987-10-01

    Measuring particle size-dependent leakage into and losses inside a respirator reveals the deposition mechanisms occurring at the leak site and the flow dynamics inside the respirator. This study investigated particle size-dependent leakage and deposition within the mask by examining the leakage into the mask for different hole locations, probe locations, hole shapes, hole lengths and hole sizes. The shape of the leak has an effect on particle size-dependent leakage. Probe and leak location tests indicated that not only does the total measured leakage change but also the size-dependence of the leakage changes depending on the leak and probe locations. When the leak site is in the chin area, the clean air entering through the filters at the chin helps to carry the inward leakage into the breathing zone. Particle size-dependent leakage does occur and is due to both inertial entry losses at the leak site and within the mask, and diffusional losses within the mask and leak site. Particle size-dependent curves change shape as the hole size changes with relatively more larger particles entering through the small hole size. PMID:3687729

  10. Craniofacial morphometric analysis of individuals with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Alice F; Larson, Jacinda R; Jones, Kyle B; Liberton, Denise K; Landan, Maya; Wang, Zhifeng; Boekelheide, Anne; Langham, Margaret; Mushegyan, Vagan; Oberoi, Snehlata; Brao, Rosalie; Wen, Timothy; Johnson, Ramsey; Huttner, Kenneth; Grange, Dorothy K; Spritz, Richard A; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Jheon, Andrew H; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-01-01

    Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is the most prevalent type of ectodermal dysplasia (ED). ED is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes characterized by missing or malformed ectodermal structures, including skin, hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The X-linked recessive (XL), autosomal recessive (AR), and autosomal dominant (AD) types of HED are caused by mutations in the genes encoding ectodysplasin (EDA1), EDA receptor (EDAR), or EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD). Patients with HED have a distinctive facial appearance, yet a quantitative analysis of the HED craniofacial phenotype using advanced three-dimensional (3D) technologies has not been reported. In this study, we characterized craniofacial morphology in subjects with X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) by use of 3D imaging and geometric morphometrics (GM), a technique that uses defined landmarks to quantify size and shape in complex craniofacial morphologies. We found that the XLHED craniofacial phenotype differed significantly from controls. Patients had a smaller and shorter face with a proportionally longer chin and midface, prominent midfacial hypoplasia, a more protrusive chin and mandible, a narrower and more pointed nose, shorter philtrum, a narrower mouth, and a fuller and more rounded lower lip. Our findings refine the phenotype of XLHED and may be useful both for clinical diagnosis of XLHED and to extend understanding of the role of EDA in craniofacial development. PMID:25333067

  11. Comparison of Cyberware PX and PS 3D human head scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Jeremy; Corner, Brian D.; Crockett, Eric; Li, Peng; Paquette, Steven

    2008-02-01

    A common limitation of laser line three-Dimensional (3D) scanners is the inability to scan objects with surfaces that are either parallel to the laser line or that self-occlude. Filling in missing areas adds some unwanted inaccuracy to the 3D model. Capturing the human head with a Cyberware PS Head Scanner is an example of obtaining a model where the incomplete areas are difficult to fill accurately. The PS scanner uses a single vertical laser line to illuminate the head and is unable to capture data at top of the head, where the line of sight is tangent to the surface, and under the chin, an area occluded by the chin when the subject looks straight forward. The Cyberware PX Scanner was developed to obtain this missing 3D head data. The PX scanner uses two cameras offset at different angles to provide a more detailed head scan that captures surfaces missed by the PS scanner. The PX scanner cameras also use new technology to obtain color maps that are of higher resolution than the PS Scanner. The two scanners were compared in terms of amount of surface captured (surface area and volume) and the quality of head measurements when compared to direct measurements obtained through standard anthropometry methods. Relative to the PS scanner, the PX head scans were more complete and provided the full set of head measurements, but actual measurement values, when available from both scanners, were about the same.

  12. Clinical efficacy of facial masks containing yoghurt and Opuntia humifusa Raf. (F-YOP).

    PubMed

    Yeom, Gyoseon; Yun, Dae-Myoung; Kang, Yun-Won; Kwon, Ji-Sook; Kang, In-Oh; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-01-01

    Facial packs or masks are popular beauty treatments that are thought to improve skin quality. We formulated a yoghurt pack using natural ingredients (F-YOP), with consideration of skin affinity, safety, health, and beauty. Then, we performed an in vitro assessment of biological activity and in vivo assessments of moisture, TEWL, melanin content, and elasticity. Facial areas treated with F-YOP showed increased moisture compared to control regions: 89±6.26% (forehead), 140.72±10.19% (cheek), and 123.29±6.67% (chin). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values were decreased in the treated areas compared to control: 101.38±6.95% (forehead), 50.37±5.93% (cheek), and l57.81±10.88% (chin). Elasticity was decreased in the control region, whereas the treatment region did not change. The initial elasticity was maintained in the cheek. F-YOP exhibited activity on DPPH radical scavenging, SOD-like activity, and lipoxygenase activity. F-YOP treatment successfully improved the moisture, brightness, and elasticity of treated skin. PMID:22152494

  13. Comparison of the reproducibility of panoramic radiographs between dentulous and edentulous patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Woong; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the reproducibility of panoramic radiographs of dentulous and edentulous patients. Materials and Methods The reproducibility of panoramic radiographs was evaluated using the panoramic radiographs acquired from 30 anterior dentulous patients by using a common biting positioning device (dentulous group) and 30 anterior edentulous patients by using chin-support devices to take a panoramic radiograph (edentulous group), respectively; these patients had undergone 3 or more panoramic radiographs. The widths and angles between the designated landmarks were measured on the panoramic radiographs, and the reproducibility was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient of variation. Results In the dentulous and edentulous groups, the ICCs of the mandibular ramus and mandibular angle areas were higher than the condylar head and zygomatic areas. The mandibular ramus and angle areas showed statistically lower mean coefficients of variation than the condylar head and zygomatic areas in the dentulous group. The mandibular angle area showed a significantly lower mean coefficient of variation than the zygomatic area in the edentulous group. By comparing the two groups, each ICC of the edentulous group was lower than that of the dentulous group, and the mean coefficients of variation of the mandibular ramus area, zygomatic area, left condylar inclination, and ramus ratio between the right and the left in the edentulous group were significantly higher than those in the dentulous group. Conclusion Biting positioning for dentulous patients provided better positioning reproducibility than chin-support positioning when performing panoramic radiography for edentulous patients. PMID:24944958

  14. Autoimmunity in connection with a metal implant: a case of autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Loyo, Esthela; Jara, Luis J; López, Persio David; Puig, Ana Carolina

    2013-04-01

    Autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) has been recently proposed by Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin as a new entity that comprises several conditions: the macrophagic-myofasciitis syndrome, the Gulf War syndrome, silicosis and post-vaccination phenomena, autoimmunity related to infectious fragments, hormones, aluminum, silicone, squalene oil, and pristane. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who developed serial episodes of high fever, extreme fatigue, transient thrombocytopenia, multiple cervical adenopathies, hepatosplenomegaly, anemia, neutropenia, severe proteinuria and urine sediment abnormalities, elevated serum ferritin levels, and transient low positive antinuclear antibodies 1 year after she had a nickel-titanium chin implant for cosmetic reasons. The clinical picture simulated a variety of probable diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, Kikuchi-Fujimoto syndrome, adult onset Still's disease, antiphospholipid syndrome, and hemophagocytic syndrome, among others, so she underwent an extensive medical investigation including two lymph node biopsies. She received treatment accordingly with steroids, methotrexate, and mofetil mycophenolate, with initial improvement of her symptoms, which recurred every time the dose was reduced. Two and a half years later the patient decided to retire the chin implant and afterwards all her systemic symptoms have disappeared. She remains in good health, without recurrence of any symptom and off medications until today. Albeit this patient fulfills proposed major ASIA criteria, to our knowledge it would be the first description of systemic features of autoinflammation in connection with a metal implant. PMID:26000140

  15. Frequency Distribution and Association of some Morpho- and Physiological Traits in Patients with Lung Diseases in Kosova.

    PubMed

    Alija, Avdulla J; Bajraktari, Ismet D; Bresgen, Nikolaus; Hadziselimovic, Rifat; Beqiraj, Valentina; Selimi, Mimoza; Salihu, Hyrzeme; Mikullovci, Besime; Eckl, Peter M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of specific phenotypes in patients with lung diseases as well as their eventual association with the risk of developing lung diseases. For this purpose 2777 patients with lung diseases and 2778 healthy individuals from all over Kosova were examined for the appearance of the following selected phenotypes: ear lobe free (ELF)/ear lobe attached, normal chin (NC)/cleft chin, tongue roller (TR)/non roller, hand clasping right thumb over (HC)/hand clasping left thumb over, righthanded (RH)/lefthanded. In addition, the blood group from ABO system and the presence or absence of the Rhesus factor asphenotypical markers were observed. The results obtained show significant differences between control and lung disease patients for NC (p ≤ 0.05) and TR (p ≤ 0.005) as well as for blood groups AB (p ≤ 0.05) and O (p ≤ 0.005). These results point to eventually increased levels of genetic load as a result of the increased homozygosity in some gene loci causing an increased frequency of some recessive phenotypes in patients with lung diseases. Together with the specific associations observed, these preliminary findings could serve as a basis for further in depth investigations with respect to the types of lung diseases, occupational exposure and dietary habits, and thus is expected to contribute to an understanding of predispositions and susceptibility to lung diseases. PMID:26987159

  16. Congenital muscular torticollis in adult patients: literature review and a case report using a harmonic scalpel.

    PubMed

    Pombo Castro, María; Luaces Rey, Ramón; Vázquez Mahía, Inés; López-Cedrún Cembranos, José Luís

    2014-02-01

    Congenital torticollis is characterized by shortening and fibrosis of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle detected at birth or shortly after birth. This leads to a lateral inclination of the head to the ipsilateral shoulder and chin deviation to the opposite side. When diagnosed early, most cases can be conservatively managed with excellent results. In neglected adult cases, the treatment of this entity is more controversial. A review of the different treatment options in neglected adult cases of congenital torticollis is presented, and a case successfully treated by SCM bipolar release is reported. A 35-year-old woman diagnosed with congenital torticollis was referred to the authors' department. She had been diagnosed at 32 years of age and had been conservatively treated, with no success. Physical examination showed a posterior region of the left SCM muscle hard to palpation, with head tilt to the same side and chin deviation to the right. Bipolar release of the SCM muscle was performed under general anesthesia using the harmonic scalpel. Immobilization with a brace was applied during the first 2 weeks and manual stretching was performed after removal of the brace. Head tilt and movement limitation were resolved, achieving good functional and cosmetic results. Although the best treatment results in congenital torticollis are achieved during the first years of childhood, bipolar release of the SCM muscle followed by postsurgical physical therapy can be effective in neglected adult cases. PMID:24139297

  17. Anatomical differences in response to treatment of port-wine stains by the pulsed dye laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renfro, Lisa; Geronemus, Roy G.

    1992-06-01

    Two-hundred and fifty-seven patients (136 adults and 121 children) with port-wine stains of the head and neck were treated with the flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser. The head and neck was subdivided into 8 anatomical regions (forehead/temple, periorbital, medial cheek, nose, upper cutaneous lip, lateral cheek, chin and neck) which were independently evaluated for response. Response to treatment was found to be associated with the anatomical location of the lesion; in both adults and children the mid-facial region (medial cheek, nose and upper cutaneous lip) responded less favorably to treatment than the other regions of the head and neck (periorbital, forehead/temple, lateral cheek, neck and chin). In adults and children, mean percent lesional lightening of the mid-facial regions was 70.7% compared to 82.3% of the other regions of the head and neck with an estimated difference of 11.6% (95% confidence interval: 8.7% - 14.6%). The mean number of treatments for adults was 3.7, while this number in children was 3.9. All side effects were transient, and included cutaneous depressions, hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation.

  18. Monitored anesthesia care for great saphenous vein stripping surgery with target controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sooyoung; Baik, Hee Jung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Chun, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate target concentrations at the effect site of propofol and remifentanil when deep sedation was achieved by monitored anesthesia care (MAC) anesthesia and related respiratory depression during vein stripping surgery for varicose veins. Methods In total, 51 adult patients who were scheduled for varicose vein stripping surgery were sedated with propofol and remifentanil during the surgery, after administration of midazolam. Target concentrations at the effect site of the two drugs were changed based on the patient's status. Respiratory support was applied in the order of oxygen supply, chin lift, and assisted mask ventilation. Target concentrations at the effect site of propofol and remifentanil, the need for respiratory support, and a six-point rating scale satisfaction score were the outcome measurements. Results Only one patient did not require oxygen, eight patients needed oxygen alone, 22 patients required use of the chin lift technique, and 20 patients were assisted with mask ventilation. There was no significant difference in the target concentration of propofol or remifentanil between the patients who required mask ventilation and those who did not. Fifty of the 51 patients reported a satisfaction score of 6. Conclusions Although MAC using low target concentrations of propofol and remifentanil during vein stripping surgery was satisfactory to patients, close observation regarding the need for respiratory assistance was necessary. PMID:27066207

  19. Differences in facial expressions of four universal emotions.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Christian G; Turner, Travis; Stolar, Neal M; Bilker, Warren B; Brensinger, Colleen M; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2004-10-30

    The facial action coding system (FACS) was used to examine recognition rates in 105 healthy young men and women who viewed 128 facial expressions of posed and evoked happy, sad, angry and fearful emotions in color photographs balanced for gender and ethnicity of poser. Categorical analyses determined the specificity of individual action units for each emotion. Relationships between recognition rates for different emotions and action units were evaluated using a logistic regression model. Each emotion could be identified by a group of action units, characteristic to the emotion and distinct from other emotions. Characteristic happy expressions comprised raised inner eyebrows, tightened lower eyelid, raised cheeks, upper lip raised and lip corners turned upward. Recognition of happy faces was associated with cheek raise, lid tightening and outer brow raise. Characteristic sad expressions comprised furrowed eyebrow, opened mouth with upper lip being raised, lip corners stretched and turned down, and chin pulled up. Only brow lower and chin raise were associated with sad recognition. Characteristic anger expressions comprised lowered eyebrows, eyes wide open with tightened lower lid, lips exposing teeth and stretched lip corners. Recognition of angry faces was associated with lowered eyebrows, upper lid raise and lower lip depression. Characteristic fear expressions comprised eyes wide open, furrowed and raised eyebrows and stretched mouth. Recognition of fearful faces was most highly associated with upper lip raise and nostril dilation, although both occurred infrequently, and with inner brow raise and widened eyes. Comparisons are made with previous studies that used different facial stimuli. PMID:15541780

  20. Dietary exposure of Nigerians to mutagens and estrogen-like chemicals.

    PubMed

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Ahamioje, Derek; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-08-01

    Food and drinking water are poorly delineated sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens and endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In this study, we investigated the presence of mutagens and chemicals exhibiting estrogenic activity in the daily diet of Nigerians, using in vitro assays. Commercially processed foods or snacks and various brands of pure water sachets were extracted by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction, respectively. Mutagenicity was determined by the conventional Ames test and two complementary assays on two strains of Salmonella (TA 100 and TA 98), while the estrogenic activity was assessed by a yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc). A third of the food varieties investigated (chin-chin, hamburger, suya and bean cake) were mutagenic in all three assays, either in the presence or absence of S9 mix. Of the packed water samples, five out of the sixteen investigated (31%), were found to be estrogenic, with estradiol and bisphenol A equivalents ranging from 0.79 to 44.0 ng/L and 124.2 to 1,000.8 ng/L, respectively. Hence, although the current situation in Nigeria does not appear to be substantially worse than, e.g., in Europe, regular monitoring is warranted in the future. PMID:25153465

  1. Revisiting the Authoritative-Dialogic Tension in Inquiry-Based Elementary Science Teacher Questioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Booven, Christopher D.

    2015-05-01

    Building on the 'questioning-based discourse analytical' framework developed by Singapore-based science educator and discourse analyst, Christine Chin, this study investigated the extent to which fifth-grade science teachers' use of questions with either an authoritative or dialogic orientation differentially restricted or expanded the quality and complexity of student responses in the USA. The author analyzed approximately 10 hours of classroom discourse from elementary science classrooms organized around inquiry-based science curricula and texts. Teacher questions and feedback were classified according to their dialogic orientation and contextually inferred structural purpose, while student understanding was operationalized as a dynamic interaction between cognitive process, syntacto-semantic complexity, and science knowledge type. The results of this study closely mirror Chin's and other scholars' findings that the fixed nature of authoritatively oriented questioning can dramatically limit students' opportunities to demonstrate higher order scientific understanding, while dialogically oriented questions, by contrast, often grant students the discursive space to demonstrate a greater breadth and depth of both canonical and self-generated knowledge. However, certain teacher questioning sequences occupying the 'middle ground' between maximal authoritativeness and dialogicity revealed patterns of meaningful, if isolated, instances of higher order thinking. Implications for classroom practice are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  2. The effect of violin playing on the bony facial structures in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kovero, O; Könönen, M; Pirinen, S

    1997-08-01

    Holding a violin between shoulder and chin needs a special kind of muscle function. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether this kind of muscular activity is a modifying factor for facial growth in adolescence. The bony facial dimensions of 24 adolescent violin students attending colleges of music with a playing history of 5-11 years were measured from lateral and posteroanterior cephalograms and panoramic tomograms of the jaws. The dimensions were compared with those of sex- and age-matched controls. Significant differences were found between violin players and controls. The players had higher faces, especially on the right side of the lower face and in the right mandibular ramus. The players also had more proclined upper and lower incisors than the controls. It is concluded that the overall greater facial height in violinists reflects the increased face muscle activity and the higher bony dimensions of the right side of the face are due to the muscular activity produced on that side to balance the load caused by the violin on the left. The greater proclination of the incisors is the result of an altered balance of muscular activity between tongue and lip, and the pressure of the violin to the chin. PMID:9308257

  3. A genome-wide association scan implicates DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3, PAX1 and EDAR in human facial variation.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Quinto-Sánchez, Mirsha; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Camilo Chacón-Duque, Juan; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Lozano, Rodrigo Barquera; Pérez, Gastón Macín; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Cheeseman, Michael; Rosique, Javier; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Headon, Denis; González-José, Rolando; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan for facial features in ∼6,000 Latin Americans. We evaluated 14 traits on an ordinal scale and found significant association (P values<5 × 10(-8)) at single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four genomic regions for three nose-related traits: columella inclination (4q31), nose bridge breadth (6p21) and nose wing breadth (7p13 and 20p11). In a subsample of ∼3,000 individuals we obtained quantitative traits related to 9 of the ordinal phenotypes and, also, a measure of nasion position. Quantitative analyses confirmed the ordinal-based associations, identified SNPs in 2q12 associated to chin protrusion, and replicated the reported association of nasion position with SNPs in PAX3. Strongest association in 2q12, 4q31, 6p21 and 7p13 was observed for SNPs in the EDAR, DCHS2, RUNX2 and GLI3 genes, respectively. Associated SNPs in 20p11 extend to PAX1. Consistent with the effect of EDAR on chin protrusion, we documented alterations of mandible length in mice with modified Edar funtion. PMID:27193062

  4. Surface and interface structure of diblock copolymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgun, Bulent

    The main objective of the work presented in this thesis is to understand the surface and interface structure and dynamics of diblock copolymer brushes (DCBs). DCBs are stimuli-responsive materials and the surface properties of a DCB can be changed from those characteristic of one polymer block to those characteristic of the other one by treating the DCB with a solvent selective for one of its blocks. For this purpose, polystyrene- block-polyacrylate or polyacrylate-block-polystyrene brushes were synthesized using the "grafting from" technique in combination with atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). In the first part of this project the internal structure of DCBs after the synthesis and surface rearrangement were investigated using neutron reflectivity (NR) and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). It was found that the internal brush structure depends strongly on the synthesis sequence of polymer blocks and the value of chiN. For small values of chiN (chiN ≤ 11), a model of two layers with an interfacial region of finite width provides a good description of the data. The interface width is found to be larger for DCBs which have the polymer block with the lower surface energy synthesized next to the substrate. A three layer model must be used to describe the structure of DCBs of larger chiN values (chiN ≤ 23) and of sufficiently asymmetric composition. The necessity of including a third layer is consistent with the presence of a lateral ordering of some type in the center of the brush, as evidenced by correlation peaks in the GISAXS data. The spacing of the in-plane ordering varies with the thickness of the poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) block. After a DCB is treated with a selective solvent, Bragg rods appear in the GISAXS pattern. The appearance of Bragg rods indicates the formation of a new 2D structure which has a lateral spacing on the order of the total thickness of the brush. The Bragg rods disappear upon heating to 80

  5. Evaluation of the 2008 Predictions of Run-Timing and Survival of Wild Migrant Yearling Chinook and Steelhead on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, W. Nicholas; Iltis, Susannah; Anderson, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Columbia Basin Research uses the COMPASS model on a daily basis during the outmigration of Snake River Chinook and steelhead smolts to predict downstream passage and survival. Fish arrival predictions and observations from program RealTime along with predicted and observed environmental conditions are used to make in-season predictions of arrival and survival to various dams in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. For 2008, calibrations of travel and survival parameters for two stocks of fish-Snake River yearling PIT-tagged wild chinook salmon (chin1pit) and Snake River PIT-tagged steelhead (lgrStlhd)-were used to model travel and survival of steelhead and chinook stocks from Lower Granite Dam (LWG) or McNary Dam (MCN) to Bonneville Dam (BON). This report summarizes the success of the COMPASS/RealTime process to model these migrations as they occur. We compared model results on timing and survival to data from two sources: stock specific counts at dams and end-of-season control survival estimates (Jim Faulkner, NOAA, pers. comm. Dec. 16, 2008). The difference between the predicted and observed day of median passage and the Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) between predicted and observed arrival cumulative distributions are measures of timing accuracy. MAD is essentially the average percentage error over the season. The difference between the predicted and observed survivals is a measure of survival accuracy. Model results and timing data were in good agreement from LWG to John Day Dam (JDA). Predictions of median passage days for the chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks were 0 and 2 days (respectively) later than observed. MAD for chin1pit and lgrStlhd stocks at JDA were 2.3% and 5.9% (respectively). Between JDA and BON modeling and timing data were not as well matched. At BON, median passage predictions were 6 and 10 days later than observed and MAD values were 7.8% and 16.0% respectively. Model results and survival data were in good agreement from LWG to MCN. COMPASS predicted

  6. Peroxidase-like oxidative activity of a manganese-coordinated histidyl bolaamphiphile self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Sang-Yup

    2015-10-01

    A peroxidase-like catalyst was constructed through the self-assembly of histidyl bolaamphiphiles coordinated to Mn2+ ions. The prepared catalyst exhibited oxidation activity for the organic substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The histidyl bolaamphiphiles of bis(N-alpha-amido-histidine)-1,7-heptane dicarboxylates self-assembled to make spherical structures in an aqueous solution. Subsequent association of Mn2+ ions with the histidyl imidazoles in the self-assembly produced catalytic active sites. The optimal Mn2+ ion concentration was determined and coordination of the Mn2+ ion with multiple histidine imidazoles was investigated using spectroscopy analysis. The activation energy of the produced catalysts was 55.0 kJ mol-1, which was comparable to other peroxidase-mimetic catalysts. A detailed kinetics study revealed that the prepared catalyst followed a ping-pong mechanism and that the turnover reaction was promoted by increasing the substrate concentration. Finally, application of the prepared catalyst for glucose detection was demonstrated through cascade enzyme catalysis. This study demonstrated a facile way to prepare an enzyme-mimetic catalyst through the self-assembly of an amphiphilic molecule containing amino acid segments.A peroxidase-like catalyst was constructed through the self-assembly of histidyl bolaamphiphiles coordinated to Mn2+ ions. The prepared catalyst exhibited oxidation activity for the organic substrate o-phenylenediamine (OPD) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The histidyl bolaamphiphiles of bis(N-alpha-amido-histidine)-1,7-heptane dicarboxylates self-assembled to make spherical structures in an aqueous solution. Subsequent association of Mn2+ ions with the histidyl imidazoles in the self-assembly produced catalytic active sites. The optimal Mn2+ ion concentration was determined and coordination of the Mn2+ ion with multiple histidine imidazoles was investigated using spectroscopy

  7. Ganzfeld perceptual field and gender effects on short-term memory as a function of rate of digit presentation.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Laconsay, K L; Shepard, H A

    1996-06-01

    Efforts to enhance short term memory for digit span (in serial recall) included the Ganzfeld perceptual field and variation in the rate (interstimulus interval: 1 sec., 2 sec., 3 sec.) of 25 auditorily presented computer-generated random numbers (1 to 5). Undergraduate volunteers (52 men and 91 women) wore goggles consisting of halves of translucent ping-pong balls while viewing a red lamp and listening to 60 decibels of white noise. Control subjects wore goggles with clear plastic lenses. Participants were instructed to recall 25 random digits in the correct series (vocalized sequentially through headphones worn by the subjects) immediately after their presentations. A mixed 2 x 2 x 3 split plot analysis of variance yielded a significant effect for digit rates, and post hoc Scheffe tests of multiple comparisons showed differences in recall between interstimulus intervals of 1 and 2 sec., 1 and 3 sec., and 2 and 3 sec. Other Scheffe comparisons showed that men scored higher than women with the 3-sec. interstimulus interval and with the "clear" perceptual field. Ganzfeld may have reduced distractibility for women as compared with recall following the "clear" perceptual field. Serial-position effects favored "primacy," yet the "recency effect" was seen within the last 5 serial positions. PMID:8823899

  8. Molecular and biochemical features of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase: a possible new role as a signaling factor.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando

    2010-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC; EC 2.1.3.3) is a one-carbon-unit transferring enzyme that synthesizes citrulline using ornithine and carbamoylphosphate as substrates. It is involved in the metabolic transformation of arginine and proline, and it participates in the urea cycle in vertebrates and in the formation of putrescine in plants. Its enzymatic reaction is consistent with a ping-pong mechanism. OTC is expressed in a large variety of organisms from bacteria to mammals. Its gene can be regulated by glucocorticoids and other transcriptional factors such as C/EBP and HNF-4. The functional enzyme exists mostly as a trimer with an approximate molecular weight of 38 kDa. Inborn errors associated with a deficiency of OTC activity cause mainly urea cycle-related disorders, and lead to hyperammonemic states that may become lethal. In humans and experimental animals, OTC is localized in the mitochondrial matrix, mainly in the liver, but it is also in the intestinal epithelial cells. Some states of hepatotoxicity are associated with hepatocyte disruption and release of OTC into the bloodstream. However, recent evidence suggests that during active cell proliferation (e.g., during liver regeneration), OTC is also released from the hepatic tissue but without apparent damage. In this situation, extracellular and circulating hepatic OTC could be playing a different role, possibly functioning as a signaling molecule. PMID:20459380

  9. Mathematical modelling of the electrostatic pendulum in school and undergraduate education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forjan, Matej; Marhl, Marko; Grubelnik, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic pendulum, also known as the electrostatic ping-pong, is an exciting experiment in school as well as in undergraduate education. We can easily demonstrate how the frequency of the electrostatic pendulum depends on the voltage across the capacitor. In this paper, we develop a simple mathematical model describing the dynamics of this experiment. In a step-wise manner, we introduce the external forces influencing the dynamics of the electrostatic pendulum. First, we take into account the electric force only. Then, we add air resistance and the non-elasticity of ball collisions with the capacitor plates. The model predictions show that the non-elastic collisions have greater effect on the pendulum dynamics than air resistance; in particular, this is true for higher frequencies of the pendulum. For lower frequencies, however, gravity is of crucial importance. The mathematical model is implemented in a graphic-oriented computer program, which gives the possibility of using this theoretical analysis also at the secondary school level.

  10. Kinetic mechanism and nucleotide specificity of NADH peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, V.S.; Blanchard, J.S.

    1988-02-01

    NADH peroxidase is a flavoprotein isolated from Streptococcus faecalis which catalyzes the pyridine nucleotide-dependent reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water. Initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies have been performed at pH 7.5 and support a ping-pong kinetic mechanism. In the absence of hydrogen peroxide, both transhydrogenation between NADH and thioNAD, and isotope exchange between (/sup 14/C)NADH and NAD, have been demonstrated, although in both these experiments, the maximal velocity of nucleotide exchange was less than 1.5% the maximal velocity of the peroxidatic reaction. We propose that NADH binds tightly to both oxidized and two-electron reduced enzyme. NADH oxidation proceeds stereospecifically with the transfer of the 4S hydrogen to enzyme, and then, via exchange, to water. No primary tritium kinetic isotope effect was observed, and no statistically significant primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on V/K were determined, although primary deuterium kinetic isotope effects on V were observed in the presence and absence of sodium acetate. NADH peroxidase thus shares with other flavoprotein reductases striking kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical similarities. On this basis, we propose a chemical mechanism for the peroxide cleaving reaction catalyzed by NADH peroxidase which involves the obligate formation of a flavinperoxide, and peroxo bond cleavage by nucleophilic attack by enzymatic dithiols.

  11. Structural understanding of the recycling of oxidized ascorbate by dehydroascorbate reductase (OsDHAR) from Oryza sativa L. japonica

    PubMed Central

    Do, Hackwon; Kim, Il-Sup; Jeon, Byoung Wook; Lee, Chang Woo; Park, Ae Kyung; Wi, Ah Ram; Shin, Seung Chul; Park, Hyun; Kim, Young-Saeng; Yoon, Ho-Sung; Kim, Han-Woo; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) is a key enzyme involved in the recycling of ascorbate, which catalyses the glutathione (GSH)-dependent reduction of oxidized ascorbate (dehydroascorbate, DHA). As a result, DHAR regenerates a pool of reduced ascorbate and detoxifies reactive oxygen species (ROS). In previous experiments involving transgenic rice, we observed that overexpression of DHAR enhanced grain yield and biomass. Since the structure of DHAR is not available, the enzymatic mechanism is not well-understood and remains poorly characterized. To elucidate the molecular basis of DHAR catalysis, we determined the crystal structures of DHAR from Oryza sativa L. japonica (OsDHAR) in the native, ascorbate-bound, and GSH-bound forms and refined their resolutions to 1.9, 1.7, and 1.7 Å, respectively. These complex structures provide the first information regarding the location of the ascorbate and GSH binding sites and their interacting residues. The location of the ascorbate-binding site overlaps with the GSH-binding site, suggesting a ping-pong kinetic mechanism for electron transfer at the common Cys20 active site. Our structural information and mutagenesis data provide useful insights into the reaction mechanism of OsDHAR against ROS-induced oxidative stress in rice. PMID:26775680

  12. Enzymatic Synthesis of Furfuryl Alcohol Ester with Oleic Acid by Candida antarctica Lipase B and Its Kinetic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Avery; Dey, Tanmoy; Ghosh, Mahua; Ghosh, Jaydip; Ghosh, Santinath

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the successful enzymatic production of furfuryl oleate and its detailed kinetic study by Michaelis-Menten model. Esterification of oleic acid and furfuryl alcohol by Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozym 435 preparation) in a solvent free system was studied in the present work at 1:1 molar ratio of furfuryl alcohol and oleic acid. About 99 % conversion (on the basis of oleic acid) has been achieved within 6 h at 5 % enzyme concentration. Ping-pong bi-bi mechanism (inhibition phenomenon taken into account) was applied to describe the ratios as a complex kinetic model. The kinetic parameters were determined using MATLAB language programme. The two initial rate constants KA and KB respectively were found out by different progress curves plotted with the help of MATLAB language programme. It was concluded from the results that furfuryl alcohol considerably inhibited the enzymatic reaction while oleic acid had negligible inhibitory effect. It was clearly seen that the initial rate was increased with the increase in the furfuryl alcohol concentration until 2 M/L after which there was a drop in the initial rate depicting the inhibitory effect of furfuryl alcohol. Surprisingly, it has been observed that addition of 0.1 mol of product activated the esterification reaction. Finally, the model was found to be statistically fitting well with the experimental data.

  13. Offset: A Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change Mobile Game from NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, K. J.; Kasprak, A. H.; Novati, A.; Leon, N.; Bowman, K. W.; Gunson, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The global carbon cycle—and humans' role in altering it—is key to understanding both how the climate system works and how people can help to affect positive change in the future. Delivering this message to younger audiences will be a crucial step in inspiring the next generation of climate scientists. Here, we demonstrate a new mobile game (iOS) aiming to make the carbon cycle more accessible to students and their educators. This game—called OFFSET—highlights the role humans have as players in the global carbon cycle—both as sources of CO2 and as agents that harm CO2 sinks. OFFSET is a pong-like game and a resource management game all in one. The player simultaneously spends resources to replace old technology with greener technology while he or she actively prevents CO2 molecules from escaping to the atmosphere with a paddle. The game is fast, simple but challenging, and educational. Games like OFFSET can be a powerful tool to teach climate science to younger audiences.

  14. Robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol against decoherence noise based on six-qubit DF state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-05-01

    By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).

  15. Activation of Benznidazole by Trypanosomal Type I Nitroreductases Results in Glyoxal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Belinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Benznidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole, is the front-line treatment used against American trypanosomiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite nearly 40 years of use, the trypanocidal activity of this prodrug is not fully understood. It has been proposed that benznidazole activation leads to the formation of reductive metabolites that can cause a series of deleterious effects, including DNA damage and thiol depletion. Here, we show that the key step in benznidazole activation involves an NADH-dependent trypanosomal type I nitroreductase. This catalyzes an oxygen-insensitive reaction with the interaction of enzyme, reductant, and prodrug occurring through a ping-pong mechanism. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the resultant metabolites identified 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazole as the major product of a reductive pathway proceeding through hydroxylamine and hydroxy intermediates. The breakdown of this product released the reactive dialdehyde glyoxal, which, in the presence of guanosine, generated guanosine-glyoxal adducts. These experiments indicate that the reduction of benznidazole by type I nitroreductase activity leads to the formation of highly reactive metabolites and that the expression of this enzyme is key to the trypanocidal properties displayed by the prodrug. PMID:22037852

  16. Catalase-like activity of bovine met-hemoglobin: interaction with the pseudo-catalytic peroxidation of anthracene traces in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Paco, Laveille; Galarneau, Anne; Drone, Jullien; Fajula, François; Bailly, Carole; Pulvin, Sylviane; Thomas, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Hemoglobin is a member of the hemoprotein superfamily whose main role is to transport O(2) in vertebrate organisms. It has two known promiscuous enzymatic activities, peroxidase and oxygenase. Here we show for the first time that bovine hemoglobin also presents a catalase-like activity characterized by a V(max )of 344 microM/min, a K(M )of 24 mM and a k(cat) equal to 115/min. For high anthracene and hemoglobin concentrations and low hydrogen peroxide concentrations, this activity inhibits the expected oxidation of anthracene, which occurs through a peroxidase-like mechanism. Anthracene belongs to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) family whose members are carcinogenic and persistent pollutants found in industrial waste waters. Our results show that anthracene oxidation by hemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide follows a typical bi-bi ping-pong mechanism with a V(max) equal to 0.250 microM/min, K(M(H2O2) )of 80 microM, K(M(ANT)) of 1.1 microM and k(cat) of 0.17/min. The oxidation of anthracene is shown to be pseudo-catalytic because an excess of hemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide is required to make PAH completely disappear. Thus, bovine hemoglobin presents, in different degrees, all the catalytic activities of the hemoprotein group, which makes it a very interesting protein for biotechnological processes and one with which structure-activity relationships can be studied. PMID:19606432

  17. A novel species of ellipsoidal multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes from Lake Yuehu in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ran; Zhang, Rui; Du, Hai-Jian; Pan, Hong-Miao; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Zhou, Ke; Li, Jin-Hua; Xiao, Tian; Wu, Long-Fei

    2015-03-01

    Two morphotypes of multicellular magnetotactic prokaryotes (MMPs) have been identified: spherical (several species) and ellipsoidal (previously one species). Here, we report novel ellipsoidal MMPs that are ∼ 10 × 8 μm in size, and composed of about 86 cells arranged in six to eight interlaced circles. Each MMP was composed of cells that synthesized either bullet-shaped magnetite magnetosomes alone, or both bullet-shaped magnetite and rectangular greigite magnetosomes. They showed north-seeking magnetotaxis, ping-pong motility and negative phototaxis at a velocity up to 300 μm s(-1) . During reproduction, they divided along either their long- or short-body axes. For genetic analysis, we sorted the ellipsoidal MMPs with micromanipulation and amplified their genomes using multiple displacement amplification. We sequenced the 16S rRNA gene and found 6.9% sequence divergence from that of ellipsoidal MMPs, Candidatus Magnetananas tsingtaoensis and > 8.3% divergence from those of spherical MMPs. Therefore, the novel MMPs belong to different species and genus compared with the currently known ellipsoidal and spherical MMPs respectively. The novel MMPs display a morphological cell differentiation, implying a potential division of labour. These findings provide new insights into the diversity of MMPs in general, and contribute to our understanding of the evolution of multicellularity among prokaryotes. PMID:24725306

  18. Investigation on binding of nitric oxide to horseradish peroxidase by absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Li; Zhu, Shuhua; Ma, Hongmei; Zhou, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Binding of nitric oxide to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) has been investigated by absorption spectrometry in 0.2 M anaerobic phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4). Based on this binding equilibrium, a model equation for evaluating the binding constant of nitric oxide to HRP is developed and the binding constant is calculated to be (1.55 ± 0.06) × 10 4 M -1, indicating that HRP can form a stable complex with nitric oxide. The type of inhibition by nitric oxide is validated on the basis of studying initial reaction rates of HRP-catalyzed oxidation of guaiacol in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. The inhibition mechanism is found to follow an apparent non-competitive inhibition by Lineweaver-Burk method. Based on this kinetic mechanism, the binding constant is also calculated to be (5.22 ± 0.06) × 10 4 M -1. The values of the binding constant determined by the two methods are almost identical. The non-competitive inhibition model is also applicable to studying the effect of nitric oxide on other metalloenzymes, which catalyze the two-substrate reaction with the "ping-pong" mechanism.

  19. JCMT Telescope Control System upgrades for SCUBA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kackley, Russell; Scott, Douglas; Chapin, Edward; Friberg, Per

    2010-07-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Telescope Control System (TCS) received significant upgrades to provide new observing capabilities to support the requirements of the SCUBA-2 instrument. The core of the TCS is the Portable Telescope Control System (PTCS), which was developed through collaboration between the Joint Astronomy Centre and the Anglo-Australian Observatory. The PTCS provides a well-designed virtual telescope function library that simplifies these sorts of upgrades. The TCS was previously upgraded to provide the required scanning modes for the JCMT heterodyne instruments. The heterodyne instruments required only relatively simple raster or boustrophedon patterns, which are basically composed of multiple straight-line scans to cover a rectangular area. The most recent upgrades built upon those heterodyne scanning modes to satisfy the SCUBA-2 requirements. With these upgrades, the TCS can scan the telescope in any pattern that can be described as a continuous function of time. This new capability has been utilized during the current SCUBA-2 on-sky commissioning phase to scan the telescope in a variety of patterns (Lissajous, pong, ellipse, and daisy) on the sky. This paper will give a brief description of the PTCS, provide information on the selection of the SCUBA-2 scanning modes, describe the changes to the TCS that were necessary to implement the new scanning modes, and show the performance of the telescope during SCUBA-2 commissioning.

  20. AGO3 Slicer activity regulates mitochondria–nuage localization of Armitage and piRNA amplification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haidong; Li, Yujing; Szulwach, Keith E.; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2014-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster the reciprocal “Ping-Pong” cycle of PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA)–directed RNA cleavage catalyzed by the endonuclease (or “Slicer”) activities of the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (AGO3) has been proposed to expand the secondary piRNA population. However, the role of AGO3/Aub Slicer activity in piRNA amplification remains to be explored. We show that AGO3 Slicer activity is essential for piRNA amplification and that AGO3 inhibits the homotypic Aub:Aub Ping-Pong process in a Slicer-independent manner. We also find that expression of an AGO3 Slicer mutant causes ectopic accumulation of Armitage, a key component in the primary piRNA pathway, in the Drosophila melanogaster germline granules known as nuage. AGO3 also coexists and interacts with Armitage in the mitochondrial fraction. Furthermore, AGO3 acts in conjunction with the mitochondria-associated protein Zucchini to control the dynamic subcellular localization of Armitage between mitochondria and nuage in a Slicer-dependent fashion. Collectively, our findings uncover a new mechanism that couples mitochondria with nuage to regulate secondary piRNA amplification. PMID:25049272

  1. Abundant primary piRNAs, endo-siRNAs, and microRNAs in a Drosophila ovary cell line.

    PubMed

    Lau, Nelson C; Robine, Nicolas; Martin, Raquel; Chung, Wei-Jen; Niki, Yuzo; Berezikov, Eugene; Lai, Eric C

    2009-10-01

    Piwi proteins, a subclass of Argonaute-family proteins, carry approximately 24-30-nt Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that mediate gonadal defense against transposable elements (TEs). We analyzed the Drosophila ovary somatic sheet (OSS) cell line and found that it expresses miRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs), and piRNAs in abundance. In contrast to intact gonads, which contain mixtures of germline and somatic cell types that express different Piwi-class proteins, OSS cells are a homogenous somatic cell population that expresses only PIWI and primary piRNAs. Detailed examination of its TE-derived piRNAs and endo-siRNAs revealed aspects of TE defense that do not rely upon ping-pong amplification. In particular, we provide evidence that a subset of piRNA master clusters, including flamenco, are specifically expressed in OSS and ovarian follicle cells. These data indicate that the restriction of certain TEs in somatic gonadal cells is largely mediated by a primary piRNA pathway. PMID:19541914

  2. Microwave assisted enzymatic kinetic resolution of (±)-1-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Devendran, Saravanan; Yadav, Ganapati D

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic resolution of 1-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol, an important chiral synthon, was studied through trans-esterification with acyl acetate to investigate synergism between microwave irradiation and enzyme catalysis. Lipases from different microbial origins were employed for the kinetic resolution of (R/S)-1-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol, among which Candida antarctica lipase B, immobilized on acrylic resin (Novozym 435), was found to be the best catalyst in n-hexane as solvent. Vinyl acetate was the most effective among different acyl esters studied. The effect of various parameters was studied in a systematic manner. Definite synergism between microwave and enzyme was observed. The initial rate was improved around 1.28 times under microwave irradiation than conventional heating. Under optimum conditions, maximum conversion (48.78%) and high enantiomeric excess (93.25%) were obtained in 2 h. From modeling studies, it is concluded that the reaction follows the Ping-Pong bi-bi mechanism with dead end alcohol inhibition. Kinetic parameters were obtained by using nonlinear regression. This process is green, clean, and easily scalable as compared to the chemical process. PMID:24707487

  3. Functional and structural characterization of two Bacillus megaterium nitroreductases biotransforming the herbicide mesotrione.

    PubMed

    Carles, Louis; Besse-Hoggan, Pascale; Joly, Muriel; Vigouroux, Armelle; Moréra, Solange; Batisson, Isabelle

    2016-05-15

    Mesotrione is a selective herbicide belonging to the triketone family, commonly used on maize cultures since 2003. A mesotrione-transforming Bacillus megaterium Mes11 strain isolated from an agricultural soil was used as a model to identify the key enzymes initiating the biotransformation of this herbicide. Two enzymes (called NfrA1 and NfrA2/YcnD) were identified, and functionally and structurally characterized. Both belong to the NfsA FRP family of the nitro-FMN reductase superfamily (type I oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase) and show optimal pH and temperature of 6-6.5 and 23-25°C, respectively. Both undergo a Ping Pong Bi Bi mechanism, with NADPH and NADPH/NADH as cofactors for NfrA1 and NfrA2/YcnD, respectively. It is interesting that both can also reduce various nitro compounds including pesticides, antibiotics, one prodrug and 4-methylsulfonyl-2-nitrobenzoic acid, one of the mesotrione metabolites retrieved from the environment. The present study constitutes the first identification of mesotrione-transforming enzymes. These enzymes (or their corresponding genes) could be used as biomarkers to predict the capacity of ecosystems to transform mesotrione and assess their contamination by both the parent molecule and/or the metabolites. PMID:27005432

  4. Purification and enzymic properties of the fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975.

    PubMed Central

    Song, D D; Jacques, N A

    1999-01-01

    The recombinant fructosyltransferase (Ftf) of Streptococcus salivarius was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity after a combination of adsorption, ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The N-terminal signal sequence of the Ftf was removed by E. coli at the same site as in its natural host. The purified Ftf exhibited maximum activity at pH 6.0 and 37 degrees C, was activated by Ca2+, but inhibited by the metal ions Cu2+, Zn2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+. The enzyme catalysed the transfer of the fructosyl moiety of sucrose to a number of acceptors, including water, glucose and sucrose via a Ping Pong mechanism involving a fructosyl-enzyme intermediate. While this mechanism of catalysis is utilized by the levansucrases of Bacillus subtilis and Acetobacter diazotrophicus and the values of the kinetic constants for the three enzymes are similar, sucrose was a far more efficient fructosyl-acceptor for the Ftf of S. salivarius than for the two other enzymes. PMID:10393084

  5. Diversity of miRNAs, siRNAs, and piRNAs across 25 Drosophila cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiayu; Mohammed, Jaaved; Bortolamiol-Becet, Diane; Tsai, Harrison; Robine, Nicolas; Westholm, Jakub O.; Ladewig, Erik; Dai, Qi; Okamura, Katsutomo; Flynt, Alex S.; Zhang, Dayu; Andrews, Justen; Cherbas, Lucy; Kaufman, Thomas C.; Cherbas, Peter; Siepel, Adam; Lai, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    We expanded the knowledge base for Drosophila cell line transcriptomes by deeply sequencing their small RNAs. In total, we analyzed more than 1 billion raw reads from 53 libraries across 25 cell lines. We verify reproducibility of biological replicate data sets, determine common and distinct aspects of miRNA expression across cell lines, and infer the global impact of miRNAs on cell line transcriptomes. We next characterize their commonalities and differences in endo-siRNA populations. Interestingly, most cell lines exhibit enhanced TE-siRNA production relative to tissues, suggesting this as a common aspect of cell immortalization. We also broadly extend annotations of cis-NAT-siRNA loci, identifying ones with common expression across diverse cells and tissues, as well as cell-restricted loci. Finally, we characterize small RNAs in a set of ovary-derived cell lines, including somatic cells (OSS and OSC) and a mixed germline/somatic cell population (fGS/OSS) that exhibits ping-pong piRNA signatures. Collectively, the ovary data reveal new genic piRNA loci, including unusual configurations of piRNA-generating regions. Together with the companion analysis of mRNAs described in a previous study, these small RNA data provide comprehensive information on the transcriptional landscape of diverse Drosophila cell lines. These data should encourage broader usage of fly cell lines, beyond the few that are presently in common usage. PMID:24985917

  6. Microwave Assisted Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of (±)-1-Phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol in Nonaqueous Media

    PubMed Central

    Devendran, Saravanan; Yadav, Ganapati D.

    2014-01-01

    Kinetic resolution of 1-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol, an important chiral synthon, was studied through trans-esterification with acyl acetate to investigate synergism between microwave irradiation and enzyme catalysis. Lipases from different microbial origins were employed for the kinetic resolution of (R/S)-1-phenyl-2-propyn-1-ol, among which Candida antarctica lipase B, immobilized on acrylic resin (Novozym 435), was found to be the best catalyst in n-hexane as solvent. Vinyl acetate was the most effective among different acyl esters studied. The effect of various parameters was studied in a systematic manner. Definite synergism between microwave and enzyme was observed. The initial rate was improved around 1.28 times under microwave irradiation than conventional heating. Under optimum conditions, maximum conversion (48.78%) and high enantiomeric excess (93.25%) were obtained in 2 h. From modeling studies, it is concluded that the reaction follows the Ping-Pong bi-bi mechanism with dead end alcohol inhibition. Kinetic parameters were obtained by using nonlinear regression. This process is green, clean, and easily scalable as compared to the chemical process. PMID:24707487

  7. Ultrasonic pretreatment in lipase-catalyzed synthesis of structured lipids with high 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol content.

    PubMed

    Liu, Si-lei; Dong, Xu-yan; Wei, Fang; Wang, Xiang; Lv, Xin; Zhong, Juan; Wu, Lin; Quek, Siew-young; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Production of structured lipid 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO), from tripalmitin (PPP) and oleic acid (OA) using lipases and ultrasonic pretreatment was conducted. Factors influencing both the ultrasonic conditions and enzymatic reaction were investigated. Optimum conditions could be attained with 6 min pretreatment time, 50% ultrasonic power, 3 s/9 s (work/pause) cycle of ultrasonic pulse, 1:8 PPP/OA molar ratio, 12% enzyme dosage and 50 °C temperature of. At the optimum conditions, the OPO yield of 51.8% could be achieved in 4h. Studies showed that the OPO content increased to 35.9% in 1h with ultrasonic pretreatment, in comparison to 4h without ultrasonic pretreatment. Reuse of Lipozyme RM IM for 10 cycles under ultrasonic irradiation did not cause essential damage to its lipase activity. Reaction kinetic model fitted well with the proposed Ping-Pong mechanism. The apparent kinetic constant (Vm'/K₂) of ultrasound pretreatment reaction was 2.52 times higher than the conventional mechanical stirring, indicating that ultrasound pretreatment enhanced the substrates affinity to the enzyme. This study confirmed that ultrasonic pretreatment was more efficient in OPO production than conventional mechanical agitation. PMID:25453210

  8. Using Light Curves to Characterize Size and Shape of Pseudo-Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, Heather M.; Abercromby, Kira J.; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Barker, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Photometric measurements were collected for a new study aimed at estimating orbital debris sizes based on object brightness. To obtain a size from optical measurements the current practice is to assume an albedo and use a normalized magnitude to calculate optical size. However, assuming a single albedo value may not be valid for all objects or orbit types; material type and orientation can mask an object s true optical cross section. This experiment used a CCD camera to record data, a 300 W Xenon, Ozone Free collimated light source to simulate solar illumination, and a robotic arm with five degrees of freedom to move the piece of simulated debris through various orientations. The pseudo-debris pieces used in this experiment originate from the European Space Operations Centre s ESOC2 ground test explosion of a mock satellite. A uniformly illuminated white ping-pong ball was used as a zero-magnitude reference. Each debris piece was then moved through specific orientations and rotations to generate a light curve. This paper discusses the results of five different object-based light curves as measured through an x-rotation. Intensity measurements, from which each light curve was generated, were recorded in five degree increments from zero to 180 degrees. Comparing light curves of different shaped and sized pieces against their characteristic length establishes the start of a database from which an optical size estimation model will be derived in the future.

  9. Multiple roles for Piwi in silencing Drosophila transposons

    PubMed Central

    Rozhkov, Nikolay V.; Hammell, Molly; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Silencing of transposons in the Drosophila ovary relies on three Piwi family proteins—Piwi, Aubergine (Aub), and Ago3—acting in concert with their small RNA guides, the Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Aub and Ago3 are found in the germ cell cytoplasm, where they function in the ping-pong cycle to consume transposon mRNAs. The nuclear Piwi protein is required for transposon silencing in both germ and somatic follicle cells, yet the precise mechanisms by which Piwi acts remain largely unclear. We investigated the role of Piwi by combining cell type-specific knockdowns with measurements of steady-state transposon mRNA levels, nascent RNA synthesis, chromatin state, and small RNA abundance. In somatic cells, Piwi loss led to concerted effects on nascent transcripts and transposon mRNAs, indicating that Piwi acts through transcriptional gene silencing (TGS). In germ cells, Piwi loss showed disproportionate impacts on steady-state RNA levels, indicating that it also exerts an effect on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Piwi knockdown affected levels of germ cell piRNAs presumably bound to Aub and Ago3, perhaps explaining its post-transcriptional impacts. Overall, our results indicate that Piwi plays multiple roles in the piRNA pathway, in part enforcing transposon repression through effects on local chromatin states and transcription but also participating in germ cell piRNA biogenesis. PMID:23392609

  10. The Kinetic Reaction Mechanism of the Vibrio cholerae Sodium-dependent NADH Dehydrogenase*♦

    PubMed Central

    Tuz, Karina; Mezic, Katherine G.; Xu, Tianhao; Barquera, Blanca; Juárez, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-dependent NADH dehydrogenase (Na+-NQR) is the main ion transporter in Vibrio cholerae. Its activity is linked to the operation of the respiratory chain and is essential for the development of the pathogenic phenotype. Previous studies have described different aspects of the enzyme, including the electron transfer pathways, sodium pumping structures, cofactor and subunit composition, among others. However, the mechanism of the enzyme remains to be completely elucidated. In this work, we have studied the kinetic mechanism of Na+-NQR with the use of steady state kinetics and stopped flow analysis. Na+-NQR follows a hexa-uni ping-pong mechanism, in which NADH acts as the first substrate, reacts with the enzyme, and the oxidized NAD leaves the catalytic site. In this conformation, the enzyme is able to capture two sodium ions and transport them to the external side of the membrane. In the last step, ubiquinone is bound and reduced, and ubiquinol is released. Our data also demonstrate that the catalytic cycle involves two redox states, the three- and five-electron reduced forms. A model that gathers all available information is proposed to explain the kinetic mechanism of Na+-NQR. This model provides a background to understand the current structural and functional information. PMID:26004776

  11. Biochemical characterization of NfsA, the Escherichia coli major nitroreductase exhibiting a high amino acid sequence homology to Frp, a Vibrio harveyi flavin oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Zenno, S; Koike, H; Kumar, A N; Jayaraman, R; Tanokura, M; Saigo, K

    1996-01-01

    We identified the nfsA gene, encoding the major oxygen-insensitive nitroreductase in Escherichia coli, and determined its position on the E. coli map to be 19 min. We also purified its gene product, NfsA, to homogeneity. It was suggested that NfsA is a nonglobular protein with a molecular weight of 26,799 and is associated tightly with a flavin mononucleotide. Its amino acid sequence is highly similar to that of Frp, a flavin oxidoreductase from Vibrio harveyi (B. Lei, M. Liu, S. Huang, and S.-C. Tu, J. Bacteriol. 176:3552-3558, 1994), an observation supporting the notion that E. coli nitroreductase and luminescent-bacterium flavin reductase families are intimately related in evolution. Although no appreciable sequence similarity was detected between two E. coli nitroreductases, NfsA and NfsB, NfsA exhibited a low level of the flavin reductase activity and a broad electron acceptor specificity similar to those of NfsB. NfsA reduced nitrofurazone by a ping-pong Bi-Bi mechanism possibly to generate a two-electron transfer product. PMID:8755878

  12. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition of histone acetyltransferase KAT8

    PubMed Central

    Wapenaar, Hannah; van der Wouden, Petra E.; Groves, Matthew R.; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) responsible for acetylating lysine 16 on histone H4 (H4K16) and plays a role in cell cycle progression as well as acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Further studies on its biological function and drug discovery initiatives will benefit from the development of small molecule inhibitors for this enzyme. As a first step towards this aim we investigated the enzyme kinetics of this bi-substrate enzyme. The kinetic experiments indicate a ping-pong mechanism in which the enzyme binds Ac-CoA first, followed by binding of the histone substrate. This mechanism is supported by affinity measurements of both substrates using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using this information, the KAT8 inhibition of a focused compound collection around the non-selective HAT inhibitor anacardic acid has been investigated. Kinetic studies with anacardic acid were performed, based on which a model for the catalytic activity of KAT8 and the inhibitory action of AA was proposed. This enabled the calculation of the inhibition constant Ki of anacardic acid derivatives using an adaptation of the Cheng-Prusoff equation. The results described in this study give insight into the catalytic mechanism of KAT8 and present the first well-characterized small-molecule inhibitors for this HAT. PMID:26505788

  13. Deep sequencing reveals unique small RNA repertoire that is regulated during head regeneration in Hydra magnipapillata.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Srikar; Nair, Aparna; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Poduval, Deepak; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Ghanekar, Yashoda

    2013-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs, piRNAs and endo-siRNAs fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation, modulating important processes in development, differentiation, homeostasis and regeneration. Using deep sequencing, we have profiled small non-coding RNAs in Hydra magnipapillata and investigated changes in small RNA expression pattern during head regeneration. Our results reveal a unique repertoire of small RNAs in hydra. We have identified 126 miRNA loci; 123 of these miRNAs are unique to hydra. Less than 50% are conserved across two different strains of Hydra vulgaris tested in this study, indicating a highly diverse nature of hydra miRNAs in contrast to bilaterian miRNAs. We also identified siRNAs derived from precursors with perfect stem-loop structure and that arise from inverted repeats. piRNAs were the most abundant small RNAs in hydra, mapping to transposable elements, the annotated transcriptome and unique non-coding regions on the genome. piRNAs that map to transposable elements and the annotated transcriptome display a ping-pong signature. Further, we have identified several miRNAs and piRNAs whose expression is regulated during hydra head regeneration. Our study defines different classes of small RNAs in this cnidarian model system, which may play a role in orchestrating gene expression essential for hydra regeneration. PMID:23166307

  14. Deep sequencing reveals unique small RNA repertoire that is regulated during head regeneration in Hydra magnipapillata

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Srikar; Nair, Aparna; Cheedipudi, Sirisha; Poduval, Deepak; Dhawan, Jyotsna; Palakodeti, Dasaradhi; Ghanekar, Yashoda

    2013-01-01

    Small non-coding RNAs such as miRNAs, piRNAs and endo-siRNAs fine-tune gene expression through post-transcriptional regulation, modulating important processes in development, differentiation, homeostasis and regeneration. Using deep sequencing, we have profiled small non-coding RNAs in Hydra magnipapillata and investigated changes in small RNA expression pattern during head regeneration. Our results reveal a unique repertoire of small RNAs in hydra. We have identified 126 miRNA loci; 123 of these miRNAs are unique to hydra. Less than 50% are conserved across two different strains of Hydra vulgaris tested in this study, indicating a highly diverse nature of hydra miRNAs in contrast to bilaterian miRNAs. We also identified siRNAs derived from precursors with perfect stem–loop structure and that arise from inverted repeats. piRNAs were the most abundant small RNAs in hydra, mapping to transposable elements, the annotated transcriptome and unique non-coding regions on the genome. piRNAs that map to transposable elements and the annotated transcriptome display a ping–pong signature. Further, we have identified several miRNAs and piRNAs whose expression is regulated during hydra head regeneration. Our study defines different classes of small RNAs in this cnidarian model system, which may play a role in orchestrating gene expression essential for hydra regeneration. PMID:23166307

  15. Immobilization of horseradish peroxidase onto kaolin.

    PubMed

    Šekuljica, Nataša Ž; Prlainović, Nevena Ž; Jovanović, Jelena R; Stefanović, Andrea B; Djokić, Veljko R; Mijin, Dušan Ž; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica D

    2016-03-01

    Kaolin showed as a very perspective carrier for the enzyme immobilization and it was used for the adsorption of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The effects of the enzyme concentration and pH on the immobilization efficiency were studied in the reaction with pyrogallol and anthraquinone dye C.I. Acid Violet 109 (AV 109). In addition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and analysis by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller were performed for kaolin, thermally activated kaolin and the immobilized enzyme. It has been shown that 0.1 IU of HRP-kaolin decolorized 87 % of dye solution, under the optimal conditions (pH 5.0, temperature 24 °C, dye concentration 40 mg/L and 0.2 mM of H2O2) within 40 min. The immobilized HRP decolorization follows the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism with dead-end inhibition by the dye. The biocatalyst retained 35 ± 0.9 % of the initial activity after seven cycles of reuse in the decolorization reaction of AV 109 under optimal conditions in a batch reactor. The obtained kinetic parameters and reusability study confirmed improvement in performances of k-HRP compared to free, indicating that k-HRP has a great potential for environmental purposes. PMID:26747440

  16. Influence of Partial Denitrification and Mixotrophic Growth of NOB on Microbial Distribution in Aerobic Granular Sludge.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Mari-K H; Le, Quan H; Volcke, Eveline I P

    2015-09-15

    In aerobic granular sludge (AGS), the growth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) can be uncoupled from the nitrite supply of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Besides, unlike for conventional activated sludge, Nitrobacter was found to be the dominant NOB and not Nitrospira. To explain these experimental observations, two possible pathways have been put forward in literature. The first one involves the availability of additional nitrite from partial denitrification (nitrite-loop) and the second one consists of mixotrophic growth of Nitrobacter in the presence of acetate (ping-pong). In this contribution, mathematical models were set up to assess the possibility of these pathways to explain the reported observations. Simulation results revealed that both pathways influenced the nitrifier distribution in the granules. The nitrite-loop pathway led to an elevated NOB/AOB ratio, while mixotrophic growth of Nitrobacter guaranteed their predominance among the NOB population. Besides, mixotrophic growth of Nitrobacter could lead to NO emission from AGS. An increasing temperature and/or a decreasing oxygen concentration led to an elevated NOB/AOB ratio and increased NO emissions. PMID:26248168

  17. Noninvasive imaging of prefrontal activation during attention-demanding tasks performed while walking using a wearable optical topography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi; Katura, Takusige; Funane, Tsukasa; Obata, Akiko; Sato, Hiroki; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Maki, Atsushi; Koizumi, Hideaki; Kubota, Kisou

    2010-07-01

    Optical topography (OT) based on near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive technique for mapping the relative concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy- and deoxy-Hb, respectively) in the human cerebral cortex. In our previous study, we developed a small and light wearable optical topography (WOT) system that covers the entire forehead for monitoring prefrontal activation. In the present study, we examine whether the WOT system is applicable to OT measurement while walking, which has been difficult with conventional OT systems. We conduct OT measurements while subjects perform an attention-demanding (AD) task of balancing a ping-pong ball on a small card while walking. The measured time course and power spectra of the relative concentration changes in oxy- and deoxy-Hb show that the step-related changes in the oxy- and deoxy-Hb signals are negligible compared to the task-related changes. Statistical assessment of the task-related changes in the oxy-Hb signals show that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and rostral prefrontal area are significantly activated during the AD task. These results suggest that our functional imaging technique with the WOT system is applicable to OT measurement while walking, and will be a powerful tool for evaluating brain activation in a natural environment.

  18. The Kinetic Reaction Mechanism of the Vibrio cholerae Sodium-dependent NADH Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Tuz, Karina; Mezic, Katherine G; Xu, Tianhao; Barquera, Blanca; Juárez, Oscar

    2015-08-14

    The sodium-dependent NADH dehydrogenase (Na(+)-NQR) is the main ion transporter in Vibrio cholerae. Its activity is linked to the operation of the respiratory chain and is essential for the development of the pathogenic phenotype. Previous studies have described different aspects of the enzyme, including the electron transfer pathways, sodium pumping structures, cofactor and subunit composition, among others. However, the mechanism of the enzyme remains to be completely elucidated. In this work, we have studied the kinetic mechanism of Na(+)-NQR with the use of steady state kinetics and stopped flow analysis. Na(+)-NQR follows a hexa-uni ping-pong mechanism, in which NADH acts as the first substrate, reacts with the enzyme, and the oxidized NAD leaves the catalytic site. In this conformation, the enzyme is able to capture two sodium ions and transport them to the external side of the membrane. In the last step, ubiquinone is bound and reduced, and ubiquinol is released. Our data also demonstrate that the catalytic cycle involves two redox states, the three- and five-electron reduced forms. A model that gathers all available information is proposed to explain the kinetic mechanism of Na(+)-NQR. This model provides a background to understand the current structural and functional information. PMID:26004776

  19. Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pongo abelii) versus corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) in a support task: the effect of pattern and functionality.

    PubMed

    Albiach-Serrano, Anna; Bugnyar, Thomas; Call, Josep

    2012-11-01

    Apes (Gorilla gorilla, Pan paniscus, P. troglodytes, Pong abelii) and corvids (Corvus corax, C. corone) are among the most proficient and flexible tool users in the animal kingdom. Although it has been proposed that this is the result of convergent evolution, little is known about whether this is limited to behavior or also includes the underlying cognitive mechanisms. We compared several species of apes (bonobos, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) and corvids (carrion crows and common ravens) using exactly the same paradigm: a support task with elements from the classical patterned-string tasks. Corvids proved able to solve at least an easy pattern, whereas apes outperformed corvids with respect to the complexity of the patterns solved, the relative number of subjects solving each problem, and the speed to reach criterion. We addressed the question of whether subjects based their choices purely on perceptual cues or on a more abstract understanding of the problem. This was done by using a perceptually very similar but causally different condition where instead of paper strips there were strip shapes painted on a platform. Corvids' performance did not differ between conditions, whereas apes were able to solve the real but not the painted task. This shows that apes were not basing their choices just on spatial or arbitrary perceptual cues. Instead, and unlike corvids, they must have had some causal knowledge of the task. PMID:22545765

  20. Drops in Space: Super Oscillations and Surfactant Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apfel, Robert E.; Tian, Yuren; Jankovsky, Joseph; Shi, Tao; Chen, X.; Holt, R. Glynn; Trinh, Eugene; Croonquist, Arvid; Thornton, Kathyrn C.; Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Coleman, Catherine; Leslie, Fred W.; Matthiesen, David H.

    1996-01-01

    An unprecedented microgravity observation of maximal shape oscillations of a surfactant-bearing water drop the size of a ping pong ball was observed during a mission of Space Shuttle Columbia as part of the second United States Microgravity Laboratory-USML-2 (STS-73, October 20-November 5, 1995). The observation was precipitated by the action of an intense sound field which produced a deforming force on the drop. When this deforming force was suddenly reduced, the drop executed nearly free and axisymmetric oscillations for several cycles, demonstrating a remarkable amplitude of nonlinear motion. Whether arising from the discussion of modes of oscillation of the atomic nucleus, or the explosion of stars, or how rain forms, the complex processes influencing the motion, fission, and coalescence of drops have fascinated scientists for centuries. Therefore, the axisymmetric oscillations of a maximally deformed liquid drop are noteworthy, not only for their scientific value but also for their aesthetic character. Scientists from Yale University, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Vanderbilt University conducted liquid drop experiments in microgravity using the acoustic positioning/manipulation environment of the Drop Physics Module (DPM). The Yale/JPL group's objectives were to study the rheological properties of liquid drop surfaces on which are adsorbed surfactant molecules, and to infer surface properties such as surface tension, Gibb's elasticity, and surface dilatational viscosity by using a theory which relies on spherical symmetry to solve the momentum and mass transport equations.

  1. Using Light Curves to Characterize Size and Shape of Pseudo-Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, H.; Abercromby, K.; Jarvis, K.; Barker, E.

    Photometric measurements were collected for a new study aimed at estimating orbital debris sizes based on object brightness. To obtain a size from optical measurements the current practice is to assume an albedo and use a normalized magnitude to calculate optical size. However, assuming a single albedo value may not be valid for all objects or orbit types and material type and orientation can mask an object's true optical cross section. This experiment used a CCD camera to record data, a 300 W Xenon Ozone Free collimated light source to simulate solar illumination, and a robotic arm with five degrees of freedom to move the piece of simulated debris through various orientations. The pseudo-debris pieces used in this experiment originate from the European Space Operations Centre's ESOC2 ground test explosion of a mock satellite. A uniformly illuminated white ping-pong ball was used as a zero-magnitude reference. Each debris piece was then moved through specific orientations and rotations to generate a light curve. This paper discusses the results of five different object-based light curves as measured through an x-rotation. Intensity measurements, from which each light curve was generated, were recorded in five degree increments from zero to 360 degrees. Comparing light curves of different shaped and sized pieces against their characteristic length establishes the start of a database from which an optical size estimation model will be derived in the future.

  2. Detailed kinetics and regulation of mammalian 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate (α-ketoglutarate) dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC), a key regulatory point of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, plays vital roles in multiple pathways of energy metabolism and biosynthesis. The catalytic mechanism and allosteric regulation of this large enzyme complex are not fully understood. Here computer simulation is used to test possible catalytic mechanisms and mechanisms of allosteric regulation of the enzyme by nucleotides (ATP, ADP), pH, and metal ion cofactors (Ca2+ and Mg2+). Results A model was developed based on an ordered ter-ter enzyme kinetic mechanism combined with con-formational changes that involve rotation of one lipoic acid between three catalytic sites inside the enzyme complex. The model was parameterized using a large number of kinetic data sets on the activity of OGDHC, and validated by comparison of model predictions to independent data. Conclusions The developed model suggests a hybrid rapid-equilibrium ping-pong random mechanism for the kinetics of OGDHC, consistent with previously reported mechanisms, and accurately describes the experimentally observed regulatory effects of cofactors on the OGDHC activity. This analysis provides a single consistent theoretical explanation for a number of apparently contradictory results on the roles of phosphorylation potential, NAD (H) oxidation-reduction state ratio, as well as the regulatory effects of metal ions on ODGHC function. PMID:21943256

  3. Levansucrase of Bacillus subtilis: kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of transfructosylation processes.

    PubMed

    Chambert, R; Gonzy-Tréboul, G

    1976-02-01

    Simple kinetic considerations derived from the ping-pong mechanism previously proposed for levansucrase of Bacillus subtillis allowed us to predict an easily operated method to approach the kinetic studies of exchange and hydrolytic activities of this enzyme. The experimental kinetic pattern obtained from the study of both activities is in close agreement with those predicted by theoretical approach. The combination of kinetic results enabled us to determine with a good accuracy the values of the apparent rate constant of the step of fructosylation of the enzyme from the sucrose-enzyme Michaelis complex and the apparent rate constants of the steps of defructosylation of the fructosyl enzyme to water or to glucose. The standard free energy reaction coordinate diagram for the transfructosylation process from sucrose to water was constructed. We found that the high energy of the glycosidic linkage of sucrose is preserved in the fructosyl-enzyme intermediate. The temperature dependence studies of the rate constants of fructosylation and defructosylation of the enzyme show that the entropy of activation for the two steps of defructosylation of the fructosyl enzyme are nearly the same. However the enthalpy of activation for the transfructosylation step to water is greater than that to glucose. We attempted to explain this discrepancy. Furthermore comparison of mechanism and efficiency of enzymatic and acid catalysis of sucrose hydrolysis was developed. PMID:814002

  4. Design, engineering and utility of biotic games.

    PubMed

    Riedel-Kruse, Ingmar H; Chung, Alice M; Dura, Burak; Hamilton, Andrea L; Lee, Byung C

    2011-01-01

    Games are a significant and defining part of human culture, and their utility beyond pure entertainment has been demonstrated with so-called 'serious games'. Biotechnology--despite its recent advancements--has had no impact on gaming yet. Here we propose the concept of 'biotic games', i.e., games that operate on biological processes. Utilizing a variety of biological processes we designed and tested a collection of games: 'Enlightenment', 'Ciliaball', 'PAC-mecium', 'Microbash', 'Biotic Pinball', 'POND PONG', 'PolymerRace', and 'The Prisoner's Smellemma'. We found that biotic games exhibit unique features compared to existing game modalities, such as utilizing biological noise, providing a real-life experience rather than virtual reality, and integrating the chemical senses into play. Analogous to video games, biotic games could have significant conceptual and cost-reducing effects on biotechnology and eventually healthcare; enable volunteers to participate in crowd-sourcing to support medical research; and educate society at large to support personal medical decisions and the public discourse on bio-related issues. PMID:21085736

  5. Artist's Rendering of Multiple Whirlpools in a Sodium Gas Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image depicts the formation of multiple whirlpools in a sodium gas cloud. Scientists who cooled the cloud and made it spin created the whirlpools in a Massachusetts Institute of Technology laboratory, as part of NASA-funded research. This process is similar to a phenomenon called starquakes that appear as glitches in the rotation of pulsars in space. MIT's Wolgang Ketterle and his colleagues, who conducted the research under a grant from the Biological and Physical Research Program through NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., cooled the sodium gas to less than one millionth of a degree above absolute zero (-273 Celsius or -460 Fahrenheit). At such extreme cold, the gas cloud converts to a peculiar form of matter called Bose-Einstein condensate, as predicted by Albert Einstein and Satyendra Bose of India in 1927. No physical container can hold such ultra-cold matter, so Ketterle's team used magnets to keep the cloud in place. They then used a laser beam to make the gas cloud spin, a process Ketterle compares to stroking a ping-pong ball with a feather until it starts spirning. The spinning sodium gas cloud, whose volume was one- millionth of a cubic centimeter, much smaller than a raindrop, developed a regular pattern of more than 100 whirlpools.

  6. Marine Jurassic lithostratigraphy of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesook, A.; Grant-Mackie, J. A.

    Marine Jurassic rocks of Thailand are well-exposed in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas and less extensively near Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, Chumphon and Nakhon Si Thammarat, in the north, west, and south respectively. They are generally underlain unconformably by Triassic and overlain by Quaternary strata. Based mainly on five measured sections, fourteen new lithostratigraphic units are established: (in ascending order) Pa Lan, Mai Hung and Kong Mu Formations of the Huai Pong Group in the Mae Hong Son area; Khun Huai, Doi Yot and Pha De Formations of the Hua Fai Group in the Mae Sot area; Klo Tho, Ta Sue Kho, Pu Khloe Khi and Lu Kloc Tu Formations of the Umphang Group in the Umphang area; and the Khao Lak Formation in the Chumphon area. Mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone and marl are the dominant lithologies. Mudstones, siltstones and sandstones are widespread; limestones are confined to the Mae Sot, Umphang, Kanchanaburi and Mae Hong Son areas; marls are found only in Mae Sot. The sequences are approximately 900 m thick in Mae Sot and 450 m thick in Umphang and are rather thinner in the other areas, particularly in the south. Based on ammonites, with additional data from bivalves and foraminifera, the marine Jurassic is largely Toarcian-Aalenian plus some Bajocian. Late Jurassic ages given previously for strata in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas have not been confirmed.

  7. Lipase catalysed synthesis of cetyl oleate using ultrasound: Optimisation and kinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nishat R; Jadhav, Sachin V; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-11-01

    The current paper exemplifies the application of ultrasound technology to enzymatic synthesis of a cosmetic emollient ester, cetyl oleate. Fermase CALB™10000, a commercial Candida antarctica lipase B was used as a catalyst to accomplish the ultrasound supported synthesis. Multiple process parameters like reaction time, temperature, enzyme dose, alcohol to acid molar ratio, ultrasound power, frequency and speed of agitation were optimised. Maximum conversion of ∼95.96% was discerned at optimum conditions, i.e., 60°C temperature, 5% enzyme dose, 2:1 alcohol:acid ratio, 60 W ultrasound power, 25 kHz ultrasound frequency, 80% duty cycle and 80 rpm speed of agitation after purification steps. It was observed that the reaction reached equilibrium in a short duration of 30 min under the optimised conditions. This was considerably lesser than the time required for attaining equilibrium in conventional mechanical stirring method which was over 2h. Bisubstrate kinetic models like random bi-bi, ping pong bi-bi and ordered bi-bi were applied to the experimental data to determine initial rates and other kinetic parameters. Ordered bi-bi model showed the best fit with kinetic parameters, Vmax=0.029 M/min/gcatalyst, KA=0.00001 M, KB=4.8002 M, KiA=0.00014 M, KiB=3.7914 M & SSE=0.00022 for enzymatic cetyl oleate synthesis under ultrasound irradiation with inhibition by both acid and alcohol at high concentrations. PMID:25913878

  8. Enzyme kinetics and inhibition of histone acetyltransferase KAT8.

    PubMed

    Wapenaar, Hannah; van der Wouden, Petra E; Groves, Matthew R; Rotili, Dante; Mai, Antonello; Dekker, Frank J

    2015-11-13

    Lysine acetyltransferase 8 (KAT8) is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) responsible for acetylating lysine 16 on histone H4 (H4K16) and plays a role in cell cycle progression as well as acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Further studies on its biological function and drug discovery initiatives will benefit from the development of small molecule inhibitors for this enzyme. As a first step towards this aim we investigated the enzyme kinetics of this bi-substrate enzyme. The kinetic experiments indicate a ping-pong mechanism in which the enzyme binds Ac-CoA first, followed by binding of the histone substrate. This mechanism is supported by affinity measurements of both substrates using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Using this information, the KAT8 inhibition of a focused compound collection around the non-selective HAT inhibitor anacardic acid has been investigated. Kinetic studies with anacardic acid were performed, based on which a model for the catalytic activity of KAT8 and the inhibitory action of anacardic acid (AA) was proposed. This enabled the calculation of the inhibition constant Ki of anacardic acid derivatives using an adaptation of the Cheng-Prusoff equation. The results described in this study give insight into the catalytic mechanism of KAT8 and present the first well-characterized small-molecule inhibitors for this HAT. PMID:26505788

  9. Experimentation on recurrent sphere collision with Audacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muradoglu, Murat; Ng, Enoch Ming Wei; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2014-11-01

    Under the theme of collisions that occur repeatedly, we conducted easy and inexpensive experiments of rebounding spheres and Newton’s cradle with two spheres to determine the coefficients of restitution using the sound record feature in modern laptops and a free and open source software called Audacity. In the rebounding sphere experiment, the coefficients of restitution of the golf and ping pong balls used were found to be 0.727 ± 0.025 and 0.816 ± 0.041 respectively. With the Netwon’s cradle experiment, the coefficient of restitution of two steel sphere balls was found to be 0.987 ± 0.003. The contrasts in the results obtained from both experiments permit the operational principles of a pendulum to be emphasized, and engagements to be made to consider the transfer of kinetic energy in the form of vibrational energy of the bodies’ constituents. Using a one-dimensional two-mass model with spring and damper linkages to account for harmonic motions that occur during impact, we found it possible to perform a simple analysis to account for this, and how it can be linked to high energy transfer modes such as the phenomenon of resonance and impedance matching.

  10. Catalytic and Molecular Properties of the Quinohemoprotein Tetrahydrofurfuryl Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha Strain Bo

    PubMed Central

    Zarnt, Grit; Schräder, Thomas; Andreesen, Jan R.

    2001-01-01

    The quinohemoprotein tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol dehydrogenase (THFA-DH) from Ralstonia eutropha strain Bo was investigated for its catalytic properties. The apparent kcat/Km and Ki values for several substrates were determined using ferricyanide as an artificial electron acceptor. The highest catalytic efficiency was obtained with n-pentanol exhibiting a kcat/Km value of 788 × 104 M−1 s−1. The enzyme showed substrate inhibition kinetics for most of the alcohols and aldehydes investigated. A stereoselective oxidation of chiral alcohols with a varying enantiomeric preference was observed. Initial rate studies using ethanol and acetaldehyde as substrates revealed that a ping-pong mechanism can be assumed for in vitro catalysis of THFA-DH. The gene encoding THFA-DH from R. eutropha strain Bo (tfaA) has been cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence showed an identity of up to 67% to the sequence of various quinoprotein and quinohemoprotein dehydrogenases. A comparison of the deduced sequence with the N-terminal amino acid sequence previously determined by Edman degradation analysis suggested the presence of a signal sequence of 27 residues. The primary structure of TfaA indicated that the protein has a tertiary structure quite similar to those of other quinoprotein dehydrogenases. PMID:11222593

  11. A kinetic study on the Novozyme 435-catalyzed esterification of free fatty acids with octanol to produce octyl esters.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Avisha; Mitra, Debarati

    2015-01-01

    Octyl esters can serve as an important class of biolubricant components replacing their mineral oil counterparts. The purpose of the current work was to investigate the enzymatic esterification reaction of free fatty acids (FFA, from waste cooking oil) with octanol in a solvent-free system using a commercial lipase Novozyme 435. It was found that the esterificaton reaction followed the Ping-pong bi-bi kinetics with no inhibition by substrates or products within the studied concentration range. The maximum reaction rate was estimated to be 0.041 mol L(-1) g(-1) h(-1) . Additionally, the stability of Novozyme 435 in the current reaction system was studied by determining its activity and final conversion of FFA to esters after 12 successive utilizations. Novozyme 435 exhibited almost 100% enzyme activity up to 7 cycles of reaction and gradually decreased (by 5%) thereafter. The kinetic parameters evaluated from the study shall assist in the design of reactors for large-scale production of octyl esters from a cheap biomass source. The enzyme reusability data can further facilitate mass production by curtailing the cost of expensive enzyme consumption. PMID:26334440

  12. A provisional transport mechanism for a chloride channel-type Cl-/H+ exchanger.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christopher; Nguitragool, Wang

    2009-01-27

    Chloride channel (CLC)-type Cl-/H+ exchangers are widespread throughout the biological world, and one of these, CLC-ec1 from Escherichia coli, has been extensively studied. The structure of this protein is known, and several of its mechanistic hot spots have been identified, but a mechanism for Cl-/H+ exchange has not previously been offered. We herein confirm by direct measurements of Cl- and H+ fluxes a Cl--to-H+ exchange stoichiometry of 2, and summarize experimental facts pertinent to the exchange mechanism. While the mechanism must involve a conformational cycle of alternating exposure of substrate-binding sites to the two sides of the membrane, CLC transporters do not adhere to a familiar ping-pong scheme in which the two ions bind in a mutually exclusive fashion. Instead, Cl- and H+ occupy the ion-binding region simultaneously. A conformational cycle is proposed that accounts for the exchange stoichiometry, several key mutants and the tendency of the protein to become uncoupled and allow 'slippage' of Cl-. PMID:18977737

  13. ASIC-based architecture for the real-time computation of 2D convolution with large kernel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Rui; Zhong, Sheng; Yan, Luxin

    2015-12-01

    Bidimensional convolution is a low-level processing algorithm of interest in many areas, but its high computational cost constrains the size of the kernels, especially in real-time embedded systems. This paper presents a hardware architecture for the ASIC-based implementation of 2-D convolution with medium-large kernels. Aiming to improve the efficiency of storage resources on-chip, reducing off-chip bandwidth of these two issues, proposed construction of a data cache reuse. Multi-block SPRAM to cross cached images and the on-chip ping-pong operation takes full advantage of the data convolution calculation reuse, design a new ASIC data scheduling scheme and overall architecture. Experimental results show that the structure can achieve 40× 32 size of template real-time convolution operations, and improve the utilization of on-chip memory bandwidth and on-chip memory resources, the experimental results show that the structure satisfies the conditions to maximize data throughput output , reducing the need for off-chip memory bandwidth.

  14. Wound-induced deposition of polyphenols in transgenic plants overexpressing peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrimini, L.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants transformed with a chimeric tobacco anionic peroxidase gene have previously been shown to synthesize high levels of peroxidase in all tissues throughout the plant. One of several distinguishable phenotypes of transformed plants is the rapid browning of pith tissue upon wounding. Pith tissue from plants expressing high levels of peroxidase browned within 24 hours of wounding, while tissue from control plants did not brown as late as 7 days after wounding. A correlation between peroxidase activity and wound-induced browning was observed, whereas no relationship between polyphenol oxidase activity and browning was found. The purified tobacco anionic peroxidase was subjected to kinetic analysis with substrates which resemble the precursors of lignin or polyphenolic acid. The purified enzyme was found to readily polymerize phenolic acids in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} via a modified ping-pong mechanism. The percentage of lignin and lignin-related polymers in cell walls was nearly twofold greater in pith tissue isolated from peroxidase-overproducer plants compared to control plants. Lignin deposition in wounded pith tissue from control plants closely followed the induction of peroxidase activity. However, wound-induced lignification occurred 24 to 48 hours sooner in plants overexpressing the anionic peroxidase. This suggests that the availability of peroxidase rather than substrate may delay polyphenol deposition in wounded tissue.

  15. Construction of a highly stable artificial glutathione peroxidase on a protein nanoring.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lu; Zhang, Xiyu; Si, Chengye; Gao, Yuzhou; Zhao, Linlu; Hou, Chunxi; Shoseyov, Oded; Luo, Quan; Liu, Junqiu

    2014-01-14

    Stable Protein One (SP1) is a boiling-stable oligomeric protein. The unique characteristics of SP1 offer a scaffold to design artificial enzymes against extreme temperature. Here, an efficient antioxidase is successfully constructed on the ring-shaped SP1 homododecamer. By means of computational design and genetic engineering, the active center of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), selenocysteine (Sec), is introduced to the SP1 monomer surface, and the self-assembly properties of the protein monomer lead to a ring-shaped SP1 with homododecamer catalytic selenium centers. This artificial selenoenzyme exhibits high GPx catalytic activity and shows a typical ping-pong kinetic mechanism. Moreover, it has a significantly broader temperature range and high thermostability. Owing to having multi-GPx active centers on a SP1 oligomer, this selenium-containing biomacromolecule exerts an excellent capability to protect cells from oxidative damage at the mitochondrial level. This strategy represents a new way to develop thermostable artificial nanoenzymes for some specific applications. PMID:24264596

  16. All1371 is a polyphosphate-dependent glucokinase in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Klemke, Friederike; Beyer, Gabriele; Sawade, Linda; Saitov, Ali; Korte, Thomas; Maldener, Iris; Lockau, Wolfgang; Nürnberg, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    The polyphosphate glucokinases can phosphorylate glucose to glucose 6-phosphate using polyphosphate as the substrate. ORF all1371 encodes a putative polyphosphate glucokinase in the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Here, ORF all1371 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and its purified product was characterized. Enzyme activity assays revealed that All1371 is an active polyphosphate glucokinase that can phosphorylate both glucose and mannose in the presence of divalent cations in vitro. Unlike many other polyphosphate glucokinases, for which nucleoside triphosphates (e.g. ATP or GTP) act as phosphoryl group donors, All1371 required polyphosphate to confer its enzymic activity. The enzymic reaction catalysed by All1371 followed classical Michaelis–Menten kinetics, with kcat = 48.2 s−1 at pH 7.5 and 28 °C and KM = 1.76 µM and 0.118 mM for polyphosphate and glucose, respectively. Its reaction mechanism was identified as a particular multi-substrate mechanism called the ‘bi-bi ping-pong mechanism’. Bioinformatic analyses revealed numerous polyphosphate-dependent glucokinases in heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. Viability of an Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 mutant strain lacking all1371 was impaired under nitrogen-fixing conditions. GFP promoter studies indicate expression of all1371 under combined nitrogen deprivation. All1371 might play a substantial role in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 under these conditions. PMID:25320362

  17. Efficient mono-acylation of fructose by lipase-catalyzed esterification in ionic liquid co-solvents.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Ji, Fangling; Wang, Jingyun; Jiang, Bo; Li, Yachen; Bao, Yongming

    2015-10-30

    Fructose monoesters are eco-friendly nonionic surfactants in various applications. Selective preparation of mono-acylated fructose is challenging due to the multiple hydroxyl sites available for acylation both chemically and enzymatically. Ionic liquids (ILs) have profound impacts not only on the reaction media but also on the catalytic properties of enzymes in the acylation process. In this study, utilizing an IL co-solvent system, selective synthesis of mono-acylated fructose with lauric acid catalyzed by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was investigated. The imidazolium-based ILs selected as co-solvents with 2-methyl-2-butanol (2M2B) markedly improved the ratios of monolauroyl fructose in the presence of 60% [BMIM][TfO] (v/v) and 20% [BMIM][BF4] (v/v), in which the mono-acylated fructose was 85% and 78% respectively. Based on a Ping-Pong Bi-Bi model, a kinetic equation was fitted, by which the kinetic parameters revealed that the affinity between fructose and acyl-enzyme intermediate was enhanced. The inhibition effect of fructose on free enzyme was weakened in the presence of IL co-solvents. The conformation of CALB binding substrates also changed in the co-solvent system as demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectra. These results demonstrated that the variation of CALB kinetic characteristics was a crucial factor for the selectivity of mono-acylation in ILs/2M2B co-solvents. PMID:26343327

  18. DEA for soft robotics: 1-gram actuator picks up a 60-gram egg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintake, Jun; Rosset, Samuel; Schubert, Bryan; Mintchev, Stefano; Floreano, Dario; Shea, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    We introduce a soft actuator for grippers using DEA capable of bending actuation. The actuator is also able to generate the electro-adhesion by the fringe field formed at the edges of the electrodes. The adhesion improves the holding force and ensures the conformation of the structure to the object. After the characterization of the actuator, we develop a 2-finger soft gripper capable of holding various objects. The gripper has a mass of around 1 g, and consists of a few cm long actuation parts, realizing simple open-close movement. The compliance of the gripper leads to conformation of the structure against the object surface, which is proven by successful handling of objects with different geometries such as a toothbrush, a flat paper, and a ping pong ball. The effect of the electro-adhesion is visible when the paper is held with its flat shape meaning that an adhesion force against gravity exists. Also, by the fact that the conformed structure increases the contact area, the holding force is improved while avoiding damaging the object, which is highlighted by the ability to hold a raw egg weighing around 60 g. This soft gripper, combining both actuation and electro-adhesion, illustrates the potential use of DEA for soft robotics.

  19. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of palmitanilide: Kinetic model and antimicrobial activity study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuan-Miao; Liu, Kuan-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of fatty acid anilides are important owing to their wide range of industrial applications in detergents, shampoo, cosmetics, and surfactant formulations. The amidation reaction of Mucor miehei lipase Lipozyme IM20 was investigated for direct amidation of triacylglycerol in organic solvents. The process parameters (reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio, enzyme amount) were optimized to achieve the highest yield of anilide. The maximum yield of palmitanilide (88.9%) was achieved after 24 h of reaction at 40 °C at an enzyme concentration of 1.4% (70 mg). Kinetics of lipase-catalyzed amidation of aniline with tripalmitin has been investigated. The reaction rate could be described in terms of the Michaelis-Menten equation with a Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism and competitive inhibition by both the substrates. The kinetic constants were estimated by using non-linear regression method using enzyme kinetic modules. The enzyme operational stability study showed that Lipozyme IM20 retained 38.1% of the initial activity for the synthesis of palmitanilide (even after repeated use for 48 h). Palmitanilide, a fatty acid amide, exhibited potent antimicrobial activity toward Bacillus cereus. PMID:26672452

  20. Biotransformation of N-substituted aromatic compounds in mammalian spermatozoa. Nonoxidative formation of N-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides from nitroso aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Suzuki, T; Uematsu, T

    1989-07-25

    The metabolism of N-substituted aromatic compounds, i.e. aniline, acetanilide, N-hydroxyacetanilide, nitrosobenzene, and nitrobenzene in mammalian spermatozoa was investigated. In boar spermatozoa fortified with glucose, no acetylation, deacetylation, and monooxygenation of these compounds were found. Nitrobenzene was reduced slowly, but nitrosobenzene was a good substrate for this reductive activity. In the latter reaction, the products were N-hydroxyacetanilide, azoxybenzene, and an organic phase-nonextractable metabolite(s). Pyruvate was found to be involved in the formation of N-hydroxyacetanilide from nitrosobenzene, and the reaction occurred through a ping-pong mechanism. This enzymatic activity, located in the mid-piece fraction of spermatozoa, was enhanced by thiamine pyrophosphate and Mg2+ and inhibited by thiamine thiazolone pyrophosphate. N-Hydroxyacetanilide formed from [3(-13)C]pyruvate showed complete retention of the isotope at the methyl carbon of the molecule. 2-Nitrosofluorene and 4-nitrosobiphenyl were also transformed into the corresponding N-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides. N-Hydroxyacetanilide was also formed in rat and human spermatozoa. These facts suggest that the formation of N-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides from the nitroso aromatic compounds and pyruvate is mediated by a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex located in the mitochondria of spermatozoa. The formation of both azoxybenzene and the organic phase-nonextractable metabolite(s) was found to be a pyruvate-independent nonenzymatic reaction. PMID:2745452

  1. Characterization of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum amidinotransferase involved in cylindrospermopsin synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barón-Sola, Ángel; Gutiérrez-Villanueva, Miguel A; del Campo, Francisca F; Sanz-Alférez, Soledad

    2013-01-01

    An increasing abundance of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum in water bodies from diverse world regions has been reported in the last few years, with the majority of the isolated strains producing the toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN), leading to a rise in ecological and health risks. The understanding of CYN synthesis is crucial in the control of CYN production. An amidinotransferase (AMDT) seems to be the first enzyme involved in the synthesis of CYN. In this study, we have cloned and overexpressed the aoaA gene from the constitutive CYN producer A. ovalisporum UAM-MAO. The recombinant purified AoaA was characterized, confirming that it is an l-arginine:glycine AMDT. It shows an optimal activity between 32 and 37°C, at pH from 8 to 9. The activity exhibits a mixed (ping-pong/sequential) kinetic mechanism, and is inhibited by the reaction product guanidine acetate (GAA) in a noncompetitive manner. Mg2+ stimulates AoaA activity while Co2+ and Mn2+ inhibit it. AoaA conserves the critical residues of the catalytic site and substrate specificity of AMDTs, as the previously reported AMDT from Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Cyr. Both proteins can be included in a new group of prokaryotic AMDTs involved in CYN production. PMID:23533111

  2. Hormonal and behavioral changes induced by acute and chronic experimental infestation with Psoroptes cuniculi in the domestic rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasitic diseases are important in animal production because they cause high economic losses. Affected animals often exhibit stereotypical behavioral alterations such as anorexia and inactivity, among others. Among the diseases that commonly affect domestic rabbits is mange, which is caused by the mite Psoroptes cuniculi. Therefore, within the context of the host-parasite relationship, it is critical to understand the mechanisms involved in the alteration of host behavior, in order to better utilize sick animal behavior as a strategy for diagnosis and treatment of disease. Methods Rabbits were infested placing mites in the ear conduct. We characterized changes in exploratory behavior and scent marking evoked by acute (1-9 days) and chronic (25-33 days) experimental infestation. Behavior was recorded during ten minutes while the animals were in a 120 cm × 120 cm open field arena divided into 9 squares. Serum cortisol was measured individually using radioimmunoassay kits. Locomotor activity, chinning, rearing and body weight were compared using a Friedman test, the effect of treatment (infested versus non-infested) across time was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA, and the Pearson test was used to determine whether chinning and ambulation scores were significantly correlated. Serum cortisol levels and food consumption were analyzed with a Kruskal-Wallis test and body temperature was analyzed with an ANOVA test. Results We observed a significant decrease in rearing behavior as early as two days post-infestation, while chinning and locomotor activity were significantly decreased four days post-infestation. Chronic infestation was associated with decreased food intake, significant weight loss, and a trend toward increased serum cortisol levels, while no changes were observed in body temperature. Conclusions The presence of visible lesions within the ear canal is commonly used to detect mite infestation in rabbits, but this is possible only after

  3. IR/UV laser spectroscopy of secondary structures in isolated peptide chains: an original insight onto the non-covalent interactions that shape proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloaguen, Eric

    2009-03-01

    Protein shape and flexibility is governed by non-covalent interactions that need to be accurately described by molecular structure simulations. However, the computational methods adapted for large molecules like proteins have difficulties to reproduce precisely these non-covalent interactions and cannot reach the level of structural details required to address many biological relevant issues. Special efforts are currently done to document these interactions by carrying out experiments on simple model systemsootnotetextJ.-P. Schermann, Spectroscopy and modeling of biomolecular building blocks. (Elsevier, 2007). in order to help the development of reliable DFT-D calculationsootnotetextP. Jurecka, J. Cerny, P. Hobza, and D. R. Salahub, J. Comput. Chem. 28 (2), 555 (2007); S. Grimme, J. Comput. Chem. 27 (15), 1787 (2006). and polarisable force fields explorations.ootnotetextN. Gresh, G. A. Cisneros, T. A. Darden, and J. P. Piquemal, Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation 3 (6), 1960 (2007). The selectivity of the IR/UV double resonance spectroscopy of gas phase isolated peptides (less than 10 residues) laser desorbed and cooled in a molecular beam enables us to discriminate the spectral signature of the several H-bonds shaping the molecular conformation. This can be carried out for each conformation detected in the molecular beam, providing a precise IR fingerprint of the intramolecular hydrogen bond network of these moleculesootnotetextW. Chin, F. Piuzzi, I. Dimicoli, and M. Mons, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 8, 1 (2006); W. Chin, M. Mons, J.-P. Dognon, F. Piuzzi, B. Tardivel, and I. Dimicoli, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 2700 (2004); E. Gloaguen, F. Pagliarulo, V. Brenner, W. Chin, F. Piuzzi, B. Tardivel, and M. Mons, PCCP 9, 4491 (2007).^ and references therein These IR frequencies are directly compared to the calculated frequencies of selected conformations of the isolated molecule for assignment purpose. Once the experimentally observed conformations are known, the

  4. Intracortical and Thalamocortical Connections of the Hand and Face Representations in Somatosensory Area 3b of Macaque Monkeys and Effects of Chronic Spinal Cord Injuries.

    PubMed

    Chand, Prem; Jain, Neeraj

    2015-09-30

    Brains of adult monkeys with chronic lesions of dorsal columns of spinal cord at cervical levels undergo large-scale reorganization. Reorganization results in expansion of intact chin inputs, which reactivate neurons in the deafferented hand representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (area 3b), ventroposterior nucleus of the thalamus and cuneate nucleus of the brainstem. A likely contributing mechanism for this large-scale plasticity is sprouting of axons across the hand-face border. Here we determined whether such sprouting takes place in area 3b. We first determined the extent of intrinsic corticocortical connectivity between the hand and the face representations in normal area 3b. Small amounts of neuroanatomical tracers were injected in these representations close to the electrophysiologically determined hand-face border. Locations of the labeled neurons were mapped with respect to the detailed electrophysiological somatotopic maps and histologically determined hand-face border revealed in sections of the flattened cortex stained for myelin. Results show that intracortical projections across the hand-face border are few. In monkeys with chronic unilateral lesions of the dorsal columns and expanded chin representation, connections across the hand-face border were not different compared with normal monkeys. Thalamocortical connections from the hand and face representations in the ventroposterior nucleus to area 3b also remained unaltered after injury. The results show that sprouting of intrinsic connections in area 3b or the thalamocortical inputs does not contribute to large-scale cortical plasticity. Significance statement: Long-term injuries to dorsal spinal cord in adult primates result in large-scale somatotopic reorganization due to which chin inputs expand into the deafferented hand region. Reorganization takes place in multiple cortical areas, and thalamic and medullary nuclei. To what extent this brain reorganization due to dorsal column injuries

  5. Efficacy, patient-reported outcomes and safety profile of ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid), an injectable drug for the reduction of unwanted submental fat: results from a phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, B; Hoffmann, K; Walker, P; Lippert, S; Wollina, U; Havlickova, B

    2014-01-01

    Background Unwanted submental fat (SMF) may result in an unattractive chin profile and dissatisfaction with appearance. An approved and rigorously tested non-surgical method for SMF reduction is lacking. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ATX-101 for the pharmacological reduction of unwanted SMF in a phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods Patients (n = 360) with moderate or severe SMF were randomized to receive ATX-101 1 or 2 mg/cm2 or placebo injected into their SMF for up to four treatments ∼28 days apart, with a 12-week follow-up. Coprimary efficacy endpoints were the proportions of treatment responders, defined as a ≥1-point reduction in SMF on the Clinician-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (CR-SMFRS), and those satisfied with their appearance in association with their face and chin after treatment on the Subject Self-Rating Scale (SSRS score ≥4). Secondary efficacy endpoints included a ≥1-point improvement in SMF on the Patient-Reported Submental Fat Rating Scale (PR-SMFRS) and changes in the Patient-Reported Submental Fat Impact Scale (PR-SMFIS). Additional patient-reported outcomes and changes in the Skin Laxity Rating Scale were recorded. Adverse events (AEs) and laboratory test results were monitored. Results Compared with placebo, a greater proportion of patients treated with ATX-101 1 and 2 mg/cm2 showed a ≥1-point improvement in CR-SMFRS (58.3% and 62.3%, respectively, vs. 34.5% with placebo; P < 0.001) and patient satisfaction (SSRS score ≥4) with the appearance of their face and chin (68.3% and 64.8%, respectively, vs. 29.3%; P < 0.001). Patient-reported secondary efficacy endpoints showed significant improvements in SMF severity (PR-SMFRS; P = 0.009 for ATX-101 1 mg/cm2, P < 0.001 for ATX-101 2 mg/cm2 vs. placebo) and emotions and perceived self-image (PR-SMFIS; P < 0.001). No overall worsening of skin laxity was observed. AEs were mostly transient, mild to moderate in

  6. Suspected wood poisoning caused by Simarouba amara (marupá/caixeta) shavings in two dogs with erosive stomatitis and dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Two male Labrador retrievers developed bleeding erosions/ulcerations involving the oral mucosa, mucocutaneous junctions of the lips, nose, prepuce and anus, ulcerated nodules on the chin, and crusting lesions on the elbows, hocks and scrotum. One of the dogs was anorexic and depressed, had haematological abnormalities consistent with damage to the liver and signs of neurological disease. As these dogs had recently been exposed to bedding containing Simarouba amara shavings and because of the striking similarities of clinical signs to those described for horses, a probable diagnosis of wood poisoning was made. This assumption was supported by the clinical course as healing of skin lesions occurred when the dogs were no longer exposed to the bedding. PMID:15214956

  7. Effect of Hydrogen-Bonding Junctions on Microphase Separation in Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Greg; Hedrick, Jim; Nederberg, Fredrik; Balsara, Nitash

    2008-03-01

    The morphology of poly(styrene-block- trimethylene carbonate) (PS-PTMC) copolymers with and without thiourea groups at the junction between the blocks was studied by a combination of small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The thiourea groups are known to exhibit inter-molecular hydrogen bonding. We demonstrate that the presence of thiourea groups results in increased segregation between PS and PTMC blocks. We focus on symmetric systems with total molecular weights in the 5 kg/mol range. In conventional block copolymers without hydrogen bonding groups it is difficult to obtain strong segregation in low molecular weight systems because the product chi*N controls segregation (chi is the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and N is the number of monomers per chain). The incorporation of hydrogen bonding groups may provide a route for the generation of patterns with small, sharply defined features using block copolymers.

  8. Extrapolated gradientlike algorithms for molecular dynamics and celestial mechanics simulations.

    PubMed

    Omelyan, I P

    2006-09-01

    A class of symplectic algorithms is introduced to integrate the equations of motion in many-body systems. The algorithms are derived on the basis of an advanced gradientlike decomposition approach. Its main advantage over the standard gradient scheme is the avoidance of time-consuming evaluations of force gradients by force extrapolation without any loss of precision. As a result, the efficiency of the integration improves significantly. The algorithms obtained are analyzed and optimized using an error-function theory. The best among them are tested in actual molecular dynamics and celestial mechanics simulations for comparison with well-known nongradient and gradient algorithms such as the Störmer-Verlet, Runge-Kutta, Cowell-Numerov, Forest-Ruth, Suzuki-Chin, and others. It is demonstrated that for moderate and high accuracy, the extrapolated algorithms should be considered as the most efficient for the integration of motion in molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:17025782

  9. Conservative treatment of patients with periapical lesions associated with extraoral sinus tracts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Janir Alves; de Carvalho, Fabíola Bastos; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes; Araújo, Gustavo Sivieri; de Pontes Lima, Regina K; Rodrigues, Vivian M Tellaroli; de Toledo Leonardo, Renato

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes the clinical courses of three cases with extra-oral sinus tract formation, from diagnosis and treatment to short-term follow-up and evaluation. All teeth involved had periradicular radiolucent areas noted on radiographic examination and extra-oral sinus tracts appearing on the chin with exudation and unpleasant aesthetic appearance. The adopted treatment protocol included treating the sinus tract surface simultaneously with the root canal therapy. After root canal shaping using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution, calcium hydroxide-based pastes associated with different vehicles were inserted into the root canal for 4 months, and were changed monthly. All the sinus tracts healed in 7 to 10 days. The apical lesions were completely repaired in a maximum period of 24 months. The treatment adopted provided a complete healing of the periapical lesions in a short follow-up period. Surgical repair of the cutaneous sinus tract was therefore unnecessary. PMID:18076581

  10. Anomalous effect in a hydrogenic impurity in a spherical quantum dot under the influence of parallel electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Y. K.; Lin, Y. C.; Sahoo, S.

    2004-03-01

    We will present calculations for the energy levels and the resonance widths of the quasi-bound states of a confined hydrogenic impurity in an isolate quantum dot subjected to external electric and magnetic fields in parallel directions. A method of complex absorbing potential [1] is used in our present investigation. Resonance positions and widths are reported for a wide range of dot sizes to demonstrate that Stark resonances in a confined hydrogen atom leads to a new phenomenon as a consequence of the quantum confinement of the atom, contrary to the Stark effect on a free atom. * This work was supported by the National Science Council of ROC. [1] S. Sahoo and Y. K. Ho, Chin. J. Phys. 38, 127 (2000); J. Phys. B 33, 2195 (2000); J. Phys. B 33, 5151 (2000); Phys. Rev. A 65, 015403 (2001);

  11. Direct Measurement of the Mass Difference of 163Ho and 163Dy Solves the Q -Value Puzzle for the Neutrino Mass Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Chenmarev, S.; Dorrer, H.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Enss, C.; Filianin, P. E.; Gastaldo, L.; Goncharov, M.; Köster, U.; Lautenschläger, F.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Rischka, A.; Schüssler, R. X.; Schweikhard, L.; Türler, A.

    2015-08-01

    The atomic mass difference of 163 and 163Dy has been directly measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP applying the novel phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique. Our measurement has solved the long-standing problem of large discrepancies in the Q value of the electron capture in 163Ho determined by different techniques. Our measured mass difference shifts the current Q value of 2555(16) eV evaluated in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 [G. Audi et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1157 (2012)] by more than 7 σ to 2833 (30stat)(15sys) eV /c2 . With the new mass difference it will be possible, e.g., to reach in the first phase of the ECHo experiment a statistical sensitivity to the neutrino mass below 10 eV, which will reduce its present upper limit by more than an order of magnitude.

  12. [Craniosynostosis and strabismus].

    PubMed

    Wang, A K; Kang, X L

    2016-08-01

    Craniosynostosis(CS), the premature fusion of cranial sutures leading to an abnormal shape and precocious maturity of skull, is classified into Non-syndromic Craniosynostosis (NSC) and Syndromic Craniosynostoses(SC).NCS only has different abnormality of skull according to which cranial suture is involved while extra malformation of midface and limbs present in SCS. Common SCS contains Crouzon Syndrome, Apert Syndrome, Pfeiffer Sydrome, and etc. The clinical manifestation of CS includes malformation of skull, intracranial hypertension, brain hernia, developmental disorder of cerebral function, strabismus, and etc, while SCS has more complex manifestation. Along with the improvement of multidisciplinary cooperation, the ophthalmic complication of CS, like strabismus, is recognised by oculists gradually. This review is summarizing the clinical manifestation, complicated strabismus, pathogenesis and multidisciplinary cure of CS. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 626-630). PMID:27562283

  13. A new species of Satyrichthys (Teleostei: Peristediidae) from the Maldives Archipelago (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Pogoreutz, Claudia; Vitecek, Simon; Ahnelt, Harald

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Satyrichthys, Satyrichthys kikingeri sp. nov., is described from the Rasdhoo Atoll, Maldives Archipelago. The new species is placed in a group of Satyrichthys with at least three lip barbels and unequal parietal bones. It differs from its congeners in the combination of the following characters: (1) 3/3 lip and 1/0 chin barbels, (2) 15 fin rays in the second dorsal fin, 13 fin rays in the anal fin, (3) 25 bony plates in the dorsal, 29 in the upper lateral and 20 in the lower lateral rows, (4) 21st to 28th bony plates in the upper lateral row with forward directed spines and (5) parietal bones unequal in size on midline. Satyrichthys kikingeri sp. nov. is the first Satyrichthys species reported from the Republic of the Maldives. PMID:26312277

  14. Follicular mucinosis: an important differential diagnosis of leprosy in an endemic area*

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Danielle Cristine; Pennini, Silmara Navarro; de Souza, Petra Pereira; Maquiné, Gustavo Ávila; Schettini, Antônio Pedro Mendes; Santos, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Primary follicular mucinosis is a rare dermatosis characterized by the accumulation of mucin in the follicular epithelium and sebaceous glands. Clinically, it is characterized by the presence of papules or well-circumscribed and infiltrated plaques. In this paper, we report the case of a female patient, seven years old, evolving for three months with an asymptomatic, erythematous and infiltrated plaque located in the chin region. The research of thermal, pain and tactile sensitivity was inconclusive. Histological findings confirmed the diagnosis of follicular mucinosis. There was regression of the lesion with the use of medium potency topical corticosteroids for 20 days. The pathogenesis of follicular mucinosis remains unknown, being in some cases associated with lymphoproliferative disorders. In endemic areas of leprosy, isolated and infiltrated follicular mucinosis lesions should be further differentiated from leprosy. PMID:26312699

  15. SplitRFLab: A MATLAB GUI toolbox for receiver function analysis based on SplitLab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mijian; Huang, Hui; Huang, Zhouchuan; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-02-01

    We add new modules for receiver function (RF) analysis in SplitLab toolbox, which includes the manual RF analysis module, automatic RF analysis and related quality control modules, and H- k stacking module. The updated toolbox (named SplitRFLab toolbox), especially its automatic RF analysis module, could calculate the RFs quickly and efficiently, which is very useful in RF analysis with huge amount of seismic data. China is now conducting the ChinArray project that plans to deploy thousands of portable stations across Chinese mainland. Our SplitRFLab toolbox may obtain reliable RF results quickly at the first time, which provide essentially new constraint to the crustal and mantle structures.

  16. Applications of coronoid process as a bone graft in maxillofacial surgery.

    PubMed

    Sabhlok, Samrat; Waknis, Pushkar P; Gadre, Kiran S

    2014-03-01

    The coronoid process can be easily harvested as a donor bone by an intraoral approach during many maxillofacial surgery procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of autogenous coronoid process bone grafts for maxillofacial reconstructive surgery. Twelve patients, who underwent coronoid process grafts for reconstruction of maxillofacial deformities due to trauma, alveolar atrophy, or temporomandibular joint ankylosis, were included in the study. There were 3 orbital defects after extended maxillectomy, 1 blowout fracture of the orbit, 2 cases of reconstruction after temporomandibular joint ankylosis surgery, 1 case of additional chin augmentation following horizontal flip genioplasty, 1 defect of anterior wall of maxilla due to trauma, 2 mandibular defects, and 2 cases of bone augmentation for implants.We recommend the use of coronoid process of the mandible as a source for autogenous bone graft as it can provide sufficient bone in quantity and quality for selected maxillofacial reconstructions. PMID:24621702

  17. Prevalence of milia and palatal and gingival cysts in Spanish newborns.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Benigno; Labandeira, Javier; Cabanillas, Miguel; Acevedo, Antonio; León-Muiños, Elvira; Toribio, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We performed a descriptive survey of 1,000 consecutive newborns cared for in the first 3 days of life in the health area of Ferrol (in northwest Spain) to assess the prevalence and most-frequent locations of oral cysts and milia and to study the influence of different maternal and neonatal parameters in the development of these lesions. Prevalence of palatal, gingival, and cutaneous cysts was 53.7%, 13.4%, and 16.6%, respectively. Milia were predominantly located on the cheeks, chin, and forehead. We found a frequent association between palatal and gingival cysts but not between oral cysts and milia. Neonatal factors such as sex, weight at birth, and gestational age can significantly influence the development of palatal and gingival cysts. PMID:21995277

  18. KSC-04PD-0165

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. A black racer snake slithers away through a patch of dry grass on the grounds of Kennedy Space Center. The Black Racer Snake is one of the fastest, non-venomous snakes in North America. It has a slender body with a slender oval-shaped head and white patch on its chin. It lives in brushy areas, rocky hillsides and meadows, and underneath boards or tin around old buildings. Black Racers feed on insects, eggs, mice, frogs and lizards. Kennedy shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, home to some of the nations rarest and most unusual species of wildlife. In addition, the Refuge supports 19 endangered or threatened wildlife species on Federal or State lists, more than any other single refuge in the U.S.

  19. Redetermination of 2-methyl-4-nitro­pyridine N-oxide

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, Max; Seichter, Wilhelm; Weber, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    An improved crystal structure of the title compound, C6H6N2O3, is reported. The structure, previously solved [Li et al. (1987 ▶). Jiegou Huaxue (Chin. J. Struct. Chem.), 6, 20–24] in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pca21 and refined to R = 0.067, has been solved in the ortho­rhom­bic space group Pbcm with data of enhanced quality, giving an improved structure (R = 0.0485). The mol­ecule adopts a planar conformation with all atoms lying on a mirror plane. The crystal structure is composed of mol­ecular sheets extending parallel to the ab plane and connected via C—H⋯O contacts involving ring H atoms and O atoms of the N-oxide and nitro groups, while van der Waals forces consolidate the stacking of the layers. PMID:24826136

  20. Some psychological considerations on the behavior of the human eye in the case of an irradiation from a monochromatic optical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter

    2005-04-01

    In investigations of the eye blink reflex it was found that there exists a dependence on the wavelength of the applied laser device considering the frequency of this physiological reaction. The experimentally acquired correlation shows a much weaker association with the V(λ)-curve than it is normally valid for photobic vision. The experimentally obtained results might be explained by the well-known fundamental WEBER-FECHNER-law of psychophysics and will be given as a blink reflex function in accordance with the STEVENS power law. The results of 788 measurements at 670 nm, 635 nm and 532 nm in lab and field trials in which the head of the tested volunteers was fixed on a chin rest were confirmed in two additionally performed studies with 516 volunteers with an unrestrained head in which either a direct intrabeam viewing or an eye-tracking method was applied in order to simulate typical irradiation situations.

  1. The Burmese medic: an international physician assistant analogue.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Donald M; Pedersen, Kathy J; Santitamrongpan, Verapan

    2012-01-01

    Although there have been recent democratic reforms in Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), for nearly 60 years there has been a consistent history of human rights violations as part of a civil war waged by the Myanmar military, known as the Tatmadaw. Approximately 3,500 villages have been destroyed by the Tatmadaw during the half-century of civil war. Oppression against minority groups, including the Karen, Karenni, Kachin, Mon, Shan, Chin, and Muslims has adversely affected the health outcomes of these vulnerable populations. Since the mid 1990s, medics have been providing care for the ethnic minorities who were displaced from their homes by the civil war and who live in the jungles of eastern Burma as well as in the refugee camps and towns in the border areas of Thailand. This article will look at how these medics are providing care similar to that provided by physician assistants in the United States. PMID:23072072

  2. Realization of the ergonomics design and automatic control of the fundus cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chi-liang; Xiao, Ze-xin; Deng, Shi-chao; Yu, Xin-ye

    2012-12-01

    The principles of ergonomics design in fundus cameras should be extending the agreeableness by automatic control. Firstly, a 3D positional numerical control system is designed for positioning the eye pupils of the patients who are doing fundus examinations. This system consists of a electronically controlled chin bracket for moving up and down, a lateral movement of binocular with the detector and the automatic refocusing of the edges of the eye pupils. Secondly, an auto-focusing device for the object plane of patient's fundus is designed, which collects the patient's fundus images automatically whether their eyes is ametropic or not. Finally, a moving visual target is developed for expanding the fields of the fundus images.

  3. Bilateral patellar tendon-bearing Symes-type prostheses in a severe case of Freeman-Sheldon syndrome in a 21-year-old woman presenting with uncorrectable equinovarus.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Rodger J; Poling, Mikaela I; Chamberlain, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Described is the use of bilateral patellar tendon-bearing Symes-type prostheses in a severe case of Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS) in a 21-year-old woman presenting with uncorrectable equinovarus and multiple surgical sequela of the lower extremities. FSS is considered a type of myopathic distal arthrogryposis; diagnosis requires the following: microstomia, whistling-face appearance, H-shaped chin dimpling, nasolabial folds, and multiple contractures of the hands and feet. Spinal deformities, metabolic and gastroenterological problems, other dysmorphic craniofacial characteristics, and visual and auditory impairments, are frequent findings. We highlight what we believe to be a unique approach to enhancing the patient's ability to ambulate and engage in physical activity, particularly critical determinates of wellness and long-term functional outcome in FSS, when the feet are non-correctable but not amputated. Important implications exist for physiatrists, other rehabilitation providers and surgeons regarding this likely under-diagnosed syndrome. PMID:26178231

  4. Bilateral multicystic renal dysplasia with potter sequence. A case with penile agenesis.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Ahmet; Ermis, Bahri; Numanoglu, Varim; Bahadir, Burak; Seckiner, Ilker

    2006-11-01

    Hereditary renal adysplasia (HRA) is a rare autosomal dominant condition. Patients have several other anomalies including Potter facies, thoracic, cardiac, and extremity deformities. The case present dysmorphic facial features such as hypertelorism, prominent epicanthic folds, a flat and broad nose, choanal stenosis, low-set ears, and a receding chin. He had femoral bowing, hypoplastic right tibia and agenesis of the right foot. He had rich and thick skin. He had also a dysplastic empty scrotum, penile agenesis, and anal atresia. The autopsy revealed pulmonary hypoplasia, ventricular septal defect, bilateral multicystic renal dysplasia, agenesis of both ureter and bladder, intraabdominal testicles, and a single umbilical artery. The penile agenesis was first reported, and including the consanguinity in the parents might further delineate the bilateral multicystic HRA. Vater/caudal regression anomalies, Mullerian duct/aplasia, unilateral renal agenesis, and cervicothoracic somite anomalies association, and Coloboma, heart anomaly, choanal atresia, retardation, genital and ear anomalies syndrome has been considered in differential diagnosis. PMID:17106555

  5. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to ‑ π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  6. Thermal Testing and Analysis of an Efficient High-Temperature Multi-Screen Internal Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, Stefan; Handrick, Karin; Daryabeigi, Kamran

    2007-01-01

    Conventional multi-layer insulations exhibit excellent insulation performance but they are limited to the temperature range to which their components reflective foils and spacer materials are compatible. For high temperature applications, the internal multi-screen insulation IMI has been developed that utilizes unique ceramic material technology to produce reflective screens with high temperature stability. For analytical insulation sizing a parametric material model is developed that includes the main contributors for heat flow which are radiation and conduction. The adaptation of model-parameters based on effective steady-state thermal conductivity measurements performed at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) allows for extrapolation to arbitrary stack configurations and temperature ranges beyond the ones that were covered in the conductivity measurements. Experimental validation of the parametric material model was performed during the thermal qualification test of the X-38 Chin-panel, where test results and predictions showed a good agreement.

  7. Searching arousals: A fuzzy logic approach.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Ahmed, Beena; Penzel, Thomas; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to detect spontaneous, chin tension and limb movement-related arousals by estimating neuronal and muscular activity. Features extraction is carried out by Time Varying Autoregressive Moving Average (TVARMA) models and recursive particle filtering. Classification is performed by a fuzzy inference system with rule-based decision scheme based upon the AASM scoring rules. Our approach yielded two metrics: arousal density and arousal index to comply with standardised clinical benchmarking. The obtained statistics achieved error deviation around ±1.5 to ±30. These results showed that our system can differentiate amongst 3 different types of arousals, subject to inter-subject variability and up-to-date scoring references. PMID:26736862

  8. Dysphagia Management in Acute and Sub-acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vose, Alicia; Nonnenmacher, Jodi; Singer, Michele L.; González-Fernández, Marlís

    2014-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction is common after stroke. More than 50% of the 665 thousand stroke survivors will experience dysphagia acutely of which approximately 80 thousand will experience persistent dysphagia at 6 months. The physiologic impairments that result in post-stroke dysphagia are varied. This review focuses primarily on well-established dysphagia treatments in the context of the physiologic impairments they treat. Traditional dysphagia therapies including volume and texture modifications, strategies such as chin tuck, head tilt, head turn, effortful swallow, supraglottic swallow, super-supraglottic swallow, Mendelsohn maneuver and exercises such as the Shaker exercise and Masako (tongue hold) maneuver are discussed. Other more recent treatment interventions are discussed in the context of the evidence available. PMID:26484001

  9. An Unusual Method of Suicidal Ligature Strangulation.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Parthasarathi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a case of suicidal strangulation by ligature of a 51-year-old woman with a psychiatric disorder. She had been suffering from depression with a history of previous suicidal attempt. The deceased accomplished self-strangulation using two ligatures, with one placed above the other and consisting of a satin fabric and a shoelace. The underlying shoelace ligature was fastened by a secure fixed square knot at the back of the neck. The overlying fabric piece was tied with a half-knot under the chin and was tightened around the neck manually. A detailed investigation and autopsy examination strongly suggests suicide. The case is of interest due to its rarity and uncommon method of execution. PMID:26211537

  10. Direct Measurement of the Mass Difference of (163)Ho and (163)Dy Solves the Q-Value Puzzle for the Neutrino Mass Determination.

    PubMed

    Eliseev, S; Blaum, K; Block, M; Chenmarev, S; Dorrer, H; Düllmann, Ch E; Enss, C; Filianin, P E; Gastaldo, L; Goncharov, M; Köster, U; Lautenschläger, F; Novikov, Yu N; Rischka, A; Schüssler, R X; Schweikhard, L; Türler, A

    2015-08-01

    The atomic mass difference of (163)Ho and (163)Dy has been directly measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP applying the novel phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance technique. Our measurement has solved the long-standing problem of large discrepancies in the Q value of the electron capture in (163)Ho determined by different techniques. Our measured mass difference shifts the current Q value of 2555(16) eV evaluated in the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2012 [G. Audi et al., Chin. Phys. C 36, 1157 (2012)] by more than 7σ to 2833(30(stat))(15(sys)) eV/c(2). With the new mass difference it will be possible, e.g., to reach in the first phase of the ECHo experiment a statistical sensitivity to the neutrino mass below 10 eV, which will reduce its present upper limit by more than an order of magnitude. PMID:26296112

  11. Traumatic bone cyst of mandible.

    PubMed

    Surej Kumar, L K; Kurien, Nikhil; Thaha, Khaleel Ahamed

    2015-06-01

    The traumatic bone cyst, an uncommon lesion of the jaws, belongs to the category of 'pseudocyst' owing to its lack of a lining epithelial membrane. It is an asymptomatic lesion, which is often diagnosed accidentally during routine radiological examination commonly present in the posterior mandible as a unilocular radiolucency with scalloping borders. The exact etiopathogenesis of the lesion is still debated, though the role of trauma is often associated. Here we report a rare case of traumatic bone cyst in the anterior mandible, in a 16-year-old female patient with a previous history of trauma to chin; diagnosed and treated successfully in our surgical unit. The case is discussed in relation to its clinical presentation, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, management and prognosis. PMID:26028875

  12. Study of shockwave method for diagnosing the radiation fields of laser-driven gold hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongsheng; Lan, Ke; Huo, Wenyi; Lai, Dongxian; Gao, Yaoming; Pei, Wenbing

    2013-11-01

    Besides the routinely used broad-band x-ray spectrometer (Dante or SXS), ablative shock-wave method is often used to diagnose the radiation fields of laser-driven Hohlraums. The x-ray ablation process of Aluminum and Titanium is studied numerically with a 1-D radiation hydrodynamic code RDMG [F. Tinggui et al., Chin. J. Comput. Phys. 16, 199 (1999)], based on which a new scaling relation of the equivalent radiation temperature with the ablative shock velocity in Aluminum plates is proposed, and a novel method is developed for determining simultaneously the radiation temperature and the M-band (2-4 keV) fraction in laser-driven gold Hohlraums.

  13. New useful special function in quantum optics theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2016-08-01

    By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method [Fan H Y and Zhan D H 2014 Chin. Phys. B 23 060301] we find a new special function which is useful in quantum optics theory, whose expansion involves both power-series and Hermite polynomials, i.e., By virtue of the operator Hermite polynomial method and the technique of integration within ordered product of operators (IWOP) we derive its generating function. The circumstance in which this new special function appears and is applicable is considered. Project supported by the Natural Science Fund of Education Department of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2016A590), the Talent Foundation of Hefei University, China (Grant No. 15RC11), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11247009 and 11574295).

  14. How to use a self-inflating bag and face mask.

    PubMed

    Parry, Andrew; Higginson, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Rationale and key points This article aims to help nurses to open and maintain an adult's airway while providing breaths using a self-inflating bag and face mask. Maintaining a patient's airway is vital in the management of acute, life-threatening illnesses and injuries. ▶ The nurse should address airway compromise immediately since it is a major factor in acute deterioration and may develop rapidly. ▶ The nurse should perform the head tilt and chin lift manoeuvre, or the jaw thrust manoeuvre for patients with suspected cervical spine injury, to maintain airway opening. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What you have gained from this article. 2. How this article will influence your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26938418

  15. The Effects of Taxi on Traffic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tie-Qiao; Li, Yan; Huang, Hai-Jun

    Taxi will come to one complete halt during the boarding/alighting period and might produce stop-and-go without passengers, so it often produces traffic interruption on the single-lane system. Tang et al. pointed out that the traffic flow model [Chin. Phys. 18, 975 (2009)] can be used to directly describe various micro phenomena resulted by traffic interruption on the single-lane system, if we properly define the traffic interruption probability, so in this paper we adopt this model to study the micro phenomena resulted by taxi on the single-lane system. The numerical results show that this model can describe the effects that taxi has on the trails of each vehicle's motion and the evolutions of the flow and the density on the single-lane system, but that these effects are relevant to the initial conditions of the whole system.

  16. [Williams-Beuren syndrome in Norway].

    PubMed

    Bjørnstad, P G

    1994-01-10

    The author describes the Williams-Beuren syndrome and the cases of 57 patients in an attempt to increase awareness of the syndrome, which probably is underdiagnosed. Its characteristic features are a combination of a special facial appearance and a mental condition: The face typically shows a broad, flattened upper lip, small chin, and hypoplasia of teeth, often strabism, flattened nasal bridge and fullness around the eyes. Mentally the patients appear to be happy, talkative, pleasant children, who are indiscriminatingly friendly and have serious difficulties in concentrating. Only 53% of the patients have an affected heart, of whom 93% have supravalvular aortic stenosis, peripheral pulmonic stenoses or combinations of the two. Nine patients have had heart operations. The facial features in children of different age groups and races are depicted. PMID:8296277

  17. The supracerebellar infratentorial approach to the dorsal midbrain.

    PubMed

    Kalani, M Yashar S; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2016-01-01

    The supracerebellar infratentorial approach provides access to the dorsal midbrain, pineal region, and tentorial incisura. This approach can be used with the patient in a sitting, prone, park-bench, or supine position. For a patient with a supple neck and favorable anatomy, we prefer the supine position. The ipsilateral shoulder is elevated, the head turned to the contralateral side, the chin is tucked, and the neck extended toward the floor to open the craniocervical angle for added working room. Care must be taken to place the craniotomy laterally to make use of the ascending angle of the tentorium for ease of access to deep-seated lesions. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/BZh6ljmE23k . PMID:26722694

  18. MEAN FIELD AND MONTE CARLO MODELING OF MULTIBLOCK COPOLYMERS

    SciTech Connect

    K. RASMUSSEN; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss and apply extensions needed to treat multiblock copolymers within the mean field theoretical framework for microphase separation in diblock copolymer metals, originally due to Leibler. The mean field calculations are complemented by lattice Monte Carlo realizations using the bond fluctuation model. They find that the microphase separation transition occurs at larger {sub {chi}}N as the number of blocks in increased beyond two (i.e., beyond diblock), and that the characteristic length scale of the emerging morphology decreases as the number of blocks increases. The latter prediction is in qualitative agreement with published experimental results due to Sontak and co-workers for model multiblock poly(styrene-isoprene) systems and recent results due to Hjelm and co-workers for a segmented poly(ester-urethane) relevant to Los Alamos interests. Additionally, the mean field predictions and bond fluctuation realizations yield consistent results.

  19. [Fiddler's neck].

    PubMed

    Knierim, C; Goertz, W; Reifenberger, J; Homey, B; Meller, S

    2013-10-01

    The fiddler's neck is an uncommon variant of acne mechanica in violinists and violists. It is a single firm red-brown dermal nodule usually on the left side of neck. This special form of acne mechanica represents a therapeutic challenge since the triggering mechanical factors persist, unless they can be corrected by changes in positioning or modifications of the chin pad. A 72-year-old woman who had played the violin since childhood presented with a red-brown nodule on her neck for 18 months. Cushioning provided no relief. Excision of the affected area with primary closure represented one therapeutic option. Further supportive measures include improved posture to reduce the pressure between skin and instrument and interposing a neck cloth. PMID:23989244

  20. Information leakage in three-party simultaneous quantum secure direct communication with EPR pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-Ying; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2011-04-01

    In 2007, Wang et al. [M. Y. Wang and F. L. Yan, Chin. Phys. Lett. 24 (2007) 2486] proposed a three-party simultaneous quantum secure direct communication (3P-SQSDC) scheme with EPR pairs. Recently, Chong et al. [S. K. Chong and T. Hwang, Opt. Commun. OPTICS-15438 (2010(online))] proposed an enhancement on Wang et al.'s scheme. The communications in Chong et al.'s 3P-SQSDC can be paralleled and thus their scheme has higher efficiency. However, we find that both of the schemes have the information leakage, because the legitimate parties' secret messages have a strong correlation. This kind of security loophole leads to the consequence that any eavesdropper (Eve) can directly conjecture some information about the secrets without any active attack.

  1. Spectroscopic analysis of femtosecond laser plasma filament in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, J.; Liu, W.; Théberge, F.; Xu, H. L.; Daigle, J. F.; Châteauneuf, M.; Dubois, J.; Chin, S. L.

    2008-03-01

    We report a spectroscopic analysis of a filament generated by a femtosecond laser pulse in air. In the filament spectra, the characteristic Stark broadened atomic oxygen triplet centered at 777.4 nm has been observed. The measured electron impact Stark broadening parameter of the triplet is larger than the theoretical value by Griem [H.R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy, McGraw Hill, New York, 1964] by a factor 6.7 . Using the experimental value 0.0166nm , the plasma densities derived from Stark broadening agree well with those most recently obtained from Théberge et al.'s measurement of the nitrogen fluorescence calibrated by longitudinal diffraction [F. Théberge, W. Liu, P.T. Simard, A. Becker, S. L. Chin, Phys. Rev. E 74 (2006) 036406]. However, the Stark broadening approach is much simpler and can be used to non-invasively measure the filament plasma density distribution in air under different propagation conditions.

  2. First direct determination of the 48Ca double-β decay Q value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustabad, S.; Bollen, G.; Brodeur, M.; Lincoln, D. L.; Novario, S. J.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S.; Valverde, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    The low-energy beam and ion trap Penning trap mass spectrometer was used for an improved determination of the 48Ca double-β decay Q value: Qββ=4268.121(79)keV. The new value is 1.2 keV greater than the value in the 2012 atomic mass evaluation [Chin. Phys. CCPCHCQ1674-113710.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003 36, 1603 (2012)], a shift of three σ, and is a factor of 5 more precise. Accurate knowledge of this Q value is important for experimental searches to observe neutrinoless double-β decay (0νββ) in 48Ca and is essential for extracting the effective mass of the electron neutrino if the 48Ca half-life of 0νββ was experimentally determined.

  3. Examination of the possible enhancement of neutrinoless double-electron capture in 78Kr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustabad, S.; Bollen, G.; Brodeur, M.; Lincoln, D. L.; Novario, S. J.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Schwarz, S.

    2013-09-01

    Penning-trap mass spectrometry was used at the Low-Energy Beam and Ion Trap (LEBIT) facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) to investigate 78Kr, a candidate for resonantly enhanced neutrinoless double-electron capture (0νECEC). The newly determined Q value of 2847.75 (27) keV is 1.4 keV greater than the value from the most recent atomic mass evaluation [Chin. Phys. C1674-113710.1088/1674-1137/36/12/003 36, 1603 (2012)], a change of two sigma, and the uncertainty has been reduced by a factor of three. The change in the Q value shifts allowed 0νECEC in 78Kr further from resonant enhancement. With the improved determination of the Q value, all known excited states can now be confidently excluded from possible 78Se candidates that could lead to resonantly enhanced 0νECEC.

  4. High Precision Determination of the β Decay QEC Value of 11C and Implications on the Tests of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyuz, K.; Bollen, G.; Brodeur, M.; Bryce, R. A.; Cooper, K.; Eibach, M.; Izzo, C.; Kwan, E.; Manukyan, K.; Morrissey, D. J.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Redshaw, M.; Ringle, R.; Sandler, R.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Valverde, A. A.; Villari, A. C. C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the determination of the QEC value of the mirror transition of 11C by measuring the atomic masses of 11C and 11B using Penning trap mass spectrometry. More than an order of magnitude improvement in precision is achieved as compared to the 2012 Atomic Mass Evaluation (Ame2012) [Chin. Phys. C 36, 1603 (2012)]. This leads to a factor of 3 improvement in the calculated F t value. Using the new value, QEC=1981.690 (61 ) keV , the uncertainty on F t is no longer dominated by the uncertainty on the QEC value. Based on this measurement, we provide an updated estimate of the Gamow-Teller to Fermi mixing ratio and standard model values of the correlation coefficients.

  5. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    From Spaceflight Revolution: 'Top NASA officials listen to a LOPO briefing at Langley in December 1966. Sitting to the far right with his hand on his chin is Floyd Thompson. To the left sits Dr. George Mueller, NASA associate administrator for Manned Space Flight. On the wall is a diagram of the sites selected for the 'concentrated mission.' 'The most fundamental issue in the pre-mission planning for Lunar Orbiter was how the moon was to be photographed. Would the photography be 'concentrated' on a predetermined single target, or would it be 'distributed' over several selected targets across the moon's surface? On the answer to this basic question depended the successful integration of the entire mission plan for Lunar Orbiter.' The Lunar Orbiter Project made systematic photographic maps of the lunar landing sites. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 337.

  6. Osteosarcoma of the mandible--second cancer in a case of Hodgkin's lymphoma post-chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    De, Sumitava; Ghosh, Suparna; Mondal, Dodul; Sur, Prabir K

    2010-01-01

    Osteosarcoma as a second cancer occurring in an adolescent male previously treated with only chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma is rare. A 14 year old male presented with gradual swelling of right jaw and numbness of lip and chin for last three months. He was treated with only chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma four years back. Incisional biopsy was taken from mandibular swelling, histopathology suggesting osteosarcoma. Right hemimandibulectomy and reconstruction with metallic implant were done along with excision of right parotid lymph node. Chemotherapy was started with cisplatin and doxorubicin regimen. Absence of radiation as a risk factor and very young age of the patient presenting with a second cancer made this case a rarity and hence the case is being reported. PMID:21119269

  7. DATING: A computer code for determining allowable temperatures for dry storage of spent fuel in inert and nitrogen gases

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, E.P.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1988-12-01

    The DATING (Determining Allowable Temperatures in Inert and Nitrogen Gases) code can be used to calculate allowable initial temperatures for dry storage of light-water-reactor spent fuel. The calculations are based on the life fraction rule using both measured data and mechanistic equations as reported by Chin et al. (1986). The code is written in FORTRAN and utilizes an efficient numerical integration method for rapid calculations on IBM-compatible personal computers. This report documents the technical basis for the DATING calculations, describes the computational method and code statements, and includes a user's guide with examples. The software for the DATING code is available through the National Energy Software Center operated by Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439. 5 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Central venous catheter malposition in the azygos vein and difficult endotracheal intubation in severe ankylosing spondylitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjin; Jeong, Hyungmo; Chung, Junyoung; Yi, Jaewoo

    2015-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) can be challenging for anesthesiologists because central venous access can be difficult, and the airway can be blocked due to the fixed flexion deformity of the spine. In this case, we attempted central access via the right subclavian vein, but the catheter was repeatedly inserted into the azygos vein, which was confirmed by radiology. After several attempts, the catheter position was corrected at the superior vena cava-atrial junction. Although several useful devices have been developed to address difficult intubation, in this case, fiberoptic bronchoscopy was the only applicable safe alternative because of the patient’s extremely severe chin on chest deformity and temporomandibular joint disease. We report a successful awake fiberoptic bronchoscopic intubation in a patient with extremely severe AS and recommend that the catheter placement should be confirmed with radiology to ensure proper positioning for severe AS patients. PMID:26885138

  9. [Polysomnography].

    PubMed

    Sato, Masako; Sasanabe, Ryujiro; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Shiomi, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    Polysomnography (PSG) is performed under monitoring each parameters include EEG derivations, EOG derivations, chin EMG, leg EMG derivations, airflow signals, respiratory effort signals, oxygen saturation, body position and EGG and checking digital video and audio. From these recordings, the sleep quality, sleep-disordered breathing, circulatory status and presence of parasomnia were evaluated. PSGs were based on the criteria "The AASM Manual for the Scoring of Sleep and Associated Events" published in 2007 detailed about technical specification and scoring rules for adult and pediatric. However, there are no specific criteria for the elderly. There already have been known about characteristics for the elderly such as lower amplitude of Δ wave in slow-wave sleep stage, PLMS and RWA in PSG. PMID:26065129

  10. Face representation in the human primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh T; Tran, Tuan D; Hoshiyama, Minoru; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the representation of facial skin areas in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), we recorded magnetic fields evoked by air pressure-induced tactile stimulation applied to six points on the face, lower lip and thumb. The thumb area in the SI was located more medial and superior to the lip area, which was consistent with Penfield's homunculus. However, the representations of all skin-covered areas including forehead, cheek, nose and chin in the SI were located between the thumb and lower lip area. There was no significant difference in location among the six facial points. Our results imply that lips occupy a large area of the face representation in the SI, whereas only a small area located between the thumb and lip areas is devoted to skin-covered surfaces. This is the first study showing that the facial skin areas in the human SI are located between the thumb and lower lip areas and close together. PMID:15380330

  11. Fukien region, China (summary): terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1944-01-01

    Population of the Fukien region is estimated from census figures (1928-1935) for Fukien, Kiangsi, Chekiang, and Kwangtung Pro vlnces at 15 to 20 ipillion. At the coast are several important cities: Min-hou (390,363 inhabitants), Ssu-ming (219,974), Pfu-tlien, Chin-chiang, and Lung-chfi. Nmerous towns and villages are scattered throughout the region. - B. Climate is wann humid temperate in the north and hmid subtropical in the south. Typhoons occur in late summer, especially in the area from Min-hu north. Precipitation averages 40 to 80 inches per year; It is generally highest in the interior. Mean monthly tamperature range is 55O to 850 F at coast; greater range inland

  12. Circulating cytotoxic CD8+ CD28- T cells in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Michael; Goldberger, Christian; Würzner, Reinhard; Duftner, Christina; Pfeiffer, Karl-P; Clausen, Johannes; Neumayr, Günther; Falkenbach, Albrecht

    2002-01-01

    Circulating CD8+ CD28- T cells were found to be expanded more in patients with ankylosing spondylitis than in an age-matched healthy population (41.2 ± 17.7% versus 18.6 ± 7.6%). The level of CD8+CD28- T cells was dependent on the disease status, but was independent of age. Most of the CD8+ CD28- T cells produced perforin after stimulation in vitro, in contrast to their CD8+CD28+ counterparts. From the clinical perspective, the percentage of the cytotoxic CD8+ CD28- T cells reflected a more severe course of disease, as it correlated with distinct movement restrictions, as well as the metrology score summarizing cervical rotation (in sitting position), chin-to-jugulum distance, thoracic Schober, chest expansion, and fingers-to-floor distance (P = 0.032). PMID:11879540

  13. [Impact of age-related cataract on regulation of circadian rhythm in elderly].

    PubMed

    Wang, M S; Liu, M Y; Dong, X R; Wang, W

    2016-04-11

    This review presented an introduction of the visual pathway related circadian rhythm regulation system: the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells-suprachiasmatic nucleus-pineal gland-melatonin axis, and discussed the impact of light with different wave length and irradiation received by retina on circadian rhythm and sleep habit. A hypothesis was proposed consequently that the high morbidity of sleep disorder in elderly might be partially attributable to the long-term blue light blocking status induced by age-related cataract. A number of relative literatures were reviewed and a novel research direction was advanced on improving circadian rhythm and sleep condition in elderly based on the current knowledge. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 309-314). PMID:27094070

  14. Morbid obesity in a child with monosomy 1p36 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zagalo, Ana; Dias, Patricia; Pereira, Carla; Sampaio, Maria de Lurdes

    2012-01-01

    The monosomy 1p36 syndrome is a cause of syndromic obesity. It is characterised by psychomotor delay, hypotonia and typical craniofacial dysmorphism. Other features commonly associated are behavioural anomalies including hyperphagia and self-injuring, seizures, congenital heart disease and hypothyroidism. The authors report the case of a 9-year and 5-month-boy referred to the paediatric endocrinology clinics for morbid obesity. Clinical findings were generalised obesity with a body mass index >95th centile, acanthosis nigricans of the neck, arms with self inflicted lesions, deep-set eyes, straight eyebrows, broad nasal bridge and pointed chin. He was unable to walk and had no expressive language. Cytogenetic analysis identified 1p36.33-pter deletion (~139 Mb terminal deletion in chromosome 1 short arm) and Y chromosome duplication. The blood analysis showed insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia. The authors emphasise the need to consider monosomy 1p36 as a cause of severe psychomotor delay and obesity. PMID:22605691

  15. Novel, resistant microalgal polyethers: An important sink of organic carbon in the marine environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Gelin, F.; Boogers, I.; Noordeloos, A.A.M.

    1996-04-01

    Five out of seven marine microalgal species investigated were found to biosynthesize nonhydrolysable, mainly aliphatic, biomacromolecules (algaenans). The molecular structure of the algaenan isolated from the microalga Nannochloropsis salina of the class Eustigmatophyceae was determined by solid state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, Curie point pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and chemical degradations with HI and RuO{sub 4}. The structure is predominantly composed of C{sub 28}-C{sub 34} linear chins linked by ether bridges. The algaenan isolated from a second eustigmatophyte (Nannochloropsis sp.) was structurally similar. Algaenans isolated from two chlorophytes also possess a strongly aliphatic nature, as revealed by the dominance of alkenes/alkanes in their pyrolysates. Accordingly, we proposed that the aliphatic character of numerous Recent and ancient marine kerogens reflects selectively preserved algaenans and that these algaenans may act as a source of n-alkanes in marine crude oils.

  16. Mixed Form of Hirsutism in an Adolescent Female and Laser Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gacaferri Lumezi, Besa; Goci, Aferdita; Lokaj, Violeta; Latifi, Hatixhe; Karahoda, Natyra; Minci, Ganimete; Telaku, Drita; Gercari, Antigona; Kocinaj, Allma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Hirsutism is a common disorder of excess growth of terminal hair in an androgen-dependent male distribution in women, including the chin, upper lip, breasts, back, and abdomen. It is very important to identify the etiology of hirsutism and adequate treat is prior to any cosmetic therapy. Case Presentation: The case was a 17-year-old female with severe hirsutism, oligomenorrhea, and obesity. She was evaluated to identify the etiology and diagnosed as a case of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH), and hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIR-AN) syndrome, which is a rare combination of hirsutism etiology. She was successfully treated according to the underlying pathology, and laser photoepilation was used as the preferred hair removal method. Discussion: Establishing the etiology, using the evidence–based strategies to improve hirsutism, and treating the underlying disorder, are essential for proper management of women with hirsutism. PMID:25068069

  17. A permutationally invariant full-dimensional ab initio potential energy surface for the abstraction and exchange channels of the H + CH{sub 4} system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H. E-mail: zhangdh@dicp.ac.cn; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

    2015-05-28

    We report a permutationally invariant global potential energy surface (PES) for the H + CH{sub 4} system based on ∼63 000 data points calculated at a high ab initio level (UCCSD(T)-F12a/AVTZ) using the recently proposed permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method. The small fitting error (5.1 meV) indicates a faithful representation of the ab initio points over a large configuration space. The rate coefficients calculated on the PES using tunneling corrected transition-state theory and quasi-classical trajectory are found to agree well with the available experimental and previous quantum dynamical results. The calculated total reaction probabilities (J{sub tot} = 0) including the abstraction and exchange channels using the new potential by a reduced dimensional quantum dynamic method are essentially the same as those on the Xu-Chen-Zhang PES [Chin. J. Chem. Phys. 27, 373 (2014)].

  18. Epiblepharon-induced head tilt masquerading as torticollis.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Benjamin P; Lee, Wendy W

    2015-01-01

    A 10-month-old girl presented for ocular evaluation carrying a provisional diagnosis of torticollis. Her family reported that for the past 5 months, she consistently tilted her head to the left while twisting her chin toward the right shoulder. Her adnexal examination was notable for epiblepharon, with greater ciliary-corneal contact in the OS. It was therefore hypothesized that this posture was adopted to minimize ocular irritation. Her symptoms resolved immediately following a Hotz-Celsus procedure. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of asymmetric ciliary-corneal contact from epiblepharon, resulting in preference for a head position mimicking a musculoskeletal abnormality such as torticollis. PMID:25569166

  19. [Recent studies on corneal epithelial barrier function].

    PubMed

    Liu, F F; Li, W; Liu, Z G; Chen, W S

    2016-08-01

    Corneal epithelium, the outermost layer of eyeball, is the main route for foreign materials to enter the eye. Under physiological conditions, the corneal epithelial superficial cells form a functionally selective permeability barrier. Integral corneal epithelial barrier function not only ensures the enrolling of nutrients which is required for regular metabolism, but also prevents foreign bodies, or disease-causing microorganism invasion. Recently, a large number of clinical and experimental studies have shown that abnormal corneal epithelial barrier function is the pathological basis for many ocular diseases. In addition, some study found that corneal epithelial barrier constitutes a variety of proteins involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and a series of physiological and pathological processes. This paper reviewed recent studies specifically on the corneal epithelial barrier, highlights of its structure, function and influence factors. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 631-635). PMID:27562284

  20. Visualizing superconductivity in FeSe nanoflakes on SrTiO3 by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Peng, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Hui-Min; Song, Can-Li; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Wang, Lili; He, Ke; Chen, Xi; Xue, Qi-Kun; Ma, Xu-Cun

    2015-02-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy have been employed to investigate the superconductivity in single unit-cell FeSe nanoflakes on SrTiO3 substrates. We find that the differential conductance d I /d V spectra are spatially nonuniform and fluctuate within the flakes as their area is reduced to below ˜150 nm2 . An enhancement in the superconductivity-related gap size as large as 25 % is observed. The superconductivity behavior disappears when the FeSe nanoflakes reduce to ˜40 nm2 . Compared to a previous report [Wang et al., Chin. Phys. Lett. 29, 037402 (2012), 10.1088/0256-307X/29/3/037402], the gap is asymmetric relative to the Fermi energy EF. All the features, particularly the fluctuating gap and quenched superconductivity, could be accounted for by quantum size effects. Our study helps to understand nanoscale superconductivity in low-dimensional systems.