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Sample records for china energy environment

  1. China energy, environment, and climate study: Background issues paper

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, Jonathan E.; Fridley, David G.; Logan, Jeffrey; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Bangcheng; Xu, Qing

    2000-10-10

    The total costs and impacts of expanding energy use in China will depend, in part, on a number of important factors, an understanding of which is vital for China's policy-makers. These issues include the additional environmental and public health impacts associated with energy use, the economic costs of infrastructure expansion to meet growing energy needs, and the potential role that renewable energy technologies could play if pushed hard in China's energy future. This short report summarizes major trends and issues in each of these three areas.

  2. China Energy Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  3. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  4. Managing the environment in China

    SciTech Connect

    Geping, Q.; Lee, W.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Since the 1972 Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment great strides have been taken in China to ensure the best use of environmental resources culminating in their law of Environmental Protection in 1979 and the setting-up of a Ministry of Urban and Rural Construction and Environmental Protection in 1982. Presented here are eleven papers on the Chinese response to a variety of environmental issues which emphasize the country's planned approach to the use of natural resources. Also included is the text of the environmental protection legislation.

  5. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  6. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. ); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi )

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  7. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. ); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi )

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  8. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  9. Extreme Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David; Cai, Lixue

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  10. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  11. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  12. Renewable energy development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the resources availability, technologies development and their costs of renewable energies in China and introduces the programs of renewable energies technologies development and their adaptation for rural economic development in China. As the conclusion of this paper, renewable energies technologies are suitable for some rural areas, especially in the remote areas for both household energy and business activities energy demand. The paper looks at issues involving hydropower, wind energy, biomass combustion, geothermal energy, and solar energy.

  13. Energy-Environment Opinionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wert, Jonathan M.

    This questionnaire is designed to assess the opinions of students and teachers of educational institutions and citizens about energy and the environment. It is composed of 85 energy and environment oriented statements about which the examinee gives an opinion. Choices provided on the answer sheet given are strongly agree, mildly agree, not sure or…

  14. China Energy Databook. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J. E.; Fridley, D. G.; Levine, M. D.; Yang, F.; Zhenping, J.; Xing, Z.; Kejun, J.; Xiaofeng, L.

    1996-09-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at LBL first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and energy demand held in Nanjing Nov. 1988. EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. It was decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system; thus the primary criterion was to relate the data to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and to indicate probable developments (eg, as indicated by patterns of investment). Caveats are included in forewords to both the 1992 and 1996 editions. A chapter on energy prices is included in the 1996 edition. 1993 energy consumption data are not included since there was a major disruption in energy statistical collection in China that year.

  15. China energy databook. 1992 Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  16. Renewable energy opportunities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, William L.; Simon Tsuo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid growth in economic development coupled with the absence of an electric grid in large areas of rural China have created a need for new energy sources both in urban centers and the rural countryside. Electric capacity expansion plans call for increased use of coal-fired steam turbines for electricity production that will contribute to increased concerns over environmental pollution. China is rich in renewable energy resources, strategically located in areas of greatest need and economic viability. China is also already one of the world's largest users of renewables, especially hydro, wind, biomass, and solar thermal, and has significant experience with photovoltaics, geothermal and other technologies. The use of renewable energy is being encouraged in expanded programs at the central and provincial government levels, with growing private sector involvement. These conditions create opportunities for U.S. business participation in renewable energy markets in China.

  17. Energy and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, G. M.; Haynes, S. K.

    1975-01-01

    Provides the description and evaluation of a college-level undergraduate course dealing with energy and the environment. The intent of the course is to survey the social, political, economic, and moral considerations of the topic. The use of guest speakers is strongly advocated. (Author/CP)

  18. JPRS report -- Science technology, China: Energy, [December 3, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-03

    This report contains translations/transcriptions of articles and/or broadcasts from China on energy. Topics include: Tokyo, Beijing to start environment-friendly coal study; work speeded up to electrify counties; Yunnan grid facing serious power shortage; Asia`s largest plant planned for Sichuan; types of natural gas found in East China Sea; and vice president of China National Nuclear Corporation comments on expansion of nuclear industry.

  19. Marine environments in the China Seas and their prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, C.

    1993-12-31

    The China Seas surround the China continent to its south and east, and connect with the Pacific Ocean. In this paper, marine environmental elements in the China Seas such as marine climate, storm surge, sea wave, sea temperature, sea ice, tsunami and red tide, are analyzed. The predication of marine environments, especially oceanic disasters with good accuracy are also given in this paper.

  20. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  1. Problems of Ecological Environment in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenjuan, Zhang; Jixi, Gao

    2004-01-01

    Western China is vast, expansive, sparsely populated, and economically underdeveloped, but it plays an important role in economic and social development in China. While the west is a crucial base of power resources, it is also rich in fauna and flora resources and the major habitat for China's many rare wildlife species. Therefore, protecting its…

  2. Water versus Energy in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Qiu, G.; Li, L.

    2013-12-01

    Water is needed to generate energy. On the other hand, energy is required to deliver, clean, and evaporate water. Thus, there are extensive linkages between water and energy uses. Meanwhile, both resources may limit the other, especially in the context of urbanization and industrialization as well as climate change. Unfortunately, up to now, little attention has been paid to the tension between water and energy in academic institutions, governmental agencies, and industries. Since water and energy nexus is extremely important for human beings to adapt to the global warming, it is time for us to share some of our frontier ideas and results in this field. In this study, based on paper reviewing and extensive investigation, we explore the nexus between the water and energy in China, mainly focused on: 1) water resource development and its energy consumption; 2) water and energy nexus in agriculture; 3) water and energy nexus in industries; and 4) energy consumption by evapotranspiration and its effect on reducing urban temperature. By this study, new data and results are obtained, which would be useful for better understanding and management of water and energy for adaptation to climate change.

  3. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  4. [Agricultural environment quality of China and its improving countermeasures].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xibai; Yang, Zhengli

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzed the present status of China agricultural water and soil environment. It was indicated that the agricultural water environment in this country was more serious, with the affected area being approximately 20% of the total farmland, and 5% of it being severely affected. More attention should be paid to the pollution of agricultural chemicals in soil environment. The impacts of industrial wastes, urban sewage and garbage, agricultural chemicals, and soil erosion on agro-environment were discussed, with the impact degree of these factors analyzed. The major problems in China agricultural environment melioration were presented, related researches and major countermeasures in this country and developed countries were reviewed, and relevant measures and suggestions on improving the agricultural environment quality of China were put forward. PMID:16689249

  5. New Energy Villages in Taiwan and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Wang, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan locates in the active tectonic subdution and collision belts, therefore, the geothermal gradient is very high and have found 128 sites of high geothermal areas; 20% of them have the temperature between 75 - 200 degree C in which they can be directly used for the electricity generation; 50% of them are in 50 - 74 degree C and the rest 30% are below 50 degree C. These areas need the deep drillings to get into higher temperature for power energy. The first 20% high temperature areas are mostly located in the coastal or mountain regions. The government is interesting to develop these areas as the "New Energy Villages" so that they can not only become self-energy sufficient sites, but also to protect themself from being the loss of electricity and water during the typhoon and earthquake hazards. The multiple usages of hot water (such as the first power generation and then the hot spring utilization) have its merits. China, in the other hand, is not within the present-day active tectonic zone. However, the recent Sino Probe Experiments (Deep Exploration in China) have mapped the Cetaceous plate boundaries in the coast of China. The heat is still possibly migrating to near the surface through the existing structures. For example, the Feng Shun Geothermal Power Station in north of Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, used the 96 degree C hot water from a well of 800 m producing a small amount of 300 KW power since 1984. The Guangdong Province is located in the edge of Mesozoic South China Plate. Further in land, the Huang Mountain, one of the world heritage sites, is located at the boundary of another Mesozoic Yangtze River Plate. There is not a geothermal power plant; however, a number of hot springs are in a booming tour business at the foot hill of the mountain. The electricity has to come from a long way of net working. If China develops the local, small, but sufficient power plants by using the modern geothermal exploration and drilling techniques. The "New Energy

  6. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  7. Energy's thirst for water in China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Beiming; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun; Zhang, Wenjing

    2014-10-21

    Water scarcity and uneven water distribution pose significant challenges to sustainable development and energy production in China. Based on the International Energy Agency (IEA)'s energy strategy scenarios for China, we evaluated the water withdrawal for energy production from 2011 to 2030. The results show that the amount of water withdrawal will be increased by 77% in 2030, which will aggravate China's water scarcity risk under current energy strategy. We also observed that 67% of the energy production in China occurs in areas that are facing water scarcity. Moreover, China's 12th Five-Year Plan of Energy Development does not change the existing energy strategies, and the planned total energy production is much higher than the IEA's projection, which will result in an increased demand for water resources. However, if China were to apply broad policies to reduce CO2 emissions, the amount of water withdrawal would also decline compared with current energy strategy. Thus, reforming China's energy structure and reducing energy usage are not only urgent because of climate challenges and air pollution but also essential to reducing the pressure of water scarcity. PMID:25243948

  8. Wind energy in China: Estimating the potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiahai

    2016-07-01

    Persistent and significant curtailment has cast concern over the prospects of wind power in China. A comprehensive assessment of the production of energy from wind has identified grid-integrated wind generation potential at 11.9–14% of China's projected energy demand by 2030.

  9. Development and utilization of new and renewable energy with Stirling engine system for electricity in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, W.; Abenavoli, R.I.; Carlini, M.

    1996-12-31

    China is the largest developing country in the world. Self-supporting and self-sustaining energy supply is the only solution for development. Recently, fast economic development exposed gradually increasing pressure of energy demand and environment concern. In order to increase the production of electricity of China, the Stirling engine system should be developed. This paper provides an investigation of energy production and consumption in China. The main features of the energy consumption and the development objectives of China`s electric power industry are also described. The necessity and possibility of development of Stirling engine system is discussed.

  10. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various industries, and

  11. A review of China`s energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, F.; Duan, N.; Zhijie, H.

    1994-12-01

    In 1992 China`s primary energy production reached 1075 million tons of coal equivalent by far the largest in the developing world. Because coal is the primary commercial fuel, rapid growth of carbon dioxide emissions is certain. Thus the attitude of the Chinese government toward energy and environmental issues becomes increasingly important to those involved in the study and analysis of global climate change and energy issues. This report is intended to provide a basic understanding of the development of China`s energy policymaking over the past four decades. The paper first reviews institutional development and policymaking and then describes the transition to the market-oriented system. While energy has consistently received a great deal of attention from the central government, the institutional basis for setting and implementing policies has shifted often. Reforms during the past 15 years have been incremental, piecemeal, and occasionally contradictory, but overall have freed a large portion of the energy industry from the strictures of a planned economy and laid the basis for broad price liberalization. Responsibility for energy planning is now dispersed among a number of organizations, rendering coordination of energy development difficult. Economic reform has rendered obsolete most of the policy-implementation means of the planning era. Although the new tools of central control are not fully effective, the trend toward decentralized decisionmaking has been strengthened. The report ends with a summary of energy forecasts used by Chinese policymakers, highlighting current policy goals and the issues that will shape future policy.

  12. Geothermal Energy Development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Kuide, Xin; Qilong, Yang

    1983-12-15

    China's geothermal resources are mainly of low - medium temperature. More than 30 geothermal areas have been or are being explorated. According to the geology, economy and technology of geothermal energy development main efforts are concentrated in some places with better conditions and can be exploited effectively in the near future, such as low temperature geothermal fields in Beijing and Tianjin, Yangbajain and Dengchong high temperature geothermal fields respectively in Tibet and Ynnan province. In Beijing and Tianjin the geothermal water is used for space heating, bathing, medical treatment, greenhouse, raising tropical fish, industry and so on. In Beijing now more than 200 thousand sq. m. of indoor floor is being heated with geothermal water and about 50 thousand persons per day use it to take bath. In future, the low temperature geothermal water utilization in these big citites would flourish. In 1970 the first experimental geothermal power plant using the flashing method was built in Dengwu, Guangdong province. In 1977 one MW experimental wet steam power plant was built in Yangbajain, Tibet, a 6 MW power plant in 1981, and another 3 MW generator is expected to complete in 1985. This paper is intended to summarize some important results of exploration, particularly in the geothermal reservoir engineering.

  13. China energy databook. Revision 2, 1992 edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Liu, Feng; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1993-06-01

    The Energy Analysis Program at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues, we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US. In order to select appropriate data from what was available we established several criteria. Our primary interest was to use the data to help understand the historical evolution and likely future of the Chinese energy system. A primary criterion was thus that the data relate to the structure of energy supply and demand in the past and indicate probable developments (e.g., as indicated by patterns of investment). Other standards were accuracy, consistency with other information, and completeness of coverage. This is not to say that all the data presented herein are accurate, consistent, and complete, but where discrepancies and omissions do occur we have tried to note them.

  14. China: A sleeping giant awakens to environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ni Shaoxiang

    1995-07-01

    This article discusses the approach the Chinese government is taking to environmental issues. Included are the following topics: pollution abatement; improved rural environment by curbing the production and use of highly toxic pesticides; limiting erosion; natural reserves. Problems awaiting solutions are also discussed: air pollution (particularly coal combustion); water pollution; solid-waste pollution; rural pollution; soil erosion; desertification; soil salinization; deforestation; grassland deterioration; natural disasters.

  15. Standard for energy efficiency and environmental design ofresidential buildings in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Gao, Weijun; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Nishida, Masaru; Ojima, Toshio

    2004-03-30

    In recent years, China has had significant development on construction sector. An enormous amount of the building, particularly residential building has been constructing. However, many of the buildings have poor insulation and poor thermal environment. Increasing of the air condition usage will cause large energy consumption and urban heat island phenomenon. In the face of these problems, China has revised the residential building energy code and standard for the energy efficiency design of building envelope and space heating for new construction and expansion of residential buildings. In this research, the authors have carried out the research to investigate the characteristics of building energy standards of the residential building in China, Efforts have also been made to promote a better understanding of the energy policy and relevant standard for architects and building designers to achieve optimal energy efficient building design, and also for assuming the building energy consumption, assessment of the thermal environment in China.

  16. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Grisham, Michael Paul; Xu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Test environments and classification of regional ecological zones into mega environments are the two key components in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to provide the theoretical basis for test environment evaluation and ecological zone division for sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analysed using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and heritability adjusted-genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot. The results showed that among the interactive factors, the GE interaction had the greatest impact, while the genotype and year interaction showed the lowest impact. Kaiyuan, Lincang and Baoshan of Yunnan, Zhangzhou and Fuzhou of Fujian, and Hechi, Liuzhou and Chongzuo of Guangxi, and Lingao of Hainan were ideal test environments with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability, whereas Baise of Guangxi was not. Based on HA-GGE biplot analysis, there are three ecological sugarcane production zones in China, the Southern China Inland Zone, the Southwestern Plateau Zone, and the Southern Coastal Zone. The HA-GGE biplot analysis here presents the ideal test environments and also identifies the mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26489689

  17. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Que, Youxiong; Zhang, Hua; Grisham, Michael Paul; Xu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Test environments and classification of regional ecological zones into mega environments are the two key components in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. This study aims to provide the theoretical basis for test environment evaluation and ecological zone division for sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analysed using both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and heritability adjusted-genotype main effect plus genotype-environment interaction (HA-GGE) biplot. The results showed that among the interactive factors, the GE interaction had the greatest impact, while the genotype and year interaction showed the lowest impact. Kaiyuan, Lincang and Baoshan of Yunnan, Zhangzhou and Fuzhou of Fujian, and Hechi, Liuzhou and Chongzuo of Guangxi, and Lingao of Hainan were ideal test environments with a demonstrated high efficiency in selecting new cultivars with a wide adaptability, whereas Baise of Guangxi was not. Based on HA-GGE biplot analysis, there are three ecological sugarcane production zones in China, the Southern China Inland Zone, the Southwestern Plateau Zone, and the Southern Coastal Zone. The HA-GGE biplot analysis here presents the ideal test environments and also identifies the mega-environment for sugarcane cultivars in China. PMID:26489689

  18. Industrial energy efficiency policy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan; Yun, Jiang

    2001-05-01

    Chinese industrial sector energy-efficiency policy has gone through a number of distinct phases since the founding of the People s Republic in 1949. An initial period of energy supply growth in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s was followed by implementation of significant energy efficiency programs in the 1980s. Many of these programs were dismantled in the 1990s during the continuing move towards a market-based economy. In an effort to once again strengthen energy efficiency, the Chinese government passes the Energy Conservation Law in 1997 which provides broad guidance for the establishment of energy efficiency policies. Article 20 of the Energy Conservation Law requires substantial improvement in industrial energy efficiency in the key energy-consuming industrial facilities in China. This portion of the Law declares that ''the State will enhance energy conservation management in key energy consuming entities.'' In 1999, the industrial sector consumed nearly 30 EJ, or 76 percent of China's primary energy. Even though primary energy consumption has dropped dramatically in recent years, due mostly to a decline in coal consumption, the Chinese government is still actively developing an overall policy for energy efficiency in the industrial sector modeled after policies in a number of industrialized countries. This paper will describe recent Chinese government activities to develop industrial sector energy-efficiency targets as a ''market-based'' mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of key industrial facilities.

  19. Building Energy Efficiency in Rural China

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-04-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China’s total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to meet basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China’s success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation.

  20. EU-China Environment Research: Enhancing collaboration through SPRING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michaela; Han, Dawei

    2013-04-01

    There are huge challenges in both known and potential environmental problems in China and EU. Local geographical and climate conditions vary significantly across the two regions. For example the distribution of water resources is spatially and temporally uneven and often leads to water shortages in some areas, and flooding in others. In addition there is a sharp drop in mineral, oil and gas resources, as well as an increase in the living standard, which is a challenge for sustainable development. China's economy is still growing fast, placing an increased burden on the environment. The EU's economy is more developed with a rich experience in dealing with environmental problems in a fast growing economy. Therefore, it is mutually beneficial for the two sides to collaborate in environmental research. The FP7 funded SPRING project is intended to facilitate better EU-China environmental research cooperation and to create a long-term environment vision with clearly identifiable pathways for the two partners to work together. The project team is composed of five EU partners and five Chinese partners with expertise in water, soil, air, climate change and biodiversity. The project runs from March 2010-Feburary 2013. SPRING has taken a multi-level approach to achieving this, developing foresight and road-mapping studies to manage long term aims and facilitate increased cooperation and exchange for researchers, policy and decision makers and funding bodies. The outcomes of the project include detailed technology survey, success scenario analysis and EU-Horizon research road map with a focus on the research needs between EU and China in the next twenty years.

  1. Water Environment Evolution along the China Grand Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, F.; Wu, Y. X.; Yang, B. F.; Li, X. J.

    2014-03-01

    The China Grand Canal is one of the earliest canals in the world, having lasted for nearly 3000 years. Even its section canals have a rich history, such as the North-South Grand Canal that was established during the Sui Dynasty, whereas the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal was excavated during the Yuan Dynasty and the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion. As one of the longest in the world, the China Grand Canal's total length is over 3500 kilometers. This length includes the navigable, unnavigable, and underground sections. Making the best use of situations and according to local conditions, the Chinese people harmoniously constructed the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal with nature. Tens of millions of workers took nearly 3000 years to complete the great shipping system. Navigable sections still exist for up to 900 kilometers and the volume of freight traffic is approximately 300 million tons. The canal remains the main logistical channel of the North-to-South Coal Transportation, South-to-North Water Diversion, and resources circulation. To date, China is promoting the success of heritage application. Part of these efforts is the declaration of the China Grand Canal as a World Cultural Heritage by 2014. In addition, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer project is planned to be navigable by 2016. The ancient Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal will usher in the new ecological civilization and cultural revival along the canal. This paper presents technical methods of water environment evolution research on the river system, river, and water quality along the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal through the integration of historical literature and modern remote sensing image data. The study carried out water environment investigation and analysis along the Beijing-Hangzhou canal by using ETM, SPOT image data, and GPS measurement data. Spatial and temporal evolution characteristics and regulations of the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal regional water environment in the span of 3000

  2. China's Push for Energy Raises Regional Security Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    China's increasing demand for energy is leading to a push to further exploit its own energy resources deposits, a leveraging of its growth market for favorable energy pricing, and conflicts with neighboring countries. Energy experts discussed China's efforts to bolster its energy resources, during a 17 September forum on energy and security issues in China and the Asia Pacific at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C.

  3. Electricity for Millions: Developing Renewable Energy in China (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-04-01

    This two page fact sheet describes NREL's work developing renewable energy in China. Renewable focus areas include rural energy development, wind energy development, geothermal energy development, renewable energy business development and policy and planning.

  4. China's sustainable energy future: Scenarios of energy and carbonemissions (Summary)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Dadi; Levine, Mark; Dai, Yande; Yu, Cong; Guo, Yuan; Sinton, Jonathan E.; Lewis, Joanna I.; Zhu, Yuezhong

    2004-03-10

    China has ambitious goals for economic development, and mustfind ways to power the achievement of those goals that are bothenvironmentally and socially sustainable. Integration into the globaleconomy presents opportunities for technological improvement and accessto energy resources. China also has options for innovative policies andmeasures that could significantly alter the way energy is acquired andused. These opportunities andoptions, along with long-term social,demographic, and economic trends, will shape China s future energysystem, and consequently its contribution to emissions of greenhousegases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). In this study, entitled China sSustainable Energy Future: Scenarios of Energy and Carbon Emissions, theEnergy Research Institute (ERI), an independent analytic organizationunder China's Na tional Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), soughtto explore in detail how China could achieve the goals of the TenthFive-Year Plan and its longer term aims through a sustainable developmentstrategy. China's ability to forge a sustainable energy path has globalconsequences. China's annual emissions of greenhouse gases comprisenearly half of those from developing countries, and 12 percent of globalemissions. Most of China's greenhouse gas emissions are in the form ofCO2, 87 percent of which came from energy use in 2000. In that year,China's carbon emissions from energy use and cement production were 760million metric tons (Mt-C), second only to the 1,500 Mt-C emitted by theUS (CDIAC, 2003). As China's energy consumption continues to increase,greenhouse gas emissions are expected to inevitably increase into thefuture. However, the rate at which energy consumption and emissions willincrease can vary significantly depending on whether sustainabledevelopment is recognized as an important policy goal. If the ChineseGovernment chooses to adopt measures to enhance energy efficiency andimprove the overall structure of energy supply, it is possible

  5. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  6. 77 FR 5865 - American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Unity Investments, Inc., China Display Technologies, Inc., China Wind Energy, Inc., Fuda... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of American Unity Investments,...

  7. Research of Energy Substitution Strategy of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifeng; kai, Chen

    For a long time, China's energy endowment structure determines the production structure and consumption structure of energy are coal-based.This situation is difficult to change for quite a long time. With the rapid economic growth, industrialization and urbanization, the demand for energy, especially for oil, natural gas will continue to increase. But the oil and gas supply can not meet the needs of rapid growth. The most direct way is to import, and imports will be charged by the international energy situation, and will affect energy and economic security. In view of our country abundant coal resources, we can consider to use coal substituting oil and natural gas to reduce dependence on foreign energy, to strengthen energy and economic security. Therefore, using translog production function, the text forecasts substitution elasticity and the marginal substitution rate between the capital, coal, oil and natural gas, and puts forward substitution program.

  8. Food, energy, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Pardue, S L

    2010-04-01

    During the 2009 annual meeting of the Poultry Science Association, a symposium entitled "Global Views of New Agriculture: Food, Energy, and the Environment" was held that focused on several major issues affecting agriculture. Issues included future funding for basic agricultural research, sustainability, bioenergy, and their effects on global food markets. In many ways, a subtitle for the symposium could have been "Agriculture-Why What We Do Matters." It matters because of the fiscal and physical realities the planet will face in the coming decades relative to human population growth and the increasing demands to feed a hungry world. The challenges are daunting and the technologies to address them will require us to reevaluate the structure and policies we have established relative to agricultural research. In this case, change is all the more difficult because the traditional model of agricultural research has been so successful. One only needs to note the remarkable increases in productivity of the past half century of commodities such as corn and soybeans or feed efficiencies among broilers, laying hens, and turkeys to recognize the significant advancements that have been achieved. However, these historic gains have frequently required increased inputs, most notably fossil fuels. Food production in the future will likely be confronted with concerns involving energy, water, climate change, and the threat of agroterrorism. For example, we will need to develop crops that are more drought-resistant and more tolerant to a wider range of salinities as access to fresh water becomes more problematic. Animal agriculture will also need to adapt to diets composed of atypical feedstuffs. Whether future generations will inherit a world described by Paul Roberts in his books The End of Oil and The End of Food will be in part determined by the research model we adopt in the near term. PMID:20308413

  9. Environment assisted energy transfer in dimer system

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Salman; Ibrahim, M.; Khan, M.K.

    2014-02-15

    The influence of collective and multilocal environments on the energy transfer between the levels of a dimer is studied. The dynamics of energy transfer are investigated by considering coupling of collective environment with the levels of the dimer in the presence of both two individuals and mutually correlated multilocal environments. It is shown that every way of coupling we consider assists, though differently, the probability of transition between the levels of dimer. The probability of transition is strongly enhanced when the two local environments are mutually correlated. -- Highlights: • The dynamics of energy transfer between the levels of a dimer are studied. • Coupling of collective as well as individual environments are considered. • The environments are in spin star configurations. • The environment assists the energy transfer between the levels. • For correlated multilocal environments, the transition probability is almost 100%.

  10. Energy and the environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-15

    Work on the `Energy and the Environment` project has been focused on completion of two interrelated efforts: (1) development, production, and installation of energy related exhibits in the Ecology and Environment gallery, and (2) creation and implementation of the `Energy Backpack` program. The Energy exhibits have been available to over 1.5 million visitors since the opening of the new St. Louis Science Center. The `Energy Backpack` program will be implemented with students, teachers, and family groups this fall.

  11. Clean coal. U.S.-China cooperation in energy security

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, D.

    2008-05-15

    This work discusses how coal fits into the strategies of the USA and China to attain energy security while avoiding adverse environmental impacts. It begins by describing China's policy choices for clean coal, before discussing the implications of a clean coal strategy for China. The U.S. choices in a coal-based strategy of energy security is then covered. Finally, a joint US-China clean coal strategy, including the technology sharing option, is discussed.

  12. Annual review of energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, J.M. )

    1992-01-01

    This book contains information on energy and the environment. Topics covered include: Resources and technologies; Policy; Risks and impacts; Behavioral aspects; Economics; International and regional issues; and Energy and use and conservation.

  13. Energy efficiency opportunities in China. Industrial equipment and small cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    A quick glance at comparative statistics on energy consumption per unit of industrial output reveals that China is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. Energy waste not only impedes economic growth, but also creates pollution that threatens human health, regional ecosystems, and the global climate. China`s decision to pursue economic reform and encourage technology transfer from developed countries has created a window of opportunity for significant advances in energy efficiency. Policy changes, technical training, public education, and financing can help China realize its energy conservation potential.

  14. Technology, energy and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Glenn Terry

    This dissertation consists of three distinct papers concerned with technology, energy and the environment. The first paper is an empirical analysis of production under uncertainty, using agricultural production data from the central United States. Unlike previous work, this analysis identifies the effect of actual realizations of weather as well as farmers' expectations about weather. The results indicate that both of these are significant factors explaining short run profits in agriculture. Expectations about weather, called climate, affect production choices, and actual weather affects realized output. These results provide better understanding of the effect of climate change in agriculture. The second paper examines how emissions taxes induce innovation that reduces pollution. A polluting firm chooses technical improvement to minimize cost over an infinite horizon, given an emission tax set by a planner. This leads to a solution path for technical change. Changes in the tax rate affect the path for innovation. Setting the tax at equal to the marginal damage (which is optimal in a static setting with no technical change) is not optimal in the presence of technical change. When abatement is also available as an alternative to technical change, changes in the tax can have mixed effects, due to substitution effects. The third paper extends the theoretical framework for exploring the diffusion of new technologies. Information about new technologies spreads through the economy by means of a network. The pattern of diffusion will depend on the structure of this network. Observed networks are the result of an evolutionary process. This paper identifies how these evolutionary outcomes compare with optimal solutions. The conditions guaranteeing convergence to an optimal outcome are quite stringent. It is useful to determine the set of initial population states that do converge to an optimal outcome. The distribution of costs and benefits among the agents within an

  15. Development and evaluation of a food environment survey in three urban environments of Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the rapid pace of urbanization and Westernization and the increasing prevalence of obesity, there is a need for research to better understand the influence of the built environment on overweight and obesity in world’s developing regions. Culturally-specific food environment survey instruments are important tools for studying changing food availability and pricing. Here, we present findings from an effort to develop and evaluate food environment survey instruments for use in a rapidly developing city in southwest China. Methods We developed two survey instruments (for stores and restaurants), each designed to be completed within 10 minutes. Two pairs of researchers surveyed a pre-selected 1-km stretch of street in each of three socio-demographically different neighborhoods to assess inter-rater reliability. Construct validity was assessed by comparing the food environments of the neighborhoods to cross-sectional height and weight data obtained on 575 adolescents in the corresponding regions of the city. Results 273 food establishments (163 restaurants and 110 stores) were surveyed. Sit-down, take-out, and fast food restaurants accounted for 40%, 21% and 19% of all restaurants surveyed. Tobacco and alcohol shops, convenience stores and supermarkets accounted for 25%, 12% and 11%, respectively, of all stores surveyed. We found a high percentage of agreement between teams (>75%) for all categorical variables with moderate kappa scores (0.4-0.6), and no statistically significant differences between teams for any of the continuous variables. More developed inner city neighborhoods had a higher number of fast food restaurants and convenience stores than surrounding neighborhoods. Adolescents who lived in the more developed inner neighborhoods also had a higher percentage of overweight, indicating well-founded construct validity. Depending on the cutoff used, 19% to 36% of male and 10% to 22% of female 16-year old adolescents were found to be overweight

  16. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Ke, Jing; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Morrow, Bill; Price, Lynn

    2011-01-14

    After over two decades of staggering economic growth and soaring energy demand, China has started taking serious actions to reduce its economic energy and carbon intensity by setting short and medium-term intensity reduction targets, renewable generation targets and various supporting policies and programs. In better understanding how further policies and actions can be taken to shape China's future energy and emissions trajectory, it is important to first identify where the largest opportunities for efficiency gains and emission reduction lie from sectoral and end-use perspectives. Besides contextualizing China's progress towards reaching the highest possible efficiency levels through the adoption of the most advanced technologies from a bottom-up perspective, the actual economic costs and benefits of adopting efficiency measures are also assessed in this study. This study presents two modeling methodologies that evaluate both the technical and economic potential of raising China's efficiency levels to the technical maximum across sectors and the subsequent carbon and energy emission implications through 2030. The technical savings potential by efficiency measure and remaining gap for improvements are identified by comparing a reference scenario in which China continues the current pace of with a Max Tech scenario in which the highest technically feasible efficiencies and advanced technologies are adopted irrespective of costs. In addition, from an economic perspective, a cost analysis of selected measures in the key industries of cement and iron and steel help quantify the actual costs and benefits of achieving the highest efficiency levels through the development of cost of conserved energy curves for the sectors. The results of this study show that total annual energy savings potential of over one billion tonne of coal equivalent exists beyond the expected reference pathway under Max Tech pathway in 2030. CO2 emissions will also peak earlier under Max Tech

  17. ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT FACT BOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is divided into three major sections: (1) Standards and Status - Presents those air and water quality and performance standards which apply to energy-related pollutants and sources. Also indicates the status of efforts to control these pollutants. (2) Energy Sources - ...

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  19. Coal and the environment -- Meeting the needs of China

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, D.H.

    1997-09-01

    The author first gives a quick introduction to Foster Wheeler, his employer, with emphasis on activities in the China power market so as to set the background for his talk. He then gives a brief refresher on China`s geography, demographics, and coal resources. This will be followed by power production needs of China and associated environmental concerns. Finally, some near-term and long-term technological solutions to the environmental impact are discussed, followed by some observations and concluding remarks.

  20. Renewable energy: Renewing the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Noun, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    During the past 20 years, the United States has enacted some of the world`s most comprehensive legislation to protect and preserve its environmental heritage. These regulations have spawned a $115-billion-per-year industry for {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} products and services, with more than 35,000 companies providing jobs for American workers. On the other hand, environmental regulations have placed heavy cost burdens on many U.S. businesses as they struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and foreign markets. How, then, can one reconcile the growing need for environmental protection with the desire for a stronger, healthier economy? Even as Congress debates the value of existing environmental legislation, new threats are appearing on the horizon. For example, extensive storm damage from Hurricane Andrew and other natural disasters has prompted members of the $650-billion insurance industry to begin studying the effects that global warming may have on future property damage claims. More and more people are realizing that the most efficient and economical way to control pollution is to avoid creating it in the first place. And that`s where renewable energy comes in. Technologies based on nonpolluting renewable energy sources such as sunlight and wind can help preserve our environmental heritage without a tangled web of regulations to burden industry. Renewable energy technologies can also help the United States become a world leader in a potential $400-billion-a-year global market for environmentally friendly products.

  1. Can China use alternative energies instead of coal to provide more electricity by 2030?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan

    Following the rapid growth of China's economy, energy consumption, especially electricity consumption of China, has made a huge increase in the past 30 years. Since China has been using coal as the major energy source to produce electricity during these years, environmental problems have become more and more serious. The research question for this paper is: "Can China use alternative energies instead of coal to produce more electricity in 2030?" Hydro power, nuclear power, natural gas, wind power and solar power are considered as the possible and most popular alternative energies for the current situation of China. To answer the research question above, there are two things to know: How much is the total electricity consumption in China by 2030? And how much electricity can the alternative energies provide in China by 2030? For a more reliable forecast, an econometric model using the Ordinary Least Squares Method is established on this paper to predict the total electricity consumption by 2030. The predicted electricity coming from alternative energy sources by 2030 in China can be calculated from the existing literature. The research results of this paper are analyzed under a reference scenario and a max tech scenario. In the reference scenario, the combination of the alternative energies can provide 47.71% of the total electricity consumption by 2030. In the max tech scenario, it provides 57.96% of the total electricity consumption by 2030. These results are important not only because they indicate the government's long term goal is reachable, but also implies that the natural environment of China could have an inspiring future.

  2. Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C.

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Built Environment Energy Analysis Tool, which is designed to assess impacts of future land use/built environment patterns on transportation-related energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The tool can be used to evaluate a range of population distribution and urban design scenarios for 2030 and 2050. This tool was produced as part of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Paul; Smith, Kirk R; Beevers, Sean; Tonne, Cathryn; Oreszczyn, Tadj

    2007-09-29

    Since the last decades of the 19th century, technological advances have brought substantial improvements in the efficiency with which energy can be exploited to service human needs. That trend has been accompanied by an equally notable increase in energy consumption, which strongly correlates with socioeconomic development. Nonetheless, feasible gains in the efficiency and technology of energy use in towns and cities and in homes have the potential to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions, and to improve health, for example, through protection against temperature-related morbidity and mortality, and the alleviation of fuel poverty. A shift towards renewable energy production would also put increasing focus on cleaner energy carriers, especially electricity, but possibly also hydrogen, which would have benefits to urban air quality. In low-income countries, a vital priority remains the dissemination of affordable technology to alleviate the burdens of indoor air pollution and other health effects in individuals obliged to rely on biomass fuels for cooking and heating, as well as the improvement in access to electricity, which would have many benefits to health and wellbeing. PMID:17868820

  4. Mercury Release to Aquatic Environments from Anthropogenic Sources in China from 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Maodian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Luo, Yao; Zhang, Haoran; Shen, Huizhong; Tong, Yindong; Ou, Langbo; Xie, Han; Ye, Xuejie; Deng, Chunyan

    2016-08-01

    Based on an analysis of measured data and distribution factors, we developed the China Aquatic Mercury Release (CAMR) model, which we used to calculate an inventory of mercury (Hg) that was released to aquatic environments from primary anthropogenic sources in China. We estimated a total release of 98 tons of Hg in 2012, including coal-fired power plants (17%), nonferrous metal smelting (33%), coal mining and washing (25%), domestic sewage (17%), and other sectors (8.3%). The total primary anthropogenic Hg released to aquatic environments in China decreased at an annual average rate of 1.7% between 2001 and 2012, even though GDP grew at an annual average rate of 10% during this period. In addition to the Hg that was released to aquatic environments in China's provinces, we estimated the Hg release amounts and intensities (in g/km(2)·yr) for China's 58 secondary river basins. The highest aquatic Hg release intensities in China were associated with industrial wastewater on the North China Plain and domestic sewage in eastern China and southern China. We found that the overall uncertainty of our inventory ranges from -22% to 32%. We suggest that the inventory provided by this study can help establish a more accurate map of regional and global Hg cycling; it also has implications for water quality management in China. PMID:27379546

  5. The impact of energy, transport, and trade on air pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Poon, J.P.H.; Casas, I.; He, C.F.

    2006-09-15

    A team of U.S.- and China-based geographers examines the relationship between China's economic development and its environment by modeling the effects of energy, transport, and trade on local air pollution emissions (sulfur dioxide and soot particulates) using the Environmental Kuznets model. Specifically, the latter model is investigated using spatial econometrics that take into account potential regional spillover effects from high-polluting neighbors. The analysis finds an inverted-U relationship for sulfur dioxide but a U-shaped curve for soot particulates. This suggests that soot particulates such as black carbon may pose a more serious environmental problem in China than sulfur dioxide.

  6. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    The report details the current and future state of the energy industry in China. It is intended for strategists and researchers seeking to identify market potential for their products and services in all sectors of the China energy industry. The report is in 4 Sections: Overview of China Energy Market; Market Analysis; Market Segments (including electricity and coal); and Breaking into theMmarket. China's economic trajectory has driven its expanding energy needs, and it is now the world's second largest energy consumer behind the United States. China's energy sector has enormous potential, especially the coal, petroleum and natural gas industries, yet China is currently a net importer of oil, and imports are expected to increase to more than 900 million barrels in 2006, against a total demand of 1.993 billion barrels per year. China is looking to expand its production of coal, natural gas, and renewable energy sources such as nuclear, solar and hydroelectric power to meet the enormous appetite for energy spawned by its massive industrial complex and consumer sectors. It is estimated that in 2020, China will need 2.8 billion tons of coal and 600 million tons of crude oil, two and a half times more than in 2000.

  7. Periglacial process and Pleistocene environment in northern China

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xudong; Liu Dongsheng ); Yan Fuhua )

    1991-03-01

    In the present time, five kinds of periglacial phenomena have been defined: ice wedges, periglacial involutions, congelifolds, congeliturbations, and loess dunes. From the stratigraphical and geochronological data, the periglacial process is divided into six stages. (1) Guanting periglacial stage, characterized by the congeliturbative deposits that have developed in early Pleistocene Guanting loess-like formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 2.43 Ma B.P. (2) Yanchi periglacial stage, characterized by the congelifold that has developed in middle Pleistocene Yanchi Lishi loess formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 0.50 Ma B.P. (3) Zhaitang periglacial stage (II), characterized by the periglacial involutions that have developed in lower middle Pleistocene Lishi loess formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 0.30 Ma B.P. (4) Zhaitang periglacial state (I), characterized by the ice (soil) wedge that has developed in upper-middle Pleistocene Lishi loess formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 0.20 Ma B.P. (5) Qiansangyu periglacial stage (II), characterized by the ice (sand) wedges that has developed in late Pleistocene Malan loess formation. Paleomagnetic dating gives 0.13 Ma B.P. (6) Qiansangyu periglacial stage (I), characterized by the ice (soil) wedge that has developed in late Pleistocene Malan loess-like formation. Thermoluminescent dating gives 0.018 Ma B.P. Spore-pollen composition analysis shows that the savannah steppe environment prevailed in northern China during Pleistocene periglacial periods. These fossilized periglacial phenomena indicate a rather arid and windy periglacial environment with a mean annual temperature estimated some 12-15C colder than that in the present.

  8. The Built Environment and Active Travel: Evidence from Nanjing, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jianxi

    2016-01-01

    Background: An established relationship exists between the built environment and active travel. Nevertheless, the literature examining the impacts of different components of the built environment is limited. In addition, most existing studies are based on data from cities in the U.S. and Western Europe. The situation in Chinese cities remains largely unknown. Based on data from Nanjing, China, this study explicitly examines the influences of two components of the built environment—the neighborhood form and street form—on residents’ active travel. Methods: Binary logistic regression analyses examined the effects of the neighborhood form and street form on subsistence, maintenance and discretionary travel, respectively. For each travel purpose, three models are explored: a model with only socio-demographics, a model with variables of the neighborhood form and a complete model with all variables. Results: The model fit indicator, Nagelkerke’s ρ2, increased by 0.024 when neighborhood form variables are included and increased by 0.070 when street form variables are taken into account. A similar situation can be found in the models of maintenance activities and discretionary activities. Regarding specific variables, very limited significant impacts of the neighborhood form variables are observed, while almost all of the characteristics of the street form show significant influences on active transport. Conclusions: In Nanjing, street form factors have a more profound influence on active travel than neighborhood form factors. The focal point of the land use regulations and policy of local governments should shift from the neighborhood form to the street form to maximize the effects of policy interventions. PMID:27005645

  9. Coal, energy and environment: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.S.; Hawse, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    This international conference held in Czechoslovakia was a bold attempt to establish working relationships among scientists and engineers from three world areas: Taiwan, the United States of America, and Czechoslovakia. The magic words unifying this gathering were ``clean coal utilization.`` For the ten nationalities represented, the common elements were the clean use of coal as a domestic fuel and as a source of carbon, the efficient and clean use of coal in power generation, and other uses of coal in environmentally acceptable processes. These three world areas have serious environmental problems, differing in extent and nature, but sufficiently close to create a working community for discussions. Beyond this, Czechoslovakia is emerging from the isolation imposed by control from Moscow. The need for each of these nations to meet and know one another was imperative. The environmental problems in Czechoslovakia are extensive and deep-seated. These proceedings contain 63 papers grouped into the following sections: The research university and its relationship with accrediting associations, government and private industry; Recent advances in coal utilization research; New methods of mining and reclamation; Coal-derived waste disposal and utilization; New applications of coal and environmental technologies; Mineral and trace elements in coal; Human and environmental impacts of coal production and utilization in the Silesian/Moravian region; and The interrelationships between fossil energy use and environmental objectives. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. The development of ecological environment in China based on the system dynamics method from the society, economy and environment perspective.

    PubMed

    Guang, Yang; Ge, Song; Han, Liu

    2016-01-01

    The harmonious development in society, economy and environment are crucial to regional sustained boom. However, the society, economy and environment are not respectively independent, but both mutually promotes one which, or restrict mutually complex to have the long-enduring overall process. The present study is an attempt to investigate the relationship and interaction of society, economy and environment in China based on the data from 2004 to 2013. The principal component analysis (PCA) model was employed to identify the main factors effecting the society, economy and environment subsystems, and SD (system dynamics) method used to carry out dynamic assessment for future state of sustainability from society, economy and environment perspective with future indicator values. Sustainable development in China was divided in the study into three phase from 2004 to 2013 based competitive values of these three subsystems. According to the results of PCA model, China is in third phase, and the economy growth is faster than the environment development, while the social development still maintained a steady and rapid growth, implying that the next step for sustainable development in China should focus on society development, especially the environment development. PMID:26930874

  11. Renewable Energy Applications for Rural Development in China

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, J.; Baring-Gould, E. I.; Stroup, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a description of current work to promote and support the developing market for renewable (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) technologies in China. Since the signing of the US/China Protocol for Cooperation in the Fields of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technology Development and Utilization in 1995, NREL has helped to promote RE and EE technologies, specifically rural energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, and renewable energy business development, in addition to more general policy and planning support. This paper focuses on NREL's work in support of the $240 million Township Electrification Program, which is providing power to over 1000 rural communities using renewable based energy sources.

  12. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, Ed., David; Aden, Ed., Nathaniel; Lu, Ed., Hongyou; Zheng, Ed., Nina

    2008-10-01

    Since 2001, China's energy consumption has grown more quickly than expected by Chinese or international observers. This edition of the China Energy Databook traces the growth of the energy system through 2006. As with version six, the Databook covers a wide range of energy-related information, including resources and reserves, production, consumption, investment, equipment, prices, trade, environment, economy, and demographic data. These data provide an extensive quantitative foundation for understanding China's growing energy system. In addition to providing updated data through 2006, version seven includes revised energy and GDP data back to the 1990s. In the 2005 China Energy Statistical Yearbook, China's National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) published revised energy production, consumption, and usage data covering the years 1998 to 2003. Most of these revisions related to coal production and consumption, though natural gas data were also adjusted. In order to accommodate underestimated service sector growth, the NBS also released revised GDP data in 2005. Beyond the inclusion of historical revisions in the seventh edition, no attempt has been made to rectify known or suspected issues in the official data. The purpose of this volume is to provide a common basis for understanding China's energy system. In order to broaden understanding of China's energy system, the Databook includes information from industry yearbooks, periodicals, and government websites in addition to data published by NBS. Rather than discarding discontinued data series, information that is no longer possible to update has been placed in C section tables and figures in each chapter. As with previous versions, the data are presented in digital database and tabular formats. The compilation of updated data is the result of tireless work by Lu Hongyou and Nina Zheng.

  13. Economic and Energy Development in China: Policy Options and Implications for Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    McElroy, M. B.; Nielsen, C.

    2003-01-23

    The Harvard University Center for the Environment and partner institutions in China established a multidisciplinary program of integrated research on energy-related environmental issues, local air pollution and global climate change, in China and their role in U.S.-Chinese relations. Major research streams included: (a) developing a dynamic, multi-sector model of the Chinese economy that can estimate energy use, emission, and health damages from pollution, and using this model to simulate broad economic effects of market-based pollution-control policies; (b) developing a regionally disaggregated model of technology and investment choice in the Chinese electric power sector; (c) applying an atmospheric chemical tracer transport model to investigate carbon uptake in Eurasis (notably China) and North America, and to inform observational strategies for CO{sub 2} in China and elsewhere.

  14. China's environment and the challenge of sustainable development

    SciTech Connect

    Kristen A. Day

    2005-01-15

    China has been experiencing extraordinary economic growth for over two decades. Behind the remarkable statistics, however, it is facing a pressing issue: balancing its economic development needs with protecting its environmental resources. The environmental issue in China has a profound impact on the rest of the world as well, in such concerns as global warming and ethical and legal considerations about environmental enforcement. This book covers a broad range of topics, from specific environmental assessments in key sectors (i.e. desertification) to the policy implications of China's entry into the WTO.

  15. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world`s largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China`s energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China`s energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  16. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Ke, Jing; Levine, Mark

    2011-02-15

    As a result of soaring energy demand from a staggering pace of economic expansion and the related growth of energy-intensive industry, China overtook the United States to become the world's largest contributor to CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. At the same time, China has taken serious actions to reduce its energy and carbon intensity by setting both a short-term energy intensity reduction goal for 2006 to 2010 as well as a long-term carbon intensity reduction goal for 2020. This study presents a China Energy Outlook through 2050 that assesses the role of energy efficiency policies in transitioning China to a lower emission trajectory and meeting its intensity reduction goals. Over the past few years, LBNL has established and significantly enhanced its China End-Use Energy Model which is based on the diffusion of end-use technologies and other physical drivers of energy demand. This model presents an important new approach for helping understand China's complex and dynamic drivers of energy consumption and implications of energy efficiency policies through scenario analysis. A baseline ('Continued Improvement Scenario') and an alternative energy efficiency scenario ('Accelerated Improvement Scenario') have been developed to assess the impact of actions already taken by the Chinese government as well as planned and potential actions, and to evaluate the potential for China to control energy demand growth and mitigate emissions. In addition, this analysis also evaluated China's long-term domestic energy supply in order to gauge the potential challenge China may face in meeting long-term demand for energy. It is a common belief that China's CO{sub 2} emissions will continue to grow throughout this century and will dominate global emissions. The findings from this research suggest that this will not necessarily be the case because saturation in ownership of appliances, construction of residential and commercial floor area, roadways, railways, fertilizer use, and

  17. Wind energy in China: Getting more from wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Joanna I.

    2016-06-01

    China has the largest installed capacity of wind farms, yet its wind energy electricity output is lower than that of other countries. A new analysis of the relative contributions of the factors influencing China's wind sector could help policy makers prioritize solutions.

  18. Transforming Markets for Energy Efficiency Buildings in China

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K. Watson; Barbara A. Finamore

    2002-09-30

    Program involved active support and participation in the development and implementation of a residential building energy consumption standards for the ''Transition Zone'' and ''Cooling Zone'' of China, with an implementation emphasis on Chongqing Municipality in southwestern China and, later, Shanghai Municipality. Beyond-code policies and programs, such as green building standards were also promoted.

  19. Effects of China's Energy Policy on Future Air Quality in China and the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M.; Selin, N. E.; Karplus, V. J.; Li, C. T.; Zhang, D.; Luo, X.; Zhang, X.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the effects of recently announced energy policies in mainland China on air quality in both China and the U.S. in 2030. China is the largest contributor to global anthropogenic emissions of air pollutants, especially the precursors to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). Efforts to limit coal use in China under the country's National Air Pollution Action Plan will reduce these air pollutants. Control efforts are expected to not only decrease the concentration of ozone and PM2.5 locally in China, but also reduce the trans-Pacific transport of air pollutants to the U.S. We couple an energy-economic model with sub-national detail for China (the China Regional Energy Model, or C-REM) to a global atmospheric chemistry model (GEOS-Chem) to assess air pollution reductions under an energy policy scenario relative to a no policy baseline scenario. Future Chinese anthropogenic emissions are predicted by C-REM under a national energy policy scenario which achieves a 20% reduction in energy intensity from 2012 to 2017 by targeting fossil fuel use nationwide as specified in the National Air Pollution Action Plan and also meets the Plan's sub-national constraint that coal use must not increase above present levels in three largest urban regions (the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta) through 2030. Using GEOS-Chem, we project changes in the surface concentration of ozone and PM2.5 over China and the U.S. in 2030. We find that air pollutants decrease substantially over both China and the U.S. under the national targets set by the Air Pollution Action Plan.

  20. Physics literacy, energy and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobson, Art

    2003-03-01

    Socially aware science literacy courses are sorely needed in every nation that is industrialized and democratic. This article puts societal topics into the more general context of science literacy, suggests that socially significant topics can fit comfortably into a physics literacy course, looks at energy and environment issues, and discusses how one might teach three such issues: energy use in transportation, global ozone depletion and global warming.

  1. Energy-Environment Mini-Unit Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen M., Ed.; And Others

    This unit is one part of a three-part National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) series on energy-environment. The goal of this NSTA project is to create a collection of mini-units that provide materials for science and social studies teachers in grades K-12. These materials are intended to make teaching more interdisciplinary and to stimulate…

  2. Physics Literacy, Energy and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    2003-01-01

    Socially aware science literacy courses are sorely needed in every nation that is industrialized and democratic. This article puts societal topics into the more general context of science literacy, suggests that socially significant topics can fit comfortably into a physics literacy course, looks at energy and environment issues, and discusses how…

  3. Initiative Addresses Subsurface Energy and Environment Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.; Majer, Ernest L.; Wang, Joseph S. Y.; Colwell, Frederick; Redden, George

    2006-01-01

    Members of the geoscience community are cooperating in conceptualizing fundamental, crosscutting research to address major obstacles to solving energy and environmental problems related to the subsurface, through the SECUREarth initiative, which began in 2004. Addressing problems, such as reliable nuclear waste storage and safe carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration, are critical to maintaining an economical and safe energy supply and clean environment. A recent workshop in Golden, Colo., helped to further the development of the SECUREarth (Scientific Energy/Environmental Crosscutting Underground Research for Urgent Solutions to Secure the Earth's Future) initiative by identifying the key scientific challenges in the geosciences, as well as to target possible approaches for overcoming roadblocks.

  4. Energy, food, environment: Realities, myths, options

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first three chapters are devoted to detailed surveys of the major energy, food, and environmental controversies. The remaining chapters analyse the environmental consequences of obtaining sufficient energy and food by taking a close look at the three key biogeochemical cycles which are most affected by human actions, those of carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur. The book concludes by weighing the evidence presented by pessimists and optimists about future prospects and brings some common sense to the debate on how civilization can survive with abundant flows of energy, an adequate supply of food, and an environment fit to live in.

  5. Clear water, blue skies: China`s environment in the new century

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The second volume in a seven-volume series examining China`s recent history, where it is today, and the path it should follow during the first two decades of the 21st century. It provides an overview of the country`s strengths and weaknesses as well as its obstacles and options.

  6. Economic analysis of waste-to-energy industry in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin-Gang; Jiang, Gui-Wu; Li, Ang; Wang, Ling

    2016-02-01

    The generation of municipal solid waste is further increasing in China with urbanization and improvement of living standards. The "12th five-year plan" period (2011-2015) promotes waste-to-energy technologies for the harmless disposal and recycling of municipal solid waste. Waste-to-energy plant plays an important role for reaching China's energy conservation and emission reduction targets. Industrial policies and market prospect of waste-to-energy industry are described. Technology, cost and benefit of waste-to-energy plant are also discussed. Based on an economic analysis of a waste-to-energy project in China (Return on Investment, Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return, and Sensitivity Analysis) the paper makes the conclusions. PMID:26514312

  7. An overview of energy supply and demand in China

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Davis, W.B.; Levine, M.D.

    1992-05-01

    Although China is a poor country, with much of its population still farming for basic subsistence in rural villages, China is rich in energy resources. With the world's largest hydropower potential, and ranking third behind the US and USSR in coal reserves, China is in a better position than many other developing countries when planning for its future energy development and self-sufficiency. China is now the third largest producer and consumer of commercial energy, but its huge populace dilutes this impressive aggregate performance into a per capita figure which is an order of magnitude below the rich industrialized nations. Despite this fact, it is still important to recognize that China's energy system is still one of the largest in the world. A system this size allows risk taking and can capture economies of scale. The Chinese have maintained rapid growth in energy production for several decades. In order to continue and fully utilize its abundant resources however, China must successfully confront development challenges in many areas. For example, the geographic distribution of consumption centers poorly matches the distribution of resources, which makes transportation a vital but often weak link in the energy system. Another example -- capital -- is scarce relative to labor, causing obsolete and inefficiently installed technology to be operated well beyond what would be considered its useful life in the West. Major improvements in industrial processes, buildings, and other energy-using equipment and practices are necessary if China's energy efficiency is to continue to improve. Chinese energy planners have been reluctant to invest in environmental quality at the expense of more tangible production quotas.

  8. Space Environment Monitoring System in next generation Geostationary Meteorological Satellite of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Zhang

    Feng Yun 4(FY-4) is a second-generation Meteorological Remote Sensing earth observation satellite of China. On board FY-4, Space Environment Monitoring System(SEMS) consist of seven payloads, including 3 High Energy Particle Detector(HEPD), 1 Magnetometer(MTM), 1 Charging Potential Probe(CPP) and 1 Radiation Dosimeter(RD). High energy particle , magnetic field and space environment effect compose of main goals of SEMS. The HEPD instrument will detect proton with 3 directions , electron with 9 directions. Magnetometer will monitor magnetic field intensity between -400nT and +400nT. CPP will monitor Relative Surface Voltage from -10KV to +1KV, Absolute Surface Voltage from -20KV to -100V ,+100V to +1KV, Deep Surface Voltage from -2.5KV to 0V. RD will monitor dose from 0 rad to 200,000 rad. The first FY-4 satellite is planned to be launched in Dec 2015,This next-generation system will continue to provide more information about space weather, and SEMS will be playing more important role in space weather.

  9. Mid-holocene climates and environments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yafeng, Shi; Zhaozheng, Kong; Sumin, Wang; Lingyu, Tang; Fubao, Wang; Tandong, Yao; Xitao, Zhao; Peiyuan, Zhang; Shaohua, Shi

    1993-05-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the climatic and environmental variations 5 to 3 ka. B.P. with particular reference to one stable warmer and wetter millennium (7.2-6 ka B.P.). Some large-scale centennial warming was accompanied by an increase in precipitation owing to the expansion of the monsoon circulation, e.g. rapid warming during the period from 8.5 to 8.3 ka B.P. and was reflected in the high level of some inland lakes and the sudden expansion of vegetation in pollen diagrams. The growth of the Neolithic culture with agriculture and settlement in the present semi-arid area of Northwest China was undoubtedly related to the dramatic warming and wetting before 8 ka B.P. According to the proxy data of palynological studies, the deviation of annual mean temperature from today's about 7-6 ka B.P. was roughly estimated at about 1°C in South China, 2°C in the Changjiang (Yangtze) Valley, 3°C in North China and Northeast China. The strongest warming by 4-5°C was recorded in Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. The winter temperature rise was much greater than the annual average temperature. In the eastern half of China, the vegetation zones are mainly parallel to the latitude. During the climax of the Holocene warm period, the northern limit of the tropical monsoonal rain forest shifted less than 1° of latitude northward, the subtropical broad-leaved evergreen forest about 1° of latitude, the north subtropical deciduous and evergreen broad-leaved mixed forest about 3° of latitude in the coastal area but only 1-1.5° of latitude in mid-West China and the warm temperate deciduous forest moved 4° of latitude northward, greatly expanding its distribution. Further north, the cool temperate boreal forest withdrew from its southern boundary by about 2° of latitude. Global climatic warming in the mid-Holocene resulted in a sea-level rise. During the period from 6 to 5 ka BP. the sea-level was about 1-3 m higher than the present level. Large area of coastal lowland was

  10. Energy and the Environment: Volume 24

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.

    1999-07-01

    The 24 papers in this volume are entitled: The art of energy efficiency--Protecting the environment with better technology; On the road to global ecology; Best practices for renewable energy implementation--Integrating end-user and commercial-sector opportunities and constraints; Biomass conversion to fuels; Changing trends in greenhouse gases other than carbon dioxide; Economic growth, liberalization, and the environment--A review of the evidence; Harmful algal blooms--A model for emergence of pathogenic microorganisms under conditions of ecological stress; Enhancing the performance of nuclear power reactors--Issues and opportunities; Environmental issues along the US-Mexico border--Drivers of change and the response of citizens and institutions; Ethics and international business; Fuel cells; High-level nuclear waste--The status of Yucca Mountain; Hydrogen production, transmission, and distribution; It's not easy being green--Innovative environmental technologies enhance hydropower's role in sustainable development; Megacities and the atmosphere; Methods for attributing ambient air pollutants to emission sources; Nuclear energy in the twenty-first century--Examination of a contentious subject; Pollution and human health in the St. Lawrence estuary; Southern perspectives in technology transfer; The post-Kyoto regime on climate change--Southern perspectives; Flexibility in the timing and mechanisms of greenhouse gas controls--A review of economic arguments; How much is energy R and D worth as insurance; A review of technical change in assessments of climate policy; and Energy technology and global change--Modeling techniques developed at NASA.

  11. Radiation environment study of near space in China area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Dongdong; Chen, Xingfeng; Li, Zhengqiang; Mei, Xiaodong

    2015-10-01

    Aerospace activity becomes research hotspot for worldwide aviation big countries. Solar radiation study is the prerequisite for aerospace activity to carry out, but lack of observation in near space layer becomes the barrier. Based on reanalysis data, input key parameters are determined and simulation experiments are tried separately to simulate downward solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation transfer process of near space in China area. Results show that atmospheric influence on the solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation transfer process has regional characteristic. As key factors such as ozone are affected by atmospheric action both on its density, horizontal and vertical distribution, meteorological data of stratosphere needs to been considered and near space in China area is divided by its activity feature. Simulated results show that solar and ultraviolet radiation is time, latitude and ozone density-variant and has complicated variation characteristics.

  12. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    SciTech Connect

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  13. An Anatomy of China's Energy Insecurity and Its Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Bo

    2005-12-06

    China’s energy insecurity largely originates from its constrained availability, questionable reliability, and uncertain affordability of its oil supplies. The country’s fast industrialization and urbanization, together with demand for infrastructure and increasing popularity of automobiles, requires a lot of energy, but it consumes energy both intensively and inefficiently, threatening the environmental well-being of China and its neighbors. China’s risk aversion and poor energy policy making system further magnifies its perceptions of the low availability, reliability and affordability of oil imports, which further compounds its sense of energy insecurity. Distrustful of the market, and suspicious of other major energy players in the international market, the Chinese leadership relies on the state-centered approach, or economic nationalism, rather than a market approach to enhance its energy security. However, the country lacks not only an energy policy making system that can make and implement sound energy policies but also an energy market that relies on market prices to allocate energy resources efficiently. As a result of this domestic failure, China has pushed its national flagship companies to undertake a global scavenger hunt for energy while muddling along a messy road of energy reform at home. Setbacks in acquiring new sources of oil have validated the Chinese leadership’s belief that the international oil market is not free and China’s access to international oil is not guaranteed through the market. China’s problems in the international energy market are also perceived as evidence of attempts to prevent China from exerting international influence. China’s leadership is convinced that China should focus on areas where western capital is not heavily concentrated or where western influences are weak. With the recent revaluation of Chinese currency and growing economy, China has both the wherewithal and appetite to acquire more oil assets

  14. [Radiation Environment Study of Near Space in China Area].

    PubMed

    Mei, Xiao-dong; Sun, Ji-lin; Li, Zheng-qiang; Chen, Xing-feng; Xing, Jin; Xu, Hua; Qie, Li-li; Lü, Yang; Li, Yang; Liu, Li

    2016-03-01

    Aerospace activity in near space (20-50 km) has become a research hotspot for aviation big countries worldwide. Solar radiation study, as the prerequisite to carry out aerospace activity, is facing the barrier of lacking of observation in near space layer. Ozone is the most important factor that affects radiation value in this layer. Based on ECMWF reanalysis data, this input key parameter and its horizontal, vertical and temporal characteristics are analyzedwith results showing obvious regional features in temporal-spatial distribution and varieties. With meteorological data and surface parameters, near space over China is divided into 5 parts. Key factors' value is confirmed over each division. With SBDART radiation transfer model, solar radiation and ultraviolet radiation simulation in near space are conducted separately. Results show that it is influenced by latitude, total ozone and its vertical distribution, radiation varies under complex rules. The average year and monthly solar radiation strengthens changes with latitude reduction, while annual range changes reversely. Air absorbing is related to latitude and land-sea contrast and shows different values and seasonal variations. The ultraviolet radiation over South China Sea reaches its maximum value and minimum annual range, as well as minimum monthly range with value strengthening in summer and weakening in winter. In other areas radiation increases in summer while weakens in winter, monthly range shows double peaks with higher value in spring and autumn, lower in summer and winter. Air absorption in ultraviolet radiation is influenced by multiple factors, vertical varieties over areas besides South China Sea enhance in summer time. The vertical changes of monthly ranges affected by air absorption show consistence in higher and lower layer in June and July, while in other months ranges are bigger in higher layer. PMID:27400492

  15. WB/GEF Renewable Energy Development Project: Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Fact sheet describes China's Renewable Energy Development Project to supply electricity to rural households and institutions with wind energy and solar power (photovoltaics). World Bank and Global Environmental Facility fund the project.

  16. Energy use and conservation in China`s residential and commercial sectors: Patterns, problems, and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.

    1993-07-01

    This report discusses the determinants of residential and commercial energy demand, profiles the patterns and problems of energy consumption, and evaluates popular energy conservation measures of the People`s Republic of China. It also discusses technological and institutional opportunities for realizing greater energy conservation. General characteristics related to energy use include: population growth, economic growth, residential and commercial energy, and improved standards of living. Specific end-use areas that are examined in detail are space heating, cooking and water heating, and lighting and appliances.

  17. NASA spinoffs to energy and the environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Ray L.; Lehrman, Stephen A.

    1989-01-01

    Thousands of aerospace innovations have found their way into everyday use, and future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) missions promise to provide many more spinoff opportunities. Each spinoff has contributed some measure of benefit to the national economy, productivity, or lifestyle. In total, these spinoffs represent a substantial dividend on the national investment in aerospace research. Along with examples of the many terrestrial applications of NASA technology to energy and the environment, this paper presents the mechanisms by which NASA promotes technology transfer. Also discussed are new NASA initiatives in superconductivity research, global warming, and aeropropulsion.

  18. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  19. Radiative effects of aerosols on the environment in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbin

    Anthropogenic emissions and concentrations of aerosol precursors and aerosols over China are among the highest in major countries of the world. Due to large emissions of soot and dust, aerosol absorption is high. Based on the observed direct and diffuse irradiance, a single scattering albedo of about 0.8 is derived for two large agri/eco/industrial areas. Aerosol direct effect can exert various environmental impacts in China. Photochemical activities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are significantly reduced because of reductions in photolysis rates and in emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons. Crop yields under optimal conditions can be reduced due to the reduction in surface solar irradiance. The most significant aerosol radiative perturbation is in changing the air-surface interaction and diurnal evolution of ABL. Reductions in various surface heat fluxes due to aerosols depend on soil moisture. Over a relatively dry surface, the evaporation has a small change, leading to the largest decrease of surface skin temperature at noon. Over a relatively wet surface, a substantial reduction in evaporation results in the largest surface cooling in the early morning. The diurnal temperature range (DTR) can be reduced by an amount comparable to the observed decrease of DTR. The longwave absorption of aerosols can lead to an increase of the daily minimum temperature and contributes to about 20% of the decrease in the DTR. The near-surface air temperature has the largest cooling in the early morning because the ABL is shallow and the temperature is sensitive to the radiative perturbation. As a result of the reduced sensible heat flux, the surface layer becomes more stable. Moreover, the aerosol heating enhances the stabilization of surface layer and in turn further reduces the sensible heat flux. As a result the ABL height can be reduced substantially. This will have many important ramifications, including trapping/accumulation of air pollutants, and perturbing the water

  20. Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

    2010-08-15

    From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

  1. Halophilic and thermotolerant Gymnoascus species from several special environments, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Fang; Cai, Lei

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces three new Gymnoascus species (Gymnoascaceae, Onygenales), G. halophilus, G. stercorarius and G. thermotolerans, isolated from sediments in Chaka Salt Lake, compost and cornfield soil, respectively, in China, based on a polyphasic characterization including morphology, physiology and molecular phylogeny. Phylogenetic relationships were assessed based on the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS = ITS1 + 5.8S + ITS2) region and a combined multilocus alignment of the ITS, 18S subunit rRNA gene and 28S subunit rRNA genes. Our study identified phylogenetic and phenotypic characters that differentiated the three new species from known species in the genus. Salinity and temperature tolerance tests revealed that G. halophilus was an obligate halophile while G. stercorarius and G. thermotolerans were halotolerant and thermotolerant. A key to accepted species of Gymnoascus is provided. PMID:26490705

  2. Sustainable energy in china: the closing window of opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    Fei Feng; Roland Priddle; Leiping Wang; Noureddine Berrah

    2007-03-15

    China's remarkable economic growth has been supported by a generally adequate and relatively low-cost supply of energy, creating the world's largest coal industry, its second-largest oil market, and an eclectic power business that is adding capacity at an unprecedented rate. If energy requirements continue to double every decade, China will not be able to meet the energy demands of the present without seriously compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own energy needs. This title uses historical data from 1980 and alternative scenarios through 2020 to assess China's future energy requirements and the resources to meet them. It calls for a high-level commitment to develop and implement an integrated, coordinated, and comprehensive energy policy. The authors recommend eight building blocks to reduce energy consumption growth well below the targeted rate of economic growth, to use national resources on an economically and environmentally sound basis, and to establish a robust energy system that can better ensure the security of a diverse supply of competitively priced energy forms. Sustainability calls for persistence of effort, greater reliance on advanced energy technologies, and better standards enforcement. Achieving these goals will require policy initiatives that restrict demand and create a 'resources-conscious society', reconcile energy needs with environmental imperatives, rationalize pricing, and tackle supply security. While the challenges are daunting, China has a unique opportunity to position itself as a world leader in the application of cutting-edge energy developments to create a sustainable energy sector effectively supporting a flourishing economy and society.

  3. INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the key issues and findings of the 17-agency Federal Interagency Energy/Environment Research and Development in a format designed for the lay public. It discusses major energy/environment technical issues.

  4. Human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment of China: implication for ecopharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; He, Bingshu; Hu, Xiamin

    2015-06-01

    Antibacterial residues in the natural environment have been of increasing concern due to their impact on bacteria resistance development and toxicity to natural communities and ultimately to public health. China is a large country with high production and consumption of antibacterials for its population growth and economic development in recent years. In this article, we summarized the current situation of human-use antibacterial pollution in Chinese water (wastewaters, natural and drinking waters) and solid matrices (sludge, sediment, and soil) reported in 33 peer-reviewed papers. We found that, although there are adequate wastewater treatment systems in China, human-use antibacterial residues in the natural environment were reported almost throughout the whole country. Three most frequently prescribed classes of antibacterials in China, including quinolones, macrolides, and β-lactam, were also the predominant classes of residues in Chinese environment, manifested as the high concentration and detection frequency. In view of this alarming situation, we have presented that ecopharmacovigilance (EPV) might be implemented in the antibacterial drug administration of China, as the active participation of the pharmaceutical industry and drug regulatory authorities from the diffuse source of antibacterial pollution. Considering EPV experience of developed countries together with the actual conditions of China, we have identified some approaches that can be taken, including:• Focus on education;• Further strengthening and persevering the antibacterial stewardship strategies and pharmaceutical take-back programs in China;• Designing greener antibacterials with better degradability in the environment;• Implementing environmental risk assessment prior to launch of new drugs;• Strengthening collaboration in EPV-related areas. PMID:25947893

  5. Investigation of Junior Secondary Students' Perceptions of Mathematics Classroom Learning Environments in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xinrong

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study investigating junior secondary school students' perceptions of mathematics classroom learning environments in China. An adapted 'What Is Happening In this Classroom?' questionnaire was administered to a sample of 2324 junior secondary school students from 72 classrooms in six provinces.…

  6. From Environment to Sustainable Development: China's Strategies for ESD in Basic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tiedao

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to provide an overview of the reorientation of education in China in the period 1998-2009 with regard to development issues. During this time, the focus has shifted gradually from the environment and health to education for sustainable development. The article centres on highlighting the main interventions and strategies adopted…

  7. The relationship between manganism and the workplace environment in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongyi; Xue, Jian; Cheng, Shuqun; Ding, Yubin; He, Junlin; Liu, Xueqing; Chen, Xuemei; Wang, Yingxiong; Feng, Xiangyu; Xia, Yinyin

    2012-09-01

    Manganese is a trace element and a cofactor of many enzymes, so it is essential for physiologic functioning, but it is also a neurotoxin at high doses. Manganism is most often caused by occupational exposure. It is manifested by a myriad of signs and symptoms ranging from the neurasthenia syndrome, such as headache and dizziness, to the Parkinson-like syndrome, depending on the blood manganese levels as well as the duration of exposure. We are reporting a case of manganism using both clinical and occupational hygiene investigation methods. The patient presented the neurasthenia syndrome accompanied by hypertonicity of arm muscles and was diagnosed to have mild chronic manganism. Finally, the patient was discharged from the hospital after the treatment had improved her condition. In China, there are many chronic manganese cases, partly due to a rapid industrial development with great use of Mn and the low self-protection awareness among the workers and the factories management that cannot catch up with the speed of the economical development. Therefore, factories are responsible for improving the conditions at the workplace. PMID:23055228

  8. Rural electric energy services in China: Implementing the renewable energy challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Weingart, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses issues related to rural electrification in China, with emphasis on a pilot project in Mongolia to implement small scale renewable energy sources. These projects consist of photovoltaic systems, wind electric systems, photovoltaic/wind hybrid systems, and wind/gasoline generator sets. These systems are small enough to implement in rural environments, more cost effective than grid type systems, and have lower cost than standard generator sets alone because of the improved reliability. The author also discusses the use of such systems for village power sources. A number of factors are contributing to the increase in such systems. Individuals are able and willing to pay for such systems, lending institutions are willing to fund such small-scale projects, they provide reliable, high quality services which support social and economic development.

  9. Fungal Genomics for Energy and Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2013-03-11

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). One of its projects, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts) by means of genome sequencing and analysis. New chapters of the Encyclopedia can be opened with user proposals to the JGI Community Sequencing Program (CSP). Another JGI project, the 1000 fungal genomes, explores fungal diversity on genome level at scale and is open for users to nominate new species for sequencing. Over 200 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supported by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.

  10. Interplay between environment, agriculture and infectious diseases of poverty: case studies in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guo-Jing; Utzinger, Jürg; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the natural environment and agricultural systems induced by economic and industrial development, including population dynamics (growth, urbanization, migration), are major causes resulting in the persistence, emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases in developing countries. In the face of rapid demographic, economic and social transformations, the People's Republic of China (P.R. China) is undergoing unprecedented environmental and agricultural change. We review emerging and re-emerging diseases such as schistosomiasis, dengue, avian influenza, angiostrongyliasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis that have occurred in P.R. China due to environmental and agricultural change. This commentary highlights the research priorities and the response strategies, namely mitigation and adaptation, undertaken to eliminate the resurgence of those infectious diseases. PMID:23906612

  11. Adverse environments and children's creativity development: transforming the notion of "success in adversity" in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important implications for China's future as it brings together one of China's core cultural values-"success in adversity"-the importance of creativity, and very real social and economic needs. "Success in adversity" reflects the strongly held belief that individuals who suffer adverse environments can rise to excellence and success through persistence, effort, and creativity. In this article, we briefly explore the historical sources of this belief and how it is closely related to the Chinese conception of creativity. We then present some studies on the creativity of some of China's migrant children. Findings show that while migrant children as a group may not generally exhibit higher creativity than their urban peers as hypothesized, indications of resilience and creative potential suggest that the notion of success in adversity may contribute to the positive development of China's migrant children more substantially when it is informed by research and augmented by research-supported policy. PMID:25732020

  12. Annual review of energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hollander, J.M. ); Socolow, R.H. ); Sternlight, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: Energy end use and conservation; Energy resources and technologies; Risks and impacts of energy production and use; Energy policy; International and regional topics.

  13. Recent trends of energy consumption and air pollution in China

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, H.Z.; Hao, J.M.; Hu, M.Y.; Nie, Y.F.

    2007-03-15

    The relationship between air pollution and energy consumption is a hot topic that is receiving increased attention by industry, regulatory agencies, as well as the public. China is currently undergoing a profound economic and social transition. Since the late 1990s, China's energy production and consumption have undergone an unexpectedly precipitous up-and-down fluctuation, and the related air pollution has changed dramatically. In this study, energy use and the related air pollution during the past years are analyzed and discussed in detail. Further, suggestions on sustainable energy use, air pollution control, as well as CO{sub 2}, abatement are proposed. By 2003, the total primary energy consumption of China had reached 1678.00 million tons (MT) of standard coal equivalent. As a result, emissions of SO{sub 2}, and NOx increased to 21.58 and 16.13 MT in 2003, respectively. Acid rain pollution worsened nationwide after 2000, with the areas of acid rain remaining stable while some seriously acid rain polluted areas worsened. This implies that more rigorous regulations, standards, and effective economic policies are needed.

  14. Current development of biorefinery in China.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tianwei; Shang, Fei; Zhang, Xu

    2010-01-01

    To meet the demand of its fast growing economy, China has become already the second largest buyer of crude oil. China is facing critical problems of energy shortage and environment deterioration. Rational and efficient energy use and environment protection are both getting more attention in China. Biomass energy is renewable energy made from biological sources. China's biomass resources are abundant, which could provide energy for future social and economic development. However technologies for biomass resource conversion in China are still just beginning. In this paper, current biomass resource distribution and technologies of biomass energy, including power generation, biofuel production and biomass-based chemical production are reviewed. PMID:20493245

  15. Fueling the dragon: Energy security in China -- Is there a role for US policy

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, A.G.

    1998-12-01

    Many authors talk about the rising power of China and the `China threat.` One area where conflict has frequently been predicted is in China`s pursuit of energy security. This thesis explores China`s energy situation, options available to meet rising demand, environmental impact of these options, and possible ways to mitigate these effects. The thesis then determines to what extent China will be unable to meet its needs from domestic sources and have to look overseas. Then, a review of China`s most likely overseas suppliers will explain where China`s actions could be threatening to US interests, and where fears are overblown. The areas where concern is most warranted is in China`s increasing dependence on imports for its oil needs, and its continued reliance on coal usage. The desire to ensure secure oil supplies has led China to deal with Iran and Iraq, despite US desires to isolate these nations. China is also increasing its influence throughout the Middle East, Central Asia, South America, and retains claims in the South China Sea. While actions in these regions are not necessarily threatening, US policy can play a role in keeping it that way.

  16. What Can China Do? China's Best Alternative Outcome for Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    G. Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; T. Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-07-01

    After rapid growth in economic development and energy demand over the last three decades, China has undertaken energy efficiency improvement efforts to reduce its energy intensity under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP). Since becoming the world's largest annual CO{sub 2} emitter in 2007, China has set reduction targets for energy and carbon intensities and committed to meeting 15% of its total 2020 energy demand with non-fossil fuel. Despite having achieved important savings in 11th FYP efficiency programs, rising per capita income and the continued economic importance of trade will drive demand for transport activity and fuel use. At the same time, an increasingly 'electrified' economy will drive rapid power demand growth. Greater analysis is therefore needed to understand the underlying drivers, possible trajectories and mitigation potential in the growing industrial, transport and power sectors. This study uses scenario analysis to understand the likely trajectory of China's energy and carbon emissions to 2030 in light of the current and planned portfolio of programs, policies and technology development and ongoing urbanization and demographic trends. It evaluates the potential impacts of alternative transportation and power sector development using two key scenarios, Continued Improvement Scenario (CIS) and Accelerated Improvement Scenario (AIS). CIS represents the most likely path of growth based on continuation of current policies and meeting announced targets and goals, including meeting planned appliance efficiency standard revisions, fuel economy standards, and industrial targets and moderate phase-out of subcritical coal-fired generation with additional non-fossil generation. AIS represents a more aggressive trajectory of accelerated improvement in energy intensity and decarbonized power and transport sectors. A range of sensitivity analysis and power technology scenarios are tested to evaluate the impact of additional actions such as carbon capture and

  17. Energy and Environment Division, annual report FY 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Osowitt, M.

    1981-07-01

    This report covers research in: energy analysis; energy efficiency studies; solar energy; chemical process; energy-efficient buildings; environmental pollutant studies; combustion research; laser spectroscopy and trace elements; and oil shale and coal research. An energy and environment personnel listing is appended. Separate projects are indexed individually for the database. (PSB)

  18. China model: Energy modeling the modern dynasty

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Jason

    1996-05-01

    In this paper a node-based microeconomic analysis is used to model the Chinese energy system. This model is run across multiple periods employing Lagrangian Relaxation techniques to achieve general equilibrium. Later, carbon dioxide emissions are added and the model is run to answer the question, {open_quotes}How can greenhouse gas emissions be reduced{close_quotes}?

  19. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  20. The occurrence and ecological risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in urban aquatic environments of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Jingling; Liu, Huayong; Wan, Guisheng; Zhang, Shaowei

    2015-07-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used in the manufacturing of plastics, and the demand for PAEs has grown rapidly, especially in China. This trend will lead to much more environmental PAE contamination. PAEs are listed as priority substances in the European Union and are therefore subject to ecological risk assessments. This paper reviews the literature concerning the pollution status of PAEs and their ecological risk to aquatic environments. Risk quotients (RQs) based on the predicted no effect concentration and PAE concentrations in aquatic environments demonstrated significant (10 ≤ RQ < 100) or expected (RQ ≥ 100) potential adverse effects for algae, Daphnia, and fish in aquatic environments near PAE-based industrial and urban areas. Thus, the ecological risk of PAEs in Chinese aquatic environments should be considered, especially in areas where commercial plastics are produced. PMID:25847103

  1. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China.

    PubMed

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  2. Defining fire environment zones in the boreal forests of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Yang, Jian; Liang, Yu

    2015-06-15

    Fire activity in boreal forests will substantially increase with prolonged growing seasons under a warming climate. This trend poses challenges to managing fires in boreal forest landscapes. A fire environment zone map offers a basis for evaluating these fire-related problems and designing more effective fire management plans to improve the allocation of management resources across a landscape. Toward that goal, we identified three fire environment zones across boreal forest landscapes in northeastern China using analytical methods to identify spatial clustering of the environmental variables of climate, vegetation, topography, and human activity. The three fire environment zones were found to be in strong agreement with the spatial distributions of the historical fire data (occurrence, size, and frequency) for 1966-2005. This paper discusses how the resulting fire environment zone map can be used to guide forest fire management and fire regime prediction. PMID:25747370

  3. Energy Structure and Energy Security under Climate Mitigation Scenarios in China

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ken’ichi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how energy structure and energy security in China will change in the future under climate mitigation policy scenarios using Representative Concentration Pathways in a computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China needs to shift its energy structure from fossil fuel dominance to renewables and nuclear. The lower the allowable emissions, the larger the shifts required. Among fossil fuels, coal use particularly must significantly decrease. Such structural shifts will improve energy self-sufficiency, thus enhancing energy security. Under the policy scenarios, energy-source diversity as measured by the Herfindahl Index improves until 2050, after which diversity declines because of high dependence on a specific energy source (nuclear and biomass). Overall, however, it is revealed that energy security improves along with progress in climate mitigation. These improvements will also contribute to the economy by reducing energy procurement risks. PMID:26660094

  4. Energy Structure and Energy Security under Climate Mitigation Scenarios in China.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how energy structure and energy security in China will change in the future under climate mitigation policy scenarios using Representative Concentration Pathways in a computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, China needs to shift its energy structure from fossil fuel dominance to renewables and nuclear. The lower the allowable emissions, the larger the shifts required. Among fossil fuels, coal use particularly must significantly decrease. Such structural shifts will improve energy self-sufficiency, thus enhancing energy security. Under the policy scenarios, energy-source diversity as measured by the Herfindahl Index improves until 2050, after which diversity declines because of high dependence on a specific energy source (nuclear and biomass). Overall, however, it is revealed that energy security improves along with progress in climate mitigation. These improvements will also contribute to the economy by reducing energy procurement risks. PMID:26660094

  5. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  6. Analysis of Ecological Quality of the Environment and Influencing Factors in China during 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005–2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005–2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005–2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

  7. Analysis of ecological quality of the environment and influencing factors in China during 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Yao, Yao; Zhou, Yi

    2014-02-01

    Since the twentieth century, China has been facing various kinds of environmental problems. It is necessary to evaluate and analyze the ecological status of the environment over China, which is of great importance for environmental protection measures. In this article, an Eco-environmental Quality Index (EQI) model is established using national remote sensing land-use data, NDVI data from MODIS and other statistical data. The model is used to evaluate the ecological status over China during 2005, 2008 and 2010, and spatial and temporal variations in EQI are analyzed during the period 2005-2010. We also discuss important factors affecting ecological quality, with special emphasis on meteorological conditions (including rainfall and sunshine duration) and anthropogenic factors (including normalized population and gross domestic product densities). The results show that, EQIs in northwestern China are generally lower than those in the southeast of the country, presenting a ladder-like distribution. There is significant correlation between EQI, rainfall and sunshine duration. Population density and GDP also have some relation to EQI. On the whole, the environmental quality results showed little variation during 2005-2010, with national average EQIs of 54.86, 55.07 and 54.43 in 2005, 2008 and 2010, respectively. During 2005-2010, differences in EQI were observed at the local level, but those at the provincial level were small. PMID:24487456

  8. Investigation on the Standard for Energy and Environmental Designof Residential House in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yumiko, Ogawa; Weijun, Gao; Nan, Zhou; Toshiyuki, Watanabe; Hiroshi,Yoshino; Toshio, Ojima

    2004-07-01

    In this research, the authors have carried out the researchto investigate the characteristics of building energy standards of theresidential building in China. Efforts have also been made to promote abetter understanding of the energy policy and relevant standard forarchitects and building designers to achieve optimal energy efficientbuilding design in China. The results can mainly summarized as follows:(1) As for the thermal environment design, the climate of China has beenclassified five zones. (2) The sunlight, lighting, ventilationenvironment of residential building have been specified in the newstandards. (3) Prescribed the building design elements, such as layout,orientation, shape, color, plan and the type of window. In particular,the thermal insulation measures for heating system has been added in hotsummer and cold winter region, which was not described in old standard.(4) It is admitted that there is still a difference compared with thestandard of many foreign countries, and the improvement in the furtherheat insulation performance and positive execution of the standardcontinue to be expected.

  9. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

  10. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics. PMID:23533344

  11. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the aquatic environment in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qingwei; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Deng, Shubo; Yu, Gang

    2013-11-15

    Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) have been detected as contaminants of emerging concern ubiquitously in the aquatic environment in China and worldwide. A clear picture of PPCP contamination in the Chinese aquatic environment is needed to gain insight for both research and regulatory needs (e.g. monitoring, control and management). The occurrence data of 112 PPCPs in waters and sediments in China has been reviewed. In most cases, the detected concentration of these PPCPs in waters and sediments were at ng/L and ng/g levels, which were lower than or comparable to those reported worldwide. A screening level risk assessment (SLERA) identified six priority PPCPs in surface waters, namely erythromycin, roxithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, salicylic acid and sulfamethoxazole. The results of SLERA also revealed that the hot spots for PPCP pollution were those river waters affected by the megacities with high density of population, such as Beijing, Tianjin, Guangzhou and Shanghai. Limitations of current researches and implications for future research in China were discussed. Some regulatory issues were also addressed. PMID:24036145

  12. The impact of relative energy prices on industrial energy consumption in China: a consideration of inflation costs.

    PubMed

    He, Lingyun; Ding, Zhihua; Yin, Fang; Wu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Significant effort has been exerted on the study of economic variables such as absolute energy prices to understand energy consumption and economic growth. However, this approach ignores general inflation effects, whereby the prices of baskets of goods may rise or fall at different rates from those of energy prices. Thus, it may be the relative energy price, not the absolute energy price, that has most important effects on energy consumption. To test this hypothesis, we introduce a new explanatory variable, the domestic relative energy price, which we define as "the ratio of domestic energy prices to the general price level of an economy," and we test the explanatory power of this new variable. Thus, this paper explores the relationship between relative energy prices and energy consumption in China from the perspective of inflation costs over the period from 1988 to 2012. The direct, regulatory and time-varying effects are captured using methods such as ridge regression and the state-space model. The direct impacts of relative energy prices on total energy consumption and intensity are -0.337 and -0.250, respectively; the effects of comprehensive regulation on energy consumption through the economic structure and the energy structure are -0.144 and -0.148, respectively; and the depressing and upward effects of rising and falling energy prices on energy consumption are 0.3520 and 0.3564, respectively. When economic growth and the energy price level were stable, inflation persisted; thus, rising energy prices benefitted both the economy and the environment. Our analysis is important for policy makers to establish effective energy-pricing policies that ensure both energy conservation and the stability of the pricing system. PMID:27398277

  13. Energy and environment legislative digest 2008

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-15

    This Digest (published every year) is a compilation of energy and environmental legislation enacted by the Southern States Energy Board's 18 member states and territories during the 2008 legislative session.

  14. Texas - Energy Collaborations Working for the Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-12-01

    This fact sheet highlights how renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies can and are being used to reduce air emissions and meet environmental goals, showcasing case studies and technology-specific topics.

  15. Energy and Environment Division annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, J.; Osowitt, M.

    1980-10-01

    Research progress for 1979 is summarized in short reports in the following areas: Energy Analysis Program; Energy Efficient Buildings Program; Solar Energy Program; Chemical Process Research and Development Program; Environmental Research Program; conbustion research; effects of pollutants on biological systems; atmospheric aerosol research; and applied research in laser spectroscopy and analytical techniques. Items within the scope of EDB have been entered individually. (ACR)

  16. The Energy-Environment Simulator as a Classroom Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sell, Nancy J.; Van Koevering, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the use, availability, and flexibility of the Energy-Environment Simulator, a specially designed analog computer which simulates the real-world energy situation and which is programed with estimated United States and world supplies of energy sources and estimated United States energy demands. (MP)

  17. From environment to sustainable development: China's strategies for ESD in basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tiedao

    2010-06-01

    This paper intends to provide an overview of the reorientation of education in China in the period 1998-2009 with regard to development issues. During this time, the focus has shifted gradually from the environment and health to education for sustainable development. The article centres on highlighting the main interventions and strategies adopted by China's schools to make this reorientation possible, including: the introduction of new visions of sustainable development and project planning; the establishment of organisational mechanisms and capacity-building measures for their implementation in the field; the integration of ESD into teaching and learning processes; the maintenance of an action-research mechanism for innovations; and the sharing of lessons with both the national and the international community in order to make the implementation of ESD more effective.

  18. Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Price, Lynn; Lu, Hongyou

    2010-12-21

    China has set an ambitious goal of reducing its energy use per unit of GDP by 20% between 2006 and 2010. Since the industrial sector consumes about two-thirds of China's primary energy, many of the country's efforts are focused on improving the energy efficiency of this sector. Industrial energy audits have become an important part of China's efforts to improve its energy intensity. In China, industrial energy audits have been employed to help enterprises indentify energy-efficiency improvement opportunities for achieving the energy-saving targets. These audits also serve as a mean to collect critical energy-consuming information necessary for governments at different levels to supervise enterprises energy use and evaluate their energy performance. To better understand how energy audits are carried out in China as well as their impacts on achieving China's energy-saving target, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted an in-depth study that combines a review of China's national policies and guidelines on energy auditing and a series of discussions with a variety of Chinese institutions involved in energy audits. This report consists of four parts. First, it provides a historical overview of energy auditing in China over the past decades, describing how and why energy audits have been conducted during various periods. Next, the report reviews current energy auditing practices at both the national and regional levels. It then discusses some of the key issues related to energy audits conducted in China, which underscore the need for improvement. The report concludes with policy recommendations for China that draw upon international best practices and aim to remove barriers to maximizing the potential of energy audits.

  19. Studies on Actinomycetal Resources under Extreme Environments in the West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.

    2005-12-01

    s: Actinomycetes play a quite important role in natural ecological system and they are also profile producers of antibiotics, antitumor agents, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and immunomodifiers. which have been widely applied in industry, agriculture, forestry and pharmaceutical industry. In the past, the research work on actinomycetes was mainly concentrated on that of common habitats. Actinomycetes resources under extreme environments (including extreme high and low temperature, extreme high or low pH, high salt concentration etc.) have received comparatively little attention from microbiologists. Actinomycetes are regarded as one kind of sideline microorganisms and those under extreme environments are better materials for biological evolution and phylogenetic development in research. There are much more unknown species and much more worth researching for actinomycetes under extreme environments. There are many extreme environmental resources in the west of China. For example, wide range snow-mountains, basified soil and lakes, widely distributed acid and alkaline hot-springs in Yunnan provinces; more than 73.3 million hektares basified soil and salt lakes in Xinjiang Province and many unusual environments in Qinghai Province and other western Provinces. They were mostly precious natural resources and were destroyed, relatively fewer can provided us with unique conditions for study on actinomycetal resources under extreme environments. In recent years, our main work was focusing on study of extremophilic actinomycetal resources in the west of China by using conventional cultivation-methods and culture-independent methods (PCR-clone and DGGE/TGGE, etc), Results showed that large amount of unknown microbial resources (including actinomycetal resources) existed in natural extreme environments. Additionally, lots of new taxa were isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Further, we got some new compounds with different bioactivities from these

  20. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  1. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  2. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  3. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  4. The Environment, Energy, and the Tinbergen Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, William A.

    2009-01-01

    Higher energy prices and the growing concern about global warming have led to a number of policy goals and targets designed to curb global warming and/or the development of alternative sources of energy. However, the Tinbergen Rule states that for each and every policy target there must be at least one policy tool. If there are fewer tools than…

  5. Energy and the Environment. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, John M.

    This 17-chapter book (which may also be used as a textbook) provides a thorough insight into the basic facts about energy as well as new and transitional technologies such as synthetic fuels. The book also helps examine the economic, societal, and political aspects of the energy situation in detail, consistently providing technical data to support…

  6. Energy/Environment Fact Book. Decision Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This collection of data and graphics were prepared in response to a request from the White House Energy Policy and Planning Staff. The focus of this document is on those environmental issues which will, in the near and midterm future, prove important to the rapid development of domestic energy resources. This report emphasizes coal because of its…

  7. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Levine, Mark

    2009-06-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it to the rank of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modelling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities. From this analysis, we can conclude that Chinese residential energy consumption will more than double by 2020, from 6.6 EJ in 2000 to 15.9 EJ in 2020. This increase will be driven primarily by urbanization, in combination with increases in living standards. In the urban and higher income Chinese households of the future, most major appliances will be common, and heated and cooled areas will grow on average. These shifts will offset the relatively modest efficiency gains expected according to current government plans and policies already in place. Therefore, levelling and reduction of growth in residential energy demand in China will require a new set of more aggressive efficiency policies.

  8. Energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions in China

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaolin Xi

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of future Chinese energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fossil fuels. This study examines the current Chinese energy system, estimates CO{sub 2} emissions from burning fossil fuels and projects future energy use and resulting CO{sub 2} emissions up to the year of 2050. Based on the results of the study, development strategies are proposed and policy implications are explored. This study first develops a Base scenario projection of the Chinese energy development based upon a sectoral analysis. The Base scenario represents a likely situation of future development, but many alternatives are possible. To explore this range of alternatives, a systematic uncertainty analysis is performed. The Base scenario also represents an extrapolation of current policies and social and economic trends. As such, it is not necessarily the economically optimal future course for Chinese energy development. To explore this issue, an optimization analysis is performed. For further understanding of developing Chinese energy system and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, a Chinese energy system model with 84 supply and demand technologies has been constructed in MARKAL, a computer LP optimization program for energy systems. Using this model, various technological options and economic aspects of energy development and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction in China during the 1985-2020 period are examined.

  9. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    2011 is the first year of the 12th Five-Year Plan and, as such, it is a crucial year to push forward the work of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Important large-scale energy conservation policies issued in 2011 include Outline of the 12th Five-year Plan for National Economic and Social Development of The People’s Republic of China (the “Plan”) and Notice of the State Council on Issuing the Comprehensive Work Proposal for Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period (GF (2011) No. 26) (the “Proposal”). These two policies have established strategic objectives for energy conservation during the 12th Five-Year Plan in China, and they have also identified the key tasks and direction of energy efficiency programs for energy-using products.

  10. A social survey on the noise impact in open-plan working environments in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Kang, Jian; Jiao, Fenglei

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal noise impact in open-plan working environments in China, through a series of questionnaire surveys and acoustic measurements in typical open-plan working environments. It has been found that compared to other physical environmental factors in open-plan working environments, people are much less satisfied with the acoustic environment. The noise impact in the surveyed working environments is rather significant, in terms of sound level inside the office, understanding of colleagues' conversation, and the use of background music such as music players. About 30-50% of the interviewees think that various noise sources inside and outside offices are 'very disturbing' and 'disturbing', and the most annoying sounds include noises from outside, ventilation systems, office equipment, and keyboard typing. Using higher panels to separate work space, or working in enclosed offices, are regarded as effective improvement measures, whereas introducing natural sounds to mask unwanted sounds seems to be not preferable. There are significant correlations between the evaluation of acoustic environment and office symptoms, including hypersensitivity to loud sounds, easily getting tired and depression. There are also significant correlations between evaluation of various acoustics-related factors and certain statements relating to job satisfaction, including sensitivity to noise, as well as whether conversations could be heard by colleagues. PMID:23032568

  11. Interregional sharing of energy conservation targets in China: Efficiency and equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dan

    Energy conservation is a long-term strategic policy in China to support its economic and social development. This policy strategy is important for saving resources, protecting the environment, and ensuring the secure supply of energy to all economic activities. However, energy conservation often involves large amounts of investment and may also have dampening impacts on some local and regional economies. Moreover, energy conservation and efficiency improvement have many features of a public good. Therefore, government policy and intervention play a strong role to foster regional efforts and cooperative interregional actions on this issue. This dissertation introduces and analyzes a promising policy instrument---an interregional energy conservation-quota trading system---to help China fulfill its national energy conservation objective in an efficient and equitable way. To analyze the workings of the energy conservation-quota trading system, trading entities are first determined. In this study, statistical analyses (principal component analysis and cluster analysis) are applied to identify regional aggregations of provinces of China to act as the trading units. The marginal energy conservation cost curves of these regions are developed using engineering-economic methods and regression analysis. Simulations of interregional conservation-quota trading are undertaken after China's conservation goals in 2010 are allocated among regions according to several equity criteria. Various equity criteria are applied and analyzed in this study because of the philosophical differences in the appropriate definition of the concept. The trading simulations yield several important findings. First, the introduction of an interregional quota trading system can minimize both regional net compliance costs and national total conservation costs, irrespective of how the conservation tasks are initially allocated among regions according to different equity rules. Second, regional welfare

  12. Induced innovation, energy prices, and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, David Clifford

    The process of developing new technologies is a central question for economic theory as well as for public policy in many areas. For example, the development of cleaner, more efficient energy technologies will play an important role in reducing the threat of global warming. To study how technology evolves over time, this dissertation uses patent data on energy innovations from 1970 to 1991 to examine the impact of energy prices on energy-efficient innovations. Before this can be done, however, information on supply-side factors which influence innovation is also needed. In the case of innovation, supply-side factors are the usefulness of the existing base of scientific knowledge. Patent citations are used for this purpose. Subsequent citations to patents granted each year since 1970 are used to show that the returns to research and development (R&D) fall over time for most of the technologies studied. These estimates are then combined with data on demand-side factors, such as energy prices, to estimate a model of induced innovation in energy technologies. Both energy prices and the supply of knowledge are found to have strongly significant positive effects on innovation. Next, the Yale Technology Concordance (YTC), which maps patents to the industries in which they are used, is employed to construct a stock of energy-related knowledge for 14 energy intensive industries. The effect of changes in this stock on energy consumption in these industries is estimated. On average, the present value of energy savings resulting from a new patent is eight million dollars, with the maximum savings coming about five years after the initial patent application. Finally, the results of each regression are combined to simulate the impact of a ten percent energy tax. Initially, simple factor substitution due to the price change has the largest effect. However, because of the cumulative nature of R&D, induced innovation has a much larger effect than factor substitution in the long run

  13. Smoking Experimentation among Elementary School Students in China: Influences from Peers, Families, and the School Environment

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Koplan, Jeffrey; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Changwei; Guo, Chaoran; Liu, Jing; Li, Hui; Kegler, Michelle; Redmon, Pam; Eriksen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate experimentation with smoking among primary school students in China. Data were acquired from a recent survey of 4,073 students in grades 4 to 6 (ages 9–12) in 11 primary schools of Ningbo City. The questions were adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Results suggest that although the Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE) encourages smoke-free schools, experimentation with cigarettes remains a serious problem among primary school students in China. Peers, family members, and the school environment play important roles in influencing smoking experimentation among students. Having a friend who smoked, seeing a family member smoke, and observing a teacher smoking on campus predicted a higher risk of experimentation with smoking; the exposure to anti-tobacco materials at school predicted a lower risk of experimentation with smoking. The evidence suggests that public health practitioners and policymakers should seek to ensure the implementation of smoke-free policies and that intervention should target young people, families, and communities to curb the commencement of smoking among children and adolescents in China. PMID:23991172

  14. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  15. Rural Junior Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments and Their Attitude and Achievement in Mathematics in West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xinrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…

  16. Managing carbon emissions in China through building energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Colombier, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This paper attempts to analyse the role of building energy efficiency (BEE) in China in addressing climate change mitigation. It provides an analysis of the current situation and future prospects for the adoption of BEE technologies in Chinese cities. It outlines the economic and institutional barriers to large-scale deployment of the sustainable, low-carbon, and even carbon-free construction techniques. Based on a comprehensive overview of energy demand characteristics and development trends driven by economic and demographic growth, different policy tools for cost-effective CO(2) emission reduction in the Chinese construction sector are described. We propose a comprehensive approach combining building design and construction, and the urban planning and building material industries, in order to drastically improve BEE during this period of rapid urban development. A coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure the implementation of efficiency policies. Regulatory and incentive options should be integrated into the policy portfolios of BEE to minimise the efficiency gap and to realise sizeable carbon emissions cuts in the next decades. We analyse in detail several policies and instruments, and formulate relevant policy proposals fostering low-carbon construction technology in China. Specifically, Our analysis shows that improving building energy efficiency can generate considerable carbon emissions reduction credits with competitive price under the CDM framework. PMID:19344996

  17. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Drazga

    2005-05-15

    The report is broken up into 4 Sections: Section I - Overview of China Energy Market (historical background, market value, consumption, production, reserves, export and import, market segmentation, market forecast); Section II - Market Analysis (PEST analysis, Porter's five forces analysis, socio-economic trends, consumption trends); Section III - Market Segments (electricity, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, nuclear power, coal, renewables, photovoltaics, wind power, hydroelectric power. Each market segment details current and planned projects, and lists participants in that sector); and Section IV - Breaking Into the Market (regulatory framework, methods of market entry, foreign investment, challenges, government agencies).

  18. Energy & Man's Environment Impact Study. Summary of Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsfall, J. Stuart

    An evaluation was conducted on the effectiveness of Energy and Man's Environment (EME), a nonprofit energy organization which conducts energy programs in 15 states around the United States. Three research questions were addressed: (1) Who is the consumer of EME workshops and the user of EME materials? (2) How do participants view EME workshops.…

  19. WESTERN ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE ENVIRONMENT: GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geothermal energy--from subsurface heat sources created by the underlying geologic configuration of the earth--is addressed, from an environmental research and development perspective. The report covers various geothermal energy systems, which serve as present or potential energy...

  20. Biomass energy systems and the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, H. M.; Kanciruk, P.; Roop, R. D.; Sharples, F. E.; Tatum, J. S.; Oakes, K. M.

    The technology, resources, applied, and experimental features of biomass energy resources are explored, with an emphasis on environmental and social implications of large-scale biomass development. The existing land and water based biomass resource is described in terms of available energy, ecological concerns, agricultural crops, livestock production, freshwater systems, and ocean systems. Attention is given to proposed systems of biomass energy production from forestry and silviculture, agricultural crops, livestock wastes, and freshwater and ocean systems. A survey is made of various biomass materials, techniques for conversion to gas, liquid fuels, or for direct combustion, and impacts of large-scale biomass production and harvest are examined. Particular note is made of the effects of scaling biomass conversion systems, including near- and long-term applications, and ethics and aesthetic concerns.

  1. The Future of Energy and Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frois, Bernard

    2011-05-01

    This brief review is a tribute to Professor Akito Arima on the occasion of his 80th birthday, celebrated at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. Professor Akito Arima has played a major role in nuclear physics and the development of international collaborations. He has strongly encouraged the science community to bridge university research and industry, and to connect science to the needs of the world population. This paper describes the present challenges of producing enough energy for the world population in a context of diminishing fossil fuels and climate change. Coal, gas and nuclear energy dominate the scene at short and medium term, while new energy technologies are very promising in the long term. In contrast with the situation ten years ago, a significant expansion of nuclear power is planned all over the world.

  2. Energy and environment. A Sandia technology bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, L.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-03-01

    This bulletin discusses the following: decontamination of polluted water by using a photocatalyst to convert ultraviolet energy into electrochemical energy capable of destroying organic waste and removing toxic metals; monitoring oil spills with SAR by collecting data in digital form, processing the data, and creating digital images that are recorded for post-mission viewing and processing; revitalization of a solar industrial process heat system which uses parabolic troughs to heat water for foil production of integrated circuits; and an electronic information system, EnviroTRADE (Environmental Technologies for Remedial Actions Data Exchange) for worldwide exchange of environmental restoration and waste management information.

  3. Transportation: Environment, energy and the economy

    SciTech Connect

    Petrakis, L.

    1993-01-11

    In the US, the transportation sector consumes over one quarter of the entire energy used, almost in its entirety as petroleum products, and in quantities greater than the total US domestic oil production. The transportation sector is responsible for a significant fraction of all emissions that either prevent US cities from achieving compliance with EPA air quality standards or have serious global change implications. Finally, the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and employment due to the sector are low and incommensurate with the high fraction of energy that the transportation sector consumes. We examine below this situation in some detail and make recommendations for improvements.

  4. Modelling the effects of contaminated environments on HFMD infections in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyan; Xiao, Yanni; Cheke, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) has spread widely in mainland China increasing in prevalence in most years with serious consequences for child health. The HFMD virus can survive for a long period outside the host in suitable conditions, and hence contaminated environments may play important roles in HFMD infection. A new mathematical model was proposed and used to investigate the roles that asymptomatic individuals and contaminated environments played in HFMD dynamics. The model includes both direct transmission between susceptible and infected individuals and indirect transmission via free-living infectious unites in the environment. Theoretical analysis shows that the disease goes to extinction if the basic reproduction number is less than unity, whilst otherwise the disease persists. By fitting the proposed model to surveillance data we estimated the basic reproduction number as 1.509. Numerical simulations show that increasing the rate of virus clearance and decreasing transmission rates can delay epidemic outbreaks and weaken the severity of HFMD. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the basic reproduction number is sensitive to the transmission rate induced by asymptomatic infectious individuals and parameters associated with contaminated environments such as the indirect transmission rate, the rate of clearance and the virus shedding rates. This implies that asymptomatic infectious individuals and contaminated environments contribute substantially to new HFMD infections, and so would be targets for effective control measures. PMID:26738934

  5. Initial Corrosion Behavior and Mechanism of PCB-HASL in Typical Outdoor Environments in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kangkang; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chaofang; Zou, Shiwen; Yi, Pan; Li, Xiaogang

    2015-11-01

    A long-term (1, 3, and 6 months) outdoor exposure test was performed for lead-free hot air solder leveling printed circuit boards (PCB-HASL) in typical environments in China and the corrosion behavior and mechanism of outdoor PCB-HASL were investigated. In a dry environment PCB-HASL corroded slightly, because of the protective effect of surface oxide films. Corrosion spread from places where dust particles were deposited or mold spores were adsorbed. Under the combined effects of humidity and contamination, large amounts of granular corrosion products with a loose structure were generated, greatly reducing the protective effect of the Sn layer. Furthermore, protection of the edges of the plates was poor, and corrosion products from these regions migrated rapidly on the FR-4 board. When a 12 V electrical bias was applied, Sn and Cu migrated simultaneously. In the electrochemical migration process the effect of humidity was much more critical than that of contamination.

  6. The Energy and Environment Glossary, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John; Dalton, Edward

    This is a glossary of words that commonly appear in energy education and environmental education materials. With over 750 words ranging from "abatement" to "zooplankton" this publication includes some uncommon terms such as "anadromous,""film badge,""putrescible," and "tritium." Space is provided after each alphabetical section for the addition of…

  7. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yindong; Yao, Ruihua; He, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Cen; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Min

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution. In China Women's Development Program, the Chinese government set the target to make over 85% of the population in the rural access to the toilets in 2020. If the target set by the Chinese government is achieved, a decrease of 34% (12-54%) in the FC releases would be anticipated. In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority. PMID:27179203

  8. Nanoclimate environment of cyanobacterial communities in China's hot and cold hyperarid deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren-Rhodes, Kimberley A.; Rhodes, Kevin L.; Liu, Shuangjiang; Zhou, Peijin; McKay, Christopher P.

    2007-03-01

    This paper analyzes linkages between lithic (lithobiontic, lithophytic) cyanobacterial community (LCC) abundance and climate across a wide range of environmental conditions and geographical distance in China's northwest region, an area containing some of the world's oldest, driest and most isolated deserts. In situ monitoring and long-term climate data show that extreme heterogeneity in liquid water availability characterizes the LCC environment across multiple spatial and temporal scales, with rainfall and snowmelt being the main moisture sources. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) primarily dictates LCC ecology across sites, but the interacting effects of temperature, moisture and light create a gradient of soil liquid water (ALW, 505-1839 hr yr-1) and conditions suitable for metabolic activity (200-922 hr yr-1) that also correlate with LCC abundance (0.99 ± 0.2% to 12.6 ± 1.8%). In situ soil temperatures indicate a minimum range of thermal tolerance for LCC in China's deserts of -23.8°C to 53.8°C. Through a comparison of similar available climate data for other deserts, we conclude that from a microbial physiological standpoint, although the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert represents the driest nanoclimate environment recorded and the Dry Valleys in Antarctica represent the coldest desert conditions, it is the high-altitude deserts in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau that offer the coldest and driest recorded extremes for LCC on Earth.

  9. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential

  10. Interstate waste transport -- Emotions, energy, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1993-12-31

    This report applies quantitative analysis to the debate of waste transport and disposal. Moving from emotions and politics back to numbers, this report estimates potential energy, employment and environmental impacts associated with disposing a ton of municipal solid waste under three different disposal scenarios that reflect interstate and intrastate options. The results help provide a less emotional, more quantitative look at interstate waste transport restrictions.

  11. Interstate waste transport -- Emotions, energy, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report applies quantitative analysis to the debate of waste transport and disposal. Moving from emotions and politics back to numbers, this report estimates potential energy, employment and environmental impacts associated with disposing a ton of municipal solid waste under three different disposal scenarios that reflect interstate and intrastate options. The results help provide a less emotional, more quantitative look at interstate waste transport restrictions.

  12. Energy/environment/technology two visions, two directions

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Penner, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper compares the energy policies proposed by the U.S. Congress and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Connections between energy, economy, environment, and technology are discussed in some detail. The National Energy Policy Plan of the DOE is summarized, and the impact of budget cuts proposed by Congress are projected. Aspects of the DOE plan which are emphasized include research and development, minimization of regulation, and eliminating redundant government and private industry efforts. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael A.; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Price,Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2007-10-04

    This report provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis ofenergy consumption in China. It recalibrates official Chinese governmentstatistics by reallocating primary energy into categories more commonlyused in international comparisons. It also provides an analysis of trendsin sectoral energy consumption over the past decades. Finally, itassesses the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020,based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity,availability of energy services, and energy intensities. The followingare some highlights of the study's findings: * A reallocation of sectorenergy consumption from the 2000 official Chinese government statisticsfinds that: * Buildings account for 25 percent of primary energy, insteadof 19 percent * Industry accounts for 61 percent of energy instead of 69percent * Industrial energy made a large and unexpected leap between2000-2005, growing by an astonishing 50 percent in the 3 years between2002 and 2005. * Energy consumption in the iron and steel industry was 40percent higher than predicted * Energy consumption in the cement industrywas 54 percent higher than predicted * Overall energy intensity in theindustrial sector grew between 2000 and 2003. This is largely due tointernal shifts towards the most energy-intensive sub-sectors, an effectwhich more than counterbalances the impact of efficiency increases. *Industry accounted for 63 percent of total primary energy consumption in2005 - it is expected to continue to dominate energy consumption through2020, dropping only to 60 percent by that year. * Even assuming thatgrowth rates in 2005-2020 will return to the levels of 2000-2003,industrial energy will grow from 42 EJ in 2005 to 72 EJ in 2020. * Thepercentage of transport energy used to carry passengers (instead offreight) will double from 37 percent to 52 percent between 2000 to 2020,.Much of this increase is due to private car ownership, which willincrease by a factor of 15 from 5.1 million in 2000 to 77

  14. China's Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program:Reducing Energy Consumption of the 1000 Largest Industrial Enterprises in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun; Yun, Jiang

    2008-06-02

    In 2005, the Chinese government announced an ambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20% between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizing this goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. The energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for 33% of national and 47% of industrial energy usage in 2004. Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets were determined for each enterprise. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the program design and initial results, given limited information and data, in order to understand the possible implications of its success in terms of energy and carbon dioxide emissions reductions and to recommend future program modifications based on international experience with similar target-setting agreement programs. Even though the Top-1000 Program was designed and implemented rapidly, it appears that--depending upon the GDP growth rate--it could contribute to somewhere between approximately 10% and 25% of the savings required to support China's efforts to meet a 20% reduction in energy use per unit of GDP by 2010.

  15. The Surface Energy Budget in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hertel, W.

    2011-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) occur when urban and suburban areas experience elevated temperatures relative to their rural surroundings because of differences in vegetation cover, buildings and other development, and infrastructure. Most cities in the United States are warming at twice the rate of the outlying rural areas and the planet as a whole. This difference in temperature is proportional to the size of the city and can be in excess of 2-5°C during the daytime and as much as 10°C at night. UHIs can exacerbate the warming during heat waves and play a role in additional heat-related mortality, an increase in tropospheric ozone, and economic losses that total in the billions of dollars from excess energy consumption. Many cities are experimenting with strategies to reduce urban warming. A number of mitigation strategies involve manipulating the surface energy budget to either reduce the amount of solar radiation absorbed at the surface or offset absorbed energy through latent cooling. Options include using building materials with different properties of reflectivity and emissivity, increasing the reflectivity of parking lots, covering roofs with vegetation, and increasing the amount of vegetation overall through tree planting or increasing green space. The goal of the Islands in the Sun project is to understand the formation and behavior of urban heat islands and to mitigate their effects through sensible city engineering and design practices. Methods include analysis of global remotely sensed datasets, the development of a reduced-complexity urban model, and evaluation of measurements made in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA). The TCMA is a 7,700 square kilometer urban and suburban region located in east central Minnesota that includes the two cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul. Mitigation of the UHI in northern latitude cities, such as the TCMA, is a challenge because (1) residents in more northerly cities are more likely to suffer heat-related illness

  16. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-09-01

    According to the framework of "Pressure-State-Response", this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  17. Indicators for Environment Health Risk Assessment in the Jiangsu Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shujie; Wei, Zhengzheng; Liu, Wenliang; Yao, Ling; Suo, Wenyu; Xing, Jingjing; Huang, Bingzhao; Jin, Di; Wang, Jiansheng

    2015-01-01

    According to the framework of “Pressure-State-Response”, this study established an indicator system which can reflect comprehensive risk of environment and health for an area at large scale. This indicator system includes 17 specific indicators covering social and economic development, pollution emission intensity, air pollution exposure, population vulnerability, living standards, medical and public health, culture and education. A corresponding weight was given to each indicator through Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Comprehensive risk assessment of the environment and health of 58 counties was conducted in the Jiangsu province, China, and the assessment result was divided into four types according to risk level. Higher-risk counties are all located in the economically developed southern region of Jiangsu province and relatively high-risk counties are located along the Yangtze River and Xuzhou County and its surrounding areas. The spatial distribution of relatively low-risk counties is dispersive, and lower-risk counties mainly located in the middle region where the economy is somewhat weaker in the province. The assessment results provide reasonable and scientific basis for Jiangsu province Government in formulating environment and health policy. Moreover, it also provides a method reference for the comprehensive risk assessment of environment and health within a large area (provinces, regions and countries). PMID:26371016

  18. Pesticide levels and environmental risk in aquatic environments in China--A review.

    PubMed

    Grung, Merete; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Hua; Steen, Anne Orderdalen; Huang, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Larssen, Thorjørn

    2015-08-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of pesticides in the world today. Along with the widespread use of pesticides and industrialization, there is a growing concern for water quality. The present review aims to provide an overview of studies on pesticides in aquatic environments in China. The levels in the water, sediment and biota were scored according to a detailed environmental classification system based on ecotoxicological effect, which is therefore a useful tool for assessing the risk these compounds pose to the aquatic ecosystem. Our review reveals that the most studied areas in China are the most populated and the most developed economically and that the most frequently studied pesticides are DDT and HCH. We show maps of where studies have been conducted and show the ecotoxicological risk the pesticides pose in each of the matrices. Our review pinpoints the need for biota samples to assess the risk. A large fraction of the results from the studies are given an environmental classification of "very bad" based on levels in biota. In general, the risk is higher for DDT than HCH. A few food web studies have also been conducted, and we encourage further study of this important information from this region. The review reveals that many of the most important agricultural provinces (e.g., Henan, Hubei and Hunan) with the largest pesticide use have been the subject of few studies on the environmental levels of pesticides. We consider this to be a major knowledge gap for understanding the status of pesticide contamination and related risk in China. Furthermore, there is also a lack of studies in remote Chinese environments, which is also an important knowledge gap. The compounds analyzed and reported in the studies represent a serious bias because a great deal of attention is given to DDT and HCH, whereas the organophosphate insecticides dominating current use are less frequently investigated. For the future, we point to the need for an organized

  19. Role of non-fossil energy in meeting China's energy and climate target for 2020

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Sheng; Tong, Qing; Yu, Sha; Wang, Yu; Chai, Qimin; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-12-01

    China is the largest energy consumer and CO2 emitter in the world. The Chinese government faces growing challenges of ensuring energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To address these two issues, the Chinese government has announced two ambitious domestic indicative autonomous mitigation targets for 2020: increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15% and reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40-45% from 2005 levels. To explore the role of non-fossil energy in achieving these two targets, this paper first provides an overview of current status of non-fossil energy development in China; then gives a brief review of GDP and primary energy consumption; next assesses in detail the role of the non fossil energy in 2020, including the installed capacity and electricity generation of non-fossil energy sources, the share and role of non-fossil energy in the electricity structure, emissions reduction resulting from the shift to non-fossil energy, and challenges for accomplishing the mitigation targets in 2020 ; finally, conclusions and policy measures for non-fossil energy development are proposed.

  20. The Environment and Children’s Health Care in Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Industrialization in the northwest provinces of the People’s Republic of China is accelerating rapid increases in early life environmental exposures, yet no publications have assessed health care provider capacity to manage common hazards. Methods To assess provider attitudes and beliefs regarding the environment in children’s health, determine self-efficacy in managing concerns, and identify common approaches to managing patients with significant exposures or environmentally-mediated conditions, a two-page survey was administered to pediatricians, child care specialists, and nurses in five provinces (Gansu, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Qinghai, and Ningxia). Descriptive and multivariable analyses assessed predictors of strong self-efficacy, beliefs or attitudes. Results 960 surveys were completed with <5% refusal; 695 (72.3%) were valid for statistical analyses. The role of environment in health was rated highly (mean 4.35 on a 1-5 scale). Self-efficacy reported with managing lead, pesticide, air pollution, mercury, mold and polychlorinated biphenyl exposures were generally modest (2.22-2.52 mean). 95.4% reported patients affected with 11.9% reporting seeing >20 affected patients. Only 12.0% reported specific training in environmental history taking, and 12.0% reported owning a text on children’s environmental health. Geographic disparities were most prominent in multivariable analyses, with stronger beliefs in environmental causation yet lower self-efficacy in managing exposures in the northwestern-most province. Conclusions Health care providers in Northwest China have strong beliefs regarding the role of environment in children’s health, and frequently identify affected children. Few are trained in environmental history taking or rate self-efficacy highly in managing common hazards. Enhancing provider capacity has promise for improving children’s health in the region. PMID:24670157

  1. 76 FR 18813 - China Changjiang Mining & New Energy Co., Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China Changjiang Mining & New Energy Co., Ltd.; Order of Suspension of Trading April 1, 2011. It... concerning the securities of China Changjiang Mining & New Energy Co., Ltd. (``CHJI''), a Nevada...

  2. White Paper on Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2011)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Romankiewicz, John; Fridley, David

    2012-06-01

    This White Paper focuses on the areas and products involved in the above tasks, based on the White Paper - Energy Efficiency Status of Energy-Using Products in China (2010), here referred to as “White Paper 2010”, which analyzed the energy efficiency status of 21 typical energy-using products in five sectors: household appliances, office equipment, commercial equipment, industrial equipment, and lighting equipment. Table 1 illustrates the detailed product coverage for this year’s paper, noting the addition of three household appliance items (automatic electric rice cooker, AC electric fan, and household induction cooktop) and one industrial sector item (three-phase distribution transformer).

  3. [Nuclear energy and environment: review of the IAEA environmental projects].

    PubMed

    Fesenko, S; Fogt, G

    2012-01-01

    The review of the environmental projects of the International Atomic Energy Agency is presented. Basic IAEA documents intended to protect humans and the Environment are considered and their main features are discussed. Some challenging issues in the area of protection of the Environment and man, including the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment, radioactive waste management, and remediation of the areas affected by radiological accidents, nuclear testing and sites of nuclear facilities are also discussed. The need to maintain the existing knowledge in radioecology and protection of the environment is emphasised. PMID:23516895

  4. Energy, Natural Resources, and the Environment in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties, Washington, DC.

    Presented are the findings of a national panel which investigated the present situation and future policy options regarding energy and the environment. Three sections comprise the report: (1) a chapter dealing with energy supply, consumption, pricing and policy; (2) an analysis of environmental issues such as land use, toxic substances,…

  5. Management of Energy and Environment Conservation: Current Methodical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michna, J.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.; Zebergs, V.; Siemianowicz, J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a continuation in the series of works devoted to the acute problems of energy use management in different periods of economic transition in the CEE countries. Research carried out by the team of scientists has resulted in creation of modern management methods. In particular, unitary indices were worked out which connect the consumption of energy carriers and environment pollutions in a definite time period and the values of production (services) realised in this period. The cooperation of researchers from different countries has given rise to the ICEEP (International Center of Energy and Environment Policy), where under research are issues of the risk management in the conditions of informational uncertainty, non-knowledge, as well as dynamic and stochastic behaviour of systems (processes). The main emphasis in the methodical approaches is given to the complex (strategic) thinking, which would be necessary for establishment of global regulations in the scope of energy and environment conservation.

  6. Particle size distribution and air pollution patterns in three urban environments in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xinyi; Guinot, Benjamin; Cao, Junji; Xu, Hongmei; Sun, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Three urban environments, office, apartment and restaurant, were selected to investigate the indoor and outdoor air quality as an inter-comparison in which CO2, particulate matter (PM) concentration and particle size ranging were concerned. In this investigation, CO2 level in the apartment (623 ppm) was the highest among the indoor environments and indoor levels were always higher than outdoor levels. The PM10 (333 µg/m(3)), PM2.5 (213 µg/m(3)), PM1 (148 µg/m(3)) concentrations in the office were 10-50% higher than in the restaurant and apartment, and the three indoor PM10 levels all exceeded the China standard of 150 µg/m(3). Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.4 µm, 0.4 to 0.5 µm and 0.5 to 0.65 µm make largest contribution to particle mass in indoor air, and fine particles number concentrations were much higher than outdoor levels. Outdoor air pollution is mainly affected by heavy traffic, while indoor air pollution has various sources. Particularly, office environment was mainly affected by outdoor sources like soil dust and traffic emission; apartment particles were mainly caused by human activities; restaurant indoor air quality was affected by multiple sources among which cooking-generated fine particles and the human steam are main factors. PMID:25503684

  7. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang

    2007-08-01

    While China's 11th Five Year Plan called for a reduction of energy intensity by 2010, whether and how the energy consumption trend can be changed in a short time has been hotly debated. This research intends to evaluate the impact of a variety of scenarios of GDP growth, energy elasticity and energy efficiency improvement on energy consumption in commercial buildings in China using a detailed China End-use Energy Model. China's official energy statistics have limited information on energy demand by end use. This is a particularly pertinent issue for building energy consumption. The authors have applied reasoned judgments, based on experience of working on Chinese efficiency standards and energy related programs, to present a realistic interpretation of the current energy data. The bottom-up approach allows detailed consideration of end use intensity, equipment efficiency, etc., thus facilitating assessment of potential impacts of specific policy and technology changes on building energy use. The results suggest that: (1) commercial energy consumption in China's current statistics is underestimated by about 44%, and the fuel mix is misleading; (2) energy efficiency improvements will not be sufficient to offset the strong increase in end-use penetration and intensity in commercial buildings; (3) energy intensity (particularly electricity) in commercial buildings will increase; (4) different GDP growth and elasticity scenarios could lead to a wide range of floor area growth trajectories , and therefore, significantly impact energy consumption in commercial buildings.

  8. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of labeling strategies and

  9. Renewable energy development in China: Resource assessment, technology status, and greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y.; Renne, O.D.; Junfeng, Li

    1996-12-31

    China, which has pursued aggressive policies to encourage economic development, could experience the world`s fastest growth in energy consumption over the next two decades. China has become the third largest energy user in the world since 1990 when primary energy consumption reached 960 million tons of coal equivalent (tce). Energy use is increasing at an annual rate of 6-7% despite severe infrastructure and capital constraints on energy sector development. Energy consumption in China is heavily dominated by coal, and fossil fuels provide up to 95% of all commercial energy use. Coal currently accounts for 77% of total primary energy use; oil, 16%; hydropower, 5%; and natural gas, 2%. Coal is expected to continue providing close to three-quarters of all energy consumed, and the amount of coal used is expected to triple by year 2020. Currently, renewable energy resources (except for hydropower) account for only a fraction of total energy consumption. However, the estimated growth in greenhouse gas emissions, as well as serious local and regional environmental pollution problems caused by combustion of fossil fuels, provides strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Renewable energy potential in China is significantly greater than that indicated by the current level of use. With a clear policy goal and consistent efforts from the Government of China, renewables can play a far larger role in its future energy supply.

  10. Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

  11. Energy and the Environment: a current awareness journal

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    Abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs from all sources on environmental/biological aspects of energy. The subject areas covered include the atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial environments with emphasis on impacts of any energy-related activities on these environments. This includes transport, fate, and ecological-biological consequences of various pollutants such as flue gas, NO/sub x/, SO/sub x/, hydrocarbons, CO/sub 2/, thermal effluents, and radioactive isotopes. (ACR)

  12. Kansas energy, environment, and conservation: a geological overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merriam, Daniel F.

    2009-02-01

    The State of Kansas, as an energy-producing and agriculture-based state, faces problems in production of natural resources and potential pollution from their production. To coordinate information on the exploration, production, and use of coal, nuclear, petroleum, natural gas, hydro, wind, geothermal, coalbed methane, biofuel, solar, and other energy resources, the Kansas Energy Council and the University of Kansas Energy Research Center were created. Water, surface and subsurface, is the other important and maybe the most important natural resource in the welfare of the state. To ease the problems of contamination, situations are monitored by regulatory agencies: the Kansas Corporation Commission, Kansas Department of Health and Environment, and Division of Water Resources of the Kansas Department of Agriculture. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) at the University of Kansas serves as the archive for energy and natural resource data and conducts research pertinent to the exploration and exploitation of mineral resources, including energy and water. The Kansas Energy Research Center coordinates and supports energy activities. The Kansas Water Office and the staff for the Kansas Water Authority are charged with water planning and preparing reports on water problems and possible solutions. The cost of preserving the environment in a relatively pristine state really is of no concern considering the possible consequences; living conditions should be preserved to assure future generations, a suitable, sustainable, stable environment. With all the dire predictions for the future and energy-producing and pollution problems, Kansas is a model state in this modern industrial age for protecting the environment and is a leader in conservation.

  13. China Energy Efficiency Round Robin Testing Results for Room Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Pierrot, Andre

    2010-06-07

    In recent years China's energy consumption has increased rapidly. The problem of high energy consumption intensity and low energy utilization efficiency is serious, and the contradiction between economic development and energy and environmental resources has become increasingly acute, making energy conservation and consumption reduction an important society-wide concern. At the same time, global climate change has and will continue to have profound impacts on human survival and development, and is another major challenge to all countries. In order to accelerate China's energy conservation and emission reduction work, the National Leading Group to Address Climate Change, Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction was founded with Premier Wen Jiabao as the head, and the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction' and 'China's National Program of Addressing Climate Change' were issued, under which China's energy conservation and emission reduction work has been fully deployed. Efforts to promote energy efficiency have been further strengthened in all levels of government, and various policies and measures have progressively been issued and implemented. In addition, based on China's experience with implementing energy-saving priority strategies over the past 20+ years, our government established a goal of a 20% decrease in energy consumption per unit GDP in the 'Eleventh Five-year Development Plan'. Furthermore, in November 2009, in order to support global greenhouse gas emission reduction activities and promote China's low carbon economic development, the government established a further 40-50% reduction in energy consumption per unit GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2005. Improving energy utilization efficiency by scientific and technological progress will undoubtedly play an important role in achieving the above stated objectives. The improvement of energy efficiency of energy consuming products has always been an important component

  14. Me and My Environment. Unit III: Energy Relationships in My Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Boulder, CO.

    Presented is the experimental edition of Unit III: Energy Relationships in My Environment, which consists of 25 life science curriculum activities intended for the 13-to-15-year-old educable mentally retarded child. The curriculum guide is being used in the final field test prior to revision. Stressed throughout the program are ecological themes,…

  15. The Greening of the Middle Kingdom: The Story of Energy Efficiency in China

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn

    2009-05-01

    The dominant image of China's energy system is of billowing smokestacks from the combustion of coal. More heavily dependent on coal than any other major country, China uses it for about 70 percent of its energy (NBS, 2008). Furthermore, until recently, China had very few environmental controls on emissions from coal combustion; recent efforts to control sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions appear to be meeting with some success (Economy, 2007, 2009). Figure 1 shows the dominant use of coal in China's energy system from 1950 to 1980 (NBS, various years). However, this is just one side of China's energy story. Figure 2 illustrates the second part, and what may be the most important part of the story - China's energy system since 1980, shortly after Deng Xiaoping assumed full leadership. This figure compares the trends in energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) by indexing both values to 100 in 1980. The upper line shows what energy consumption in China would have been if it had grown at the same rate as GDP, since energy consumption usually increases in lockstep with GDP in an industrializing, developing country, at least until it reaches a high economic level. The lower line in Figure 2 shows China's actual energy consumption, also indexed to 1980. The striking difference between the lines shows that GDP in China grew much faster than energy demand from 1980 to 2002. As a result, by 2002 energy and energy-related carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were more than 40% percent of what they would have been if energy and GDP had grown in tandem. In the next chapter of China's energy history, from 2002 to 2005, the increase in energy demand outstripped a very rapidly growing economy, and because of the large size of the Chinese economy, the increase had substantial impacts. The construction of power plants increased to 100 gigawatts per year; over the three-year period newly constructed plants had a capacity of more than 30 percent of total electricity

  16. Energy in the environment and the second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between the consumption of energy by technological cultures and the second law of thermodynamics is discussed. The analysis is based on a description of the operation of a mechanical device which consumes energy. It is concluded that the flow of energy in manifold spontaneous conditions, which play a vital role in the operation of any technological process, remove most of the energy flow path from the control of the operator. It is stated that the increased efficiency of a process can benefit the environment only as much as this efficiency enables the total energy input to be reduced for a given level of production and increasing efficiency cannot meet the problems of an increased rate of energy utilization.

  17. 75 FR 9181 - Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... International Trade Administration Secretarial China Clean Energy Business Development Mission; Application... the Clean Energy Business Development Missions' Web site at http://www.trade.gov/CleanEnergyMission or... or CleanEnergyMission@doc.gov ). The application deadline has been extended to Friday, March 12,...

  18. Damage caused to the environment by reforestation policies in arid and semi-arid areas of China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shixiong; Tian, Tao; Chen, Li; Dong, Xiaobin; Yu, Xinxiao; Wang, Guosheng

    2010-06-01

    Traditional approaches to ecosystem restoration have considered afforestation to be an important tool. To alleviate land degradation in China, the Chinese government has therefore invested huge amounts of money in planting trees. However, the results of more than half a century of large-scale afforestation in arid and semi-arid China have shown that when the trees are not adapted to the local environment, the policy does not improve the environment, and may instead increase environmental degradation. When precipitation is lower than potential evaporation, surface soil moisture typically cannot sustain forest vegetation, and shrubs or steppe species replace the forest to form a sustainable natural ecosystem that exists in a stable equilibrium with the available water supply. The climate of much of northwestern China appears to be unsuitable for afforestation owing to the extremely low rainfall. Although some small-scale or short-term afforestation efforts have succeeded in this region, many of the resulting forests have died or degraded over longer periods, so policymakers must understand that these small-scale or short-term results do not support an inflexible policy of large-scale afforestation throughout arid and semi-arid northwestern China. Rather than focusing solely on afforestation, it would be more effective to attempt to recreate natural ecosystems that are better adapted to local environments and that thus provide a better chance of sustainable, long-term rehabilitation. PMID:20799677

  19. Nanoparticle pollution and associated increasing potential risks on environment and human health: a case study of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Yang, Tiantian; Jin, Jin

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are (1) to discuss the mechanism of nanoparticle lifecycle and estimate the impacts of its associated pollution on environment and human health; and (2) to provide recommendation to policy makers on how to leverage nanopollution and human health along with the rapid development of economics in China. Manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) could either directly or indirectly impair human health and the environment. Exposures to MNP include many ways, such as via inhalation, ingestion, direct contact, or the use of consumer products over the lifecycle of the product. In China, the number of people exposed to MNP has been increasing year by year. To better provide medical care to people exposed to MNP, the Chinese government has established many disease control and prevention centers over China. However, the existing facilities and resources for controlling MNP are still not enough considering the number of people impacted by MNP and the number of ordinary workers in the MNP related industry applying for their occupational identification through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. China should assess the apparent risk environment and human health being exposed to MNP and develop action plans to reduce the possibility of direct contacts between human beings and the emerging nanomaterials. In addition, we suggest more comprehensive studies on the MNP behavior and the development of quantitative approaches to measure MNP transport, and persistence should be carried out. PMID:26490887

  20. WESTERN ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT MONITORING STUDY: PLANNING AND COORDINATION SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a summary of the planning, coordination and implementation mechanisms which provide the framework for the Western Energy/Environment Monitoring Study. This Study involves participation by elements of EPA, NASA, NOAA, and USGS and is a segment of the Interagency Ene...

  1. CALORSTOCK 1994: Thermal energy storage. Better economy, environment, technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kangas, M. T.; Lund, P. D.

    This publication is the second volume of the Proceedings of CALORSTOCK'94, the Sixth International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage held in Espoo, Finland on 22-25 Aug. 1994. This volume contains 51 presentations from the following six sessions: Chemical storage; Heat storage and environment; Central solar heating plants with seasonal storage; Water storage pits and tanks; Cooling; and National activities.

  2. New energy geographics: Powershed politics and hydropower decision making in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, Darrin L.

    This study analyzes decision making related to large-scale hydropower in China's Yunnan Province. The study has five aims: to contribute empirical knowledge about hydropower development on the Lancang (upper Mekong) and Nu (upper Salween) Rivers; to explain the institutional, legal, and political economic factors affecting decisions about large-scale hydropower; to use the peculiarities of water to complicate models of center-local and interprovincial relations; to underscore the importance of geographic constructs in framing and legitimizing certain development patterns; and to contribute to debates on China's "civil society." After reviewing literature in political ecology, China geography and area studies, and scale theory, I develop an analytical framework called a powershed. Like a watershed, a powershed reflects a space over which a resource is collected. It also has political meaning: first, as a way of understanding how policies and investments are deployed to facilitate electric power transfers from Yunnan to Guangdong; and second, as a means for signaling the importance of geographic constructs in legitimizing certain discourses, actions, actors, and policies while de-legitimizing others. Most importantly, it provides a dynamic, context-specific analytical framework that enables us to trace the processes of hydropower development. Next, I provide details of Lancang and Nu hydropower and of the energy geographies to which the projects belong. My analysis picks apart decision flows from blueprint to dam, identifying two distinctly different perspectives. I conclude by arguing first that supra-provincial institutions such as watershed commissions, hydropower companies, and grid companies are important in shaping relations between Guangdong and Yunnan vis-a-vis electricity production, distribution, and consumption. A corollary is that reforms in the electricity and water sectors have created overlapping responsibilities and unclear jurisdiction among

  3. Enhancing energy security in Malayia: the challenges towards sustainable environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahid, E. J. M.; Siang, C. Ch; Peng, L. Y.

    2013-06-01

    Energy is known as one of the essential ingredients for economic development and security of energy supply is crucial in ensuring continuous economic development of a country. Malaysia's proven domestic oil reserves are estimated to last for another 25 years, while that of gas for another 39 years as of 2011. Despite the depleting indigenous energy resources, the primary energy demand has continued to grow robustly, at an annual rate of 6.3 percent per year from 1990 to 2010, while the primary energy import has grown 7.2% per year and the primary energy export has grown at a slower rate of 1.9% per year. This worrying trend is further compounded by the faster rate of primary oil import averaging 10.5% per year while the primary energy export has shrink at a rate of 1.4% per year. This paper has identified two main concerns namely overdependence on fossil fuel and increasing energy import dependency in creating a precarious position towards energy self-sufficiency. The study will analyse the energy security of the country and explore possible options and challenges in enhancing the energy supply security toward sustainable environment.

  4. Role of complementary relationship in Budyko framework from water-limited to energy-limited environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Tian, F.; Tang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The complementary relationship and Budyko curve are two kinds of approaches for describing the relationship between catchment-scale actual and potential evaporation. According to a nonlinear complementary relationship model, it was derived that, with constant energy input (denoted by constant radiation term (Erad) of potential evaporation), the changes in aerodynamic term (Eaero) are accompanied with opposite changes in actual evaporation under water-limited conditions, but same direction changes in actual evaporation under energy-limited conditions. As a result, the radiation term and aerodynamic term play different roles in the Budyko curve. In other words, complementary relationship plays a role in the Budyko framework, which should be seriously considered. The role of complementary relationship on the Budyko curve from water-limited to energy-limited environments was schematically analyzed, considering the different correlations between actual evaporation and the radiation and the aerodynamic terms. Under water limited conditions, the catchment with a higher Erad/Eaero would be wetter, and characterized with higher evaporation efficiency and larger properties parameter of Budyko curve. Under energy limited conditions, the role of complementary relationship may be different. Erad/Eaero is found to be connected with the variations of catchment parameter in the Budyko curve, and an exponential relationship between the catchment parameter and Erad/Eaero was derived through dimensional analysis and mathematical reasoning. The analysis will be evaluated using water balance data of a number of catchments from non-humid to humid environments over China.

  5. Impact of Reforestation on Local Climate and Environment in a Semi-arid Urban Valley, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, D.; Yu, Y.; He, J.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1999 Chinese government has invested more than 800 million Yuan to reforest the southern and the northern mountains surrounding urban Lanzhou - a typical semi-arid city located in a river valley, Northwestern China. Until 2009 obvious land use change occurred, with 69.2% of the reforested area been changed from grasslands, croplands, barren or sparsely vegetated land to closed shrublands and 20.6% been changed from closed shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to forests. This study assesses the impact of these changes on local climate and environment in winter using WRF (Weather Research & Forecasting) model incorporated with high-resolution remotely sensed land cover data for 1999 and 2009 and the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model. Results indicate that the changes in albedo, surface exchange coefficient and surface soil heat conductivity related to the reforestation led to the changes in surface net radiation and the surface energy partitioning, which in turn affected the meteorology fields and enhanced the mountain-valley wind circulation. The amount of air exchanged between the valley and the outside increased after reforestation during the day, with the largest increase of 10 %, while it changed little during the night on winter sunny day with no snow cover. The sensitivity analysis using FLEXPART-WRF model indicates that the reforestation affected the spatial distribution of pollutants and slightly improved the urban air quality in winter. And the greening program of Lanzhou has special reference to other valley urbans.

  6. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  7. Collaboration on Renewable Energy Standards, Testing, and Certification under the U.S. China Renewable Energy Partnership: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.; Kurtz, S.; Lin, W.

    2012-06-01

    During November 2009, the U.S. China Renewable Energy Partnership agreement was authorized in Beijing by Presidents Obama and Hu from the U.S. and China. One of the principle tasks under this new program is the collaboration of the U.S. and China on the topic of renewable energy standards, testing, and certification with an initial focus on solar PV and wind topics. This paper will describe and discuss the activities which have taken place under the bilateral collaboration to date.

  8. Municipal solid waste (MSW) as a renewable source of energy: current and future practices in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan

    2010-06-01

    With rapid economic growth and massive urbanization, China faces the problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal and the pressing need for development of alternative energy. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration, which recovers energy from discarded MSW and produces electricity and/or steam for heating, is recognized as a renewable source of energy and is playing an increasingly important role in MSW management in China. This article provides an overview of the WTE industry, discusses the major challenges in expanding WTE incineration in China, namely, high capital and operational costs, equipment corrosion, air pollutant emissions, and fly ash disposal. A perspective on MSW as a renewable energy source in China is also presented. Currently, only approximately 13% of MSW generated in China is disposed in WTE facilities. With the significant benefits of environmental quality, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and government policies and financial incentives as a renewable energy source, WTE incineration industry is expected to experience significant growth in the coming decade and make greater contribution to supplying renewable energy in China. PMID:20137912

  9. Energy and environment: A political ecology of woodfuels in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, E. Mark

    This study examines relationships between energy use and the exploitation of woodland natural resources in the West African nation of Senegal. As in many other countries in the developing world, the majority of the population in Senegal depend on woodfuels, i.e., firewood and charcoal, to satisfy most of their household energy needs. Consequences of this situation include added pressure on the country's limited natural resource base, and increased socioeconomic hardship, particularly for women, as woodfuel resources become increasingly scarce. Woodfuel energy problems in developing countries are typically described in terms of an imbalance between supply and demand that is driven by rapid population growth. However, recent research suggests that a number of other factors should be explored in order to achieve a more thorough understanding of the relationship between woodfuel energy and forest resource management. This study attempts to determine what some of these factors are, and to explain how they inform the energy-environment situation in the case of Senegal. In addition, I examine the scope for addressing Senegal's woodfuel problem through greater local community participation in managing energy and natural resources, a current thrust in many international initiatives designed to help the country cope with this persistent problem. A relatively new conceptual framework for the analysis of human-environment relationships---viz. political ecology---is employed in this study. I attempt to show how political ecology can contribute to the resolution of Senegal's energy-environment dilemma by considering a more inclusive suite of social, economic, political, and environmental variables than has been explored by previous approaches. Findings from the research demonstrate the ability of the political ecology approach to capture many heretofore unexplored factors related to the energy-environment nexus in Senegal. A detailed matrix is generated that illustrates the

  10. Investigation of building energy autonomy in the sahelian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, O.; Ouedraogo, A.; Kuznik, F.; Baillis, D.; Koulidiati, J.

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the energy generation of a set of photovoltaic panels is compared with the energy load of a building in order to analyse its autonomy in the sahelian environment when taking into account, the orientation, the insulation and the energy transfer optimisation of its windows. The Type 56 TRNSYS multizone building model is utilized for the energy load simulation and the Type 94 model of the same code enables the coupling of photovoltaic (PV) panels with the building. Without insulation, the PV energy generation represents 73.52 and 111.79% of the building electric energy load, respectively for poly-crystalline and mono-crystalline panels. For the same PV characteristics and when we insulate the roof and the floor, the energy generation increases to represent successively 121.09 and 184.13%. In the meantime, for building without insulation and with insulate the roof, the floor and 2 cm insulated walls, the energy consumption ratios decrease respectively from 201.13 to 105.20 kWh/m2/year. The investigations finally show that it is even possible to generate excess energy (positive energy building) and reduce the number and incident surface area of the PV panels if we conjugate the previous model with building passive architectural design mode (orientation, solar protection ...).

  11. Embodied Energy Use in China's Infrastructure Investment from 1992 to 2007: Calculation and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Ren, Bingqun; Zhou, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure has become an important topic in a variety of areas of the policy debate, including energy saving and climate change. In this paper, we use an energy input-output model to evaluate the amounts of China's embodied energy use in infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007. We also use the structure decomposition model to analyze the factors impacting the embodied energy use in infrastructure investment for the same time period. The results show that embodied energy use in infrastructure investment accounted for a significant proportion of China's total energy use with an increasing trend and reflect that improper infrastructure investment represents inefficient use of energy and other resources. Some quantitative information is provided for further determining the low carbon development potentials of China's economy. PMID:23365534

  12. Embodied energy use in China's infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007: calculation and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Xi, Youmin; Ren, Bingqun; Zhou, Heng

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure has become an important topic in a variety of areas of the policy debate, including energy saving and climate change. In this paper, we use an energy input-output model to evaluate the amounts of China's embodied energy use in infrastructure investment from 1992 to 2007. We also use the structure decomposition model to analyze the factors impacting the embodied energy use in infrastructure investment for the same time period. The results show that embodied energy use in infrastructure investment accounted for a significant proportion of China's total energy use with an increasing trend and reflect that improper infrastructure investment represents inefficient use of energy and other resources. Some quantitative information is provided for further determining the low carbon development potentials of China's economy. PMID:23365534

  13. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76") plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G) partitioning to latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G) ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008) to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009), and H/(Rn-G) from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (β=H/LE) were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs) had the greatest response to drought (+43%), but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively), and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  14. Health risk assessment of heavy metals in the water environment of Zhalong Wetland, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nannan; Zang, Shuying; Sun, Qingzhan

    2014-05-01

    Concentrations of the Cu, Cd, Cr, As, Zn and Ni in water samples from 272 sampling stations in the water environment of Zhalong Wetland, China were studied. Health risk assessment associated with six heavy metals and metalloid was conducted using health risk assessment model from United States Environmental Protection Agency. It can be concluded that the mean concentrations of Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Cd and Cu were 0.19, 0.45, 0.52, 4.9, 0.12 and 0.24 μg L(-1), respectively. The carcinogenic risk of Cr, As and Cd in the discharged area, experimental area, buffer area and core area were lower than the maximum allowance risk level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 5.0 × 10(-5) a(-1)). The non-carcinogenic risks (Cu, Zn, Ni) was also lower than the maximum allowance levels recommended by ICRP. Though it was lower than the level, it was very approaching to maximum acceptable risk level, need to draw attention to the relevant departments. PMID:24414855

  15. Focal Mechanisms and Stress Environment of the 12 May 2008 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Luo, Y.; Ni, S.

    2012-12-01

    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw=7.9) was the largest earthquake in China ever recorded by modern seismic instruments. It generated numerous moderate sized aftershocks that were well recorded by both permanent stations as well as portable instruments deployed after the mainshock. These waveform records yield high-quality data for the determination of focal mechanisms of aftershocks, which in turn provide important information for the investigation of regional stress field and the seismogenic environment in the Wenchuan earthquake source region. In this study, we determine the focal mechanisms, depths and moment magnitudes of moderate-sized (Mw ≥ 4.0) Wenchuan aftershocks using broadband waveform records. The focal mechanism results are then used to obtain the orientation and ratio of the principle stresses by the damped linear stress inversion method of Hardebeck & Michael (2006). Our results show that the majority of the moderate aftershocks occur at a depth range of 10-20 km and outside of the major rupture zones of the mainshock. The Wenchuan source region remains under a nearly horizontal compression with mostly thrust and occasional strike-slip faulting, especially towards the two ends of the rupture of the main shock. There is also clearly local variations in the orientation of the principle stresses.

  16. Constraining Energy Consumption of China's Largest IndustrialEnterprises Through the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming EnterpriseProgram

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Wang, Xuejun

    2007-06-01

    Between 1980 and 2000, China's energy efficiency policiesresulted in a decoupling of the traditionally linked relationship betweenenergy use and gross domestic product (GDP) growth, realizing a four-foldincrease in GDP with only a doubling of energy use. However, during Chinas transition to a market-based economy in the 1990s, many of thecountry's energy efficiency programs were dismantled and between 2001 and2005 China's energy use increased significantly, growing at about thesame rate as GDP. Continuation of this one-to-one ratio of energyconsumption to GDP given China's stated goal of again quadrupling GDPbetween 2000 and 2020 will lead to significant demand for energy, most ofwhich is coal-based. The resulting local, national, and globalenvironmental impacts could be substantial.In 2005, realizing thesignificance of this situation, the Chinese government announced anambitious goal of reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP by 20percent between 2005 and 2010. One of the key initiatives for realizingthis goal is the Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises program. Thecomprehensive energy consumption of these 1000 enterprises accounted for33 percent of national and 47 percent of industrial energy usage in 2004.Under the Top-1000 program, 2010 energy consumption targets wereannounced for each enterprise. Activities to be undertaken includebenchmarking, energy audits, development of energy saving action plans,information and training workshops, and annual reporting of energyconsumption. This paper will describe the program in detail, includingthe types of enterprises included and the program activities, and willprovide an analysis of the progress and lessons learned todate.

  17. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  18. An Energy-Economy-Environment Model for Simulating the Impacts of Socioeconomic Development on Energy and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement. PMID:24683332

  19. An energy-economy-environment model for simulating the impacts of socioeconomic development on energy and environment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyi; Zeng, Weihua; Yao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Many rapidly developing regions have begun to draw the attention of the world. Meanwhile, the energy and environmental issues associated with rapid economic growth have aroused widespread critical concern. Therefore, studying energy, economic, and environmental systems is of great importance. This study establishes a system dynamic model that covers multiple aspects of those systems, such as energy, economy, population, water pollution, air pollution, solid waste, and technology. The model designed here attempts to determine the impacts of socioeconomic development on the energy and environment of Tongzhou District in three scenarios: under current, planning, and sustainable conditions. The results reveal that energy shortages and water pollutions are very serious and are the key issues constraining future social and economic development. Solid waste emissions increase with population growth. The prediction results provide valuable insights into social advancement. PMID:24683332

  20. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun

    2008-12-01

    China's rapid economic expansion has propelled it into the ranks of the largest energy consuming nation in the world, with energy demand growth continuing at a pace commensurate with its economic growth. Even though the rapid growth is largely attributable to heavy industry, this in turn is driven by rapid urbanization process, by construction materials and equipment produced for use in buildings. Residential energy is mostly used in urban areas, where rising incomes have allowed acquisition of home appliances, as well as increased use of heating in southern China. The urban population is expected to grow by 20 million every year, accompanied by construction of 2 billion square meters of buildings every year through 2020. Thus residential energy use is very likely to continue its very rapid growth. Understanding the underlying drivers of this growth helps to identify the key areas to analyze energy efficiency potential, appropriate policies to reduce energy use, as well as to understand future energy in the building sector. This paper provides a detailed, bottom-up analysis of residential building energy consumption in China using data from a wide variety of sources and a modeling effort that relies on a very detailed characterization of China's energy demand. It assesses the current energy situation with consideration of end use, intensity, and efficiency etc, and forecast the future outlook for the critical period extending to 2020, based on assumptions of likely patterns of economic activity, availability of energy services, technology improvement and energy intensities.

  1. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions

  2. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Biswas, Kaushik; Song, Bo; Zhang, Sisi

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and

  3. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    Global energy markets and climate change in the twenty first century depend, to an extraordinary extent, on China. China is now, or will soon be, the world's largest energy consumer. Since 2007, China has been the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Despite its large and rapidly expanding influence on global energy markets and the global atmosphere, on a per capita basis energy consumption and GHG emissions in China are low relative to developed countries. The Chinese economy, and with it energy use and GHG emissions, are expected to grow vigorously for at least the next two decades, raising a question of critical historical significance: How can China's economic growth imperative be meaningfully reconciled with its goals of greater energy security and a lower carbon economy? Most scholars, governments, and practitioners have looked to technology---energy efficiency, nuclear power, carbon capture and storage---for answers to this question. Alternatively, this study seeks to root China's future energy and emissions trajectory in the political economy of its multiple transitions, from a centrally planned to a market economy and from an agrarian to a post-industrial society. The study draws on five case studies, each a dedicated chapter, which are organized around three perspectives on energy and GHG emissions: the macroeconomy; electricity supply and demand; and nitrogen fertilizer production and use. Chapters 2 and 3 examine how growth and structural change in China's macroeconomy have shaped energy demand, finding that most of the dramatic growth in the country's energy use over the 2000s was driven by an acceleration of its investment-dominated, energy-intensive growth model, rather than from structural change. Chapters 4 and 5 examine efforts to improve energy efficiency and increase the share of renewable generation in the electric power sector, concluding that China's power system lacks the flexibility in generation, pricing, and demand to

  4. Constraining Habitable Environments on Mars by Quantifying Available Geochemical Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, L. L.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    The search for life on Mars includes the availability of liquid water, access to biogenic elements and an energy source. In the past, when water was more abundant on Mars, a source of energy may have been the limiting factor for potential life. Energy, either from photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, is required in order to drive metabolism. Potential martian organisms most likely took advantage of chemosynthetic reactions at and below the surface. Terrestrial chemolithoautotrophs, for example, thrive off of chemical disequilibrium that exists in many environments and use inorganic redox (reduction-oxidation) reactions to drive metabolism and create cellular biomass. The chemical disequilibrium of six different martian environments were modeled in this study and analyzed incorporating a range of water and rock compositions, water:rock mass ratios, atmospheric fugacities, pH, and temperatures. All of these models can be applied to specific sites on Mars including environments similar to Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater. Both a mass transfer geochemical model of groundwater-basalt interaction and a mixing model of groundwater-hydrothermal fluid interaction were used to estimate hypothetical martian fluid compositions that results from mixing over the entire reaction path. By determining the overall Gibbs free energy yields for redox reactions in the H-O-C-S-Fe-Mn system, the amount of geochemical energy that was available for potential chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms was quantified and the amount of biomass that could have been sustained was estimated. The quantity of biomass that can be formed and supported within a system depends on energy availability, thus sites that have higher levels and fluxes of energy have greater potential to support life. Results show that iron- and sulfur-oxidation reactions would have been the most favorable redox reactions in aqueous systems where groundwater and rock interacted at or near the surface. These types of reactions could

  5. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU

  6. Energy partitioning and surface resistance of a poplar plantation in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S. G.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been, on the one hand, broadly used in northern China for urban greening, combating desertification, as well as for paper and wood production. On the other hand, such plantations have been questioned occasionally for their possible negative impacts on water availability due to the higher water-use nature of poplar trees compared with other tree species in water-limited dryland regions. To further understand the acclimation of poplar species to semiarid environments and to evaluate the potential impacts of these plantations on the broader context of the region's water supply, we examine the variability of bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning in a poplar (Populus euramericana cv. "74/76") plantation located in northern China over a 4-year period, encompassing both dry and wet conditions. The partitioning of available energy to latent heat flux (LE) decreased from 0.62 to 0.53 under mediated meteorological drought by irrigation applications. A concomitant increase in sensible heat flux (H) resulted in the increase of a Bowen ratio from 0.83 to 1.57. Partial correlation analysis indicated that surface resistance (Rs) normalized by leaf area index (LAI; Rs:LAI) increased by 50 % under drought conditions and was the dominant factor controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the main factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively). Rs was also a major regulator of the LE / LEeq ratio, which decreased from 0.81 in wet years to 0.68 in dry years. All physiological and bioclimatological metrics indicated that the water demands of the poplar plantation were greater than the amount available through precipitation, highlighting the poor match of a water-intensive species like poplar for this water-limited region.

  7. Energy technologies and the environment: Environmental information handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This revision of Energy Technologies and the Environment reflects the changes in energy supply and demand, focus of environmental concern, and emphasis of energy research and development that have occurred since publication of the earlier edition in 1980. The increase in availability of oil and natural gas, at least for the near term, is responsible in part for a reduced emphasis on development of replacement fuels and technologies. Trends in energy development also have been influenced by an increased reliance on private industry initiatives, and a correspondingly reduced government involvement, in demonstrating more developed technologies. Environmental concerns related to acid rain and waste management continue to increase the demand for development of innovative energy systems. The basic criteria for including a technology in this report are that (1) the technology is a major current or potential future energy supply and (2) significant changes in employing or understanding the technology have occurred since publication of the 1980 edition. Coal is seen to be a continuing major source of energy supply, and thus chapters pertaining to the principal coal technologies have been revised from the 1980 edition (those on coal mining and preparation, conventional coal-fired power plants, fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction) or added as necessary to include emerging technologies (those on oil shale, combined-cycle power plants, coal-liquid mixtures, and fuel cells).

  8. Energy, The Environment And Astronomy: Education And Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Bernadette; Doppmann, G.; Kalas, P.; Lacy, J.; Beck, T.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    The specter of global climate change is arguably the most pressing scientific, social and ethical issue of our time. Although the relatively small field of astronomy represents only a fraction of the total human carbon emissions, astronomers have a great potential, and therefore perhaps a great responsibility, to educate themselves and the public on this issue. In addition, the average per capita carbon emissions of professional astronomers are not small, and our profession can do much to reduce its energy consumption and maximize the cost-benefit ratio of our work. At the January AAS meeting, we are organizing a half-day splinter meeting titled "Energy, the Environment and Astronomy: Education and Action". The focus will be on energy conservation and education as it relates to professional astronomy. Education focuses on informing ourselves, our students and the general public with which we interact, about the real issues, the necessary actions, and the likely consequences of various energy consumption and carbon emission scenarios. Action focuses on effective energy conservation and renewable energy initiatives within professional astronomy. Air travel, solar energy at ground-based observatories, and Gemini's "Green Initiative” are among the topics that will be discussed. The splinter meeting will be open to all and will include expert speakers from outside astronomy, contributed talks by astronomers, and a discussion session.

  9. China's transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions from a global perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Xiang; Chen, Wenying; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Yu, Sha; Kyle, G. Page

    2015-07-01

    ABSTRACT Rapidly growing energy demand from China's transportation sector in the last two decades have raised concerns over national energy security, local air pollution, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, and there is broad consensus that China's transportation sector will continue to grow in the coming decades. This paper explores the future development of China's transportation sector in terms of service demands, final energy consumption, and CO2 emissions, and their interactions with global climate policy. This study develops a detailed China transportation energy model that is nested in an integrated assessment model—Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM)—to evaluate the long-term energy consumption and CO2 emissions of China's transportation sector from a global perspective. The analysis suggests that, without major policy intervention, future transportation energy consumption and CO2 emissions will continue to rapidly increase and the transportation sector will remain heavily reliant on fossil fuels. Although carbon price policies may significantly reduce the sector's energy consumption and CO2 emissions, the associated changes in service demands and modal split will be modest, particularly in the passenger transport sector. The analysis also suggests that it is more difficult to decarbonize the transportation sector than other sectors of the economy, primarily owing to its heavy reliance on petroleum products.

  10. Galatheid and chirostylid crustaceans (Decapoda: Anomura) from a cold seep environment in the northeastern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Dong; Li, Xinzheng

    2015-01-01

    Six species of squat lobsters from a cold seep field in the northeastern South China Sea are studied. Two new species, Uroptychus jiaolongae n. sp. and U. spinulosus n. sp., are described, and their distinctions from the related species are detailed. Two species, Munidopsis tuberosa Osawa, Lin & Chan, 2008 and M. verrilli Benedict, 1902, are herein reported for the first time from a cold seep/hydrothermal vent environment. The number of squat lobsters species associated with those chemosynthetic environments now stands at forty-one. PMID:26701467

  11. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Hasanbeigi, Ali; Price, Lynn; Aden, Nathaniel; Chunxia, Zhang; Xiuping, Li; Fangqin, Shangguan

    2011-06-15

    Production of iron and steel is an energy-intensive manufacturing process. In 2006, the iron and steel industry accounted for 13.6% and 1.4% of primary energy consumption in China and the U.S., respectively (U.S. DOE/EIA, 2010a; Zhang et al., 2010). The energy efficiency of steel production has a direct impact on overall energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for making an accurate comparison of the energy intensity (energy use per unit of steel produced) of steel production. The methodology is applied to the steel industry in China and the U.S. The methodology addresses issues related to boundary definitions, conversion factors, and indicators in order to develop a common framework for comparing steel industry energy use. This study uses a bottom-up, physical-based method to compare the energy intensity of China and U.S. crude steel production in 2006. This year was chosen in order to maximize the availability of comparable steel-sector data. However, data published in China and the U.S. are not always consistent in terms of analytical scope, conversion factors, and information on adoption of energy-saving technologies. This study is primarily based on published annual data from the China Iron & Steel Association and National Bureau of Statistics in China and the Energy Information Agency in the U.S. This report found that the energy intensity of steel production is lower in the United States than China primarily due to structural differences in the steel industry in these two countries. In order to understand the differences in energy intensity of steel production in both countries, this report identified key determinants of sector energy use in both countries. Five determinants analyzed in this report include: share of electric arc furnaces in total steel production, sector penetration of energy-efficiency technologies, scale of production equipment, fuel shares in the iron and steel

  12. Wind energy. Views on the environment: clean and green

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Thomas O.

    1999-12-01

    As the United States grapples with the issue of global climate change resulting from fossil fuel combustion, and as the U.S. Congress and individual state legislatures consider restructuring the electric utility industry, lawmakers should keep in mind the environmental preferability of renewable energy sources such as wind and the long, continuing record of public support for them. This is particularly important in view of restructuring, which will have the effect of shifting decisions about the type and quantity of new power plants to be built from utility executives to the general public. Preliminary information suggests that ''green,'' or environmentally-friendly, power sources could win a significant market share. In addition to creating new demand for clean energy sources, this development is likely to create a committed, educated political constituency for clean energy that has not existed in the past. In such an altered environment for the selection of new generation, public attitudes on the desirability of various power sources will become much more important than they have in the past. The purpose of this paper is to briefly summarize public opinion surveys on the environment in general, renewable energy in general, and wind energy in particular in that order, using data gathered from polling in the U.S., the United Kingdom, and Canada. At this writing, more than 16 years after the first wind plants began going up in California, there is a solid and growing body of information available on public acceptance of wind energy. This paper draws on more than 25 surveys conducted over the years on wind and renewables, as well as individual findings on attitudes on the environment from other polls. An abbreviated summary of the public attitudes reviewed in this document is as follows: Views on the Environment: Public concern about protecting the environment, and particularly those aspects of the environment that relate to human health, such as air pollution, is

  13. Accessing spoilage features of osmotolerant yeasts identified from kiwifruit plantation and processing environment in Shaanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Hu, Zhongqiu; Wang, Zhouli; Liu, Bin; Wang, Huxuan; Yue, Tianli

    2016-09-01

    Osmotolerant yeasts originating from kiwifruit industrial chain can result in spoilage incidences, while little information is available about their species and spoilage features. This work identified possible spoilage osmotolerant yeasts from orchards and a manufacturer (quick-freeze kiwifruit manufacturer) in main producing areas in Shaanxi, China and further characterized their spoilage features. A total of 86 osmotolerant isolates dispersing over 29 species were identified through 26S rDNA sequencing at the D1/D2 domain, among which Hanseniaspora uvarum occurred most frequently and have intimate relationships with kiwifruit. RAPD analysis indicated a high variability of this species from sampling regions. The correlation of genotypes with origins was established except for isolates from Zhouzhi orchards, and the mobility of H. uvarum from orchard to the manufacturer can be speculated and contributed to spoilage sourcing. The manufacturing environment favored the inhabitance of osmotolerant yeasts more than the orchard by giving high positive sample ratio or osmotolerant yeast ratio. The growth curves under various glucose levels were fitted by Grofit R package and the obtained growth parameters indicated phenotypic diversity in the H. uvarum and the rest species. Wickerhamomyces anomalus (OM14) and Candida glabrata (OZ17) were the most glucose tolerant species and availability of high glucose would assist them to produce more gas. The test osmotolerant species were odor altering in kiwifruit concentrate juice. 3-Methyl-1-butanol, phenylethyl alcohol, phenylethyl acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and ethyl acetate were the most altered compound identified by GC/MS in the juice. Particularly, W. anomalus produced 4-vinylguaiacol and M. guilliermondii produced 4-ethylguaiacol that would imperil product acceptance. The study determines the target spoilers as well as offering a detailed spoilage features, which will be instructive in implementing preventative

  14. Wind wave characteristics and engineering environment of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhifeng; Zhou, Liangming; Dong, Sheng; Wu, Lunyu; Li, Zhanbin; Mou, Lin; Wang, Aifang

    2014-12-01

    Wave simulation was conducted for the period 1976 to 2005 in the South China Sea (SCS) using the wave model, WAVEWATCH-III. Wave characteristics and engineering environment were studied in the region. The wind input data are from the objective reanalysis wind datasets, which assimilate meteorological data from several sources. Comparisons of significant wave heights between simulation and TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter and buoy data show a good agreement in general. By statistical analysis, the wave characteristics, such as significant wave heights, dominant wave directions, and their seasonal variations, were discussed. The largest significant wave heights are found in winter and the smallest in spring. The annual mean dominant wave direction is northeast (NE) along the southwest (SW)-NE axis, east northeast in the northwest (NW) part of SCS, and north northeast in the southeast (SE) part of SCS. The joint distributions of wave heights and wave periods (directions) were studied. The results show a single peak pattern for joint significant wave heights and periods, and a double peak pattern for joint significant wave heights and mean directions. Furthermore, the main wave extreme parameters and directional extreme values, particularly for the 100-year return period, were also investigated. The main extreme values of significant wave heights are larger in the northern part of SCS than in the southern part, with the maximum value occurring to the southeast of Hainan Island. The direction of large directional extreme H s values is focus in E in the northern and middle sea areas of SCS, while the direction of those is focus in N in the southeast sea areas of SCS.

  15. Aeolian environments and sand damage along the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kecun; Qu, Jiaunjun; Han, Qingjie; An, Zhishan

    2016-04-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), with a total length of 1956 km, is the word's longest high-altitude railway. Located in the Tibet Plateau, the QTR is frequently damaged by windblown sand because of strong winds and abundant sand. Based on the detailed wind data, in situ observation of wind blown sand and field wind tunnel simulations along the QTR, the aeolian sand environment, involving sand-laden wind, drift potential, sand transport and their spatial variation were investigated. Sand-laden wind presents unidirectional characteristics along the QTR and its prevailing direction is westerly. The annual drift potential along the QTR reaches 970.54 Vector Units (VU), which belongs to a high-energy wind environment. In cold-high environments, sand transport rate increases with increasing wind velocity, but decreases exponentially with increasing height in the wind stream. As the altitude increases, the threshold velocity for sand movement linearly increases with altitude, and the sand transport per unit width decreases gradually. The results can be used to guide the design of sand-control structures both in the study area and in other areas that experience threats from windblown sand.

  16. Spatio-temporal variability of periphytic protozoa related to environment in the Niyang River, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haiping; Ye, Shaowen; Yang, Xuefeng; Guo, Chuanbo; Zhang, Huijuan; Fan, Liqing; Zhang, Liangsong; Sovan, Lek; Li, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    The Niyang River, a main tributary of the Yarlung Zangbo River, is an important and typical plateau river ecosystem in Tibet, China. At present, few studies have focused on its aquatic living resources and river ecology. In this study, the composition, abundance, and diversity of periphytic protozoa were investigated across four seasons from 2008 to 2009 to better understand their spatio-temporal patterns and relationship to the environment. Our investigation shows that periphytic protozoa in the Niyang River contained 15 genera, belonged to Tubulinea, Alveolata, Discosea and Rhizaria, Alveolata possessed most genera, up to nine, with highest share in abundance, exceeding 50%, Difflugia and Glaucoma were dominant genera. Moreover, four diversity indices of periphytic protozoa, including species richness, total abundance, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou's evenness index, displayed a significant descending trend as the seasons continued, in the order of winter, spring, summer and autumn; with a significant difference existing between winter and summer (or autumn) for Shannon-Wiener diversity index and species richness (P<0.05). Four of these diversity indices also presented a V-shaped pattern between the upper middle course of the Niyang River and the confluence of the Niyang River and Yarlung Zangbo River, with the lowest value occurred in the middle course of the Niyang River. However, no significant variation was found through the Niyang River (P>0.05). In addition, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) shows that the densities of Difflugia, Glaucomais, Enchelydium, Cyphoderia, and Enchelys correlate with water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, pH, and dissolved oxygen, respectively. Lastly, the relationship between periphytic protozoa diversity and the environmental factors of the Niyang River can be predicted using classification and regression trees (CART) annalysis, which suggests that the total abundance and Shannon-Wiener diversity index would be

  17. Holocene vegetation, environment and anthropogenic influence in the Fuzhou Basin, southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuanfu; Zheng, Zhuo; Rolett, Barry V.; Ma, Ting; Chen, Cong; Huang, Kangyou; Lin, Gongwu; Zhu, Guangqi; Cheddadi, Rachid

    2015-03-01

    A ∼40 m sediment core (FZ4) was collected from the Fuzhou Basin, near the lower reaches of the Min River, in Fujian Province on the southeast coast of China. The sediment and pollen record contributes to our understanding of Holocene paleogeography, including local changes in vegetation and climate in the context of Neolithic cultural developments. The sediment record reveals a fluvial environment in the Fuzhou Basin during the late Pleistocene, and it demonstrates that a change from fluvial to estuarine conditions at ∼9000 cal yr BP resulted from postglacial sea level rise. Evidence of abundant marine diatoms and tidal flat laminations observed in the FZ4 sediments, implies that the Fuzhou Basin was under marine influence between ∼9000 and ∼2000 cal yr BP. After 2000 cal yr BP, a rapid retreat in coastline associated with fluvial aggradation and coastal progradation produced more shallow water for wetlands and initiated formation of the floodplain landscape. The pollen record reveals the presence of a dense subtropical forest between ca. 9000 and 7000 cal yr BP, representing the Holocene thermal maximum, which is linked with rising sea level and marine transgression in the Fuzhou Basin. Between ca. 5500 and 2000 cal yr BP, the thermophilous forest dominated by Castanopsis retreated and coniferous forest expanded, reflecting moderate climatic cooling during this period. Timing of the high frequencies for Pinus and ferns correspond with the mid-late Holocene cooling trend recorded in local mountain peatland and coastal regions of the lower Yangtze and Hanjiang deltas. Anthropogenically induced land cover change was negligible prior to the Tanshishan cultural period, which marks the beginning of Neolithic era sedentary village life on the Fujian coast around 5500 BP. The pollen transition at ca. 3000-1500 cal yr BP, distinguished by rising frequencies of Poaceae and taxa (including Cyperaceae and Artemisia) closely associated with agricultural land cover

  18. Energy aware path planning in complex four dimensional environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Anjan

    This dissertation addresses the problem of energy-aware path planning for small autonomous vehicles. While small autonomous vehicles can perform missions that are too risky (or infeasible) for larger vehicles, the missions are limited by the amount of energy that can be carried on board the vehicle. Path planning techniques that either minimize energy consumption or exploit energy available in the environment can thus increase range and endurance. Path planning is complicated by significant spatial (and potentially temporal) variations in the environment. While the main focus is on autonomous aircraft, this research also addresses autonomous ground vehicles. Range and endurance of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be greatly improved by utilizing energy from the atmosphere. Wind can be exploited to minimize energy consumption of a small UAV. But wind, like any other atmospheric component , is a space and time varying phenomenon. To effectively use wind for long range missions, both exploration and exploitation of wind is critical. This research presents a kinematics based tree algorithm which efficiently handles the four dimensional (three spatial and time) path planning problem. The Kinematic Tree algorithm provides a sequence of waypoints, airspeeds, heading and bank angle commands for each segment of the path. The planner is shown to be resolution complete and computationally efficient. Global optimality of the cost function cannot be claimed, as energy is gained from the atmosphere, making the cost function inadmissible. However the Kinematic Tree is shown to be optimal up to resolution if the cost function is admissible. Simulation results show the efficacy of this planning method for a glider in complex real wind data. Simulation results verify that the planner is able to extract energy from the atmosphere enabling long range missions. The Kinematic Tree planning framework, developed to minimize energy consumption of UAVs, is applied for path planning

  19. Partitioning of Initial Energy Release in a Tunnel Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felts, Joshua; Lee, Richard; Mychajlonka, Kyle; Davis, Andy

    2015-06-01

    After the detonation of an explosive charge in the closed end of a tunnel, the products and excess fuels mix and partially combust with the available air before expanding down the tunnel. Both the energy of the detonation and from the combustion of the products and excess fuels drive the blast wave. The energy of the blast wave was calculated for several explosives in a small-scale tunnel. The calculations were performed using the methodology of Hutchens, which is an adaptation of the classical approach of Taylor and Sedov. For similarly sized explosives, the detonation energy was measured using a detonation calorimeter. The difference in the initial energy release of the tunnel with that of the calorimeter is the energy from the initial partial combustion of the detonation products and excess fuels in the explosive formulation. This difference is related to the explosive formulations and can be interpolated for new formulations. This relationship can guide new formulation development for use in a tunnel environment. Knowledge of the initial energy release partitioning can lead to better computer models for fuel-rich explosives.

  20. Occurrence of microplastics in the coastal marine environment: First observation on sediment of China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qiongxuan; Peng, Jinping; Yu, Xubiao; Chen, Fangchaizi; Wang, Jundong; Dong, Fenqiang

    2015-09-15

    Microplastics in sediments from the Beibu Gulf and the coastline of China Sea were investigated to evaluate the occurrence and abundance of microplastics in China for the first time. Microplastics (<5mm) were taken from sediments by a flotation method. The number of microplastics was counted by a fluorescence microscope, an instrument that is rarely used in the detection of microplastics in sediments. This instrument led to results that were satisfactory. Compared with other sampled areas, microplastics were found in massive concentrations in China. Four types of microplastics, HDPE, PET, PE and PS, were identified. The results will provide useful background information for further investigations. PMID:26190791

  1. Eddy kinetic energy study of the snowstorm over Southern China in January 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Qunjie; Gao, Shouting; Lü, Daren

    2014-07-01

    The energetics of the third stage of a snowstorm over China was analyzed using ECWMF data. The analysis of the energy budget for the Middle East trough and the western Pacific trough that developed toward China on 25-28 January 2008 showed the advection of the geopotential by the ageostrophic wind to be both a crucial source and the primary sink of the eddy kinetic energy centers associated with the troughs. The magnitudes of the energy conversion terms, interaction kinetic energy conversion and baroclinic conversion, were too small to explain the development of the energy centers and the jet streaks. The energy centers gained energy at their entrance regions via the convergence of the ageostrophic geopotential fluxes, and then lost energy at their exit regions by the same fluxes. At the entrance regions, the fluxes converged, increasing the geopotential gradient, which generated a stronger geostrophic wind and higher kinetic energy, resulting in an ascending motion in this area. When the troughs moved to China, the ascending motion caused by the convergence of the fluxes at entrance region intensified the snowstorms over central and southern China.

  2. Renewable Energy in China: Xiao Qing Dao Village Power Wind/Diesel Hybrid Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, DOE/NREL and the State Power Corporation of China (SPCC) developed a pilot project to electrify Xiao Qing Dao, a small island located in China's Yellow Sea. The project demonstrates the practicality of renewable energy systems for medium-scale, off-grid applications. It consists of four 10 k-W wind turbines connected to a 30-kW diesel generator, a 40-kW inverter and a battery bank.

  3. [Spatial-temporal evolution characteristic of coordination between urbanization and eco-environment in Jilin Province, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Tan, Jun-tao; Zhang, Ping-yu; Li, Jing; Liu, Shi-wei

    2015-12-01

    By building urbanization and eco-environment evaluation index systems, the levels of urbanization and eco-environment, and the degree of their coupling coordination of Jilin Province from 2000 to 2012 were evaluated. The level of comprehensive urbanization showed a continued growth trend, and the economic urbanization contributed the largest share. The eco-environment comprehensive level fluctuated upward. The eco-environment state, response and pressure increased faster since the implementation of the strategy of revitalizing Northeast China and other old industrial regions. Coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment increased continuously, from uncoordinated status to advanced coordinated status, changing from eco-environment lagged to urbanization lagged. The level of urbanization in central region was higher than east and west regions in Jilin Province, but its eco-environment level was low. Coupling coordination degree in Changchun was the highest, and that of Baishan was the lowest. Coupling coordination degree of Chang-Ji integrated region was always at the leading level, but the level of eco-environment lagged behind was growing since 2000. Coupling coordination degree of Siping, Liaoyuan, Songyuan and Yanbian increased, but that of Baicheng decreased. PMID:27112025

  4. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    Buildings represent an increasingly important component of China's total energy consumption mix. However, accurately assessing the total volume of energy consumed in buildings is difficult owing to deficiencies in China's statistical collection system and a lack of national surveys. Official statistics suggest that buildings account for about 19% of China's total energy consumption, while others estimate the proportion at 23%, rising to 30% over the next few years. In addition to operational energy, buildings embody the energy used in the in the mining, extraction, harvesting, processing, manufacturing and transport of building materials as well as the energy used in the construction and decommissioning of buildings. This embodied energy, along with a building's operational energy, constitutes the building's life-cycle energy and emissions footprint. This report first provides a review of international studies on commercial building life-cycle energy use from which data are derived to develop an assessment of Chinese commercial building life-cycle energy use, then examines in detail two cases for the development of office building operational energy consumption to 2020. Finally, the energy and emissions implications of the two cases are presented.

  5. International Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures (Energy, Environment, and Health)

    SciTech Connect

    Jena, Puru

    2011-11-10

    The international Symposium on Clusters and Nanostructures was held in Richmond, Virginia during November 7-10, 2011. The symposium focused on the roles clusters and nanostructures play in solving outstanding problems in clean and sustainable energy, environment, and health; three of the most important issues facing science and society. Many of the materials issues in renewable energies, environmental impacts of energy technologies as well as beneficial and toxicity issues of nanoparticles in health are intertwined. Realizing that both fundamental and applied materials issues require a multidisciplinary approach the symposium provided a forum by bringing researchers from physics, chemistry, materials science, and engineering fields to share their ideas and results, identify outstanding problems, and develop new collaborations. Clean and sustainable energy sessions addressed challenges in production, storage, conversion, and efficiency of renewable energies such as solar, wind, bio, thermo-electric, and hydrogen. Environmental issues dealt with air- and water-pollution and conservation, environmental remediation and hydrocarbon processing. Topics in health included therapeutic and diagnostic methods as well as health hazards attributed to nanoparticles. Cross-cutting topics such as reactions, catalysis, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties were also covered.

  6. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2015-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  7. Objective assessment of urban built environment related to physical activity — development, reliability and validity of the China Urban Built Environment Scan Tool (CUBEST)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some aspects of the neighborhood built environment may influence residents’ physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to develop an urban built environment evaluation tool and conduct necessary reliability and validity tests. Methods A 41-item urban built environment scan tool was developed to objectively assess the neighborhood built environment features related to physical activity. Six neighborhoods in Hangzhou were selected from three types of administrative planning units. A pair of auditors independently assessed all of the 205 street segments at the same time. Half of the segments (n = 104) were audited twice by the same auditor after a two-week time interval. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the audits of paired observers, while intra-rater reliability was evaluated by comparing an auditor’s repeated assessments of the same segments. The construct validity was tested using factor analysis. Results The inter-rater reliability for most items was above 0.8. The intra-rater reliability for most items was above 0.4, and was lower than corresponding inter-rater reliability. Six factors were extracted by factor analysis and the factor loading matrix showed good construct validity. Conclusions The CUBEST is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used to assess the physical activity-related built environment in Hangzhou, and potentially other cities in China. PMID:24495676

  8. Energy in the Environment - Initiatives 2004-08

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Jehn

    2009-09-11

    Under the Energy and Environment Initiative, the GWPC/GWPRF will expand the oil and gas electronic commerce initiatives used to enhance the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) and the Cost Effective Regulatory Approach (CERA). The GWPC/GWPRF has identified the following priorities for work efforts during the time period that will act as the base from which selections for each work period will be proposed. Work tasks will be presented for each reporting period by the GWPC from areas selected from the general list of priorities.

  9. SOLERAS solar-energy controlled-environment agriculture project

    SciTech Connect

    Luft, W.; Froechtenigt, J.; Falatah, A.

    1982-05-01

    Three commercial-size (5-ha), solar-powered, controlled-environment agriculture systems for hot, dry climates are described. The systems use brackish well water for cooling. The well water is desalinated for irrigation using reverse osmosis. Produce output ranges from 44 to 78 kg/m/sup 2/.yr with an overall water consumption of 8 to 139 L/kg produce and electric energy consumption of 111 to 790 Wh/kg produce. The levelized cost ranges from $1.14 to $8.07 per kg of produce.

  10. Scenario analysis of energy-based low-carbon development in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun; Hao, Fanghua; Meng, Wei; Fu, Jiafeng

    2014-08-01

    China's increasing energy consumption and coal-dominant energy structure have contributed not only to severe environmental pollution, but also to global climate change. This article begins with a brief review of China's primary energy use and associated environmental problems and health risks. To analyze the potential of China's transition to low-carbon development, three scenarios are constructed to simulate energy demand and CO₂ emission trends in China up to 2050 by using the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP) model. Simulation results show that with the assumption of an average annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate of 6.45%, total primary energy demand is expected to increase by 63.4%, 48.8% and 12.2% under the Business as Usual (BaU), Carbon Reduction (CR) and Integrated Low Carbon Economy (ILCE) scenarios in 2050 from the 2009 levels. Total energy-related CO₂ emissions will increase from 6.7 billiontons in 2009 to 9.5, 11, 11.6 and 11.2 billiontons; 8.2, 9.2, 9.6 and 9 billiontons; 7.1, 7.4, 7.2 and 6.4 billiontons in 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050 under the BaU, CR and ILCE scenarios, respectively. Total CO₂ emission will drop by 19.6% and 42.9% under the CR and ILCE scenarios in 2050, compared with the BaU scenario. To realize a substantial cut in energy consumption and carbon emissions, China needs to make a long-term low-carbon development strategy targeting further improvement of energy efficiency, optimization of energy structure, deployment of clean coal technology and use of market-based economic instruments like energy/carbon taxation. PMID:25108719

  11. Determining the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuel systems in China: a Data Envelopment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun; Mazzi, Anna; Scipioni, Antonio; Sovacool, Benjamin K

    2014-06-01

    This aim of this study was to use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to assess the life cycle energy efficiency of six biofuels in China. DEA can differentiate efficient and non-efficient scenarios, and it can identify wasteful energy losses in biofuel production. More specifically, the study has examined the efficiency of six approaches for bioethanol production involving a sample of wheat, corn, cassava, and sweet potatoes as feedstocks and "old," "new," "wet," and "dry" processes. For each of these six bioethanol production pathways, the users can determine energy inputs such as the embodied energy for seed, machinery, fertilizer, diesel, chemicals and primary energy utilized for manufacturing, and outputs such as the energy content of the bioethanol and byproducts. The results indicate that DEA is a novel and feasible method for finding efficient bioethanol production scenarios and suggest that sweet potatoes may be the most energy-efficient form of ethanol production for China. PMID:24727398

  12. Study on Relationship of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang-wei, Li; Xun-gang, Zheng

    Energy is one of the most basic materials of the national economy, which plays an important role in national productin and life. The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been a fascinating question since energy crisis in 70s of last century. This paper analyzes the relationship between energy consumption and economic development based on the VAR model using temporal series of China from 1990 to 2009, then uses impulse response function and variance decomposition to portray the correlations between economic growth and energy consumption. The result shows that there exists a unidirectional causality from energy consumption to gross domestic product and energy consumption can observably promote the development of economy.

  13. Major Energy Plants and Their Potential for Bioenergy Development in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaofeng; Hou, Shenglin; Su, Man; Yang, Mingfeng; Shen, Shihua; Jiang, Gaoming; Qi, Dongmei; Chen, Shuangyan; Liu, Gongshe

    2010-10-01

    China is rich in energy plant resources. In this article, 64 plant species are identified as potential energy plants in China. The energy plant species include 38 oilseed crops, 5 starch-producing crops, 3 sugar-producing crops and 18 species for lignocellulosic biomass. The species were evaluated on the basis of their production capacity and their resistance to salt, drought, and/or low temperature stress. Ten plant species have high production and/or stress resistance and can be potentially developed as the candidate energy plants. Of these, four species could be the primary energy plants in China: Barbados nut ( Jatropha curcas L.), Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus L.), sweet sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L.) and Chinese silvergrass ( Miscanthus sinensis Anderss.). We discuss the use of biotechnological techniques such as genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation to improve energy plants. These techniques are being used to develop new cultivars and to analyze and manipulate genetic variation to improve attributes of energy plants in China.

  14. China's Building Energy Use: A Long-Term Perspective based on a Detailed Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.; Kim, Son H.; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.

    2012-01-13

    We present here a detailed, service-based model of China's building energy use, nested in the GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model) integrated assessment framework. Using the model, we explore long-term pathways of China's building energy use and identify opportunities of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The inclusion of a structural model of building energy demands within an integrated assessment framework represents a major methodological advance. It allows for a structural understanding of the drivers of building energy consumption while simultaneously considering the other human and natural system interactions that influence changes in the global energy system and climate. We also explore a range of different scenarios to gain insights into how China's building sector might evolve and what the implications might be for improved building energy technology and carbon policies. The analysis suggests that China's building energy growth will not wane anytime soon, although technology improvement will put downward pressure on this growth. Also, regardless of the scenarios represented, the growth will involve the continued, rapid electrification of the buildings sector throughout the century, and this transition will be accelerated by the implementation of carbon policy.

  15. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan Byrne, Owen Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-28

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 10{sup 17} watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world’s energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3{sup rd} generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  16. Renewable energy technologies and its adaptation in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, K. Ravindranathan; Byrne, Owen; Surolia, Praveen K.

    2014-01-01

    This general article is based on the inaugural talk delivered at the opening of OMTAT 2013 conference. It notes that the integration of renewable energy sources into living and transport sectors presents a daunting task, still. In spite of the fact that the earth and its atmosphere continually receive 1.7 × 1017 watts of radiation from the sun, in the portfolio of sustainable and environment friendly energy options, which is about 16% of the world's energy consumption and mostly met by biomass, only a paltry 0.04% is accredited to solar. First and second generation solar cells offer mature technologies for applications. The most important difficulty with regards to integration with structures is not only the additional cost, but also the lack of sufficient knowledge in managing the available energy smartly and efficiently. The incorporation of PV as a part of building fabric greatly reduces the overall costs compared with retrofitting. BIPV (Building Integrated photovoltaic) is a critical technology for establishing aesthetically pleasing solar structures. Infusing PV and building elements is greatly simplified with some of the second generation thin film technologies now manufactured as flexible panels. The same holds true for 3rd generation technologies under development such as, and dye- and quantum dot- sensitized solar cells. Additionally, these technologies offer transparent or translucent solar cells for incorporation into windows and skylights. This review deals with the present state of solar cell technologies suitable for BIPV and the status of BIPV applications and its future prospects.

  17. Multi-energy imagers for a radiotherapy treatment environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.; Liu, Langechuan; Liang, Albert K.; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Koniczek, Martin; Jiang, Hao

    2015-03-01

    Over the last ~15 years, the central goal in external beam radiotherapy of maximizing dose to the tumor while minimizing dose to surrounding normal tissues has been greatly facilitated by the development and clinical implementation of many innovations. These include megavoltage active matrix flat-panel imagers (MV AMFPIs) designed to image the treatment beam, and separate kilovoltage (kV) AMFPIs and x-ray sources designed to provide high-contrast projection and cone-beam CT images in the treatment room. While these systems provide clinically valuable information, a variety of advantages would accrue through introduction of the capability to produce clinically useful, high quality imaging information at multiple energies (e.g., kV and MV) from a single detector along the treatment beam direction. One possible approach for achieving this goal involves substitution of the x-ray converters used in conventional MV AMFPIs with thick, segmented crystalline scintillators designed for dual-energy operation, coupled with the addition of x-ray imaging beams that contain a significant diagnostic component. A second approach involves introduction of a large area, monolithic array of photon counting pixels with multiple energy thresholds and event counters, which could provide multi-spectral views of the treatment beam with improved contrast. In this paper, the motivations behind, and the merits of each approach are described. In addition, prospects for such dual-energy imagers and photon counting array designs are discussed in the context of the radiotherapy environment.

  18. METALert - an emergency response system for China for heavy metals in the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joris, Ingeborg; Seuntjens, Piet; Dams, Jef; Desmet, Nele; Van Looy, Stijn; Raymaekers, Jens; Decorte, Lieve; Raben, Ingrid; Thijssen, Chris; Zhang, Hongzhen; Dong, Jingqi; Zhang, Qianwen

    2016-04-01

    The rapid industrialisation and economic growth of China has resulted in a mirrored increase of environmental issues and threats, which make the updating of the current environmental emergency response protocols very important. Heavy metal pollution accidents with high environmental risks are happening more frequently than ever in recent years. Despite efforts made by the authorites in respect to the formulation of sound policy, efficient technical methods and regulations for dealing with appropriate responses to emergency environmental incidents related to heavy metal pollution are still lacking. METALert is a generic Emergency Response System (ERS) for accidental pollution incidents caused by key heavy metal related industries in China and developed to support China in achieving its environmental targets. The METALert tool is based on environmental models for forecasting, simulation and visualisation of dispersion of heavy metal pollution in water, air and soil. The tool contains a generic database with scenarios for accidental release of metals in typical accidents related to the five key heavy metal industries in China. The tool can calculate the impact of an accident in water, air and soil and is evaluated and demonstrated for a river basin in the Chenzhou area, an important heavy metal mining area in China. The setup of the tool, the background models and the application in Chenzhou will be presented.

  19. Establishment and Analysis of High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of Water-Energy Cycle over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaohang; Liao, Xiaohan; Dong, Wenjie

    2014-11-01

    For better prediction and understanding of water-energy exchange process and land-atmospheric interaction, the in-situ observed meteorological data were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system were also integrated in the WRF model over China. Further, the High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China (HRADC) was produced by WRF model. The simulated results showed that the 2 m temperature and monthly precipitation were improved compared with the control simulation and has effectively reproduced the observed patterns, The HRADC could be used in further research on the long period climatic effects and characteristics of water-energy cycle over China.

  20. Verification of energy consumption in China during 1996-2003 by using satellite observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Ohara, Toshimasa; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Horii, Nobuhiro

    There is substantial difference in the coal consumption data in China during 1996-2003 among the three official energy statistics; the province-by-province data in the China Energy Statistics Yearbook (PBP-CESY), the energy balance tables by International Energy Agency (IEA2004) [2004, Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries. IEA, Paris], and the country-total data in the China Energy Statistics Yearbook (CT-CESY). Verification of these data was made by GOME satellite observational data for tropospheric NO 2 column density in Northern China Plain reported by Irie et al. [2005, Evaluation of long-termtropospheric NO 2 data obtained by GOME over East Asia in 1996-2002. Geophysical Research Letter 32(11), L11810, doi: 10.1029/2005GL022770] and Richter et al. [2005, Increase in tropospheric nitrogen dioxide over China observed from space. Nature 437, 129-130]. The NO 2 column increase from 1996 to 2002 averaged for the two reports is about 50%, whereas the NO x emission increases based on the PBP-CESY and IEA2004 are 25% and 15%, respectively, and that for CT-CESY is even lower. The discrepancy of the increasing trends between the satellite data and the PBP-CESY emission inventory could be within the uncertainty level with a reservation that the increase in total fuel consumption in PBP-CESY may still be underestimated particularly after the year of 1999. The increasing rates of NO x emissions during 1996-2002 calculated by using the IEA2004 and CT-CESY statistics are apparently underestimated beyond the uncertainty level of the satellite observation, and they are recommended not to be used for emission inventory studies in China during the period.

  1. The effects of urbanization on temperature trends in different economic periods and geographical environments in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Feng; Guo, Junqin; Sun, Landong; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xinping

    2014-04-01

    Using data collected from 22 urban and 65 rural meteorological stations in northwestern China between 1961 and 2009, this paper presents a study concerning the effects of urbanization on air temperature trends. To distinguish among the potential influences that stem from the economic development levels, population scales, and geographic environments of the cities in this region, the 49-year study period was divided into two periods: a period of less economic development, from 1961 to 1978, and a period of greater economic development, from 1979 to 2009. Each of the cities was classified as a megalopolis, large, or medium-small, depending on the population, and each was classified as a plateau, plain, or oasis city, depending on the surrounding geography. The differences in the air temperature trends between cities and the average of their rural counterparts were used to examine the warming effects of urbanization. The results of this study indicate that the magnitude of warming effects due to urbanization depends not only on a city's economic level, but also on the population scale and geographic environment of the city. The urbanization of most cities in northwestern China resulted in considerable negative warming effects during 1961-1978 but evidently positive effects during 1979-2009. The population scale of a city represents a significant factor: a city with a larger population has a stronger warming influence, regardless of whether the effect is negative or positive. Among the three geographic environments of the cities considered, plateaus and plains more significantly enhance warming effects than oases. The urban population trend has a very significant logarithm relationship with the urban temperature effect, but no clear relationships between urban temperature effects and city elevation were detected. The majority of the temperature trends, accounting for more than 60 % of the trends during 1961-2009, can be explained by natural factors, although

  2. Long Term Environment and Economic Impacts of Coal Liquefaction in China

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Jerald

    2014-03-31

    The project currently is composed of six specific tasks – three research tasks, two outreach and training tasks, and one project management and communications task. Task 1 addresses project management and communication. Research activities focused on Task 2 (Describe and Quantify the Economic Impacts and Implications of the Development and Deployment of Coal-to-Liquid Facilities in China), Task 3 (Development of Alternative Coal Gasification Database), and Task 4 (Geologic Carbon Management Options). There also were significant activities related to Task 5 (US-China Communication, Collaboration, and Training on Clean Coal Technologies) as well as planning activity performed in support of Task 6 (Training Programs).

  3. Analysis on the Impact of Tax Policy over China's New Energy Industry Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Bin; Li, Yang

    Energy is a kind of resource which can be used directly or offer people what they need by some conversions, the development of energy is the headspring of economic growth With the development of our national economy, new energy industry has become China's current vigorously the mainstream of development The analysis on influence of tax policy on the development of national new energy industry is mainly discussed, as well as the alternative analysis on the production output and sales tax aspects in the areas of new energy, and based on this, some tax policy suggestions on how to promote the development of national new energy industry are given finally.

  4. The Role of Family Environment in Depressive Symptoms among University Students: A Large Sample Survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanjie; Chen, Lu; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Zhou, Jiawei; Pan, Hui; Ban, Bo; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Ding, Yongqing; Bai, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between family environment and depressive symptoms and to evaluate the influence of hard and soft family environmental factors on depression levels in a large sample of university students in China. Methods A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select 6,000 participants. The response rate was 88.8%, with 5,329 students completing the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Family Environment Scale Chinese Version (FES-CV), which was adapted for the Chinese population. Differences between the groups were tested for significance by the Student’s t-test; ANOVA was used to test continuous variables. The relationship between soft family environmental factors and BDI were tested by Pearson correlation analysis. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to model the effects of hard environmental factors and soft environmental factors on depression in university students. Results A total of 11.8% of students scored above the threshold of moderate depression(BDI≧14). Hard family environmental factors such as parent relationship, family economic status, level of parental literacy and non-intact family structure were associated with depressive symptoms. The soft family environmental factors—conflict and control—were positively associated with depression, while cohesion was negatively related to depressive symptom after controlling for other important associates of depression. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the soft family environment correlates more strongly with depression than the hard family environment. Conclusions Soft family environmental factors—especially cohesion, conflict and control—appeared to play an important role in the occurrence of depressive symptoms. These findings underline the significance of the family environment as a source of risk factors for depression among university students in China and suggest that family-based interventions and improvement are very

  5. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 23

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.; Anderson, D.; Harte, J.

    1998-12-31

    Thirteen papers are included in this volume. The titles and authors are: From Physics to Development Strategies by Jose Goldemberg; Rewards and Penalties of Monitoring the Earth by Charles D. Keeling; Science and Nonscience Concerning Human-Caused Climate Warming by J. D. Mahlman; Consumption of Materials in the United States, 1990--1995 by Grecia Matos and Lorie Wagner; Future Technologies for Energy-Efficient Iron and Steel Making by Jeroen de Beer, Ernst Worrell, and Kornelis Blok; The O{sub 2} Balance of the Atmosphere: A Tool for Studying the Fate of Fossil Fuel CO{sub 2} by Michael L. Bender, Mark Battle, and Ralph F. Keeling; Mexican Electric End-Use Efficiency: Experiences to Date by Rafael Friedmann and Claudia Sheinbaum; Drinking Water in Developing Countries by Ashok Gadgil; Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges by Marilyn A. Brown, Mark D. Levine, Joseph P. Romm, Arthur H. Rosenfeld, and Jonathan G. Koomey; Climate Change Mitigation in the Energy and Forestry Sectors of Developing Countries by Jayant A. Sathaye and N. H. Ravindranath; Toward a Productive Divorce: Separating DOE Cleanups from Transition Assistance by M. Russell; Recycling Metals for the Environment by Iddo K. Wernick and Nickolas J. Themelis; and Environmentally Conscious Chemical Process Design by J. A. Cano-Ruiz and G. J. McRae.

  6. China offshore wind energy resources assessment with the QuikSCAT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jingwei; Luo, Yong; Zhang, Xiuzhi; Zhu, Rong

    2008-10-01

    With the data, which were obtained from the SeaWinds scatterometer on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) QuikSCAT satellite (12.5km*12.5km available from 1999 to current daily orbit swath), the China offshore region were studied (105-135° E 15-45° N). Because swath location is not fixed, interpolation was applied to get a fixed grid with 0.1° resolution. We calculate and analysis China offshore wind resources effective density of wind energy (EDWE) at 10 meters high above the sea level. And find that EDWE is rich in offshore area. The highest EDWE is in Taiwan Strait and North and South of the strait, with the EDWE 600-800W/m2, the next highest is East China Sea and South China Sea. The lowest EDWE is Yellow Sea and Bohai bay, less than 400W/m2. And several other wind energy resource-rich areas are: 1)the north of Bohai Bay, with wind power density more than 800 w/m2 decline to the south, 2)the East China Sea area the power density above 400 w/m2 increase to the southward. Guangdong coastal waters are rich in wind resources energy.

  7. Approaches to Studying and Perceptions of the Academic Environment among University Students in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Linda; Richardson, John T. E.; Robinson, Bernadette; Ding, Xia; Sun, Xiaoling; Han, Cuiling

    2011-01-01

    It has been claimed that students from "Confucian-heritage" cultures approach studying in higher education differently from Western students. This study investigated the experiences and the approaches to studying of students at a university in China. A total of 356 students completed both the Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) and the Revised…

  8. Bilingual Environment and Bilingual Development of Korean-Chinese Children in Yanji, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyewon Park; Won, Young Mee; Lee, Kwee-Ock

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the extent of children's access to media and the relation between the use of media and language development, including its determinants, among Korean-Chinese bilingual children in Yanji, China. Questionnaires were answered by 258 grade four students and their parents. The results indicated that these…

  9. Two Giants: China and India. Teacher's Guide to World Resources Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about the challenges faced by China and India as they work to sustain their population and ways of life without exhausting the environmental resources each has. The materials may be used as a unit on either nation or integrated into existing units of study. Student…

  10. The AMS Measurements and Its Applications in Nuclear Physics at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE)

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Shan; Shen Hongtao; He Ming; Dong Kejun; He Guozhu; Wang Xianggao; Yuan Jian; Wang Wei; Wu Shaoyong; Ruan Xiangdong; Wu Weimin

    2010-05-12

    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), initiated in late 1970s at McMaster university based on the accelerator and detector technique, has long been applied in the studies on archaeology, geology, and cosmology, as a powerful tool for isotope dating. The advantages of AMS in the analysis of rare nuclides by direct counting of the atoms, small sample size and relatively free from the interferences of molecular ions have been well documented. This paper emphasizes that AMS can not only be used for archaeology, geology, environment, biology and so on, but also served as a unique tool for nuclear physics research. In this paper, the determination of the half-lives of {sup 79}Se, the measurements of the cross-sections of {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92g}Nb and {sup 238}U(n,3n){sup 236}U reactions, the detection and determination of ultratrace impurities in neutrino detector materials, and the measurement of the fission product nuclide {sup 126}Sn, are to be introduced, as some of examples of AMS applications in nuclear research conducted in AMS lab of China Institute of Atomic Energy. Searching for superheavy nuclides by using AMS is being planned.

  11. Energy and Environment Directorate Status Report March 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J S

    2006-02-21

    The Energy and Environment Directorate (E& ED) is one of 13 directorates at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which is operated by the University of California (UC) for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). We operate in the context of a national security laboratory and focus on meeting major national needs, especially from a long-term perspective. In the LLNL context, E&ED is a hybrid ''program'' and ''discipline'' directorate, combining the program development responsibilities in the national energy and environment arenas to the benefit of the entire Laboratory and also serving as the Laboratory's science base of atmospheric, earth, environmental, and energy science. This Status Report is part of the annual evaluation process required by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of its contract with UC. The annual review typically will focus on about one third of the activities and programs of a directorate, so that the entire organization is evaluated over a three-year window. This year's review is focused on the basic science foundations for the directorate and two major program areas in the directorate, with an update from a third program. The programs for review are: (1) Earth System Science and Engineering; (2) Nuclear Systems Science and Engineering; and (3) NARAC/IMAAC update. Major questions to be addressed during this review include: (1) Are the programmatic directions appropriate? How can they be improved? (2) What actions can E&ED take to ensure success? How well poised for success are the current staff and facilities? What additions are needed? (3) What recommendations can be made to the Director and the University? This Status Report provides background information on the entire directorate including the parts of the directorate that are the focus of this year's review by the Energy and Environment Directorate Review Committee, to be held March 6-9, 2006. The following sections describe the overall

  12. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  13. Fluxes of water and energy in physically heterogeneous environments

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, D.D.; Barnes, F.J.; Davenport, D.W.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Fluxes of water and energy at the near-surface environment are tightly interrelated with a heterogeneous vegetation pattern that is a mosaic of tree canopies and intercanopy area. The objective was to improve the ability to predict these interrelationships, which are not well quantified. The authors (1) quantified how vegetation overstory determines the patterns of soil moisture and near-ground solar radiation, (2) developed spatial neighborhood analyses that demonstrated how woody plants exploit canopy/intercanopy heterogeneity, (3) developed a spatially explicit model for predicting near-ground solar radiation for sites along a grassland-forest continuum, (4) developed a water balance model that predicted temporal shifts in soil moisture between canopy and intercanopy patches, and (5) used the collective results to assess large-scale ecosystem responses to climate variations that lead to accelerated soil erosion.

  14. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article “Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea” published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26779562

  15. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Basir Khan, M. Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article “Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea” [1]. PMID:26900590

  16. Energy audit data for a resort island in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    The data consists of actual generation-side auditing including the distribution of loads, seasonal load profiles, and types of loads as well as an analysis of local development planning of a resort island in the South China Sea. The data has been used to propose an optimal combination of hybrid renewable energy systems that able to mitigate the diesel fuel dependency on the island. The resort island selected is Tioman, as it represents the typical energy requirements of many resort islands in the South China Sea. The data presented are related to the research article "Optimal Combination of Solar, Wind, Micro-Hydro and Diesel Systems based on Actual Seasonal Load Profiles for a Resort Island in the South China Sea" [1]. PMID:26900590

  17. Data from renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Basir Khan, M Reyasudin; Jidin, Razali; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy assessments for resort islands in the South China Sea were conducted that involves the collection and analysis of meteorological and topographic data. The meteorological data was used to assess the PV, wind and hydropower system potentials on the islands. Furthermore, the reconnaissance study for hydro-potentials were conducted through topographic maps in order to determine the potential sites suitable for development of run-of-river hydropower generation. The stream data was collected for 14 islands in the South China Sea with a total of 51 investigated sites. The data from this study are related to the research article "Optimal combination of solar, wind, micro-hydro and diesel systems based on actual seasonal load profiles for a resort island in the South China Sea" published in Energy (Khan et al., 2015) [1]. PMID:26779562

  18. Chemical energy powered nano/micro/macromotors and the environment.

    PubMed

    Moo, James Guo Sheng; Pumera, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The rise of miniaturized artificial self-powered devices, demonstrating autonomous motion, has brought in new considerations from the environmental perspective. This review addresses the interplay between these nano/micro/macromotors and the environment, recent advances, and their applications in pollution management. Such self-propelled devices are able to actuate chemical energy into mechanical motion in situ, adding another powerful dimension towards solving environmental problems. Use of synthetic nano/micro/macromotors has demonstrated potential in environmental remediation, both in pollutant removal and contaminant degradation, owing to motion-induced mixing. At the same time, the chemical environment exerts influence on the locomotion of the motors. These sensitized self-powered devices demonstrate capabilities for being deployed as sensors and their chemotactic behaviors show efficacy to act as first responders towards a chemical leakage. Thus, the notion of a self-propelling entity also entails further investigation into its inherent toxicity and possible implications as a pollutant. Future challenges and outlook of the use of these miniaturized devices are discussed, with specific regard to the fields of environmental remediation and monitoring, as we move towards their wider acceptance. We believe that these tiny machines will stand up to the task as solutions for environmental sustainability in the 21st century. PMID:25410790

  19. Photochemical conversion of solar energy in the environment. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Zepp, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Past research on photochemistry in the environment has focused on gas phase reactions in the atmosphere. Recently, however, environmentally significant photoreactions have been discovered in natural waters (i.e., the sea, lakes, and rivers), on soil surfaces, and in atmospheric condensed phases. These new investigations have been stimulated in part by interest in developing a scientific understanding of the role of photochemical processes in the biogeochemical cycles of various elements. In addition, other studies have explored the role of natural photochemical processes in cleansing the environemnt of various waste materials or, in some cases, in converting the wastes to more toxic substances. In the paper, current research results on the photochemical conversion of solar energy in aquatic environments and on soil and metal oxide surfaces are presented. Rate equations and products for selected homogeneous and heterogeneous photoreactions that occur in these systems are described. Data are presented for direct and sensitized photoreactions and for sunlight-initiated free radical reactions. (Copyright (c) 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.)

  20. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  1. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Sun, J. Y.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Pei, X. Y.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-08-01

    Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out in the North China Plain both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU) and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ) from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation event start was 0.025 s-1 in the urban environment, which was 1.6 times higher than that at regional site. However, higher particle formation and growth rates were observed at PKU (10.8 cm-3 s-1 an 5.2 nm h-1) compared with those at SDZ (4.9 cm-3 s-1 and 4.0 nm h-1). These results implied that more precursors are needed to participate in the nucleation process to observe the occurrence of new particle formation event in a more polluted urban environment. Different from the observations in clean environments, the background condition of the observed nucleation events in the North China Plain could be characterized as the co-existing of the higher source and sink. The condensational growth of newly formed particles results in an increase in the particle mass concentration, particle light scattering coefficient, and CCN number concentration, with consequences on climate effects and air quality. In 34 investigated new particle formation cases at both sites, a significant particle nucleation and subsequent growth over a sufficient long time period were observed and investigated in terms of the particle light scattering and the number concentration of "potential" CCN. The results revealed that the new particle formation increases the particle light scattering coefficient and CCN number concentration in the North China Plain by factors in the range of 6.3-7.6 and 5.6-8.7, respectively. Moreover, the potential contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the CCN number concentration is more than 50

  2. Counting on Energy. Project E3 (Energy, Economics, and the Environment).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr.; Reese, D. Chris

    Five units are designed to provide an opportunity for in-depth, technical analysis in the fields of energy, economics, and the environment. In an effort to move upper elementary and secondary students beyond general awareness, activities call for the application of numbers where typically only vague generalities are discussed. Within each chapter,…

  3. Comparison of building energy use data between the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jianjun; Hong, Tianzhen; Shen, Qi; Feng, Wei; Yang, Le; Im, Piljae; Lu, Alison; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-10-30

    Buildings in the United States and China consumed 41percent and 28percent of the total primary energy in 2011, respectively. Good energy data are the cornerstone to understanding building energy performance and supporting research, design, operation, and policy making for low energy buildings. This paper presents initial outcomes from a joint research project under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency. The goal is to decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders. This paper first reviews and compares several popular existing building energy monitoring systems in both countries. Next a standard energy data model is presented. A detailed, measured building energy data comparison was conducted for a few office buildings in both countries. Finally issues of data collection, quality, sharing, and analysis methods are discussed. It was found that buildings in both countries performed very differently, had potential for deep energy retrofit, but that different efficiency measures should apply.

  4. Status of China's Energy Efficiency Standards and Labels for Appliances and International Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-03-01

    China first adopted minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) in 1989. Today, there are standards for a wide range of domestic, commercial and selected industrial equipment. In 1999, China launched a voluntary endorsement label, which has grown to cover over 40 products including water-saving products (See Figure 1). Further, in 2005, China started a mandatory energy information label (also referred to as the 'Energy Label'). Today, the Energy Label is applied to four products including: air conditioners; household refrigerators; clothes washers; and unitary air conditioners (See Figure 2). MEPS and the voluntary endorsement labeling specifications have been updated and revised in order to reflect technology improvements to those products in the market. These programs have had an important impact in reducing energy consumption of appliances in China. Indeed, China has built up a strong infrastructure to develop and implement product standards. Historically, however, the government's primary focus has been on the technical requirements for efficiency performance. Less attention has been paid to monitoring and enforcement with a minimal commitment of resources and little expansion of administrative capacity in this area. Thus, market compliance with both mandatory standards and labeling programs has been questionable and actual energy savings may have been undermined as a result. The establishment of a regularized monitoring system for tracking compliance with the mandatory standard and energy information label in China is a major area for program improvement. Over the years, the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP) has partnered with several Chinese institutions to promote energy-efficient products in China. CLASP, together with its implementing partner Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), has assisted China in developing and updating the above-mentioned standards and labeling programs. Because of the increasing need for the

  5. The future of energy efficiency services in a competitive environment

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-12-31

    The competitive restructuring of the electric power industry raises fundamental strategic questions about how energy efficiency services can best be delivered. While some utilities believe that the ``commoditization`` of electric power will extinguish their role in providing efficiency services, others are committed to developing new ways of profitably delivering highly integrated service packages in a more competitive environment. In other industries that have undergone similar transitions, leading companies have prospered by developing new ``reintegration`` strategies to provide enhanced customer value. In the electric power sector, these strategies will bring to the fore finance and marketing skills, giving rise to far-reaching changes in the provision of energy services. Using market-based forward prices for electricity, power merchants may soon be able to ``monetize`` electricity savings and arbitrate against kilowatt-hour prices. Providers of efficiency services will be forced to develop new techniques for ``mass customization`` of service packages, incorporating features such as power quality management, innovative pricing, billing, and financial risk management. Technology integration will be a central task for these companies. As the transmission and distribution grid is permeated with real-time price information, the optimal technical solutions for the customer, including distributed generation, storage, and efficiency options, will become increasingly site-specific and time-dependent.

  6. Characterization of an energy storage capacitor in abnormal thermal environments

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, L.R.; Chen, K.C.; Baron, R.V.

    2000-01-05

    There are applications of high-voltage, energy-storage, capacitors where it is desirable that the energy storage capability can be reliably and predictably negated in abnormal environments such as fire. This property serves as a safety feature to prevent events of unintended consequence. The present paper describes studies of the thermal response characteristics of a cylindrically wound, discrete Mylar film/foil capacitor design. The experimental setups that simulate fires will be presented. Three different heat input geometries were employed: uniform radial input, spot radial input, and axial input. Heat input was controlled via feedback system to maintain specific temperature ramp rates. Both capacitor voltage and current were monitored during the thermal excursion to ascertain the failure temperature, i.e. when the capacitor permanently shorts. Temperature of failure data is presented for the three heat input cases along with a statistical analysis of the results and application implications. The physics of failure will be described in terms of the thermal/mechanical properties of the Mylar.

  7. Common challenge, collaborative response: a roadmap for US-China cooperation on energy and climate change

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-15

    This Report which was produced in partnership between Asia Society's Center on U.S.-China Relations and Pew Center on Global Climate Change, in collaboration with The Brookings Institution, Council on Foreign Relations, National Committee on U.S.-China Relations, and Environmental Defense Fund presents both a vision and a concrete Roadmap for such Sino-U.S. collaboration. With input from scores of experts and other stakeholders from the worlds of science, business, civil society, policy, and politics in both China and the United States, the Report, or 'Roadmap', explores the climate and energy challenges facing both nations and recommends a concrete program for sustained, high-level, bilateral engagement and on-the-ground action. The Report recommends that, as a first step in forging this new partnership, the leaders of the two countries should convene a leaders summit as soon as practically possible following the inauguration of Barack Obama to launch a 'U.S.-China Partnership on Energy and Climate Change'. This presidential summit should outline a major plan of joint-action and empower relevant officials in each country to take the necessary actions to ensure its implementation. Priority areas of collaboration include: deploying low-emissions coal technologies; improving energy efficiency and conservation; developing an advanced electric grid; promoting renewable energy; and quantifying emissions and financing low-carbon technologies. 5 figs., 1 tab., 2 apps.

  8. Monitoring rice cropping systems using China environment satellite data in Poyang Lake region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Luguang; Feng, Zhiming

    Threshold method was utilized to discriminate rice cropping systems based on the noticeable variation of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during key growth stages in Poyang Lake Region, China. This area is dominated by double- and single rice cropping systems which tend to change due to the frequent ecosystem management policies. We used a new satellite data from the CCD camera sensor with 30 m spatial resolution onboard the China Environmental Satellite HJ-1A and B. The HJ -1A/B with a better temporal resolution of four days provides more data options for effective and timely agriculture monitoring. The result showed that there is evident difference of NDVI between single and late rice during mid October when they are in different growth stages. The areas of single and late rice in 2011 were 2988.6 km2 and 3105.9 km2, respectively. Paddy field distribution map and local paddy rice calendar are requisite to move the threshold method into other multiple rice cropping regions. The study suggests that the China Environmental Satellite HJ-1A/B have the potential to rice cropping system in the double to triple rice cropping systems area. With many advantages of HJ-1A/B, like, finer spatial and temporal resolution, bigger imaging swath, it may make rice cropping system monitoring more feasible and operational.

  9. [Water environment adaptability and ecological groups of hydroidomedusae in East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhao-li

    2009-01-01

    Based on the data of four seasonal oceanographic censuses in East China Sea (23 degrees 30' - 33 degrees 00' N, 118 degrees 30' - 128 degrees 00' E) in 1997-2000, the optimal water temperature and salinity and the ecological groups of Hydroidomedusae were studied by curve fitting, mathematical model forming, and geographic distribution analyzing. The results showed that Hydroidomedusae could live in the waters with different temperature and salinity. 15 species of Hydroidomedusae had an optimal water temperature of <20 degrees C, 8 species at 20 degrees C - 25 degrees C, 12 species at 22.5 degrees C - 25 degrees C, and 17 species at > or =25 degrees C. 32 species of Hydroidomedusae had an optimal salinity of 32-34, 13 species at 34, 6 species at 30-32, and only 2 species at <30. The weak adaptability of most Hydroidomedusae species to the variation of water salinity made them have low density and limited distribution in East China Sea. Sugiura chengshanense and Clytia hemisphaerica were of nearshore warm temperate water species, Cunina octonaria and other 12 species were of offshore warm temperate water species, 8 species represented by Ectopleura latitaeniata were of nearshore subtropical water species, 5 species represented by Aglaura hemistoma showed some oceanic tropical features, while 25 species represented by Liriope tetraphylla were of offshore subtropical species. Some Hydroidomedusae species could be used as an important bio-indicator of water mass in East China Sea. PMID:19449583

  10. A review of energy recovery from waste in China.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Thomas; Flamme, Sabine; Nelles, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Although municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal in Europe and other developed countries has led to a widespread production of solid recovered fuel (SRF) and its incineration in various technical combustion processes, such developments have not yet occurred that widely in developing and transitional economies. This article puts mass-burn technologies and SRF into a China perspective, reviewing issues from technology application problems to emerging trends and future perspectives. Over the last two decades, growing waste volumes have prompted a move to waste incineration, especially in the large densely populated first-tier cities. However, with an organic fraction above 70% and a resulting water content of up to 65%, it is still argued that MSW in China is too moist for incineration. The introduction of mechanical biological treatment (MBT) or mechanical physical stabilization (MPS) technology for SRF production could provide the solution, either by offering further pre-drying options to mass-burn incinerators or by creating SRF to be burnt in co-incineration plants. First experiences of MBT and MPS technologies show promising results in terms of the capacity to deal with organic waste fractions, but the further disposal/utilization of the plants' output stream has not yet been fully addressed. PMID:22492261

  11. Target Allocation Methodology for China's Provinces: Energy Intensity in the 12th FIve-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ohshita, Stephanie; Price, Lynn

    2011-03-21

    Experience with China's 20% energy intensity improvement target during the 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) (2006-2010) has shown the challenges of rapidly setting targets and implementing measures to meet them. For the 12th FYP (2011-2015), there is an urgent need for a more scientific methodology to allocate targets among the provinces and to track physical and economic indicators of energy and carbon saving progress. This report provides a sectoral methodology for allocating a national energy intensity target - expressed as percent change in energy per unit gross domestic product (GDP) - among China's provinces in the 12th FYP. Drawing on international experience - especially the European Union (EU) Triptych approach for allocating Kyoto carbon targets among EU member states - the methodology here makes important modifications to the EU approach to address an energy intensity rather than a CO{sub 2} emissions target, and for the wider variation in provincial energy and economic structure in China. The methodology combines top-down national target projections and bottom-up provincial and sectoral projections of energy and GDP to determine target allocation of energy intensity targets. Total primary energy consumption is separated into three end-use sectors - industrial, residential, and other energy. Sectoral indicators are used to differentiate the potential for energy saving among the provinces. This sectoral methodology is utilized to allocate provincial-level targets for a national target of 20% energy intensity improvement during the 12th FYP; the official target is determined by the National Development and Reform Commission. Energy and GDP projections used in the allocations were compared with other models, and several allocation scenarios were run to test sensitivity. The resulting allocations for the 12th FYP offer insight on past performance and offer somewhat different distributions of provincial targets compared to the 11th FYP. Recommendations for reporting

  12. Nonrenewable energy cost and greenhouse gas emissions of a "pig-biogas-fish" system in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Wu, Xiaofang; Yang, Haiping; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the energy savings and emission reductions of the present rural biogas system in China. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used to analyze a "pig-biogas-fish" system in Jingzhou, Hubei Province, China. The nonrenewable energy cost and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the system, including the pigsty, the biogas digester, and the fishpond, are taken into account. The border definition is standardized because of the utilization of the database in this paper. The results indicate that the nonrenewable energy consumption intensity of the "pig-biogas-fish" system is 0.60 MJ/MJ and the equivalent CO₂ emission intensity is 0.05 kg CO₂-eq/MJ. Compared with the conventional animal husbandry system, the "pig-biogas-fish" system shows high renewability and GHG reduction benefit, which indicates that the system is a scientific and environmentally friendly chain combining energy and ecology. PMID:23213302

  13. Lead-acid battery use in the development of renewable energy systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu; Mao, Xianxian; Zhao, Yanfang; Feng, Shaoli; Chen, Hongyu; Finlow, David

    Policies and laws encouraging the development of renewable energy systems in China have led to rapid progress in the past 2 years, particularly in the solar cell (photovoltaic) industry. The development of the photovoltaic (PV) and wind power markets in China is outlined in this paper, with emphasis on the utilization of lead-acid batteries. The storage battery is a key component of PV/wind power systems, yet many deficiencies remain to be resolved. Some experimental results are presented, along with examples of potential applications of valve regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, both the absorbed glass mat (AGM) and gelled types.

  14. Satellite-Based Investigation and Evaluation of the Observational Environment of Meteorological Stations in Anhui Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Bin; Shi, Tao; Yang, Yuan-Jian; Wu, Bi-Wen; Wang, La-Bao; Shi, Chun-E.; Guo, Jian-Xia; Ji, Cheng-Li; Wen, Hua-Yang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, by using multi-temporal and high resolution Landsat data and geographic information system techniques, the land use/land cover (LULC) in the 2-km buffer zone of 52 meteorological stations in the Anhui province of China is retrieved and categorized into three types: vegetation (including farmland, forest and grass land), water (including lakes, rivers and pools), and construction (including buildings and roads). Besides, the land surface temperature (LST) in the buffer zone of these stations is also obtained from thermal infrared data. The normalized LST index (NLI) and the heat effect contribution index (HECI) of different LULC types are calculated. Via case studies and statistical analysis, the LULC and thermal environment's temporal-spatial variance in the 2-km buffer zone of these stations are surveyed, and their impacts on the observational environment are investigated. The study shows that the observational environments of the meteorological stations in Anhui province have been greatly influenced by rapid urbanization. The study proposes two new methods to classify the stations' observational environment into three types (urban, sub-urban, and rural). One uses the NLI and the other uses the HECI. The NLI method needs only LST information. The HECI method combines both LULC and LST information and, hence, is considered more reliable. The evaluation methods and criteria can be used conveniently, effectively, and quantitatively, and are especially useful when analyzing observational data from meteorological stations in weather and climate research and when choosing a location for a new meteorological station.

  15. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Best Practices to Enhance Informal Geoscience Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D.; Crowley, K. J.; Steiner, M. A.; Divers, M. T.; Hopkins, K. G.; Giarratani, L.; Gilmore, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    While energy links all living and non-living systems, the integration of energy, the environment, and society is often not clearly represented in 9 - 12 classrooms and informal learning venues. However, objective public learning that integrates these components is essential for improving public environmental literacy. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network) is a National Science Foundation funded initiative that uses an Earth Systems Science framework to guide experimental learning for high school students and to improve public learning opportunities regarding the energy-environment-society nexus in a Museum setting. One of the primary objectives of the ENERGY-NET project is to develop a rich set of experimental learning activities that are presented as exhibits at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA). Here we detail the evolution of the ENERGY-NET exhibit building process and the subsequent evolution of exhibit content over the past three years. While preliminary plans included the development of five "exploration stations" (i.e., traveling activity carts) per calendar year, the opportunity arose to create a single, larger topical exhibit per semester, which was assumed to have a greater impact on museum visitors. Evaluative assessments conducted to date reveal important practices to be incorporated into ongoing exhibit development: 1) Undergraduate mentors and teen exhibit developers should receive additional content training to allow richer exhibit materials. 2) The development process should be distributed over as long a time period as possible and emphasize iteration. This project can serve as a model for other collaborations between geoscience departments and museums. In particular, these practices may streamline development of public presentations and increase the effectiveness of experimental learning activities.

  16. Sustainable agriculture, renewable energy and rural development: An analysis of bio-energy systems used by small farms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Aiming

    Renewable energy needs to be incorporated into the larger picture of sustainable agriculture and rural development if it is to serve the needs of the 3.25 billion human beings whose livelihoods and based on rural economies and ecologies. For rural communities, increasing agriculture production is key to raising income generation and improving social well-being, but this linkage depends also upon not harming natural resources. This dissertation provides an overview of recent Chinese agriculture history, discusses the role of energy in contemporary's China's agriculture and rural development, and introduces a new approach---the integrated agricultural bio-energy (IAB) system---to address the challenge of sustainable agriculture and rural development. IAB is an innovative design and offers a renewable energy solution for improving agricultural productivity, realizing efficient resource management, and enhancing social well-being for rural development. In order to understand how the IAB system can help to achieve sustainable agricultural and rural development in China, a comprehensive evaluation methodology is developed from health, ecological, energy and economic (HE3) perspectives. With data from surveys of 200 small farm households, a detailed study of IAB and conventional agricultural energy (CAE) system applications (in China's Liaoning and Yunnan Province) is conducted. The HE3 impacts of IAB systems in China's rural areas (compared to existing CAE systems) are quantified. The dissertation analyzes the full life-cycle costs and benefits of IAB systems, including their contributions to energy savings, CO2 emissions reduction, agricultural waste reduction, increased rural incomes, better rural health, and improved ecosystem sustainability. The analysis relies upon qualitative and quantitative modeling in order to produce a comprehensive assessment of IAB system impacts. Finally, the dissertation discusses the barriers to greater diffusion of the IAB systems

  17. Energy metabolism and the high-altitude environment.

    PubMed

    Murray, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    At high altitude the barometric pressure falls, challenging oxygen delivery to the tissues. Thus, whilst hypoxia is not the only physiological stress encountered at high altitude, low arterial P(O2) is a sustained feature, even after allowing adequate time for acclimatization. Cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism is altered in subjects at, or returning from, high altitude. In the heart, energetic reserve falls, as indicated by lower phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but in the hypoxic rat heart fatty acid oxidation and respiratory capacity are decreased, whilst pyruvate oxidation is also lower after sustained hypoxic exposure. In skeletal muscle, there is not a consensus. With prolonged exposure to extreme high altitude (>5500 m) a loss of muscle mitochondrial density is seen, but this was not observed in a simulated ascent of Everest in hypobaric chambers. At more moderate high altitude, decreased respiratory capacity may occur without changes in mitochondrial volume density, and fat oxidation may be downregulated, although this is not seen in all studies. The underlying mechanisms, including the possible role of hypoxia-signalling pathways, remain to be resolved, particularly in light of confounding factors in the high-altitude environment. In high-altitude-adapted Tibetan natives, however, there is evidence of natural selection centred around the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway, and metabolic features in this population (e.g. low cardiac phosphocreatine-to-ATP ratios, increased cardiac glucose uptake and lower muscle mitochondrial densities) share similarities with those in acclimatized lowlanders, supporting a possible role for the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway in the metabolic response of cardiac and skeletal muscle energy metabolism to high altitude. PMID:26315373

  18. Characteristics of regional new particle formation in urban and regional background environments in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. B.; Hu, M.; Sun, J. Y.; Wu, Z. J.; Yue, D. L.; Shen, X. J.; Zhang, Y. M.; Pei, X. Y.; Cheng, Y. F.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term measurements of particle number size distributions were carried out both at an urban background site (Peking University, PKU) and a regional Global Atmospheric Watch station (Shangdianzi, SDZ) from March to November in 2008. In total, 52 new particle formation (NPF) events were observed simultaneously at both sites, indicating that this is a regional phenomenon in the North China Plain. On average, the mean condensation sink value before the nucleation events started was 0.025 s-1 in the urban environment, which was 1.6 times higher than that at regional site. However, higher particle formation and growth rates were observed at PKU (10.8 cm-3 s-1 and 5.2 nm h-1) compared with those at SDZ (4.9 cm-3 s-1 and 4.0 nm h-1). These results implied that precursors were much more abundant in the polluted urban environment. Different from the observations in cleaner environments, the background conditions of the observed particle homogeneous nucleation events in the North China Plain could be characterized as the co-existing of a stronger source of precursor gases and a higher condensational sink of pre-existing aerosol particles. Secondary aerosol formation following nucleation events results in an increase of particle mass concentration, particle light scattering coefficient, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration, with consequences on visibility, radiative effects, and air quality. Typical regional NPF events with significant particle nucleation rates and subsequent particle growth over a sufficiently long time period at both sites were chosen to investigate the influence of NPF on the number concentration of "potential" CCN. As a result, the NPF and the subsequent condensable growth increased the CCN number concentration in the North China Plain by factors in the range from 5.6 to 8.7. Moreover, the potential contribution of anthropogenic emissions to the CCN number concentration was more than 50%, to which more attention should be drawn in

  19. Energy for Water Utilization in China and Policy Implications for Integrated Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Liu, J.; Zheng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water and energy are two vital resources for human and are intrinsically linked. China is a country with acute water problems caused by increasing demand, uneven spatial-temporal distribution of water resources, and water quality deterioration. These issues are exacerbating the country's water scarcity. Meanwhile, demands for both traditional and non-traditional water resources continue to rise, driven by the country's rapid economic expansion and industrialization. To meet growing water demands, more and more energy is used for water extraction, transportation and treatment. While projects such as deep groundwater pumping, long distance water transfer and seawater desalination are adding crucial supplies of fresh water, they are consuming an ever greater amount of energy. Thus, a better understanding of water-energy linkages is important for integrated water and energy policy analysis and planning. In this study, data from multiple sources are compiled and used to calculate energy consumption for different processes of water utilization in China, including water abstraction, treatment, and distribution, as well as wastewater treatment and re-use. Sankey diagrams are used to display the magnitude and direction of water and energy flows in China at the national level. Spatial distributions of energy use by different components of the water supply were further mapped at the provincial level to discern regional differences. The results of this study show that, for the main processes considered, water utilization consumes 193.5 TWh of electricity, or about 4% of the total national electricity usage. The highest percentage of energy consumption for water is attributed to water provision process. The outcome of this study has important implications for policy reforms involving water conservation strategies, water supply structure changes and technical solutions, which, in turn, will contribute to achieving the goal of low-energy water utilization in the future.

  20. Effects of Work Environment on Quality of Care in ICUs: A Multisite Survey in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiali; You, Liming; Zheng, Jing; Ross, Amy Miner; Liu, Ke

    2016-01-01

    This study estimated the effects of the work environment on the quality of care in intensive care units (ICUs). Nurses in ICUs with good work environments or high nurse staffing were significantly less likely to report poor or fair quality of care (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37-0.47), rationing of nursing care (OR = 0.38-0.76), and health care-associated infections (OR = 0.28-0.68). Favorable ICU work environments and adequate nurse staffing can predict better quality of care. PMID:26796973

  1. Future energy system in environment, economy, and energy problems (2) various nuclear energy system evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Ujita, Hiroshi; Tashimo, Masanori

    2006-07-01

    Role and potentials of nuclear energy system in the energy options are discussed from the viewpoint of sustainable development with protecting from global warming by using the energy module structure of GRAPE model. They change and are affected dramatically by different sets of energy characteristics, nuclear behavior and energy policy even under the moderate set of presumptions. Introduction of thousands of reactors in the end of the century seems inevitable for better life and cleaner earth, but it will not come without efforts and cost. The analysis suggests the need of long term planning and R and D efforts under the wisdom. (authors)

  2. Depression in employees in privately owned enterprises in China: is it related to work environment and work ability?

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Wang, Xinchao

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the individual and workplace factors related to depression and stress in a large privately owned enterprise in China. The cross-sectional study design involved 13 privately owned retail enterprises in China. A self-report survey was administered to 4,847 employees aged 18-54 recruited through the management boards of the 13 enterprises. A chi-square test was used to compare differences between the depressed and non-depressed groups on a number of demographic variables and chronic diseases. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess depression in relation to individual factors (work ability and resilience) and organisational environmental factors (workplace ethos and culture, psychosocial environment and health promotion policies and activities). Significant relationships were found between employee depression all personal factors, and one organisational environmental factor. Personal factors include poor work ability and low resilience, while workplace factors include workplace ethos and culture. The primary organisational environmental factor was a low level of enterprise ethos and culture. PMID:23528811

  3. Energy and the Environment. Final Report, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahart, David E., Ed.; Allen, Rodney F., Ed.

    These self-contained energy units were developed by Florida teachers to help high school students better understand energy, energy conservation, and life-styles. The major objectives are to help students understand the science and technology of energy, make informed and fair judgments on energy options, make personal life-style commitments which…

  4. C:N:P Stoichiometry and Leaf Traits of Halophytes in an Arid Saline Environment, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lilong; Zhao, Guanxiang; Li, Meng; Zhang, Mingting; Zhang, Lifang; Zhang, Xinfang; An, Lizhe; Xu, Shijian

    2015-01-01

    Salinization is an important and increasingly prevalent issue which has broad and profound effects on plant survival and distribution pattern. To understand the patterns and potential drivers of leaf traits in saline environments, we determined the soil properties, leaf morphological traits (specific leaf area, SLA, and leaf dry matter content, LDMC), leaf chemical traits (leaf carbon, C, nitrogen, N, and phosphorus, P, stoichiometry) based on 142 observations collected from 23 sites in an arid saline environment, which is a vulnerable ecosystem in northwest China. We also explored the relationships among leaf traits, the responses of leaf traits, and plant functional groups (herb, woody, and succulent woody) to various saline environments. The arid desert halophytes were characterized by lower leaf C and SLA levels, higher N, but stable P and N:P. The leaf morphological traits were correlated significantly with the C, N, and P contents across all observations, but they differed within each functional group. Succulent woody plants had the lowest leaf C and highest leaf N levels among the three functional groups. The growth of halophytes might be more limited by N rather than P in the study area. GLM analysis demonstrated that the soil available nutrients and plant functional groups, but not salinity, were potential drivers of leaf C:N:P stoichiometry in halophytes, whereas species differences accounted for the largest contributions to leaf morphological variations. Our study provides baseline information to facilitate the management and restoration of arid saline desert ecosystem. PMID:25798853

  5. Perceived built environment and health-related quality of life in four types of neighborhoods in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meiling; Ahern, Jennifer; Koshland, Catherine P

    2016-05-01

    Development in Chinese cities is resulting in a diversity of urban environments that may influence health. In a cross-sectional study of 1608 adults in 20 neighborhoods of Xi'an, China, we examined perceptions of neighborhoods using the NEWS-A survey and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) from the SF-12 across four types of neighborhoods: old/planned, old/unplanned, new/high density, and new/low density. Increased accessibility was significantly associated with both higher mental (range: 3.13-5.53 points) and physical (range: 2.06-3.54 points) well-being for all types of neighborhoods. In the new neighborhoods, increased perceived diversity, safety, and esthetics were significantly associated with higher physical and mental well-being. This study can help inform urban planning priorities to improve quality of life as Chinese cities develop. PMID:27055241

  6. Establishment and analysis of High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiaohang; Liao, Xiaohan; Dong, Wenjie; Yuan, Wenping

    2015-04-01

    For better prediction and understanding of water-energy exchange process and land-atmospheric interaction, the in-situ observed meteorological data which were acquired from China Meteorological Administration (CMA) were assimilated in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the monthly Green Vegetation Coverage (GVF) data, which was calculated by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Earth Observing System Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) system were also integrated in the WRF model over China. Further, the High-Resolution Assimilation Dataset of water-energy cycle over China (HRADC) was produced by WRF model. This dataset include 25 km horizontal resolution near surface meteorological data such as air temperature, humidity, ground temperature, and pressure at 19 levels, soil temperature and soil moisture at 4 levels, green vegetation coverage, latent heat flux, sensible heat flux, and ground heat flux for 3 hours. In this study, we 1) briefly introduce the cycling 3D-Var assimilation method; 2) Compare results of meteorological elements such as 2 m temperature, precipitation and ground temperature generated by the HRADC with the gridded observation data from CMA, and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) output data from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is found that the results of 2 m temperature were improved compared with the control simulation and has effectively reproduced the observed patterns, and the simulated results of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature and specific humidity were as much closer to GLDAS outputs. Root mean square errors are reduced in assimilation run than control run, and the assimilation run of ground temperature, 0-10 cm soil temperature, radiation and surface fluxes were agreed well with the GLDAS outputs over China. The HRADC could be used in further research

  7. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  8. Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime Using Controlled Calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Don W. Miller; Andrew Kauffmann; Eric Kreidler; Dongxu Li; Hanying Liu; Daniel Mills; Thomas D. Radcliff; Joseph Talnagi

    2001-12-31

    A comprehensive description of the accomplishments of the DOE grant titled, ''Local Measurement of Fuel Energy Deposition and Heat Transfer Environment During Fuel Lifetime using Controlled Calorimetry''.

  9. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 11-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 11 and 12 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be…

  10. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 9-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 9 and 10 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can be…

  11. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 4, 5, and 6 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can…

  12. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for grades 6, 7, and 8 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3) energy can…

  13. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 45 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students apply knowledge of energy uses to energy conservation in the home and develop an awareness of their own social responsibilities for energy consumption. Each activity, designed to meet one of six objectives, includes: (1) statement of…

  14. RESEARCH PROGRAM ABSTRACTS OF THE INTERAGENCY ENERGY/ENVIRONMENT R AND D PROGRAM. FISCAL YEAR 1977

    EPA Science Inventory

    Administered by the Office of Energy, Minerals and Industry within EPA's Office of Research and Development, the Interagency Energy/Environment Program plans, coordinates, and funds research and development on the health and environmental effects and on control technologies relat...

  15. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  16. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China): A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiuli; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor. PMID:24511292

  17. Correlation between Family Environment and Suicidal Ideation in University Students in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Hui; Bai, Bing; Chen, Lu; Han, Dong; Wang, Lin; Qiao, Zhengxue; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Yanjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the association between suicidal ideation and family environment. The sample included 5183 Chinese university students. A number of studies on suicidal ideation have focused on individuals rather than families. This paper reviews the general principles of suicidal ideation and the consequences resulting from the family environment. Methods: This study used six different colleges as the dataset, which included 2645 males and 2538 females. Students were questioned with respect to social demographics and suicidal ideation factors. The data were analyzed with factor and logistic analyses to determine the association between suicidal ideation and poor family environment. Results: The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 9.2% (476/5183). Most participants with suicidal ideation had significant similarities: they had poor family structures and relationships, their parents had unstable work, and their parents used improper parenting styles. Female students were more likely to have suicidal thoughts than male students. Conclusions: This study shows that suicidal ideation is a public health issue among Chinese university students and demonstrates the importance of considering the family environment when examining university students’ suicidal ideation. Understanding family-related suicidal ideation risk factors can help to predict and prevent suicides among university students. PMID:25633031

  18. The Acceptance and Use of a Virtual Learning Environment in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Raaij, Erik M.; Schepers, Jeroen J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The success of a virtual learning environment (VLE) depends to a considerable extent on student acceptance and use of such an e-learning system. After critically assessing models of technology adoption, including the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), TAM2, and the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Usage of Technology (UTAUT), we build a conceptual…

  19. A Lake Sediment Record of Climate Change and Human-Environment Interactions in Southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, A.; Abbott, M.; Yu, J.; Steinman, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The delivery of precipitation to southwestern China is largely through monsoon circulation which has evolved with changing insolation during the Holocene. Additionally, southwestern China has a long history of human activity including mining, metallurgy, agriculture, and pollution. Here, high-resolution sampling of a sediment core from Lake Xing Yun in the Yunnan Province (24°10'N, 102°46'E), a drought sensitive lake that behaves as a closed basin system, provides a sub-decadal record of changing climate and human activity in the late Holocene. We use δ18O and δ13C measurements of authigenic carbonate precipitated from the lake water, magnetic susceptibility values, and hydrologic mass balance models to document the timing, direction, and magnitude of moisture changes associated with variations in monsoon strength. We also use δ13C and δ15N measurements on organic matter, carbon to nitrogen ratios, and sediment trace metal concentrations to assess the impact of human activity on the Xing Yun watershed. The 2,500 year record highlights several transition periods related to both human and climate forcing. The rise of intensive irrigation of the lake associated with agriculture occurs at 900 AD, coincident with the rise of metallurgy and mining activities. The period from 1200 to 1360 AD is marked by an abrupt decrease in δ18O values indicating that lake-level rose at this time. We attribute this to a shifting demographic change associated with political upheaval, which is supported by the leveling off of trace metal concentrations and the stagnation of metallurgy and mining activities. The most pronounced feature of the record is a rapid transition to substantially lower lake levels that persisted from 1360-1850 AD. This can be attributed to the return of dramatic human modification to the watershed and changing monsoon strength associated with the Little Ice Age. Using hydrologic mass balance models we are able to quantify the change that can be ascribed to

  20. Leaf Trait-Environment Relationships in a Subtropical Broadleaved Forest in South-East China

    PubMed Central

    Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most

  1. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)—social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships.

  2. Influence of harvest time on fuel characteristics of five potential energy crops in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shaojun; Zhang, Quan-Guo; Zhang, Da-Yong; Olsson, Rolf

    2008-02-01

    Five potential energy crops in northern China were examined for fuel characteristics over different harvest times to test whether or not a delayed harvest improves fuel quality in a semiarid area in China as is the case in northern Europe and North America. The five crops include indigo bush (Amorpha fruticosa), sand willow (Salix cheilophila), switch grass (Panicum virgatum), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea), and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). These crops are considered as fuels for thermal conversion. From September 2002 to April 2003, biomass was sampled monthly, and the effects of harvest time on the fuel characteristics of the five crops were studied. With respect to ash and some undesired element contents in biomass, a delayed harvest in spring resulted in a better fuel quality than a traditional harvest in autumn. Of the five species, indigo bush and sand willow had the lowest ash contents when harvested in spring. Switch grass is a promising herbaceous energy crop in semiarid areas in terms of its yield, fuel characteristics, and low water use. Chlorine had the most significant correlation with harvest time and ash content in the biomass. In a comparison with the biofuel crops in Europe and North America, a much higher proportion of chlorine was found in all examined plants. The results from this study indicate that an energy crop with delayed harvest may extend fuel resources and conserve soil in semiarid regions in northern China, practices that will help maintain and improve economical and ecological sustainability. PMID:17382539

  3. The Kra Isthmus Canal: A New Strategic Solution for China's Energy Consumption Scenario?

    PubMed

    Lau, Cheng Yong; Lee, Jason Wai Chow

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a conceptual study that examines the viability of the construction of the Kra Isthmus within the context of the five dimensions of megaproject success of Sovacool and Cooper (The governance of energy megaprojects: politics, hubris, and energy security, 2013)-social (governance), technological (systems), democratic (politics), externalities (economics, ecology), and risks assessments (accountability), and its possible impact on China's strategic energy supply chain. One of the objectives of this study is also to discuss the current impacts, perceived benefits, and risks of China's dependence on its multinational and transnational pipelines. China could see the construction of Kra Canal as an alternative option for its strategic sourcing activities especially crude oil and gas at much lower costs. The megaproject would become a passageway that connects the Indian Ocean, Andaman Sea, and the Gulf of Siam at the choke point of Isthmus region in Thailand. However, this megaproject could also trigger the internal conflicts of Thailand, and affect the ASEAN countries' political and economic relationships. PMID:26280310

  4. Plasma simulations of emission line regions in high energy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Chris T.

    This dissertation focuses on understanding two different, but in each case extreme, astrophysical environments: the Crab Nebula and emission line galaxies. These relatively local objects are well constrained by observations and are test cases of phenomena seen at high-z where detailed observations are rare. The tool used to study these objects is the plasma simulation code known as Cloudy. The introduction provides a brief summary of relevant physical concepts in nebular astrophysics and presents the basic features and assumptions of Cloudy. The first object investigated with Cloudy, the Crab Nebula, is a nearby supernova remnant that previously has been subject to photoionization modeling to reproduce the ionized emission seen in the nebula's filamentary structure. However, there are still several unanswered questions: (1) What excites the H2 emitting gas? (2) How much mass is in the molecular component? (3) How did the H2 form? (4) What is nature of the dust grains? A large suite of observations including long slit optical and NIR spectra over ionized, neutral and molecular gas in addition to HST and NIR ground based images constrain a particularly bright region of H2 emission, Knot 51, which exhibits a high excitation temperature of ˜3000 K. Simulations of K51 revealed that only a trace amount of H2 is needed to reproduce the observed emission and that H2 forms through an uncommon nebular process known as associative detachment. The final chapters of this dissertation focus on interpreting the narrow line region (NLR) in low-z emission line galaxies selected by a novel technique known as mean field independent component analysis (MFICA). A mixture of starlight and radiation from an AGN excites the gas present in galaxies. MFICA separates galaxies over a wide range of ionization into subsets of pure AGN and pure star forming galaxies allowing simulations to reveal the properties responsible for their observed variation in ionization. Emission line ratios can

  5. Wave energy transmission apparatus for high-temperature environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, John D. (Inventor); Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Kelliher, Warren C. (Inventor); Carlberg, Ingrid A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A wave energy transmission apparatus has a conduit made from a refractory oxide. A transparent, refractory ceramic window is coupled to the conduit. Wave energy passing through the window enters the conduit.

  6. Paleo-environment from isotopes and hydrochemistry of groundwater in East Junggar Basin, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Pang, Zhonghe; Froehlich, Klaus; Huang, Tianming; Kong, Yanlong; Song, Wenhui; Yun, Hongxiang

    2015-10-01

    Isotopic and geochemical evidence of paleoclimatic conditions from the Pleistocene (∼30ka BP) has been obtained from groundwater in a non-monsoon area in the East Junggar Basin, NW China. The major ion chemistry of groundwater is controlled by some processes including ion exchange in clay minerals and dissolution of gypsum as well as other evaporites in the desert groundwater, while carbonate minerals seem to be essentially absent in the aquifers. The water chemistry, oxygen and deuterium, deuterium excess, and stable carbon isotopes of groundwater show distinctive excursions inferred to be related to environmental variations such as air temperature and land cover change. Shallow groundwater bears an isotopic signature similar to that of the mean annual rainfall in Urumqi, suggesting recharge under warm climate conditions in the Holocene. Deep groundwater in the central part of the basin is characterized by depleted heavy isotopes, lower deuterium excess and low 14C content, indicating lower air temperature in the late Pleistocene, after correction for altitude effect. Old groundwater with enriched 13C indicates the higher proportion of C4 species in the late Pleistocene.

  7. Distribution of artificial sweeteners in dust and soil in China and their seasonal variations in the environment of Tianjin.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen; Yao, Yiming; Zhao, Yangyang; Li, Yan; Zhang, Yanwei; Hu, Hongwei; Wang, Ruonan

    2014-08-01

    A nationwide investigation on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners (ASs) was conducted by collecting 98 paired outdoor dust and soil samples from mainland China. The ASs were widely detected in Chinese atmospheric dry deposition and soil samples, at concentrations up to 6450 and 1280 ng/g, respectively. To give a picture on AS distribution and source in the whole environment, the concentrations and seasonal variations of ASs in Tianjin were studied, including atmosphere, soil, and water samples. The AS levels were significantly higher in Haihe river at TJW (a sampling site in central city) in winter, while no obviously seasonal trends were obtained at BYL (close to a AS factory) and the site at a wastewater treatment plant. Saccharin, cyclamate, and acesulfame were the dominant ASs in both gas and particulate phase, with concentrations varying from 0.02 to 1940 pg/m(3). Generally, gas phase concentrations of the ASs were relatively higher in summer, while opposite results were acquired for particulate phase. Wet and dry deposition fluxes were calculated based on the measured AS levels. The results indicated that both wet and dry deposition could efficiently remove ASs in the atmosphere and act as important pollutant sources for the ASs in surface environment. PMID:24830929

  8. Short-Lived Buildings in China: Impacts on Water, Energy, and Carbon Emissions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Liyang; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can; Lin, Lishen

    2015-12-15

    This paper has changed the vague understanding that "the short-lived buildings have huge environmental footprints (EF)" into a concrete one. By estimating the annual floor space of buildings demolished and calibrating the average building lifetime in China, this paper compared the EF under various assumptive extended buildings' lifetime scenarios based on time-series environmental-extended input-output model. Results show that if the average buildings' lifetime in China can be extended from the current 23.2 years to their designed life expectancy, 50 years, in 2011, China can reduce 5.8 Gt of water withdrawal, 127.1 Mtce of energy consumption, and 426.0 Mt of carbon emissions, each of which is equivalent to the corresponding annual EF of Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. These findings will urge China to extend the lifetime of existing and new buildings, in order to reduce the EF from further urbanization. This paper also verifies that the lifetime of a product or the replacement rate of a sector is a very important factor that influences the cumulative EF. When making policies to reduce the EF, adjusting people's behaviors to extend the lifetime of products or reduce the replacement rate of sectors may be a very simple and cost-effective option. PMID:26561867

  9. Energy Demand in China (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Price, Lynn

    2011-06-08

    Lynn Price, LBNL scientist, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. |; Barron, W.F.; LaRocco, P.; Shen, Z.

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan`s rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  11. A prefeasibility study of energy resource options in Hainan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Russell, M. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN ); Barron, W.F. ); LaRocco, P. ); Shen, Z. )

    1992-10-01

    This study identifies a strategy that (1) provides future energy services for Hainan in the least environmentally degrading way, (2) eliminates the need to build significant amounts of new fossil-fueled, electric generating capacity, saving capital to invest in other development projects, (3) lowers the cost that Hainan households and businesses will pay to light their homes and run their industries, (4) reduces the future coal import bill, and (5) improves the prospects for export industries. implementing this strategy will promote economic development and growth in Hainan, improve the standard of living, and preserve to the greatest extent possible Hainan's rich environmental resource base, a key requirement for its tourist industry. The focus of this strategy is to adapt proven policies and techniques for producing and using energy more efficiently to existing conditions in Hainan. This Report applies the principles of integrated resource planning (IRP) and the experiences in other countries to outline a strategy for the Province. The experience is that fuel consumption can be reduced without lessening the ability of consumers, industry, and the government to obtain the energy services that higher use of fuel would otherwise bring. Further, those energy services can be provided with less capital investment than would be necessary if traditional practices were followed. Both of these results have obvious and important development and environmental benefits. In short, consumers have more money available to buy other things; production costs are lowered, improving the ability of firms to compete in international markets; and more capital is available to invest in new machinery and equipment that produces goods and services to use in Hainan or to export to other countries.

  12. Energy in the urban environment: the role of energy use and energy efficiency in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Meier, Alan K.

    1999-12-01

    A century ago, the world had many cities of which the greatest were magnificent centers of culture and commerce. However, even in the most industrialized countries at the time, only a tiny fraction of the people lived in these cities. Most people lived in rural areas, in small towns, in villages, and on farms. Visits to a great city were, for most of the population, uncommon events often of great fascination. The world has changed dramatically in the intervening years. Now most of the industrial world lives in urban areas in close proximity to large cities. Industry is often located in these vast urban areas. As the urbanized zones grow in extent, they begin to approach one another, as on the East Coast of the United States. The phenomenon of urbanization has moved to developing countries as well. There has been a flood of migrants who have left impoverished rural areas to seek economic opportunities in urban areas throughout the developing world. This movement from the countryside to cities has changed the entire landscape and economies of developing nations. Importantly, the growth of cities places very great demands on infrastructure. Transportation systems are needed to assure that a concentrated population can receive food from the countryside without fail. They are needed to assure personal and work-related travel. Water supplies must be created, water must be purified and maintained pure, and this water must be made available to a large population. Medical services--and a host of other vital services--must be provided to the population. Energy is a vital underpinning of all these activities, and must be supplied to the city in large quantities. Energy is, in many ways, the enabler of all the other services on which the maintenance of urban life depends. In this paper, we will discuss the evolution of energy use in residential and commercial buildings. This topic goes beyond urban energy use, as buildings exist in both urban and non-urban areas. The topic

  13. Energy and My Environment. Teachers' Guide, K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Matthew J.; And Others

    Energy activities and lesson plans for kindergarten and grades 1 to 3 (grouped into seven units representing seven major conceptual schemes) are provided in this teachers' guide, with a unit at each grade level for each conceptual scheme. Conceptual schemes addressed include: (1) energy is the ability to do work; (2) energy comes from the sun; (3)…

  14. Energy Smart Schools: Creating a Sustainable Learning Environment in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Energy Project, Lewis Center.

    In 1999, the Ohio Energy Project (OEP) was awarded a grant through Rebuild America, under the U.S. Department of Energy, to develop an EnergySmart Schools Program for Ohio. Together with its partners, this program serves to empower students to improve the conditions of their school buildings through education, thus increasing scientific literacy…

  15. Food, Energy, and The Environment: Alternatives for Creating New Lifestyles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorrells, Nancy R.; Pimentel, David

    1981-01-01

    Provides background information on the interdependency of agriculture and ecological and social systems. Discusses in detail: (1) fossil energy and food production; (2) energy-intensive agriculture and environmental pollution; and (3) methods for developing alternatives. Includes recommendations to conserve fossil energy used in current food…

  16. An Energy Environment Education Program for Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Esther; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 33 interdisciplinary energy and environmental education activities to help students become familiar with past, present, and alternative sources and forms of energy as well as the economic and environmental cost of energy consumption. Each activity, designed to meet one of five objectives, includes: (1) statement of…

  17. Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Hasanbeigi, Ali; Lu, Hongyou; Wang, Lan

    2009-10-01

    China's cement industry, which produced 1,388 million metric tons (Mt) of cement in 2008, accounts for almost half of the world's total cement production. Nearly 40% of China's cement production is from relatively obsolete vertical shaft kiln (VSK) cement plants, with the remainder from more modern rotary kiln cement plants, including plants equipped with new suspension pre-heater and pre-calciner (NSP) kilns. Shandong Province is the largest cement-producing Province in China, producing 10% of China's total cement output in 2008. This report documents an analysis of the potential to improve the energy efficiency of NSP kiln cement plants in Shandong Province. Sixteen NSP kiln cement plants were surveyed regarding their cement production, energy consumption, and current adoption of 34 energy-efficient technologies and measures. Plant energy use was compared to both domestic (Chinese) and international best practice using the Benchmarking and Energy Saving Tool for Cement (BEST-Cement). This benchmarking exercise indicated an average technical potential primary energy savings of 12% would be possible if the surveyed plants operated at domestic best practice levels in terms of energy use per ton of cement produced. Average technical potential primary energy savings of 23% would be realized if the plants operated at international best practice levels. Energy conservation supply curves for both fuel and electricity savings were then constructed for the 16 surveyed plants. Using the bottom-up electricity conservation supply curve model, the cost-effective electricity efficiency potential for the studied cement plants in 2008 is estimated to be 373 gigawatt hours (GWh), which accounts for 16% of total electricity use in the 16 surveyed cement plants in 2008. Total technical electricity-saving potential is 915 GWh, which accounts for 40% of total electricity use in the studied plants in 2008. The fuel conservation supply curve model shows the total technical fuel

  18. Performance analysis of CO(2) emissions and energy efficiency of metal industries in China.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chaofeng; Guan, Yang; Wan, Zheng; Chu, Chunli; Ju, Meiting

    2014-02-15

    Nonferrous metal industries play an important role in China's national economy and are some of the country's largest energy consumers. To better understand the nature of CO(2) emissions from these industries and to further move towards low-carbon development in this industry sector, this study investigates the CO(2) emissions of 12 nonferrous metal industries from 2003 to 2010 based on their life-cycle assessments. It then classifies these industries into four "emission-efficiency" types through cluster analysis. The results show that (1) the industrial economy and energy consumption of China's nonferrous metal industries have grown rapidly, although their recent energy consumption rate shows a declining trend. (2) The copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, and magnesium industries, classified as high-emission industries, are the main contributors of CO(2) emissions. The results have implications for policy decisions that aim to enhance energy efficiency, particularly for promoting the transformation of low-efficiency industries to high-efficiency ones. The study also highlights the important role of policy development in technological innovations, optimization, and upgrades, the reduction of coal proportion in energy consumption, and the advancement of new energy sources. PMID:24463733

  19. Extended stratigraphy, palynology and depositional environments record the initiation of the Himalayan Gyirong Basin (Neogene China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ya-Dong; Zhang, Ke-Xin; Wang, Guo-Can; Jiang, Shang-Song; Chen, Fen-Ning; Xiang, Shu-Yuan; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Hoorn, Carina

    2012-01-01

    Here we report new sedimentological and paleontological data from a 603.5 m thick Neogene sequence (Woma section) in the Gyirong Basin, a basin induced by east-west extension in the Himalayas of southern Tibet. We document the conglomeratic Danzengzhukang Formation, at the base of the section, and the overlying finer grained Woma Formation that includes a Hipparion fauna. Based on stratigraphic correlations and earlier thermochronology and magnetostratigraphic results, we bracket the depositional age of this section between 10.8 Ma and 1.7 Ma. Lithology, paleo-current directions and provenance analysis, together with palynological and paleontological data, have revealed three depositional environments for the deposition of the studied section. (1) Alluvial-fan to braided river environments with ESE transport directions (Danzengzhukang Formation, <10.8 to ˜7.2 Ma) were associated with a warm and humid coniferous- and broad-leaved mixed forest. (2) Lacustrine dominated conditions (Lower Woma Formation, ˜7.2 to 3.2 Ma) with WSW transport directions were associated with locally warm and humid environments in the low-lying areas while input from a new source area suggests the presence of a high-altitude, cold and arid deciduous coniferous-leaved forests. (3) A fan delta dominated environment (Upper Woma Formation, 3.2 to >1.7 Ma) with increased denudation and WSW paleo-currents was associated with a deciduous coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest that suggests an increase in climate variability. Our data indicate that the Gyirong Basin was under overall warm and humid conditions throughout most of its history, in agreement with high-resolution oxygen and carbon isotope data collected from the same section (this issue). We interpret our warm climate in the Gyirong Basin to reflect the prevalence of the monsoonal influence and the distal pollen sources to result from orographic effects.

  20. Energy, Economics, and the Environment: Case Studies and Teaching Activities for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    Educators are faced with the task of teaching students to be responsible stewards of the world's natural resources. This curriculum focuses on three interrelated topics in this area: energy, economics, and the environment. The goal of this book is to: (1) teach students basic knowledge and concepts about energy, the environment, and economics; (2)…

  1. 78 FR 16465 - Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... International Trade Administration Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand and the... Commercial Service (CS), is organizing an Energy and Environment Trade Mission to Malaysia, Thailand, and the... the Asian Development Bank (CS ADB) in Manila, mission participants will also have the opportunity...

  2. Relationships among Energy Price Shocks, Stock Market, and the Macroeconomy: Evidence from China

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market “underreacting.” The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market. PMID:23690737

  3. Relationships among energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy: evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Shen, Shaochuan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactive relationships among China energy price shocks, stock market, and the macroeconomy using multivariate vector autoregression. The results indicate that there is a long cointegration among them. A 1% rise in the energy price index can depress the stock market index by 0.54% and the industrial value-adding growth by 0.037%. Energy price shocks also cause inflation and have a 5-month lag effect on stock market, which may result in the stock market "underreacting." The energy price can explain stock market fluctuations better than the interest rate over a longer time period. Consequently, investors should pay greater attention to the long-term effect of energy on the stock market. PMID:23690737

  4. Study on the genesis of Yishui banded iron formation (BIF) in the North China Craton: geochemical characteristics and tectonic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, I.; Lee, I.; Yang, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Yishui BIFs are located in the Taishan Group, Shandong province of Eastern Block of North China Craton. The iron ore samples were collected from the mine pits. Major elements were analyzed by X-ray Fluoresence Spectromemter (XRF). Trace elements and REY (REE + Y) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Petrological, mineralogical and geochemical analyses of iron ores and their wall rock (amphibolite) were conducted to trace the genesis of Yishui BIF. Iron ores of Yishui BIF are mainly composed of SiO2 and Fe2O3T (SiO2+ Fe2O3T= 85.8 to 98.8 wt%) and consistent with major mineral components which are quartz and iron oxide such as magnetite and hematite. Low contents of TiO2 (0.01 to 0.09 wt%) , Al2O3 (0.42 to 1.18 wt%) and HFSE indicate no or little effect of detrital contamination. Iron ores have positive La, Eu, Gd, Er and Y anomalies with enriched HREE in PAAS normalized REY graph. The REY patterns of iron ores were used as a fingerprint to trace the source of iron and silica. Distinctive positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 2.44-4.19), Y anomalies (Y/Y*=0.97 - 4.19), slightly negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*= 0.87-0.97) and enriched HREE ((La/Yb)SN= 0.17-0.32) indicate that mixture of seawater and high-temperature hydrothermal fluid (>250 ◦C). Depositional environment in North China Craton implies that Yishui BIFs were formed at Neoarchean and associated arc-related tectonic setting. All these data suggest that Yishui BIFs belong to typical Algoma-type BIF.

  5. Spatial distribution of perchlorate, iodide and thiocyanate in the aquatic environment of Tianjin, China: environmental source analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaolei; Zhang, Tao; Gan, Zhiwei; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-09-01

    Although China is the largest producer of fireworks (perchlorate-containing products) in the world, the pathways through which perchlorate enters the environment have not been characterized completely in this country. In this study, perchlorate, iodide and thiocyanate were measured in 101 water samples, including waste water, surface water, sea water and paired samples of rain water and surface runoff collected in Tianjin, China. The concentrations of the target anions were generally on the order of rain>surface water≈waste water treatment plant (WWTP) influent>WWTP effluent. High concentrations of perchlorate, iodide and thiocyanate were detected in rain samples, ranging from 0.35 to 27.3 (median: 4.05), 0.51 to 8.33 (2.92), and 1.31 to 107 (5.62) ngmL(-)(1), respectively. Furthermore, the concentrations of the target anions in rain samples were significantly (r=0.596-0.750, p<0.01) positively correlated with the concentrations obtained in the paired surface runoff samples. The anions tested showed a clear spatial distribution, and higher concentrations were observed in the upper reaches of rivers, sea waters near the coast, and rain-surface runoff pairs sampled in urban areas. Our results revealed that precipitation may act as an important source of perchlorate, iodide and thiocyanate in surface water. Moreover, iodide concentrations in the Haihe River and Dagu Drainage Canal showed a good correlation with an ideal marker (acesulfame) of domestic waste water, indicating that input from domestic waste water was an important source of iodide in the surface waters of Tianjin. PMID:24997919

  6. Impact of two typhoons on the marine environment in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dongyang; Luan, Hong; Pan, Delu; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Li'an; Liu, Dazhao; Ding, Youzhuan; Li, Xue

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of two typhoons (Nari and Wipha) on sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration. Typhoons Nari and Wipha passed through the Yellow Sea on September 13, 2007 and the East China Sea (ECS) on September 16, 2007, respectively. The SST and Chl- a data were obtained from the Aqua/Terra MODIS and NOAA18, respectively, and the temperature and salinity in the southeast of the study area were observed in situ from Argo. The average SST within the study area dropped from 26.33°C on September 10 to a minimum of 22.79°C on September 16. Without the usual phenomenon of `right bias', the most striking response of SST was in the middle of the typhoons' tracks, near to coastal waters. Strong cooling of the upper layers of the water column was probably due to increased vertical mixing, discharge from the Changjiang River estuary, and heavy rainfall. During the typhoons, average Chl- a increased by 11.54% within the study area and by 21.69% in the offshore area near to the southeast ECS. From September 1 to 13, average Chl- a was only 0.10 mg/m3 in the offshore waters but it reached a peak of >0.17 mg/m3 on September 18. This large increase in Chl- a concentration in offshore waters might have been triggered by strong vertical mixing, upwelling induced by strong typhoons, and sedimentation and nutrient influx following heavy rainfall.

  7. Present situation and future of utilization of geothermal energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; Zhi, W.F.

    1998-10-01

    From the 1970s, the Chinese government increased investment in the development of geothermal resources and other new energy, and some experimental geothermal power stations have been built successfully. In the late 1980s, the exploration of high temperature geothermal resources was increased. Geothermal fluid with temperatures over 200 C was measured in several boreholes. In ZK4002 well, Yangbajing, the temperature is even as high as 329.8 C. By the year 2010, several geothermal power plants with high temperatures and great capacity will be built, so that great advances will be made in the development of geothermal energy in China.

  8. Odors and sensations of humidity and dryness in relation to sick building syndrome and home environment in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Li, Baizhan; Yang, Qin; Yu, Wei; Wang, Han; Norback, Dan; Sundell, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of perceptions of odors and sensations of air humidity and sick building syndrome symptoms in domestic environments were studied using responses to a questionnaire on the home environment. Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China participated. Stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, mold odor, tobacco smoke odor, humid air and dry air in the last three month (weekly or sometimes) was reported by 31.4%, 26.5%, 16.1%, 10.6%, 33.0%, 32.1% and 37.2% of the parents, respectively. The prevalence of parents' SBS symptoms (weekly or sometimes) were: 78.7% for general symptoms, 74.3% for mucosal symptoms and 47.5% for skin symptoms. Multi-nominal regression analyses for associations between odors/sensations of air humidity and SBS symptoms showed that the odds ratio for "weekly" SBS symptoms were consistently higher than for "sometimes" SBS symptoms. Living near a main road or highway, redecoration, and new furniture were risk factors for perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air. Dampness related problems (mold spots, damp stains, water damage and condensation) were all risk factors for perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air, as was the presence of cockroaches, rats, and mosquitoes/flies, use of mosquito-repellent incense and incense. Protective factors included cleaning the child's bedroom every day and frequently exposing bedding to sunshine. In conclusion, adults' perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air are related to factors of the home environment and SBS symptoms are related to odor perceptions. PMID:23991107

  9. Energy efficiency and the environment: Forging the link

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Crawley, D.; Centolella, P.

    1991-12-31

    Energy efficiency in homes, the workplace and transportation provides one of the most immediate and valuable solutions to the environmental problems that endanger the world. This book addresses the direct correlation between conserving energy and mitigating environmental hazards such as global warming, air pollution, acid rain, and ozone depletion. Twenty chapters focus on how energy efficiency measures and programs can reduce pollutant emissions, and how planners can incorporate environmental externalities in the allocation of natural resources. Based on papers presented at the ACEEE 1990 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, the book is written by leading researchers, program analysts and policymakers. Topics include: global warming--public perspectives and CO{sub 2} reduction potential; efficiency improvements as an acid rain compliance strategy; efficiency and regulatory policy options; environmental externality costs; integrating energy and environmental planning; trees, landscaping and urban heat islands; and CFCs, energy use in buildings.

  10. Annual review of energy and the environment. Volume 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Socolow, R.H.; Anderson, D.; Harte, J.

    1995-11-01

    This book discusses the broad topic of environmental science. Several articles specifically address the climate problem. The development of emission inventories, which are crucial inputs to climate models, is discussed. The complex task of simplifying the structure of environmental science in order to produce environmental indices that permit more subtle environmental policies is evaluated. Several authors present aspects of environmental policy analysis, all in an international context. In addition, other topics focus on energy supply, energy demand, energy use, and energy efficiency. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  11. Microfacies and depositional environments of the Late Ordovician Lianglitage Formation at the Tazhong Uplift in the Tarim Basin of Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Da; Lin, Changsong; Yang, Haijun; Zuo, Fanfan; Cai, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Jingyan; Li, Hong

    2014-04-01

    The Late Ordovician Lianglitage Formation comprises 13 microfacies (Mf1-Mf13) that were deposited on a carbonate platform at the Tazhong Uplift of the Tarim Basin in Northwest China. Each type of microfacies indicates a specific depositional environment with a certain level of wave energy. Four primary groups of microfacies associations (MA1-MA4) were determined. These associations represent different depositional facies, including reef-shoal facies in the platform margin (MA1), carbonate sand shoal facies (MA2) and oncoid shoal (MA3) on open platforms, and lagoon and tidal flat facies (MA4) in the platform interior. Each microfacies association was generated in a fourth-order sedimentary sequence developing within third-order sequences (SQ1, SQ2, and SQ3, from bottom to top), showing a shallowing-upward trend. High-frequency sequences and facies correlation between wells suggests that the reef-shoal facies more successively developed in the southeastern part of the platform margin, and high-energy microfacies were more strictly confined by the top boundary of fourth-order sequences in the northwestern part of the platform. The highstand systems tract (HST) of the SQ2 is characterized by reef-shoals that developed along the platform margin and tidal flats and lagoons that developed in the platform interior, while the SQ3 is characterized by the oncoid shoal facies that generally developed on the uplift due to a regionally extensive transgression that occurred during the latter part of the Late Ordovician. The results of this study can be used for investigating the development and distribution of potential reservoirs; the reservoirs in southeastern part of the platform margin may be of premium quality because the high-energy microfacies were best preserved there.

  12. Synthetic musks in the aquatic environment and personal care products in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolan; Yao, Yu; Zeng, Xiangying; Qian, Guangren; Guo, Yawen; Wu, Minghong; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations and distributions of six polycyclic musks and two nitro musks in Suzhou Creek, influent/effluent of a sewage treatment plant (STP), and household commodities were investigated and discussed in this study. The levels of 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexa-methylcyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) in Suzhou Creek were 3-78 ng g(-1) (dry weight) and 2-31 ng g(-1) (dry weight) in sediments, while 20-93 ng l(-1) and 8-20 ng l(-1) in surface waters. The results indicated a low proportion of wastewater burden in this river. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the effluent of the STP were 5- to 6-fold higher than those in Suzhou Creek. The amounts discharged into the aquatic environment from sewage in Shanghai are 1.26 t (HHCB) and 0.38 t (AHTN) in 2007, and the input into the STPs is estimated to be HHCB 0.2 g y(-1) and AHTN 0.06 g y(-1) per inhabitant, respectively. A broad concentration range of HHCB and AHTN could be observed in household commodities. The distributions are in accordance with the profiles of musks in aquatic environment, with HHCB and AHTN being the major components. PMID:18514763

  13. Effects of multiple environment stresses on evapotranspiration and runoff over eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingliang; Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Xu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Guangsheng; Ren, Wei

    2012-03-01

    SummaryLittle is known about how the terrestrial hydrological cycle responds to multiple environmental changes at large spatial scale and over long time period. Here, we applied a well calibrated and verified ecosystem model (the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model, DLEM), in conjunction with newly developed data sets of multiple environmental factors including land use change, climate variability, elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen deposition, ozone pollution, and nitrogen fertilizer application, to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) and runoff in eastern China during 1961-2005 and further quantified the relative contributions of multiple environmental factors to these patterns at both basin and regional scales. The simulation results indicated that annual ET in the study area had a significantly increasing trend from 1961 to 2005. Yet there were no significant changing trends for estimated runoff and net water balance (precipitation minus ET). Substantial spatial heterogeneities in ET and runoff were observed. Annual ET increased in all basins except Yellow River Basin. Runoff increased in the southern part of the study area (including Pearl River and the Southeast basin), but decreased in northern part of the study area, particularly in Haihe and Huaihe river basins. Factorial analysis showed that climate change was the dominant factor responsible for the interannual variations in ET and runoff in the past 45 years. Land use change (including land conversions and land management practices) yielded minor effects on the interannual variations in ET and runoff but caused relatively large effects over long-term period. For the accumulated change in ET at basin scale, climate change was the dominant factor in the basins of Song-Liao, Pearl River, while land use change contributed the most in the basin of Haihe, Huaihe, and Yellow River. Climate change was the dominant factor controlling runoff change in all basins

  14. PHOTOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past research on photochemistry in the environment has focused on gas phase reactions in the atmosphere. ecently, however, environmentally significant photoreactions have been discovered in natural waters (i.e., the sea, lakes, and rivers), on soil surfaces, and in atmospheric co...

  15. A joint U.S.-China demonstration energy efficient office building

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Mary Beth; Huang, Yu JoeWatson, Rob; Shi, Han; Judkoff, Ron; She rman, Micah

    2000-08-04

    In July 1998, USDOE and China's Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) signed a Statement of Work to develop a demonstration energy-efficient office building and demonstration center in Beijing that will eventually house the Administrative Center for China's Agenda 21 (ACCA21). The statement calls for the Chinese side to be responsible for the basic construction of the 13,000 m{sup 2} 9-story building, the US side for technical assistance and the incremental costs of the energy efficiency improvements, and the joint establishment of a Demonstration Center to provide outreach and exhibit energy-efficient building technologies. The US technical team made several trips to China to meet with ACCA21 and the design team, and used the DOE-2.1E simulation program to analyze the energy performance of a preliminary building design and study alternative designs and energy-efficient strategies. A feasibility study completed in September found the largest and most cost-effective savings potentials in reducing cooling and lighting energy use, and identified eight generic measures in lighting, windows, daylighting, and HVAC systems and controls. Following these and other recommendations from the US team, the design team produced a schematic cross-shaped building design that, based on the DOE-2 analysis, lowered total energy use by 40% compared to standard practice. While the design and analysis were underway, a task force called ACCORD21 (American-Chinese Council Organized for Responsible Development in the 21st Century) was formed in April 1999 under the leadership of NRDC to solicit support and contributions from U.S. industry, A/E firms, and universities. Two design workshops were held, first in Pittsburgh and then in Beijing, that brought together the Chinese and US project participants and produced further refinements and energy-efficiency improvements to the building design. As of June 2000, the authors are completing the final energy analysis and selection of energy

  16. Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark D.; Price, Lynn; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David; Aden, Nathaniel; Lu, Hongyou; McNeil, Michael; Zheng, Nina; Yining, Qin; Yowargana, Ping

    2010-04-28

    During the period 1980 to 2002, China experienced a 5% average annual reduction in energy consumption per unit of gross domestic product (GDP). The period 2002-2005 saw a dramatic reversal of the historic relationship between energy use and GDP growth: energy use per unit of GDP increased an average of 3.8% per year during this period (NBS, various years). China's 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), which covers the period 2006-2010, required all government divisions at different levels to reduce energy intensity by 20% in five years in order to regain the relationship between energy and GDP growth experienced during the 1980s and 1990s. This report provides an assessment of selected policies and programs that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal of a 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010. The report finds that China has made substantial progress toward its goal of achieving 20% energy intensity reduction from 2006 to 2010 and that many of the energy-efficiency programs implemented during the 11th FYP in support of China's 20% energy/GDP reduction goal appear to be on track to meet - or in some cases even exceed - their energy-saving targets. It appears that most of the Ten Key Projects, the Top-1000 Program, and the Small Plant Closure Program are on track to meet or surpass the 11th FYP savings goals. China's appliance standards and labeling program, which was established prior to the 11th FYP, has become very robust during the 11th FYP period. China has greatly enhanced its enforcement of new building energy standards but energy-efficiency programs for buildings retrofits, as well as the goal of adjusting China's economic structure to reduce the share of energy consumed by industry, do not appear to be on track to meet the stated goals. With the implementation of the 11th FYP now bearing fruit, it is important to maintain and strengthen the existing energy-saving policies and programs that are successful while revising programs or adding new

  17. Strategic environments (SWOT) for nuclear energy innovation in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Joon; Oh, Keun-Bae

    2004-07-01

    In prospecting the role of nuclear energy in a future society, it is necessary to foresee the social attitudes towards energy, economy and environment, and to analyze their interactions with the exploitation of nuclear energy itself. As those issues, this article looks upon the change of the socio-economic environment, the concerns about nuclear power and eco-environment, and the sustainability and limits of the energy resources, etc. With this perception, the so-called SWOT analysis is employed to identify the internal strengths (S) and/or weaknesses (W) of nuclear energy compared with other energy competitors on the basis of the evaluation of the external factors which are likely to play the roles of opportunities (O) for and/or threats (T) against the technological change in nuclear energy. (authors)

  18. Scenarios of Building Energy Demand for China with a Detailed Regional Representation

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Zhou, Yuyu; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-02-07

    Building energy consumption currently accounts for 28% of China’s total energy use and is expected to continue to grow induced by floorspace expansion, income growth, and population change. Fuel sources and building services are also evolving over time as well as across regions and building types. To understand sectoral and regional difference in building energy use and how socioeconomic, physical, and technological development influence the evolution of the Chinese building sector, this study developed a building energy use model for China downscaled into four climate regions under an integrated assessment framework. Three building types (rural residential, urban residential, and commercial) were modeled specifically in each climate region. Our study finds that the Cold and Hot Summer Cold Winter regions lead in total building energy use. The impact of climate change on heating energy use is more significant than that of cooling energy use in most climate regions. Both rural and urban households will experience fuel switch from fossil fuel to cleaner fuels. Commercial buildings will experience rapid growth in electrification and energy intensity. Improved understanding of Chinese buildings with climate change highlighted in this study will help policy makers develop targeted policies and prioritize building energy efficiency measures.

  19. Changes in land use, climate and the environment during a period of rapid economic development in Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Changchun; Zhang, Mingli; Zou, Jun; Zhu, A-xing; Chen, Xia; Mi, Yin; Wang, Yanhua; Yang, Hao; Li, Yunmei

    2015-12-01

    Understanding changes in climate and environment on a regional scale can provide useful guidance for regional socio-economic development. The present study characterizes changes in the environment, climate, land use and cover types via in situ observed, statistical data and remote sensing images for Jiangsu Province, China, during the period 1980-2012. Statistical and spatial analyses indicate that the pace of urbanization in southern Jiangsu is more rapid than that in northern Jiangsu. Urbanization (92.7%) results primarily from the loss of farmland. While emissions of pollutants from industrial sources were well controlled, and wastewater, which more frequently derives from urban domestic sources, was found to be increasing. The rates of wastewater to population increased from 0.17±0.017 to 0.32±0.090 (billion ton/million persons) during the two periods of 1980-2000 and 2000-2012. However, the rates of wastewater to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) decreased from 0.26±0.20 to 0.014±0.009 (billion ton/billion Yuan), respectively. The significant increase in scattering radiance and Earth's albedo caused by the urbanization and its process (Pearson correlation coefficient (r) between urban land and scattering radiance=0.86, p<0.0001; r between farmland and scattering radiance=-0.92, p<0.0001) aggravates the warming in the regional scale. This correlation analysis indicates that temperature will decrease with the increase of woodland, grassland and farmland, and will increase with the increase of urbanized and unexploited lands. Added to warming caused by an increase in CO2, land use/cover change and human activities may be the primary reason for the rising temperatures in Jiangsu Province. The change in regional thermal conditions reduces both local humidity and land atmosphere flux exchange. The low atmosphere flux exhange contributes to the spread of atmospheric pollutants and the deposition of atmospheric particles. PMID:26204053

  20. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-02-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids.

  1. Clay mineralogy indicates the living environment of the terminal Miocene hominoid of the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Guo, Z.; Deng, C.; Ji, X.; Wu, H.; Paterson, G. A.; Lin, C.; Li, Q.; Ling, B.; Zhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have profoundly influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the mid to late Miocene. Recently, a new fossil hominoid was discovered in the Shiutangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, and was assigned to the species of Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis with the age of ~6.2 Ma, the terminal Miocene. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, here we present sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the 16 m thick late Miocene sedimentary sequence (ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma) from the STB section. Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment rather than hot and humid conditions. A comprehensive comparison among mid to late Miocene records from Yunnan hominoid sites, Siwalik and tropical Africa indicates that warm and humid ecological shifts in South and Southeast Asia are much later than tropical Africa. The presence of the Tibetan plateau may have influenced regional climatic conditions, and the warm and humid condition in the southern China (and perhaps Southeast Asia in general) offered an important refuge for hominoids.

  2. Reduced inorganic sulfur in surface sediment and its impact on benthic environments in offshore areas of NE China.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Yanqing; Sun, Qiyao; Bottrell, Simon H; Mortimer, Robert J G

    2015-09-01

    Geochemical cycling and biological toxicity of sulfur in marine sediments is closely related to the activity of organisms. This study investigated the distribution and potential impact on benthic environments of acid volatile sulfur (AVS), chromium(II)-reducible sulfur (CRS), elemental sulfur (ES), total S, C, N and Fe in superficial sediments across the Bohai Sea, Yellow Sea and East China Sea. The composition of reduced inorganic sulfur in the three study areas was dominated by CRS (averaging 72% of total reduced inorganic sulfur). The low AVS content (average of 1.12 μmol g(-1)) of the sediments and the low values of AVS/CRS (average 0.34 μmol g(-1)), degree of pyritization and degree of sulphidization indicate that there is sufficient available iron in the sediment to restrict the threat of sulphide toxicity to benthic organisms in most of the study areas. However, high organic matter loads in parts of the study areas have resulted in enhanced accumulation of AVS, resulting in a higher toxicity risk. PMID:26284437

  3. Characterization of phosphorus in the sedimentary environments of inundated agricultural soils around the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qitao; Xie, Kai; Sun, Pengfei; Kim, Youngchul

    2014-02-15

    Extensive coal mining in the Huainan Coal Mines, Anhui China, in light of the local hydrology and geology, has resulted in extensive land subsidence and submergence around the mines. This has led to the formation of large (>100 km(2)) lakes. Three representative lakes were selected to study the mechanisms of phosphorus (P) unavailability for primary production from the perspective of sedimentary environments, which in turn owe their formation to permanently inundated agricultural soils. Two important issues were considered: (1) potential of P transport from the cultivated soil column toward surface sediments and (2) characterization of P behavior in view of regional ecological rehabilitation and conservation. Accordingly, we conducted field sediment analyses, combined with simulation experiments of soil column inundation/submergence lasting for four months. Enrichment of Fe-(hydr)oxides in surface sediments was verified to be the main reason for limitations in regional P availability in water bodies. Iron (Fe), but not its bound P, moved upward from the submerged soil column to the surface. However, an increasing upward gradient in the contents of organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (TP), and different P fractions was caused by spatial heterogeneity in soil properties. Phosphorus was unable to migrate upward toward the surface sediments as envisioned, because of complex secondary reactions within soil minerals. Phosphorus bound to Fe and/or Al comprised over 50% of TP, which has important implications for local ecological rehabilitation and water conservation. PMID:24317161

  4. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A.; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-01-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7–6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids. PMID:26829756

  5. Clay mineralogy indicates a mildly warm and humid living environment for the Miocene hominoid from the Zhaotong Basin, Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxia; Guo, Zhengtang; Deng, Chenglong; Ji, Xueping; Wu, Haibin; Paterson, Greig A; Chang, Lin; Li, Qin; Wu, Bailing; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-01-01

    Global and regional environmental changes have influenced the evolutionary processes of hominoid primates, particularly during the Miocene. Recently, a new Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis hominoid fossil with a late Miocene age of ~6.2 Ma was discovered in the Shuitangba (STB) section of the Zhaotong Basin in Yunnan on the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. To understand the relationship between paleoclimate and hominoid evolution, we have studied sedimentary, clay mineralogy and geochemical proxies for the late Miocene STB section (~16 m thick; ca. 6.7-6.0 Ma). Our results show that Lufengpithecus cf. lufengensis lived in a mildly warm and humid climate in a lacustrine or swamp environment. Comparing mid to late Miocene records from hominoid sites in Yunnan, Siwalik in Pakistan, and tropical Africa we find that ecological shifts from forest to grassland in Siwalik are much later than in tropical Africa, consistent with the disappearance of hominoid fossils. However, no significant vegetation changes are found in Yunnan during the late Miocene, which we suggest is the result of uplift of the Tibetan plateau combined with the Asian monsoon geographically and climatically isolating these regions. The resultant warm and humid conditions in southeastern China offered an important refuge for Miocene hominoids. PMID:26829756

  6. Holocene environment changes around the Sara Us River, northern China, revealed by optical dating of lacustrine-aeolian sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Sheng, Yongwei; Li, Bo; Fan, Yuxin

    2016-04-01

    The Sara Us River is located along the boundary of the Mu Us Desert and the Chinese Loess Plateau in northern China. The river has cut down through Quaternary sediments creating 70-80 m deep valleys with thick lacustrine/aeolian sequences exposed. We applied optical stimulated luminescence on sediments from a Holocene section of aeolian sand/lacustrine deposits in the top of the river valley. The dating results show that a humid period existed from 7.1 to 2.0 ka ago as evidenced by two layers of peat and lacustrine sediments. However, compared to other published Holocene sections in the Sara Us River valleys close to the section under studying, the local environment experienced very complicated changes during the Holocene. All of the sections recorded a period with drought and/or cold before the Holocene at around 13 ka, and an episode of aridity after about 2 ka ago as evidenced by the layers of aeolian sand. However, the ages of the lacustrine and peat layers in these sections are substantially different. Geomorphological analysis by digital elevation models does not support the existence of a mega lake covering the study area at 2 ka. The intricate environmental changes may have been caused by the meandering of the Sara Us River. Environmental changes also strongly affected human migration in this area, which is documented by Chinese historical records.

  7. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides in fossil energy environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1997-12-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification and combustion is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S or SO{sub 2} and chlorine as HCl. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the current status of the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys, including iron aluminides, in multicomponent gas environments of typical coal-conversion systems. Mechanisms of scale development/breakdown, performance envelopes for long-term usage of these materials, approaches to modifying the surfaces of engineering alloys by cladding or coating them with intermetallics, and in-service experience with these materials are emphasized. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the electrospark deposition process or by weld overlay techniques.

  8. Ecological environment changes in Daya Bay, China, from 1982 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Shao; Lou, Zhi-Ping; Sun, Cui-Ci; Sun, Song

    2008-11-01

    Data collected from 12 marine monitoring stations in Daya Bay from 1982 to 2004 reveal a substantial change in the ecological environment of this region. The average N/P ratio increased from 1.377 in 1985 to 49.09 in 2004. Algal species changed from 159 species of 46 genera in 1982 to 126 species of 44 genera in 2004. Major zooplankton species went from 46 species in 1983 to 36 species in 2004. The annual mean biomass of benthic animals was recorded at 123.10 g m(-2) in 1982 and 126.68 g m(-2) in 2004. Mean biomass and species of benthic animals near nuclear power plants ranged from 317.9 g m(-2) in 1991 to 45.24 g m(-2) in 2004 and from 250 species in 1991 to 177 species in 2004. A total of 12-19 species of hermatypic corals and 13 species of mangrove plants were observed in Daya Bay from 1984 to 2002. PMID:18783802

  9. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Gilbert F.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are perspectives on the emergence of environmental problems. Six major trends in scientific thinking are identified including: holistic approaches to examining environments, life support systems, resource management, risk assessment, streamlined methods for monitoring environmental change, and emphasis on the global framework. (Author/SA)

  10. 75 FR 68784 - Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is announcing the availability of, and soliciting public comments for 30 days, on voluntary Healthy Indoor Environment Protocols for Home Energy Upgrades, in conjunction with the availability of the Department of Energy (DOE) Workforce Guidelines for Home Energy. The EPA protocols are intended for voluntary adoption by weatherization......

  11. Meeting the Challenge: Providing High-Quality School Environments through Energy Performance Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birr, David

    2000-01-01

    Energy performance contracting allows schools to pay for needed new energy equipment and modernization improvements with savings from reduced utility and maintenance costs. Improved energy efficiency reduces demand for burning fossil fuels, which reduces air pollution, leading to improved learning environments and budgets (through improved average…

  12. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  13. Exploration of the relationship between geographical environment and human diseases in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, created in the Warring States period (475 to 221 BC) described a phenomenon whereby the eastern, western, northern, southern, and central regions were liable to different diseases. It brought forward the principle of treatment in accordance with local conditions. Lv's Spring and Autumn Annals, Huai Nan Tzu (Huainanzi), and the Regiment of Health (Yangshenglun) in the Qin, Han, Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties all describe regional diseases such as goiter (endemic goiter) and yellowish teeth (dental fluorosis) as being caused by geologic and climatic factors. Zhang (miasma), first mentioned in the Han Dynasty, was considered related to the summer heat and dampness particular to the geographical environment of the south. Zhang was further associated with malaria in the Jin Dynasty. General Treatise on the Etiology and Symptomology of Diseases (Zhubingyuanhou Lun), in the Sui Dynasty, held that as a type of poisonous gas, Zhang was the predisposing cause of malaria, seasonal disease, and barbiers, among other conditions. General Guide (Zhinan Zonglun), in the Southern Song Dynasty, regarded Zhang malaria as a separate disease. Healthy Prescription in the Southern Wuling District (Lingnan Weisheng Fang), in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasties, explicitly put forward the concepts of cold Zhang, hot Zhang, and lockjaw Zhang. Guidelines for Treatment of Zhang Malaria (Zhangnue Zhinan), in the Ming Dynasty, maintained that cold Zhang was equivalent to malaria, while hot Zhang and lockjaw Zhang were equivalent to cold damage, the latter of which can be treated by prescriptions for cold damage. Records on Zhang gas and Zhang disease decreased during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. PMID:22462249

  14. Energy Assessments under the Top 10,000 Program - A Case Study for a Steel Mill in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Hongyou; Price, Lynn; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Thekdi, Arvind; Degroot, Matthew; Shi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    One of the largest energy-savings programs for the Chinese industrial sector was the Top-1,000 Program, which targeted the 1,000 largest industrial enterprises in China. This program was launched in 2006, implemented through 2010, and covered 33% of national energy usage. Because of the success of the Top-1000 initiative, the program has now been expanded to the Top-10,000 program in the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011-2015). The Top-10,000 program covers roughly 15,000 industrial enterprises, or about two-thirds of China s total energy consumption. Implementing energy audit systems and conducting industrial energy efficiency assessments are key requirements of the Top-10,000 program. Previous research done by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has shown that there is a significant potential for improvement in energy assessment practices and applications in China. Issues such as lack of long term policy mechanisms, insufficient motivation for industrial enterprises, limited technical scope of energy assessments, and lack of systematic standardization have been identified. Through the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. State Department (with additional co-funding from the Energy Foundation China), LBNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Institute for Sustainable Communities (ISC), and DOE Energy Experts worked collaboratively with Chinese local organizations and conducted a series of industrial energy efficiency assessment demonstrations in selected Chinese industrial plants. The project aimed to not only introduce standardized methodologies and tools for energy assessments, but also to bring the systems approach for energy system analysis to the Top 10,000 enterprises. Through the project, five energy system assessments were conducted, and more than 300 Chinese experts from local energy conservation centers, universities, research organizations, energy service companies, and plant engineers were trained. This paper begins by

  15. Species Richness Patterns and Water-Energy Dynamics in the Drylands of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Stefan; Abdusalih, Nurbay; Tang, Zhiyao; Ma, Ming; Yin, Linke; Mohammat, Anwar; Han, Wenxuan; Fang, Jingyun

    2013-01-01

    Dryland ecosystems are highly vulnerable to climatic and land-use changes, while the mechanisms underlying patterns of dryland species richness are still elusive. With distributions of 3637 native vascular plants, 154 mammals, and 425 birds in Xinjiang, China, we tested the water-energy dynamics hypothesis for species richness patterns in Central Asian drylands. Our results supported the water-energy dynamics hypothesis. We found that species richness of all three groups was a hump-shaped function of energy availability, but a linear function of water availability. We further found that water availability had stronger effects on plant richness, but weaker effects on vertebrate richness than energy availability. We conducted piecewise linear regressions to detect the breakpoints in the relationship between species richness and potential evapotranspiration which divided Xinjiang into low and high energy regions. The concordance between mammal and plant richness was stronger in high than in low energy regions, which was opposite to that between birds and plants. Plant richness had stronger effects than climate on mammal richness regardless of energy levels, but on bird richness only in high energy regions. The changes in the concordance between vertebrate and plant richness along the climatic gradient suggest that cautions are needed when using concordance between taxa in conservation planning. PMID:23840472

  16. Energy efficiency: Policies for technology transfer in Eastern Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and China

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, W.U.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Hamburger, J.; Bashmakov, I. |

    1993-10-01

    This paper summarizes the energy-efficiency potential in three major regions of the world -- the Former Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China and discusses policy measures that might stimulate adoption of technologies that constitute that potential. The authors suggest that major gains in energy efficiency are indeed possible, and that capturing this potential would provide a major reduction in future levels of energy-related carbon dioxide emissions. The authors indicate, however, that the requisite technological improvement -- often referred to as technology transfer -- is unlikely without the stimulus of strong policy measures. These measures include the rapid introduction of market mechanisms as well as policy intervention to overcome significant market barriers. Moreover, we observe that strong policies -- heavy taxes and performance standards are becoming increasingly unpopular and problematic, but can be replaced to some extent by incentive, market-pull, and research and development programs.

  17. ENVIRONMENT CONSEQUENCES OF WOOD AND OTHER BIOMASS SOURCES OF ENERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current important researchg needs whose results will be critical to EPA's mission in the next two to three decades with regard to a major expansion in the use of biomass, as an energy source are identified. Biomass currently contributes about 2.4 quads or 3% to the total national...

  18. THE CLEAN ENERGY-ENVIRONMENT GUIDE TO ACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Guide to Action identifies and describes sixteen clean energy policies and strategies that are delivering economic and environmental results for states. For each policy, the Guide describes: Objectives and benefits of the policy; Examples of states that have implemented the p...

  19. The Economy, Energy, and the Environment. A Background Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This study surveys the existing literature related to various technical aspects of electric power production, with primary emphasis on the supply of the various fuels used in the production of electricity and on the environmental consequences of energy conversion. It was prepared by the Environmental Policy Division, Legislative Reference Service,…

  20. Energy, environment, and policy choices: Summer institutes for science and social studies educators

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, E.A.; Chiodo, J.J.; Gerber, B.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Center for Energy Education (CEE) is a partnership linking the University of Oklahoma, Close Up Foundation and Department of Energy. Based upon the theme of energy, environment and public policy, the CEE`s main purposes are to: (1) educate teachers on energy sources, environmental issues and decisionmaking choices regarding public policy; (2) develop interdisciplinary curricula that are interactive in nature (see attachments); (3) disseminate energy education curricula; (4) serve as a resource center for a wide variety of energy education materials; (5) provide a national support system for teachers in energy education; and (6) conduct research in energy education. The CEE conducted its first two-week experimentially-based program for educators during the summer of 1993. Beginning at the University of Oklahoma, 57 teachers from across the country examined concepts and issues related to energy and environment, and how the interdependence of energy and environment significantly influences daily life. During the second week of the institute, participants went to Washington, D.C. to examine the processes used by government officials to make critical decisions involving interrelationships among energy, environment and public policy. Similar institutes were conducted during the summers of 1994 and 1995 resulting in nearly 160 science and social studies educators who had participated in the CEE programs. Collectively the participants represented 36 states, the Pacific Territories, Puerto Rico, and Japan.

  1. Rhinitis symptoms and asthma among parents of preschool children in relation to the home environment in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Li, Baizhan; Yu, Wei; Yang, Qin; Wang, Han; Huang, Duchai; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for rhinitis and asthma in the home environment were studied by a questionnaire survey. Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children (one parent per child) from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China participated. 70.4% were females; 47.1% had rhinitis symptoms in the last three months (current rhinitis, CR); 1.6% reported a history of allergic asthma (AA); 2.7% reported a history of allergic rhinitis (AR); 16.4% were current smokers; 50.8% males and 2.4% females were current smokers. Stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, tobacco smoke odor and dry air were associated with CR (adjustment for gender, current smoking and other perceptions of odor or humidity). Associations between home environment and CR, AR, and AA were studied by multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for gender, current smoking and other significant home factors. Living near a main road or highway was a risk factor for both CR (OR(95%CI): 1.31(1.13,1.52)) and AR (OR(95%CI): 2.44(1.48,4.03)). Other risk factors for CR included living in rural areas (OR(95%CI): 1.43(1.10,1.85)), new furniture (OR(95%CI): 1.28(1.11,1.49)), water damage (OR(95%CI): 1.68(1.29,2.18)), cockroaches (OR(95%CI): 1.46(1.23,1.73)), and keeping pets (OR(95%CI): 1.24(1.04,1.49)). Other risk factors for AR included redecoration (OR(95%CI): 2.14(1.34,3.41)), mold spots (OR(95%CI): 2.23(1.06,4.68)), window pane condensation (OR(95%CI): 2.04(1.28,3.26)). Water damage was the only home factor associated with AA (2.56(1.34,4.86)). Frequently put bedding to sunshine was protective for CR (OR(95%CI): 0.79(0.68,0.92); cleaning every day was protective for AR (OR(95%CI): 0.40(0.22,0.71)). In conclusion, parents' CR and AR were related to a number of factors of the home environment. PMID:24733290

  2. Rhinitis Symptoms and Asthma among Parents of Preschool Children in Relation to the Home Environment in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Li, Baizhan; Yu, Wei; Yang, Qin; Wang, Han; Huang, Duchai; Sundell, Jan; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for rhinitis and asthma in the home environment were studied by a questionnaire survey. Parents of 4530 1–8 year old children (one parent per child) from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China participated. 70.4% were females; 47.1% had rhinitis symptoms in the last three months (current rhinitis, CR); 1.6% reported a history of allergic asthma (AA); 2.7% reported a history of allergic rhinitis (AR); 16.4% were current smokers; 50.8% males and 2.4% females were current smokers. Stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, tobacco smoke odor and dry air were associated with CR (adjustment for gender, current smoking and other perceptions of odor or humidity). Associations between home environment and CR, AR, and AA were studied by multiple logistic regression analyses, adjusting for gender, current smoking and other significant home factors. Living near a main road or highway was a risk factor for both CR (OR(95%CI): 1.31(1.13,1.52)) and AR (OR(95%CI): 2.44(1.48,4.03)). Other risk factors for CR included living in rural areas (OR(95%CI): 1.43(1.10,1.85)), new furniture (OR(95%CI): 1.28(1.11,1.49)), water damage (OR(95%CI): 1.68(1.29,2.18)), cockroaches (OR(95%CI): 1.46(1.23,1.73)), and keeping pets (OR(95%CI): 1.24(1.04,1.49)). Other risk factors for AR included redecoration (OR(95%CI): 2.14(1.34,3.41)), mold spots (OR(95%CI): 2.23(1.06,4.68)), window pane condensation (OR(95%CI): 2.04(1.28,3.26)). Water damage was the only home factor associated with AA (2.56(1.34,4.86)). Frequently put bedding to sunshine was protective for CR (OR(95%CI): 0.79(0.68,0.92); cleaning every day was protective for AR (OR(95%CI): 0.40(0.22,0.71)). In conclusion, parents' CR and AR were related to a number of factors of the home environment. PMID:24733290

  3. ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network): Enhancing opportunities for learning using an Earth systems science framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.; Divers, M. T.; Crowley, K. J.; Povis, K.; Scardina, A.; Steiner, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a newly funded collaborative NSF initiative, ENERGY-NET (Energy, Environment and Society Learning Network), that brings together the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (CMNH) with the Learning Science and Geoscience research strengths at the University of Pittsburgh. ENERGY-NET aims to create rich opportunities for participatory learning and public education in the arena of energy, the environment, and society using an Earth systems science framework. We build upon a long-established teen docent program at CMNH and to form Geoscience Squads comprised of underserved teens. Together, the ENERGY-NET team, including museum staff, experts in informal learning sciences, and geoscientists spanning career stage (undergraduates, graduate students, faculty) provides inquiry-based learning experiences guided by Earth systems science principles. Together, the team works with Geoscience Squads to design "Exploration Stations" for use with CMNH visitors that employ an Earth systems science framework to explore the intersecting lenses of energy, the environment, and society. The goals of ENERGY-NET are to: 1) Develop a rich set of experiential learning activities to enhance public knowledge about the complex dynamics between Energy, Environment, and Society for demonstration at CMNH; 2) Expand diversity in the geosciences workforce by mentoring underrepresented teens, providing authentic learning experiences in earth systems science and life skills, and providing networking opportunities with geoscientists; and 3) Institutionalize ENERGY-NET collaborations among geosciences expert, learning researchers, and museum staff to yield long-term improvements in public geoscience education and geoscience workforce recruiting.

  4. Closing Keynote Presentation on the Genomics of Energy and the Environment (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Benner, Stephen [Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology

    2013-01-22

    Steve Benner, a distinguished chemist at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology, provides the closing keynote address for the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  5. Closing Keynote Presentation on the Genomics of Energy and the Environment (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, Stephen

    2012-03-22

    Steve Benner, a distinguished chemist at the Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Westheimer Institute of Science and Technology, provides the closing keynote address for the JGI 7th Annual Users Meeting: Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  6. Marine-hydrokinetic energy and the environment: Observations, modeling, and basic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2012-03-01

    Research at the Interface of Marine Hydrokinetic Energy and the Environment: A Workshop; Minneapolis, Minnesota, 5-7 October 2011 Marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy harvesting technologies convert the kinetic energy of waves and water currents into power to generate electricity. Although these technologies are in early stages of development compared to other renewable technologies, such as solar and wind energy, they offer electricity consumers situated near coastlines or inland rivers an alternative energy technology that can help meet renewable portfolio standards. However, the potential environmental impacts of MHK energy are far from well understood, both in general principles and in site-specific cases. As pressure for new MHK energy licenses builds, accelerated research in providing the scientific understanding of harnessing the natural power of water for renewable energy at a competitive cost and without harming the environment becomes a priority.

  7. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  8. Characterizing China's energy consumption with selective economic factors and energy-resource endowment: a spatial econometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lei; Ji, Minhe; Bai, Ling

    2014-09-01

    Coupled with intricate regional interactions, the provincial disparity of energy-resource endowment and other economic conditions in China have created spatially complex energy consumption patterns that require analyses beyond the traditional ones. To distill the spatial effect out of the resource and economic factors on China's energy consumption, this study recast the traditional econometric model in a spatial context. Several analytic steps were taken to reveal different aspects of the issue. Per capita energy consumption (AVEC) at the provincial level was first mapped to reveal spatial clusters of high energy consumption being located in either well developed or energy resourceful regions. This visual spatial autocorrelation pattern of AVEC was quantitatively tested to confirm its existence among Chinese provinces. A Moran scatterplot was employed to further display a relatively centralized trend occurring in those provinces that had parallel AVEC, revealing a spatial structure with attraction among high-high or low-low regions and repellency among high-low or low-high regions. By a comparison between the ordinary least square (OLS) model and its spatial econometric counterparts, a spatial error model (SEM) was selected to analyze the impact of major economic determinants on AVEC. While the analytic results revealed a significant positive correlation between AVEC and economic development, other determinants showed some intricate influential patterns. The provinces endowed with rich energy reserves were inclined to consume much more energy than those otherwise, whereas changing the economic structure by increasing the proportion of secondary and tertiary industries also tended to consume more energy. Both situations seem to underpin the fact that these provinces were largely trapped in the economies that were supported by technologies of low energy efficiency during the period, while other parts of the country were rapidly modernized by adopting advanced

  9. The future of seawater desalination: energy, technology, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Elimelech, Menachem; Phillip, William A

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, numerous large-scale seawater desalination plants have been built in water-stressed countries to augment available water resources, and construction of new desalination plants is expected to increase in the near future. Despite major advancements in desalination technologies, seawater desalination is still more energy intensive compared to conventional technologies for the treatment of fresh water. There are also concerns about the potential environmental impacts of large-scale seawater desalination plants. Here, we review the possible reductions in energy demand by state-of-the-art seawater desalination technologies, the potential role of advanced materials and innovative technologies in improving performance, and the sustainability of desalination as a technological solution to global water shortages. PMID:21817042

  10. Seismic energy transmission in an intensively scattering environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.

    1977-01-01

    In order to account for some special features of lunar seismograms, namely, the gradual build-up of the signal, the extremely prolonged tail, and the lack of apparent coherence among three orthogonal components of ground motion, a statistical approach is proposed for describing transmission of seismic energy through a medium in which strong scattering takes place. A seismic diffusion theory is presented for a medium with randomly distributed scatterers of a given size distribution. A solution of the resulting diffusion equation for an impulsive energy source gives a curve which fairly closely reproduces the envelope of typical lunar impact seismograms. Since the model is based on constant diffusivity, long-range transmission will require a combination of diffusion and wave propagation treatments for accurate description.

  11. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G.

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  12. Keynote Presentation: Genome Beat (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Zimmer, Carl [New York Times

    2013-01-22

    Carl Zimmer, a reporter for the New York Times, speaks on "The Genome Beat," the opening keynote presentation at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  13. Keynote Presentation: Genome Beat (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, Carl

    2012-03-20

    Carl Zimmer, a reporter for the New York Times, speaks on "The Genome Beat," the opening keynote presentation at the JGI User 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 22, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif

  14. Negotiating energy dynamics through embodied action in a materially structured environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; Close, Eleanor W.; Flood, Virginia J.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Wittmann, Michael C.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2013-12-01

    We provide evidence that a learning activity called Energy Theater engages learners with key conceptual issues in the learning of energy, including disambiguating matter flow and energy flow and theorizing mechanisms for energy transformation. A participationist theory of learning, in which learning is indicated by changes in speech and behavior, supports ethnographic analysis of learners’ embodied interactions with each other and the material setting. We conduct detailed analysis to build plausible causal links between specific features of Energy Theater and the conceptual engagement that we observe. Disambiguation of matter and energy appears to be promoted especially by the material structure of the Energy Theater environment, in which energy is represented by participants, while objects are represented by areas demarcated by loops of rope. Theorizing mechanisms of energy transformation is promoted especially by Energy Theater’s embodied action, which necessitates modeling the time ordering of energy transformations.

  15. [Spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity from energy consumption in China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Tai; Huang, Xian-Jin; Zhong, Tai-Yang; Peng, Jia-Wen

    2011-11-01

    Using Theil index and spatial autocorrelation analysis methods, the characteristics, regional disparity and spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity from energy consumption were analyzed on national, regional and provincial level from 1999 to 2007 in China. The results indicate that: (1) total energy carbon emission in China has increased from 0.91Gt in 1999 to 1.83Gt in 2007, while carbon emission intensity has decreased from 0.83 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1) to 0.79 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); (2) carbon emission intensity of eight major economic blocks showed the trend of three-level differentiation, with that of northeast regions, the middle reaches of Yellow River regions and northwest regions above 1.0 t x (10(4) yuan)(-1); northern coastal regions, the middle reaches of Yangtze River regions and southwest regions 0.7-1.0 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); eastern and northern regions 0.32-0.51 t x (10(4) yuan) (-1); (3) Theil index analysis indicates that the within-region carbon emission intensities were similar, and the expanding total disparity of carbon emission intensity was primarily due to between-region inequalities. (4) spatial autocorrelation analysis shows that Global Moran's I has increased from 0.19 to 0.25, indicating that there were positive spatial correlations among provincial regions in China, and regions of similar carbon emission intensity agglomerated in space. The "cold spot" areas of carbon emission intensity were relatively stable, while the "hot spot" areas has gradually shifted from northwest regions to the middle reaches of Yellow River regions and northeast regions. (5) spatial disparity of carbon emission intensity is closely related to factors such as regional resources endowment, economic development, industrial structure and energy utilization efficiency. The study of regional disparity and spatial autocorrelation provides insight into spatial heterogeneity and spatial pattern evolution of carbon emission intensity in China, and also

  16. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Final Report, December 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-10-01

    Final subcontractor report giving an overview of the biomass power generation technologies used in China. Report covers resources, technologies, foreign technologies and resources for comparison purposes, biomass potential in China, and finally government policies in China that support/hinder development of the using biomass in China for power generation.

  17. Science and society test VII: Energy and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hafemeister, D.W.

    1982-08-01

    Approximate numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of environmental effects that result from energy production. The results of these calculations are consistent with either direct observations or with more complex calculations. This paper will cover some of the possible environmental effects of the following: (1) the greenhouse effect caused by increased CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere; (2) loss of coolant accidents in nuclear reactors; (3) increased radon concentrations in buildings with very low air infiltration rates; (4) acid rain from the combustion of fossil fuels; (5) expolosions of liquified natural gas (LNG); and (6) ozone in the stratosphere.

  18. Science and society test VII: Energy and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1982-08-01

    Approximate numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of environmental effects that result from energy production. The results of these calculations are consistent with either direct observations or with more complex calculations. This paper will cover some of the possible environmental effects of the following: (1) the greenhouse effect caused by increased CO2 in the atmosphere; (2) loss of coolant accidents in nuclear reactors; (3) increased radon concentrations in buildings with very low air infiltration rates; (4) acid rain from the combustion of fossil fuels; (5) expolosions of liquified natural gas (LNG); and (6) ozone in the stratosphere.

  19. Energy efficiency services: What role in a competitive environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, J.

    1994-11-01

    If experience from other industries counts, energy services will remain the strategically critical center of the chessboard in a reconfigured electric utility market. Players who can create customized, integrated packages of customer services will be in a strong position to {open_quotes}create value{close_quotes} in a highly fragmented and competitive industry. The initial phase of disintegration is likely to be followed by period of reintegration, in which non-price services become increasing important. An overview is given on how utilities can deliver value to customers through innovative marketing strategies, leveraging existing knowledge, and the maintaining or building of infrastructure.

  20. Variation in Foliar δ13C of Desert Plant Reaumuria soongorica (Pall.) Maxim. among Different Environments in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J.; Pendall, E.; Chen, F.

    2008-12-01

    Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant desert shrub species in arid regions of northwest China, it playing an important role in the maintenance of the stability and continuity of desert ecosystem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution characteristics of foliar δ13C value in R. soongorica, establish the correlations between foliar characteristics and environmental factors, and identify the major factor controlling the variations of foliar δ13C among different environments. Leaves of R. soongorica were collected from 21 natural populations in its major distribution area in northwestern China, across a range of mean annual precipitation from 27 to 328 mm, at altitudes from 394 to 1987 m above sea level, at latitudes from 36°N to 45°N and at longitudes from 81°E to 107°E. We measured the leaf nitrogen (LN), phosphorus (LP), potassium content (LK), leaf water content (LWC) and foliar δ13C in leaves of 407 individuals, and the soil physicochemical properties including nitrogen (SN), phosphorus (SP), soil organic matter (SOM), soil water contents (SWC) and total dissolved solids (TDS). Mean annual precipitation (MAP), mean annual temperature (MAT), evaporation, mean relative humidity (MRH) and duration of sunshine (DS), were collected from the Cold and Arid Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We observed that the foliar δ13C values increased significantly with the decreasing of MAP (r = -0.623, P = 0.003) and MRH(r = -0.702, P = 0.002), and decreased with decreasing DS and evaporation. No significant correlation with MAT was detected in δ13C values of R. soongorica. The correlations between foliar δ13C value and the soil factors demonstrated that the foliar δ13C values in R. soongorica significantly increased with the decreasing SWC (r = - 0.470, P = 0.037) and increasing TDS (r = 0.507, P = 0.022) in soil. There were no significant correlations between the foliar δ13C values and soil pH, total

  1. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  2. Lower Triassic stromatolites in Luodian County, Guizhou Province, South China: evidence for the protracted devastation of the marine environments.

    PubMed

    Ezaki, Y; Liu, J B; Adachi, N

    2012-01-01

    Stromatolites are one of the oldest and most intriguing organosedimentary deposits. In contrast to stromatolites of the Precambrian to Early Ordovician, Phanerozoic equivalents occurred episodically under specific conditions. A group of previously undescribed stromatolites in composition occur in the Lower Triassic (Olenekian) at the Dajiang section in the Luodian region of Guizhou Province, South China. We described the textures of these stromatolites with the aim of determining the genetic mechanisms and revealing the nature of interactions between micro-organisms and marine environments. Mesoscopic features show that the stromatolites consist of several sets of stacked slices, and that they are embedded in alternating beds of fine and coarse microsphere packstones that include aggregates of microspheres, forming grapestones and lumps. Microscopically, the stromatolites consist of spar- and dolomite-infilled microspheres (average diameter, 100 μm), micrites, peloids, small-sized pyrite framboids (average diameter, 5.8 μm) and fenestrae. Micrite-dominant intercalations accentuate laminated textures at a mesoscopic level and are laterally continuous with micrite-rich parts in surrounding interstromatolites, indicating the simultaneous, widespread deposition of these layers. The microspheres and associated micrites were the products of in situ microbial activity, probably sulphate-reducing or anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, which led to the formation of these unusual stromatolites. Even during a protracted period of harsh marine conditions, the micrite-rich carpets were deposited intermittently on the stromatolites and their surroundings under severely anoxic/sulphidic conditions. The presence of Early Triassic stromatolites and their subtle but important vertical variations in texture provide a record of temporal changes in marine conditions during geobiologically critical intervals. PMID:22118290

  3. Climatic and geological factors contributing to the natural water chemistry in an arid environment from watersheds in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Bingqi; Yu, Jingjie; Qin, Xiaoguang; Rioual, Patrick; Xiong, Heigang

    2012-06-01

    A natural water hydrochemical investigation was carried out on three watersheds in northern Xinjiang, China to evaluate the climatic, geological and anthropogenic influence on aqueous major element chemistry in an arid environment. Wide spatial variations are observed in the dissolved solids (TDS) and water chemistry. The hydrochemistry is typically carbonate and alkaline in nature, with Ca2 +, HCO3- and SO42 - dominating the major ion composition. Four major water types, Ca-HCO3, Ca-NDA (non-dominant anion), Ca-SO4 and NDC (non-dominant cation)-NDA or Na-NDA type, are identified in terms of the Piper model. The water chemistry agrees well with the “rock dominance” mechanism, with a TDS value of 80-600 mg/L and a Na+/(Na+ + Ca2 +) ratio of 0.1-0.6. Correlation analysis suggests that most of the ions derive from multiple sources. Stoichiometric analyses indicate that carbonate weathering is the primary source of dissolved ions, followed by silicate weathering and evaporite dissolution. The effects of local pollution have somewhat greater contribution on the oases and central areas of the Zhungarer watershed. Most parts of the rivers show an increasing trend in the dissolved load toward the lower reaches, which is primarily attributed to an evaporation process control along the water course. Variations in water chemistry show clear correlation with the regional lithological distribution, topography and atmospheric precipitation. Using rainwater as a baseline, contributions from atmospheric precipitation and rock weathering to the tributary chemistry are roughly evaluated to be in the range of 2-39% (average 13%) and 59-98% (average 86%), respectively, implying a high effective control of regional geology on stream chemistry compared with that of atmospheric input.

  4. Heavy metals associated with reduced sulfur in sediments from different deposition environments in the Pearl River estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fanrong; Yang, Yongqiang; Zhang, Derong; Zhang, Ling

    2006-06-01

    Distribution of acid volatile sulfur (AVS) and the simultaneously extracted metals (SEM: Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni) in sediment profiles has been studied at five sites in Pearl River estuary, China. Of the five sampling locations, Nos.1 and 2 are in the middle shoal, Nos.3 and 4 in the west shoal and No. 5 locates to the south of the estuary. The AVS content in the sediments of the middle shoal varies in a small range (0.25-4.06 micromol g(-1)), while that of west shoal increases with depth from 0 to ultimately 26.09 micromol g(-1). The SEM concentration in the sediment profiles at location Nos. 1, 2 and 5 is generally in the range of 0.95+/-0.2 micromol g(-1) with a slight upward increase, while that in the sediment of west shallows are much higher (1.43-2.42 micromol g(-1)) with a significant upward increase, especially in the upper layer of ca. 15 cm. The observed upward increase of SEM content at all the sites implies that heavy metal contamination of sediment in the Pearl River estuary is increasing. Calculations of the excess heavy metal content which is defined by SEM-AVS molar difference suggests that the upper sediment in the Pearl River estuary, especially on the west shallows, could be a source of heavy metal contaminants and may cause toxicity to the benthos. The site-specific distribution patterns in the AVS and SEM profiles were interpreted according to the hydrogeochemistry of deposition environments. PMID:16767564

  5. Maize yield response to water supply and fertilizer input in a semi-arid environment of Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guanghua; Gu, Jian; Zhang, Fasheng; Hao, Liang; Cong, Peifei; Liu, Zuoxin

    2014-01-01

    Maize grain yield varies highly with water availability as well as with fertilization and relevant agricultural management practices. With a 311-A optimized saturation design, field experiments were conducted between 2006 and 2009 to examine the yield response of spring maize (Zhengdan 958, Zea mays L) to irrigation (I), nitrogen fertilization (total nitrogen, urea-46% nitrogen,) and phosphorus fertilization (P2O5, calcium superphosphate-13% P2O5) in a semi-arid area environment of Northeast China. According to our estimated yield function, the results showed that N is the dominant factor in determining maize grain yield followed by I, while P plays a relatively minor role. The strength of interaction effects among I, N and P on maize grain yield follows the sequence N+I >P+I>N+P. Individually, the interaction effects of N+I and N+P on maize grain yield are positive, whereas that of P+I is negative. To achieve maximum grain yield (10506.0 kg · ha(-1)) for spring maize in the study area, the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 930.4 m(3) · ha(-1), 304.9 kg · ha(-1) and 133.2 kg · ha(-1) respectively that leads to a possible economic profit (EP) of 10548.4 CNY · ha(-1) (CNY, Chinese Yuan). Alternately, to obtain the best EP (10827.3 CNY · ha(-1)), the optimum application rates of I, N and P are 682.4 m(3) · ha(-1), 241.0 kg · ha(-1) and 111.7 kg · ha(-1) respectively that produces a potential grain yield of 10289.5 kg · ha(-1). PMID:24465896

  6. Characterization and energy potential of food waste from catering service in Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Hui; Sun, Fa-Qian; Sun, Ying-Jun; Lu, Hao-Hao; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Safe disposal of food waste is becoming an impending issue in China with the rapid increase of its production and the promotion of environmental awareness. Food waste from catering services in Hangzhou, China, was surveyed and characterized in this study. A questionnaire survey involving 632 units across the urban districts showed that 83.5% of the food waste was not properly treated. Daily food waste production from catering units was estimated to be 1184.5 tonnes. The ratio of volatile solid to total solid, easily biodegradable matter (including crude fat, crude protein and total starch) content in total solid and the ratio of total organic carbon to nitrogen varied in ranges of 90.1%-93.9%, 60.9%-72.1%, and 11.9-19.9, respectively. Based on the methane yield of 350 mL g VS(-1) in anaerobic batch tests, annual biogas energy of 1.0 × 10(9) MJ was estimated to be recovered from the food waste. Food waste from catering services was suggested to be an attractive clean energy source by anaerobic digestion. PMID:24980033

  7. Digital reconstruction on geographical environment of Neolithic human activities in the Lingjiatan site of Chaohu City, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li; Zhou, Kunshu; Mo, Duowen

    2010-11-01

    The Chaohu Lake Basin is an important area for ancient human activities in East China. The Lingjiatan site, which is located at the southeast of Chaohu City, Anhui Province, and 35 km north to the Yangtze River and 5 km south to the Taihu Mountain, is the most representative Neolithic Age site with advanced jade-carving techniques in this area. The 14C date of Lingjiatan Site is about 5600~5300aBP, the same time as the Hongshan culture and earlier than the Liangzhu culture, which falls into the Mid-Holocene epoch. Based on mid-high resolution remote sensing images and former archaeological materials, combined with field investigations and sampling analysis of the archaeological site profile of Lingjiatan Site as well as core drillings in the Chaohu Lake, the paper reconstructs the climate environment of the Lingjiatan site and the environmental background of ancient human activities during Mid-Holocene. The research results show that: (1) The ancients in Lingjiatan lived in the Holocene Optimum, its culture development was during the interim phase when the climate transformed from warm and wet to cool and dry. (2) The ground surface deposited in the last phase of late Pleistocene epoch (OSL dating is 11.6 +/-1.0 ka BP) was the living ground for Lingjiatan ancient humans. The sedimentary discontinuous surface may be caused by strong fluvial erosion under the warm and humid climatic conditions of the Mid-Holocene. (3) Originally, paleo-geomorphic surface was a level shallow mesa foreside southern part of Taihu Mountain, but was cut by fluvial waters and the geomorphologic configuration formed "finger-like" features alternately with strip hillocks and rivers. These features can be seen on the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing image, especially the depression area. This depression is now cropland, and was interpreted as the palaeochannels. (4) Based on the remote sensing image interpretation, the site was in a "peninsula shape" environment which had rivers flowing around the

  8. Digital reconstruction on geographical environment of Neolithic human activities in the Lingjiatan site of Chaohu City, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li; Zhou, Kunshu; Mo, Duowen

    2009-09-01

    The Chaohu Lake Basin is an important area for ancient human activities in East China. The Lingjiatan site, which is located at the southeast of Chaohu City, Anhui Province, and 35 km north to the Yangtze River and 5 km south to the Taihu Mountain, is the most representative Neolithic Age site with advanced jade-carving techniques in this area. The 14C date of Lingjiatan Site is about 5600~5300aBP, the same time as the Hongshan culture and earlier than the Liangzhu culture, which falls into the Mid-Holocene epoch. Based on mid-high resolution remote sensing images and former archaeological materials, combined with field investigations and sampling analysis of the archaeological site profile of Lingjiatan Site as well as core drillings in the Chaohu Lake, the paper reconstructs the climate environment of the Lingjiatan site and the environmental background of ancient human activities during Mid-Holocene. The research results show that: (1) The ancients in Lingjiatan lived in the Holocene Optimum, its culture development was during the interim phase when the climate transformed from warm and wet to cool and dry. (2) The ground surface deposited in the last phase of late Pleistocene epoch (OSL dating is 11.6 +/-1.0 ka BP) was the living ground for Lingjiatan ancient humans. The sedimentary discontinuous surface may be caused by strong fluvial erosion under the warm and humid climatic conditions of the Mid-Holocene. (3) Originally, paleo-geomorphic surface was a level shallow mesa foreside southern part of Taihu Mountain, but was cut by fluvial waters and the geomorphologic configuration formed "finger-like" features alternately with strip hillocks and rivers. These features can be seen on the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing image, especially the depression area. This depression is now cropland, and was interpreted as the palaeochannels. (4) Based on the remote sensing image interpretation, the site was in a "peninsula shape" environment which had rivers flowing around the

  9. Providing a computing environment for a high energy physics workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, J.

    1991-03-01

    Although computing facilities have been provided at conferences and workshops remote from the hose institution for some years, the equipment provided has rarely been capable of providing for much more than simple editing and electronic mail over leased lines. This presentation describes the pioneering effort involved by the Computing Department/Division at Fermilab in providing a local computing facility with world-wide networking capability for the Physics at Fermilab in the 1990's workshop held in Breckenridge, Colorado, in August 1989, as well as the enhanced facilities provided for the 1990 Summer Study on High Energy Physics at Snowmass, Colorado, in June/July 1990. Issues discussed include type and sizing of the facilities, advance preparations, shipping, on-site support, as well as an evaluation of the value of the facility to the workshop participants.

  10. Energy, environment and sustainable development - tough decisions for a democracy

    SciTech Connect

    Rossin, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    Electricity is recognized to be essential to attaining even minimum modem levels of human welfare in any country. However, where electricity is available, the public shows little concern about where it comes from or what it takes to make sure supply continues to be adequate. In the next century, the world will have to face the difficult decision about the long-term use of plutonium as fuel, and deal with its implications for nonproliferation. What the United States does on this issue will affect all nations, and particularly those around the Pacific Basin. How do responsible leaders set rational priorities in a democracy, when every issue has its vocal advocates and the news media can reach every household? If democracies are to avoid the downside risks of energy shortages, leadership will have to emerge that has the courage to tell the people the truth. That means providing scientific facts and explanations in terms that people can understand.

  11. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  12. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2014-05-13

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  13. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2013-12-03

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  14. Building environment analysis based on temperature and humidity for smart energy systems.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jaeseok; Won, Kwang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment. PMID:23202004

  15. Building Environment Analysis based on Temperature and Humidity for Smart Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jaeseok; Won, Kwang-Ho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) control strategy as part of the smart energy system that can balance occupant comfort against building energy consumption using ubiquitous sensing and machine learning technology. We have developed ZigBee-based wireless sensor nodes and collected realistic temperature and humidity data during one month from a laboratory environment. With the collected data, we have established a building environment model using machine learning algorithms, which can be used to assess occupant comfort level. We expect the proposed HVAC control strategy will be able to provide occupants with a consistently comfortable working or home environment. PMID:23202004

  16. Creating High Energy Density Jets in Laboratory Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Robert

    2005-04-01

    A new experimental platform for the investigation of high Mach-number, high energy-density jets has been developed at the University of Rochester's Omega laser facility. Assuming the scalability of the Euler equations, the resulting mm-sized jets should scale to astrophysical objects such as Herbig-Haro objects and jet-driven supernovae that may involve jets with similar internal Mach numbers. This scalability still holds in the presence of radiation as long as the relative importance of radiative cooling is similar. In these experiments, either direct or indirect laser drive is used to launch a strong shock into a 125 micron thick titanium foil target that caps a 700 micron thick titanium washer. After the shock breaks out into the 300 micron diameter cylindrical hole in the washer, a dense, well-collimated jet with an energy density of more than 0.1 MJ per cc is formed. The jet is then imaged as it propagates for 100s of ns down a cylinder of low-density polymer foam. The experiments are diagnosed by point-projection with a micro-dot vanadium backligher. The field of view is several mm and the resolution is 15 microns. The X-ray radiographs show the hydrodynamically unstable jet and the bow shock driving into the surrounding foam. Such complex experimental data provide a challenge to hydrocodes and so are being used to test the hydrodynamic simulations of these types of flows. Initial comparisons between the data and LANL and AWE simulations will be shown. However, the high Reynolds numbers of both the laboratory and astrophysical jets suggest that, given sufficient time and shear, turbulence should develop; this cannot be reliably modeled by present, resolution-limited simulations. Future work concerning the applicability of the Omega experiments to astrophysical objects and the quantitative study of turbulent mixing via subgrid-scale models will be discussed.

  17. Recent Research and Application on Seismic Isolation, Energy Dissipation and Control for Structures in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fulin; Tan Ping; Cui Jie; Xian Qiaoling; Wei Lushun; Huang Dongyang

    2008-07-08

    This paper briefly introduces the recent research, testing analysis, design and application on seismic isolation, energy dissipation, tuned mass damper and active control for buildings and bridges in mainland China. Paper introduces some typical researches, testing and analysis, including the mechanical tests for bearings and control devices, and the shaking table tests for structural models with different control systems. Paper also introduces the Chinese design codes for structures with seismic isolation and energy dissipation. Paper describes the recent application status and typical examples, especially introduces the largest isolation buildings group in the world, and the using passive and semi active control for structures. Also the paper makes discussion some problems existed on passive and active control technique now and the tendency of development on seismic control in future.

  18. Feedbacks from Focus Group Meeting on Training and Implementation of Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Lin , Haiyan; Song, Bo; Halverson, Mark A.; Evans, Meredydd; Zhu, Xiaojiao

    2011-01-01

    A focus group meeting is a very effective quality research approach to collect information on a specific project. Through focus group meetings at both Changchun and Ningbo in August 2010, the project team gained a more complete understandings of key stakeholders (such as their education level), their training needs and expectations, key factors influencing their decision making, and incurred implementation difficulties. In addition, the meeting helped the project team (especially PNNL) improve its understanding of the implementation status of building energy codes in other regions (such as small cities and counties neighboring to urban areas, small townships and rural areas distant from urban areas). The collected feedbacks will serve as important input not only for better design of training materials and the development of an on-line training website, but also for development of follow-up projects to promote building energy codes in China.

  19. Life-cycle implications of using crop residues for various energy demands in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2010-05-15

    Crop residues are a critical component of the sustainable energy and natural resource strategy within a country. In this study, we use hybrid life-cycle environmental and economic analyses to evaluate and compare the atmospheric chemical, climatic, ecological, and economic issues associated with a set of energy conversion technologies that use crop residues for various energy demands in China. Our analysis combines conventional process-based life cycle assessment with economic input-output life cycle assessment. The results show that the return of crop residues to the fields, silo/amination and anaerobic digestion (household scale) offer the greatest ecological benefits, with net greenhouse gas reduction costs of US$3.1/tC, US$11.5/tC, and US$14.9/tC, respectively. However, if a positive net income for market-oriented operations is the overriding criterion for technology selection, the cofiring of crop residues with coal and crop residue gasification for power generation offer greater economic scope and technical feasibility, with net incomes of US$4.4/Mg and US$4.9/Mg, respectively. We identify that poor economies of scale and the absence of key technologies mean that enterprises that use pure combustion for power generation (US$212/tC), gasification for heat generation (US$366/tC) and large-scale anaerobic digestion for power generation (US$169/tC) or heat generation (US$206/tC) are all prone to operational deficits. In the near term, the Chinese government should also be cautious about any large-scale investment in bioethanol derived from crop residues because, with a carbon price of as high as US$748/tC, bioethanol is the most expensive of all energy conversion technologies in China. PMID:20426437

  20. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  1. Energy, Economics and the Environment: Case Studies and Teaching Activities for Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    This curriculum guide for middle school environmental education focuses on energy, economics, and the environment (EEE), and the interrelatedness of these three areas of study. The booklet is designed to provide teachers and students with a conceptual framework for analyzing complicated issues that involve the economic implications of energy and…

  2. The Delicate Balance: An Energy and the Environment Chemistry Module. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Glen; Keifer, William; Sandoval, Amado

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide science teachers with the necessary guidance and suggestions for teaching about energy and the environment. In this book, energy is discussed as one aspect of a general problem in environmental chemistry. The material in this book can be integrated with the other modules in a sequence that helps students…

  3. Numerical simulation of the impact of reforestation on winter meteorology and environment in a semi-arid urban valley, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ye; He, Jianjun; Zhao, Suping; Liu, Na; Chen, Jinbei; Mao, Hongjun; Wu, Lin

    2016-11-01

    Since 1999 Chinese government has made great effort to reforest the south and north mountains surrounding urban Lanzhou - a city located in a river valley, Northwestern China. Until 2009 obvious land use change occurred, with 69.2% of the reforested area been changed from grasslands, croplands, barren or sparsely vegetated land to closed shrublands and 20.6% from closed shrublands, grasslands, and croplands to forests. Reforestation changes land-surface properties, with possible impact on the evolution of atmospheric variables. To understand to what extent the local meteorology and environment could be affected by reforestation in winter, and through what processes, two sets of simulations were conducted using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the FLEXible PARTicle (FLEXPART) dispersion model for a control case with high-resolution remotely sensed land cover data for 2009 and a scenario assuming no reforestation since 1999. Results suggested that the changes in albedo, surface exchange coefficient and surface soil heat conductivity related to reforestation led to the changes in surface net radiation and surface energy partitioning, which in turn affected the meteorological fields and enhanced the mountain-valley wind circulation. Replacement of shrublands and grassland with forest in the south mountain through reforestation play a dominant role in the enhancement of mountain-valley wind circulation. Reforestation increased the amount of air exchanged between the valley and the outside during the day, with the largest hourly increase of 10% on calm weather days and a monthly mean hourly increase of 2% for the study period (Dec. 2009). Reforestation affected the spatial distribution of pollutants and slightly improved the urban air quality, especially in the eastern valley. Results from this study provide useful information for future urban air quality management and reforestation plan, and some experience for cities with similar situations in the

  4. Turbulent Kinetic Energy in the Oklahoma City Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, J; Leach, M; Gouveia, F

    2004-06-24

    A major field experiment, Joint URBAN 2003 (JU2003), was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect meteorological and tracer data sets for evaluating dispersion models in urban areas. The Department of Homeland Security and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency were the primary sponsors of JU2003. Investigators from five Department of Energy national laboratories, several other government agencies, universities, private companies, and international agencies conducted the experiment. Observations to characterize the meteorology in and around the urban area complemented the observation of the dispersion of SF6, an inert tracer gas. Over one hundred threedimensional sonic anemometers were deployed in and around the urban area to monitor wind speed, direction, and turbulence fluxes during releases of SF6. Sonic deployment locations included a profile of eight sonic anemometers mounted on a crane less than 1 km north of the central business district (CBD). Using data from these and other sonic anemometers deployed in the urban area, we can quantify the effect of the urban area on atmospheric turbulence and compare results seen in OKC to those in other urban areas to assess the parameters typically used in parameterizations of urban turbulence.

  5. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  6. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kejun; Hu, Xiulian

    2005-09-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO(2) emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO(2) emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO(2) emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO(2) emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO(2) emissions. This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO(2) emissions control and mitigation. PMID:20549450

  7. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kejun; Hu, Xiulian

    2005-12-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO2 emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO2 emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO2 emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO2 emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO2 emissions. This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO2 emissions control and mitigation. PMID:16512217

  8. Impact of energy sector of the Indian sub-continent on environment

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, S.; Narasimhan, K.S.

    1998-07-01

    India is second largest populous country and third in coal consumption. At present, the total energy consumption is around 550 million tonne oil equivalent. The ambitious program for economic development is expected to enhance the energy consumption several fold. For a reasonable growth, it is estimated that the level will touch 1,300 million tonne oil equivalent by the year 2020. Energy consumption of such a magnitude will have significant impact on global environment due to major pollutants like oxides of carbon, sulfur and nitrogen. Also, the energy mix has substantial intake from non-commercial sources, mainly fuel wood. In this paper options open to meet the increased energy needs are considered and impact on environment is projected. It is observed that one way of meeting the energy needs and at the same time contain pollution is by adopting clean coal technologies. This will particularly contain oxides of sulfur and nitrogen significantly.

  9. Late Pleistocene to Holocene soil development and environments in the Long Gang Volcanic Field area, Jilin Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela; Zhang, Xinrong; Knöbel, Jette; Maerker, Lutz

    2014-05-01

    coatings, rather indicates that it developed over a longer time-span and/or warmer climate than the two yellowish-brown surface soils. Since the morphology of the paleosol clearly reflects interglacial climatic conditions and forest cover, it most likely started developing during the Eemian. Steblich et al. (2009) reconstructed for the period 16.7-14.45 ka BP steppe with Betula (and minor proportions of Larix, Alnus, Picea and Salix). We assume a similar environment for the time of the deposition of the pyroclastics (18.9 ka BP) in the toe slope profile. The character of the steppe was probably more open at this time, but the presence of at least few scattered trees over the steppe is evidenced by a charred tree trunk that was found in the profile. During Holocene, vegetation consisted mainly of deciduous forest, until anthropogenic influence increased from around 1850 AD on. Reference: Steblich, M., Mingram, J., Han, J., Liu, Y. (2009): Late Pleistocene spread of (cool-)temperate forests in Northeast China and climate changes synchronous with the North Atlantic region. Global and Planetary Change, 65, 56-70.

  10. Regional differences in the surface energy budget over China: an evaluation of a selection of CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lian-Tong; Du, Zhencai

    2016-04-01

    The present study provides an evaluation of the regional differences over China in surface energy budget components as simulated by a selection of models from phase five of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), covering the period 1960-2005. Similarities and differences exist among the models in terms of both spatial and magnitude patterns. For climatology, the CMIP5 models show quite different spatial distributions of shortwave radiation and sensible heat flux. In terms of seasonal variation, the surface energy budgets are remarkably different between western and eastern China. The discrepancies in the seasonal variation of sensible heat flux are mainly attributable to temperature differences and wind speed, while those of shortwave radiation are caused by the seasonal variation in total cloud cover. Cloudiness is one of the most crucial parameters in estimating the surface energy budget. In addition, the study also reveals that the magnitudes of the various components show larger (more than two-fold) differences between western and eastern parts of China, especially in net longwave and upward shortwave radiation, as well as latent and sensible heat fluxes. The results for surface soil heat flux show that there is more incoming energy during spring and summer and more outgoing energy during fall and winter in both western and eastern China. Furthermore, compared to NCEP2 data, the ERA-40 reanalysis product produces results more similar to the multi-model ensemble mean for most components.

  11. SOLAR ENERGY PROGRAM: CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    and to evaluate commercially available units. Research is continuing on 'passive' approaches to solar heating and cooling where careful considerations of architectural design, construction materials, and the environment are used to moderate a building's interior climate. Computer models of passive concepts are being developed in a collaborative project with Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. These models will be incorporated into public domain building energy analysis computer programs to be used in systems studies and in the design of commercial buildings on a case study basis. The investigation of specific passive cooling methods is an ongoing project; for example, a process is being studied in which heat storage material would be cooled by radiation to the night sky, then provide 'coolness' to the building. The laboratory personnel involved in the solar cooling, controls, and passive projects are also providing technical support to the Solar Heating and Cooling Research and Development Branch of DOE in developing program plans, evaluating proposals, and making technical reviews of projects at other institutions and in industry. Low grade heat is a widespread energy resource that could make a significant contribution to energy needs if economical methods can be developed for converting it to useful work. Investigations continued this year on the feasibility of using the 'shape-memory' alloy, Nitinol, as a basis for constructing heat engines that could operate from energy sources such as solar heated water, industrial waste heat, geothermal brines, and ocean thermal gradients. Several projects are investigating longer-term possibilities for utilizing solar energy. One project involves the development of a new type of solar thermal receiver that would be placed at the focus of a central receiver system or a parabolic dish. The conversion of the concentrated sunlight to thermal energy would be accomplished by the absorption of the light by a dispersion of very small

  12. Food and physical activity environments: an energy balance approach for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Economos, Christina D; Hatfield, Daniel P; King, Abby C; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Ann Pentz, Mary

    2015-05-01

    Increases in the prevalence of overweight and obesity are a function of chronic, population-level energy imbalance, whereby energy intakes exceed energy expenditures. Although sometimes viewed in isolation, energy intakes and expenditures in fact exist in a dynamic interplay: energy intakes may influence energy expenditures and vice versa. Obesogenic environments that promote positive energy balance play a central role in the obesity epidemic, and reducing obesity prevalence will require re-engineering environments to promote both healthy eating and physical activity. There may be untapped synergies in addressing both sides of the energy balance equation in environmentally focused obesity interventions, yet food/beverage and physical activity environments are often addressed separately. The field needs design, evaluation, and analytic methods that support this approach. This paper provides a rationale for an energy balance approach and reviews and describes research and practitioner work that has taken this approach to obesity prevention at the environmental and policy levels. Future directions in research, practice, and policy include moving obesity prevention toward a systems approach that brings both nutrition and physical activity into interdisciplinary training, funding mechanisms, and clinical and policy recommendations/guidelines. PMID:25891062

  13. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM Chapter from the Energy and Environment Division Annual Report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1981-05-01

    The aim of the Energy Efficient Buildings Program is to conduct theoretical and experimental research on various aspects of building technology that will permit such gains in energy efficiency without decreasing occupants' comfort or adversely affecting indoor air quality. To accomplish this goal, we have developed five major research groups. The foci of these groups are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality; Building Energy Analysis; Energy Efficient Windows and Lighting; and Building Energy Data, Analysis and Demonstration.

  14. The political economy of noncompliance in China: The case of industrial energy policy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Van Aken, Tucker; Lewis, Orion A.

    2015-03-18

    One of the greatest challenges facing China today is the central government's ability to ensure that policies are implemented effectively at the local level, particularly policies that seek to make China's economic growth model more sustainable. These policies face resistance from local authorities and enterprises that benefit from the status quo. This raises a key research question: why do some provinces more fully implement these central policies? We argue the extent of local implementation is best conceptualized as a rational balance between economic and political incentives: localities with regulatory autonomy, low regulatory capacity and alternative interests will not fully implementmore » policies that are at odds with local economic imperatives. By examining a critical case of central policy implementation—industrial energy intensity reduction in the eleventh five-year plan—this article demonstrates that, regardless of industrial makeup or economic development, provinces that have greater regulatory autonomy for noncompliance coupled with alternative economic interests do not, on average, perform as well. As a result, using a nested analysis approach this study illustrates this argument with both quantitative analysis and original case study evidence from fieldwork interviews.« less

  15. The political economy of noncompliance in China: The case of industrial energy policy

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aken, Tucker; Lewis, Orion A.

    2015-03-18

    One of the greatest challenges facing China today is the central government's ability to ensure that policies are implemented effectively at the local level, particularly policies that seek to make China's economic growth model more sustainable. These policies face resistance from local authorities and enterprises that benefit from the status quo. This raises a key research question: why do some provinces more fully implement these central policies? We argue the extent of local implementation is best conceptualized as a rational balance between economic and political incentives: localities with regulatory autonomy, low regulatory capacity and alternative interests will not fully implement policies that are at odds with local economic imperatives. By examining a critical case of central policy implementation—industrial energy intensity reduction in the eleventh five-year plan—this article demonstrates that, regardless of industrial makeup or economic development, provinces that have greater regulatory autonomy for noncompliance coupled with alternative economic interests do not, on average, perform as well. As a result, using a nested analysis approach this study illustrates this argument with both quantitative analysis and original case study evidence from fieldwork interviews.

  16. The behavioral impacts of firm-level energy-conservation goals in China's 11th five-year plan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xu, Yuan; Leung, Yee; Yung, Chor Wing

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency is one of the most effective means of curbing energy consumption and associated pollutant emissions. However, energy-saving opportunities at negative net costs, or an energy-efficiency gap, widely exist and they defy an entirely rational explanation. This paper examines the significant overperformance of energy-intensive firms against their assigned energy-conservation goals in a national program in China's 11th Five-Year plan (2006-2010). Higher energy prices can be only partially responsible for more active energy saving. Behavioral constraints are explained to cause the bounded rationality of firms on energy-efficiency investment. As our theoretical and empirical studies show, energy-conservation goals could overcome such behavioral constraints to accelerate the commercialization of energy-efficiency technologies, reduce uncertainty and hesitancy of relevant investment, facilitate the enrichment of information, and concentrate the attention of firms on energy conservation. We conclude that goal-setting could provide an effective complementary policy instrument in dealing with energy conservation in China and possibly in other parts of the world. PMID:25478688

  17. Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Aden, Nathaniel; Qin, Yining; Fridley, David

    2010-12-15

    Urbanization is reshaping China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2008 China added more than 300 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 46%. The ongoing population shift is spurring energy demand for new construction, as well as additional residential use with the replacement of rural biomass by urban commercial energy services. This project developed a modeling tool to quantify the full energy consequences of a particular form of urban residential development in order to identify energy- and carbon-efficient modes of neighborhood-level development and help mitigate resource and environmental implications of swelling cities. LBNL developed an integrated modeling tool that combines process-based lifecycle assessment with agent-based building operational energy use, personal transport, and consumption modeling. The lifecycle assessment approach was used to quantify energy and carbon emissions embodied in building materials production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To provide more comprehensive analysis, LBNL developed an agent-based model as described below. The model was applied to LuJing, a residential development in Jinan, Shandong Province, to provide a case study and model proof of concept. This study produced results data that are unique by virtue of their scale, scope and type. Whereas most existing literature focuses on building-, city-, or national-level analysis, this study covers multi-building neighborhood-scale development. Likewise, while most existing studies focus exclusively on building operational energy use, this study also includes embodied energy related to personal consumption and buildings. Within the boundaries of this analysis, food is the single largest category of the building energy footprint, accounting for 23% of the total. On a policy level, the LCA approach can be useful for quantifying the energy and environmental benefits of longer average building lifespans. In

  18. Seventeenth century organic agriculture in China: II. Energy flows through an agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dazhong, W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-03-01

    The energy flows in a seventeenth century agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region of eastern China were analyzed on the basis of historical data. The agroecosystem included cropping, mulberry-silkworm livestock, and fishing systems. In terms of energy, the agroecosystem was sustainable. Human labor provided all the power with inputs of about 3700 hr per hectare of farmland. Most or 70% of the labor was expended in the cropping system. Human and animal manure provided most of the nutrients for crop and mulberry production. About two-thirds of the total manure was used in crop production and one-third in the mulberry plantations. The only fossil energy input was a few hand tools. Approximately 55% of the grain was consumed directly by local residents, about one-third of the grain was used to make an alcohol drink and produce distillers' grains, which was fed to pigs, and only 2% of the grains were exported outside the agroecosystem. About two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used as household fuel, while the remainder was returned to the field as an organic fertilizer. Pork accounted for 85% and silk cocoons 14% of the total animal products produced. Even though the agroecosystem was generally sustainable in terms of energy, the major environmental problem was that two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used for household fuel. This reduced nutrient cycling in the system. Insufficient land was available to produce fuelwood; thus, crop residues were the primary source of fuel for the people.

  19. The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) Facility onboard China's Future Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bobing

    2015-08-01

    The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility is one of several space astronomy payloads of the cosmic lighthouse program onboard China's Space Station, which is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. The main scientific objectives of HERD are indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. HERD is composed of a 3-D cubic calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by microstrip silicon trackers (STKs)from five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of about 10^4 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. HERD can achieve the following performance: energy resolution of 1% for electrons and gamma-rays beyond 100 GeV, 20% for protons from 100 GeV to 1 PeV; 2) electron/proton separation power better than 10^5 ; effective geometrical factors of > 3 m^2 sr for electron and diffuse gamma-rays, > 2 m^2 sr for cosmic ray nuclei. The prototype of about 1/40 of HERD calorimeter is under construction. A beam test in CERN with the prototype is approved and will be carried out in Nov. 2015.

  20. Life-cycle Energy Consumption of Urban Water System in Shenzhen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Liu, H.

    2015-12-01

    Within rapid urbanization and industrialization, Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in China, has been facing serious water shortage. More than 80% of water demand in Shenzhen, i.e., about 1.6 billion m3/yr, is satisfied by water diversion projects. A lot of energy has been used to extract, clean, store and transmit these water. In this paper, energy consumption of urban water system in Shenzhen, China was investigated from a life cycle perspective, and the water system can be divided into five subsystems, i.e., water diversion, water production & supply, household water use, sewage treatment and water reuse. Industrial water use was not considered here, because industrial production processes were so varied. The results showed that water diversion subsystem in Shenzhen consumed electricity of about 0.839 billion kWh/yr (0.53 kWh/m3), water production & supply subsystem about 1.241 billion kWh/yr (0.64 kWh/m3), household water use subsystem about 6.57 billion kWh/yr (9.65 kWh/m3) sewage treatment subsystem about 0.449 billion kWh/yr (0.29 kWh/m3) and water reuse treatment subsystem about 0.013 billion kWh/yr (0.33kWh/m3). So the human-related water system in Shenzhen consumes electricity of about 9.113 billion kWh/yr in total, accounting for about 11.0% of all the electricity use in Shenzhen. Among this, household water use subsystem consumed up to 72.1% of all electricity used in urban water system, followed by water production & supply subsystem (13.6%), water diversion subsystem (9.2%) and sewage treatment and reuse subsystem (5.1%). Unit energy consumption of sewage treatment and reuse subsystem was much less than that of water diversion subsystem, indicating local sewage resource development was advantageous on saving energy to water diversion from a long distance. Further, it implied that the best way to save energy in urban water system is to save portable water, since both water production and household use require to consume much energy.

  1. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    The following paper conducts a regional analysis of the U.S. and Chinese buildings? potential for adopting Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The expected economics of DER in 2020-2025 is modeled for a commercial and a multi-family residential building in different climate zones. The optimal building energy economic performance is calculated using the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER CAM) which minimizes building energy costs for a typical reference year of operation. Several DER such as combined heat and power (CHP) units, photovoltaics, and battery storage are considered. The results indicate DER have economic and environmental competitiveness potential, especially for commercial buildings in hot and cold climates of both countries. In the U.S., the average expected energy cost savings in commercial buildings from DER CAM?s suggested investments is 17percent, while in Chinese buildings is 12percent. The electricity tariffs structure and prices along with the cost of natural gas, represent important factors in determining adoption of DER, more so than climate. High energy pricing spark spreads lead to increased economic attractiveness of DER. The average emissions reduction in commercial buildings is 19percent in the U.S. as a result of significant investments in PV, whereas in China, it is 20percent and driven by investments in CHP. Keywords: Building Modeling and Simulation, Distributed Energy Resources (DER), Energy Efficiency, Combined Heat and Power (CHP), CO2 emissions 1. Introduction The transition from a centralized and fossil-based energy paradigm towards the decentralization of energy supply and distribution has been a major subject of research over the past two decades. Various concerns have brought the traditional model into question; namely its environmental footprint, its structural inflexibility and inefficiency, and more recently, its inability to maintain acceptable reliability of supply. Under such a troubled setting

  2. Assessment of Building Energy-Saving Policies and Programs in China During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; McNeil, Michael; Levine, Mark

    2010-06-07

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target to reduce the energy intensity per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). In the building sector, the primary energy-saving target allocated during the 11 FYP period is 100 Mtce. Savings are expected to be achieved through the strengthening of enforcement of building energy efficiency codes, existing building retrofits and heat supply system reform, followed by energy management of government office buildings and large scale public buildings, adoption of renewable energy sources. To date, China has reported that it achieved the half of the 20% intensity reduction target by the end of 2008, however, little has been made clear on the status and the impact of the building programs. There has also been lack of description on methodology for calculating the savings and baseline definition, and no total savings that have been officially reported to date. This paper intend to provide both quantitative and qualitative assessment of the key policies and programs in building sector that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal. Overall, this paper concludes that the largest improvement for building energy efficiency were achieved in new buildings; the program to improve the energy management in government and large scale public buildings are in line with the target; however the progress in the area of existing building retrofit particularly heat supply system reform lags the stated goal by a large amount.

  3. Assessment of Building Energy-Saving Policies and Programs in China During the 11th Five Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Mcneil, Michael; Levine, Mark

    2011-03-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target to reduce the energy intensity per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). In the building sector, the primary energy-saving target allocated during the 11 FYP period is 100 Mtce. Savings are expected to be achieved through the strengthening of enforcement of building energy efficiency codes, existing building retrofits and heat supply system reform, followed by energy management of government office buildings and large scale public buildings, adoption of renewable energy sources. To date, China has reported that it achieved the half of the 20% intensity reduction target by the end of 2008, however, little has been made clear on the status and the impact of the building programs. There has also been lack of description on methodology for calculating the savings and baseline definition, and no total savings that have been officially reported to date. This paper intends to provide both quantitative and qualitative assessment of the key policies and programs in building sector that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal. Overall, this paper concludes that the largest improvement for building energy efficiency were achieved in new buildings; the program to improve the energy management in government and large scale public buildings are in line with the target; however the progress in the area of existing building retrofits, particularly heating supply system reform lags behind the stated goal by a large amount.

  4. Energy & Environment in Florida—A Voter Survey in 2007 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gordon L.

    2009-07-01

    Related professionally conducted polls associated with energy and the environment in Florida are reviewed. Changes in attitudes brought about by economic change in 2009 versus 2007 are contrasted. While voters generally think of themselves as "pro-environment," environmental issues are not their ♯1 priority. The survey results show the clear challenge for sustainability—that of long term social commitment and political will.

  5. A Spatial-Dynamic Agent-based Model of Energy Crop Introduction in Jiangsu province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, K.; Schneider, U. A.; Scheffran, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bioenergy, as one promising option to replace a fraction of conventional fossil fuels and lower net greenhouse gas emissions, has gained many countries', in particular developing ones' attention. Their focus is mainly on the design of efficient bioenergy utilization pathways which adapt to both local geographic features and economic conditions. The establishment of a biomass production sector would be the first and pivotal component in the whole industrial chain. Several existing studies have estimated the global biomass for energy potential but arrived at very different results. One reason for the large uncertainty of biomass potential may be ascribed to the diverse nature of biomass leading to different estimates in different circumstances. Therefore, specific research at the local level is essential. Following this thought, our research conducted in the Jiangsu province, a representative region in China, will explore the spatial distribution of biomass production. The employed methodology can also be applied to other locations both in China and similar developing countries if model parameters are adequately adjusted. In this study, we analyze the local situation in the Jiangsu province focusing on the selection of new energy crops, since the cultivation of dedicated crop for energy use is still in experimental phase. We also examine the land use conflict which is especially relevant to China with more than 1.3 billion people and a severe burden on food supply. We develop an agent-based model to find the optimal spatial distribution of biomass (SDA-SDB) in Jiangsu province. Compromising data accessibility and heterogeneity of environmental factors across the province, we resolve our model at county level and consider the aggregated farming community in one county as a single agent. The aim of SDA-SDB is to simulate farmers' decision process of allocating land to either food or energy crops facing limited resources and political targets for bioenergy development

  6. China’s R&D for Energy Efficient Buildings: Insights for U.S. Cooperation with China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    This report includes an evaluation of China’s current activities and future direction in building energy efficiency R&D and its relevance to DOE’s R&D activities under the Building Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The researchers reviewed the major R&D programs in China including the so-called 973 Program, the 863 Program, and the Key Technology R&D Program1 as well as the research activities of major research institutes. The report also reviewed several relevant documents of the Chinese government, websites (including the International Energy Agency and national and local governments in China), newsletters, and financial information listed in the program documents and websites.

  7. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: Master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations.

    PubMed

    Iles-Smith, Jake; Dijkstra, Arend G; Lambert, Neill; Nazir, Ahsan

    2016-01-28

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly used Born-Markov approximations to incorporate system-environment correlations and the resultant non-Markovian dynamical effects. We obtain energy transfer dynamics for both underdamped and overdamped oscillator environments that are in perfect agreement with the numerical hierarchical equations of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously. We find that though an enhancement of the dimer energy transfer rate can be obtained when compared to an unstructured environment, its magnitude is rather sensitive to both the dimer-peak resonance conditions and the relative strengths of the underdamped and overdamped contributions. PMID:26827205

  8. Discharge characteristics of dielectric materials examined in mono-, dual-, and spectral energy electron charging environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, P.; Treadway, M.; Wild, N.; Kitterer, B.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of midenergy electrons on the charge and discharge characteristics of spacecraft dielectric materials and the data base from which basic discharge models can be formulated is expanded. Thin dielectric materials were exposed to low, mid combined low and mid, and spectral energy electron environments. Three important results are presented: (1) it determined electron environments that lead to dielectric discharges at potentials less negative than -5 kV; (2) two types of discharges were identified that dominate the kinds of discharges seen; and (3) it is shown that, for the thin dielectric materials tested, the worst-case discharges observed in the various environments are similar.

  9. Effects of buffer size and shape on associations between the built environment and energy balance.

    PubMed

    James, Peter; Berrigan, David; Hart, Jaime E; Hipp, J Aaron; Hoehner, Christine M; Kerr, Jacqueline; Major, Jacqueline M; Oka, Masayoshi; Laden, Francine

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty in the relevant spatial context may drive heterogeneity in findings on the built environment and energy balance. To estimate the effect of this uncertainty, we conducted a sensitivity analysis defining intersection and business densities and counts within different buffer sizes and shapes on associations with self-reported walking and body mass index. Linear regression results indicated that the scale and shape of buffers influenced study results and may partly explain the inconsistent findings in the built environment and energy balance literature. PMID:24607875

  10. Effects of Buffer Size and Shape on Associations between the Built Environment and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Berrigan, David; Hart, Jaime E.; Hipp, J. Aaron; Hoehner, Christine M.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Major, Jacqueline M.; Oka, Masayoshi; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in the relevant spatial context may drive heterogeneity in findings on the built environment and energy balance. To estimate the effect of this uncertainty, we conducted a sensitivity analysis defining intersection and business densities and counts within different buffer sizes and shapes on associations with self-reported walking and body mass index. Linear regression results indicated that the scale and shape of buffers influenced study results and may partly explain the inconsistent findings in the built environment and energy balance literature. PMID:24607875

  11. Cost of non-renewable energy in production of wood pellets in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changbo; Zhang, Lixiao; Liu, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Assessing the extent to which all bio-fuels that are claimed to be renewable are in fact renewable is essential because producing such renewable fuels itself requires some amount of non-renewable energy (NE) and materials. Using hybrid life cycle analysis (LCA)—from raw material collection to delivery of pellets to end users—the energy cost of wood pellet production in China was estimated at 1.35 J/J, of which only 0.09 J was derived from NE, indicating that only 0.09 J of NE is required to deliver 1 J of renewable energy into society and showing that the process is truly renewable. Most of the NE was consumed during the conversion process (46.21%) and delivery of pellets to end users (40.69%), during which electricity and diesel are the two major forms of NE used, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that the distance over which the pellets are transported affects the cost of NE significantly. Therefore the location of the terminal market and the site where wood resources are available are crucial to saving diesel.

  12. Photosynthetic Energy Storage for the Built Environment: Modeling Energy Generation and Storage for Net-Zero Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichter-Marck, Eli Morris

    There is a growing need to address the energy demand of the building sector with non-polluting, renewable energy sources. The Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) mandate seeks to reduce the impact of building sector energy consumption by encouraging on-site energy generation as a way to offset building loads. However, current approaches to designing on-site generation fail to adequately match the fluctuating load schedules of the built environment. As a result, buildings produce highly variable and often-unpredictable energy import/export patterns that create stress on energy grids and increase building dependence on primary energy resources. This research investigates the potential of integrating emerging photo-electrochemical (PEC) technologies into on-site generation systems as a way to enable buildings to take a more active role in collecting, storing and deploying energy resources according to their own demand schedules. These artificially photosynthetic systems have the potential to significantly reduce variability in hour-to-hour and day-to-day building loads by introducing high-capacity solar-hydrogen into the built environment context. The Building Integrated Artificial Photosynthesis (BIAP) simulation framework presented here tests the impact of hydrogen based energy storage on NZEB performance metrics with the goal of developing a methodology that makes on-site energy generation more effective at alleviating excessive energy consumption in the building sector. In addition, as a design performance framework, the BIAP framework helps guide how material selection and scale up of device design might tie photo-electrochemical devices into parallel building systems to take full advantage of the potential outputs of photosynthetic building systems.

  13. Challenge of Using Passive Acoustic Monitoring in High-Energy Environments: UK Tidal Environments and Other Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Booth, Cormac G

    2016-01-01

    The use of passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) around marine developments is commonplace. A buffer-based PAM system (e.g., C-POD) is a cost-effective method for assessing cetacean acoustic presence. Devices have been deployed by Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) Marine around the United Kingdom, allowing an examination of the performance of C-PODs with respect to background noise, tilt angle, and environmental factors. C-PODs were found to often only monitor for a few seconds of each minute, resulting in significant loss of monitoring time. Issues were likely driven by environmental and deployment factors. The practical limitations of buffer-based PAM systems in high-energy/noisy environments are indicated here. PMID:26610949

  14. For sustainable development: some aspects on energy and environment in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Salvarli, H.

    2009-07-01

    The high energy demand in Turkey is closely linked to economic growth, industrialization, and population increase. Turkish general energy policies are designed to support economic and social development. Natural conditions of Turkey are favorable for utilization of new and renewable energies, such as hydraulic energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, biomass energy, solar energy, and, probably, nuclear energy. As the use of hydraulic and coal in Turkey will reach its full capacity by 2020, imported natural gas, coal, and other resources will be used to meet the energy demand. By 2020, approximately 75% of final energy demand and 67% of electricity supply will be met by coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy investments, which are closely related with the environmental protection, require massive financial resources. It is also important to use standardized equipment and materials in all areas of energy generation, transmission, distribution, and trade. For a sustainable development, the next investments on industry should be made for the clean technologies in regard with being environment-friendly.

  15. A universal, broad-environment energy conversion signature of explosive cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Mitchell Timothy; Pezza, Alexandre Bernardes

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the first analysis of the Lorenz energetics associated with a global climatology of explosive cyclones. Energy budgets of the large-scale environment are calculated for 32 year climatologies (1980-2011) of explosive cyclones within four of the most active regions in the world: the Northwest Pacific, the North Atlantic, the Southwest Pacific, and the South Atlantic. A robust signature in the Lorenz energy cycle is observed; anomalous energy conversions commence 48 h before explosive cyclone development and remain strong (i.e., significantly above background noise) for 120 h. Remarkably, the calculated signature of energy conversion is virtually identical for all four geographical regions. While the conversions imply a classic baroclinic growth cycle, they are not seen in regular cyclones that undergo a deepening of less than half that exhibited by explosive cyclones. This finding opens a new avenue of exploration of explosive storm behavior based on the large-scale environment.

  16. Energy, environment and climate assessment using the MARKAL energy system model

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of EPA ORD’s efforts to develop an understanding of the potential environmental impacts of future changes in energy use, the Energy and Climate Assessment Team has developed a database representation of the U.S. energy system for use with the MARKet ALlocation (MARK...

  17. Energy in the urban environment. Proceedings of the 22. annual Illinois energy conference

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The conference addressed the energy and environmental challenges facing large metropolitan areas. The topics included a comparison of the environmental status of cities twenty years ago with the challenges facing today`s large cities, sustainable economic development, improving the energy and environmental infrastructure, and the changing urban transportation sector. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Adverse Environments and Children's Creativity Development: Transforming the Notion of "Success in Adversity" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Li; Tan, Mei; Liu, Zhengkui

    2015-01-01

    China has been undergoing great social change due to its new focus on urbanization and globalization. Such change has had a tremendous adverse impact on the living conditions of millions of young children, simultaneously generating new interest in children's creativity development. The intersection of these two issues has important…

  19. Smart Growth for a Sustainable Urban Environment - Concepts and Practice in US and China (CLASS PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an invited seminar to a class of undergraduate and graduate students at DAAP of the University of Cincinnati. It provides students the concepts and trends in smart growth and sustainable urban development in U.S. and China. The materials are drawn from my research and m...

  20. Energy and the environment; application of geosciences to decision-making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Lorna M., (Edited By)

    1995-01-01

    This volume contains 67 extended abstracts that summarize some of the oral and poster presentations of the tenth annual V. E. McKelvey forum on mineral and energy resources, held in Washington, D.C., Feb. 13-17, 1995. The focus is on our energy resources and the environment, new research techniques, and cooperative efforts between the USGS and industry, State and Federal agencies, universities, and other countries.

  1. Study of energy education on the elementary level in Colorado: an evaluation of Energy and Man's Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a curriculum designed to improve energy education. The curriculum selected, Energy and Man's Environment (EME), was implemented in a typical Colorado school district. Approximately 530 fifth graders participated in the study, from ten schools, five control and five experimental. The program lasted for nine weeks, taking approximately three and one third hours of science time each week. Teachers in the experimental group attended twenty hours of inservice. This research examined the affective and cognitive effects of the EME curriculum on the students and considered the affective results of the EME program on teachers of the experimental and control groups. The two major conclusions of the research were: (1) Students who participate in a conscientiously implemented Energy and Man's Environment program can expect to raise their energy literacy level. (2) Students who participate in a conscientiously implemented Energy and Man's Environment program can expect to maintain their general cognitive gains for at least three months after the program.

  2. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy. PMID:23959505

  3. 4th International Conference on Energy and Environment 2013 (ICEE 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Chandan Kumar; Shamsuddin, Abd Halim Bin; Ahmad, Ibrahim Bin; Desa, Mohamed Nor Bin Mohamed; Din, Norashidah Bte Md; Bte Mohd, Lariyah; Hamid, Nasri A.; See, Ong Hang; Hafiz Nagi, Farrukh; Yong, Lee Choon; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Mei, Goh Su; Abdullah, Fairuz Bin; Satgunam, Meenaloshini

    2013-06-01

    The 4th International Conference on Energy & Environment 2013 (ICEE2013) was organized by the Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) to provide a platform for creating and sharing ideas among engineers, researchers, scientists, industrialists and students in sustainable green energy and technologies. The theme 'Shaping a Sustainable Future through Advancement in Green Energy Technology' is in line with the University's vision to be a leading global energy university that shapes a sustainable future. The general scopes of the conference are renewable energy, smart grid, green technology, energy policies and economics, sustainable green energy and environment, sustainable education, international cooperation and innovation and technology transfer. Five international keynote speakers delivered their speeches in specialized areas of green energy technology and sustainability. In addition, the conference highlights several special parallel sessions by notable invited presenters in their niche areas, which are: Hybrid Energy Power Quality & Distributed Energy Smart Grid Nuclear Power & Technologies Geohazard Management Greener Environment for Sustainability Advances in Computational Fluid Dynamics The research papers presented in ICEE2013 are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (EES). EES is abstracted and indexed in SCOPUS, GeoBase, GeoRef, Compendex, Inspec, Chemical Abstracts Service, NASA Astrophysics Data System, and International Nuclear Information System (INIS). With the comprehensive programme outline, the organizing committee hopes that the ICEE2013 was a notable intellectual sharing session for the research and academic community in Malaysia and regionally. The organizing committee expresses gratitude to the ICEE2013 delegates for their great support and contributions to the event.

  4. Joint optimisation of application QoS and energy conservation in grid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunlin, Li; Layuan, Li

    2010-09-01

    Mobile and wireless devices with limited energy are now of interest for the grid community. Reducing the related energy consumption is very important for wireless devices. Compared to conventional grid systems, energy aware grids need to support application quality of service (QoS) with limited energy. There is an inherent conflict in the design goals for high grid application QoS and low energy consumption. To address this challenging problem, this article considers joint optimisation of application QoS and energy conservation in grid environment. Joint optimisation of application QoS and energy conservation is targeted to maximise the system utility without exceeding the deadline and the total energy available, which can be provided by an exhaustible source such as a battery. This article formulates joint optimisation of application QoS and energy conservation as constrained maximisation problem; the constraints include energy budget and application QoS requirements. This article also presents a QoS and energy aware scheduling algorithm (QESA) which balances application QoS and energy conservation to improve system performance. In the simulation, the performance evaluation of QESA is conducted.

  5. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  6. Energizing Your Future with Energy, Economics and the Environment! Environmental Stewardship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Mary; Thomas, Susan

    This curriculum guide is designed for educators who want to teach youths aged 5-18 about the interactions among energy, economics, and the environment. This guide contains five chapters of activities, each focusing on a different topic related to this interaction as well as several sections that guide session leaders in helping youth along the…

  7. Teaching Energy Metabolism Using Scientific Articles: Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Giannella, Tais Rabetti; Struchiner, Miriam; da Silva, Wagner S.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) applied to the biochemistry class for undergraduate, first-year medical students at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The course focused on the integration of energy metabolism, exploring metabolic adaptations in different physiological or pathological states such as…

  8. Relationship between wave energy and free energy from pickup ions in the Comet Halley environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Johnstone, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    The free energy available from the implanted heavy ion population at Comet Halley is calculated by assuming that the initial unstable velocity space ring distribution of the ions evolves toward a bispherical shell. Ultimately this free energy adds to the turbulence in the solar wind. Upstream and downstream free energies are obtained separately for the conditions observed along the Giotto spacecraft trajectory. The results indicate that the waves are mostly upstream propagating in the solar wind frame. The total free energy density always exceeds the measured wave energy density because, as expected in the nonlinear process of ion scattering, the available energy is not all immediately released. An estimate of the amount which has been released can be obtained from the measured oxygen ion distributions and again it exceeds that observed. The theoretical analysis is extended to calculate the k spectrum of the cometary-ion-generated turbulence.

  9. Health benefit evaluation of the energy use scenarios in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaochuan; Yue, Wei; He, Kebin; Tong, Shilu

    2007-03-15

    Air pollution is one of the important causal factors for excess cardiorespiratory deaths and diseases. However, little information is available on health gains from clean energy usage in developing countries. In this study the expected population exposed to air pollutants was estimated under the different energy use scenarios by the year 2010, 2020 and 2030, respectively, in the urban area of Beijing, China. The concentration-response functions between air pollutants and the health endpoints were established using meta-analysis and regression models. The decreased cardiorespiratory deaths and diseases of the exposed population were predicted as the health benefits from air pollution reduction. We used daily measurements of particulate matter less than 10 mum in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) and sulphate dioxide (SO(2)) as air pollution indicators. The percentage of population exposed to higher level of PM(10) will be decreased significantly under the clean energy use scenario than that under the Baseline Scenario (i.e., business-as-usual scenario). Compared with the Baseline Scenario there will be, by 2010, 2020, and 2030, respectively, a decrease of 29-152, 30-212 and 39-287 acute excess deaths; and 340-1811, 356-2529 and 462-3424 chronic excess deaths associated with the reduction of PM(10) level; also a decrease of 237-331, 285-371 and 400-554 short-term excess deaths associated with the decrease of SO(2) level. Meanwhile, the number of respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions, outpatient visits to internal and paediatrics departments, total emergency room visits and asthma attacks will be remarkably reduced with the reduction of air pollution. Energy structure improvement could reduce ambient air pollution and produce substantial health benefits to the population in Beijing. These findings may have significant implications for other metropolitan cities, particularly in developing countries. PMID:17289123

  10. The high energy cosmic-radiation detection (HERD) facility onboard China's Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. N.; Adriani, O.; Albergo, S.; Ambrosi, G.; An, Q.; Bao, T. W.; Battiston, R.; Bi, X. J.; Cao, Z.; Chai, J. Y.; Chang, J.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, Y.; Cui, X. H.; Dai, Z. G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Dong, Y. W.; Fan, Y. Z.; Feng, C. Q.; Feng, H.; Feng, Z. Y.; Gao, X. H.; Gargano, F.; Giglietto, N.; Gou, Q. B.; Guo, Y. Q.; Hu, B. L.; Hu, H. B.; He, H. H.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J.; Huang, Y. F.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Y. G.; Li, Z.; Liang, E. W.; Liu, H.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. T.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, S. M.; Liu, X.; Lu, J. G.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mori, N.; Orsi, S.; Pearce, M.; Pohl, M.; Quan, Z.; Ryde, F.; Shi, H. L.; Spillantini, P.; Su, M.; Sun, J. C.; Sun, X. L.; Tang, Z. C.; Walter, R.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, Z. G.; Wei, D. M.; Wu, B. B.; Wu, J.; Wu, X.; Wu, X. F.; Xia, J. Q.; Xiao, H. L.; Xu, H. H.; Xu, M.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yan, H. R.; Yin, P. F.; Yu, Y. W.; Yuan, Q.; Zha, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhao, Z. G.

    2014-07-01

    The High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) facility is one of several space astronomy payloads of the cosmic lighthouse program onboard China's Space Station, which is planned for operation starting around 2020 for about 10 years. The main scientific objectives of HERD are indirect dark matter search, precise cosmic ray spectrum and composition measurements up to the knee energy, and high energy gamma-ray monitoring and survey. HERD is composed of a 3-D cubic calorimeter (CALO) surrounded by microstrip silicon trackers (STKs) from five sides except the bottom. CALO is made of about 104 cubes of LYSO crystals, corresponding to about 55 radiation lengths and 3 nuclear interaction lengths, respectively. The top STK microstrips of seven X-Y layers are sandwiched with tungsten converters to make precise directional measurements of incoming electrons and gamma-rays. In the baseline design, each of the four side SKTs is made of only three layers microstrips. All STKs will also be used for measuring the charge and incoming directions of cosmic rays, as well as identifying back scattered tracks. With this design, HERD can achieve the following performance: energy resolution of 1% for electrons and gamma-rays beyond 100 GeV, 20% for protons from 100 GeV to 1 PeV; electron/proton separation power better than 10-5; effective geometrical factors of >3 m2sr for electron and diffuse gamma-rays, >2 m2sr for cosmic ray nuclei. R and D is under way for reading out the LYSO signals with optical fiber coupled to image intensified CCD and the prototype of one layer of CALO.

  11. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in the Peoples Republic of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. W.

    1980-12-01

    A brief review of the direct utilization of geothermal energy in three regions of the Peoples' Republic of China is presented, stressing a development outline for the next five to ten years. The geothermal resource of the Tianjin-Beijing area is mainly to be developed for space heating, whereas along the coastal area of Fujian and Guangdong, it will be developed for agriculture, and industrial and residential use. Electric power generation will be the main concern in the southwest at Tengchong. Most theoretical research will be done on geologic structure interpretation, corrosion of pump shafts and buried pipelines, and heat flow, with some interest in the study of geopressure and hot dry rock systems. Specific examples from the Tianjin area include a wool factory; a wool rug weaving shop; heating of a hotel; public bathing; and well drilling for apartment heating, fish breeding, and greenhouses. Direct use of geothermal energy in the Beijing area includes cotton dyeing, humidifying, medical purposes, and animal husbandry. Experimental geothermal electric power plants are summarized in table form.

  12. Female streetwalkers' perspectives on migration and HIV/STI risks in a changing economic and social environment: a qualitative study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z Jennifer; Hu, Dier; Chang, Ruth; Zaccaro, Heather; Iguchi, Martin; Zheng, Huang; He, Na

    2015-01-01

    China's 30-year economic boom has created a unique social and economic market for commercial sex, as well as for a workforce of migrant women from rural China. This qualitative study explores the impact of the rapidly changing social and economic environment on migration patterns, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), STI risk behaviours and health beliefs among female streetwalkers in Shanghai. Qualitative data were collected in 2010 through semi-structured in-depth interviews with 16 streetwalkers to characterise their migration passages, sexual health and behaviours, and peer networks. Many streetwalkers reported histories of childhood impoverishment, of family or partner violence or trauma, of migration consistent with the timeline and routes of economic development and of a scarcity in health, social or economic support. Their knowledge of the prevention and treatment of HIV and STIs was limited. They had little bargaining power on condom use and the majority resorted to vaginal douching and self-management with antibiotics as preventative measures. The study identifies streetwalkers' perspectives on the changing environment, their options and actions and, finally, HIV/STI risks that were unique to this hidden population. PMID:25587711

  13. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  14. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-01

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation. Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2013-03-15

    Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  16. The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2013-08-01

    A changing climate will affect the energy system in a number of ways, one of which is through changes in demands for heating and cooling in buildings. Understanding the potential effect of climate on heating and cooling demands must take into account not only the manner in which the building sector might evolve over time - including, for example, movements from rural to urban environments in developing countries - but also important uncertainty about the nature of climate change itself and the growth and movements of populations over time. In this study, we explored the uncertainty in climate change impacts on heating and cooling by constructing estimates of heating and cooling degree days for both a reference (no-policy) scenario and a climate mitigation scenario built from 0.5 degree latitude by 0.5 degree longitude resolution output from three different Global Climate Models (GCMs) and three gridded scenarios of population distribution. The implications that changing climate and population distribution might have for building energy consumption in the U.S. and China were then explored by using the heating and cooling degree days results as inputs to a detailed, building energy model, nested in the long-term global integrated assessment framework, Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Across the climate models and population distribution scenarios, the results indicate that unabated climate change would cause total final energy consumption to decrease modestly in both U.S. and China buildings by the end of the century, as decreased heating consumption is more than balanced by increased cooling using primarily electricity. However, the results also indicate that when indirect emissions from the power sector are also taken into account, climate change may have negligible effect on building sector CO2 emissions in the two countries. The variation in results due to variation of population distribution is noticeably smaller than variation due to the use of different

  17. A Model for Sustainable Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) Using Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) Mechanism for Hotel Buildings in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Pengpeng

    Hotel building is one of the high-energy-consuming building types, and retrofitting hotel buildings is an untapped solution to help cut carbon emissions contributing towards sustainable development. Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) has been promulgated as a market mechanism for the delivery of energy efficiency projects. EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently, and it has not been implemented successfully in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. The aim of this research is to develop a model for achieving the sustainability of Building Energy Efficiency Retrofit (BEER) in hotel buildings under the Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) mechanism. The objectives include: • To identify a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for measuring the sustainability of BEER in hotel buildings; • To identify Critical Success Factors (CSFs) under EPC mechanism that have a strong correlation with sustainable BEER project; • To develop a model explaining the relationships between the CSFs and the sustainability performance of BEER in hotel building. Literature reviews revealed the essence of sustainable BEER and EPC, which help to develop a conceptual framework for analyzing sustainable BEER under EPC mechanism in hotel buildings. 11 potential KPIs for sustainable BEER and 28 success factors of EPC were selected based on the developed framework. A questionnaire survey was conducted to ascertain the importance of selected performance indicators and success factors. Fuzzy set theory was adopted in identifying the KPIs. Six KPIs were identified from the 11 selected performance indicators. Through a questionnaire survey, out of the 28 success factors, 21 Critical Success Factors (CSFs) were also indentified. Using the factor analysis technique, the 21 identified CSFs in this study were grouped into six clusters to help explain project success of sustainable BEER. Finally, AHP/ANP approach was used in this research to develop a model to

  18. Geant4 Predictions of Energy Spectra in Typical Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabra, M. S.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of energy spectra inside spacecraft is important for protecting astronauts as well as sensitive electronics from the harmful effects of space radiation. Such knowledge allows one to confidently map the radiation environment inside the vehicle. The purpose of this talk is to present preliminary calculations for energy spectra inside a spherical shell shielding and behind a slab in typical space radiation environment using the 3D Monte-Carlo transport code Geant4. We have simulated proton and iron isotropic sources and beams impinging on Aluminum and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) targets at energies of 0.2, 0.6, 1, and 10 GeV/u. If time permits, other radiation sources and beams (_, C, O) and targets (C, Si, Ge, water) will be presented. The results are compared to ground-based measurements where available.

  19. Limiting Results for the Free Energy of Directed Polymers in Random Environment with Unbounded Jumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comets, Francis; Fukushima, Ryoki; Nakajima, Shuta; Yoshida, Nobuo

    2015-11-01

    We study asymptotics of the free energy for the directed polymer in random environment. The polymer is allowed to make unbounded jumps and the environment is given by Bernoulli variables. We first establish the existence and continuity of the free energy including the negative infinity value of the coupling constant β . Our proof of existence at β =-∞ differs from existing ones in that it avoids the direct use of subadditivity. Secondly, we identify the asymptotics of the free energy at β =-∞ in the limit of the success probability of the Bernoulli variables tending to one. It is described by using the so-called time constant of a certain directed first passage percolation. Our proof relies on a certain continuity property of the time constant, which is of independent interest.

  20. Geant4 predictions of energy spectra in typical space radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabra, M. S.; Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate knowledge of energy spectra inside spacecraft is important for protecting astronauts as well as sensitive electronics from the harmful effects of space radiation. Such knowledge allows one to confidently map the radiation environment inside the vehicle. The purpose of this talk is to present preliminary calculations for energy spectra inside a spherical shell shielding and behind a slab in typical space radiation environment using the 3D Monte-Carlo transport code Geant4. We have simulated proton and iron isotropic sources and beams impinging on Aluminum and Gallium arsenide (GaAs) targets at energies of 0.2, 0.6, 1, and 10 GeV/u. If time permits, other radiation sources and beams (α, C, O) and targets (C, Si, Ge, water) will be presented. The results are compared to ground-based measurements where available.

  1. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  2. 'Low energy' sandy beaches in marine and estuarine environments: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Eliot, Ian; Masselink, Gerdhard

    2002-11-01

    This review was undertaken to identify locations where low energy beaches may occur and their diagnostic forms and process controls, including waves, tides and water levels. Examples are drawn from the sheltered coastline of Western Australia near Perth and fetch-limited estuarine environments on the northeast coast of the United States. We suggest that the term low energy be used in locations where: (1) non-storm significant wave heights are minimal (e.g. <0.25 m); (2) significant wave heights during strong onshore winds are low (e.g. <0.50 m); (3) beachface widths are narrow (e.g. <20 m in microtidal environments); and (4) morphologic features include those inherited from higher energy events. Micro-topographic features can persist in the swash zone of low energy beaches under non-storm wave conditions. There is little evidence of cyclic cross-shore sediment exchange. Bars, excepting transverse forms, located seaward of low still-water level do not appear to be part of the sediment exchange system with the foreshore. Developing a better definition of the term low energy requires understanding the occurrence and duration of morphological characteristics and the type, magnitude and frequency of hydrodynamic controls that are responsible for these characteristics. Efforts also should be directed toward: (1) discriminating between processes generated within basins (in true fetch-limited environments) and processes generated outside basins (that affect sheltered environments); (2) identifying the relative contributions of tide- and surge-related water level fluctuations on low energy beach shape; and (3) estimating thresholds for beach change.

  3. Whole-body task energy metrics for robots performing useful work in unstructured environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Andreas; Theobald, Daniel

    2010-04-01

    When considering energy requirements and optimization for robots, it is important to consider mission requirements, and the type of robot performing the mission. For example, the small robots used in today's reconnaissance and explosive ordnance disposal applications have weak manipulators, and do not perform significant physical work on their surrounding environment. In this paper, we focus on robots that will be required to do much more physically demanding tasks, such as manipulating large heavy objects in unstructured environments, and carrying such objects over challenging terrain. Energy considerations for such systems must include models of physical work performed for basic manipulation, pose transition, and locomotion maneuvers. Given the scarcity of robots that can perform useful work in unstructured environments, it is useful to begin the investigation of energy optimization for such robots by considering typical tasks they might perform. This paper makes three contributions in this direction. First, we develop a set of standard tasks that would be useful in unstructured environments. The tasks are expressed in terms of the objects being manipulated, and the work being done, so they are independent of robot morphology. Second, we develop energy metrics and analytical results for theoretical energy requirements for these tasks. These requirements assume no losses due to friction, so they give a best-case estimate of what is achievable. Such metrics are useful in subsequent evaluation of real systems that are not as efficient. Third, we perform preliminary comparisons between different actuation technologies in performing these tasks. These actuation technologies will include electro-mechanical and hydraulic systems. We compare these technologies in terms of power density, and evaluate expected energy efficiency when performing the metric tasks.

  4. Energy intensity and the energy mix: what works for the environment?

    PubMed

    El Anshasy, Amany A; Katsaiti, Marina-Selini

    2014-04-01

    In the absence of carbon sequestration, mitigating carbon emissions can be achieved through a mix of two broad policy approaches: (i) reducing energy intensity by improving energy efficiency and conservation, and (ii) changing the fuel mix. This paper investigates the long-run relationship between energy intensity, the energy mix, and per capita carbon emissions; while controlling for the level of economic activity, the economic structure measured by the relative size of the manufacturing sector, and the differences in institutional qualities across countries. We aim to answer two particularly important policy questions. First, to what extent these policy approaches are effective in mitigating emissions in the long-run? Second, which institutional qualities significantly contribute to better long-run environmental performance? We use historical data for 131 countries in a heterogeneous panel framework for the period 1972-2010. We find that less dependence on fossil fuel and lower energy intensity reduce emissions in the long run. A goal of 10% reduction in CO2 levels in the long-run requires reducing the share of fossil fuel in total energy use by 11%, or reducing energy intensity by 13%. In addition, specific institutional qualities such as better corruption control and judiciary independence contribute to mitigating levels of emissions. PMID:24568940

  5. Development of energy plants and their potential to withstand various extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Saibi, Walid; Brini, Faiçal; Hanin, Moez; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2013-04-01

    Biomass utilization is increasingly considered as a practical way for sustainable energy supply and long-term environment care around the world. In concerns with food security, starch or sugar-based bioethanol and edible-oilderived biodiesel are severely restricted for large scale production. Alternatively, conversion of lignocellulosic residues from food crops could be considered, but due to its recalcitrance, the current biomass process is unacceptably expensive. In this context, genetic breeding of energy crops appears as a promising solution. To fulfil the global world need as both food and biofuel sources, energy crops are expected to be produced with higher yields and especially in marginal lands. This review focus on recent progress and patents dealing with energy plants and the challenges associated with bioenergy development. We also discuss the potential use of molecular approaches including genome sequencing, molecular markers, and genetic transformation for improving specific traits or generating new cultivars of energy plants. PMID:22779438

  6. Phase-dependent exciton transport and energy harvesting from thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo-Casado, S.; Prior, J.; Chin, A. W.; Rosenbach, R.; Huelga, S. F.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-02-01

    Non-Markovian effects in the evolution of open quantum systems have recently attracted widespread interest, particularly in the context of assessing the efficiency of energy and charge transfer in nanoscale biomolecular networks and quantum technologies. With the aid of many-body simulation methods, we uncover and analyze an ultrafast environmental process that causes energy relaxation in the reduced system to depend explicitly on the phase relation of the initial-state preparation. Remarkably, for particular phases and system parameters, the net energy flow is uphill, transiently violating the principle of detailed balance, and implying that energy is spontaneously taken up from the environment. A theoretical analysis reveals that nonsecular contributions, significant only within the environmental correlation time, underlie this effect. This suggests that environmental energy harvesting will be observable across a wide range of coupled quantum systems.

  7. Thermal stability and energy harvesting characteristics of Au nanorods: harsh environment chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the levels of polluting gases such as CO and NOx from high temperature (500°C and higher) combustion environments requires materials with high thermal stability and resilience that can withstand harsh oxidizing and reducing environments. Au nanorods (AuNRs) have shown potential in plasmonic gas sensing due to their catalytic activity, high oxidation stability, and absorbance sensitivity to changes in the surrounding environment. By using electron beam lithography, AuNR geometries can be patterned with tight control of the rod dimensions and spacings, allowing tunability of their optical properties. Methods such as NR encapsulation within an yttria-stabilized zirconia overcoat layer with subsequent annealing procedures will be shown to improve temperature stability within a simulated harsh environment. Since light sources and spectrometers are typically required to obtain optical measurements, integration is a major barrier for harsh environment sensing. Plasmonic sensing results will be presented where thermal energy is harvested by the AuNRs, which replaces the need for an external incident light source. Results from gas sensing experiments that utilize thermal energy harvesting are in good agreement with experiments which use an external incident light source. Principal component analysis results demonstrate that by selecting the most "active" wavelengths in a plasmonic band, the wavelength space can be reduced from hundreds of monitored wavelengths to just four, without loss of information about selectivity of the AuNRs. By combining thermal stability, the thermal energy harvesting capability, and the selectivity in gas detection (achieved through multivariate analysis), integration of plasmonic sensors into combustion environments can be greatly simplified.

  8. Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Jane

    2013-03-01

    Jane Lau of the Joint BioEnergy Institute on "Improving biofuel feedstocks by modifying xylan biosynthesis" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 28, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  9. Consequences of complex environments: Temperature and energy intake interact to influence growth and metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Stahlschmidt, Zachary R; Jodrey, Alicia D; Luoma, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    The field of comparative physiology has a rich history of elegantly examining the effects of individual environmental factors on performance traits linked to fitness (e.g., thermal performance curves for locomotion). However, animals live in complex environments wherein multiple environmental factors co-vary. Thus, we investigated the independent and interactive effects of temperature and energy intake on the growth and metabolic rate of juvenile corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) in the context of shifts in complex environments. Unlike previous studies that imposed constant or fluctuating temperature regimes, we manipulated the availability of preferred thermal microclimates (control vs. relatively warm regimes) for eight weeks and allowed snakes to behaviorally thermoregulate among microclimates. By also controlling for energy intake, we demonstrate an interactive effect of temperature and energy on growth-relevant temperature shifts had no effect on snakes' growth when energy intake was low and a positive effect on growth when energy intake was high. Thus, acclimation to relatively warm thermal options can result in increased rates of growth when food is abundant in a taxon in which body size confers fitness advantages. Temperature and energy also interactively influenced metabolic rate-snakes in the warmer temperature regime exhibited reduced metabolic rate (O2 consumption rate at 25 °C and 30 °C) if they had relatively high energy intake. Although we advocate for continued investigation into the effects of complex environments on other traits, our results indicate that warming may actually benefit important life history traits in some taxa and that metabolic shifts may underlie thermal acclimation. PMID:25899738

  10. The top 50 commodity chemicals: Impact of catalytic process limitations on energy, environment, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkovich, A.L.Y.; Gerber, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    The production processes for the top 50 U.S. commodity chemicals waste energy, generate unwanted byproducts, and require more than a stoichiometric amount of feedstocks. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has quantified this impact on energy, environment, and economics for the catalytically produced commodity chemicals. An excess of 0.83 quads of energy per year in combined process and feedstock energy is required. The major component, approximately 54%, results from low per-pass yields and the subsequent separation and recycle of unreacted feedstocks. Furthermore, the production processes, either directly or through downstream waste treatment steps, release more than 20 billion pounds of carbon dioxide per year to the environment. The cost of the wasted feedstock exceeds 2 billion dollars per year. Process limitations resulting from unselective catalysis and unfavorable reaction thermodynamic constraints are the major contributors to this waste. Advanced process concepts that address these problems in an integrated manner are needed to improve process efficiency, which would reduce energy and raw material consumption, and the generation of unwanted byproducts. Many commodity chemicals are used to produce large volume polymer products. Of the energy and feedstock wasted during the production of the commodity chemicals, nearly one-third and one-half, respectively, represents chemicals used as polymer precursors. Approximately 38% of the carbon dioxide emissions are generated producing polymer feedstocks.

  11. Glycolytic Coupling to Mitochondrial Energy Production Ensures Survival in an Oxygen Rich Environment

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, George B.; Kream, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrion exhibits biochemical and functional variations that emerged by random chance as an evolutionary survival strategy, which include enhanced energy production driven by anaerobic respiratory mechanisms. In invertebrates, this mitochondrial anaerobic respiration permits survival at a lower energy state suited for this type of environment while yielding more ATP than by glycolysis alone. This ability provides a protective existential advantage in naturally occurring hypoxic environments via diminished free radical generation. In the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and other marine organisms, a functionally active mitochondrial anaerobic respiratory mechanism tailored to hypoxic conditions reflects an evolutionary adaptation/reworking of ancient metabolic pathways. Components of these pathways were also discovered and characterized as metabolic intermediates in plant parasites, specifically crown gall tumors. Mechanistic similarities between anaerobically functioning mitochondria in M. edulis and crown gall tissues and metabolic processes in human tumors are known to occur, demonstrating commonalities in diverse life energy processes. Furthermore, cytoplasmic glycolytic processes are now shown also to exhibit a dynamic capacity for enhanced energy generation by increasing its efficiency in hypoxic environments, making it equally dynamic in meeting its cellular survival goal. PMID:27439008

  12. Glycolytic Coupling to Mitochondrial Energy Production Ensures Survival in an Oxygen Rich Environment.

    PubMed

    Stefano, George B; Kream, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrion exhibits biochemical and functional variations that emerged by random chance as an evolutionary survival strategy, which include enhanced energy production driven by anaerobic respiratory mechanisms. In invertebrates, this mitochondrial anaerobic respiration permits survival at a lower energy state suited for this type of environment while yielding more ATP than by glycolysis alone. This ability provides a protective existential advantage in naturally occurring hypoxic environments via diminished free radical generation. In the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and other marine organisms, a functionally active mitochondrial anaerobic respiratory mechanism tailored to hypoxic conditions reflects an evolutionary adaptation/reworking of ancient metabolic pathways. Components of these pathways were also discovered and characterized as metabolic intermediates in plant parasites, specifically crown gall tumors. Mechanistic similarities between anaerobically functioning mitochondria in M. edulis and crown gall tissues and metabolic processes in human tumors are known to occur, demonstrating commonalities in diverse life energy processes. Furthermore, cytoplasmic glycolytic processes are now shown also to exhibit a dynamic capacity for enhanced energy generation by increasing its efficiency in hypoxic environments, making it equally dynamic in meeting its cellular survival goal. PMID:27439008

  13. Climate change, renewable energy and population impact on future energy demand for Burkina Faso build environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouedraogo, B. I.

    This research addresses the dual challenge faced by Burkina Faso engineers to design sustainable low-energy cost public buildings and domestic dwellings while still providing the required thermal comfort under warmer temperature conditions caused by climate change. It was found base don climate change SRES scenario A2 that predicted mean temperature in Burkina Faso will increase by 2oC between 2010 and 2050. Therefore, in order to maintain a thermally comfortable 25oC inside public buildings, the projected annual energy consumption for cooling load will increase by 15%, 36% and 100% respectively for the period between 2020 to 2039, 2040 to 2059 and 2070 to 2089 when compared to the control case. It has also been found that a 1% increase in population growth will result in a 1.38% and 2.03% increase in carbon emission from primary energy consumption and future electricity consumption respectively. Furthermore, this research has investigated possible solutions for adaptation to the severe climate change and population growth impact on energy demand in Burkina Faso. Shading devices could potentially reduce the cooling load by up to 40%. Computer simulation programming of building energy consumption and a field study has shown that adobe houses have the potential of significantly reducing energy demand for cooling and offer a formidable method for climate change adaptation. Based on the Net Present Cost, hybrid photovoltaic (PV) and Diesel generator energy production configuration is the most cost effective local electricity supply system, for areas without electricity at present, with a payback time of 8 years when compared to diesel generator stand-alone configuration. It is therefore a viable solution to increase electricity access to the majority of the population.

  14. A profile of HIV risk factors in the context of sex work environments among migrant female sex workers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Huso; Mantell, Joanne E; Wu, Rongrong; Lu, Zhao; Zeng, Jing; Wan, Yanhai

    2010-03-01

    Migrant female sex workers (FSWs) are one of the most at-risk populations for HIV in China. This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g. boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a sexually transmitted infection symptom (79%) last year. Only 22% of FSWs had been tested for HIV. Risk factors were compared by three types of sex work environments: (1) entertainment establishments, (2) personal services sectors, and (3) street-based venues, including roadside brothels. Street-based FSWs, compared to the other FSWs, were more likely to be older, married with children, migrate from rural areas, and be arrested by police, and less likely to be educated, have contact with prevention services, be knowledgeable about HIV, and be tested for HIV. The FSWs in entertainment establishments were more likely than street-based FSWs to have reported being physically, verbally, and/or sexually abused by clients. Multiple discriminant analysis distinguished a profile of two different groups of risk factors: (1) police arrest, lack of protection from violence, access to prevention and health care, and HIV knowledge, and (2) verbal and physical abuse and clients' refusal of condom use. In the massive internal migration in China, disadvantages in economic sectors drive women to become involved in sex work. HIV prevention strategies must target socio-structural factors embedded in sex work environments. PMID:20391235

  15. Human Behavior & Low Energy Architecture: Linking Environmental Adaptation, Personal Comfort, & Energy Use in the Built Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Jared

    Truly sustainable buildings serve to enrich the daily sensory experience of their human inhabitants while consuming the least amount of energy possible; yet, building occupants and their environmentally adaptive behaviors remain a poorly characterized variable in even the most "green" building design and operation approaches. This deficiency has been linked to gaps between predicted and actual energy use, as well as to eventual problems with occupant discomfort, productivity losses, and health issues. Going forward, better tools are needed for considering the human-building interaction as a key part of energy efficiency strategies that promote good Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) in buildings. This dissertation presents the development and implementation of a Human and Building Interaction Toolkit (HABIT), a framework for the integrated simulation of office occupants' thermally adaptive behaviors, IEQ, and building energy use as part of sustainable building design and operation. Development of HABIT begins with an effort to devise more reliable methods for predicting individual occupants' thermal comfort, considered the driving force behind the behaviors of focus for this project. A long-term field study of thermal comfort and behavior is then presented, and the data it generates are used to develop and validate an agent-based behavior simulation model. Key aspects of the agent-based behavior model are described, and its predictive abilities are shown to compare favorably to those of multiple other behavior modeling options. Finally, the agent-based behavior model is linked with whole building energy simulation in EnergyPlus, forming the full HABIT program. The program is used to evaluate the energy and IEQ impacts of several occupant behavior scenarios in the simulation of a case study office building for the Philadelphia climate. Results indicate that more efficient local heating/cooling options may be paired with wider set point ranges to yield up to 24

  16. Development of series H{sup −} multicusp ion source at China Institute of Atomic Energy

    SciTech Connect

    TianJue, Zhang; XianLu, Jia ZhenGuo, Li; Yinlong, Lu; JiuChang, Qin; Xia, Zheng; Hongjuan, Yao; JunQing, Zhong; GaoFeng, Pan; Tao, Ge; Fengping, Guan

    2014-02-15

    The development of H{sup −} multicusp ion sources has been carried out at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for more than ten years. The first H{sup −} ion source with 5.2 mA was made in 2002. After improving the configured magnetic field, a H{sup −} ion source of 10 mA was made in 2004, and the beam intensity of 15 mA was obtained in 2008 after further improvements of the filter field. The beam intensity of 18 mA was achieved in 2010 following the in-depth study and optimization on some essential operation conditions. Now a series of H{sup −} cusp sources with different sizes and beam intensity ranging from 3 mA to 18 mA have been successfully developed at CIAE. All the ion sources can fast finish the test on the test stand now, since all the connections are modularized and can fit all kinds of H{sup −} mulitcusp source of CIAE. The development status of the various H{sup −} multicusp ion sources at CIAE are presented in the paper.

  17. Characteristics of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and turbidity near the coast of East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Huiping; Qin, Rufu; Xu, Changwei; Fan, Daidu

    2016-01-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) has a high suspended-sediment concentration because of the influence of the Changjiang River, indicated by high turbidity in the water. Considering the islands offthe coast and the complex topography, and the strong influence of tides and wind, the coast offthe ECS is a typical region with strong oceanic mixing processes. The changes in the dynamic processes near the bottom play an important role in the control of water turbidity. The turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ( ɛ ) is a parameter that shows the strength of ocean mixing. This is estimated based on a structure method using current velocity that is measured by a high-frequency Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) from a seafloor observatory in the ECS. The results indicate strong ocean mixing processes with a mean ɛ value of 5.7×10-5 W/kg and distinct tidal variations in the dissipation rate. Conversely, the variation of the water turbidity leads to changes in the water dynamical structure near the bottom. Comparing the dissipation rate with the turbidity near the bottom boundary layer, we find that the high turbidity mimics strong ocean mixing.

  18. Characteristics of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and turbidity near the coast of East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Huiping; Qin, Rufu; Xu, Changwei; Fan, Daidu

    2016-09-01

    The East China Sea (ECS) has a high suspended-sediment concentration because of the influence of the Changjiang River, indicated by high turbidity in the water. Considering the islands offthe coast and the complex topography, and the strong influence of tides and wind, the coast offthe ECS is a typical region with strong oceanic mixing processes. The changes in the dynamic processes near the bottom play an important role in the control of water turbidity. The turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ( ɛ ) is a parameter that shows the strength of ocean mixing. This is estimated based on a structure method using current velocity that is measured by a high-frequency Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) from a seafloor observatory in the ECS. The results indicate strong ocean mixing processes with a mean ɛ value of 5.7×10-5 W/kg and distinct tidal variations in the dissipation rate. Conversely, the variation of the water turbidity leads to changes in the water dynamical structure near the bottom. Comparing the dissipation rate with the turbidity near the bottom boundary layer, we find that the high turbidity mimics strong ocean mixing.

  19. Analysis of the interrelationship of energy, economy, and environment: A model of a sustainable energy future for Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boo, Kyung-Jin

    The primary purpose of this dissertation is to provide the groundwork for a sustainable energy future in Korea. For this purpose, a conceptual framework of sustainable energy development was developed to provide a deeper understanding of interrelationships between energy, the economy, and the environment (E 3). Based on this theoretical work, an empirical simulation model was developed to investigate the ways in which E3 interact. This dissertation attempts to develop a unified concept of sustainable energy development by surveying multiple efforts to integrate various definitions of sustainability. Sustainable energy development should be built on the basis of three principles: ecological carrying capacity, economic efficiency, and socio-political equity. Ecological carrying capacity delineates the earth's resource constraints as well as its ability to assimilate wastes. Socio-political equity implies an equitable distribution of the benefits and costs of energy consumption and an equitable distribution of environmental burdens. Economic efficiency dictates efficient allocation of scarce resources. The simulation model is composed of three modules: an energy module, an environmental module and an economic module. Because the model is grounded on economic structural behaviorism, the dynamic nature of the current economy is effectively depicted and simulated through manipulating exogenous policy variables. This macro-economic model is used to simulate six major policy intervention scenarios. Major findings from these policy simulations were: (1) carbon taxes are the most effective means of reducing air-pollutant emissions; (2) sustainable energy development can be achieved through reinvestment of carbon taxes into energy efficiency and renewable energy programs; and (3) carbon taxes would increase a nation's welfare if reinvested in relevant areas. The policy simulation model, because it is based on neoclassical economics, has limitations such that it cannot fully

  20. Transient unidirectional energy flow and diode-like phenomenon induced by non-Markovian environments.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jun; Segal, Dvira; Li, Baowen; Wu, Lian-Ao

    2015-01-01

    Relying on an exact time evolution scheme, we identify a novel transient energy transfer phenomenon in an exactly-solvable quantum microscopic model consisting of a three-level system coupled to two non-Markovian zero-temperature bosonic baths through two separable quantum channels. The dynamics of this model can be solved exactly using the quantum-state-diffusion equation formalism, demonstrating finite intervals of unidirectional energy flow across the system, typically, from the non-Markovian environment towards the more Markovian bath. Furthermore, when introducing a spatial asymmetry into the system, an analogue of the rectification effect is realized. In the long time limit, the dynamics arrives at a stationary state and the effects recede. Understanding temporal characteristics of directional energy flow will aid in designing microscopic energy transfer devices. PMID:26478230