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Sample records for china ii insights

  1. Insights into Buforin II Membrane Translocation from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Buforin II is a histone-derived antimicrobial peptide that readily translocates across lipid membranes without causing significant membrane permeabilization. Previous studies showed that mutating the sole proline of buforin II dramatically decreases its translocation. As well, researchers have proposed that the peptide crosses membranes in a cooperative manner through forming transient toroidal pores. This paper reports molecular dynamics simulations designed to investigate the structure of buforin II upon membrane entry and evaluate whether the peptide is able to form toroidal pore structures. These simulations showed a relationship between protein-lipid interactions and increased structural deformations of the buforin N-terminal region promoted by proline. Moreover, simulations with multiple peptides show how buforin II can embed deeply into membranes and potentially form toroidal pores. Together, these simulations provide structural insight into the translocation process for buforin II in addition to providing more general insight into the role proline can play in antimicrobial peptides. PMID:23022591

  2. Structural insights into transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Grünberg, Sebastian; Hahn, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation is one of the most important steps in control of cell identity, growth, differentiation and development. Many signaling pathways controlling these processes ultimately target the core transcription machinery that, for protein coding genes, consists of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the general transcription factors (GTFs). New studies on the structure and mechanism of the core assembly and how it interfaces with promoter DNA and coactivator complexes have given tremendous insight into early steps in the initiation process, genome-wide binding, and mechanisms conserved for all nuclear and archaeal Pols. Here we review recent developments in dissecting the architecture of the Pol II core machinery with a focus on early and regulated steps in transcription initiation. PMID:24120742

  3. Regional characterization of Western China-II

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, G.E.; Hartse, H.E.; Phillips, W.S.; Taylor, S.R.

    1996-10-01

    As part of the CTBT Research and Development regional characterization effort, geological, geophysical, and seismic data are being assembled and organized for inclusion in a knowledge base for China. The authors have continued their analysis using data form the station WMQ of the Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN) and the IRIS station AAK. They are also acquiring and analyzing data from stations that are designated as (or near a designated) primary or secondary CTBT monitoring station. Regional seismograms are being analyzed to construct travel time curves, velocity models, attenuation characteristics, and to quantify regional propagation effects such as phase blockages. Using locations from the USGS Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) they have identified Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg phases, constructed travel time curves, and estimated apparent velocities using linear regression. Amplitudes for the seismic phases have been measured using bandpassed waveforms and a series of magnitude relations have been determined for Western China. Studies of path specific propagation efficiency of the seismic phases have mapped blockages and also identified a possible set of observations that can be used to identify intermediate depth (> 100 im) seismic events in the Pamir-Hindu Kush seismic zone. Chinese seismicity catalogs from the USGS and Chinese State Seismological Bureau (SSB) are being used to identify and obtain seismic data (including mine seismicity) and information for lower magnitude events. Clustering analysis has been used to identify seismicity clusters in space with origin times that are distributed during daylight hours which suggest mining operations. These clusters are being investigated with imagery to attempt to identify precise mine locations.

  4. Frequency tuning with RFQ temperature in China ADS Injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Wang; Jian-Long, Huang; Xiao-Qi, Zhang; Bin, Zhang; Yuan, He; Zhou-Li, Zhang; Ai-Min, Shi

    2016-03-01

    A 162.5 MHz four-vane radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) accelerator has been developed at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) for Injector II of the China ADS linac. The RFQ will operate in continuous wave mode at 100 kW. For the designed 10 mA beam, the additional RF power dissipation will induce a very large reflection of power. A water-temperature controlling system will be used to reduce the power reflection by tuning the frequency of the RFQ. The tuning capability of the water temperature is studied under different configurations of cooling water. Simulations and experiment are compared in this paper. The experimental results agree well with simulation using ANSYS. This can be used as a reference to tune the RFQ in beam commissioning. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91026001)

  5. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Results and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper summarizes the results from the recently completed EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1. 6 10{sup {minus}6} yr{sup {minus}1}, even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The probability of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquake) is 3.6 10{sup {minus}6} yr{sup {minus}1}. overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double, vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability.

  6. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: Results and insights

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the recently completed EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1. 6 10[sup [minus]6] yr[sup [minus]1], even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The probability of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquake) is 3.6 10[sup [minus]6] yr[sup [minus]1]. overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double, vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability.

  7. Taxonomic and Functional Diversity Provides Insight into Microbial Pathways and Stress Responses in the Saline Qinghai Lake, China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Edwardson, Christian; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity) on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m) saline (1.4%) lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E). Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change. PMID:25365331

  8. Taxonomic and functional diversity provides insight into microbial pathways and stress responses in the saline Qinghai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiuyuan; Briggs, Brandon R; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Edwardson, Christian; De Vlaminck, Iwijn; Quake, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-mediated biogeochemical cycles contribute to the global climate system and have sensitive responses and feedbacks to environmental stress caused by climate change. Yet, little is known about the effects of microbial biodiversity (i.e., taxonmic and functional diversity) on biogeochemical cycles in ecosytems that are highly sensitive to climate change. One such sensitive ecosystem is Qinghai Lake, a high-elevation (3196 m) saline (1.4%) lake located on the Tibetan Plateau, China. This study provides baseline information on the microbial taxonomic and functional diversity as well as the associated stress response genes. Illumina metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets were generated from lake water samples collected at two sites (B and E). Autotrophic Cyanobacteria dominated the DNA samples, while heterotrophic Proteobacteria dominated the RNA samples at both sites. Photoheterotrophic Loktanella was also present at both sites. Photosystem II was the most active pathway at site B; while, oxidative phosphorylation was most active at site E. Organisms that expressed photosystem II or oxidative phosphorylation also expressed genes involved in photoprotection and oxidative stress, respectively. Assimilatory pathways associated with the nitrogen cycle were dominant at both sites. Results also indicate a positive relationship between functional diversity and the number of stress response genes. This study provides insight into the stress resilience of microbial metabolic pathways supported by greater taxonomic diversity, which may affect the microbial community response to climate change. PMID:25365331

  9. Current insights into the diagnosis and treatment of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes in China

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inherited bone marrow failure syndromes (IBMFs) account for 20% of pediatric BMFs. Although recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of IBMFs in China have been published recently, improvements are still needed in making precise diagnoses and properly treating pediatric patients with IBMFs. This review provides current insights into IBMFs in China. The data of our single institution data showed that pediatric patients with IBMFs accounted for 7.4% of BMFs. However, the number of reported cases with IBMFs may be underestimated than the actual morbidity in China because of limitations in the detection approaches and lacking of awareness of these diseases in local hospitals. Although patients with IBMFs are candidates for bone marrow transplantation or gene therapy, their phenotypic heterogeneity can delay or incompetent diagnosis. The golden standard test for Fanconi anemia is the chromosome breakage test, but it can be completed by few hospital and diagnostic companies in China. In addition, there are still no consistent standardized testing methods for other rare IBMFs. Recently, the combined application of targeted capture and next-generation sequencing (NGS) provides and accurate and efficient diagnostic method for IBMFs. PMID:27358883

  10. New Insight into GO, Cadmium(II), Phosphate Interaction and Its Role in GO Colloidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xuemei; Wu, Qunyan; Xu, Huan; Shao, Dadong; Tan, Xiaoli; Shi, Weiqun; Chen, Changlun; Li, Jiaxing; Chai, Zhifang; Hayat, Tasawar; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-09-01

    This study establishes the relationship between the graphene oxide (GO) colloidal behavior and the co-adsorption of Cd(II) and phosphate (P(V)) on GO. Results reveal that the interactions among GO, Cd(II), and P(V) exhibit a significant dependence on solution chemistry and addition sequences and that these interactions subsequently affect the GO colloidal behavior. The GO aggregation is pH-dependent at pH < 4.0 and depends apparently on the binding ability of Cd(II) to GO at pH > 4.0. When the components were added simultaneously, the presence of P(V) enhances the GO binding capacity toward Cd(II), confirmed by theoretical calculation, resulting in the greater destabilizing influence of Cd(II) + P(V) on GO than Cd(II) at pH 3.0-9.5, while the formation of Cd3(PO4)2 precipitate leads to a lower destabilizing influence of Cd(II) + P(V) on GO than Cd(II) at pH > 9.5. Both pH and addition sequence affect the destabilizing ability of Cd(II) + P(V). These new insights are expected to provide valuable information not only for the application of GO as a potential adsorbent in multicomponent systems for heavy metal ion and oxyanion co-removal but also for the fate and risk assessment of GO after serving as heavy metal ion and oxyanion carrier. PMID:27479690

  11. Porcine circovirus type 2 in China: an update on and insights to its prevalence and control

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Currently, porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered the major pathogen of porcine circovirus associated-diseases (PCVAD) that causes large economic losses for the swine industry in the world annually, including China. Since the first report of PCV2 in 1998, it has been drawing tremendous attention for the government, farming enterprises, farmers, and veterinary practitioners. Chinese researchers have conducted a number of molecular epidemiological work on PCV2 by molecular approaches in the past several years, which has resulted in the identification of novel PCV2 genotypes and PCV2-like agents as well as the description of new prevalence patterns. Since late 2009, commercial PCV2 vaccines, including the subunit vaccines and inactivated vaccines, have already been used in Chinese swine farms. The aim of this review is to update the insights into the prevalence and control of PCV2 in China, which would contribute to understanding the epidemiology, control measures and design of novel vaccines for PCV2. PMID:24885983

  12. Seismic imaging of North China: insight into intraplate volcanism and seismotectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.

    2004-12-01

    and middle crust and thus contribute to the initiation of the large crustal earthquakes. Similar features are also found in the source areas of the 1995 Kobe earthquake (M 7.2) in Japan (Zhao et al., 1996) and the 2001 Bhuj earthquake (M 7.8) in India (Mishra and Zhao, 2003). Zhao, D. (2004) Global tomographic images of mantle plumes and subducting slabs: insight into deep Earth dynamics. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 146, 3-34. Zhao, D., J. Lei, R. Tang (2004) Origin of the intraplate Changbai volcano in Northeast China: Evidence from seismic tomography. Chinese Science Bulletin 49(13), 1401-1408. Huang, J., D. Zhao (2004) Crustal heterogeneity and seismotectonics of the region around Beijing, China. Tectonophysics 385, 159-180.

  13. Photoinhibition of manganese enzymes: insights into the mechanism of photosystem II photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Marja; Rantamäki, Susanne; Puputti, Eeva-Maija; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2006-01-01

    Evidence has recently been presented that photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII) is triggered by absorption of light by the oxygen-evolving manganese cluster. To get insight into the effects of light on enzymes containing manganese or other transition metal cofactors, the photosensitivities of Mn catalase, Mn superoxide dismutase, the haem (Fe)-containing bovine liver catalase, and CuZn superoxide dismutase were investigated. Glucose oxidase was studied as an example of an enzyme that does not have a metal cofactor. Sensitivities of these five enzymes to UVC, UVA, and visible light were compared in anaerobic conditions. The Mn(III)-oxo-Mn(III)-containing Mn catalase was found to be more sensitive to both visible and UV light than bovine liver catalase. Furthermore, the action spectrum of photoinhibition of Mn catalase was found to be fairly similar to that of photoinhibition of PSII. The Mn(II)-containing Mn superoxide dismutase was sensitive to UVC light and somewhat sensitive to UVA light, while only UVC light caused some inhibition of CuZn superoxide dismutase. Glucose oxidase was the least photosensitive of the enzymes studied. The photosensitivity of Mn enzymes supports the hypothesis that the oxygen-evolving manganese complex of PSII can be damaged by UV and visible light absorbed by its Mn(III) or Mn(IV) ions. PMID:16698816

  14. China and India: Different Educational Paths toward Prosperity. Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Kumar, Krishna B.

    2008-01-01

    Different educational approaches in China and India have been successful in stimulating economic growth. The two countries started building their national education systems under comparable conditions in the late 1940s; however, different policies, strategies, and historical circumstances have led them through different routes. China has…

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of boehmite-rich coals: New insights from the Haerwusu Surface Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Li, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, Y.; Ren, D.; Ma, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Boehmite-rich coal of Pennsylvanian age was discovered earlier at the Heidaigou Surface Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China. This paper reports new results on 29 bench samples of the no. 6 coal from a drill core from the adjacent Haerwusu Surface Mine, and provides new insights into the origin of the minerals and elements present. The results show that the proportion of inertinite in the no. 6 coal is higher than in other Late Paleozoic coals in northern China. Based on mineral proportions (boehmite to kaolinite ratio) and major element concentrations in the coal benches of the drill core, the no. 6 coal may be divided into five sections (I to V). Major minerals in Sections I and V are kaolinite. Sections II and IV are mainly kaolinite with a trace of boehmite, and Section III is high in boehmite. The boehmite is derived from bauxite in the weathered surface (Benxi Formation) in the sediment-source region. The no. 6 coal is rich in Al2O3 (8.89%), TiO2 (0.47%), Li (116????g/g), F (286????g/g), Ga (18????g/g), Se (6.1????g/g), Sr (350????g/g), Zr (268????g/g), REEs (172????g/g), Pb (30????g/g), and Th (17????g/g). The elements are classified into five associations by cluster analysis, i.e. Groups A, B, C, D, and E. Group A (ash-SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-Li) and Group B (REE-Sc-In-Y-K2O-Rb-Zr-Hf-Cs-U-P2O5-Sr-Ba-Ge) are strongly correlated with ash yield and mainly have an inorganic affinity. The elements that are negatively or less strongly correlated with ash yield (with exceptions of Fe2O3, Be, V, and Ni) are grouped in the remaining three associations: Group C, Se-Pb-Hg-Th-TiO2-Bi-Nb-Ta-Cd-Sn; Group D, Co-Mo-Tl-Be-Ni-Sb-MgO-Re-Ga-W-Zn-V-Cr-F-Cu; and Group E, S-As-CaO-MnO-Fe2O3. Aluminum is mainly distributed in boehmite, followed by kaolinite. The high correlation coefficients of the Li-ash, Li-Al2O3, and Li-SiO2 pairs indicate that Li is related to the aluminosilicates in the coal. The boehmite-rich coal is high in gallium and F, which occur in boehmite and the

  16. Two modes of extension in the North China Craton: Insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Liu, M.

    2013-12-01

    The North China Craton was formed around 1.8 Ga by collision and amalgamation of the Eastern and Western blocks. It remained tectonically stable since then until Mesozoic, when its eastern part experienced wide-distributed extension and volcanism. This distributed extension waned down in the early Cenozoic, and was replaced by localized extension (rifting) in the western part of the North China Craton. We have developed a series of viscoplastic finite element models to investigate the lithospheric conditions associated with these changing modes of extension in the North China Craton. Our results show that the wide-distributed extension in North China requires a thin and hot lithosphere, which is probably the result of delamination or thermal erosion of the lithospheric root under the eastern part of the North China Craton. The localized rifting during the late Cenozoic in the western part of the North China Craton indicates a relatively cold and thick lithosphere. Furthermore, preexisting lithospheric weakening was needed to explain the formation of the Late Cenozoic rift zones. These preexisting weakening zones may be inherited from the Paleoprotozoic collision that formed the North China Craton.

  17. Emission sources and atmospheric processing of carbonaceous aerosols in India and China: Insights from dual carbon isotope techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, A.; Kirillova, E. N.; Bosch, C.; Suresh, T.; Lee, M.; Du, K.; Sheesley, R. J.; Budhavant, K.; Gustafsson, O. M.

    2013-12-01

    The large emissions of carbonaceous aerosols, e.g., black carbon (BC), in India and China have detrimental effects on both human health and the regional climate. However, mitigation efforts as well as accurate modeling of these effects are currently hampered by large uncertainties regarding the contributions from different emission sources, including both primary and secondary processes. Here, we present dual carbon isotope constraints on emissions sources and atmospheric processing from multiple sites capturing the outflow from India and China. Radiocarbon (14C) studies of elemental carbon (EC) - a tracer for BC - show larger relative fossil contributions than expected from bottom-up emission inventories, for both India (49+-5) and China (80 +-6%). Similarly to EC, radiocarbon constraints of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) shows substantially larger relative fossil contributions in Chinese outflow (30-50%) as compared with India, but also compared to Europe and USA (10-20%). In contrast to the radiocarbon data, stable carbon (d13C) analysis of WSOC shows substantial variability for different sites capturing the Indian outflow. Strong enrichment of heavy isotopes in WSOC is coupled to expected transport time from sources, indicating the influence of photochemical aging during transport. Such trends in the d13C signature are not observed for the EC fraction. Taken together this work show that carbon isotope techniques provide firm constraints on emission sources of different fractions of carbonaceous aerosols, and may also offer insights into atmospheric processing of these constituents during air mass transport.

  18. Kinetic and Spectroscopic Studies of Aerobic Copper(II)-Catalyzed Methoxylation of Arylboronic Esters and Insights into Aryl Transmetalation to Copper(II).

    PubMed

    King, Amanda E; Ryland, Bradford L; Brunold, Thomas C; Stahl, Shannon S

    2012-11-26

    We previously reported a preliminary mechanistic study of aerobic Cu(OAc)(2)-catalyzed methoxylation of 4-tolylboronic ester (King, et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2009, 131, 5044-5045), which revealed that aryl transmetalation from the boronic ester to Cu(II) is the turnover-limiting step. In the present study, more-thorough kinetic and spectroscopic studies provide additional insights into transmetalation pathway and the identity of the Cu(II) catalyst resting state(s). EPR spectroscopic studies show that at least two copper(II) species are present under catalytic conditions and their relative populations vary as a function of reaction time and acidity of the arylboronic ester, and are influenced by addition of acetic acid or acetate to the reaction mixture. Analysis of kinetic data and (11)B NMR and EPR spectra under diverse reaction conditions suggests that aryl transmetalation occurs from a tetracoordinate, anionic boronate to a cationic Cu(II) species, mediated by a methoxide-bridge. PMID:23204631

  19. Insight into the Structure of Light Harvesting Complex II and its Stabilization in Detergent Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoso, Mateus B; Smolensky, Dmitriy; Heller, William T; O'Neill, Hugh Michael

    2009-01-01

    The structure of spinach light-harvesting complex II (LHC II), stabilized in a solution of the detergent n-octyl-{beta}-d-glucoside (BOG), was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Physicochemical characterization of the isolated complex indicated that it was pure (>95%) and also in its native trimeric state. SANS with contrast variation was used to investigate the properties of the protein-detergent complex at three different H{sub 2}O/D{sub 2}O contrast match points, enabling the scattering properties of the protein and detergent to be investigated independently. The topological shape of LHC II, determined using ab initio shape restoration methods from the SANS data at the contrast match point of BOG, was consistent with the X-ray crystallographic structure of LHC II (Liu et al. Nature 2004 428, 287-292). The interactions of the protein and detergent were investigated at the contrast match point for the protein and also in 100% D{sub 2}O. The data suggested that BOG micelle structure was altered by its interaction with LHC II, but large aggregate structures were not formed. Indirect Fourier transform analysis of the LHC II/BOG scattering curves showed that the increase in the maximum dimension of the protein-detergent complex was consistent with the presence of a monolayer of detergent surrounding the protein. A model of the LHC II/BOG complex was generated to interpret the measurements made in 100% D{sub 2}O. This model adequately reproduced the overall size of the LHC II/BOG complex, but demonstrated that the detergent does not have a highly regular shape that surrounds the hydrophobic periphery of LHC II. In addition to demonstrating that natively structured LHC II can be produced for functional characterization and for use in artificial solar energy applications, the analysis and modeling approaches described here can be used for characterizing detergent-associated {alpha}-helical transmembrane proteins.

  20. Low Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in an Ancient Population from China: Insight into Social Organization at the Fujia Site.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yu; Li, Chunxiang; Luan, Fengshi; Li, Zhenguang; Li, Hongjie; Cui, Yinqiu; Zhou, Hui; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-01-01

    To gain insight into the social organization of a population associated with the Dawenkou period, we performed ancient DNA analysis of 18 individuals from human remains from the Fujia site in Shandong Province, China. Directly radiocarbon dated to 4800-4500 cal BP, the Fujia site is assumed to be associated with a transitional phase from matrilineal clans to patrilineal monogamous families. Our results reveal a low mitochondrial DNA diversity from the site and population. Combined with Y chromosome data, the pattern observed at the Fujia site is most consistent with a matrilineal community. The patterns also suggest that the bond of marriage was de-emphasized compared with the bonds of descent at Fujia. PMID:26416323

  1. Single molecule microscopy reveals mechanistic insight into RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex assembly and transcriptional activity

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Abigail E.; Kugel, Jennifer F.; Goodrich, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a complex process that requires general transcription factors and Pol II to assemble on DNA into preinitiation complexes that can begin RNA synthesis upon binding of NTPs (nucleoside triphosphate). The pathways by which preinitiation complexes form, and how this impacts transcriptional activity are not completely clear. To address these issues, we developed a single molecule system using TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) microscopy and purified human transcription factors, which allows us to visualize transcriptional activity at individual template molecules. We see that stable interactions between polymerase II (Pol II) and a heteroduplex DNA template do not depend on general transcription factors; however, transcriptional activity is highly dependent upon TATA-binding protein, TFIIB and TFIIF. We also found that subsets of general transcription factors and Pol II can form stable complexes that are precursors for functional transcription complexes upon addition of the remaining factors and DNA. Ultimately we found that Pol II, TATA-binding protein, TFIIB and TFIIF can form a quaternary complex in the absence of promoter DNA, indicating that a stable network of interactions exists between these proteins independent of promoter DNA. Single molecule studies can be used to learn how different modes of preinitiation complex assembly impact transcriptional activity. PMID:27112574

  2. New Insights into Nisin's Antibacterial Mechanism Revealed by Binding Studies with Synthetic Lipid II Analogues.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Peter; Oppedijk, Sabine F; Breukink, Eefjan; Martin, Nathaniel I

    2016-01-12

    Nisin is the preeminent lantibiotic, and to date its antibacterial mechanism has been investigated using a variety of techniques. While nisin's lipid II-mediated mode of action is well-established, a detailed analysis of the thermodynamic parameters governing this interaction has not been previously reported. We here describe an approach employing isothermal titration calorimetry to directly measure the affinity of nisin for lipid II and a number of synthetic lipid II precursors and analogues. Our measurements confirm the pyrophosphate unit of lipid II as the primary site of nisin binding and also indicate that the complete MurNAc moiety is required for a high-affinity interaction. Additionally, we find that while the pentapeptide unit of the lipid II molecule is not required for strong binding by nisin, it does play an important role in stabilizing the subsequently formed nisin-lipid II pore complex, albeit at an entropic cost. The anchoring of lipid II in a membrane environment was also found to play a significant role in enhancing nisin binding and is required in order to achieve a high-affinity interaction. PMID:26653142

  3. Mantle dynamics and Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China: Insight from teleseismic tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Guoming; Zhang, Guibin; Zhao, Dapeng; Lü, Qingtian; Li, Hongyi; Li, Xinfu

    2015-11-01

    Both the rich mineralization in the Lower Yangtze Block (LYB) and the post-collisional mafic rocks in the Dabie Orogen (DBO) are closely related to the Cretaceous magmatism in east-central China. Various geodynamic models have been proposed for explaining the mechanism of the Cretaceous magmatism, but these models are controversial and even contradictory with each other, especially on the mechanism of adakites. A unified geodynamic model is required for explaining the magmatism in east-central China, in particular, the spatial and temporal correlations of magmatic activity in the DBO and that in the LYB. For this purpose, we apply teleseismic tomography to study P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km depth beneath east-central China. A modified multiple-channel cross-correlation method is used to collect 28,805 high-quality P-wave arrival-time data from seismograms of distant earthquakes recorded by permanent seismic stations and our temporary stations in the study region. To remove the influence of crustal heterogeneity on the mantle tomography, we used the CRUST1.0 model to correct the teleseismic relative residuals. Our tomography revealed distinct high-velocity (high-V) anomalies beneath the DBO and two flanks of the LYB, and low-velocity (low-V) anomalies above the high-V zones. Combining our tomographic images with previous geological, geochemical and geophysical results, we infer that these high-V and low-V anomalies reflect the detached lithosphere and upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively, which are associated with the Late Mesozoic dynamic process and the Cretaceous magmatism. We propose a double-slab subduction model that a ridge subduction yielded the adakitic rocks in the LYB during 150-135 Ma and the subsequent Pacific Plate subduction played a crucial role in not only the formation of igneous rocks in the LYB but also remelting of the subducted South China Block beneath the DBO during 135-101 Ma.

  4. Will China's Cooperative Medical System fail again? Insight from farmer satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Tang, Kam Ki; Zhao, Lifeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-06-01

    This paper studied the sustainability of China's New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) by evaluating the satisfaction rate of its participants-the farmers. The study related the overall satisfaction of the farmers to their satisfaction with the four different aspects of the program. It also identified which personal and program attributes affect the farmers' satisfaction rate. Survey data of 1278 households from 66 counties in Shandong Province of China were collected in 2011 using a multi-stage stratified cluster-sampling method. To overcome the nepotistic barriers in rural China, field surveys in each township were conducted by university students from the same place. Data were analyzed using multiple regressions and structural equation modeling method. The results showed that 86% of the farmers were either satisfied or very satisfied with the NCMS and 82% indicated their intention to continue participating in the program. Aside from its financial benefits, both the publicity and reimbursement procedure of the program were found to be significant factors in influencing the satisfaction of the farmers. Majority of the participants held positive opinions toward the NCMS, contradicting the negative assessments made by many previous studies. Given the high proportion of farmers willing to continue with the program, it is likely to be sustainable in the near future. Greater publicity and education efforts should be made to make the farmers better informed about the program, and measures should be taken to improve its reimbursement procedure and the setting of the premium level. PMID:23669160

  5. Structural insights into Transcriptional Repression by non-coding RNAs that bind to Human Pol II

    PubMed Central

    Kassube, Susanne A.; Fang, Jie; Grob, Patricia; Yakovchuk, Petro; Goodrich, James A.; Nogales, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription is regulated in response to environmental changes as well as developmental cues. In mammalian cells subjected to stress conditions such as heat shock, transcription of most protein-coding genes decreases, while the transcription of heat shock protein genes increases. Repression involves direct binding to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) of certain non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are upregulated upon heat shock. Another class of ncRNAs is also upregulated and binds to Pol II, but does not inhibit transcription. Incorporation of repressive ncRNAs into pre-initiation complexes prevents transcription initiation, while non-repressive ncRNAs are displaced from Pol II by TFIIF. Here, we present cryo-EM reconstructions of human Pol II in complex with six different ncRNAs from mouse and human. Our structures show that both repressive and non-repressive ncRNAs bind to a conserved binding site within the cleft of Pol II. The site, also shared with a previously characterized yeast aptamer, is close to the active center and thus in an ideal position to regulate transcription. Importantly, additional RNA elements extend flexibly beyond the docking site. We propose that the differences concerning the repressive activity of the ncRNA analyzed must be due to the distinct character of these more unstructured, flexible segments of the RNA that emanate from the cleft. PMID:22954660

  6. Insights into the electronic structure of Cu(II) bound to an imidazole analogue of westiellamide.

    PubMed

    Comba, Peter; Dovalil, Nina; Hanson, Graeme R; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Noble, Christopher J; Riley, Mark J; Seibold, Bjoern

    2014-12-01

    Three synthetic analogues of westiallamide, H3L(wa), have previously been synthesized (H3L(1-3)) that have a common backbone (derived from l-valine) with H3L(wa) but differ in their heterocyclic rings (imidazole, oxazole, thiazole, and oxazoline). Herein we explore in detail through high-resolution pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) the geometric and electronic structures of the mono- and dinuclear Cu(II) complexes of these cyclic pseudo hexapeptides. Orientation-selective hyperfine sublevel correlation, electron nuclear double resonance, and three-pulse electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy of [Cu(II)(H2L(1))(MeOH)2](+) reveal delocalization of the unpaired electron spin onto the ligating and distal nitrogens of the coordinated heterocyclic rings and that they are magnetically inequivalent. DFT calculations confirm this and show similar spin densities on the distal heteroatoms in the heterocyclic rings coordinated to the Cu(II) ion in the other cyclic pseudo hexapeptide [Cu(II)(H2L(2,3,wa))(MeOH)2](+) complexes. The magnetic inequivalencies in [Cu(II)(H2L(1))(MeOH)2](+) arise from different orientations of the heterocyclic rings coordinated to the Cu(II) ion, and the delocalization of the unpaired electron onto the distal heteroatoms within these N-methylimidazole rings depends upon their location with respect to the Cu(II) d(x(2)-y(2)) orbital. A systematic study of DFT functionals and basis sets was undertaken to examine the ability to reproduce the experimentally determined spin Hamiltonian parameters. Inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) using MAG-ReSpect or ORCA with a BHLYP/IGLO-II Wachters setup with SOC corrections and ∼38% Hartree-Fock exchange gave the best predictions of the g and A((63)Cu) matrices. DFT calculations of the (14)N hyperfine and quadrupole parameters for the distal nitrogens of the coordinated heterocyclic

  7. Insights from an observational assessment of park-based physical activity in Nanchang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Hong; Liao, Xiong; Schuller, Kristyn; Cook, Angelie; Fan, Si; Lan, Guilian; Lu, Yuanan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Moore, Justin B.; Maddock, Jay E.

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, parks have been shown to be an important community asset for physical activity (PA), but little is known about the relationship between park usage and physical activity in China. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between park user characteristics and PA in Nanchang, China. In June 2014, 75,678 people were observed in eight parks over 12 days using SOPARC, a validated systematic observation tool. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between PA and park user characteristics. Most park users were older adults (53.5%) or adults (34.6%). Overall, 55% of park users engaged in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fewer women were observed in parks than men, but were 66% more likely to be engaged in MVPA than men. Park users were more likely to be observed in MVPA between 6–9 am and when the temperature was below 30 °C. Chinese park users were more active (55%) than US studies in Tampa (30%), Chicago (49%), and Los Angeles (34%). More research is necessary to identify features of parks that are associated with greater PA so that effective interventions can be developed to promote active park use in Chinese citizens. PMID:26844171

  8. Mesozoic lacewings from China provide phylogenetic insight into evolution of the Kalligrammatidae (Neuroptera)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Kalligrammatidae are distinctive, large, conspicuous, lacewings found in Eurasia from the Middle Jurassic to mid Early Cretaceous. Because of incomplete and often inadequate fossil preservation, an absence of detailed morphology, unclear relationships, and unknown evolutionary trends, the Kalligrammatidae are poorly understood. Results We describe three new subfamilies, four new genera, twelve new species and four unassigned species from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan and mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formations of China. These kalligrammatid taxa exhibit diverse morphological characters, such as mandibulate mouthparts in one major clade and siphonate mouthparts in the remaining four major clades, the presence or absence of a variety of distinctive wing markings such as stripes, wing spots and eyespots, as well as multiple major wing shapes. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the Kalligrammatidae are divided into five principal clades: Kalligrammatinae Handlirsch, 1906, Kallihemerobiinae Ren & Engel, 2008, Meioneurinae subfam. nov., Oregrammatinae subfam. nov. and Sophogrammatinae subfam. nov., each of which is accorded subfamily-level status. Our results show significant morphological and evolutionary differentiation of the Kalligrammatidae family during a 40 million-year-interval of the mid Mesozoic. Conclusion A new phylogeny and classification of five subfamilies and their constituent genera is proposed for the Kalligrammatidae. These diverse, yet highly specialized taxa from northeastern China suggest that eastern Eurasia likely was an important diversification center for the Kalligrammatidae. Kalligrammatids possess an extraordinary morphological breadth and panoply of adaptations during the mid-Mesozoic that highlight our conclusion that their evolutionary biology is much more complex than heretofore realized. PMID:24912379

  9. Reactivation and mantle dynamics of North China Craton: insight from P-wave anisotropy tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, You; Zhao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    We determined the first 3-D P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath the North China Craton (NCC) using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events, which reveals depth-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle down to 600 km depth. In the NCC western block, the fast velocity direction (FVD) varies from east-west in the southern part to northeast-southwest in the northern part, which may reflect either the interaction between the Yangtze block and NCC or fossil lithospheric fabrics in the craton. Under the NCC eastern block, a uniform northwest-southeast FVD is revealed in the lower part of the upper mantle (300-410 km depths) and the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depths), which may reflect horizontal and upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. The NCC central block exhibits a northeast-southwest FVD, consistent with the surface tectonic orientation there, suggesting that the cold and thick (>300 km) cratonic root of the NCC western block may obstruct the northwest-southeast trending mantle flow induced by the Pacific Plate subduction, resulting in a northeast-southwest trending mantle flow under the central block. Our present results indicate that the corner flow in the BMW associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific Plate is the main cause of NCC reactivation and mantle dynamics under East China.

  10. Emergence of Cryptosporidium hominis Monkey Genotype II and Novel Subtype Family Ik in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhong, Zhijun; Shen, Liuhong; Cao, Suizhong; Yu, Xingming; Hu, Yanchuan; Chen, Weigang; Peng, Gangneng

    2015-01-01

    A single Cryptosporidium isolate from a squirrel monkey with no clinical symptoms was obtained from a zoo in Ya’an city, China, and was genotyped by PCR amplification and DNA sequencing of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, and actin genes. This multilocus genetic characterization determined that the isolate was Cryptosporidium hominis, but carried 2, 10, and 6 nucleotide differences in the SSU rRNA, HSP70, and actin loci, respectively, which is comparable to the variations at these loci between C. hominis and the previously reported monkey genotype (2, 3, and 3 nucleotide differences). Phylogenetic studies, based on neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood methods, showed that the isolate identified in the current study had a distinctly discordant taxonomic status, distinct from known C. hominis and also from the monkey genotype, with respect to the three loci. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the SSU rRNA gene obtained from this study were similar to those of known C. hominis but clearly differentiated from the monkey genotype. Further subtyping was performed by sequence analysis of the gene encoding the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60). Maximum homology of only 88.3% to C. hominis subtype IdA10G4 was observed for the current isolate, and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this particular isolate belonged to a novel C. hominis subtype family, IkA7G4. This study is the first to report C. hominis infection in the squirrel monkey and, based on the observed genetic characteristics, confirms a new C. hominis genotype, monkey genotype II. Thus, these results provide novel insights into genotypic variation in C. hominis. PMID:26509708

  11. Insights into the structure-activity relationships of chiral 1,2-diaminophenylalkane platinum(II) anticancer derivatives.

    PubMed

    Berger, Gilles; Fusaro, Luca; Luhmer, Michel; Czapla-Masztafiak, Joanna; Lipiec, Ewelina; Szlachetko, Jakub; Kayser, Yves; Fernandes, Daniel L A; Sá, Jacinto; Dufrasne, François; Bombard, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    The structure-activity relationships of chiral 1,2-diaminophenylalkane platinum(II) anticancer derivatives are studied, including interactions with telomeric- and genomic-like DNA sequences, the pKa of their diaqua species, structural properties obtained from DFT calculations and resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy. The binding modes of the compounds to telomeric sequences were elucidated, showing no major differences with conventional cis-platinum(II) complexes like cisplatin, supporting that the cis-square planar geometry governs the binding of small Pt(II) complexes to G4 structures. Double-stranded DNA platination kinetics and acid-base constants of the diaqua species of the compounds were measured and compared, highlighting a strong steric dependence of the DNA-binding kinetics, but independent to stereoisomerism. Structural features of the compounds are discussed on the basis of dispersion-corrected DFT, showing that the most active series presents conformers for which the platinum atom is well devoid of steric hindrance. If reactivity indices derived from conceptual DFT do not show evidences for different reactivity between the compounds, RXES experiments provide new insight into the availability of platinum orbitals for binding to nucleophiles. PMID:25982100

  12. Structural insight into activity enhancement and inhibition of H64A carbonic anhydrase II by imidazoles

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Kondeti, Bhargav; Tu, Chingkuang; Maupin, C. Mark; Silverman, David N.; McKenna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Human carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydration and dehydration of CO2 and HCO3 −, respectively. The reaction follows a ping-pong mechanism, in which the rate-limiting step is the transfer of a proton from the zinc-bound solvent (OH−/H2O) in/out of the active site via His64, which is widely believed to be the proton-shuttling residue. The decreased catalytic activity (∼20-fold lower with respect to the wild type) of a variant of CA II in which His64 is replaced with Ala (H64A CA II) can be enhanced by exogenous proton donors/acceptors, usually derivatives of imidazoles and pyridines, to almost the wild-type level. X-ray crystal structures of H64A CA II in complex with four imidazole derivatives (imidazole, 1-­methylimidazole, 2-­methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole) have been determined and reveal multiple binding sites. Two of these imidazole binding sites have been identified that mimic the positions of the ‘in’ and ‘out’ rotamers of His64 in wild-type CA II, while another directly inhibits catalysis by displacing the zinc-bound solvent. The data presented here not only corroborate the importance of the imidazole side chain of His64 in proton transfer during CA catalysis, but also provide a complete structural understanding of the mechanism by which imidazoles enhance (and inhibit when used at higher concentrations) the activity of H64A CA II. PMID:25075329

  13. TRANSMISSION OF LEPROSY IN QIUBEI COUNTY, YUNNAN, CHINA: INSIGHTS FROM AN EIGHT YEAR MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY INVESTIGATION

    PubMed Central

    WENG, XIAOMAN; VANDER HEIDEN, JASON; XING, YAN; LIU, JIAN; VISSA, VARALAKSHMI

    2010-01-01

    Leprosy continues to be endemic in parts of China. To track the occurrence of leprosy and determine at risk communities, molecular strain typing based on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) was applied in Qiubei County, Wenshan Prefecture, Yunnan Province of the People’s Republic of China, a multiethnic region that is home to four predominant ethnic minorities. A previous study, conducted between 2002 and 2005, provided the first descriptions of Mycobacterium leprae strains in the region. M. leprae strains in Qiubei are highly conserved, so only sufficiently polymorphic loci can distinguish strains. A balance between mutation rate and loci stability is needed, so that secondary transmissions can be identified as genotypic matches. The long incubation period of leprosy necessitated an extension of the study to assess the validity of VNTR typing and observe allelic shifts in the same multiethnic population. From 2006 to early 2010 the extension was performed to yield a cumulative total of 164 enrolled patients and 130 skin samples suitable for VNTR typing. Patient demographic information revealed that the case detection rate among certain minority populations in the county is considerably higher than the national rate. Cluster analysis of allele frequencies showed similar strain types within family groups and neighboring townships. Allele frequencies were not found to significantly differ between genders or clinical presentations. The percentage of cases showing near-matching genotypes varied with geography; showing a considerably higher rate in the northern townships. The northern townships continue to show strain types falling into the groups previously defined. Southern genotypes were distinct from those in the north, but clonal genetic relationships were indiscernible in the south. Social interactions and the physical, residential and occupational environments may be more conducive to transmission of community strains in the north. PMID:21129505

  14. Prevalence of the Cryptosporidium Pig Genotype II in Pigs from the Yangtze River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhongying; Lu, Weiyuan; Xu, Yuxin; Cao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. is prevalent globally, pigs are an important Cryptosporidium reservoir. In China, little data regarding rates of Cryptosporidium infections in pigs are available. The present study was therefore aimed at characterizing the distribution of Cryptosporidium species in pigs from two different cities, Shaoxing and Shanghai, from the Yangtze River delta. Methodology/Principal Findings Nested PCR to amplify the 18S rRNA locus on DNA extracted from fecal samples (n = 94) revealed the positive rate of Cryptosporidium in pigs from two cities was approximately 17.0%. The positive rates in Shanghai and Shaoxing were 14.3% and 25.0% respectively. Amplified sequences were verified by sequencing. The identified strain belonged to the C. pig genotype II using BLAST analysis in the NCBI database. Conclusion/Significance Our finding of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in pigs in the Yangtze River delta area suggests that pig farms in this region must be considered a public health threat and proper control measures be introduced. PMID:21677776

  15. Microseismic Monitoring of Strainburst Activities in Deep Tunnels at the Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, N. W.; Li, T. B.; Dai, F.; Zhang, R.; Tang, C. A.; Tang, L. X.

    2016-03-01

    Rockbursts were frequently encountered during the construction of deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, Southwest China. Investigations of the possibility of rockbursts during tunnel boring machine (TBM) and drilling and blasting (D&B) advancement are necessary to guide the construction of tunnels and to protect personnel and TBM equipment from strainburst-related accidents. A real-time, movable microseismic monitoring system was installed to forecast strainburst locations ahead of the tunnel faces. The spatiotemporal distribution evolution of microseismic events prior to and during strainbursts was recorded and analysed. The concentration of microseismic events prior to the occurrence of strainbursts was found to be a significant precursor to strainbursts in deep rock tunnelling. During a 2-year microseismic investigation of strainbursts in the deep tunnels at the Jinping II hydropower station, a total of 2240 strainburst location forecasts were issued, with 63 % correctly forecasting the locations of strainbursts. The successful forecasting of strainburst locations proved that microseismic monitoring is essential for the assessment and mitigation of strainburst hazards, and can be used to minimise damage to equipment and personnel. The results of the current study may be valuable for the construction management and safety assessment of similar underground rock structures under high in situ stress.

  16. Metagenomic insights into Fe(II)-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria from a biomat at Loi'hi, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, E.; Dhillon, A.; Barco, R. A.; Edwards, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    transport, CO2 fixation, and pili assembly, signal transduction and response regulation, oxygen sensation and detoxification, and heavy metal resistance. All of these genes have homologs in PV-1 and are assumed to be partially responsible for the dominance of the Zetaproteobacteria at the Loihi Seamount and other deep-sea hydrothermal vents, where biological Fe(II)-oxidation is possible (Singer et al., submitted). This study provides novel insights into the genomic backbone of a dominant and ubiquitous Zetaproteobacteria organism, which may globally influence the iron and carbon cycles in deep-sea environments.

  17. New insight on the opening of the South China Sea basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Shu-Kun; Armada, Leo; Doo, Wen-Bin; Yeh, Yi-Ching

    2016-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the South China Sea (SCS) plays an important role on the geodynamics of Southeast Asia. Recent results from the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349 confirmed that the SCS seafloor spreading stopped in the middle Miocene. However, the definite mechanism for the SCS opening is still enigmatic. Using multi-beam bathymetric data, seismic reflection profiles and geomagnetic modeling, we have analyzed the seafloor-spreading pattern and geomagnetic stripes of the SCS. Our results show that an excessive magma supply affecting the SCS occurred at the Early Miocene Climatic Optimum (EMCO). Consequently, four major tectonic events ensued. Firstly, the East Subbasin of the SCS dramatically changed its seafloor spreading direction from north-south to northwest-southeast. Secondly, a northeastward propagating rift occurred in the East Subbasin but stopped in the middle Miocene, just before the cessation of the SCS seafloor spreading. Thirdly, the opening of the SCS extended southwestward and created the Southwest Subbasin. Fourthly, the initiation of the southeastward subduction of the SCS lithosphere occurred and the Manila Trench was formed.

  18. Photophysical properties of ruthenium(II) polyazaaromatic compounds: a theoretical insight.

    PubMed

    Pourtois, Geoffrey; Beljonne, David; Moucheron, Cécile; Schumm, Stephan; Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, Andrée; Lazzaroni, Roberto; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2004-01-21

    Quantum-chemical methods are applied to study the nature of the excited states relevant in the photophysical processes (absorption and emission) of a series of polyazaaromatic-ligand-based ruthenium(II) complexes. The electronic and optical properties of the free polyazaaromatic ligands and their corresponding ruthenium(II) complexes are determined on the basis of correlated Hartree-Fock semiempirical approaches. While the emission of complexes containing small-size ligands, such as 1,10-phenanthroline or 2,2'-bipyridine, arises from a manifold of metal-to-ligand charge-transfer triplet states ((3)MLCTs), an additional ligand-centered triplet state ((3)L) is identified in the triplet manifold of complexes containing a pi-extended ligand such as dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]phenazine, and 1,10-phenanthrolino[5,6-b]-1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene. Recent experimental data are interpreted in light of these theoretical results; namely, the origin for the abnormal solvent- and temperature-dependent emission measured in pi-extended Ru complexes is revisited. PMID:14719968

  19. Structural and functional insight into TAF1-TAF7, a subcomplex of transcription factor II D

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Suparna; Lou, Xiaohua; Hwang, Peter; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Wang, Xiaoping; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Fletterick, Robert J.; Jacobson, Raymond H.; Webb, Paul

    2014-07-01

    Transcription factor II D (TFIID) is a multiprotein complex that nucleates formation of the basal transcription machinery. TATA binding protein-associated factors 1 and 7 (TAF1 and TAF7), two subunits of TFIID, are integral to the regulation of eukaryotic transcription initiation and play key roles in preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly. Current models suggest that TAF7 acts as a dissociable inhibitor of TAF1 histone acetyltransferase activity and that this event ensures appropriate assembly of the RNA polymerase II-mediated PIC before transcriptional initiation. Here, we report the 3D structure of a complex of yeast TAF1 with TAF7 at 2.9 Å resolution. The structure displays novel architecture and is characterized by a large predominantly hydrophobic heterodimer interface and extensive cofolding of TAF subunits. There are no obvious similarities between TAF1 and known histone acetyltransferases. Instead, the surface of the TAF1–TAF7 complex contains two prominent conserved surface pockets, one of which binds selectively to an inhibitory trimethylated histone H3 mark on Lys27 in a manner that is also regulated by phosphorylation at the neighboring H3 serine. Our findings could point toward novel roles for the TAF1–TAF7 complex in regulation of PIC assembly via reading epigenetic histone marks.

  20. Sequencing Insights into Microbial Communities in the Water and Sediments of Fenghe River, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sidan; Sun, Yujiao; Zhao, Xuan; Wang, Lei; Ding, Aizhong; Zhao, Xiaohui

    2016-07-01

    The connection between microbial community structure and spatial variation and pollution in river waters has been widely investigated. However, water and sediments together have rarely been explored. In this study, Illumina high-throughput sequencing was performed to analyze microbes in 24 water and sediment samples from natural to anthropogenic sources and from headstream to downstream areas. These data were used to assess variability in microbial community structure and diversity along in the Fenghe River, China. The relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was statistically analyzed. An average of 1682 operational taxonomic units was obtained. Microbial diversity increased from the headstream to downstream and tended to be greater in sediment compared with water. The water samples near the headstream endured relatively low Shannon and Chao1 indices. These diversity indices and the number of observed species in the water and sediment samples increase downstream. The parameters also differ in the two river tributaries. Community structures shift based on the extent of nitrogen pollution variation in the sediment and water samples. The four most dominant genera in the water community were Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Comamonadaceae, and Pseudomonas. In the sediments, the most dominant genera were Stramenopiles, Flavobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Comamonadaceae. The number of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in the headstream water slightly differed from that in the sediment but varied considerably in the downstream sediments. Statistical analysis showed that community variation is correlated with changes in ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. This study identified different microbial community structures in river water and sediments. Overall this study emphasized the need to elucidate spatial variations in bacterial diversity in water and sediments associated with physicochemical gradients and to show the effects of such

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds from Chongming Island, Yangtze estuary, China: insight into migratory behavior.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Lin, Kuangfei; Guo, Jie; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wang, Junxia; Zhao, Jianhua; Zhou, Peng; Xu, Feng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Wei

    2013-06-01

    Sum-PBDEs concentrations in shorebirds and Anatidae ducks muscles from Chongming Dongtan National Nature Reserve ranged from 21-324 to 14-159ngg(-1) lw, respectively. PBDEs were detected in muscles of all the studied species. Compared with flyways around the world, migratory waterbirds on the East Asian-Australasian flyway exhibited lower PBDEs burdens than those reported on Black Sea-Mediterranean flyway in Europe and Pacific, Atlantic, Mississippi flyway in North America. Residential Eurasian tree sparrow samples indicated few PBDE products were used in Chongming Island developed in the idea of world famous eco-island. There was no significant difference in PBDEs concentrations between shorebirds and ducks. However, PBDEs composition varied between them. BDE 209 (29-44%) contributed to sum-PBDEs more than BDE 47 (17-19%) in muscles of ducks, while BDE 47 was the predominant congener in shorebirds contributing 32-48%. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes and stomach content analysis indicated shorebirds and ducks had the same dietary composition, but showed different preference to bivalves, gastropods and crustaceans for shorebirds and aquatic plant material for ducks. Migratory species had inherent migratory routes and thus had exposure to PBDEs during their stay in breeding grounds, stopover sites and wintering grounds with high use of different commercial PBDE mixtures. Higher percentage of BDE 209 in ducks than shorebirds suggested that breeding ranges and wintering grounds of ducks comprise wetlands in inland and coastal China and Korea where decaBDEs pollution was serious in Asian-Pacific region. Our findings reveal the influence of migratory behavior on PBDEs distribution in migratory waterbirds. PMID:23411092

  2. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers. PMID:26282770

  3. Initial insights into the age and origin of the Kubuqi sand sea of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Forman, Steven; Hu, Fangen; Zhang, Deguo; Liu, Ziting; Li, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    The Kubuqi Desert is the only active sand sea in the semiarid regions of northern China and occurs along the southern margin of the Yellow River. Little is known about the age and origin of this large (17,000 km2) sand sea with a present annual precipitation of 200-480 mm. Sand drift potentials indicated net capable winds for aeolian transport are from the northwest, though winds are stronger to north beyond the dune field than within the sand sea. Geomorphic and stratigraphic observations indicate that Holocene aeolian sand often drapes over bedrock and river terraces as a palimpsest landscape. Field investigations identified four stratigraphic sections with multiple aeolian sand units and palaeosols, with age control by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz grains. Palaeosols are weakly developed, mostly accumulative A horizon with organic carbon content < 1% and reflect sand sheet deposition possibly in a steppe environment. Although sediments near river channels or former lakes might give old ages, the initial formation and age of the Kubuqi sand sea should be judged from the occurrence of the sandy palimpsest of the landscape that is OSL dated to the Holocene in general. The latest period of aeolian reactivation may be related to human activity associated with grazing and farming from lost cities in the Kubuqi Desert during the Han (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) and the Tang (A.D. 608 - 907) Dynasties. Also, variable discharge of the Yellow River with local diversions for irrigation and throughout the catchment resulted in possibly an increased supply of aeolian particles for dune field expansion in the past 2 ka.

  4. Geothermal regime of Tarim basin, NW China: insights from borehole temperature logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Lei, X.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal regime of sedimentary basin is vital for understanding basin (de)formation process, hydrocarbon generation status and assessing the resource potential. Located at the Precambrian craton block, the Tarim basin is the largest intermountain basin in China, which is also the ongoing target of oil and gas exploration. Previous knowledge of thermal regime of this basin is from limited oil exploration borehole testing temperature, the inherent deficiency of data of this type makes accurate understanding of its thermal regime impossible. Here we reported our latest steady temperature logging results in this basin and analyze its thermal regime as well. In this study, 10 temperature loggings are conducted in the northern Tarim basin where the major oil and gas fields are discovered. All the boreholes for temperature logging are non-production wells and are shut in at least more than 2~3 years, ensuring the temperature equilibrium after drilling. The derived geothermal gradient varies from 20.2 to 26.1 degree/km, with a mean of 22.0 degree/km. However, some previous reported gradients in this area are obviously lower than our results; for example, the previous gradient of THN2 well is 13.2 degree/km but 23.2 degree/km in this study, and not enough equilibrium time in previous logging accounts for this discrepancy. More important, it is found that high gradients usually occur in the gas field and the gradients of the gas fields are larger than those in other oil fields, indicating higher thermal regime in gas field. The cause of this phenomenon is unclear, and the upward migration of hot fluid along fault conduit is speculated as the possible mechanism for this high geothermal anomaly in the oil and gas fields. Combined with measured thermal conductivity data, 10 new heat flow values are also achieved, and the heat flow of the Tarim basin is between 38mW/m2 and 52mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. This relatively low heat flow is coincident with that of typical

  5. Crustal features of the northeastern South China Sea: insights from seismic and magnetic interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Yi-Ching; Hsu, Shu-Kun; Doo, Wen-Bin; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Liu, Char-Shine; Lee, Chao-Shing

    2012-12-01

    We interpret seven two-dimensional deep-penetration and long-offset multi-channel seismic profiles in the northernmost South China Sea area, which were collected by R/V Marcus G. Langseth during the TAIwan GEodynamics Research (TAIGER) project in 2009. To constrain the crustal characteristics, magnetic inversion and forward magnetic modeling were also performed. The seismic results clearly show tilted faulting blocks in the upper crust and most of the fault plane connects downward to a quasi-horizontal detachment as its bottom in the south of the Luzon-Ryukyu transform plate boundary. North of the plate boundary, a small-scale failed rifted basin (minimum 5 km in crustal thickness) with negative magnetization probably indicates an extended continental origin. Significant lower crustal material (LCM) was imaged under a crustal fracture area which indicated a continent and ocean transition origin. The thickest LCM (up to 6.5 km) is located at magnetic isochron C15 that is probably caused by the magma supply composite of a Miocene syn-rift volcanic event and Pliocene Dongsha volcanic activity for submarine volcanoes and sills in the surrounding area. The LCM also caused Miocene crustal blocks to be uplifted reversely as 17 km crustal thickness especially in the area of magnetic isochron C15 and C16. In addition, the wide fault blocks and LCM co-existed on the magnetic striped area (i.e. C15-C17) in the south of the Luzon-Ryukyu transform plate boundary. Magnetic forward modeling suggests that the whole thick crustal thickness (>12 km thick) needs to be magnetized in striped way as oceanic crust. However, the result also shows that the misfit between observed and synthetic magnetic anomaly is about 40 nT, north of isochron C16. The interval velocity derived from pre-stack time migration suggests that the crust is composed of basaltic intrusive upper crust and lower crustal material. The crustal nature should refer to a transition between continent and ocean. Thus, the

  6. Insight into glucosidase II from the red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Levy-Ontman, Oshrat; Fisher, Merav; Shotland, Yoram; Tekoah, Yoram; Malis Arad, Shoshana

    2015-12-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications that occur in various organisms, and is of utmost importance for protein function, stability, secretion, and loca-lization. Although the N-linked glycosylation pathway of proteins has been extensively characterized in mammals and plants, not much information is available regarding the N-glycosylation pathway in algae. We studied the α 1,3-glucosidase glucosidase II (GANAB) glycoenzyme in a red marine microalga Porphyridium sp. (Rhodophyta) using bioinformatic and biochemical approaches. The GANAB-gene was found to be highly conserved evolutionarily (compo-sed of all the common features of α and β subunits) and to exhibit similar motifs consistent with that of homolog eukaryotes GANAB genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its wide distribution across an evolutionarily vast range of organisms; while the α subunit is highly conserved and its phylogenic tree is similar to the taxon evolutionary tree, the β subunit is less conserved and its pattern somewhat differs from the taxon tree. In addition, the activity of the red microalgal GANAB enzyme was studied, including functional and biochemical characterization using a bioassay, indicating that the enzyme is similar to other eukaryotes ortholog GANAB enzymes. A correlation between polysaccharide production and GANAB activity, indicating its involvement in polysaccharide biosynthesis, is also demonstrated. This study represents a valuable contribution toward understanding the N-glycosylation and polysaccharide biosynthesis pathways in red microalgae. PMID:26987003

  7. DNA topoisomerase II structures and anthracycline activity: insights into ternary complex formation.

    PubMed

    Dal Ben, D; Palumbo, M; Zagotto, G; Capranico, G; Moro, S

    2007-01-01

    DNA Topoisomerase II (Top2) is an essential nuclear enzyme that regulates the topological state of the DNA, and a target of very effective anticancer drugs including anthracycline antibiotics. Even though several aspects of drug activity against Top2 are understood, the drug receptor site is not yet known. Several Top2 mutants have altered drug sensitivity and have provided information of structural features determining drug action. Here, we have revised the published crystal structures of eukaryotic and prokaryotic Top2s and relevant biochemical investigations of enzyme activity and anthracycline action. In particular, we have considered Top2 mutations conferring resistance to anthracyclines and related agents. Following a previous study (Moro et al, Biochemistry, 2004; 43: 7503-13), we have then re-built a molecular model of the entire enzyme in complex with DNA after the cleavage reaction, and used it to define the receptor site of anthracyclines. The results suggest a model wherein the drug specifically contacts the cleaved DNA as well as amino acid residues of the enzyme CAP-like domain. The findings can explain several established structure-activity relationships of antitumour anthracyclines, and provide a framework for further developments of effective Top2 poison. PMID:17897022

  8. Atmospheric mercury in the Canadian Arctic. Part II: insight from modeling.

    PubMed

    Dastoor, Ashu; Ryzhkov, Andrew; Durnford, Dorothy; Lehnherr, Igor; Steffen, Alexandra; Morrison, Heather

    2015-03-15

    A review of mercury in the Canadian Arctic with a focus on field measurements is presented in part I (see Steffen et al., this issue). Here we provide insights into the dynamics of mercury in the Canadian Arctic from new and published mercury modeling studies using Environment Canada's mercury model. The model simulations presented in this study use global anthropogenic emissions of mercury for the period 1995-2005. The most recent modeling estimate of the net gain of mercury from the atmosphere to the Arctic Ocean is 75 Mg year(-1) and the net gain to the terrestrial ecosystems north of 66.5° is 42 Mg year(-1). Model based annual export of riverine mercury from North American, Russian and all Arctic watersheds to the Arctic Ocean are in the range of 2.8-5.6, 12.7-25.4 and 15.5-31.0 Mg year(-1), respectively. Analysis of long-range transport events of Hg at Alert and Little Fox Lake monitoring sites indicates that Asia contributes the most ambient Hg to the Canadian Arctic followed by contributions from North America, Russia, and Europe. The largest anthropogenic Hg deposition to the Canadian Arctic is from East Asia followed by Europe (and Russia), North America, and South Asia. An examination of temporal trends of Hg using the model suggests that changes in meteorology and changes in anthropogenic emissions equally contribute to the decrease in surface air elemental mercury concentrations in the Canadian Arctic with an overall decline of ~12% from 1990 to 2005. A slow increase in net deposition of Hg is found in the Canadian Arctic in response to changes in meteorology. Changes in snowpack and sea-ice characteristics and increase in precipitation in the Arctic related with climate change are found to be primary causes for the meteorology-related changes in air concentrations and deposition of Hg in the region. The model estimates that under the emissions reduction scenario of worldwide implementation of the best emission control technologies by 2020, mercury

  9. Structural insight into the evolutionary and pharmacologic homology of glutamate carboxypeptidases II and III

    SciTech Connect

    Hlouchova, Klara; Barinka, Cyril; Konvalinka, Jan; Lubkowski, Jacek

    2009-10-23

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII) is a metalloenzyme that belongs to the transferrin receptor/glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII; EC 3.4.17.21) superfamily. GCPIII has been studied mainly because of its evolutionary relationship to GCPII, an enzyme involved in a variety of neuropathologies and malignancies, such as glutamatergic neurotoxicity and prostate cancer. Given the potential functional and pharmacological overlap between GCPIII and GCPII, studies addressing the structural and physiological properties of GCPIII are crucial for obtaining a deeper understanding of the GCPII/GCPIII system. In the present study, we report high-resolution crystal structures of the human GCPIII ectodomain in a 'pseudo-unliganded' state and in a complex with: (a) L-glutamate (a product of hydrolysis); (b) a phosphapeptide transition state mimetic, namely (2S,3'S)-{l_brace}[(3'-amino-3'-carboxy-propyl)-hydroxyphosphinoyl]methyl{r_brace}-pentanedioic acid; and (c) quisqualic acid, a glutamate biostere. Our data reveal the overall fold and quaternary arrangement of the GCPIII molecule, define the architecture of the GCPIII substrate-binding cavity, and offer an experimental evidence for the presence of Zn{sup 2+} ions in the bimetallic active site. Furthermore, the structures allow us to detail interactions between the enzyme and its ligands and to characterize the functional flexibility of GCPIII, which is essential for substrate recognition. A comparison of these GCPIII structures with the equivalent GCPII complexes reveals differences in the organization of specificity pockets, in surface charge distribution, and in the occupancy of the co-catalytic zinc sites. The data presented here provide information that should prove to be essential for the structurally-aided design of GCPIII-specific inhibitors and might comprise guidelines for future comparative GCPII/GCPIII studies.

  10. New insights into the mineralogy of the Atlantis II Deep metalliferous sediments, Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tea E.; Hannington, Mark D.; Leybourne, Matthew; Petersen, Sven; Devey, Colin W.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter

    2015-12-01

    The Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea hosts the largest known hydrothermal ore deposit on the ocean floor and the only modern analog of brine pool-type metal deposition. The deposit consists mainly of chemical-clastic sediments with input from basin-scale hydrothermal and detrital sources. A characteristic feature is the millimeter-scale layering of the sediments, which bears a strong resemblance to banded iron formation (BIF). Quantitative assessment of the mineralogy based on relogging of archived cores, detailed petrography, and sequential leaching experiments shows that Fe-(oxy)hydroxides, hydrothermal carbonates, sulfides, and authigenic clays are the main "ore" minerals. Mn-oxides were mainly deposited when the brine pool was more oxidized than it is today, but detailed logging shows that Fe-deposition and Mn-deposition also alternated at the scale of individual laminae, reflecting short-term fluctuations in the Lower Brine. Previous studies underestimated the importance of nonsulfide metal-bearing components, which formed by metal adsorption onto poorly crystalline Si-Fe-OOH particles. During diagenesis, the crystallinity of all phases increased, and the fine layering of the sediment was enhanced. Within a few meters of burial (corresponding to a few thousand years of deposition), biogenic (Ca)-carbonate was dissolved, manganosiderite formed, and metals originally in poorly crystalline phases or in pore water were incorporated into diagenetic sulfides, clays, and Fe-oxides. Permeable layers with abundant radiolarian tests were the focus for late-stage hydrothermal alteration and replacement, including deposition of amorphous silica and enrichment in elements such as Ba and Au.

  11. Continental subduction and exhumation of UHP rocks. Structural and geochronological insights from the Dabieshan (East China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Schärer, Urs; Shu, Liangshu; Sun, Yan; Arnaud, Nicolas

    2003-10-01

    In the Dabieshan, the available models for exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks are poorly constrained by structural data. A comprehensive structural and kinematic map and a general cross-section of the Dabieshan including its foreland fold belt and the Northern Dabieshan Domain (Foziling and Luzenguang groups) are presented here. South Dabieshan consists from bottom to top of stacked allochtons: (1) an amphibolite facies gneissic unit, devoid of UHP rocks, interpreted here as the relative autochton; (2) an UHP allochton; (3) a HP rock unit (Susong group) mostly retrogressed into greenschist facies micaschists; (4) a weakly metamorphosed Proterozoic slate and sandstone unit; and (5) an unmetamorphosed Cambrian to Early Triassic sedimentary sequence unconformably covered by Jurassic sandstone. All these units exhibit a polyphase ductile deformation characterized by (i) a NW-SE lineation with a top-to-the-NW shearing, and (ii) a southward refolding of early ductile fabrics. The Central Dabieshan is a 100-km scale migmatitic dome. Newly discovered eclogite xenoliths in a Cretaceous granitoid dated at 102 Ma by the U-Pb method on titanite demonstrate that migmatization post-dates HP-UHP metamorphism. Ductile faults formed in the subsolidus state coeval to migmatization allow us to characterize the structural pattern of doming. Along the dome margins, migmatite is gneissified under post-solidus conditions and mylonitic-ultramylonitic fabrics commonly develop. The north and west boundaries of the Central Dabieshan metamorphics, i.e. the Xiaotian-Mozitan and Macheng faults, are ductile normal faults formed before Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. A Cretaceous reworking is recorded by synkinematic plutons. North of the Xiaotian-Mozitan fault, the North Dabieshan Domain consists of metasediments and orthogneiss (Foziling and Luzenguang groups) metamorphosed under greenschist to amphibolite facies which never experienced UHP metamorphism. A rare N-S-trending lineation

  12. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  13. Insights from computational analysis of full-length β-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II cDNA isolated from American and African oil palms

    PubMed Central

    Bhore, Subhash J.; Cha, Thye S.; Amelia, Kassim; Shah, Farida H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palm oil derived from fruits (mesocarp) of African oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Tenera) and American oil palm (E. oleifera) is important for food industry. Due to high yield, Elaeis guineensis (Tenera) is cultivated on commercial scale, though its oil contains high (~54%) level of saturated fatty acids. The rate-limiting activity of beta-ketoacyl-[ACP] synthase-II (KAS-II) is considered mainly responsible for the high (44%) level of palmitic acid (C16:0) in the oil obtained from E. guineensis. Objective: The objective of this study was to annotate KAS-II cDNA isolated from American and African oil palms. Materials and Methods: The full-length E. oleifera KAS-II (EoKAS-II) cDNA clone was isolated using random method of gene isolation. Whereas, the E. guineensis KAS-II (EgTKAS-II) cDNA was isolated using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique; and missing ends were obtained by employing 5’and 3’ RACE technique. Results: The results show that EoKAS-II and EgTKAS-II open reading frames (ORFs) are of 1689 and 1721 bp in length, respectively. Further analysis of the both EoKAS-II and EgTKAS-II predicted protein illustrates that they contains conserved domains for ‘KAS-I and II’, ‘elongating’ condensing enzymes, ‘condensing enzymes super-family’, and ‘3-oxoacyl-[ACP] synthase II’. The predicted protein sequences shows 95% similarity with each other. Consecutively, the three active sites (Cys, His, and His) were identified in both proteins. However, difference in positions of two active Histidine (His) residues was noticed. Conclusion: These insights may serve as the foundation in understanding the variable activity of KAS-II in American and African oil palms; and cDNA clones could be useful in the genetic engineering of oil palms. PMID:24678202

  14. Biogeographical variation and population genetic structure of sporisorium scitamineum in mainland China: Insights from ISSR and SP-SRAP markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane smut caused by Sporisorium scitamineum is the most important fungal disease in sugarcane growing in Mainland China. A total of 100 pathogen isolates collected from 20 sugarcane growing districts of 7 provinces of China and from 38 sugarcane cultivars, were investigated by inter simple sequ...

  15. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  16. New insights into the mechanism of RNA degradation by ribonuclease II: identification of the residue responsible for setting the RNase II end product.

    PubMed

    Barbas, Ana; Matos, Rute G; Amblar, Mónica; López-Viñas, Eduardo; Gomez-Puertas, Paulino; Arraiano, Cecília M

    2008-05-01

    RNase II is a key exoribonuclease involved in the maturation, turnover, and quality control of RNA. RNase II homologues are components of the exosome, a complex of exoribonucleases. The structure of RNase II unraveled crucial aspects of the mechanism of RNA degradation. Here we show that mutations in highly conserved residues at the active site affect the activity of the enzyme. Moreover, we have identified the residue that is responsible for setting the end product of RNase II. In addition, we present for the first time the models of two members of the RNase II family, RNase R from Escherichia coli and human Rrp44, also called Dis3. Our findings improve the present model for RNA degradation by the RNase II family of enzymes. PMID:18337246

  17. Characterization of DMSO Coordination to Palladium(II) in Solution and Insights into the Aerobic Oxidation Catalyst, Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Tianning; White, Paul; Guzei, Ilia; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 (TFA = trifluoroacetate) is an effective catalyst for a number of different aerobic oxidation reactions. Here, we provide insights into the coordination properties of DMSO to palladium(II) in both the solid state and in solution. A crystal structure of Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 confirms that the solid-state structure of this species has one O-bound and one S-bound DMSO ligand, and a crystallographically characterized mono-DMSO complex, trans-Pd(DMSO)(OH2)(TFA)2, exhibits an S-bound DMSO ligand. 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopic studies show that, in EtOAc and THF-d8, Pd(DMSO)2(TFA)2 consists of an equilibrium mixture of Pd(S-DMSO)(O-DMSO)(TFA)2 and Pd(S-DMSO)2(TFA)2. The O-bound DMSO is determined to be more labile than the S-bound DMSO ligand, and both DMSO ligands are more labile in THF relative to EtOAc as the solvent. DMSO coordination to PdII is substantially less favorable when the TFA ligands are replaced with acetate. An analogous carboxylate ligand effect is observed in the coordination of PdII to the bidentate sulfoxide ligand, 1,2-bis(phenylsulfinyl)ethane. DMSO coordination to Pd(TFA)2 is shown to be incomplete in AcOH-d4 and toluene-d8, resulting in PdII/DMSO adducts with < 2:1 DMSO:PdII stoichiometry. Collectively, these results provide useful insights into the coordination properties of DMSO to PdII under catalytically relevant conditions. PMID:23092381

  18. The Synthesis and Origin of the Pectic Polysaccharide Rhamnogalacturonan IIInsights from Nucleotide Sugar Formation and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Peled, Maor; Urbanowicz, Breeanna R.; O’Neill, Malcolm A.

    2012-01-01

    There is compelling evidence showing that the structurally complex pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) exists in the primary cell wall as a borate cross-linked dimer and that this dimer is required for the assembly of a functional wall and for normal plant growth and development. The results of several studies have also established that RG-II structure and cross-linking is conserved in vascular plants and that RG-II likely appeared early in the evolution of land plants. Two features that distinguish RG-II from other plant polysaccharides are that RG-II is composed of 13 different glycoses linked to each other by up to 22 different glycosidic linkages and that RG-II is the only polysaccharide known to contain both apiose and aceric acid. Thus, one key event in land plant evolution was the emergence of genes encoding nucleotide sugar biosynthetic enzymes that generate the activated forms of apiose and aceric acid required for RG-II synthesis. Many of the genes involved in the generation of the nucleotide sugars used for RG-II synthesis have been functionally characterized. By contrast, only one glycosyltransferase involved in the assembly of RG-II has been identified. Here we provide an overview of the formation of the activated sugars required for RG-II synthesis and point to the possible cellular and metabolic processes that could be involved in assembling and controlling the formation of a borate cross-linked RG-II molecule. We discuss how nucleotide sugar synthesis is compartmentalized and how this may control the flux of precursors to facilitate and regulate the formation of RG-II. PMID:22639675

  19. Titanite-scale insights into multi-stage magma mixing in Early Cretaceous of NW Jiaodong terrane, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Yang, Kui-Feng; Fan, Hong-Rui; Liu, Xuan; Cai, Ya-Chun; Yang, Yue-Heng

    2016-08-01

    The Early Cretaceous Guojialing-type granodiorites in northwestern Jiaodong terrane carry significant records for strong mantle-crust interaction during the destruction of North China Craton (NCC); however, the definite petrogenetic mechanism and detailed magmatic process remain an enigma. Titanite in igneous rocks can serve as an effective petrogenetic indicator. Here, we present integrated geochronological and geochemical studies on titanites from Guojialing-type granodiorites and their dioritic enclaves to constrain their petrogenesis. Titanites from granodiorites (G-type) and plagioclase-rich dioritic enclaves (E-type-I) present an identical U-Pb age (~ 130 Ma) and an indistinguishable wide range of Zr and total REEs contents, and Th/U ratios. However, these two types of titanites exhibit distinct micro-scale textures and geochemical compositions. G-type titanites are characterized by oscillatory zonings with two Light BSE zones (LBZ) and two or three dark BSE zones, whereas E-type-I titanites are marked by core-mantle-rim zonings. Drastic increase of LREEs, Zr, Hf, and Fe and decrease of Nb, Ta, Al, and F contents are observed in LBZ of G-type titanites, whereas remarkable reduction of LREEs, Zr, and Hf and elevation of F contents are observed from the cores to the mantles of E-type-I titanites. Based on Zr-in-titanite thermometry, G-type titanites are interpreted to have experienced twice notable temperature increase, while E-type-I titanites are inferred to have undergone a rapid cooling process. Furthermore, we suggest that the drastic chemical changes in G-type and E-type-I titanites are ascribed to early-stage magma mixing between a colder felsic magma and a Fe-, REE-rich hotter dioritic magma. Compared to G-type and E-type-I titanites, titanites from plagioclase-poor dioritic enclaves (E-type-II) are characterized by their occurrence in interstitial space and present a relatively younger U-Pb age (~ 128 Ma) and much narrower and lower range of Zr, total

  20. Emergence of dengue virus 4 genotype II in Guangzhou, China, 2010: Survey and molecular epidemiology of one community outbreak

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The re-emergence of dengue virus 4 (DENV-4) has become a public health concern in South America, Southeast Asia and South Asia. However, it has not been known to have caused a local outbreak in China for the past 20 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the epidemiology of one local community outbreak caused by DENV-4 in Guangzhou city, China, in 2010; and to determine the molecular characteristics of the genotype II virus involved. Case presentations During September and October of 2010, one imported case, a Guangzhou resident who travelled back from Thailand, resulted in 18 secondary autochthonous cases in Guangzhou City, with an incidence rate of 5.53 per 10,000 residents. In indigenous cases, 14 serum samples tested positive for IgM against DENV and 7 for IgG from a total of 15 submitted serum samples, accompanied by 5 DENV-4 isolates. With identical envelope gene nucleotide sequences, the two isolates (D10168-GZ from the imported index case and Guangzhou 10660 from the first isolate in the autochthonous cases) were grouped into DENV-4 genotype II after comparison to 32 previous DENV-4 isolates from GenBank that originated from different areas. Conclusions Based on epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, the outbreak, which was absent for 20 years after the DENV-4 genotype I outbreak in 1990, was confirmed as DENV-4 genotype II and initially traced to the imported index case, a Guangzhou resident who travelled back from Thailand. PMID:22497881

  1. Taxonomic study of the genus Promalactis Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Oecophoridae) from Hainan Island, China (II).

    PubMed

    Hu, Sha; Wang, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Ten species of the genus Promalactis Meyrick, 1908 are treated from Hainan Island, China. Eight species are described as new: P. falciprocessa sp. nov.; P. bilobulata sp. nov.; P. longivalvaris sp. nov.; P. pugnivalvata sp. nov.; P. termelliptica sp. nov.; P. gladiata sp. nov.; P. lucida sp. nov. and P. latitaeniata sp. nov.; the male of P. caperatiella Kim et Park, 2014 and the female of P. clavata Du, Li et Wang, 2011 are reported for the first time in science; and P. caperatiella Kim et Park, 2014 is newly recorded in China. Images of adults and genitalia are provided. PMID:27395739

  2. Noninvasive genetics provides insights into the population size and genetic diversity of an Amur tiger population in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Yibo; Ma, Tianxiao; Nie, Yonggang; Xie, Yan; Wei, Fuwen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population size and genetic diversity is critical for effective conservation of endangered species. The Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) is the largest felid and a flagship species for wildlife conservation. Due to habitat loss and human activities, available habitat and population size are continuously shrinking. However, little is known about the true population size and genetic diversity of wild tiger populations in China. In this study, we collected 55 fecal samples and 1 hair sample to investigate the population size and genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers in Hunchun National Nature Reserve, Jilin Province, China. From the samples, we determined that 23 fecal samples and 1 hair sample were from 7 Amur tigers: 2 males, 4 females and 1 individual of unknown sex. Interestingly, 2 fecal samples that were presumed to be from tigers were from Amur leopards, highlighting the significant advantages of noninvasive genetics over traditional methods in studying rare and elusive animals. Analyses from this sample suggested that the genetic diversity of wild Amur tigers is much lower than that of Bengal tigers, consistent with previous findings. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of this Hunchun population in China was lower than that of the adjoining subpopulation in southwest Primorye Russia, likely due to sampling bias. Considering the small population size and relatively low genetic diversity, it is urgent to protect this endangered local subpopulation in China. PMID:26663614

  3. China’s R&D for Energy Efficient Buildings: Insights for U.S. Cooperation with China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    This report includes an evaluation of China’s current activities and future direction in building energy efficiency R&D and its relevance to DOE’s R&D activities under the Building Technologies Program in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The researchers reviewed the major R&D programs in China including the so-called 973 Program, the 863 Program, and the Key Technology R&D Program1 as well as the research activities of major research institutes. The report also reviewed several relevant documents of the Chinese government, websites (including the International Energy Agency and national and local governments in China), newsletters, and financial information listed in the program documents and websites.

  4. Propagated rifting in the Southwest Sub-basin, South China Sea: Insights from 3D analogue modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Weiwei; Li, Jiabiao

    2015-04-01

    Most of earth scientists agree that the South China Sea is a rifted marginal sea in the western Pacific. How and when the South China Sea rifted has long been a puzzling question and still debated, especially in the Southwest Sub-basin (SWSB). Analog modeling remains one of the useful tools for testing rift model and process. Here we present and discuss a series of analog modeling experiments designed to investigate the rifting process of the SWSB. Convincing geophysical data were compiled to provide truthful constraints to test the experimental results and interpretations. The results show that rigid tectonic blocks existed in the continental margin, such as the Zhongsha Islands and the Reed Bank, and played an important role in shaping up the continent-ocean boundary (COB) and the coupling between the crust and mantle. Our data suggest that the initial thermal condition and rheologial stratification of the lithosphere under the South China Sea controlled the rifting process of the SWSB. The first-stage seafloor spreading has weakened the lithosphere surrounding the East Sub-basin, and the extension was centered on the deep troughs between the rigid blocks. Rifting bagan in these deep troughs in the east part of the SWSB, and the break-up occurred in localized areas between the rigid blocks. The V-shaped configuration of the SWSB also argues for a propagated rifting model.

  5. Metagenomic insights into the dominant Fe(II) oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria from an iron mat at Lō´ihi, Hawai´l

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Esther; Heidelberg, John F.; Dhillon, Ashita; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2013-01-01

    Zetaproteobacteria are among the most prevalent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) at deep-sea hydrothermal vents; however, knowledge about their environmental significance is limited. We provide metagenomic insights into an iron mat at the Lō´ihi Seamount, Hawai´l, revealing novel genomic information of locally dominant Zetaproteobacteria lineages. These lineages were previously estimated to account for ~13% of all local Zetaproteobacteria based on 16S clone library data. Biogeochemically relevant genes include nitrite reductases, which were previously not identified in Zetaproteobacteria, sulfide:quinone oxidases, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCo). Genes assumed to be involved in Fe(II) oxidation correlate in synteny and share 87% amino acid similarity with those previously identified in the related Zetaproteobacterium Mariprofundus ferrooxydans PV-1. Overall, Zetaproteobacteria genes appear to originate primarily from within the Proteobacteria and the Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. and are predicted to facilitate adaptation to a deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment in addition to microaerophilic Fe(II) and H2S oxidation. This dataset represents the first metagenomic study of FeOB from an iron oxide mat at a deep-sea hydrothermal habitat. PMID:23518919

  6. Insights into the Mechanism of Fe(II) Adsorption and Oxidation at Fe-Clay Mineral Surfaces from First-Principles Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Vitali Y.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2013-10-02

    Interfacial reactivity of redox-active iron-bearing mineral surfaces plays a crucial role in many environmental processes including biogeochemical cycling of various elements and contaminants. Herein, we apply density-functional-theory (DFT) calculations to provide atomistic insights into the heterogeneous reaction between aqueous Fe(II) and the Fe-bearing clay mineral nontronite Fe2Si4O10(OH)2 by studying its adsorption mechanism and interfacial Fe(II)-Fe(III) electron transfer (ET) at edge and basal surfaces. We find that edge-bound Fe(II) adsorption complexes at different surface sites (ferrinol, silanol and mixed) may coexist on both (010) and (110) edge facets, with complexes at ferrinol FeO(H) sites being the most energetically favorable and coupled to proton transfer. Calculation of the ET activation energy suggests that interfacial ET into dioctahedral Fe(III) sheets is probable at the clay edges and occurs predominantly but not exclusively through the complexes adsorbed at ferrinol sites and might also involve mixed sites. No clear evidence is found for complexes on basal surface that are compatible with ET through the basal sheet despite this experimentally hypothesized ET interface. This study suggests a strong pH-dependence of Fe(II) surface complexation at basal versus edge facets and highlights the importance of the protonation state of bridging ligands and proton coupled electron transfer to facilitate ET into Fe-rich clay minerals.

  7. Insight into the evolution of avian flight from a new clade of Early Cretaceous ornithurines from China and the morphology of Yixianornis grabaui

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Julia A; Zhou, Zhonghe; Zhang, Fucheng

    2006-01-01

    In studies of the evolution of avian flight there has been a singular preoccupation with unravelling its origin. By contrast, the complex changes in morphology that occurred between the earliest form of avian flapping flight and the emergence of the flight capabilities of extant birds remain comparatively little explored. Any such work has been limited by a comparative paucity of fossils illuminating bird evolution near the origin of the clade of extant (i.e. ‘modern’) birds (Aves). Here we recognize three species from the Early Cretaceous of China as comprising a new lineage of basal ornithurine birds. Ornithurae is a clade that includes, approximately, comparatively close relatives of crown clade Aves (extant birds) and that crown clade. The morphology of the best-preserved specimen from this newly recognized Asian diversity, the holotype specimen of Yixianornis grabaui Zhou and Zhang 2001, complete with finely preserved wing and tail feather impressions, is used to illustrate the new insights offered by recognition of this lineage. Hypotheses of avian morphological evolution and specifically proposed patterns of change in different avian locomotor modules after the origin of flight are impacted by recognition of the new lineage. The complete articulated holotype specimen of Yixianornis grabaui, from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Liaoning Province, in north-eastern China, arguably the best-preserved basal ornithurine specimen yet discovered, provides the earliest evidence consistent with the presence of extant avian tail feather fanning. PMID:16533313

  8. Spectroscopic Studies of the Salmonella enterica Adenosyltransferase Enzyme SeCobA: Molecular-Level Insight into the Mechanism of Substrate Cob(II)alamin Activation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    CobA from Salmonella enterica (SeCobA) is a member of the family of ATP:Co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase (ACAT) enzymes that participate in the biosynthesis of adenosylcobalamin by catalyzing the transfer of the adenosyl group from an ATP molecule to a reactive Co(I)rrinoid species transiently generated in the enzyme active site. This reaction is thermodynamically challenging, as the reduction potential of the Co(II)rrinoid precursor in solution is far more negative than that of available reducing agents in the cell (e.g., flavodoxin), precluding nonenzymic reduction to the Co(I) oxidation state. However, in the active sites of ACATs, the Co(II)/Co(I) redox potential is increased by >250 mV via the formation of a unique four-coordinate (4c) Co(II)rrinoid species. In the case of the SeCobA ACAT, crystallographic and kinetic studies have revealed that the phenylalanine 91 (F91) and tryptophan 93 (W93) residues are critical for in vivo activity, presumably by blocking access to the lower axial ligand site of the Co(II)rrinoid substrate. To further assess the importance of the F91 and W93 residues with respect to enzymatic function, we have characterized various SeCobA active-site variants using electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies. Our data provide unprecedented insight into the mechanism by which SeCobA converts the Co(II)rrinoid substrate to 4c species, with the hydrophobicity, size, and ability to participate in offset π-stacking interactions of key active-site residues all being critical for activity. The structural changes that occur upon Co(II)rrinoid binding also appear to be crucial for properly orienting the transiently generated Co(I) “supernucleophile” for rapid reaction with cosubstrate ATP. PMID:25423616

  9. The presence of genogroup II norovirus in retail shellfish from seven coastal cities in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li-ping; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Lin; Li, Xin-guang; Zhou, De-qing; Zhang, Rui-ling

    2013-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are commonly occurring pathogens that cause gastroenteritis. Outbreaks of viral diseases have often been ascribed to the consumption of contaminated shellfish. Our objective was to evaluate the presence and contamination levels of NoV in shellfish sold at seafood markets in China. We tested 840 shellfish samples (Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus edulis, Azumapecten farreri, SinoNoVacula constricta, Scapharca subcrenata, Ruditapes philippinarum) that were collected from seven cities around the Yellow and Bohai Seas in China between December 2009 and November 2011. We used real-time RT-PCR to detect NoV in purified concentrates from the stomach and digestive diverticula of these shellfish. NoV was detected in 19.35 % (N = 155), 16.67 % (N = 114), 5.70 % (N = 158), 8.82 % (N = 136), 13.74 % (N = 131), and 16.44 % (N = 146) of oyster, mussel, scallop, razor clam, ark shell, and clam samples, respectively. The average detection rate was 13.33 % (112/840). Nucleotide sequencing of the NoV RT-PCR products demonstrated that all strains belonged to NoV genotype GII.12, except two that belonged to GI.3. More than 10² copies of the NoV genome were detected in 69 of 112 positive shellfish samples. Our results suggest that ~13 % of shellfish harbor NoV, and GII.12 NoV is the primary strain in shellfish purchased at markets in seven coastal cities in China. PMID:23412724

  10. New insights on Late Quaternary Asian palaeomonsoon variability and the timing of the Last Glacial Maximum in southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Charlotte G.; Jones, Richard T.; Langdon, Peter G.; Leng, Melanie J.; Zhang, Enlou

    2011-04-01

    A ˜6.35 m core (06SD) was retrieved from Lake Shudu, Yunnan Province, China. The sediments spanning the period ˜22.6-10.5 kcal. yr BP (6.35-1.44 m) were analysed using a combination of variables including pollen, charcoal, particle size, magnetic susceptibility and loss-on-ignition. The resulting palaeorecord provides a high-resolution reconstruction of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene climatic and environmental changes in southwestern China. Our findings indicate that from c. 22.6 to 17.7 kcal. yr BP, vegetation assemblages were primarily aligned to sparse xerophytic grassland/tundra or cold-tolerant boreal Pinus forest, indicating that climatic conditions in southwestern China were cold and dry. However, from c. 17.7 to 17.4 kcal. yr BP, the Lake Shudu record is punctuated by marked environmental changes. These include the establishment of denser vegetation cover, a marked expansion of boreal Pinus forest and enhanced hydrological activity in the catchment over centennial timescales, perhaps suggesting that stepwise variations in the Asian Monsoon were triggering fundamental environmental changes over sub-millennial timescales. Thereafter, the pollen record captures a period of environmental instability reflected in fluctuations across all of the variables, which persists until c. 17.1 kcal. yr BP. After c. 17.1 kcal. yr BP, the expansion of steppe vegetation cover and cold-cool mixed forest consisting of mesophilous vegetation such as Tsuga and Picea, thermophilous trees including Ulmus and deciduous Quercus inferred from the Lake Shudu pollen record point to the establishment of warmer, wetter and perhaps more seasonal conditions associated with a strengthening Asian Summer Monsoon during the shift from Pleistocene to Holocene climatic conditions.

  11. A new insight into Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) utilization from 2500-year-old Yanghai Tombs, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Zhao, You-Xing; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Bera, Subir; Wang, Yu-Fei; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2006-12-01

    A cache of shoots, leaves and fruits dated by (14)C at 2500 years B.P. were unearthed in the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan District in Xinjiang, China. By comparing the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the plant remains found in the tomb and specimens of modern plants, it is shown that the remains belong to Cannabis. Based on the shamanistic background of the deceased man and ancient customs, it is assumed that the Cannabis was utilized for ritual/medicinal purposes. PMID:16879937

  12. Mechanistic insight into chromium(VI) reduction by oxalic acid in the presence of manganese(II).

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Katarzyna; Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez Ibarra, Alan Alexander; Mendez Garcia, Manuel; Yanez Barrientos, Eunice; Wrobel, Kazimierz

    2015-12-30

    Over the past few decades, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) has been studied in many physicochemical contexts. In this research, we reveal the mechanism underlying the favorable effect of Mn(II) observed during Cr(VI) reduction by oxalic acid using liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric diode array detector (HPLC-DAD), nitrogen microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HPLC-MP-AES), and high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOFMS). Both reaction mixtures contained potassium dichromate (0.67 mM Cr(VI)) and oxalic acid (13.3mM), pH 3, one reaction mixture contained manganese sulfate (0.33 mM Mn(II)). In the absence of Mn(II) only trace amounts of reaction intermediates were generated, most likely in the following pathways: (1) Cr(VI)→ Cr(IV) and (2) Cr(VI)+Cr(IV)→ 2Cr(V). In the presence of Mn(II), the active reducing species appeared to be Mn(II) bis-oxalato complex (J); the proposed reaction mechanism involves a one-electron transfer from J to any chromium compound containing CrO bond, which is reduced to CrOH, and the generation of Mn(III) bis-oxalato complex (K). Conversion of K to J was observed, confirming the catalytic role of Mn(II). Since no additional acidification was required, the results obtained in this study may be helpful in designing a new, environmentally friendly strategy for the remediation of environments contaminated with Cr(VI). PMID:26177490

  13. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands. PMID:26239647

  14. Should Exotic Eucalyptus be Planted in Subtropical China: Insights from Understory Plant Diversity in Two Contrasting Eucalyptus Chronosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianping; Fan, Houbao; Liu, Wenfei; Huang, Guomin; Tang, Jianfu; Zeng, Ruijin; Huang, Jing; Liu, Zhanfeng

    2015-11-01

    Although Eucalyptus is widely planted in South China, whose effects on native biodiversity are unclear. The objective of this study was to quantify the richness and composition of understory plants in two contrasting Eucalyptus chronosequences in South China. One was in Zhangzhou City with plantation age of 2, 4, and 6 years after clear-cutting Chinese fir forests, while the other was in Heshan City with plantation age of 2, 3, and 24 years that reforested on barren lands. Results showed that the richness of understory plants and functional groups was not significantly altered in the Zhangzhou chronosequence, while increased in the 24-year-old plantations, with a significantly larger proportion of woody plants than the younger plantations for the Heshan chronosequence. Moreover, a higher richness of woody plants accompanied by a lower richness of herbaceous species was detected in the Zhangzhou chronosequence compared with the Heshan one. To balance the need for pulp production and plant diversity conservation, we suggest that intercropping approaches between exotic Eucalyptus plantations and native forests should be considered in the fast rotation Eucalyptus plantations. However, Eucalyptus plantations may be used as pioneer species to sustain ecosystem functioning for the degraded lands.

  15. Water exchange on seven-coordinate Mn(II) complexes with macrocyclic pentadentate ligands: insight in the mechanism of Mn(II) SOD mimetics.

    PubMed

    Dees, Anne; Zahl, Achim; Puchta, Ralph; Hommes, Nico J R van Eikema; Heinemann, Frank W; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana

    2007-04-01

    Seven-coordinate manganese(II) complexes [Mn(L)(H2O)2]2+, where L represents an equatorial pentadentate macrocyclic ligand with five nitrogen donor atoms, were studied with regard to their acid-base properties, water-exchange rate constants, and corresponding activation parameters (DeltaH, DeltaS, and DeltaV). Three of the studied complexes without imine bonds in the macrocyclic ligand are proven superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics. Their water-exchange parameters were compared with those of the imino groups containing complex [Mn(L1)(Cl)2] (dichloro-2,13-dimethyl-3,6,9,12,18-pentaazabicyclo[12.3.1]-octadeca-1(18),2,12,14,16-pentaenemanganese(II)), which does not show SOD activity. In addition the X-ray crystal structure of a new complex, dichloro-2,6-bis[1-(2-(N-methylamino)ethylimino)ethyl]pyridine-manganese(II) [Mn(L2)(Cl)2], which is the acyclic analog of [Mn(L1)(Cl)2], is reported. Stability constants of the complexes and the pKa values of the ligands were measured by potentiometric titration. The titrations of [Mn(L1)(H2O)2]2+ and [Mn(L2)(H2O)2]2+ led to complicated species distribution curves because of their ligands containing imine bonds. Water exchange was measured by temperature- and pressure-dependent 17O NMR techniques. In addition to the measurements on [Mn(EDTA)(H2O)]2- and its derivatives, this is the only study of water exchange on seven-coordinate manganese complexes. The water exchange rate constants vary between 1.6 x 107 s-1 and 5.8 x 107 s-1 at 25 degrees C and are mainly controlled by the pi-acceptor abilities of the ligands. The exchange rate constant of the diaqua-1,4,7,10,13-pentaazacyclopentadecanemanganese(II) [Mn([15]aneN5)(H2O)2]2+ complex seems to be even higher but could not be exactly determined. On the basis of the obtained activation parameters, the exchange mechanism of the studied seven-coordinate manganese(II) complexes follows a dissociative pathway (Id mechanism). DFT calculations (UB3LYP/LANL2DZp) were performed to obtain

  16. Insights into characteristics, sources, and evolution of submicron aerosols during harvest seasons in the Yangtze River delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. J.; Tang, L. L.; Wang, Z.; Yu, H. X.; Sun, Y. L.; Liu, D.; Qin, W.; Canonaco, F.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Zhang, H. L.; Zhou, H. C.

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric submicron particulate matter (PM1) is one of the most significant pollution components in China. Despite its current popularity in the studies of aerosol chemistry, the characteristics, sources and evolution of atmospheric PM1 species are still poorly understood in China, particularly for the two harvest seasons, namely, the summer wheat harvest and autumn rice harvest. An Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) was deployed for online monitoring of PM1 components during summer and autumn harvest seasons in urban Nanjing, in the Yangtze River delta (YRD) region of China. PM1 components were shown to be dominated by organic aerosol (OA, 39 and 41%) and nitrate (23 and 20%) during the harvest seasons (the summer and autumn harvest). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the ACSM OA mass spectra resolved four OA factors: hydrocarbon-like mixed with cooking-related OA (HOA + COA), fresh biomass-burning OA (BBOA), oxidized biomass-burning-influenced OA (OOA-BB), and highly oxidized OA (OOA); in particular the oxidized BBOA contributes ~80% of the total BBOA loadings. Both fresh and oxidized BBOA exhibited apparent diurnal cycles with peak concentration at night, when the high ambient relative humidity and low temperature facilitated the partitioning of semi-volatile organic species into the particle phase. The fresh BBOA concentrations for the harvests are estimated as BBOA = 15.1 × (m/z 60-0.26% × OA), where m/z (mass-to-charge ratio) 60 is a marker for levoglucosan-like species. The (BBOA + OOA-BB)/ΔCO, (ΔCO is the CO minus background CO), decreases as a function of f44 (fraction of m/z 44 in OA signal), which might indicate that BBOA was oxidized to less volatile OOA, e.g., more aged and low volatility OOA (LV-OOA) during the aging process. Analysis of air mass back trajectories indicates that the high BB pollutant concentrations are linked to the air masses from the western (summer harvest) and southern (autumn harvest) areas.

  17. Remagnetization of lower Silurian black shale and insights into shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, south China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Liu, Mancang; Xie, Wuren; Wei, Guoqi; Li, Yongxiang

    2016-02-01

    The organic-rich lower Silurian shale of the Longmaxi Formation in the Sichuan Basin is the most important target for shale-gas exploration in China. Most Paleozoic rocks of the Sichuan Basin have experienced extraordinarily pervasive remagnetizations. To test a hypothesized connection between hydrocarbon generation and remagnetization and contribute to shale-gas exploration in the region, we undertook an integrated magnetic, geochemical, and petrographic study of 160 specimens from the shale. The results suggest that the shale contains a reliable remanent magnetization (Dec = 41.4°, Inc = 40.8°, and α95 = 6.8°). The magnetization predates tilting, and the paleopole plots close to the Late Triassic segment of the south China apparent polar wander path. The rock magnetic data and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations confirm that framboidal magnetites carry the bulk of the magnetization, which suggest a Late Triassic chemical remanent magnetization in the shale. 87Sr/86Sr and magnetic analyses indicate that the amount of magnetite was unaffected by fluid alterations around the veins but is strongly covariant with the amount of total organic matter. Moreover, SEM observations reveal possible evidence of the replacement of pyrite framboids by magnetite, probably in the presence of organic acids. These analyses, therefore, suggest that the remagnetization was caused by organic maturation rather than orogenic fluids and that the maturation occurred in the Late Triassic. This timing of organic maturation has been validated by independent modeling studies and provides important constraints on the complex thermal history of the Longmaxi Shale as well as contributing to shale-gas exploration efforts.

  18. Insights into the crystal-packing effects on the spin crossover of [Fe(II)(1-bpp)](2+)-based materials.

    PubMed

    Vela, Sergi; Novoa, Juan J; Ribas-Arino, Jordi

    2014-12-28

    Iron(II) complexes of the [Fe(II)(1-bpp2)](2+) type (1-bpp = 2,6-di(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine) have been intensively investigated in the context of crystal engineering of switchable materials because their spin-crossover (SCO) properties dramatically depend on the counterions. Here, by means of DFT + U calculations at the molecular and solid state levels we provide a rationale for the different SCO behaviour of the BF4(-) and ClO4(-) salts of the parent complex; the former features Fe(II) complexes with a regular coordination geometry and undergoes a spin transition, whereas the Fe(II) complexes of the latter adopt a distorted structure and remain in the high-spin state at all temperatures. The different SCO behaviour of both salts can be explained on the basis of a combination of thermodynamic and kinetic effects. The shape of the SCO units at high temperature is thermodynamically controlled by the intermolecular interactions between the SCO units and counterions within the crystal. The spin trapping at low temperatures in the ClO4(-) salt, in turn, is traced back to a kinetic effect because our calculations have revealed the existence of a more stable polymorph having SCO units in their low-spin state that feature a regular structure. From the computational point of view, it is the first time that the U parameter is fine-tuned on the basis of CASPT2 calculations, thereby enabling an accurate description of the energetics of the spin transition at both molecular and solid-state levels. PMID:25380527

  19. Crystal Structure of Sensory Rhodopsin II at 2.4 Angstroms: Insights into Color Tuning and Transducer Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Luecke, Hartmut; Schobert, Brigitte; Lanyi, Janos K.; Spudich, Elena N.; Spudich, John L.

    2016-01-01

    We report an atomic-resolution structure for a sensory member of the microbial rhodopsin family, the phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin II (NpSRII), which mediates blue-light avoidance by the haloarchaeon Natronobacterium pharaonis. The 2.4 angstrom structure reveals features responsible for the 70- to 80-nanometer blue shift of its absorption maximum relative to those of haloarchaeal transport rhodopsins, as well as structural differences due to its sensory, as opposed to transport, function. Multiple factors appear to account for the spectral tuning difference with respect to bacteriorhodopsin: (i) repositioning of the guanidinium group of arginine 72, a residue that interacts with the counterion to the retinylidene protonated Schiff base; (ii) rearrangement of the protein near the retinal ring; and (iii) changes in tilt and slant of the retinal polyene chain. Inspection of the surface topography reveals an exposed polar residue, tyrosine 199, not present in bacteriorhodopsin, in the middle of the membrane bilayer. We propose that this residue interacts with the adjacent helices of the cognate NpSRII transducer NpHtrII. PMID:11452084

  20. Two tales of the continental lithospheric mantle prior to the destruction of the North China Craton: Insights from Early Cretaceous mafic intrusions in western Shandong, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Jun-Wei; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2012-11-01

    Weakened lithospheric zones such as the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and Tan-Lu fault zone played important roles in the destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) during the late Mesozoic. Early Cretaceous mafic intrusions in western Shandong, contemporary with extensive magmatism during the destruction of the NCC, delineate two spatially distinct mantle domains (EM1- and EM2-like) beneath the craton’s interior and weakened lithospheric zones, respectively. The Jinan and Zouping gabbros from the craton interior (∼128 Ma) show fractionated LREE and nearly flat HREE patterns ([La/Yb]N = 2.94-8.95; [Dy/Yb]N = 1.23-1.69) with notable negative Ta, Nb and Ti anomalies. They have strong negative εNd(t) (-15.7 to -7.1), low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.7039-0.7060) and negative zircon εHf(t) of -20.0 to -6.2. These “crustal fingerprints” cannot be explained by crustal contamination, but were likely derived from a hybrid mantle source. Crustal delamination or detachment during the Early Paleoproterozoic might be responsible for the involvement of Early Precambrian crustal materials in the Mesozoic mantle source beneath the southeastern NCC. In comparison, the Early Cretaceous mafic igneous rocks from regions (e.g., Yinan, Mengyin and Fangcheng) adjacent to the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and Tan-Lu fault zone have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7059-0.7119), suggesting modification of the lithospheric mantle by melts/fluids derived from the Yangtze crust. The Mesozoic crustal delamination may have triggered the destruction of the lithospheric root beneath the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, whereas the lithospheric thinning beneath the interior of the southeastern NCC is attributed to the thermo-mechanical erosion by lateral convective asthenosphere.

  1. Iron isotope fractionation between aqueous Fe(II) and goethite revisited: New insights based on a multi-direction approach to equilibrium and isotopic exchange rate modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frierdich, Andrew J.; Beard, Brian L.; Reddy, Thiruchelvi R.; Scherer, Michelle M.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2014-08-01

    The Fe isotope compositions of naturally occurring Fe oxide minerals provide insights into biogeochemical processes that occur in modern and ancient environments. Key to understanding isotopic variations in such minerals is knowledge of the equilibrium Fe isotope fractionation factors between common minerals and aqueous Fe species. Because experimental measurements of isotopic fractionation may reflect a combination of kinetic and equilibrium fractionations during rapid dissolution and precipitation, even in experiments that employ the three-isotope method, assessment of the attainment of equilibrium is often difficult. Here, we re-examine Fe isotope exchange, via a 57Fe tracer, and natural mass-dependent fractionation, through changes in initial 56Fe/54Fe ratios, between aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) and goethite. This approach uses the three-isotope method, but is distinct in its evaluation of kinetic isotope fractionation and the attainment of equilibrium by: (i) employing a multi-direction approach to equilibrium at 22 °C via reaction of three Fe(II)aq solutions that had different initial 56Fe/54Fe ratios, (ii) conducting isotopic exchange experiments at elevated temperature (50 °C), and (iii) modifying the rate of isotopic exchange through a combination of trace-element substitutions and particle coarsening to evaluate corresponding temporal changes in fractionation trajectories that may reflect changing instantaneous fractionation factors. We find that rapid isotopic exchange produces kinetic isotope effects between Fe(II)aq and goethite, which shifts the 56Fe/54Fe ratios of Fe(II)aq early in reactions toward that of goethite, indicating that the instantaneous Fe(II)aq-goethite fractionation factor under kinetic conditions is small. Importantly, however, this kinetic fractionation is “erased” with continued reaction, and this is evident by the congruence for multiple-exchange trajectories of distinct initial Fe(II)aq solutions toward the same final value

  2. Precipitation and Air Pollution at Mountain and Plain Stations in Northern China: Insights Gained from Observations and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Jianping; Deng, Minjun; Fan, Jiwen; Li, Zhanqing; Chen, Qian; Zhai, Panmao; Dai, Zhijian; Li, Xiaowen

    2014-04-27

    We analyzed 40 year data sets of daily average visibility (a proxy for surface aerosol concentration) and hourly precipitation at seven weather stations, including three stations located on the Taihang Mountains, during the summertime in northern China. There was no significant trend in summertime total precipitation at almost all stations. However, light rain decreased, whereas heavy rain increased as visibility decreased over the period studied. The decrease in light rain was seen in both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds. The consistent trends in observed changes in visibility, precipitation, and orographic factor appear to be a testimony to the effects of aerosols. The potential impact of large-scale environmental factors, such as precipitable water, convective available potential energy, and vertical wind shear, on precipitation was investigated. No direct links were found. To validate our observational hypothesis about aerosol effects, Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations with spectral-bin microphysics at the cloud-resolving scale were conducted. Model results confirmed the role of aerosol indirect effects in reducing the light rain amount and frequency in the mountainous area for both orographic-forced shallow clouds and mesoscale stratiform clouds and in eliciting a different response in the neighboring plains. The opposite response of light rain to the increase in pollution when there is no terrain included in the model suggests that orography is likely a significant factor contributing to the opposite trends in light rain seen in mountainous and plain areas.

  3. Seventeenth century organic agriculture in China: II. Energy flows through an agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region

    SciTech Connect

    Dazhong, W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-03-01

    The energy flows in a seventeenth century agroecosystem in Jiaxing Region of eastern China were analyzed on the basis of historical data. The agroecosystem included cropping, mulberry-silkworm livestock, and fishing systems. In terms of energy, the agroecosystem was sustainable. Human labor provided all the power with inputs of about 3700 hr per hectare of farmland. Most or 70% of the labor was expended in the cropping system. Human and animal manure provided most of the nutrients for crop and mulberry production. About two-thirds of the total manure was used in crop production and one-third in the mulberry plantations. The only fossil energy input was a few hand tools. Approximately 55% of the grain was consumed directly by local residents, about one-third of the grain was used to make an alcohol drink and produce distillers' grains, which was fed to pigs, and only 2% of the grains were exported outside the agroecosystem. About two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used as household fuel, while the remainder was returned to the field as an organic fertilizer. Pork accounted for 85% and silk cocoons 14% of the total animal products produced. Even though the agroecosystem was generally sustainable in terms of energy, the major environmental problem was that two-thirds of the harvested crop residues were used for household fuel. This reduced nutrient cycling in the system. Insufficient land was available to produce fuelwood; thus, crop residues were the primary source of fuel for the people.

  4. Antimicrobial effects of copper(II) bis(thiosemicarbazonato) complexes provide new insight into their biochemical mode of action.

    PubMed

    Djoko, Karrera Y; Paterson, Brett M; Donnelly, Paul S; McEwan, Alastair G

    2014-04-01

    The copper(II) complexes of bis-thiosemicarbazones (Cu(btsc)) such as Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm) are neutral, lipophilic compounds that show promise as therapeutics for the treatment of certain neurological diseases and cancers. Although the effects of these compounds have been described at the cellular level, there is almost no information about their biochemical mode of action. In this work, we showed that Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm) displayed antimicrobial activities against the human obligate pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae that were more than 100 times more potent than Cu(NO3)2 salt alone. Treatment with Cu(btsc) also produced phenotypes that were consistent with copper poisoning, but the levels of intracellular copper were undetectable by ICP MS. We observed that Cu(btsc) interacted with proteins in the cell membrane. Systematic measurements of O2 uptake further demonstrated that treatment with both Cu(atsm) and Cu(gtsm) led to dose-dependent inhibition of respiratory electron transfer processes via succinate and NADH dehydrogenases. These dehydrogenases were not inhibited by a non-btsc source of Cu(II). The results led us to conclude that the biochemical mechanism of Cu(btsc) action is likely more complex than the present, simplistic model of copper release into the cytoplasm. PMID:24435165

  5. Patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic diversity during a long-term succession of forest on the Loess Plateau, China: insights into assembly process

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Yaoxin; Wang, Mao; Xu, Jinshi; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Ruichang

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the drivers underlying the distribution of biodiversity during succession is a critical issue in ecology and conservation, and also can provide insights into the mechanisms of community assembly. Ninety plots were established in the Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi in China. The taxonomic and phylogenetic (alpha and beta) diversity were quantified within six succession stages. Null models were used to test whether phylogenetic distance observed differed from random expectations. Taxonomic beta diversity did not show a regular pattern, while phylogenetic beta diversity decreased throughout succession. The shrub stage occurred as a transition from phylogenetic overdispersion to clustering either for NRI (Net Relatedness Index) or betaNRI. The betaNTI (Nearest Taxon Index) values for early stages were on average phylogenetically random, but for the betaNRI analyses, these stages were phylogenetically overdispersed. Assembly of woody plants differed from that of herbaceous plants during late community succession. We suggest that deterministic and stochastic processes respectively play a role in different aspects of community phylogenetic structure for early succession stage, and that community composition of late succession stage is governed by a deterministic process. In conclusion, the long-lasting evolutionary imprints on the present-day composition of communities arrayed along the succession gradient. PMID:27272407

  6. Patterns of taxonomic, phylogenetic diversity during a long-term succession of forest on the Loess Plateau, China: insights into assembly process.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yongfu; Yue, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Guo, Yaoxin; Wang, Mao; Xu, Jinshi; Zhang, Chenguang; Chen, Yu; Zhang, Lixia; Zhang, Ruichang

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the drivers underlying the distribution of biodiversity during succession is a critical issue in ecology and conservation, and also can provide insights into the mechanisms of community assembly. Ninety plots were established in the Loess Plateau region of northern Shaanxi in China. The taxonomic and phylogenetic (alpha and beta) diversity were quantified within six succession stages. Null models were used to test whether phylogenetic distance observed differed from random expectations. Taxonomic beta diversity did not show a regular pattern, while phylogenetic beta diversity decreased throughout succession. The shrub stage occurred as a transition from phylogenetic overdispersion to clustering either for NRI (Net Relatedness Index) or betaNRI. The betaNTI (Nearest Taxon Index) values for early stages were on average phylogenetically random, but for the betaNRI analyses, these stages were phylogenetically overdispersed. Assembly of woody plants differed from that of herbaceous plants during late community succession. We suggest that deterministic and stochastic processes respectively play a role in different aspects of community phylogenetic structure for early succession stage, and that community composition of late succession stage is governed by a deterministic process. In conclusion, the long-lasting evolutionary imprints on the present-day composition of communities arrayed along the succession gradient. PMID:27272407

  7. Big insights from tiny peridotites: Evidence for persistence of Precambrian lithosphere beneath the eastern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingao; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Walker, Richard J.; Xu, Wen-liang; Gao, Shan; Wu, Fu-yuan

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that the eastern North China Craton (NCC) lost its ancient lithospheric mantle root during the Phanerozoic. The temporal sequence, spatial extent, and cause of the lithospheric thinning, however, continue to be debated. Here we report olivine compositions, whole-rock Re-Os isotopic systematics, and platinum-group element abundances of small (< 2 cm in maximum dimension) mantle peridotite xenoliths from two basalt localities from the eastern NCC, Wudi (Cenozoic) and Fuxin (Cretaceous). These locations lie far (~ 150-200 km) from the Tan-Lu fault, which has been linked to lithospheric replacement in the eastern NCC. Peridotites at both locations have fertile to moderately refractory compositions (Fo < 91.5), while highly refractory (Fo > 92) lithospheric mantle is largely absent. Osmium isotopic data suggest the Wudi peridotites experienced melt depletion primarily during the Paleoproterozoic (~ 1.8 Ga), although an Archean Os model age for one xenolith indicates incorporation of a minor component of Archean lithospheric mantle. These data suggest that a previously unrecognized Paleoproterozoic orogenic event removed and replaced the original Archean lithospheric mantle beneath the sedimentary basin at the southern edge of the Bohai Sea. By contrast, the Fuxin peridotites, entrained in Cretaceous basalts that crop out along the northern edge of the eastern NCC, document the coexistence of both ancient (≥ 2.3 Ga) and modern lithospheric mantle components. Here, the original Late Archean-Early Paleoproterozoic lithospheric mantle was, at least partially, removed and replaced prior to 100 Ma. Combined with literature data, our results show that removal of the original Archean lithosphere occurred within Proterozoic collisional orogens, and that replacement of Precambrian lithosphere during the Mesozoic may have been spatially associated with the collisional boundaries and the strike-slip Tan-Lu fault, as well as the onset of Paleo

  8. New insight into the structural, electrochemical and biological aspects of macroacyclic Cu(II) complexes derived from S-substituted dithiocarbazate schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Low, May Lee; Maigre, Laure; Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim M; Tiekink, Edward R T; Dorlet, Pierre; Guillot, Régis; Ravoof, Thahira Begum; Rosli, Rozita; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Policar, Clotilde; Delsuc, Nicolas; Crouse, Karen A

    2016-09-14

    Copper (II) complexes synthesized from the products of condensation of S-methyl- and S-benzyldithiocarbazate with 2,5-hexanedione (SMHDH2 and SBHDH2 respectively) have been characterized using various physicochemical (elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility) and spectroscopic (infrared, electronic) methods. The structures of SMHDH2, its copper (II) complex, CuSMHD, and the related CuSBHD complex as well as a pyrrole byproduct, SBPY, have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In order to provide more insight into the behaviour of the complexes in solution, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and electrochemical experiments were performed. Antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated. The compounds, dissolved in 0.5% and 5% DMSO, showed a wide range of antibacterial activity against 10 strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Investigations of the effects of efflux pumps and membrane penetration on antibacterial activity are reported herein. Antiproliferation activity was observed to be enhanced by complexation with copper. Preliminary screening showed Cu complexes are strongly active against human breast adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. PMID:27183379

  9. Rock Burst Intensity Classification Based on the Radiated Energy with Damage Intensity at Jinping II Hydropower Station, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing-Rui; Feng, Xia-Ting; Li, Qing-Peng; Luo, Ru-Zhou; Li, Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    Based on the radiated energy of 133 rock bursts monitored by a microseismic technique at the Jinping II hydropower station, in Sichuan province, China, we analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of qualitative classification methods for the rock burst intensity. Then, we investigated the characteristics, magnitude, and laws of the radiated energy, as well as the relationship between the rock burst radiated energy and intensity. Then, we selected the energy as an evaluation index for the rock burst intensity classification, and proposed a new rock burst intensity quantitative classification method, which utilized the hierarchical clustering analysis technique with the complete-linkage method. Next, we created a new set of criteria for the quantitative classification of the rock burst intensity based on radiated energy and surrounding rock damage severity. The new criteria classified the rock burst intensity into five levels: extremely intense, intense, moderate, weak, and none, and the common logarithms of the radiated energy of each level were >7 lg( E/J), >4 lg( E/J) and <7 lg( E/J), >2 lg( E/J) and <4 lg( E/J), >1 lg( E/J) and <2 lg( E/J), and <1 lg( E/J), respectively. Finally, we investigated the factors influencing the classification, and verified its feasibility and applicability via several practical rock burst examples.

  10. Contribution of Marine Group II Euryarchaeota to cyclopentyl tetraethers in the Pearl River estuary and coastal South China Sea: impact on the TEX86 paleothermometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. X.; Zhang, C. L.; Xie, W.; Zhang, Y. G.; Wang, P.

    2015-08-01

    TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) with 86 carbon atoms) has been widely applied to reconstruct (paleo-) sea surface temperature (SST). While Marine Group I (MG I) Thaumarchaeota have been commonly believed to be the source for GDGTs, Marine Group II (MG II Euryarchaeota) have recently been suggested to contribute significantly to the GDGT pool in the ocean. However, little is known how the MG II Euryarchaeota-derived GDGTs may influence TEX86 in marine sediment record. In this study, we characterize MG II Euryarchaeota-produced GDGTs and assess the likely effect of these tetraether lipids on TEX86. Analyses of core lipid (CL-) and intact polar lipid (IPL-) based GDGTs, 454 sequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting MG II Euryarchaeota were performed on suspended particulate matter (SPM) and surface sediments collected along a salinity gradient from the lower Pearl River (river water) and its estuary (mixing water) to the coastal South China Sea (seawater). The results showed that the community composition varied along the salinity gradient with MG II Euryarchaeota as the second dominant group in the mixing water and seawater. qPCR data indicated that the abundance of MG II Euryarchaeota in the mixing water was three to four orders of magnitude higher than the river water and seawater. Significant linear correlations were observed between the gene abundance ratio of MG II Euryarchaeota vs. total archaea and the relative abundance of GDGTs-1, -2, -3, or -4 as well as the ring index based on these compounds, which collectively suggest that MG II Euryarchaeota may actively produce GDGTs in the water column. These results also show strong evidence that MG II Euryarchaeota synthesizing GDGTs with 1-4 cyclopentane moieties may bias TEX86 in the water column and sediments. This study highlights that valid interpretation of TEX86 in sediment record, particularly in coastal oceans, needs to consider the

  11. Insight into core-shell dependent anoxic Cr(VI) removal with Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires: indispensable role of surface bound Fe(II).

    PubMed

    Mu, Yi; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi; Song, Fahui

    2015-01-28

    In this study, we investigated the anoxic Cr(VI) removal with core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires. It was found the surface area normalized Cr(VI) removal rate constants of Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires first increased with increasing the iron oxide shell thickness and then decreased, suggesting that Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires possessed an interesting core-shell structure dependent Cr(VI) removal property. Meanwhile, the Cr(VI) removal efficiency was positively correlated to the amount of surface bound Fe(II). This result revealed that the core-shell structure dependent Cr(VI) removal property of Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires was mainly attributed to the reduction of Cr(VI) by the surface bound Fe(II) besides the reduction of Cr(VI) adsorbed on the iron oxide shell via the electrons transferred from the iron core. The indispensable role of surface bound Fe(II) was confirmed by Tafel polarization and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic depth profiles analyses. X-ray diffraction patterns and scanning electron microscope images of the fresh and used Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires revealed the formation of Fe(III)/Cr(III)/Cr(VI) composite oxides during the anoxic Cr(VI) removal process. This study sheds a deep insight into the anoxic Cr(VI) removal mechanism of core-shell Fe@Fe2O3 nanowires and also provides an efficient Cr(VI) removal method. PMID:25543716

  12. New insights into the petrogenesis of volcanic rocks in the Shanghang Basin in the Fujian Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Si-Hong; Bagas, Leon; Liang, Qing-Ling

    2015-06-01

    The Mesozoic Shanghang Basin in southeastern China consists of Early Cretaceous mottled coarse-grained clastic and volcanic rocks, and Late Cretaceous clastic rocks. The volcanic rocks are intermediate-mafic to felsic and spatially close to the famous Zijinshan Mineral Field. In order to better understand the timing, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of these volcanic rocks and the relationship between magmatism and metallogeny in the mineral field, U-Pb zircon geochronological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic studies were completed on the volcanic rocks. Fifteen LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon analyses of the volcanic rocks yield weighted mean ages of between 105 and 99 Ma. Major and trace element geochemistry shows that these rocks are mostly high-K to shoshonitic, enriched in LREE and Th, U, and depleted in Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti. The volcanic rocks have 87Sr/86Sri ratios of between 0.70732 and 0.70977, 206Pb/204Pb isotope ratios of 18.57-19.77, 207Pb/204Pb isotope ratios of 15.64-15.71, 208Pb/204Pb isotope ratios of 38.87-40.62, 176Hf/177Hf ratios of 0.282589-0.282823, εNdT values of -7.5 to -4.7, and εHf(t) values of -4.2 to 4. Such characteristics, with similarities to coeval volcanic and intrusive rocks adjacent to the basin, suggest that the parent magma of the Cretaceous volcanic rocks in the basin and their contemporaneous intrusives originated from crustal melts with a juvenile component. Petrogenetically, fractional crystallization with minor wall-rock assimilation is the controlling process in deriving a wide range of more evolved rocks. With reference to the ore-forming events and isotopic features of ore-related intrusions in the Zijinshan Mineral Field, we propose that volcanism in the Shanghang Basin and coeval magmatism in the mineral field are related to the formation of the regional porphyry and epithermal Cu-Au-Mo-Ag deposits in an extension tectonic setting related to the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  13. Chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during summertime in Northwest China: insights from High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, M.; Ge, X.; Ren, J.; Qin, D.

    2014-06-01

    An aerodyne High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed along with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Multi Angle Absorption Photometers (MAAP) to measure the temporal variations of the mass loading, chemical composition, and size distribution of sub-micrometer particulate matter (PM1) in Lanzhou, northwest China, during 12 July-7 August 2012. The average PM1 mass concentration including non-refractory PM1 (NR-PM1) measured by HR-ToF-AMS and black carbon (BC) measured by MAAP during this study was 24.5 μg m-3 (ranging from 0.86 to 105μg m-3), with a mean composition consisting of 47% organics, 16% sulfate, 12% BC, 11% ammonium, 10% nitrate, and 4% chloride. The organics was consisted of 70% carbon, 21% oxygen, 8% hydrogen, and 1% nitrogen, with the average oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.33 and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM / OC) of 1.58. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high-resolution mass spectra of organic aerosols (OA) identified four distinct factors which represent, respectively, two primary OA (POA) emission sources (traffic and food cooking) and two secondary OA (SOA) types - a fresher, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a more aged, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Traffic-related hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and BC displayed distinct diurnal patterns both with peak at ~07:00-11:00 (BJT: UTC +8) corresponding to the morning rush hours, while cooking OA (COA) peaked during three meal periods. The diurnal profiles of sulfate and LV-OOA displayed a broad peak between ∼07:00-15:00, while those of nitrate, ammonium, and SV-OOA showed a narrower peak at ~08:00-13:00. The later morning and early afternoon peak in the diurnal profiles of secondary aerosol species was likely caused by mixing down of pollutants aloft, which were likely produced in the residual layer decoupled from the boundary layer during night time. The mass spectrum of SV-OOA also showed similarity with that of

  14. Global sensitivity analysis of a 3D street canyon model—Part II: Application and physical insight using sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, James; Ziehn, Tilo; Dixon, Nick S.; Tomlin, Alison S.

    In this work global sensitivity studies using Monte Carlo sampling and high dimensional model representations (HDMR) have been carried out on the k- ɛ closure computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model MISKAM, allowing detailed representation of the effects of changing input parameters on the model outputs. The scenario studied is that of a complex street canyon in the city of York, UK. The sensitivity of the turbulence and mean flow fields to the input parameters is detailed both at specific measurement points and in the associated canyon cross-section to aid comparison with field data. This analysis gives insight into how model parameters can influence the predicted outputs. It also shows the relative strength of each parameter in its influence. Four main input parameters are addressed. Three parameters are surface roughness lengths, determining the flow over a surface, and the fourth is the background wind direction. In order to determine the relative importance of each parameter, sensitivity indices are calculated for the canyon cross-section. The sensitivity of the flow structures in and above the canyon to each parameter is found to be very location dependant. In general, at a particular measurement point, it is the closest wall surface that is most influential on the model output. However, due to the complexity of the flow at different wind angles this is not always the case, for example when a re-circulating canyon flow pattern is present. The background wind direction is shown to be an important parameter as it determines the surface features encountered by the flow. The accuracy with which this is specified when modelling a full-scale situation is therefore an important consideration when considering model uncertainty. Overall, the uncertainty due to roughness lengths is small in comparison to the mean outputs, indicating that the model is well defined even with large ranges of input parameter uncertainty.

  15. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kun-Feng Qiu; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song; Hao-Cheng Yu; Kai-Rui Song; Nan Li

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  16. Interaction of Iron II Complexes with B-DNA. Insights from Molecular Modeling, Spectroscopy, and Cellular Biology.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, Hugo; Duchanois, Thibaut; Besancenot, Vanessa; Barbieux, Claire; Assfeld, Xavier; Becuwe, Philippe; Gros, Philippe C; Grandemange, Stephanie; Monari, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We report the characterization of the interaction between B-DNA and three terpyridin iron II complexes. Relatively long time-scale molecular dynamics (MD) is used in order to characterize the stable interaction modes. By means of molecular modeling and UV-vis spectroscopy, we prove that they may lead to stable interactions with the DNA duplex. Furthermore, the presence of larger π-conjugated moieties also leads to the appearance of intercalation binding mode. Non-covalent stabilizing interactions between the iron complexes and the DNA are also characterized and evidenced by the analysis of the gradient of the electronic density. Finally, the structural deformations induced on the DNA in the different binding modes are also evidenced. The synthesis and chemical characterization of the three complexes is reported, as well as their absorption spectra in presence of DNA duplexes to prove the interaction with DNA. Finally, their effects on human cell cultures have also been evidenced to further enlighten their biological effects. PMID:26734600

  17. Interaction of Iron II Complexes with B-DNA. Insights from Molecular Modeling, Spectroscopy, and Cellular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gattuso, Hugo; Duchanois, Thibaut; Besancenot, Vanessa; Barbieux, Claire; Assfeld, Xavier; Becuwe, Philippe; Gros, Philippe C.; Grandemange, Stephanie; Monari, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We report the characterization of the interaction between B-DNA and three terpyridin iron II complexes. Relatively long time-scale molecular dynamics (MD) is used in order to characterize the stable interaction modes. By means of molecular modeling and UV-vis spectroscopy, we prove that they may lead to stable interactions with the DNA duplex. Furthermore, the presence of larger π-conjugated moieties also leads to the appearance of intercalation binding mode. Non-covalent stabilizing interactions between the iron complexes and the DNA are also characterized and evidenced by the analysis of the gradient of the electronic density. Finally, the structural deformations induced on the DNA in the different binding modes are also evidenced. The synthesis and chemical characterization of the three complexes is reported, as well as their absorption spectra in presence of DNA duplexes to prove the interaction with DNA. Finally, their effects on human cell cultures have also been evidenced to further enlighten their biological effects. PMID:26734600

  18. Major histocompatibility complex class II genetic variation in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Gang; Zhu, Ying; Wan, Qiu-Hong; Fang, Sheng-Guo

    2015-10-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays an important role in the immune system of vertebrates. We used the second exon of four MHC class II genes (DRA, DQA1, DQA2 and DRB3) to assess the overall MHC variation in forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii). We also compared the MHC variation in captive and wild populations. We observed 22 alleles at four loci (four at DRA, four at DQA1, four at DQA2 and 10 at DRB3), 15 of which were newly identified alleles. Results suggest that forest musk deer maintain relatively high MHC variation, which may result from balancing selection. Moreover, considerable diversity was observed at the DRA locus. We found a high frequency of Mobe-DRA*02, Mobe-DQA1*01 and Mobe-DQA2*05 alleles, which may be important for pathogen resistance. A Ewens-Watterson test showed that the DRB3 locus in the wild population had experienced recent balancing selection. We detected a small divergence at the DRA locus, suggesting the effect of weak positive selection on the DRA gene. Alternatively, this locus may be young and not yet adapted a wide spectrum of alleles for pathogen resistance. The significant heterozygosity deficit observed at the DQA1 and DRB3 loci in the captive population and at all four loci in the wild population may be the result of a population bottleneck. Additionally, MHC genetic diversity was higher in the wild population than in the captive, suggesting that the wild population may have the ability to respond to a wider range of pathogens. PMID:26370614

  19. Microbial Diversity, Distribution and Insight into Their Role in S, Fe and N Biogeochemical Cycling in the Hot Springs at Tengchong Geothermal Fields, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Peng, X.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Ten sediment samples collected from one acidic and three alkaline high temperature hot springs at Tengchong terrestrial geothermal field, Southwest China, were examined by the mineralogical, geochemical, and molecular biological techniques. The mineralogical and geochemical analyses suggested that these hot springs contain relative high concentrations of S, Fe and N chemical species. Specifically, the acidic hot spring was rich in Fe2+, SO42- and NH4+, while the alkaline hot springs were high in NO3-, H2S and S2O3-. Analyses of 16S rRNA sequences showed their bacterial communities were dominated by Aquificae, Cyanobacteria, Deinococci-Thermus, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Thermodesulfobacteria, while the archeal clone libraries were dominated by Desulfurococcales, Sulfolobales, and Thermoproteales. Among them, the potential S-, N- and Fe-related oxidizing and reducing prokaryote were presenting as a relative high proportion but with a great difference in diversity and metabolic approaches of each sample. These findings provide some significant implications for the microbial function in element biogeochemical cycles within the Tengchong geothermal environments: i). the distinct differences in abundance and diversity of microbial communities of geothermal sediments were related to in situ different physicochemical conditions; ii). the S-, N- and Fe-related prokaryote would take advantage of the strong chemical disequilibria in the hot springs; iii). in return, their metabolic activities can promote the transformation of S, Fe and N chemical species, thus founded the bases of biogeochemical cycles in the terrestrial geothermal environments.

  20. Kinetic effects of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration: nitrile hydratase insights from bioinspired ruthenium(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Davinder; Nguyen, Tho N; Grapperhaus, Craig A

    2014-12-01

    Kinetic investigations inspired by the metalloenzyme nitrile hydratase were performed on a series of ruthenium(II) complexes to determine the effect of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration. The rate of benzonitrile hydration was quantified as a function of catalyst, nitrile, and water concentrations. Precatalysts L(n)RuPPh3 (n = 1-3; L(1) = 4,7-bis(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(2) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(3) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfenato-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane) were activated by substitution of triphenylphosphine with substrate in hot dimethylformamide solution. Rate measurements are consistent with a dynamic equilibrium between inactive aqua (L(n)Ru-OH2) and active nitrile (L(n)Ru-NCR) derivatives with K = 21 ± 1, 9 ± 0.9, and 23 ± 3 for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Subsequent hydration of the L(n)Ru-NCR intermediate yields the amide product with measured hydration rate constants (k's) of 0.37 ± 0.01, 0.82 ± 0.07, and 1.59 ± 0.12 M(-1) h(-1) for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Temperature dependent studies reveal that sulfur oxidation lowers the enthalpic barrier by 27 kJ/mol, but increases the entropic barrier by 65 J/(mol K). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ (Ru); 6-31G(d) (all other atoms)) support a nitrile bound catalytic cycle with lowering of the reaction barrier as a consequence of sulfur oxidation through enhanced nitrile binding and attack of the water nucleophile through a highly organized transition state. PMID:25397591

  1. Comparative Raman study of four plant metallothionein isoforms: Insights into their Zn(II) clusters and protein conformations.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Mireia; Tinti, Anna; Bofill, Roger; Capdevila, Mercè; Atrian, Silvia; Torreggiani, Armida

    2016-03-01

    Four Metallothioneins (MTs) from soybean (Glycine max) were heterologously synthesized and comparatively analysed by Raman spectroscopy. The participation of protein donor groups (S-thiol and N-imidazol) in Zn(II) chelation, as well as the presence of secondary structure elements was comparatively analysed. Metal clusters with different geometry can be hypothesised for the four GmMTs: a cubane-like or an adamantane-like metal cluster in Zn-GmMT1, and dinuclear Zn-S clusters in Zn-GmMT2, Zn-GmMT3 and Zn-GmMT4. The latter have also a similar average Cys/Zn content, whereas a lower ratio is present in Zn-GmMT1. This is possible thanks to the involvement in metal coordination of a greater number of bridging Cys, as well as of some carboxylate groups. As regards secondary structure elements, a large content of β-turn segments is present in all four Zn-GmMTs, especially for isoforms 1 and 4. β-strands give a contribution to the folding of three GmMTs isoforms, and the highest percentage was found in Zn-GmMT2 (~45%). Conversely, the α-helix content is negligible in all the GmMTs except in Zn-GmMT3, where this peculiar feature coincides with the possible involvement of the two His residues in metal coordination. Conversely, His is predominantly free and present as tautomer I in Zn-GmMT4. In conclusion, this work illustrates the attractive potential of Raman spectroscopy, combined with other techniques, to be a very informative tool for evidencing structural differences among in vivo synthesized metal-MT complexes. PMID:26775276

  2. Nonchromophoric halide ligand variation in polyazine-bridged Ru(II),Rh(III) bimetallic supramolecules offering new insight into photocatalytic hydrogen production from water.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Hannah Mallalieu; White, Travis A; Stone, Brittany N; Arachchige, Shamindri M; Brewer, Karen J

    2015-04-01

    The new bimetallic complex [(Ph2phen)2Ru(dpp)RhBr2(Ph2phen)](PF6)3 (1) (Ph2phen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline; dpp = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine) was synthesized and characterized to compare with the Cl(-) analogue [(Ph2phen)2Ru(dpp)RhCl2(Ph2phen)](PF6)3 (2) in an effort to better understand the role of halide coordination at the Rh metal center in solar H2 production schemes. Electrochemical properties of complex 1 display a reversible Ru(II/III) oxidation, and cathodic scans indicate multiple electrochemical mechanisms exist to reduce Rh(III) by two electrons to Rh(I) followed by a quasi-reversible dpp(0/-) ligand reduction. The weaker σ-donating ability of Br(-) vs Cl(-) impacts the cathodic electrochemistry and provides insight into photocatalytic function by these bimetallic supramolecules. Complexes 1 and 2 exhibit identical light-absorbing properties with UV absorption dominated by intraligand (IL) π → π* transitions and visible absorption by metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) transitions to include a lowest energy Ru(dπ) → dpp(π*) (1)MLCT transition (λ(abs) = 514 nm; ε = 16 000 M(-1) cm(-1)). The relatively short-lived, weakly emissive Ru(dπ) → dpp(π*) (3)MLCT excited state (τ = 46 ns) for both bimetallic complexes is attributed to intramolecular electron transfer from the (3)MLCT excited state to populate a low-energy Ru(dπ) → Rh(dσ*) triplet metal-to-metal charge transfer ((3)MMCT) excited state that allows photoinitiated electron collection. Complex 1 outperforms the related Cl(-) bimetallic analogue 2 as a H2 photocatalyst despite identical light-absorbing and excited-state properties. Additional H2 experiments with added halide suggest ion pairing plays a role in catalyst deactivation and provides new insight into observed differences in H2 production upon halide variation in Ru(II),Rh(III) supramolecular architectures. PMID:25782053

  3. Leaf evolution in early-diverging ferns: insights from a new fern-like plant from the Late Devonian of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, De-Ming; Xu, Hong-He; Xue, Jin-Zhuang; Wang, Qi; Liu, Le

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims With the exception of angiosperms, the main euphyllophyte lineages (i.e. ferns sensu lato, progymnosperms and gymnosperms) had evolved laminate leaves by the Late Devonian. The evolution of laminate leaves, however, remains unclear for early-diverging ferns, largely represented by fern-like plants. This study presents a novel fern-like taxon with pinnules, which provides new insights into the early evolution of laminate leaves in early-diverging ferns. Methods Macrofossil specimens were collected from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Wutong Formation of Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces, South China. A standard degagement technique was employed to uncover compressed plant portions within the rock matrix. Key Results A new fern-like taxon, Shougangia bella gen. et sp. nov., is described and represents an early-diverging fern with highly derived features. It has a partially creeping stem with adventitious roots only on one side, upright primary and secondary branches arranged in helices, tertiary branches borne alternately or (sub)oppositely, laminate and usually lobed leaves with divergent veins, and complex fertile organs terminating tertiary branches and possessing multiple divisions and numerous terminal sporangia. Conclusions Shougangia bella provides unequivocal fossil evidence for laminate leaves in early-diverging ferns. It suggests that fern-like plants, along with other euphyllophyte lineages, had independently evolved megaphylls by the Late Devonian, possibly in response to a significant decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Among fern-like plants, planate ultimate appendages are homologous with laminate pinnules, and in the evolution of megaphylls, fertile organs tend to become complex. PMID:25979918

  4. New Insights into How Increases in Fertility Improve the Growth of Rice at the Seedling Stage in Red Soil Regions of Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yilin; Shi, Weiming; Wang, Xingxiang

    2014-01-01

    The differences in rhizosphere nitrification activities between high- and low- fertility soils appear to be related to differences in dissolved oxygen concentrations in the soil, implying a relationship to differences in the radial oxygen loss (ROL) of rice roots in these soils. A miniaturised Clark-type oxygen microelectrode system was used to determine rice root ROL and the rhizosphere oxygen profile, and rhizosphere nitrification activity was studied using a short-term nitrification activity assay. Rice planting significantly altered the oxygen cycling in the water-soil system due to rice root ROL. Although the oxygen content in control high-fertility soil (without rice plants) was lower than that in control low-fertility soil, high rice root ROL significantly improved the rhizosphere oxygen concentration in the high-fertility soil. High soil fertility improved the rice root growth and root porosity as well as rice root ROL, resulting in enhanced rhizosphere nitrification. High fertility also increased the content of nitrification-induced nitrate in the rhizosphere, resulting in enhanced ammonium uptake and assimilation in the rice. Although high ammonium pools in the high-fertility soil increased rhizosphere nitrification, rice root ROL might also contribute to rhizosphere nitrification improvement. This study provides new insights into the reasons that an increase in soil fertility may enhance the growth of rice. Our results suggest that an amendment of the fertiliser used in nutrient- and nitrification-poor paddy soils in the red soil regions of China may significantly promote rice growth and rice N nutrition. PMID:25291182

  5. Taurus II Stage Test Simulations: Using Large-Scale CFD Simulations to Provide Critical Insight into Plume Induced Environments During Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struzenberg, L. L.; West, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of targeted Loci/CHEM CFD simulations to evaluate the effects of a dual-engine first-stage hot-fire test on an evolving integrated launch pad/test article design. This effort was undertaken as a part of the NESC Independent Assessment of the Taurus II Stage Test Series. The underlying conceptual model included development of a series of computational models and simulations to analyze the plume induced environments on the pad, facility structures and test article. A pathfinder simulation was first developed, capable of providing quick-turn around evaluation of plume impingement pressures on the flame deflector. Results from this simulation were available in time to provide data for an ongoing structural assessment of the deflector. The resulting recommendation was available in a timely manner and was incorporated into construction schedule for the new launch stand under construction at Wallops Flight Facility. A series of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) quasi-steady simulations representative of various key elements of the test profile was performed to identify potential concerns with the test configuration and test profile. As required, unsteady Hybrid-RANS/LES simulations were performed, to provide additional insight into critical aspects of the test sequence. Modifications to the test-specific hardware and facility structures thermal protection as well as modifications to the planned hot-fire test profile were implemented based on these simulation results.

  6. Changes in monsoon-driven upwelling in the South China Sea over glacial Terminations I and II: a multi-proxy record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadatzki, Henrik; Sarnthein, Michael; Andersen, Nils

    2016-06-01

    Upwelling intensity in the South China Sea has changed over glacial-interglacial cycles in response to orbital-scale changes in the East Asian Monsoon. Here, we evaluate new multi-proxy records of two sediment cores from the north-eastern South China Sea to uncover millennial-scale changes in winter monsoon-driven upwelling over glacial Terminations I and II. On the basis of U/Th-based speleothem chronology, we compare these changes with sediment records of summer monsoon-driven upwelling east of South Vietnam. Ocean upwelling is traced by reduced (UK'37-based) temperature and increased nutrient and productivity estimates of sea surface waters (δ13C on planktic foraminifera, accumulation rates of alkenones, chlorins, and total organic carbon). Accordingly, strong winter upwelling occurred north-west of Luzon (Philippines) during late Marine Isotope Stage 6.2, Heinrich (HS) and Greenland stadials (GS) HS-11, GS-26, GS-25, HS-1, and the Younger Dryas. During these stadials, summer upwelling decreased off South Vietnam and sea surface salinity reached a maximum suggesting a drop in monsoon rains, concurrent with speleothem records of aridity in China. In harmony with a stadial-to-interstadial see-saw pattern, winter upwelling off Luzon in turn was weak during interstadials, in particular those of glacial Terminations I and II, when summer upwelling culminated east of South Vietnam. Most likely, this upwelling terminated widespread deep-water stratification, coeval with the deglacial rise in atmospheric CO2. Yet, a synchronous maximum in precipitation fostered estuarine overturning circulation in the South China Sea, in particular as long as the Borneo Strait was closed when sea level dropped below -40 m.

  7. Insight in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Látalová, Klára

    2012-09-01

    Although there has been interest in insight in bipolar disorder, research has not been as developed as in schizophrenia. The Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo data bases were searched. The key words used in the search were "bipolar", "mania", "manic", "awareness", and "insight". Books, editorials, letters, and reports on pediatric subjects were excluded. Abstracts or full texts were screened for relevance. Better insight is associated with better adherence to treatment and better outcomes. Impairments of executive functions and memory, as well as higher severity of psychotic symptoms, are associated with impairments of insight. Insight is more impaired during an illness episode than during remission, in mixed than in pure manic episodes, in bipolar II than in bipolar I patients, in pure mania than in bipolar or unipolar depression. Psychosocial treatments improve insight and outcomes. There is a need for integration of quantitative assessment methods and their introduction into research and clinical practice. PMID:22101737

  8. The NMR structure of the II-III-VI three-way junction from the Neurospora VS ribozyme reveals a critical tertiary interaction and provides new insights into the global ribozyme structure.

    PubMed

    Bonneau, Eric; Girard, Nicolas; Lemieux, Sébastien; Legault, Pascale

    2015-09-01

    As part of an effort to structurally characterize the complete Neurospora VS ribozyme, NMR solution structures of several subdomains have been previously determined, including the internal loops of domains I and VI, the I/V kissing-loop interaction and the III-IV-V junction. Here, we expand this work by determining the NMR structure of a 62-nucleotide RNA (J236) that encompasses the VS ribozyme II-III-VI three-way junction and its adjoining stems. In addition, we localize Mg(2+)-binding sites within this structure using Mn(2+)-induced paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. The NMR structure of the J236 RNA displays a family C topology with a compact core stabilized by continuous stacking of stems II and III, a cis WC/WC G•A base pair, two base triples and two Mg(2+) ions. Moreover, it reveals a remote tertiary interaction between the adenine bulges of stems II and VI. Additional NMR studies demonstrate that both this bulge-bulge interaction and Mg(2+) ions are critical for the stable folding of the II-III-VI junction. The NMR structure of the J236 RNA is consistent with biochemical studies on the complete VS ribozyme, but not with biophysical studies performed with a minimal II-III-VI junction that does not contain the II-VI bulge-bulge interaction. Together with previous NMR studies, our findings provide important new insights into the three-dimensional architecture of this unique ribozyme. PMID:26124200

  9. Effect of pectin on adsorption of Cu(II) by two variable-charge soils from southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ru-hai; Zhu, Xiao-fang; Qian, Wei; Yu, Yuan-chun; Xu, Ren-kou

    2015-12-01

    The influence of pectin on Cu(II) adsorption by two variable-charge soils (an Oxisol and an Ultisol) was investigated. Pectin increased the adsorption, and the extent of adsorption increased linearly with the dose of pectin, being greater in the Oxisol than that in the Ultisol because the adsorption of pectin by the Oxisol was greater. Both Langmuir and Freundlich equations fitted the adsorption isotherms of Cu(II) for both soils well. The fitting parameters of both equations indicated that pectin increased not only the adsorption capacity of the soils for Cu(II) but also the adsorption strength of Cu(II). The effect of pectin decreased with rising pH in the pH range 3.5-6.0, although the extent of electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) by both soils was markedly greater over the pH range. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy analysis and zeta potential measurement of soil colloids indicated that adsorption of pectin by the soils made the negative charge on both soils more negative, which was responsible for the increase in the electrostatic adsorption of Cu(II) induced by the addition of pectin. In conclusion, pectin-enhanced adsorption of Cu(II) especially at low pH would be beneficial to the soils as it would decrease the activity and mobility of Cu(II) in acidic variable-charge soils. PMID:26278899

  10. Thermodynamical and structural insights of orange II adsorption by Mg{sub R}AlNO{sub 3} layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Mustapha Bouhent, Mohamed; Derriche, Zoubir; Denoyel, Renaud; Prevot, Vanessa; Forano, Claude

    2011-05-15

    [Mg{sub 1-x} Al{sub x}(OH){sub 2}][(NO{sub 3}){sub x}, nH{sub 2}O] Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) sorbents with variable Mg/Al molar (R=(1-x)/x) ratios were investigated for adsorption of azo dye, orange II (OII) at various pH and temperature conditions. Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} at 40 {sup o}C. Adsorption isotherms have been fitted using the Langmuir model and free energy of adsorption ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}) and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) were calculated. The experimental values for {Delta}G{sup o} in temperature range between 10 and 40 {sup o}C were found to be negative indicating that a spontaneous process occurred. Positive calculated enthalpy values, characteristic of an endothermic process were found. Characterization of solids (PXRD, FTIR, UV-vis, TGA/DTA, adsorption isotherm BET analysis, SEM and Zetametry) before and after adsorption showed that adsorption proceeds in two steps. First, adsorption occurs at the LDH surface, followed by intercalation via anion exchange. -- Graphical Abstract: Structural and thermodynamical insight of adsorption/Intercalation of OII in Mg{sub R}Al LDH Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} The nitrate containing hydrotalcite-like compounds (Mg{sub R}AlNO{sub 3} LDH) were prepared by the coprecipitation method. {yields} Adsorption of anionic orange dye(OII) is studied on LDHs at different temperatures. {yields} The adsorption process is well described by the Langmuir isotherm model. {yields} Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} displays the highest adsorption capacity with 3.611 mmol of OII per gram of Mg{sub 2}AlNO{sub 3} at 40 {sup o}C. {yields} Adsorption process does not occur on the surface of the LDH only but an intercalation process is also occurring concomitantly according to the thermodynamical values.

  11. Reductions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and acetonitrile by the magnesium(II)/magnesium(I) couple in aqueous media: theoretical insights from a nano-sized water droplet.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tim-Wai; Zhang, Han; Siu, Chi-Kit

    2015-03-26

    Reductions of O2, CO2, and CH3CN by the half-reaction of the Mg(II)/Mg(I) couple (Mg(2+) + e(-) → Mg(+•)) confined in a nanosized water droplet ([Mg(H2O)16](•+)) have been examined theoretically by means of density functional theory based molecular dynamics methods. The present works have revealed many intriguing aspects of the reaction dynamics of the water clusters within several picoseconds or even in subpicoseconds. The reduction of O2 requires an overall doublet spin state of the system. The reductions of CO2 and CH3CN are facilitated by their bending vibrations and the electron-transfer processes complete within 0.5 ps. For all reactions studied, the radical anions, i.e., O2(•-), CO2(•-), and CH3CN(•-), are initially formed on the cluster surface. O2(•-) and CO2(•-) can integrate into the clusters due to their high hydrophilicity. They are either solvated in the second solvation shell of Mg(2+) as a solvent-separated ion pair (ssip) or directly coordinated to Mg(2+) as a contact-ion pair (cip) having the (1)η-[MgO2](•+) and (1)η-[MgOCO](•+) coordination modes. The (1)η-[MgO2](•+) core is more crowded than the (1)η-[MgOCO](•+) core. The reaction enthalpies of the formation of ssip and cip of [Mg(CO2)(H2O)16](•+) are -36 ± 4 kJ mol(-1) and -30 ± 9 kJ mol(-1), respectively, which were estimated based on the average temperature changes during the ion-molecule reaction between CO2 and [Mg(H2O)16](•+). The values for the formation of ssip and cip of [Mg(O2)(H2O)16](•+) are estimated to be -112 ± 18 kJ mol(-1) and -128 ± 28 kJ mol(-1), respectively. CH3CN(•-) undergoes protonation spontaneously to form the hydrophobic [CH3CN, H](•). Both CH3CN and [CH3CN, H](•) cannot efficiently penetrate into the clusters with activation barriers of 22 kJ mol(-1) and ∼40 kJ mol(-1), respectively. These results provide fundamental insights into the solvation dynamics of the Mg(2+)/Mg(•+) couple on the molecular level. PMID:25738586

  12. A Primary Investigation on Serum CTX-II Changes in Patients Infected with Brucellosis in Qinghai Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi Jun; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Xin; Ma, Li; Xu, Li Qing; Yang, Pei Zhen; Meng, Xian Ya; Yu, Hui Zhen; Xu, Xiao Qing; Cao, Jian Ying

    2016-03-01

    Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases, with the most frequent complication being osteoarticular changes. The aim of this study was to assess the changes of C-terminal telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II) in patients infected with brucellosis. A total of 84 brucellosis patients and 43 volunteers were selected and divided into brucellosis vs. control groups. Serum samples were subjected to serological tests for brucellosis, and CTX-II levels in all samples were measured simultaneously with ELISA. The results showed that serum CTX-II levels in human brucellosis were higher than those of healthy controls, without a statistically significant difference, but serum CTX-II levels in male patients were significantly higher than those of female patients (P<0.05). This finding could indicate the biological changes in the cartilage and bone in human brucellosis. PMID:27109135

  13. Reaction zone between pre-UHP titanite and host rock: insights into fluid-rock interaction and deformation mechanisms during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust (Dabie Shan UHP unit, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzenitz, N.; Romer, R. L.; Grasemann, B.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2012-04-01

    Exhumed crustal UHP rocks may occur as relict blocks in strongly metasomatized matrix rocks. Due to variations in competence between the mm to km sized blocks and their ductile matrix, the largely undeformed blocks may preserve the pre-subduction and the prograde history, whereas the matrix rocks have been ductilely deformed to high magnitudes and record successive stages of deformation. The reaction zones between blocks and matrix, however, provide insights into the fluid-rock interaction, deformation and the deformation mechanisms active during the exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust in the subduction channel. We investigate a titanite megacryst (3 cm in diameter) in a calc-silicate marble from the UHP unit in the Dabie Shan, China. The core of the titanite megacryst grew prograde during subduction. Its U-Pb system remained closed and yields a maximum age for UHP metamorphism. Sr and Nd isotope compositions in the core demonstrate that the titanite megacryst precipitated from a homogeneous fluid source. During metamorphism in the subduction zone, infiltration of external fluids resulted first in Sr-loss from the marbles and then introduction of Sr with unusually low 87Sr/86S values (Romer et al., 2003), leading to the contrasting 87Sr/86Sr values in the titanite megacryst and the hosting UHP marbles (Wawrzenitz et al., 2006). Related to deformation in the calc-silicate marble matrix, the rim of the titanite megacryst has been replaced during the following dissolution-precipitation reactions: (i) Pseudomorphic replacement of the old titanite megacryst by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Fluid migrated into the old grain producing a sharp boundary of the replacement front. (ii) New small titanite grains grew with their long axes parallel to the foliation of the marble matrix, reflecting the activation of dissolution precipitation creep. In the matrix, the foliation is defined by the orientation of the basal planes of phengitic white mica. The new

  14. Molecular phylogeography and ecological niche modelling of a widespread herbaceous climber, Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Vitaceae): insights into Plio-Pleistocene range dynamics of evergreen forest in subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Han; Jiang, Wei-Mei; Comes, Hans Peter; Hu, Feng Sheng; Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Fu, Cheng-Xin

    2015-04-01

    Warm-temperate evergreen (WTE) forest represents the typical vegetation type of subtropical China, but how its component species responded to past environmental change remains largely unknown. Here, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum, an herbaceous climber restricted to the WTE forest. Twenty populations were genotyped using chloroplast DNA sequences and nuclear microsatellite loci to assess population structure and diversity, supplemented by phylogenetic dating, ancestral area reconstructions and ecological niche modeling (ENM) of the species distributions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and at present. Lineages in Southwest vs Central-South-East China diverged through climate/tectonic-induced vicariance of an ancestral southern range during the early Pliocene. Long-term stability in the Southwest contrasts with latitudinal range shifts in the Central-South-East region during the early-to-mid-Pleistocene. Genetic and ENM data strongly suggest refugial persistence in situ at the LGM. Pre-Quaternary environmental changes appear to have had a persistent influence on the population genetic structure of this subtropical WTE forest species. Our findings suggest relative demographic stability of this biome in China over the last glacial-interglacial cycle, in contrast with palaeobiome reconstructions showing that this forest biome retreated to areas of today's tropical South China during the LGM. PMID:25639152

  15. New insights into Phanerozoic tectonics of south China: Part 1, polyphase deformation in the Jiuling and Lianyunshan domains of the central Jiangnan Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhao, Guochun; Johnston, Stephen T.; Cui, Jianjun; Xin, Yujia

    2016-04-01

    The central Jiangnan Orogen, genetically formed by the Proterozoic Yangtze-Cathaysia collision, presents as a composite structural feature in the Phanerozoic with multiple ductile and brittle fabrics whose geometries, kinematics, and ages are crucial to decipher the tectonic evolution of south China. New structural observations coupled with thermochronological and geochronological studies of these fabrics document four main stages of deformation. The earliest stage in early Paleozoic time (460-420 Ma) corresponds to combined E-trending dextral and northwest directed thrust shearing that was variably partitioned in anastomosing high-strain zones under greenschist-facies conditions (~400-500°C), related to the continued Yangtze-Cathaysia convergence externally driven by the suturing of south China with Australia. This event was heterogeneously overprinted by the second stage characterized by ~E-oriented folding in middle Triassic time, geodynamically resulting from the continental collision of south China with Indochina and North China. The third stage was locally developed by northwest and southeast vergent thrusts that truncated ~E-oriented folds in the Late Jurassic, due to northwestward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate. The latest stage involved normal faulting and tectonic unroofing in Cretaceous time, which resulted in basin opening and reset footwall 40Ar/39Ar ages in proximity to the Hengshan detachment fault, associated with roll-back of the subducting Paleo-Pacific plate.

  16. Direct synthesis of high-valent aryl-Cu(II) and aryl-Cu(III) compounds: mechanistic insight into arene C-H bond metalation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hu; Yao, Bo; Zhao, Liang; Wang, De-Xian; Xu, Bo-Qing; Wang, Mei-Xiang

    2014-04-30

    Copper and its salts are abundant, inexpensive, and eco-friendly and have been used as the surrogates of noble metals to effect arene C-H bond activation and transformations. Despite of the recent significant progress of the study, syntheses of high-valent arylcopper(II-III) compounds are still very rare and mechanisms of copper(II)-catalyzed reactions remain elusive. With the use of azacalix[1]arene[3]pyridines as a platform, a number of arylcopper(II) compounds were synthesized efficiently from the reaction of Cu(ClO4)2 under ambient conditions. The resulting aryl-Cu(II) compounds, which contain an unprecedented (substituted) phenyl-Cu(II) σ-bond, were stable under atmospheric conditions and can undergo facile oxidation reaction by free copper(II) ions or oxone to afford arylcopper(III) compounds in good yields. Both arylcopper(II) and arylcopper(III) compounds were characterized unambiguously by means of XRD, XPS, and NMR methods. Experimental evidence including reaction kinetics, LFER and KIE, and theoretical calculations indicated that the Cu(ClO4)2-mediated arene C-H bond activation proceeds plausibly through an electrophilic aromatic metalation pathway. The synthesis of high-valent arylcopper compounds and the reaction mechanism reported here highlight the diversity and richness of organocopper chemistry. PMID:24730979

  17. Establishment of trophic continuum in the food web of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem: insight from carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Deling; Li, Hongyan; Tang, Qisheng; Sun, Yao

    2005-12-01

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (delta (13)C and delta (15)N) are used to study the trophic structure of food web in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea ecosystem. The trophic continuum of pelagic food web from phytoplankton to top preyer was elementarily established, and a trophic structure diagram in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea was outlined in combination with carbon isotopic data of benthic organisms, which is basically consistent with and makes some improvements on the simplified Yellow Sea food web and the trophic structure diagram drawn based on the biomass of main resource population during 1985-1986. This result indicates that the stable isotope method is a potential useful means for further studying the complete marine food web trophic continuum from viruses to top predators and food web stability. PMID:16483132

  18. N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) from oxygenic phototrophs: P(II) signal transduction across domains of life reveals novel insights in NAGK control.

    PubMed

    Beez, Sabine; Fokina, Oleksandra; Herrmann, Christina; Forchhammer, Karl

    2009-06-19

    N-Acetyl-L-glutamate kinase (NAGK) catalyzes the first committed step in arginine biosynthesis in organisms that perform the cyclic pathway of ornithine synthesis. In eukaryotic and bacterial oxygenic phototrophs, the activity of NAGK is controlled by the P(II) signal transduction protein. Recent X-ray analysis of NAGK-P(II) complexes from a higher plant (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a cyanobacterium (Synechococcus elongatus) revealed that despite several differences, the overall structure of the complex is highly similar. The present study analyzes the functional conservation of P(II)-mediated NAGK regulation in plants and cyanobacteria to distinguish between universal properties and those that are specific for the different phylogenetic lineages. This study shows that plant and cyanobacterial P(II) proteins can mutually regulate the NAGK enzymes across the domains of life, implying a high selective pressure to conserve P(II)-NAGK interaction over more than 1.2 billion years of separate evolution. The non-conserved C-terminus of S. elongatus NAGK was identified as an element, which strongly enhances arginine inhibition and is responsible for most of the differences between S. elongatus and A. thaliana NAGK with respect to arginine sensitivity. Both P(II) proteins relieve arginine inhibition of NAGK, and in both lineages, P(II)-mediated relief from arginine inhibition is antagonized by 2-oxoglutarate. Together, these properties highlight the conserved role of P(II) as a signal integrator of the C/N balance sensed as 2-oxoglutarate to regulate arginine synthesis in oxygenic phototrophs. PMID:19409905

  19. Solution Conditions Affect the Ability of the K30D Mutation To Prevent Amyloid Fibril Formation by Apolipoprotein C-II: Insights from Experiments and Theoretical Simulations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yu; Todorova, Nevena; Zlatic, Courtney O; Gooley, Paul R; Griffin, Michael D W; Howlett, Geoffrey J; Yarovsky, Irene

    2016-07-12

    Apolipoproteins form amphipathic helical structures that bind lipid surfaces. Paradoxically, lipid-free apolipoproteins display a strong propensity to form cross-β structure and self-associate into disease-related amyloid fibrils. Studies of apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) amyloid fibrils suggest that a K30-D69 ion pair accounts for the dual abilities to form helix and cross-β structure. Consistent with this is the observation that a K30D mutation prevents fibril formation under standard fibril forming conditions. However, we found that fibril formation by K30D apoC-II proceeded readily at low pH and a higher salt or protein concentration. Structural analysis demonstrated that K30D apoC-II fibrils at pH 7 have a structure similar to that of the wild-type fibrils but are less stable. Molecular dynamics simulations of the wild-type apoC-II fibril model at pH 7 and 3 showed that the loss of charge on D69 at pH 3 leads to greater separation between residues K30 and D69 within the fibril with a corresponding reduction in β-strand content around residue 30. In contrast, in simulations of the K30D mutant model at pH 7 and 3, residues D30 and D69 moved closer at pH 3, accompanied by an increase in β-strand content around residue 30. The simulations also demonstrated a strong dominance of inter- over intramolecular contacts between ionic residues of apoC-II and suggested a cooperative mechanism for forming favorable interactions between the individual strands under different conditions. These observations demonstrate the important role of the buried K30-D69 ion pair in the stability and solution properties of apoC-II amyloid fibrils. PMID:27311794

  20. Theoretical insights into the origin of magnetic exchange and magnetic anisotropy in {Re(IV)-M(II)} (M = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) single chain magnets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saurabh Kumar; Vignesh, Kuduva R; Archana, Velloth; Rajaraman, Gopalan

    2016-05-10

    Density functional calculations have been performed on a series of {Re(IV)-M(II)} (M = Mn(), Fe(), Co(), Ni(), Cu()) complexes to compute the magnetic exchange interaction between the Re(IV) and M(II) ions, and understand the mechanism of magnetic coupling in this series. DFT calculations yield J values of -5.54 cm(-1), +0.44 cm(-1), +10.5 cm(-1), +4.54 cm(-1) and +19 cm(-1) for complexes respectively, and these estimates are in general agreement with the experimental reports. Using molecular orbital (MO) and overlap integral analysis, we have established a mechanism of coupling for a {3d-5d} pair and the proposed mechanism rationalises both the sign and the magnitude of J values observed in this series. Our proposed mechanism of coupling has five contributing factors: (i) (Re)dyz-dyz(3d) overlap, (ii) (Re)dxz-dxz(3d) overlap, (iii) (Re)dxy-dxy(3d) overlap, (iv) (Re)eg-t2g(3d) overlaps and (v) (Re)eg-eg(3d) overlaps. Here, the first two terms are found to contribute to the antiferromagnetic part of the exchange, while the other three contribute to the ferromagnetic part. The last two terms correspond to the cross-interactions and also contribute to the ferromagnetic part of the exchange. A record high ferromagnetic J value observed for the {Re(IV)-Cu(II)} pair in complex is found to be due to a significant cross interaction between the dz(2) orbital of the Re(IV) ion and the dx(2)-y(2) orbital of the Cu(ii) ion. Magneto-structural correlations are developed for Re-C and M-N bond lengths and Re-C-N and M-N-C bond angles. Among the developed correlations, the M-N-C bond angle is found to be the most sensitive parameter which influences the sign and strength of J values in this series. The J values are found to be more positive (or less negative) as the angle increases, indicating stronger ferromagnetic coupling at linear M-N-C angles. Apart from the magnetic exchange interaction, we have also estimated the magnetic anisotropy of [ReCl4(CN)2](2-) and [(DMF)4(CN)M(II

  1. DETERMINATION OF ELASTIC WAVE VELOCITY AND RELATIVE HYPOCENTER LOCATIONS USING REFRACTED WAVES. II. APPLICATION TO THE HAICHENG, CHINA, AFTERSHOCK SEQUENCE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shedlock, Kaye M.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ma, Xiufang

    1985-01-01

    The authors located the aftershocks of the February 4, 1975 Haicheng, China, aftershock sequence using an arrival time difference (ATD) simultaneous inversion method for determining the near-source (in situ) velocity and the location of the aftershocks with respect to a master event. The aftershocks define a diffuse zone, 70 km multiplied by 25 km, trending west-northwest, perpendicular to the major structural trend of the region. The main shock and most of the large aftershocks have strike-slip fault plane solutions. The preferred fault plane strikes west-northwest, and the inferred sense of motion is left-lateral. The entire Haicheng earthauake sequence appears to have been the response of an intensely faulted range boundary to a primarily east-west crustal compression and/or north-south extension.

  2. Insights into the history of a bacterial group II intron remnant from the genomes of the nitrogen-fixing symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae

    PubMed Central

    Toro, N; Martínez-Rodríguez, L; Martínez-Abarca, F

    2014-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs that act as mobile retroelements. In bacteria, they are thought to be tolerated to some extent because they self-splice and home preferentially to sites outside of functional genes, generally within intergenic regions or in other mobile genetic elements, by mechanisms including the divergence of DNA target specificity to prevent target site saturation. RmInt1 is a mobile group II intron that is widespread in natural populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti and was first described in the GR4 strain. Like other bacterial group II introns, RmInt1 tends to evolve toward an inactive form by fragmentation, with loss of the 3′ terminus. We identified genomic evidence of a fragmented intron closely related to RmInt1 buried in the genome of the extant S. meliloti/S. medicae species. By studying this intron, we obtained evidence for the occurrence of intron insertion before the divergence of ancient rhizobial species. This fragmented group II intron has thus existed for a long time and has provided sequence variation, on which selection can act, contributing to diverse genetic rearrangements, and to generate pan-genome divergence after strain differentiation. The data presented here suggest that fragmented group II introns within intergenic regions closed to functionally important neighboring genes may have been microevolutionary forces driving adaptive evolution of these rhizobial species. PMID:24736785

  3. Insights into the history of a bacterial group II intron remnant from the genomes of the nitrogen-fixing symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti and Sinorhizobium medicae.

    PubMed

    Toro, N; Martínez-Rodríguez, L; Martínez-Abarca, F

    2014-10-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing catalytic RNAs that act as mobile retroelements. In bacteria, they are thought to be tolerated to some extent because they self-splice and home preferentially to sites outside of functional genes, generally within intergenic regions or in other mobile genetic elements, by mechanisms including the divergence of DNA target specificity to prevent target site saturation. RmInt1 is a mobile group II intron that is widespread in natural populations of Sinorhizobium meliloti and was first described in the GR4 strain. Like other bacterial group II introns, RmInt1 tends to evolve toward an inactive form by fragmentation, with loss of the 3' terminus. We identified genomic evidence of a fragmented intron closely related to RmInt1 buried in the genome of the extant S. meliloti/S. medicae species. By studying this intron, we obtained evidence for the occurrence of intron insertion before the divergence of ancient rhizobial species. This fragmented group II intron has thus existed for a long time and has provided sequence variation, on which selection can act, contributing to diverse genetic rearrangements, and to generate pan-genome divergence after strain differentiation. The data presented here suggest that fragmented group II introns within intergenic regions closed to functionally important neighboring genes may have been microevolutionary forces driving adaptive evolution of these rhizobial species. PMID:24736785

  4. Vegetation and climate history in arid western China during MIS2: New insights from pollen and grain-size data of the Balikun Lake, eastern Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yongtao; An, Cheng-Bang; Mao, Limi; Zhao, Jiaju; Tang, Lingyu; Zhou, Aifeng; Li, Hu; Dong, Weimiao; Duan, Futao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-10-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 is mostly a cold period encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the regional expression of MIS2 in arid areas of China is not well known. In this paper, we use high-resolution lacustrine pollen and grain-size records from Balikun Lake to infer vegetation, lake evolution, and climate in arid western China during MIS2. Our results suggest that: 1) the regional vegetation around Balikun was mainly dominated by desert and/or desert-steppe, and Balikun Lake was relatively shallow and experienced high aeolian input during MIS2; 2) distinctive runoff from mountain glacial meltwater in the eastern parts of the Balikun basin caused a high relative abundance of Artemisia pollen during the LGM (26.5-19.2 cal kyr BP), while simultaneously the desert areas expanded as indicated by the high abundance of desert shrubs (e.g., Elaeagnaceae, Rhamnaceae, Hippophae). This cold and dry LGM climate triggered a substantial lowering of lake level; 3) an extremely cold and dry climate prevailing from 17.0 to 15.2 cal kyr BP, correlated with Heinrich event 1 (H1), would explain the low vegetation cover found then; and 4) the warm and humid Bølling/Allerød interstadial (BA: ca. 15-ca. 13 cal kyr BP) is clearly recorded in the Balikun region by the development of wetland herb communities (e.g., Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Typha), and the lake level rose due to increased runoff. Our results challenge the traditional view of cold and wet climatic conditions and high lake levels in arid western China during the LGM, and we propose that changes in local temperature modulated by July insolation was an indispensable factor in triggering vegetation evolution in the Balikun region during MIS2.

  5. Health and social impacts of biomass gasification for household energy in rural China: Assessment from three perspectives and emergent insights from their synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Susan Lynn

    Solid fuels such as coal, wood, and crop straw supply some fraction of household cooking and heating fuel for more than one billion people in China. As these fuels do not generally combust cleanly in household stoves, their use levies large health and environmental burdens, particularly in rural regions. Production of clean-burning fuels from agricultural residue offers one prospect for mitigating health and social burdens imposed by household use of solid fuels. This dissertation explores the question: how might production of clean-burning household fuels from agricultural residues affect human health and social conditions in rural China? I approach this question from three perspectives. First, a technically plausible but currently unproven village-scale energy technology is explored in a scenario bounded by natural resources and substantiated by engineering specifications, estimates of indoor exposures to air pollution, and epidemiological analyses. This analysis asks at the national (China) level: how might rural health burdens be mitigated and greenhouse gas emissions reduced by such a technology? Secondly, I perform wintertime indoor air quality monitoring in a Chinese village where coal and wood are used for heating and a variety of solid and "improved" fuels, including gas and electricity, are used for cooking. This fieldwork characterizes rural indoor air quality in terms of 24-hour and peak-period (1-hour) carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) concentrations and 24-hour airborne nicotine (a proxy for environmental tobacco smoke), as well as daily exposures of primary cooks to CO. I also explore relationships between observed measures of indoor air quality and investigate household structural and behavioral factors as determinants of air quality. The third perspective is an ethnographic case study of a demonstration project for production of household fuel from agricultural residue in Hechengli Village, Jilin Province, China. With an emphasis on

  6. Source of surface ozone and reactive nitrogen speciation at Mount Waliguan in western China: New insights from the 2006 summer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L. K.; Wang, T.; Zhang, J. M.; Zhang, X. C.; Deliger, null; Poon, C. N.; Ding, A. J.; Zhou, X. H.; Wu, W. S.; Tang, J.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2011-04-01

    Surface ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), and total and speciated reactive nitrogen compounds (NOy, NO, NO2, PAN, HNO3, and particulate ? were measured at Mount Waliguan (WLG; 36.28°N, 100.90°E, 3816 m above sea level (asl)) in the summer of 2006 to further understand the sources of ozone and reactive nitrogen and to investigate the partitioning of reactive nitrogen over the remote Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The mean mixing ratios of O3, CO, NOy, and daytime NO were 59 ppbv, 149 ppbv, 1.44 ppbv, and 71 pptv, respectively, which (except for NOy) were higher than those measured from a previous campaign in summer 2003, which is consistent with more frequent transport of anthropogenic pollution from central and eastern China in the measurement period of 2006 (55%) than that of 2003 (25%). The abnormally high values of NOy observed in 2003 were suspected to be due to the positive interference from ammonia (NH3) to the particular catalytic converter used in that study. Varied diurnal patterns were observed for the various NOy components. The ozone production efficiencies (ΔO3/ΔNOz), which were estimated from the slope of the O3-NOz scatterplot, were 7.7-11.3 for the polluted plumes from central and eastern China. The speciation of reactive nitrogen was investigated for the first time in the remote free troposphere in western China. PAN and particulate ? were the most abundant reactive nitrogen species at WLG, with average proportions of 32% and 31%, followed by NOx (24%) and HNO3 (20%). The relatively large contribution of particulate ? to NOy was due to the presence of high concentrations of NH3 and crustal particles, which favor the formation of particulate nitrate. An analysis of backward trajectories for the recent 10 years revealed that air masses from central and eastern China dominated the airflow at WLG in summer, suggesting strong impact of anthropogenic forcing on the surface ozone and other trace constituents on the Plateau.

  7. CoaTx-II, a new dimeric Lys49 phospholipase A2 from Crotalus oreganus abyssus snake venom with bactericidal potential: Insights into its structure and biological roles.

    PubMed

    Almeida, J R; Lancellotti, M; Soares, A M; Calderon, L A; Ramírez, D; González, W; Marangoni, S; Da Silva, S L

    2016-09-15

    Snake venoms are rich and intriguing sources of biologically-active molecules that act on target cells, modulating a diversity of physiological functions and presenting promising pharmacological applications. Lys49 phospholipase A2 is one of the multifunctional proteins present in these complex secretions and, although catalytically inactive, has a variety of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, inflammatory, antifungal activities. Herein, a Lys49 phospholipase A2, denominated CoaTx-II from Crotalus oreganus abyssus, was purified and structurally and pharmacologically characterized. CoaTx-II was isolated with a high degree of purity by a combination of two chromatographic steps; molecular exclusion and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. This toxin is dimeric with a mass of 13868.2 Da (monomeric form), as determined by mass spectrometry. CoaTx-II is rich in Arg and Lys residues and displays high identity with other Lys49 PLA2 homologues, which have high isoelectric points. The structural model of dimeric CoaTx-II shows that the toxin is non-covalently stabilized. Despite its enzymatic inactivity, in vivo CoaTx-II caused local muscular damage, characterized by increased plasma creatine kinase and confirmed by histological alterations, in addition to an inflammatory activity, as demonstrated by mice paw edema induction and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 elevation. CoaTx-II also presents antibacterial activity against gram negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa 31NM, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and positive (Staphyloccocus aureus BEC9393 and Rib1) bacteria. Therefore, data show that this newly purified toxin plays a central role in mediating the degenerative events associated with envenomation, in addition to demonstrating antibacterial properties, with potential for use in the development of strategies for antivenom therapy and combating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. PMID:27530662

  8. Combined EXAFS and DFT Structure Calculations Provide Structural Insights into the 1:1 Multi-Histidine Complexes of CuII, CuI and ZnII with the Tandem Octarepeats of the Mammalian Prion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Pushie, M. Jake; Nienaber, Kurt H.; McDonald, Alex; Millhauser, Glenn L.; George, Graham N.

    2014-01-01

    The metal coordinating properties of the prion protein (PrP) have been the subject of intense focus and debate since the first reports of copper interaction with PrP just before the turn of the century. The picture of metal coordination to PrP has been improved and refined over the past decade, and yet the structural details of the various metal coordination modes have not been fully elucidated in some cases. Herein we employ X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy as well as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to structurally characterize the dominant 1:1 coordination modes for CuII, CuI and ZnII with an N-terminal fragment of PrP. The PrP fragment constitutes four tandem repeats representative of the mammalian octarepeat domain, designated OR4, which is also the most studied PrP fragment for metal interactions, making our findings applicable to a large body of previous work. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations provide additional structural and thermodynamic data, and candidate structures are used to inform EXAFS data analysis. The optimized geometries from DFT calculations are used to identify potential coordination complexes for multi-histidine coordination of CuII, CuI and ZnII in an aqueous medium, modeled using 4-methylimidazole to represent the histidine side chain. Through a combination of in silico coordination chemistry as well as rigorous EXAFS curve fitting, using full multiple scattering on candidate structures from DFT calculations, we have characterized the predominant coordination modes for the 1:1 complexes of CuII, CuI and ZnII with the OR4 peptide at pH 7.4 at atomic resolution, which are best represented as a square planar [CuII(His)4]2+, digonal [CuI(His)2]+ and tetrahedral [ZnII(His)3(OH2)]2+, respectively. PMID:25042361

  9. China Biobanking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Biobanks are playing increasingly important roles in clinical and translational research nowadays. China, as a country with the largest population and abundant clinical resources, attaches great importance to the development of biobanks. In recent years, with the increasing support from the Chinese government, biobanks are blooming across the country. This paper provides a detailed overview of China biobanking, which is further divided in the following four parts: (i) general introduction of the number, category and distribution of current biobanks; (ii) summarization of the current development status, and issues that Chinese biobanks are faced with; (iii) international cooperation between China and the global biobanking community; (iv) prospect of the modern twenty-first century Chinese biobanks, which would achieve standardized operation, systematic specimen management, and extensive collaboration, and thus provide support for the robust research discoveries and personalized medicine etc. PMID:26420618

  10. Testing promoter activity in the trypanosome genome: isolation of a metacyclic-type VSG promoter, and unexpected insights into RNA polymerase II transcription.

    PubMed

    McAndrew, M; Graham, S; Hartmann, C; Clayton, C

    1998-09-01

    In trypanosomes, most genes are arranged in polycistronic transcription units. Individual mRNAs are generated by 5'-trans splicing and 3' polyadenylation. Remarkably, no regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription has been detected although many RNAs are differentially expressed during kinetoplastid life cycles. Demonstration of specific class II promoters is complicated by the difficulty in distinguishing between genuine promoter activity and stimulation of trans splicing. Using vectors that were designed to allow the detection of low promoter activities in a transcriptionally silent chromosomal context, we isolated a novel trypanosome RNA polymerase I promoter. We were however unable to detect class II promoter activity in any tested DNA fragment. We also integrated genes which were preceded by a T3 promoter into the genome of cells expressing bacteriophage T3 polymerase: surprisingly, transcription was alpha-amanitin sensitive. One possible interpretation of these results is that in trypanosomes, RNA polymerase II initiation is favored by genomic accessibility and double-strand melting. PMID:9709032

  11. Properties of impurity-bearing ferrihydrite II: Insights into the surface structure and composition of pure, Al- and Si-bearing ferrihydrite from Zn(II) sorption experiments and Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismasu, A. Cristina; Levard, Clément; Michel, F. Marc; Brown, Gordon E.

    2013-10-01

    Naturally occurring ferrihydrite often contains impurities such as Al and Si, which can impact its chemical reactivity with respect to metal(loid) adsorption and (in)organic or microbially induced reductive dissolution. However, the surface composition of impure ferrihydrites is not well constrained, and this hinders our understanding of the factors controlling the surface reactivity of these nanophases. In this study, we conducted Zn(II) adsorption experiments combined with Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements on pure ferrihydrite (Fh) and Al- or Si-bearing ferrihydrites containing 10 and 20 mol% Al or Si (referred to as 10AlFh, 20AlFh and 10SiFh, 20SiFh) to evaluate Zn(II) uptake in relation to Zn(II) speciation at their surfaces. Overall, Zn(II) uptake at the surface of AlFh is similar to that of pure Fh, and based on Zn K-edge EXAFS data, Zn(II) speciation at the surface of Fh and AlFh also appears similar. Binuclear bidentate IVZn-VIFe complexes (at ∼3.46 Å (2C[1]) and ∼3.25 Å (2C[2])) were identified at low Zn(II) surface coverages from Zn K-edge EXAFS fits. With increasing Zn(II) surface coverage, the number of second-neighbor Fe ions decreased, which was interpreted as indicating the formation of IVZn polymers at the ferrihydrite surface, and a deviation from Langmuir uptake behavior. Zn(II) uptake at the surface of SiFh samples was more significant than at Fh and AlFh surfaces, and was attributed to the formation of outer-sphere complexes (on average 24% of sorbed Zn). Although similar Zn-Fe/Zn distances were obtained for the Zn-sorbed SiFh samples, the number of Fe second neighbors was lower in comparison with Fh. The decrease in second-neighbor Fe is most pronounced for sample 20SiFh, suggesting that the amount of reactive surface Fe sites diminishes with increasing Si content. Although our EXAFS results shown here do not provide evidence for the existence of Zn-Al or Zn-Si complexes, their presence is not excluded for Zn-sorbed Al

  12. Spatial epidemiology in zoonotic parasitic diseases: insights gained at the 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health in Lijiang, China, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Lv, Shan; Yang, Guo-Jing; Kristensen, Thomas K; Bergquist, N Robert; Utzinger, Jürg; Malone, John B

    2009-01-01

    The 1st International Symposium on Geospatial Health was convened in Lijiang, Yunnan province, People's Republic of China from 8 to 9 September, 2007. The objective was to review progress made with the application of spatial techniques on zoonotic parasitic diseases, particularly in Southeast Asia. The symposium featured 71 presentations covering soil-transmitted and water-borne helminth infections, as well as arthropod-borne diseases such as leishmaniasis, malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The work made public at this occasion is briefly summarized here to highlight the advances made and to put forth research priorities in this area. Approaches such as geographical information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS) and remote sensing (RS), including spatial statistics, web-based GIS and map visualization of field investigations, figured prominently in the presentation. PMID:19193214

  13. Control of Lunar and Martian dust--experimental insights from artificial and natural cyanobacterial and algal crusts in the desert of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongding; Cockell, Charles S; Wang, Gaohong; Hu, Chunxiang; Chen, Lanzhou; De Philippis, Roberto

    2008-02-01

    Studies on the colonization of environmentally extreme ground surfaces were conducted in a Mars-like desert area of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China, with microalgae and cyanobacteria. We collected and mass-cultured cyanobacterial strains from these regions and investigated their ability to form desert crusts artificially. These crusts had the capacity to resist sand wind erosion after just 15 days of growth. Similar to the surface of some Chinese deserts, the surface of Mars is characterized by a layer of fine dust, which will challenge future human exploration activities, particularly in confined spaces that will include greenhouses and habitats. We discuss the use of such crusts for the local control of desert sands in enclosed spaces on Mars. These experiments suggest innovative new directions in the applied use of microbe-mineral interactions to advance the human exploration and settlement of space. PMID:18240967

  14. Tectonics of the Middle Triassic intracontinental Xuefengshan Belt, South China: new insights from structural and chronological constraints on the basal décollement zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yang; Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Wang, Qingchen; Ji, Wenbin

    2012-11-01

    In orogenic belts, a basal décollement zone often develops at depth to accommodate the shortening due to folding and thrusting of the sedimentary cover. In the Early Mesozoic intracontinental Xuefengshan Belt of South China, such a décollement zone is exposed in the core of anticlines formed by the emplacement of the late-orogenic granitic plutons. Our detailed, multi-scale structural analysis documents a synmetamorphic ductile deformation. In the basal décollement, the Neoproterozoic pelite and sandstone, and the intruding Early Paleozoic granites were deformed and metamorphosed into mylonites and orthogneiss, respectively. The metamorphic foliation contains a NW-SE stretching lineation associated with top-to-the-NW kinematic indicators. The ductile shearing of these high-strained rocks can be correlated with NW-verging folds and thrusts recognized in the Neoproterozoic to Early Triassic sedimentary cover. Monazite U-Th-Pbtot chemical dating, and zircon SIMS U-Pb dating provide age constraints of the ductile shearing between 243 and 226 Ma, and late-orogenic granite emplacement around 235-215 Ma. In agreement with recent geochronological data, these new results show that the Xuefengshan Belt is an Early Mesozoic orogen dominated by the NW-directed shearing and thrusting. At the southeastern boundary of the Xuefengshan Belt, the Chenzhou-Linwu fault separates the Early Mesozoic domain to the NW from the Early Paleozoic domain to the SE. The tectonic architecture of this belt was possibly originated from the continental underthrusting to the SE of the South China block in response to northwest-directed subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

  15. Geometry and emplacement of the Late Cretaceous mafic dyke swarms on the islands in Zhejiang Province, Southeast China: Insights from high-resolution satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ning-hua; Dong, Jin-jin; Chen, Jian-yu; Dong, Chuan-wan; Shen, Zhong-yue

    2014-01-01

    The geology of Zhejiang coastal area in Southeast China is characterized by numerous Late Mesozoic intrusive rocks and widespread mafic dyke swarms, which indicate continental lithospheric extensional events during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. This work is focused on using multisource high-resolution remote sensing images (Worldview2, Geoeye1 and Quickbird2) to identify the geometry, morphology and location of previously undocumented and poorly understood dyke swarms exposed on the islands in Zhejiang Province. The geometry of each dyke is described by its strike, length and thickness. The spatial distribution of the dyke density and crustal dilation are obtained based on the statistics of 774 extracted mafic dykes. Field surveys are performed in some islands in order to analyze the detailed geometric features and assess the interpretative accuracy. The spectral measurement and analysis of mafic dykes are performed as well for remote sensing imagery processing and lithological interpretation. The results show that the frequency distributions of the length and thickness of dykes follow power law curves. The maximum and mean dyke thicknesses are 11.2 m and 1.43 m, respectively. The crustal dilation of the islands ranges from 0.09% to 7.4%. From the north to the south islands, the dilation decreases gradually. The dyke frequency and density have the same distribution as the dilation. According to 40Ar-39Ar age (Zhongshanjie archipelago) and U-Pb zircon age (Sijiao Island) of the mafic dyke, the dyke swarms on the eastern Zhejiang islands emplaced at around 87-97 Ma. The cross-cutting relationships of dykes and host rocks show that the mafic dyke swarms have close spatial correlations with granite. The dykes stretch in various directions whereas the NE-trending dykes dominate. Our research reveals four intrusive events that imply the crustal extension and intermittent variation of the regional stress field in the coastal area of southeastern China in the Late

  16. Slide origin of breccia lenses in the Cambrian of the North China Platform: new insight into mass transport in an epeiric sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, A. J. (Tom); Han, Zuozhen; Han, Yu

    2012-12-01

    An oolite in the Furongian (Late Cambrian) Chaomidian Formation in Shandong Province, China, which was deposited on the North China Platform in an epeiric sea, contains several limestone breccia lenses of various dimensions (centimetres to decimetres thick and decimetres to more than 10 metres in length) in an E-trending section. The oolite, which is approximately 40 cm thick, was originally thicker, as indicated by a planar truncation surface that formed by wave abrasion. The breccia lenses in this oolite are generally mound-shaped with a flat base and a convex top. The western margin of the lenses is commonly rounded whereas the eastern margin commonly has a tail (consisting of a rapidly eastwards thinning breccia horizon that gradually ends in a horizon of isolated clasts). Some of the breccia lenses are underlain by a shear zone. The formation of the breccia lenses cannot be easily explained by normal depositional or deformational processes. It is concluded that the lenses represent fragments of a partly consolidated layer, consisting of both rounded and angular platy clasts, which slid down over a very gently inclined sedimentary surface which acted - possibly together with a water film - as a lubricant layer. During transport, the layer broke up into several discrete bodies that formed small ‘highs’ at the sedimentary surface of the shallow epeiric sea. Subsequently, waves partially eroded the lenses, mostly at their margins, producing their mound-shaped form. Sliding of blocks is known from a wide variety of environments in the sedimentary record; however, this is the first description of the sliding of blocks in an epeiric sea. This indicates that such a low-relief submarine carbonate setting is, like its siliciclastic counterparts, susceptible to this process.

  17. Effectiveness of Valsartan/Amlodipine Single-pill Combination in Hypertensive Patients With Excess Body Weight: Subanalysis of China Status II.

    PubMed

    Ge, Beihai; Peng, Wenzhong; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Yuxiang; Liu, Cong; Guo, Xiaomei

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a major global health concern and is associated with hypertension. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in Chinese hypertensive patients with excess body weight uncontrolled by monotherapy. To evaluate this effectiveness and its association with obese categories, we performed a prespecified subanalysis and a post hoc analysis of patients from China status II study. In this subanalysis, 11,289 and 11,182 patients stratified by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), respectively, were included. Significant mean sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) reductions from baseline were observed at week 8 across all BMI and WC subgroups (P < 0.001). The percentages of patients achieving BP control were 65.2%, 62.8%, and 64.5% (men 64.5% and women 64.4%) in the overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity subgroups, respectively. The positive association between BP control and obese categories could only be found in subgroups stratified by BMI other than WC. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in Chinese hypertensive patients with excess body weight uncontrolled by monotherapy, and its effectiveness was better associated with BMI than WC. PMID:26248276

  18. Effectiveness of Valsartan/Amlodipine Single-pill Combination in Hypertensive Patients With Excess Body Weight: Subanalysis of China Status II

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Beihai; Peng, Wenzhong; Zhang, Yi; Wen, Yuxiang; Liu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Obesity is a major global health concern and is associated with hypertension. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in Chinese hypertensive patients with excess body weight uncontrolled by monotherapy. To evaluate this effectiveness and its association with obese categories, we performed a prespecified subanalysis and a post hoc analysis of patients from China status II study. In this subanalysis, 11,289 and 11,182 patients stratified by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), respectively, were included. Significant mean sitting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) reductions from baseline were observed at week 8 across all BMI and WC subgroups (P < 0.001). The percentages of patients achieving BP control were 65.2%, 62.8%, and 64.5% (men 64.5% and women 64.4%) in the overweight, obesity, and abdominal obesity subgroups, respectively. The positive association between BP control and obese categories could only be found in subgroups stratified by BMI other than WC. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of valsartan/amlodipine single-pill combination in Chinese hypertensive patients with excess body weight uncontrolled by monotherapy, and its effectiveness was better associated with BMI than WC. PMID:26248276

  19. Synthetic applications of Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H carboxylation and mechanistic insights: expedient routes to anthranilic acids, oxazolinones, and quinazolinones.

    PubMed

    Giri, Ramesh; Lam, Jonathan K; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2010-01-20

    A Pd(II)-catalyzed reaction protocol for the carboxylation of ortho-C-H bonds in anilides to form N-acyl anthranilic acids has been developed. This reaction procedure provides a novel and efficient strategy for the rapid assembly of biologically and pharmaceutically significant molecules, such as benzoxazinones and quinazolinones, from simple anilides without installing and removing an external directing group. The reaction conditions are also amenable to the carboxylation of N-phenyl pyrrolidinones. A monomeric palladacycle containing p-toluenesulfonate as an anionic ligand has been characterized by X-ray crystallography, and the crucial role of p-toluenesulfonic acid in the activation of C-H bonds in the presence of carbon monoxide is discussed. Identification of two key intermediates, a mixed anhydride and benzoxazinone formed by reductive elimination from organometallic Ar(CO)Pd(II)-OTs species, provides mechanistic evidence for a dual-reaction pathway. PMID:20000840

  20. Biophysical Insights into How Spike Threshold Depends on the Rate of Membrane Potential Depolarization in Type I and Type II Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic spike threshold plays a critical role in neuronal input-output relations. In many neurons, the threshold potential depends on the rate of membrane potential depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. There are two basic classes of neural excitability, i.e., Type I and Type II, according to input-output properties. Although the dynamical and biophysical basis of their spike initiation has been established, the spike threshold dynamic for each cell type has not been well described. Here, we use a biophysical model to investigate how spike threshold depends on dV/dt in two types of neuron. It is observed that Type II spike threshold is more depolarized and more sensitive to dV/dt than Type I. With phase plane analysis, we show that each threshold dynamic arises from the different separatrix and K+ current kinetics. By analyzing subthreshold properties of membrane currents, we find the activation of hyperpolarizing current prior to spike initiation is a major factor that regulates the threshold dynamics. The outward K+ current in Type I neuron does not activate at the perithresholds, which makes its spike threshold insensitive to dV/dt. The Type II K+ current activates prior to spike initiation and there is a large net hyperpolarizing current at the perithresholds, which results in a depolarized threshold as well as a pronounced threshold dynamic. These predictions are further attested in several other functionally equivalent cases of neural excitability. Our study provides a fundamental description about how intrinsic biophysical properties contribute to the threshold dynamics in Type I and Type II neurons, which could decipher their significant functions in neural coding. PMID:26083350

  1. Hydrogen-bond vibrational and energetic dynamical properties in sI and sII clathrate hydrates and in ice Ih: Molecular dynamics insights.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Somendra Nath; English, Niall J

    2015-10-21

    Equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on cubic (sI and sII) polymorphs of methane hydrate, and hexagonal ice (ice Ih), to study the dynamical properties of hydrogen-bond vibrations and hydrogen-bond self-energy. It was found that hydrogen-bond energies are greatest in magnitude in sI hydrates, followed by sII, and their energies are least in magnitude in ice Ih. This is consistent with recent MD-based findings on thermal conductivities for these various materials [N. J. English and J. S. Tse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 015901 (2009)], in which the lower thermal conductivity of sI methane hydrate was rationalised in terms of more strained hydrogen-bond arrangements. Further, modes for vibration and energy-transfer via hydrogen bonds in sI hydrate were found to occur at higher frequencies vis-à-vis ice Ih and sII hydrate in both the water-librational and OH⋯H regions because of the more strained nature of hydrogen bonds therein. PMID:26493912

  2. Authigenic carbonates from an active cold seep of the northern South China Sea: New insights into fluid sources and past seepage activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dong; Chen, Duofu

    2015-12-01

    Site F (also named Formosa ridge) represents the most vigorous cold seep on the northern South China Sea continental slope. In order to constrain the fluid sources and intensities of seepage, we investigated the petrography, mineralogy, stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions, element geochemistry and radiocarbon dating of authigenic carbonate rocks retrieved from the seafloor. Carbonate rocks mainly occurred as crusts, nodules, and nodular masses incorporated in carbonate breccias. The carbonates were comprised mainly of high-Mg calcite and aragonite. The δ13C of authigenic carbonate varied from -55.3‰ to -34.3‰ (mean: -48.5‰; n=47) vs. V-PDB, suggesting biogenic methane is the dominant carbon source fuelling the system. The δ18OCarbonate values were from +3.6‰ to +4.8‰ (mean: +3.9‰; n=47). The observed 18O-enrichement in relation to calculated equilibrium values in the carbonates probably reflects dissolution of gas hydrates. Combination of seafloor observations and the obtained AMS 14C ages suggest that (1) initiation of methane seepage from at least 10.6 ka ago; (2) environmental conditions may have been favorable for enhanced fluid seepage around 6 ka BP and (3) relatively low intensity of seepage from 2 ka BP till today.

  3. Climatic impact of the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano in China: New insights from high-precision radiocarbon wiggle-match dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiandong; Pan, Bo; Liu, Tanzhuo; Hajdas, Irka; Zhao, Bo; Yu, Hongmei; Liu, Ruoxin; Zhao, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Changbaishan volcano in northeast China, previously dated to have erupted around the mid-10th century A.D., is renowned for producing one of the largest eruptions in history (magnitude 6.8) and thus speculated to have substantial climatic impact. Here we report a new high-precision 14C wiggle-match age of A.D. 946 ± 3 obtained from a 264 year old tree trunk (with bark) killed during the eruption, using the OxCal's Bayesian modeling approach with 27 sequentially sampled annual rings of decadal intervals. The new chronology conforms well to the calendar date of A.D. 946 for the eruption inferred from historical documentary evidence. We find no stratospherically loaded sulfate spike that might be associated with the A.D. 946 eruption in the global volcanism record from the GISP2 ice core, suggesting the stratospheric sulfate aerosols produced during the eruption were not transported to the arctic region, due probably to its relatively low stratospheric sulfur emission and the seasonal effects of the atmospheric circulation at the time of the eruption that likely occurred in the winter of A.D. 946-947. Since the stratospheric volcanic sulfates are the main cause of large-scale climate perturbations, this finding indicates that the Millennium eruption of Changbaishan volcano might have limited regional climatic effects, rather than global or hemispheric impact as implied by its magnitude.

  4. New insight into the correlations between land use and water quality in a coastal watershed of China: Does point source pollution weaken it?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Pontius, Robert Gilmore; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-02-01

    Uncovering the associations between land use and river water quality is useful for managing land-based pollution in the catchment-coast continuum. However, it is not clear how land use affects water quality in the context of simultaneous point source (PS) pollution. In this study, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM)-based approach to explore the relationship between land use and water quality in the Minjiang River Watershed, Southeast China. Water samples from 139 headwater sub-watersheds were associated with six land use categories, namely, Woodland, Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up, Unused land and Water. Sampling sites are delineated into six clusters based on six water quality parameters: ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate, total phosphate and potassium permanganate index. Local relationships between land use and water quality among four clusters that have sufficient sample sizes are further identified. There is no significant land use-water quality correlation in one of the four clusters (including 37 sub-watersheds). And the greater the PS pollution is, the less significant the land use-water quality correlations are in clusters. The results demonstrate how PS pollution weakens the land use-water quality correlation. Our method can help to determine whether non-point source or PS pollution exerts greater influence on the quality of the water coming from watershed. PMID:26615482

  5. Effects of sediment dredging on nitrogen cycling in Lake Taihu, China: Insight from mass balance based on a 2-year field study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Juhua; Fan, Chengxin; Zhong, Jicheng; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Changhui; Yao, Xiaolong

    2016-02-01

    Sediment dredging can permanently remove pollutants from an aquatic ecosystem, which is considered an effective approach to aquatic ecosystem restoration. In this work, a 2-year field simulation test was carried out to investigate the effect of dredging on nitrogen cycling across the sediment-water interface (SWI) in Lake Taihu, China. The results showed that simulated dredging applied to an area rich in total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN) slightly reduced the NH4(+)-N release from sediments while temporarily enhanced the NH4(+)-N release in an area with lower TOC and/or TN (in the first 180 days), although the application had a limited effect on the fluxes of NO2(-)-N and NO3(-)-N in both areas. Further analysis indicated that dredging induced decreases in nitrification, denitrification, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in sediments, notably by 76.9, 49.0, and 89.9%, respectively, in the TOC and/or TN-rich area. Therefore, dredging slowed down nitrogen cycling rates in sediments but did not increase N loading to overlying water. The main reason for the above phenomenon could be attributed to the removal of the surface sediments enriched with more TOC and/or TN (compared with the bottom sediments). Overall, to minimize internal N pollution, dredging may be more applicable to nutrient-rich sediments. PMID:26499196

  6. 2D magnetotelluric imaging of the Anqing-Guichi ore district, Yangtze metallogenic belt, eastern China: An insight into the crustal structure and tectonic units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiangbin; Yan, Jiayong

    2016-08-01

    Two parallel NW-trending magnetotelluric (MT) profiles were placed perpendicularly to the main structures of the Anqing-Guichi ore district, one of the seven ore districts in the middle-lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt of eastern China. In October-December 2013, the MT data acquisition was carried out at 117 sites with 0.5-1 km site spacing. The MT data has a good quality in the frequency range between 320 and 0.01 Hz. The dimensionality analysis and 2D resistivity inversion results indicate that: (1) the deep of the ore district with three-dimensional structural characteristics, but two-dimensional structural characteristics for shallow; (2) there is a clear correlation between resistivity and the main geological units of the ore district, as well as correlation with mapped surface faults; (3) the Gandan deep fault (GDF) and Jiangnan deep fault (JNF) extend from the surface to 10 km deep, with dip of NW45°, and dip angles larger than 60°. A series of NE-trending acidic intrusive rocks were controlled by the GDF.

  7. Generation, Characterization, and Reactivity of a Cu(II)-Alkylperoxide/Anilino Radical Complex: Insight into the O-O Bond Cleavage Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Paria, Sayantan; Ohta, Takehiro; Morimoto, Yuma; Ogura, Takashi; Sugimoto, Hideki; Fujieda, Nobutaka; Goto, Kei; Asano, Kaori; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Itoh, Shinobu

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of [Cu(I)(TIPT3tren) (CH3CN)]ClO4 (1) and cumene hydroperoxide (C6H5C(CH3)2OOH, ROOH) at -60 °C in CH2Cl2 gave a Cu(II)-alkylperoxide/anilino radical complex 2, the formation of which was confirmed by UV-vis, resonance Raman, EPR, and CSI-mass spectroscopy. The mechanism of formation of 2, as well as its reactivity, has been explored. PMID:26291639

  8. New insights into PM2.5 chemical composition and sources in two major cities in China during extreme haze events using aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, Miriam; Huang, Ru-Jin; Wolf, Robert; Slowik, Jay G.; Wang, Qiyuan; Canonaco, Francesco; Li, Guohui; Bozzetti, Carlo; Daellenbach, Kaspar R.; Huang, Yu; Zhang, Renjian; Li, Zhengqiang; Cao, Junji; Baltensperger, Urs; El-Haddad, Imad; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2016-03-01

    During winter 2013-2014 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements were conducted for the first time with a novel PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 µm) lens in two major cities of China: Xi'an and Beijing. We denote the periods with visibility below 2 km as extreme haze and refer to the rest as reference periods. During the measurements in Xi'an an extreme haze covered the city for about a week and the total non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 mass fraction reached peak concentrations of over 1000 µg m-3. During the measurements in Beijing two extreme haze events occurred, but the temporal extent and the total concentrations reached during these events were lower than in Xi'an. Average PM2.5 concentrations of 537 ± 146 and 243 ± 47 µg m-3 (including NR species and equivalent black carbon, eBC) were recorded during the extreme haze events in Xi'an and Beijing, respectively. During the reference periods the measured average concentrations were 140 ± 99 µg m-3 in Xi'an and 75 ± 61 µg m-3 in Beijing. The relative composition of the NR-PM2.5 evolved substantially during the extreme haze periods, with increased contributions of the inorganic components (mostly sulfate and nitrate). Our results suggest that the high relative humidity present during the extreme haze events had a strong effect on the increase of sulfate mass (via aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide). Another relevant characteristic of the extreme haze is the size of the measured particles. During the extreme haze events, the AMS showed much larger particles, with a volume weighted mode at about 800 to 1000 nm, in contrast to about 400 nm during reference periods. These large particle sizes made the use of the PM2.5 inlet crucial, especially during the severe haze events, where 39 ± 5 % of the mass would have been lost in the conventional PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 µm) inlet. A novel positive matrix factorization procedure was developed to

  9. New insights into hydrological exchange between the South China Sea and the Western Pacific Ocean based on the Nd isotopic composition of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Colin, Christophe; Liu, Zhifei; Douville, Eric; Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Frank, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations and Nd isotopic compositions (εNd) of 16 seawater profiles collected in the northern South China Sea (SCS) and the Philippine Sea were investigated (1) to establish the distribution of the Nd isotopic composition of water masses along the tropical Western Pacific and the SCS until now underexplored, (2) to constrain hydrological exchanges between the SCS and the Philippine Sea through the Luzon Strait, and (3) to test, in the context of the semi-closed marginal sea (SCS), the possible impact of the process of exchange of Nd between SCS water masses and unradiogenic sediments from its north-western margin. εNd values for mid- and deep-water masses of the Philippine Sea and the SCS range from -2.3 to -4.4 and generally increase slightly as water depth increases. In the Philippine Sea, εNd values for the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) reach -2.7±0.4 at mid-depths (500 to 1400 m). Below ~1800 m, the Pacific Deep Water (PDW) is characterised by less radiogenic Nd (-4.1±0.5) indicating the intrusion of southern-sourced water. For most of the stations in the Northern SCS, water masses below 1500 m (PDW) display homogenous εNd values (~-4.1) identical to those of the PDW in the Philippine Sea. εNd values for the South China Sea Intermediate Water (SCSIW, 500-1500 m) vary from -3.0 to -3.9 as a result of the vertical mixing of the NPIW with the PDW in the SCS. Seawater εNd values for the SCS display local modification (~-5.3 to -7.0) in areas where water passes above sediment drift deposit systems. This implies locally confined "boundary exchange'' with unradiogenic sediments (around -11) insufficient to alter the Nd isotopic composition of the PDW in the Northern SCS. In addition, εNd values analysed for the first time in nepheloid layers collected along the north-western margin of the SCS do not exhibit any significant modification of the seawater εNd which remains into a narrow range between -3.7 and -4

  10. Primary uranium sources for sedimentary-hosted uranium deposits in NE China: insight from basement igneous rocks of the Erlian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnetti, Christophe; Cuney, Michel; Bourlange, Sylvain; Deloule, Etienne; Poujol, Marc; Liu, Xiaodong; Peng, Yunbiao; Yang, Jianxing

    2016-05-01

    Carboniferous-Permian, Triassic and Jurassic igneous basement rocks around the Erlian Basin in northeast China have been investigated through detailed mineralogical, whole-rock geochemistry, geochronological data and Sm-Nd isotope studies. Carboniferous-Permian biotite granites and volcanic rocks belong to a calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (313 ± 1-286 ± 2 Ma). These rocks are characterised by positive ɛNd(t) (3.3-5.3) and fairly young T DM model ages (485-726 Ma), suggesting a dominant derivation from partial melting of earlier emplaced juvenile source rocks. Triassic biotite granites belong to a high-K calc-alkaline association and were emplaced during the Middle Triassic (243 ± 3-233 ± 2 Ma). Their negative ɛNd(t) (-2 to -0.1) and higher T DM model ages (703-893 Ma) suggest a contribution from Precambrian crust during the magma generation processes, leading to a strong enrichment in K and incompatible elements such as Th and U. Highly fractionated magmas crystallised in U-rich biotite (up to 21 ppm U) and two-mica granites. In biotite granite, the major U-bearing minerals are uranothorite and allanite. They are strongly metamict and the major part of their uranium (90 %) has been released from the mineral structure and was available for leaching. Mass balance calculations show that the Triassic biotite granites may have, at least, liberated ˜14,000 t U/km3 and thus correspond to a major primary uranium source for the U deposits hosted in the Erlian Basin.

  11. Marine redox conditions in the middle Proterozoic ocean and isotopic constraints on authigenic carbonate formation: Insights from the Chuanlinggou Formation, Yanshan Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Planavsky, Noah J.; Love, Gordon D.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Hardisty, Dalton; Feng, Lianjun; Bates, Steven M.; Huang, Jing; Zhang, Qirui; Chu, Xuelei; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2015-02-01

    To improve our understanding of ocean chemistry and biogeochemical cycling following the termination of large-scale Paleoproterozoic iron formation (IF) deposition (∼1.85 billion years ago [Ga]), we conducted a Fe-S-C-Mo geochemical study of the ∼1.65 Ga Chuanlinggou Formation, Yanshan Basin, North China. Despite the cessation of IF deposition, our results suggest the presence of anoxic but non-euxinic (ferruginous) conditions persisted below the surface mixed layer for the deepest portion of the continental rifting basin and that this pattern is apparently independent of the local organic carbon content. However, our paired S-isotope data of carbonate-associated sulfate and pyrite suggest presence of sulfate in pore fluids, which is not consistent with insufficient sulfate for bacterial sulfate reduction in the water column. Despite evidence for deposition under anoxic conditions, sedimentary molybdenum (Mo) concentrations are mostly not enriched relative to average continental crust. This relationship is consistent with the notion that sulfide-dominated conditions in the water column and/or the sediments are required for Mo enrichment and validates past assertions that Mo enrichment patterns in ancient shales track both the local presence and global distribution of euxinia specifically. In addition, we identified extensive diagenetic carbonate precipitation in the upper Chuanlinggou Formation with only moderately negative δ13C values (-3.4 ± 1.4‰). We propose, with support from a numerical model, that these diagenetic carbon isotope values were most likely derived from precipitation of carbonates dominantly in the methanic zone within the sediments. Diagenetic carbonate precipitation in the methanic zone is likely to have been more extensive in the Proterozoic than the Phanerozoic due to porewater oxidant limitation.

  12. Coupled pyrite concentration and sulfur isotopic insight into the paleo sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qi; Wang, Jiasheng; Taladay, Katie; Lu, Hongfeng; Hu, Gaowei; Sun, Fei; Lin, Rongxiao

    2016-01-01

    The sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) is an important diagenetic redox boundary within marine sediments where the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction, can promote sulfur isotopic enrichments in several solid phase minerals including pyrite (FeS2). Authigenic pyrite can form in concentrated abundances within the SMTZ and as such, can be used as a proxy to identify paleo-SMTZs. This study uses enrichments in 34S and anomalously high abundances of authigenic pyrites in 287 samples from the northern South China Sea (SCS) to determine the paleo-SMTZ. The pyrite samples were collected from sediment cores acquired at three sites, each of which are known to be located in natural gas hydrate-bearing regions. We assess the relative abundances of authigenic pyrites, the types of pyrite morphologies recovered in the cored sediments, and the sulfur isotopic values of recovered pyrite samples using two methods: (1) handpicked sample analysis using a binocular microscope, and (2) the chromium reduction method. Our results show that pyrite concentrations and sulfur isotopic compositions exhibit synchronous fluctuations, particularly from 6.8 m below seafloor (mbsf) to 8.4 mbsf at all three study sites. There is a significant increase in the occurrence of rod-like pyrite morphology within this key interval. We define the position of the paleo-SMTZ by the presence of anomalously high accumulations of pyrites at greater than 5.0 wt.% using the handpicking method or greater than 0.5 wt.% via the chromium reduction method, along with positive Δδ34S excursions greater than 10.0‰ VCDT. We discovered a regional paleo-SMTZ that is shallower than the modern SMTZ, suggesting a previous period of elevated methane flux from depth, possibly related to widespread gas hydrate dissociation.

  13. National Assessment of Statin Therapy in Patients Hospitalized with Acute Myocardial Infarction: Insight from China PEACE-Retrospective AMI Study, 2001, 2006, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihua; Li, Jing; Li, Xi; Nasir, Khurram; Zhang, Haibo; Wu, Yongjian; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Qing; Downing, Nicholas S.; Desai, Nihar R.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Spertus, John A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Background Statin therapy is among the most effective treatments to improve short- and long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. The use of statin, and the intensity of their use, has not been described in acute myocardial infarction patients in China, a country with a rapidly growing burden of cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Using a nationally representative sample of patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted to 162 Chinese hospitals in 2001, 2006 and 2011, we identified 14,958 patients eligible for statin therapy to determine rates of statin use and the intensity of statin therapy, defined as those statin regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering of at least 40%, to identify factors associated with the use of statin therapy. Statin use among hospitalized patients with acute myocardial infarction increased from 27.9% in 2001 to 72.5% in 2006, and 88.8% in 2011 (P<0.001 for trend). Regional variation in statin use correspondingly decreased over time. Among treated patients, those receiving intensive statin therapy increased from 1.0% in 2001 to 24.2% in 2006 to 57.2% in 2011(P<0.001 for trend). Patients without low-density lipoprotein cholesterol measured were less likely to be treated with statin or to receive intensive therapy. Conclusions The use of statin therapy has dramatically increased over the past decade in Chinese patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, half of patients still did not receive intensive statin therapy in 2011.Given that guidelines strongly endorse intensive statin therapy for acute myocardial infarction patients, initiatives promoting the use of statin therapy, with attention to treatment intensity, would support further improvements in practice. PMID:27058862

  14. Insights from heavy minerals and zircon U-Pb ages into the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution of the Yinggehai Basin, northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Cao, Licheng; Xie, Xinong; Wang, Zhenfeng; Li, Xushen; Zhang, Yingzhao; Zhang, Daojun; Sun, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The well-preserved Cenozoic sedimentary record in the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea, is suitable to explore the tectonic and climatic evolution of SE Asia. Red River, a large-scale fluvial system in this region, was previously regarded as the major sediment source for the basin. Here we combine heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb dating to shed new light on the middle Miocene-Pliocene provenance evolution at a basin scale. The results clearly reveal potential source areas additional to the Red River. Sediments have been delivered to the proximal areas from Hainan Island, as indicated by the high zircon content and the Yanshanian U-Pb ages in the southern segment of the Yingdong Slope. A provenance from Central Vietnam is explicitly discerned in the upper Miocene of the Central Depression, where sediments are characterized by few metamorphic heavy minerals and the U-Pb age pattern peaking at around 250 Ma and 440 Ma. Coeval large-scale relative sea-level fall and rapid exhumation along the Vietnamese margin together may have facilitated this long-distance sediment transport. Provenance of sediments from the Red River seems to change over time. Song Lo River, on the north side of the main stream, probably flowed from the NE and carried Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic zircons to the Yinggehai Basin during the middle Miocene. Since the late Miocene, rocks along the Red River Fault Zone have become the dominant source. Subsequently, widespread metamorphic minerals in the Central Depression of the Yinggehai Basin, combined with the strong river incision and high offshore sedimentation rates, indicate an increased sediment supply from the Red River in the Pliocene.

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of claystones from the Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary at Penglaitan, South China: Insights into the pre-Lopingian geological events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yu-Ting; He, Bin; Xu, Yi-Gang

    2013-01-01

    The Guadalupian-Lopingian (G/L) boundary, at a stratigraphically well-documented outcrop in Penglaitan, Guangxi Autonomous Region, South China, has been approved as the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP). Several volcanic ashes or tuffs occur at this boundary, but their mineralogy and geochemistry are not available yet and no reliable age for this boundary has been obtained. A combined study of mineralogy, geochemistry and geochronology has been carried out in this study on six layers of claystones collected below (Group 1) and above (Group 2) the G/L boundary at the Penglaitan section. Both Group 1 and Group 2 claystones are likely clastic in origin, rather than volcanic ashes as previously thought. Thus the Penglaitan claystones are not suitable for age determination of the G/L boundary. They are significantly different in terms of mineralogy and geochemistry. Specifically, Group 1 claystones are likely derived from a mafic source which is genetically related to the Emeishan large igneous province, therefore providing additional evidence for the synchroneity between the G/L boundary mass extinction and the Emeishan volcanism. Group 2 samples were derived from a felsic source, of which zircons yield an age spectrum peaked at 262 ± 3 Ma, undistinguishable within the uncertainty from the currently accepted G/L boundary age (260.4 ± 0.4 Ma). Nevertheless, Group 2 samples are not related to Emeishan volcanism, because their negative zircon ɛHf(t) values differ significantly from those of Emeishan magmas and trace element compositions of zircons are indicative of an arc source, rather than a within-plate source. In consideration of paleogeographic reconstruction, we propose that the Group 2 claystones may have been derived from continental arcs during the palaeo-Tethys evolution. This is the first sedimentary evidence for Permian continental arc in the northern margin of palaeo-Tethys.

  16. Insights into the dynamics of planetary interiors obtained through the study of global distribution of volcanoes II: Tectonic implications from Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañon-Tapia, Edgardo

    2014-06-01

    The distribution of volcanic features is ultimately controlled by processes taking place beneath the surface of a planet. For this reason, characterization of volcano distribution at a global scale can be used to obtain insights concerning dynamic aspects of planetary interiors. Until present, studies of this type commonly have focused on volcanic features of a specific type (e.g., large volcanoes in Venus or hot-spot volcanism on Earth), or have concentrated on relatively small regions (i.e., vent distribution within individual volcanic fields), but no comparison of extensive databases has been made by using the same tools in both planets. In this work, the description of the distribution of volcanic features observed over the entire surface of Venus is made using the same tool used for Earth, and is applied to an extensive database. The analysis is based on density contours obtained with the Fisher kernel. As a result, several groupings of volcanoes are identified refining the already documented concentration of volcanoes on the BAT zone. In particular some doughnut-like patterns are observed that might be related to the action of mantle plumes. The occurrence of such features on Earth, as well as the existence of a uniform distribution of background volcanism on both planets, suggests similarities on their geodynamic behavior that had not been identified previously.

  17. The Semiquinone-Iron Complex of Photosystem II: Structural Insights from ESR and Theoretical Simulation; Evidence that the Native Ligand to the Non-Heme Iron Is Carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Nicholas; Jin, Lu; Jaszewski, Adrian; Smith, Paul J.; Krausz, Elmars; Rutherford, A. William; Pace, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The semiquinone-iron complex of photosystem II was studied using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. Two forms of the signal were investigated: 1), the native g ∼ 1.9 form; and 2), the g ∼ 1.84 form, which is well known in purple bacterial reaction centers and occurs in photosystem II when treated with formate. The g ∼ 1.9 form shows low- and high-field edges at g ∼ 3.5 and g < 0.8, respectively, and resembles the g ∼ 1.84 form in terms of shape and width. Both types of ESR signal were simulated using the theoretical approach used previously for the BRC complex, a spin Hamiltonian formalism in which the semiquinone radical magnetically interacts (J ∼ 1 cm−1) with the nearby high-spin Fe2+. The two forms of ESR signal differ mainly by an axis rotation of the exchange coupling tensor (J) relative to the zero-field tensor (D) and a small increase in the zero-field parameter D (∼6 cm−1). Density functional theory calculations were conducted on model semiquinone-iron systems to identify the physical nature of these changes. The replacement of formate (or glutamate in the bacterial reaction centers) by bicarbonate did not result in changes in the coupling environment. However, when carbonate (CO32−) was used instead of bicarbonate, the exchange and zero-field tensors did show changes that matched those obtained from the spectral simulations. This indicates that 1), the doubly charged carbonate ion is responsible for the g ∼ 1.9 form of the semiquinone-iron signal; and 2), carbonate, rather than bicarbonate, is the ligand to the iron. PMID:19804734

  18. Spectroscopic and Computational Characterization of the NO Adduct of Substrate-Bound Fe(II) Cysteine Dioxygenase: Insights into the Mechanism of O2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Blaesi, Elizabeth J.; Gardner, Jessica D.; Fox, Brian G.; Brunold, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a mononuclear non-heme iron(II)-dependent enzyme critical for maintaining appropriate cysteine (Cys) and taurine levels in eukaryotic systems. Since CDO possesses both an unusual 3-His facial ligation sphere to the iron center and a rare Cys-Tyr crosslink near the active site, the mechanism by which it converts Cys and molecular oxygen to cysteine sulfinic acid is of broad interest. However, as of yet direct experimental support for any of the proposed mechanisms is still lacking. In this study, we have used NO as a substrate analogue for O2 to prepare a species that mimics the geometric and electronic structures of an early reaction intermediate. The resultant unusual S=1/2 {FeNO}7 species was characterized by magnetic circular dichroism, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electronic absorption spectroscopies, as well as computational methods including density functional theory and semi-empirical calculations. The NO adducts of Cys- and selenocysteine (Sec)-bound Fe(II)CDO exhibit virtually identical electronic properties; yet, CDO is unable to oxidize Sec. To explore the differences in reactivity between Cys- and Sec-bound CDO, the geometries and energies of viable O2-bound intermediates were evaluated computationally, and it was found that a low-energy quintet-spin intermediate on the Cys reaction pathway adopts a different geometry for the Sec-bound adduct. The absence of a low-energy O2 adduct for Sec-bound CDO is consistent with our experimental data and may explain why Sec does not act as a substrate for CDO. PMID:23906193

  19. Insights into anticancer activity and mechanism of action of a ruthenium(II) complex in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liubin; Lv, Gaochao; Qiu, Ling; Yang, Hui; Zhang, Li; Yu, Huixin; Zou, Meifen; Lin, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    A ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(p-cymene)(NHC)Cl2] (NHC=1,3-bis(4-(tert-butyl)benzylimidazol-2-ylidene), referred to as L-4, has been designed and synthesized recently in order to look for new anticancer drugs with high efficacy and low side effects. The anticancer activity and mechanism of action of L-4 in human esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells were systematically investigated. The results revealed that L-4 exerted strong inhibitory effect on the proliferation of EC109 cells, and it arrested EC109 cells at G2/M phase, accompanied with the up-regulation of p53 and p21 and the down-regulation of cyclin D1. The results also showed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent apoptosis of EC109 can be induced by L-4 via inhibiting the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), decreasing the ratio of glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), and leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. The mitochondria-mediated apoptosis of EC109 induced by L-4 was also observed from the increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, overload of Ca(2+), disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), redistribution of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3/-9. However, the effects of L-4 on the cell viability, GR activity, GSH/GSSG ratio, reactive oxygen species level, mitochondria dysfunction and apoptosis induction were remarkably attenuated by adding the reactive oxygen species scavenger, NAC. Therefore, it was concluded that L-4 can inhibit the proliferation of EC109 cells via blocking cell cycle progression and inducing reactive oxygen species-dependent and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These findings suggested that the ruthenium(II) complex might be a potential effective chemotherapeutic agent for human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESCC) and worthy of further investigation. PMID:27262377

  20. Molecular epidemiology of genogroup II norovirus infection among hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Suzhou (Jiangsu, China) from 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian-Guang; Ai, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Qing-Bin; Qi, Xian; Ji, Hong; Jin, Miao; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shen-Jiao; Shan, Jun; Bao, Chang-Jun; Tang, Fen-Yang; Zhu, Ye-Fei

    2016-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in both sporadic and outbreak cases. Genotyping and recombination analyses were performed in order to help getting more knowledge of the distribution and genetic diversity of NoVs in Suzhou, located in Jiangsu province of China. All stool samples were collected from hospitalized children younger than 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis. For genotyping, the open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 were partially amplified and sequenced. 26.9% of stool samples were positive for genogroup II NoVs. The most common genotype was GII.4 and its variants included Den Haag-2006b, New Orleans-2009, and Sydney-2012. The Den Haag-2006b variants predominated during 2010-2012. In 2013, it was replaced by the Sydney-2012 variant. The second most common genotype was GII.12/GII.3. NoVs could be detected throughout the year, with GII.4 and GII.12/GII.3 coexisting during the cold months, and GII.4 was the main genotype during the warm months. The highest prevalence of NoV was detected in young children aged <24 months. Patients infected with GII.4 had a higher chance of getting moderate fever than other NoV-positive patients, while those infected with GII.12/GII.3 tended to have a mild degree of fever. NoV is an important pathogen responsible for viral gastroenteritis among children in Suzhou. Analyses of NoV circulating between 2010 and 2013 revealed a change of predominant variant of NoV GII.4 in each epidemic season and intergenotype recombinant strains represented an important part. PMID:26547266

  1. Highly time-resolved urban aerosol characteristics during springtime in Yangtze River Delta, China: insights from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Ge, Xinlei; Chen, Yanfang; Shen, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Sun, Yele; Xu, Jianzhong; Ge, Shun; Yu, Huan; Chen, Mindong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the Aerodyne soot particle - aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was deployed for the first time during the spring of 2015 in urban Nanjing, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China, for online characterization of the submicron aerosols (PM1). The SP-AMS enables real-time and fast quantification of refractory black carbon (rBC) simultaneously with other non-refractory species (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, and organics). The average PM1 concentration was found to be 28.2 µg m-3, with organics (45 %) as the most abundant component, following by sulfate (19.3 %), nitrate (13.6 %), ammonium (11.1 %), rBC (9.7 %), and chloride (1.3 %). These PM1 species together can reconstruct ˜ 44 % of the light extinction during this campaign based on the IMPROVE method. Chemically resolved mass-based size distributions revealed that small particles especially ultrafine ones (< 100 nm vacuum aerodynamic diameter) were dominated by organics and rBC, while large particles had significant contributions from secondary inorganic species. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA) yielded four OA subcomponents, including hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA), cooking-related OA (COA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Overall, secondary organic aerosol (SOA, equal to the sum of SV-OOA and LV-OOA) dominated the total OA mass (55.5 %), but primary organic aerosol (POA, equal to the sum of HOA and COA) can outweigh SOA in the early morning and evening due to enhanced human activities. High OA concentrations were often associated with high mass fractions of POA and rBC, indicating the important role of anthropogenic emissions during heavy pollution events. The diurnal cycles of nitrate, chloride, and SV-OOA both showed good anti-correlations with air temperatures, suggesting their variations were likely driven by thermodynamic equilibria and gas-to-particle partitioning. On the other hand, in contrast to other species

  2. Hydrologically-driven variations in the karst-related carbon sink fluxes: Insights from high-resolution monitoring of three karst catchments in Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Cheng; Liu, Zaihua; Zhao, Min; Yang, Rui

    2016-02-01

    Rainfall (P), discharge (Q), water temperature, pH, and specific electrical conductivity (EC) of the three karst catchments, Banzhai, Huanghou and Houzhai, with different land uses and carbonate lithologies but similar subtropical monsoonal climate, in Guizhou Province, Southwest China, were monitored with CTDP 300 high-resolution multi-parameter data loggers during the period of May 2007-October 2013. In addition, HCO3- and calcium concentrations were titrated in the field and the other major ions determined in the laboratory once every one or two months. Simple linear regression models were used to link the continuous chemical data to in situ measured data to estimate the concentration of HCO3-, the CO2 partial pressures and the calcite saturation indices on the high-resolution logger data. Continuous karst-related carbon sink fluxes (CSFs) were also estimated with the continuous Q and HCO3- concentrations in each catchment area. The primary goal of this study is to understand how discharge and HCO3- concentration determine the CSFs at the storm scale, seasonal scale and annual scale, and to estimate the CSFs for the three studied catchments. Results show that the variation in runoff (river discharge) played a more important role in controlling the CSFs than the variation in HCO3- for all the karst catchments, because of the chemostatic behavior of HCO3- in the catchments. Soil coverage, vegetation and bedrock lithology determined the CSFs by controlling the proportion of precipitation that recharges groundwater (and thus Q), and controlling the soil CO2 productivity (and thus HCO3-). The average CSFs in the Banzhai, Huanghou and Houzhai karst catchments were 29 ± 3, 33 ± 5 and 39 ± 8 t-CO2 km-2 a-1, respectively, which are 15 times higher than those CSFs by silicate weathering in the silicate-rock catchments with similar hydrology, showing the dominant role of carbonate weathering in the rock-weathering-related carbon sink. The interannual change in CSFs was

  3. Chemical composition, sources, and processes of urban aerosols during summertime in northwest China: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Chen, M.; Ge, X.; Ren, J.; Qin, D.

    2014-12-01

    An Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was deployed along with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure the temporal variations of the mass loading, chemical composition, and size distribution of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in Lanzhou, northwest China, during 11 July-7 August 2012. The average (PM1 mass concentration including non-refractory (PM1 (NR-(PM1) measured by HR-ToF-AMS and black carbon (BC) measured by MAAP during this study was 24.5 μg m-3 (ranging from 0.86 to 105 μg m-3), with a mean composition consisting of 47% organics, 16% sulfate, 12% BC, 11% ammonium, 10% nitrate, and 4% chloride. Organic aerosol (OA) on average consisted of 70% carbon, 21% oxygen, 8% hydrogen, and 1% nitrogen, with the average oxygen-to-carbon ratio (O / C) of 0.33 and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM / OC) of 1.58. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified four distinct factors which represent, respectively, two primary OA (POA) emission sources (traffic and food cooking) and two secondary OA (SOA) types - a fresher, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) and a more aged, low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA). Traffic-related hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and BC displayed distinct diurnal patterns, both with peak at ~ 07:00-11:00 (BJT: UTC +8), corresponding to the morning rush hours, while cooking-emission related OA (COA) peaked during three meal periods. The diurnal profiles of sulfate and LV-OOA displayed a broad peak between ~ 07:00 and 15:00, while those of nitrate, ammonium, and SV-OOA showed a narrower peak between ~ 08:00-13:00. The later morning and early afternoon maximum in the diurnal profiles of secondary aerosol species was likely caused by downward mixing of pollutants aloft, which were likely produced in the residual layer decoupled from the boundary layer during nighttime. The mass spectrum of SV-OOA was

  4. Magnetic inclination shallowing problem and the issue of Eurasia's rigidity: insights following a palaeomagnetic study of upper Cretaceous basalts and redbeds from SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong-Xiang; Shu, Liangshu; Wen, Bin; Yang, Zhenyu; Ali, Jason R.

    2013-09-01

    Redbeds are an important source of palaeomagnetic data, but they often record inclinations shallower than that of the ancient local geomagnetic field. Discrepancy of palaeopoles from Cretaceous redbeds in South China Block (SCB) and the coeval Eurasia reference pole is commonly attributed to inclination shallowing. However, redbed-derived palaeomagnetic data from the block have rarely been critically assessed with data from coeval volcanic rocks that should be unaffected by the problem. Here, we address the issue using high-quality palaeomagnetic data from Upper Cretaceous (˜95 Ma) amygdaloidal basalts and coeval redbeds from Jiangshan, Zhejiang Province and Guangfeng, Jiangxi Province. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetizations isolated stable components that in the basalts are carried by a mixture of magnetite and titanomagntite and in the sedimentary units by haematite. The stable components are regarded as primary based on positive intraformational conglomerate tests and a regional tilt test. The redbeds yield a tilt corrected mean direction of D = 20.9°, I = 35.8°, α95 = 8.7°, N = 6, which is statistically indistinguishable from the mean direction of the basalts (D = 17.6°, I = 38.1°, α95 = 8.6°, N = 11), suggesting that the former do not suffer from the problem. In addition, analysis of the other Late Cretaceous SCB palaeopoles reveals two groups with one at relatively high (`H', ˜80°N) latitudes and the other at relatively low (`L', ˜70°N) latitudes. Importantly, each comprises palaeopoles from both redbeds and volcanic rocks, and reasonable consistency exists within each group, further attesting that SCB redbeds do not suffer significant inclination shallowing. Comparison of the SCB palaeopoles with a newly defined coeval reference pole for Europe indicates an ˜11° separation. Since inclination shallowing, over 1000 km tectonic shortening, and apparent polar wander appear unlikely, the ˜11° discrepancy may provide evidence for

  5. Relative role of transfer zones in controlling sequence stacking patterns and facies distribution: insights from the Fushan Depression, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Entao; Wang, Hua; Li, Yuan; Huang, Chuanyan

    2015-04-01

    In sedimentary basins, a transfer zone can be defined as a coordinated system of deformational features which has good prospects for hydrocarbon exploration. Although the term 'transfer zone' has been widely applied to the study of extensional basins, little attention has been paid to its controlling effect on sequence tracking pattern and depositional facies distribution. Fushan Depression is a half-graben rift sub-basin, located in the southeast of the Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. In this study, comparative analysis of seismic reflection, palaeogeomorphology, fault activity and depositional facies distribution in the southern slope indicates that three different types of sequence stacking patterns (i.e. multi-level step-fault belt in the western area, flexure slope belt in the central area, gentle slope belt in the eastern area) were developed along the southern slope, together with a large-scale transfer zone in the central area, at the intersection of the western and eastern fault systems. Further analysis shows that the transfer zone played an important role in the diversity of sequence stacking patterns in the southern slope by dividing the Fushan Depression into two non-interfering tectonic systems forming different sequence patterns, and leading to the formation of the flexure slope belt in the central area. The transfer zone had an important controlling effect on not only the diversity of sequence tracking patterns, but also the facies distribution on the relay ramp. During the high-stand stage, under the controlling effect of the transfer zone, the sediments contain a significant proportion of coarser material accumulated and distributed along the ramp axis. By contrast, during the low-stand stage, the transfer zone did not seem to contribute significantly to the low-stand fan distribution which was mainly controlled by the slope gradient (palaeogeomorphology). Therefore, analysis of the transfer zone can provide a new perspective for basin analysis

  6. Science insights.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2015-06-01

    "Below is an essay by Prof. Tanabe originally written in Japanese. It gives an insight to Prof. Tanabe's inquiring mind and his approach to science. He also seek, as always, to inspire and nudge the young to scientific discovery". PMID:25463310

  7. Heteroleptic tin(II) initiators for the ring-opening (co)polymerization of lactide and trimethylene carbonate: mechanistic insights from experiments and computations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingfang; Kefalidis, Christos E; Sinbandhit, Sourisak; Dorcet, Vincent; Carpentier, Jean-François; Maron, Laurent; Sarazin, Yann

    2013-09-27

    The tin(II) complexes {LO(x)}Sn(X) ({LO(x)}(-) =aminophenolate ancillary) containing amido (1-4), chloro (5), or lactyl (6) coligands (X) promote the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic esters. Complex 6, which models the first insertion of L-lactide, initiates the living ROP of L-LA on its own, but the amido derivatives 1-4 require the addition of alcohol to do so. Upon addition of one to ten equivalents of iPrOH, precatalysts 1-4 promote the ROP of trimethylene carbonate (TMC); yet, hardly any activity is observed if tert-butyl (R)-lactate is used instead of iPrOH. Strong inhibition of the reactivity of TMC is also detected for the simultaneous copolymerization of L-LA and TMC, or for the block copolymerization of TMC after that of L-LA. Experimental and computational data for the {LO(x)}Sn(OR)complexes (OR=lactyl or lactidyl) replicating the active species during the tin(II)-mediated ROP of L-LA demonstrate that the formation of a five-membered chelate is largely favored over that of an eight-membered one, and that it constitutes the resting state of the catalyst during this (co)polymerization. Comprehensive DFT calculations show that, out of the four possible monomer insertion sequences during simultaneous copolymerization of L-LA and TMC: 1) TMC then TMC, 2) TMC then L-LA, 3) L-LA then L-LA, and 4) L-LA then TMC, the first three are possible. By contrast, insertion of L-LA followed by that of TMC (i.e., insertion sequence 4) is endothermic by +1.1 kcal mol(-1), which compares unfavorably with consecutive insertions of two L-LA units (i.e., insertion sequence 3) (-10.2 kcal mol(-1)). The copolymerization of L-LA and TMC thus proceeds under thermodynamic control. PMID:23955851

  8. Communication: Librational dynamics in water, sI and sII clathrate hydrates, and ice Ih: Molecular-dynamics insights.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Christian J; English, Niall J

    2016-02-01

    Equilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations have been performed for liquid water, and on metastable sI and sII polymorphs of empty hydrate lattices, in addition to ice Ih, in order to study the dynamical properties of librational motion (rotation oscillation) depicted by protons in water molecules. In particular, hydrate lattices were found to display prominent "bifurcated" features, or peaks, at circa 70 and 80-95 meV (or ∼560 and 640-760 cm(-1), respectively), also displayed by ice, in essentially quantitative agreement with experimental neutron-scattering data. However, observed differences in dispersion between these librational modes between these two structures (both hydrate polymorphs vis-à-vis ice), owing primarily to density effects, have been decomposed into contributions arising from angular-velocity dynamics about axes in the local molecular frame of water molecules, with in-plane "wagging" and "twisting" rationalising one mode at ∼70 meV, and out-of-plane motion for the higher-frequency band. This was confirmed explicitly by a type of de facto normal-mode analysis, in which only immediate layers of water molecules about the one under consideration were allowed to move. In contrast, liquid water displayed no marked preference for such local in- or out-of-plane modes characterising librational motion, owing to the marked absence of rigid, pentamers or hexamers therein. PMID:26851900

  9. Insights into dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols and amines catalyzed by a (PNN)-Ru(II) hydride complex: unusual metal-ligand cooperation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guixiang; Li, Shuhua

    2011-11-01

    Density functional theory calculations were performed to elucidate the mechanism of dehydrogenative coupling of primary alcohols and amines mediated by a PNN-Ru(II) hydride complex (PNN = (2-(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)-6-(diethylaminomethyl)pyridine)). A plausible reaction pathway was proposed which contains three stages: (1) The alcohol dehydrogenation reaction to generate the aldehyde and H(2); (2) The aldehyde-amine condensation reaction to form the hemiaminal intermediate; (3) The dehydrogenation process of the hemiaminal intermediate to yield the final amide product with the liberation of H(2). The first and third stages occur via a similar pathway: (a) Proton transfer from the substrate to the PNN ligand; (b) Intramolecular rearrangement of the deprotonated substrate to form an anagostic complex; (c) Hydride transfer from the deprotonated substrate to the Ru center to yield the trans-dihydride intermediate and the aldehyde (or amide); (d) Benzylic proton migration from the PNN ligand to the metal center forming a dihydrogen complex and subsequent H(2) liberation to regenerate the catalyst. In all these steps, the metal-ligand cooperation plays an essential role. In proton transfer steps (a) and (d), the metal-ligand cooperation is achieved through the aromatization/dearomatization processes of the PNN ligand. While in steps (b) and (c), their collaboration are demonstrated by the formation of an anagostic interaction between Ru and the C-H bond and two ionic hydrogen bonds supported by the PNN ligand. PMID:21942421

  10. New insights into PM2.5 chemical composition and sources in two major cities in China during extreme haze events using aerosol mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elser, M.; Huang, R.-J.; Wolf, R.; Slowik, J. G.; Wang, Q.-Y.; Canonaco, F.; Li, G. H.; Bozzetti, C.; Daellenbach, K. R.; Huang, Y.; Zhang, R.-J.; Li, Z.-Q.; Cao, J. J.; Baltensperger, U.; El-Haddad, I.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-11-01

    During winter 2013-2014 aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements were conducted for the first time with a novel PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) lens in two major cities of China: Xi'an and Beijing. We denote the periods with visibility below 2 km as extreme haze and refer to the rest as reference periods. During the measurements in Xi'an an extreme haze covered the city for about a week and the total non-refractory (NR)-PM2.5 mass fraction reached peak concentrations of over 1000 μg m-3. During the measurements in Beijing two extreme haze events occurred, but the temporal extent and the total concentrations reached during these events were lower than in Xi'an. Average PM2.5 concentrations of 537 ± 146 μg m-3 and 243 ± 47 μg m-3 (including NR species and equivalent black carbon, eBC) were recorded during the extreme haze events in Xi'an and Beijing, respectively. During the reference periods the measured average concentrations were 140 ± 99 μg m-3 in Xi'an and 75 ± 61 μg m-3 in Beijing. The relative composition of the NR-PM2.5 evolved substantially during the extreme haze periods, with increased contributions of the inorganic components (mostly sulfate and nitrate). Our results suggest that the high relative humidity present during the extreme haze events had a strong effect on the increase of sulfate mass (via aqueous phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide). Another relevant characteristic of the extreme haze is the size of the measured particles. During the extreme haze events, the AMS showed much larger particles, with a volume weighted mode at about 800 to 1000 nm, in contrast to about 400 nm during reference periods. These large particle sizes made the use of the PM2.5 inlet crucial, especially during the severe haze events, where 39 ± 5 % of the mass would have been lost in the conventional PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm) inlet. A novel positive matrix factorization procedure was developed

  11. Crystal Structures of Type-II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase INPP5B with Synthetic Inositol Polyphosphate Surrogates Reveal New Mechanistic Insights for the Inositol 5-Phosphatase Family.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Silvander, Camilla; Cozier, Gyles; Trésaugues, Lionel; Nordlund, Pär; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-03-01

    The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate group from water- and lipid-soluble signaling messengers. Two synthetic benzene and biphenyl polyphosphates (BzP/BiPhPs), simplified surrogates of inositol phosphates and phospholipid headgroups, were identified by thermodynamic studies as potent INPP5B ligands. The X-ray structure of the complex between INPP5B and biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6, IC50 5.5 μM] was determined at 2.89 Å resolution. One inhibitor pole locates in the phospholipid headgroup binding site and the second solvent-exposed ring binds to the His-Tag of another INPP5B molecule, while a molecule of inorganic phosphate is also present in the active site. Benzene 1,2,3-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,3)P3] [one ring of BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6] inhibits INPP5B ca. 6-fold less potently. Co-crystallization with benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4,5)P4, IC50 = 6.3 μM] yielded a structure refined at 2.9 Å resolution. Conserved residues among the 5-phosphatase family mediate interactions with Bz(1,2,4,5)P4 and BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 similar to those with the polar groups present in positions 1, 4, 5, and 6 on the inositol ring of the substrate. 5-Phosphatase specificity most likely resides in the variable zone located close to the 2- and 3-positions of the inositol ring, offering insights to inhibitor design. We propose that the inorganic phosphate present in the INPP5B-BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 complex mimics the postcleavage substrate 5-phosphate released by INPP5B in the catalytic site, allowing elucidation of two new key features in the catalytic mechanism proposed for the family of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: first, the involvement of the conserved Arg-451 in the interaction with the 5-phosphate and second, identification of the water molecule that initiates 5-phosphate hydrolysis. Our model also has implications for the proposed "moving metal" mechanism. PMID:26854536

  12. Crystal Structures of Type-II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase INPP5B with Synthetic Inositol Polyphosphate Surrogates Reveal New Mechanistic Insights for the Inositol 5-Phosphatase Family

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate group from water- and lipid-soluble signaling messengers. Two synthetic benzene and biphenyl polyphosphates (BzP/BiPhPs), simplified surrogates of inositol phosphates and phospholipid headgroups, were identified by thermodynamic studies as potent INPP5B ligands. The X-ray structure of the complex between INPP5B and biphenyl 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3′,4,4′,5,5′)P6, IC50 5.5 μM] was determined at 2.89 Å resolution. One inhibitor pole locates in the phospholipid headgroup binding site and the second solvent-exposed ring binds to the His-Tag of another INPP5B molecule, while a molecule of inorganic phosphate is also present in the active site. Benzene 1,2,3-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,3)P3] [one ring of BiPh(3,3′,4,4′,5,5′)P6] inhibits INPP5B ca. 6-fold less potently. Co-crystallization with benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4,5)P4, IC50 = 6.3 μM] yielded a structure refined at 2.9 Å resolution. Conserved residues among the 5-phosphatase family mediate interactions with Bz(1,2,4,5)P4 and BiPh(3,3′,4,4′,5,5′)P6 similar to those with the polar groups present in positions 1, 4, 5, and 6 on the inositol ring of the substrate. 5-Phosphatase specificity most likely resides in the variable zone located close to the 2- and 3-positions of the inositol ring, offering insights to inhibitor design. We propose that the inorganic phosphate present in the INPP5B–BiPh(3,3′,4,4′,5,5′)P6 complex mimics the postcleavage substrate 5-phosphate released by INPP5B in the catalytic site, allowing elucidation of two new key features in the catalytic mechanism proposed for the family of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: first, the involvement of the conserved Arg-451 in the interaction with the 5-phosphate and second, identification of the water molecule that initiates 5-phosphate hydrolysis. Our model also has implications for the proposed “moving metal” mechanism

  13. Whirlin interacts with espin and modulates its actin-regulatory function: an insight into the mechanism of Usher syndrome type II.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Zou, Junhuang; Shen, Zuolian; Song, E; Yang, Jun

    2012-02-01

    Whirlin mutations cause retinal degeneration and hearing loss in Usher syndrome type II (USH2) and non-syndromic deafness, DFNB31. Its protein recruits other USH2 causative proteins to form a complex at the periciliary membrane complex in photoreceptors and the ankle link of the stereocilia in hair cells. However, the biological function of this USH2 protein complex is largely unknown. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified espin, an actin-binding/bundling protein involved in human deafness when defective, as a whirlin-interacting protein. The interaction between these two proteins was confirmed by their coimmunoprecipitation and colocalization in cultured cells. This interaction involves multiple domains of both proteins and only occurs when espin does not bind to actin. Espin was partially colocalized with whirlin in the retina and the inner ear. In whirlin knockout mice, espin expression changed significantly in these two tissues. Further studies found that whirlin increased the mobility of espin and actin at the actin bundles cross-linked by espin and, eventually, affected the dimension of these actin bundles. In whirlin knockout mice, the stereocilia were thickened in inner hair cells. We conclude that the interaction between whirlin and espin and the balance between their expressions are required to maintain the actin bundle network in photoreceptors and hair cells. Disruption of this actin bundle network contributes to the pathogenic mechanism of hearing loss and retinal degeneration caused by whirlin and espin mutations. Espin is a component of the USH2 protein complex and could be a candidate gene for Usher syndrome. PMID:22048959

  14. Sequence analysis and structure prediction of type II Pseudomonas sp. USM 4–55 PHA synthase and an insight into its catalytic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Habibah A; Ahmad Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah; Samian, Mohd Razip; Najimudin, Nazalan

    2006-01-01

    Background Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), are biodegradable polyesters derived from many microorganisms such as the pseudomonads. These polyesters are in great demand especially in the packaging industries, the medical line as well as the paint industries. The enzyme responsible in catalyzing the formation of PHA is PHA synthase. Due to the limited structural information, its functional properties including catalysis are lacking. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the structural properties as well as its catalytic mechanism by predicting the three-dimensional (3D) model of the Type II Pseudomonas sp. USM 4–55 PHA synthase 1 (PhaC1P.sp USM 4–55). Results Sequence analysis demonstrated that PhaC1P.sp USM 4–55 lacked similarity with all known structures in databases. PSI-BLAST and HMM Superfamily analyses demonstrated that this enzyme belongs to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family. Threading approach revealed that the most suitable template to use was the human gastric lipase (PDB ID: 1HLG). The superimposition of the predicted PhaC1P.sp USM 4–55 model with 1HLG covering 86.2% of the backbone atoms showed an RMSD of 1.15 Å. The catalytic residues comprising of Cys296, Asp451 and His479 were found to be conserved and located adjacent to each other. In addition to this, an extension to the catalytic mechanism was also proposed whereby two tetrahedral intermediates were believed to form during the PHA biosynthesis. These transition state intermediates were further postulated to be stabilized by the formation of oxyanion holes. Based on the sequence analysis and the deduced model, Ser297 was postulated to contribute to the formation of the oxyanion hole. Conclusion The 3D model of the core region of PhaC1P.sp USM 4–55 from residue 267 to residue 484 was developed using computational techniques and the locations of the catalytic residues were identified. Results from this study for the first time highlighted Ser297 potentially playing an important role in

  15. The Effect of Tricuspid Regurgitation and the Right Heart on Survival after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights from the PARTNER II Inoperable Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lindman, Brian R.; Maniar, Hersh S.; Jaber, Wael A.; Lerakis, Stamatios; Mack, Michael J.; Suri, Rakesh M.; Thourani, Vinod H.; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Kereiakes, Dean J.; Whisenant, Brian; Miller, D. Craig; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Svensson, Lars G.; Xu, Ke; Doshi, Darshan; Leon, Martin B.; Zajarias, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Background Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction adversely affect outcomes in patients with heart failure or mitral valve disease, but their impact on outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis (AS) treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has not been well characterized. Methods and Results Among 542 patients with symptomatic AS treated in the PARTNER II trial (inoperable cohort) with a SAPIEN or SAPIEN XT valve via a transfemoral approach, baseline TR severity, right atrial (RA) and RV size, and RV function were evaluated by echocardiography according to established guidelines. One-year mortality was 16.9%, 17.2%, 32.6%, and 61.1% for patients with no/trace (n=167), mild (n=205), moderate (n=117), and severe (n=18) TR, respectively (p<0.001). Increasing severity of RV dysfunction as well as RA and RV enlargement were also associated with increased mortality (p<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, severe TR (HR 3.20, 95% CI 1.50–6.82, p=0.003) and moderate TR (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02–2.52, p=0.042) remained associated with increased mortality as did RA and RV enlargement, but not RV dysfunction. There was an interaction between TR and mitral regurgitation severity (p=0.04); the increased hazard of death associated with moderate/severe TR only occurred in those with no/trace/mild mitral regurgitation. Conclusions In inoperable patients treated with TAVR, moderate or severe TR and right heart enlargement are independently associated with increased 1-year mortality, however the association between moderate or severe TR and an increased hazard of death was only found in those with minimal MR at baseline. These findings may improve our assessment of anticipated benefit from TAVR and support the need for future studies on TR and the right heart, including whether concomitant treatment of TR in operable but high risk patients with AS is warranted. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique

  16. Investigation of risk factors of psychological acceptance and burnout syndrome among nurses in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongcheng; Yao, Wu; Wang, Wei; Li, Hong; Lan, Yajia

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine reliability of Chinese version of Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), the relationship between psychological acceptance (PA), and burnout syndrome and their risk factors among nurses in China. The reliability of AAQ-II in Chinese was evaluated first by testing on 111 doctors and 108 nurses in China. On the number of 845 nurses selected from nine city hospitals by using stratified cluster sampling method, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was administered to establish the presence of burnout, and the AAQ-II was used to measure their PA. Results showed that the AAQ-II in Chinese had a good test-retest reliability. PA was statistically significantly negatively correlated to the three dimensionalities of burnout among nurses in China. Male and female nurses had a significant difference in PA. Risk factors for burnout were age (25-44 years), marital status (married), gender (male), hospital department (emergency) and position (primary title) as well as PA. The findings provide insights into the risk factors of burnout in Chinese nurses and may have clinical implications in preventing burnout in Chinese nurses. PMID:24093745

  17. Our China Policy: The Need for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, A. Doak

    This critical analysis of Sino-American relations reviews historical events since World War II, summarizes United States policy toward the Peoples Republic of China and contends that improved relations with China should be a goal. Review of Communist China's activities reveals that: 1) an aim seems to be to expand power and influence but not…

  18. Solid state and dynamic solution structures of O-carbamidine amidoximes gives further insight into the mechanism of zinc(II)-mediated generation of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulish, Kirill I.; Novikov, Alexander S.; Tolstoy, Peter M.; Bolotin, Dmitrii S.; Bokach, Nadezhda A.; Zolotarev, Andrey A.; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu.

    2016-05-01

    Three new iminium salts [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2](p-TolSO3)·½H2O ([1-3](p-TolSO3)·½H2O; R/R‧ = NMe2/PhCH21, NMe2/p-BrC6H42, N(CH2)5/p-BrC6H43) were synthesized via ZnII-mediated amidoxime-cyanamide coupling and their solid structures were studied by X-ray diffraction. Solution structure and conformational changes of [1-3](p-TolSO3)·½H2O were studied by dynamic NMR. The obtained quantitative data were supported by DFT calculations. All the obtained results help to understand the relative stability of the salts [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2](X) (R = NAlk2, Alk, Ar) and give a further insight into the mechanism of ZnII-mediated generation of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles. The electron delocalization and sesquialteral bonds in the [H2Ndbnd C(NR2)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2]+ system was recognized by estimation of values of activation energy barriers (14-18 kcal/mol by DNMR and 16-17 kcal/mol by DFT calculations) for the rotation around the CN bonds for the NR2 groups and inspection of the solid-state X-ray data along with the Wiberg bond indices (intermediate single/double bond order for the CN distances). This electron delocalization is responsible for the stabilization of the positively charged iminium cation. The moderate strength hydrogen bonding between the oxime N atom and the =NH2 group, which is verified from the X-ray, DNMR experiments, and by using quantum chemical calculations, stabilizes the iminium salt, but it is still weak to prevent the heterocyclization. Theoretical calculations of the heterocyclization of [H2Ndbnd C(R)ONdbnd C(R‧)NH2]+ to 1,2,4-oxadiazoles demonstrated that it is kinetically hindered to a greater extent for R = NAlk2 and this explains their lower reactivity as compared to the iminium salts with R = Alk, Ar.

  19. Genetic affinities of central China populations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, H Y; Wang, H W; Tan, S N; Chen, Y; Wang, W L; Tao, H X; Yin, Z C; Zou, Y H; Ouyang, S M; Ni, B

    2014-01-01

    Hunan locates in the south-central part of China, to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting. According to the historical records, the peopling of Hunan by modern human ancestors can ascend to 40 thousand years ago. Thus, to trace the ancient maternal components can offer further insight into the origin of south-central China. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA of 114 individuals from Hunan Province (including 34 Han, 40 Tujia and 40 Miao). Hypervariable regions I and II of the mtDNA control region were sequenced, and the relative diagnostic variations in coding region according to the updated worldwide phylogeny tree were selected and typed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or direct sequencing. All individuals were classified into specific (sub)haplogroups. By comparison with the surrounding populations, southern China-prevalent haplogroups were detected with relative higher frequency in the Tujia and Miao ethnic populations, such as haplogroup B, with more than 20%, lacking in the Han population, which illustrated its southern origin characters. In addition, we also detected northern of East Asia prevalent haplogroups with a relative higher frequency in Tujia populations than in the Miao and Yao ethnic groups, implying a gene flow from Han populations. However, the language-clustering tendency was supported by our principal component analysis and further genetic estimation results. Han and ethnic groups in central China exhibited specific ancestors related to their closer language affinity, although there was extensively genetic admixture between Han and ethnic groups. PMID:24615027

  20. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  1. [A historical survey of diphtheria in the Western World, China and Japan. Part II: Modern age (from sixteenth century to the beginning of nineteenth century)].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, A

    1996-09-01

    In Europe and North America, literatures on diphtheritic diseases was increasing from sixteenth to eighteenth century. In New England of North America, diphtheria and scarlet fever occurred epidemically in mingled form from 1735 to the succeeding year. Thereafter, many physicians in Europe and America treated patients of diphtheria and had different opinions about the nature of croup and diphtheria. In China, its own clinical medicine progressed extraordinarily during the modern age. Laryngeal specialists appeared and wrote special monographs about the pharynx and larynx. A physician wrote about "epidemic exanthem", which the author presumes to be a complicated form of scarlet fever and diphtheria. In Japan, diphtheria occurred in sporadic form usually, and in epidemic form occasionally. Japanese physicians studied medicine from China since the ancient age, and also introduced European medicine through the Netherlands in the eighteenth century. So Japanese physicians learned knowledge about throat diseases and diphtheria from Chinese and European medicine. PMID:11619318

  2. Interventional Radiology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Teng Gaojun Xu Ke; Ni Caifang; Li Linsun

    2008-03-15

    With more than 3000 members, the Chinese Society of Interventional Radiology (CSIR) is one of the world's largest societies for interventional radiology (IR). Nevertheless, compared to other societies such as CIRSE and SIR, the CSIR is a relatively young society. In this article, the status of IR in China is described, which includes IR history, structure and patient management, personnel, fellowship, training, modalities, procedures, research, turf battle, and insightful visions for IR from Chinese interventional radiologists.

  3. Full Genome Sequence of a Bovine Enterovirus Isolated in China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiao-wei; Dong, Hao; Wu, Qing-min

    2014-01-01

    We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of bovine enterovirus type B from China. The virus (BEV-BJ001) was isolated from Beijing, China, from fecal swabs of cattle suffering from severe diarrhea. This genome sequence will give useful insight for future molecular epidemiological studies in China. PMID:24970832

  4. Urban dust in the Guanzhong basin of China, part II: A case study of urban dust pollution using the WRF-Dust model.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Long, Xin; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Huang, Rujin; Zhang, Rong; Feng, Tian; Liu, Suixin; Li, Guohui

    2016-01-15

    We developed a regional dust dynamical model (WRF-Dust) to simulate surface dust concentrations in the Guanzhong (GZ) basin of China during two typical dust cases (19th Aug. and 26th Nov., 2013), and compared model results with the surface measurements at 17 urban and rural sites. The important improvement of the model is to employ multiple high-resolution (0.5-500 m) remote sensing data to construct dust sources. The new data include the geographic information of constructions, croplands, and barrens over the GZ basin in summer and winter of 2013. For the first time, detailed construction dust emissions have been introduced in a regional dust model in large cities of China. Our results show that by including the detailed dust sources, model performance at simulating dust pollutions in the GZ basin is significantly improved. For example, the simulated dust concentration average for the 17 sites increases from 28 μg m(-3) to 59 μg m(-3), closing to the measured concentration of 66 μg m(-3). In addition, the correlation coefficient (r) between the calculated and measured dust concentrations is also improved from 0.17 to 0.57, suggesting that our model better presents the spatial variation. Further analysis shows that urban construction activities are the crucial source in controlling urban dust pollutions. It should be considered by policy makers for mitigating particulate air pollution in many Chinese cities. PMID:26475241

  5. FBIS report. Science and technology: China, March 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-15

    ;Partial Contents: Science And Technology (China: Feature on CAS Qingdao Marine Research Institute); Computers (China: CASC Institute Imports GTS-3000 Automatic Test Equipment From Grumman in U.S., China: YH-II Supercommuter System Applications Value Nears 10 Billion RMB); Defense Technology (China: 3-D Terrain Visualizaton Model Based on Fractal Interpolation, Delaunay Triangulation, China Develops New Technique for Processing Highly Radioactive Liquid Wastes); Microelectronics (China: Further Details on Huajing Group`s Project 908 (Submicron Development Plan) Released); Physics (Advances in China`s Seismological Observation Technology, China: Photoreport on High-Power Laser Physics Apparatus); National Energy Developments (China: Current Situation of Development of Rural Energy Industry); Oil And Gas (Foreland Basins and Their Hydrocarbon Potential in China); Nuclear Power (Taiwan: Incident Report on TaiPower`s No. 2 Nuclear Power Plant).

  6. Kohler's Insight Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windholtz, George

    1985-01-01

    Psychology textbooks frequently present Wolfgang Kohler's two-stick experiment with chimpanzees as having demonstrated insight in learning. Studies that replicated Kohler's work support his findings but not his interpretation in terms of insightful solution. The uncritical inclusion of Kohler's insight interpretation in texts is not warranted in…

  7. Proofs that Develop Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many mathematics educators have noted that mathematicians do not only read proofs to gain conviction but also to obtain insight. The goal of this article is to discuss what this insight is from mathematicians' perspective. Based on interviews with nine research-active mathematicians, two sources of insight are discussed. The first is reading a…

  8. Genotypes and Mouse Virulence of Toxoplasma gondii Isolates from Animals and Humans in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Daohua; Huo, Xingxing; Gao, Jiangmei; Song, Xiaorong; Xu, Xiucai; Huang, Kaiquan; Liu, Wenqi; Wang, Yong; Lu, Fangli; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Luo, Qingli; Wang, Xuelong; Shen, Jilong

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent population structure studies of T. gondii revealed that a few major clonal lineages predominated in different geographical regions. T. gondii in South America is genetically and biologically divergent, whereas this parasite is remarkably clonal in North America and Europe with a few major lineages including Types I, II and III. Information on genotypes and mouse virulence of T. gondii isolates from China is scarce and insufficient to investigate its population structure, evolution, and transmission. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of 23 T. gondii isolates from different hosts using 10 markers for PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) revealed five genotypes; among them three genotypes were atypical and two were archetypal. Fifteen strains belong to the Chinese 1 lineage, which has been previously reported as a widespread lineage from swine, cats, and humans in China. Two human isolates fall into the type I and II lineages and the remaining isolates belong to two new atypical genotypes (ToxoDB#204 and #205) which has never been reported in China. Our results show that these genotypes of T. gondii isolates are intermediately or highly virulent in mice except for the strain TgCtwh6, which maintained parasitemia in mice for 35 days post infection although it possesses the uniform genotype of Chinese 1. Additionally, phylogenetic network analyses of all isolates of genotype Chinese 1 are identical, and there is no variation based on the sequence data generated for four introns (EF1, HP2, UPRT1 and UPRT7) and two dense granule proteins (GRA6 and GRA7). Conclusion/Significance A limited genetic diversity was found and genotype Chinese 1 (ToxoDB#9) is dominantly circulating in mainland China. The results will provide a useful profile for deep insight to the population structure, epidemiology and biological characteristics of T. gondii in China. PMID:23308233

  9. Application of 'Six Sigma{sup TM}' and 'Design of Experiment' for Cementation - Recipe Development for Evaporator Concentrate for NPP Ling AO, Phase II (China) - 12555

    SciTech Connect

    Fehrmann, Henning; Perdue, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Cementation of radioactive waste is a common technology. The waste is mixed with cement and water and forms a stable, solid block. The physical properties like compression strength or low leach ability depends strongly on the cement recipe. Due to the fact that this waste cement mixture has to fulfill special requirements, a recipe development is necessary. The Six Sigma{sup TM}' DMAIC methodology, together with the Design of experiment (DoE) approach, was employed to optimize the process of a recipe development for cementation at the Ling Ao nuclear power plant (NPP) in China. The DMAIC offers a structured, systematical and traceable process to derive test parameters. The DoE test plans and statistical analysis is efficient regarding the amount of test runs and the benefit gain by getting a transfer function. A transfer function enables simulation which is useful to optimize the later process and being responsive to changes. The DoE method was successfully applied for developing a cementation recipe for both evaporator concentrate and resin waste in the plant. The key input parameters were determined, evaluated and the control of these parameters were included into the design. The applied Six Sigma{sup TM} tools can help to organize the thinking during the engineering process. Data are organized and clearly presented. Various variables can be limited to the most important ones. The Six Sigma{sup TM} tools help to make the thinking and decision process trace able. The tools can help to make data driven decisions (e.g. C and E Matrix). But the tools are not the only golden way. Results from scoring tools like the C and E Matrix need close review before using them. The DoE is an effective tool for generating test plans. DoE can be used with a small number of tests runs, but gives a valuable result from an engineering perspective in terms of a transfer function. The DoE prediction results, however, are only valid in the tested area. So a careful selection of input

  10. Insights on galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullock, James Steven

    1999-12-01

    Recent advances in theoretical modeling coupled with a wealth of new observational data, provide a unique opportunity for gaining insight into process of galaxy formation. I present results which test and develop current theories. The analysis utilizes state of the art theoretical modeling and makes predictions aimed at comparisons with some of the latest and upcoming observational data sets. In part I, I discuss an analysis of the structure and properties of dark matter halos (believed to govern the dynamical evolution of galaxies). The results make use of very high-resolution N-body simulations, and are derived from a new hierarchical halo finder, designed especially for these projects and to complement advancements in simulation technology. I present information on the dark matter halo substructure, density profiles, angular momentum structure, and collision rates. In part II, I discuss some aspects of galaxy formation theory in light of new observational data. The discussion includes an investigation of the nature of high-redshift galaxies, the local velocity function of galaxies, and the use of gamma ray telescopes to probe the extra-galactic background light-the latter analysis is done in the context of semi-analytic modeling of galaxy formation. The most important conclusions of this thesis are as follows. (1)Dark matter halos at high redshift are much less concentrated than previously believed. implying that quiescently star-forming galaxies at high redshift are larger and dimmer than expected. (2)The observed bright. abundant. and highly clustered high- redshift (Lyman-break) galaxies are likely starbursts driven by collisions between relatively small galaxies at z ~ 3. And (3)there is a real possibility of using the growing advances in γ-ray astronomy to probe many poorly constrained processes of galaxy formation, including the stellar initial mass function and the star formation history of the universe.

  11. Novel insights into mitotic chromosome condensation

    PubMed Central

    Piskadlo, Ewa; Oliveira, Raquel A.

    2016-01-01

    The fidelity of mitosis is essential for life, and successful completion of this process relies on drastic changes in chromosome organization at the onset of nuclear division. The mechanisms that govern chromosome compaction at every cell division cycle are still far from full comprehension, yet recent studies provide novel insights into this problem, challenging classical views on mitotic chromosome assembly. Here, we briefly introduce various models for chromosome assembly and known factors involved in the condensation process (e.g. condensin complexes and topoisomerase II). We will then focus on a few selected studies that have recently brought novel insights into the mysterious way chromosomes are condensed during nuclear division. PMID:27508072

  12. Oedipus and insight.

    PubMed

    Michels, R

    1986-10-01

    Insight is a core concept in psychoanalytic theory. The Oedipus myth has been a central metaphor in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory, particularly the psychoanalytic theory of development. Similarly, Sophocles' drama, its relation to the myth, and its repeated reinterpretation throughout the ages provide a valuable metaphor for our understanding of the role of insight in psychoanalysis and in development. We may have underestimated the importance of insight in normal development while oversimplifying its significance as an agent of therapeutic change. PMID:3797556

  13. Late Permian high-Mg andesite and basalt association from northern Liaoning, North China: Insights into the final closure of the Paleo-Asian ocean and the orogen-craton boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lingling; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xue, Fuhong; Lu, Yinghuai; Zong, Keqing

    2016-08-01

    High-Mg andesites (HMAs) and related basalts constitute a volumetrically minor, but genetically important occurrence along most convergent plate margins of various ages on Earth. The details of their petrogenesis can contain critical information for resolving essential geodynamic and crustal evolutionary issues. This zircon U-Pb dating and geochemical study documents the late Permian metamorphosed high-Mg basaltic to andesitic suite from Kaiyuan of northern Liaoning, North China. These rocks feature SiO2 contents ranging from 48.7 to 63.2 wt.%, high Mg# values of 63-75, an enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), and depletion in high field strength elements (HFSE). They possess whole-rock initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70417-0.70457, εNd(t) values from - 0.4 to 5.0, and εHf(t) values from 5.1 to 11, as well as zircon εHf(t) values from - 9.4 to 0.4. These features indicate that their petrogenesis most likely involved precursory metasomatism of mantle peridotites by melts from subduction-related sediments, and subsequent partial melting. With a depleted mantle source and possible tectonic link to post-subduction slab break-off, the Kaiyuan suite could present a spatial reference not only for defining the demarcation line between the North China craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic belt (CAOB) in the region, but also for tracing the final location of the cryptic suturing zone of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Synthesizing the suite with coeval igneous episodes as well as concomitant metamorphic events along the Solonker-Xra Moron-Changchun zone leads to the characterization of the eventual closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean within a double-sided subduction system during late Permian-Early Triassic.

  14. National Quality Assessment of Early Clopidogrel Therapy in Chinese Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) in 2006 and 2011: Insights From the China Patient-Centered Evaluative Assessment of Cardiac Events (PEACE)–Retrospective AMI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihua; Desai, Nihar R; Li, Jing; Hu, Shuang; Wang, Qing; Li, Xi; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Nuti, Sudhakar V; Wang, Sisi; Krumholz, Harlan M; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Early clopidogrel administration to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in a large Chinese trial. However, patterns of use of clopidogrel for patients with AMI in China are unknown. Methods and Results From a nationally representative sample of AMI patients from 2006 and 2011, we identified 11 944 eligible patients for clopidogrel therapy and measured early clopidogrel use, defined as initiation within 24 hours of hospital admission. Among the patients eligible for clopidogrel, the weighted rate of early clopidogrel therapy increased from 45.7% in 2006 to 79.8% in 2011 (P<0.001). In 2006 and 2011, there was significant variation in early clopidogrel use by region, ranging from 1.5% to 58.0% in 2006 (P<0.001) and 48.7% to 87.7% in 2011 (P<0.001). While early use of clopidogrel was uniformly high in urban hospitals in 2011 (median 89.3%; interquartile range: 80.1% to 94.5%), there was marked heterogeneity among rural hospitals (median 50.0%; interquartile range: 11.5% to 84.4%). Patients without reperfusion therapy and those admitted to rural hospitals were less likely to be treated with clopidogrel. Conclusions Although the use of early clopidogrel therapy in patients with AMI has increased substantially in China, there is notable wide variation across hospitals, with much less adoption in rural hospitals. Quality improvement initiatives are needed to increase consistency of early clopidogrel use for patients with AMI. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifier: NCT01624883. PMID:26163041

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Gerbillinae (Muridae, Rodentia) with emphasis on species living in the Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region of China and based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II genes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mamoru; Jiang, Wei; Sato, Jun J; Zhen, Qiang; Jiao, Wei; Goto, Kazuo; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiwata, Kenji; Oku, Yuzaburo; Chai, June-Jie; Kamiya, Haruo

    2010-03-01

    Rodents belonging to the subfamily Gerbillinae and living in the Xinjiang-Uygur autonomous region of China were collected in field surveys between 2001 and 2003. We found four Meriones species, including M. chengi M. liycus, M. meridianus, and M. tamariscinus, as well as related species from different genera, Rhombomys opimus and Brachiones przewaliskii For phylogenetic analyses of these gerbilline species, DNA sequences of parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) genes were examined with the neighbor Joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that the genus Meriones is not monophyletic and place M. tamaricinus as the sister taxon to a clade comprising Brachiones, Psammomys, Rhombomys, and the other Meriones species. The remaining Meriones species separate into three lineages: M. meridianus (including M. chengi), Meriones unguiculatus, and a clade that includes multiple Meriones species originating from Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. The phylogenetic relationships among the genera Brachines, Meriones, Psammomys, and Rhombomys remain ambiguous, probably due to the saturation of mutations that occurs in fast-evolving mitochondrial DNA. In addition, intraspecific variation was observed for M. meridianus, and this mostly correlated with collection localities, i.e., the northern and southern parts of the Xinjiang region. This variation corresponded to interspecific levels of divergence among other lineages of Meriones. Interestingly, no differences were observed in either the Cytb or COII gene sequences isolated from M. chengi collected from the Turfan Basin in the north and those from M. meridianus in the south, suggesting that M. chengi may be a synonym of M. meridianus. PMID:20192696

  16. In Search of Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Craig A.; Simon, Herbert A.

    1990-01-01

    Attaining the insight needed to solve the Mutilated Checkerboard problem, which requires discovery of an effective problem representation (EPR), is described. Performance on insight problems can be predicted from the availability of generators and constraints in the search for an EPR. Data for 23 undergraduates were analyzed. (TJH)

  17. Native Speaker Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughton, Geoffrey

    1978-01-01

    Defines the concept of native speaker insight and suggests that, for the purpose of teaching English as a second language, the goal should not be native speaker insight (NSI) but NS Type 1, a reduced, adequate and attainable goal for foreign learners. (CFM)

  18. Computational insights on crystal structures of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II with either Ca²⁺ or Ca²⁺ substituted by Sr²⁺

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vogt, Leslie; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Pal, Rhitankar; Brudvig, Gary W.; Batista, Victor S.

    2015-01-15

    The oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II can function with either Ca²⁺ or Sr²⁺ as the heterocation, but the reason for differing turnover rates remains unresolved despite reported X-ray crystal structures for both forms. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, we optimize structures with each cation in both the resting state (S₁) and in a series of reduced states (S₀, S₋₁, and S-₂). Through comparison with experimental data, we determine that X-ray crystal structures with either Ca²⁺ or Sr²⁺ are most consistent with the S-₂ state, Mn₄[III,III,III,II] with O4 and O5 protonated. As expected, the QM/MM models show that Ca²⁺/Sr²⁺ substitutionmore » results in elongation of the heterocation bonds and displaces terminal waters W3 and W4. The optimized structures also show that hydrogen-bonded W5 is displaced in all S states with Sr²⁺ as the heterocation, suggesting that this water may play a critical role during water oxidation.« less

  19. Computational insights on crystal structures of the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II with either Ca²⁺ or Ca²⁺ substituted by Sr²⁺

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Leslie; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Pal, Rhitankar; Brudvig, Gary W.; Batista, Victor S.

    2015-01-15

    The oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II can function with either Ca²⁺ or Sr²⁺ as the heterocation, but the reason for differing turnover rates remains unresolved despite reported X-ray crystal structures for both forms. Using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations, we optimize structures with each cation in both the resting state (S₁) and in a series of reduced states (S₀, S₋₁, and S-₂). Through comparison with experimental data, we determine that X-ray crystal structures with either Ca²⁺ or Sr²⁺ are most consistent with the S-₂ state, Mn₄[III,III,III,II] with O4 and O5 protonated. As expected, the QM/MM models show that Ca²⁺/Sr²⁺ substitution results in elongation of the heterocation bonds and displaces terminal waters W3 and W4. The optimized structures also show that hydrogen-bonded W5 is displaced in all S states with Sr²⁺ as the heterocation, suggesting that this water may play a critical role during water oxidation.

  20. Enhanced Analgesic Properties and Reduced Ulcerogenic Effect of a Mononuclear Copper(II) Complex with Fenoprofen in Comparison to the Parent Drug: Promising Insights in the Treatment of Chronic Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gumilar, Fernanda; Boeris, Mónica; Toso, Ricardo; Minetti, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Analgesic and ulcerogenic properties have been studied for the copper(II) coordination complex of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Fenoprofen and imidazole [Cu(fen)2(im)2] (Cu: copper(II) ion; fen: fenoprofenate anion from Fenoprofen, im: imidazole). A therapeutic dose of 28 mg/kg was tested for [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and 21 mg/kg was employed for Fenoprofen calcium, administered by oral gavage in female mice to compare the therapeutic properties of the new entity. The acetic acid induced writhing test was employed to study visceral pain. The percentage of inhibition in writhing and stretching was 78.9% and 46.2% for the [Cu(fen)2(im)2] and Fenoprofen calcium, respectively. This result indicates that the complex could be more effective in diminishing visceral pain. The formalin test was evaluated to study the impact of the drugs over nociceptive and inflammatory pain. The complex is a more potent analgesic on inflammatory pain than the parent drug. Ulcerogenic effects were evaluated using a model of gastric lesions induced by hypothermic-restraint stress. Fenoprofen calcium salt caused an ulcer index of about 79 mm2 while the one caused by [Cu(fen)2(im)2] was 22 mm2. The complex diminished the development of gastric mucosal ulcers in comparison to the uncomplexed drug. Possible mechanisms of action related to both therapeutic properties have been discussed. PMID:25050353

  1. Localisation of keratin K78 in the basal layer and first suprabasal layers of stratified epithelia completes expression catalogue of type II keratins and provides new insights into sequential keratin expression.

    PubMed

    Langbein, Lutz; Eckhart, Leopold; Fischer, Heinz; Rogers, Michael A; Praetzel-Wunder, Silke; Parry, David A D; Kittstein, Walter; Schweizer, Juergen

    2016-03-01

    Among the 26 human type II keratins, K78 is the only one that has not yet been explored with regard to its expression characteristics. Here, we show that, at both the transcriptional and translational levels, K78 is strongly expressed in the basal and parabasal cell layers with decreasing intensity in the lower suprabasal cells of keratinising and non-keratinising squamous epithelia and keratinocyte cultures. The same pattern has been detected at the transcriptional level in the corresponding mouse epithelia. Murine K78 protein, which contains an extraordinary large extension of its tail domain, which is unique among all known keratins, is not detectable by the antibody used. Concomitant studies in human epithelia have confirmed K78 co-expression with the classical basal keratins K5 and K14. Similarly, K78 co-expression with the differentiation-related type I keratins K10 (epidermis) and K13 (non-keratinising epithelia) occurs in the parabasal cell layer, whereas that of the corresponding type II keratins K1 (epidermis) and K4 (non-keratinising epithelia) unequivocally starts subsequent to the respective type I keratins. Our data concerning K78 expression modify the classical concept of keratin pair K5/K14 representing the basal compartment and keratin pairs K1/K10 or K4/K13 defining the differentiating compartment of stratified epithelia. Moreover, the K78 expression pattern and the decoupled K1/K10 and K4/K13 expression define the existence of a hitherto unperceived early differentiation stage in the parabasal layer characterized by K78/K10 or K78/K13 expression. PMID:26340985

  2. Structural insights into the mechanism of four-coordinate Cob(II)alamin formation in the active site of the Salmonella enterica ATP:Co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase enzyme: critical role of residues Phe91 and Trp93.

    PubMed

    Moore, Theodore C; Newmister, Sean A; Rayment, Ivan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2012-12-01

    ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferases (ACATs) are enzymes that catalyze the formation of adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl, coenzyme B(12)) from cobalamin and ATP. There are three families of ACATs, namely, CobA, EutT, and PduO. In Salmonella enterica, CobA is the housekeeping enzyme that is required for de novo AdoCbl synthesis and for salvaging incomplete precursors and cobalamin from the environment. Here, we report the crystal structure of CobA in complex with ATP, four-coordinate cobalamin, and five-coordinate cobalamin. This provides the first crystallographic evidence of the existence of cob(II)alamin in the active site of CobA. The structure suggests a mechanism in which the enzyme adopts a closed conformation and two residues, Phe91 and Trp93, displace 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole, the lower nucleotide ligand base of cobalamin, to generate a transient four-coordinate cobalamin, which is critical in the formation of the AdoCbl Co-C bond. In vivo and in vitro mutational analyses of Phe91 and Trp93 emphasize the important role of bulky hydrophobic side chains in the active site. The proposed manner in which CobA increases the redox potential of the cob(II)alamin/cob(I)alamin couple to facilitate formation of the Co-C bond appears to be analogous to that utilized by the PduO-type ACATs, where in both cases the polar coordination of the lower ligand to the cobalt ion is eliminated by placing that face of the corrin ring adjacent to a cluster of bulky hydrophobic side chains. PMID:23148601

  3. China`s petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Makoto; Tamura, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    It is clear from the trade press that American, European, and Japanese chemical companies are making major capital investment commitments in China. They are also developing strategies to participate in the country`s growth. Many people wonder how long the window of opportunity will remain open. Some questions one may ask include: What are the driving forces for such intense activity? What role is the Chinese government playing in implementing growth plans? What are the classes of chemical products receiving priority attention? To what degree is China integrating upstream into energy and basic feedstocks? What are the long-term implications for Asia and the rest of the world with respect to foreign trade? To answer these and other questions, Martech, Inc., a subsidiary of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, recently completed a comprehensive report on China`s petrochemical industry. This article is adapted from the executive summary of that report.

  4. [Characteristics and adaption of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. II. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for wintering grain- and oil crops based on crop water deficit index].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, seasonal drought occurs frequently in southern China, giving severe impact on the production of local wintering crops. Based on the 1959-2009 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit index (CWDI) as agricultural drought index, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for winter wheat and rapeseed. The results showed that in southern China, drought happened more frequently in Southwest China, north Huaihe basin, and parts of South China during the developmental stages of wintering crops. In the mid-lower Yangtze basin, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the mid-late developmental stages of winter wheat, and became much heavier at its later developmental stages. For rapeseed, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the developmental stage before winter and the late developmental stages. In southwest part, the intensity and extent of drought increased significantly during the developmental stage before winter for winter wheat and rapeseed. Since the early 1990s, the intensity and extent of drought in southern China increased during the mid-late developmental stages of wintering crops. PMID:23286003

  5. Dreaming and insight

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Christopher L.; Ruby, Perrine M.; Malinowski, Josie E.; Bennett, Paul D.; Blagrove, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish “aha” experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from “aha” experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  6. Dreaming and insight.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher L; Ruby, Perrine M; Malinowski, Josie E; Bennett, Paul D; Blagrove, Mark T

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses claims that dreams can be a source of personal insight. Whereas there has been anecdotal backing for such claims, there is now tangential support from findings of the facilitative effect of sleep on cognitive insight, and of REM sleep in particular on emotional memory consolidation. Furthermore, the presence in dreams of metaphorical representations of waking life indicates the possibility of novel insight as an emergent feature of such metaphorical mappings. In order to assess whether personal insight can occur as a result of the consideration of dream content, 11 dream group discussion sessions were conducted which followed the Ullman Dream Appreciation technique, one session for each of 11 participants (10 females, 1 male; mean age = 19.2 years). Self-ratings of deepened self-perception and personal gains from participation in the group sessions showed that the Ullman technique is an effective procedure for establishing connections between dream content and recent waking life experiences, although wake life sources were found for only 14% of dream report text. The mean Exploration-Insight score on the Gains from Dream Interpretation questionnaire was very high and comparable to outcomes from the well-established Hill (1996) therapist-led dream interpretation method. This score was associated between-subjects with pre-group positive Attitude Toward Dreams (ATD). The need to distinguish "aha" experiences as a result of discovering a waking life source for part of a dream, from "aha" experiences of personal insight as a result of considering dream content, is discussed. Difficulties are described in designing a control condition to which the dream report condition can be compared. PMID:24550849

  7. Changing Schools: Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Policy and Planning (ED), Washington, DC.

    Over 1,000 communities in 45 states, territories, and the District of Columbia, are mobilized under the AMERICA 2000 banner to reach the 6 National Education Goals. This collection of papers, written by those who have wrestled with the process of school reform, offers useful insights to communities as they begin their process of transforming…

  8. Blocks of Archean material in the structure of the Uralian Platinum Belt: insights from in situ U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) data on zircon from the Nizhny Tagil clinopyroxenite-dunite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malitch, K. N.; Efimov, A. A.; Ronkin, Yu. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Nizhny Tagil massif forms part of the 900-km-long Uralian Platinum Belt (UPB) and represents an undisputable example of a zoned Uralian-type clinopyroxenite-dunite complex (Efimov 1998; Auge et al. 2005). The 47 km2 Nizhny Tagil massif is almond-shape, shear bounded and enclosed by Riphean and Devonian metasediments to the west and late Paleozoic to Mesozoic predominantly mafic igneous rocks to the east. It consists of a platiniferrous dunite core (Fo92-90), surrounded by a clinopyroxenite rim. Recently obtained U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope ages defined the range for UPB complexes between 540 and 425 Ma. Geochronological data for dunite remains scarce being restricted to the Kytlym dunite block (Bea et al. 2001). To fill this gap, we present the first results of uranium-lead ages for 10 grains of zircon, which were extracted by conventional techniques from course-grained dunite sampled at Alexandrovsky Log in the central part of the Nizhny Tagil massif. Most of zircons are subeuhedral, prismatic (80-170 microns long), with an elongation between 1.3 and 1.6, and oscillatory zoning characteristic of igneous rocks. Majority of zircons yield secondary inclusions; some grains show tracers of subdivision and recrystallization, whereas several grains are characterized by curved external counters pointing to specific condition of their evolution. U-Pb analyses were performed with secondary ion mass spectrometer SHRIMP II at VSEGEI, following the procedure described by Williams (1998). Concentrations of U vary from 34 to 520 ppm, Th from 18 to 358 ppm. Three age clusters have been determined. Two subordinate groups are characterized by concordant ages of 585±29 Ma (MSWD=1.07, probability (P) =0.30) and 1608±56 Ma (MSWD=0.07, P=0.79), whereas the main data set cluster around 2781±56 Ma. We assume, therefore, that the Late Archean age testifies the timing of dunite generation in subcontinental mantle, whereas the "youngest" U-Pb age might be linked with timing of formation

  9. Blocks of Archean material in the structure of the Uralian Platinum Belt: insights from in situ U-Pb (SHRIMP-II) data on zircon from the Nizhny Tagil clinopyroxenite-dunite complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malitch, K. N.; Efimov, A. A.; Ronkin, Yu. L.

    2009-04-01

    The Nizhny Tagil massif forms part of the 900-km-long Uralian Platinum Belt (UPB) and represents an undisputable example of a zoned Uralian-type clinopyroxenite-dunite complex (Efimov 1998; Auge et al. 2005). The 47 km2 Nizhny Tagil massif is almond-shape, shear bounded and enclosed by Riphean and Devonian metasediments to the west and late Paleozoic to Mesozoic predominantly mafic igneous rocks to the east. It consists of a platiniferrous dunite core (Fo92-90), surrounded by a clinopyroxenite rim. Recently obtained U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope ages defined the range for UPB complexes between 540 and 425 Ma. Geochronological data for dunite remains scarce being restricted to the Kytlym dunite block (Bea et al. 2001). To fill this gap, we present the first results of uranium-lead ages for 10 grains of zircon, which were extracted by conventional techniques from course-grained dunite sampled at Alexandrovsky Log in the central part of the Nizhny Tagil massif. Most of zircons are subeuhedral, prismatic (80-170 microns long), with an elongation between 1.3 and 1.6, and oscillatory zoning characteristic of igneous rocks. Majority of zircons yield secondary inclusions; some grains show tracers of subdivision and recrystallization, whereas several grains are characterized by curved external counters pointing to specific condition of their evolution. U-Pb analyses were performed with secondary ion mass spectrometer SHRIMP II at VSEGEI, following the procedure described by Williams (1998). Concentrations of U vary from 34 to 520 ppm, Th from 18 to 358 ppm. Three age clusters have been determined. Two subordinate groups are characterized by concordant ages of 585±29 Ma (MSWD=1.07, probability (P) =0.30) and 1608±56 Ma (MSWD=0.07, P=0.79), whereas the main data set cluster around 2781±56 Ma. We assume, therefore, that the Late Archean age testifies the timing of dunite generation in subcontinental mantle, whereas the "youngest" U-Pb age might be linked with timing of formation

  10. Death: 'nothing' gives insight.

    PubMed

    Ettema, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death--death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning of itself. This leads to an ontological paradox in which death is both acknowledged and denied: death is … nothing. In this article, I investigate whether insight into the ontological paradox of the nothingness of death can contribute to a good end-of-life. By analysing Aquinas', Heidegger's and Derrida's understanding of death as nothingness, I explore how giving meaning to death on different ontological levels connects to, and at the same time provides resistance against, the harsh reality of death. By doing so, I intend to demonstrate that insight into the nothingness of death can count as a framework for a meaningful dealing with death. PMID:23054426

  11. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The Juno II launch vehicle, shown here, was a modified Jupiter Intermediate-Range Ballistic missionile, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Between December 1958 and April 1961, the Juno II launched space probes Pioneer III and IV, as well as Explorer satellites VII, VIII and XI.

  12. Update on INSIGHTS Development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed; Eric Burgett

    2011-09-01

    INSIGHTS is a transformational separate effects testing capability to perform in situ irradiation studies and characterization of the microscale behavior of nuclear fuel materials under a wide variety of in-pile conditions. Separate effects testing including growth, irradiation, and monitoring of these materials, and encompasses the full science based approach for fuels development from the nanoscale to the mesoscale behavior of the sample material and other defects driven by the modeling and simulation efforts of INL.

  13. The politics of insight

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  14. The politics of insight.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  15. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  16. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  17. Modeling for Insights

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Gretchen Matthern

    2007-04-01

    System Dynamics is a computer-aided approach to evaluating the interrelationships of different components and activities within complex systems. Recently, System Dynamics models have been developed in areas such as policy design, biological and medical modeling, energy and the environmental analysis, and in various other areas in the natural and social sciences. The real power of System Dynamic modeling is gaining insights into total system behavior as time, and system parameters are adjusted and the effects are visualized in real time. System Dynamic models allow decision makers and stakeholders to explore long-term behavior and performance of complex systems, especially in the context of dynamic processes and changing scenarios without having to wait decades to obtain field data or risk failure if a poor management or design approach is used. The Idaho National Laboratory recently has been developing a System Dynamic model of the US Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The model is intended to be used to identify and understand interactions throughout the entire nuclear fuel cycle and suggest sustainable development strategies. This paper describes the basic framework of the current model and presents examples of useful insights gained from the model thus far with respect to sustainable development of nuclear power.

  18. The Contemporary Development of Philosophy of Education in Mainland China and Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenghong, Jin; Dan, Jau-wei

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces and analyses recent developments in philosophy of education in mainland China and Taiwan. Though Confucianism has very rich insights into education, philosophy of education as a discipline came to China only around 100 years ago. It reached its first climax in the 1920s and 1930s, but then went into decline for nearly half…

  19. Understanding China`s nuclear non-proliferation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, P.J.

    1999-06-01

    China`s nuclear-export activities appear to contradict its official non-proliferation policy. Scrutiny of China`s nuclear exports and non- proliferation commitments indicate an adherence to strict `letter-of-the-law` obligations. Yet, China`s commitment to the norms and values of the non- proliferation regime is controversial. The difference between China`s legal obligations and the international norms of acceptable export behavior is a function of the ambiguity inherent in international treaties and agreements. Stephen Meyer`s motivational hypothesis is used to evaluate China`s nuclear-export decision-making process. China`s motivational profile created by the combination of 16 incentives and disincentives on one hand, and international and domestic conditions on the other. Two case studies are used to illustrate that this profile is not static. As environmental conditions and China`s national priorities change, so does China`s motivational profile. In the past, U. S. attempts to alter China`s nuclear-export activities were successful when the targeted changes were congruent with China`s national priorities. For the United States to influence China`s future nuclear-export activities, it must first understand China`s national priorities and determine the corresponding export motivations that influence China`s decision-making process. The United States should then work to change conditions, which would shift the balance of incentives and disincentives, thereby changing the outcome of China`s cost-benefit calculus.

  20. Insights on STEM Careers

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, Joanne Roth

    2014-11-05

    This presentation will provide career advice for individuals seeking to go beyond just having a job to building a successful career in the areas of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Careful planning can be used to turn a job into a springboard for professional advancement and personal satisfaction. Topics to be addressed include setting priorities, understanding career ladders, making tough choices, overcoming stereotypes and assumptions by others, networking, developing a professional identify, and balancing a career with family and other personal responsibilities. Insights on the transition from individual technical work to leadership will also be provided. The author will draw upon experiences gained in academic, industrial, and government laboratory settings, as well as extensive professional service and community involvement.

  1. Osho - Insights on sex.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of "Tantra" which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment. PMID:23858266

  2. Osho - Insights on sex

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of “Tantra” which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment. PMID:23858266

  3. Comparative Genomics of Helicobacter pylori Strains of China Associated with Different Clinical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    You, Yuanhai; He, Lihua; Zhang, Maojun; Fu, Jianying; Gu, Yixin; Zhang, Binghua; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a whole-genome CombiMatrix Custom oligonucleotide tiling microarray with 90000 probes covering six sequenced Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) genomes was designed. This microarray was used to compare the genomic profiles of eight unsequenced strains isolated from patients with different gastroduodenal diseases in Heilongjiang province of China. Since significant genomic variation was found among these strains, an additional 76 H. pylori strains associated with different clinical outcomes were isolated from various provinces of China. These strains were tested by polymerase chain reaction to demonstrate this distinction. We identified several highly variable regions in strains associated with gastritis, gastric ulceration, and gastric cancer. These regions are associated with genes involved in the bacterial type I, type II, and type III R-M systems. They were also associated with the virB gene, which lies on the well-studied cag pathogenic island. While previous studies have reported on the diverse genetic characterization of this pathogenic island, in this study, we find that it is conserved in all strains tested by microarray. Moreover, a number of genes involved in the type IV secretion system, which is related to horizontal DNA transfer between H. pylori strains, were identified in the comparative analysis of the strain-specific genes. These findings may provide insight into new biomarkers for the prediction of gastric diseases. PMID:22701658

  4. Molecular tracing of white muscardine in the silkworm, Bombyx mori (Linn.) II. Silkworm white muscardine is not caused by artificial release or natural epizootic of Beauveria bassiana in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xue; Huang, Cui; He, Lingmin; Zhang, Shengli; Li, Zengzhi

    2015-02-01

    The fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana causes serious economic losses in sericulture. Its origin is usually attributed to the release of B. bassiana insecticides against pine caterpillars (Dendrolimus punctuatus). In the present study, 488 B. bassiana isolates obtained from silkworm (Bombyx mori) collected from 13 Chinese provinces, and 327 B. bassiana isolates obtained from D. punctatus collected from 9 provinces, were analyzed for population genetic structure using the ISSR technique based on genetic distance. A UPGMA dendrogram clustered them into three independent clades: two B. mori clades and one D. punctatus clade. A 3-D principal component analysis further divided them into two completely independent host groups, revealing high host-specificity. This suggested that white muscardine occurring in B. mori populations throughout southern China was not caused by any B. bassiana strain either naturally prevailing in D. punctatus populations or by any strain artificially released as a fungal insecticide against D. punctatus. We further investigated the genetic differentiation coefficient Gst and gene flow between B. mori-pathogenic and D. punctatus-pathogenic B. bassiana isolates from across China and from five provinces inhabited by both B. mori and D. punctatus. The Gst value across China was computed as 0.410, while the values of the five provinces ranged from 0.508 to 0.689; all above 0.25, which is the threshold for significant genetic differentiation. This suggests that B. bassiana strains isolated from the two different hosts maintained their respective heredity without a convergent homogenization trend, and reduces the possibility that the host range of the caterpillar isolates could expand and enhance their virulence in B. mori. These findings indicate that the use of B. bassiana does not threaten the safety of sericulture. PMID:25541121

  5. Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fengzhen, Yang

    2002-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China's economy has been developing rapidly. Yet is China's education keeping up the same pace as its economic development? What is the current situation for China's education? With the advent of knowledge-based economy, how will education in China adjust itself in order to meet the growing demands of economy? This paper will…

  6. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population in western Sichuan, China, based on the second exon of the major histocompatibility complex class II DQB (MhcMamu-DQB1) alleles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstracts Background Rhesus macaques living in western Sichuan, China, have been separated into several isolated populations due to habitat fragmentation. Previous studies based on the neutral or nearly neutral markers (mitochondrial DNA or microsatellites) showed high levels of genetic diversity and moderate genetic differentiation in the Sichuan rhesus macaques. Variation at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci is widely accepted as being maintained by balancing selection, even with a low level of neutral variability in some species. However, in small and isolated or bottlenecked populations, balancing selection may be overwhelmed by genetic drift. To estimate microevolutionary forces acting on the isolated rhesus macaque populations, we examined genetic variation at Mhc-DQB1 loci in 119 wild rhesus macaques from five geographically isolated populations in western Sichuan, China, and compared the levels of MHC variation and differentiation among populations with that previously observed at neutral microsatellite markers. Results 23 Mamu-DQB1 alleles were identified in 119 rhesus macaques in western Sichuan, China. These macaques exhibited relatively high levels of genetic diversity at Mamu-DQB1. The Hanyuan population presented the highest genetic variation, whereas the Heishui population was the lowest. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and pairwise FST values showed moderate genetic differentiation occurring among the five populations at the Mhc-DQB1 locus. Non-synonymous substitutions occurred at a higher frequency than synonymous substitutions in the peptide binding region. Levels of MHC variation within rhesus macaque populations are concordant with microsatellite variation. On the phylogenetic tree for the rhesus and crab-eating macaques, extensive allele or allelic lineage sharing is observed betweenthe two species. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses confirm the apparent trans-species model of evolution of the Mhc-DQB1 genes in these

  7. Psychophysiological prediction of choice: relevance to insight and drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Hajcak, Greg; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Dunning, Jonathan P.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2012-01-01

    An important goal of addiction research and treatment is to predict behavioural responses to drug-related stimuli. This goal is especially important for patients with impaired insight, which can interfere with therapeutic interventions and potentially invalidate self-report questionnaires. This research tested (i) whether event-related potentials, specifically the late positive potential, predict choice to view cocaine images in cocaine addiction; and (ii) whether such behaviour prediction differs by insight (operationalized in this study as self-awareness of image choice). Fifty-nine cocaine abusers and 32 healthy controls provided data for the following laboratory components that were completed in a fixed-sequence (to establish prediction): (i) event-related potential recordings while passively viewing pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine images, during which early (400–1000 ms) and late (1000–2000 ms) window late positive potentials were collected; (ii) self-reported arousal ratings for each picture; and (iii) two previously validated tasks: one to assess choice for viewing these same images, and the other to group cocaine abusers by insight. Results showed that pleasant-related late positive potentials and arousal ratings predicted pleasant choice (the choice to view pleasant pictures) in all subjects, validating the method. In the cocaine abusers, the predictive ability of the late positive potentials and arousal ratings depended on insight. Cocaine-related late positive potentials better predicted cocaine image choice in cocaine abusers with impaired insight. Another emotion-relevant event-related potential component (the early posterior negativity) did not show these results, indicating specificity of the late positive potential. In contrast, arousal ratings better predicted respective cocaine image choice (and actual cocaine use severity) in cocaine abusers with intact insight. Taken together, the late positive potential could serve as a biomarker

  8. China Energy Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2009-11-16

    Based on extensive analysis of the 'China Energy Databook Version 7' (October 2008) this Primer for China's Energy Industry draws a broad picture of China's energy industry with the two goals of helping users read and interpret the data presented in the 'China Energy Databook' and understand the historical evolution of China's energy inustry. Primer provides comprehensive historical reviews of China's energy industry including its supply and demand, exports and imports, investments, environment, and most importantly, its complicated pricing system, a key element in the analysis of China's energy sector.

  9. Biotechnology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, D.H.; Kung, S.D.

    1989-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to formulate strategies to continue and expand cooperation with China in biotechnology. Toward this end, the report focuses on three areas: (1) the mechanisms by which China sets priorities and funds biotechnology research; (2) the current status of China`s biotechnology research. Particular emphasis is placed on areas of potential interest to American scientists; and (3) the roles of various types of international cooperation programs in the development of biotechnology in China.

  10. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  11. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Wernher von Braun and his team were responsible for the Jupiter-C hardware. The family of launch vehicles developed by the team also came to include the Juno II, which was used to launch the Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959. Pioneer IV passed within 37,000 miles of the Moon before going into solar orbit.

  12. Welding II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding II, a performance-based course offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to introduce students to out-of-position shielded arc welding with emphasis on proper heats, electrode selection, and alternating/direct currents. After introductory…

  13. China (CNSA) views of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.

    China's lunar objectives have widely attracted the world's attention since China National Space Administration (CNSA) chief Luan Enjie in October 2000 officially affirmed the nation plans to carry out lunar exploration. The success of the Shenzhou-3 mission last April, which indicates that China is on the eve to become the third nation to attain an independent ability to launch humans into space, coupled with Chinese president Jiang Zemin's announcement issued immediately after the launch of SZ-3 that China will develop its own space station, further prompted the mass media in the West to ponder whether "the next footsteps on the Moon will be Chinese." Although China's lunar intention is well publicized, no detail about the project has yet been unveiled in the Western space media because China's space program has been notoriously cloaked in state-imposed secrecy, while the available information is basically unreported by Western observers mainly due to the cultural and language barriers. Based on original research of both the unpublished documents as well as reports in China's space media and professional journals, this paper attempts to piece together the available material gathered from China, providing some insight into China's Moon project, and analyzing the Chinese activities in pursuit of their lunar dream in perspective of space policy. Motivations China's presence on the Moon, in the Chinese leadership's view, could help aggrandize China's international prestige and consolidate the cohesion of the Chinese nation. Lunar exploration, the science community consents, not only helps acquire knowledge about the Moon, but also deepen the understanding of the Earth. A lunar project is believed to be able to accelerate the development of launching and navigating technologies, preparing for future deep space exploration. The emergence of the return to the Moon movement in the world, and the presumption that NASA has plans to return to the Moon, as evidenced by

  14. Mission Operations Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Dave; Parksinson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    The mission description Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES): I) Collect and disseminate worldwide meteorological and environmental data: a) Provide day and night information (AVHRR): 1) cloud cover distribution and type; 2) cloud top temperature; 3) Moisture patterns and ice/snow melt. b) Provide vertical temperature and moisture profiles of atmospheres (HIRS, AMSU, MHS. c) Measure global ozone distribution and solar UV radiation (SBUV). d) Measure proton, electro, and charged particle density to provide solar storm warnings (SEM). d) Collect environmental data (DCS): 1) Stationary platforms in remote locations; 2) Free floating platforms on buoys, balloons, migratory animals. II) Provide Search and Rescue capabilities (SARR, SARP): a) Detection and relay of distress signals. b) Has saved thousands of lives around the world.

  15. Grigor Narekatsi's astronomical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Samvel

    2015-07-01

    What stand out in the solid system of Gr. Narekatsi's naturalistic views are his astronomical insights on the material nature of light, its high speed and the Sun being composed of "material air". Especially surprising and fascinating are his views on stars and their clusters. What astronomers, including great Armenian academician V. Ambartsumian (scattering of stellar associations), would understand and prove with much difficulty thousand years later, Narekatsi predicted in the 10th century: "Stars appear and disappear untimely", "You who gather and scatter the speechless constellations, like a flock of sheep". Gr. Narekatsti's reformative views were manifested in all the spheres of the 10th century social life; he is a reformer of church life, great language constructor, innovator in literature and music, freethinker in philosophy and science. His ideology is the reflection of the 10th century Armenian Renaissance. During the 9th-10th centuries, great masses of Armenians, forced to migrate to the Balkans, took with them and spread reformative ideas. The forefather of the western science, which originated in the period of Reformation, is considered to be the great philosopher Nicholas of Cusa. The study of Gr. Narekatsti's logic and naturalistic views enables us to claim that Gr. Narekatsti is the great grandfather of European science.

  16. Options in Education Transcript: "Education in China, One-Six".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    The booklet presents transcripts of six radio programs dealing with education in China. Part of the National Public Radio's series entitled "Options in Education," the programs are based on a two-week tour of Chinese schools, colleges, libraries, and day care facilities by one of the radio show hosts. The first program offers insights into…

  17. ICT, complementary investment, and firm performance in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Linlin; Ding, Juan; Fan, Maoqing

    2011-12-01

    Using China firm data about ICT, we provide some insight into the link between ICT, productivity and complementary investment. The results show that the contribution of ICT capital deepening is raised when firms combine ICT use and some complementary investment (human capital, innovation and organization change).

  18. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Craig, A.D.; Bechara, A.; Garavan, H.; Childress, A.R.; Paulus, M.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    2009-08-27

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug-related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction.

  19. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Craig, A. D. (Bud); Bechara, Antoine; Garavan, Hugh; Childress, Anna Rose; Paulus, Martin P.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2010-01-01

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such `denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and selfawareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction. PMID:19716751

  20. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  1. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  2. BORE II

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  3. Enigmatic insight into collagen.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Shrutal Narendra; Dive, Alka M; Moharil, Rohit; Munde, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a unique, triple helical molecule which forms the major part of extracellular matrix. It is the most abundant protein in the human body, representing 30% of its dry weight. It is the fibrous structural protein that makes up the white fibers (collagen fibers) of skin, tendons, bones, cartilage and all other connective tissues. Collagens are not only essential for the mechanical resistance and resilience of multicellular organisms, but are also signaling molecules defining cellular shape and behavior. The human body has at least 16 types of collagen, but the most prominent types are I, II and III. Collagens are produced by several cell types and are distinguishable by their molecular compositions, morphologic characteristics, distribution, functions and pathogenesis. This is the major fibrous glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix and in connective tissue and helps in maintaining the structural integrity of these tissues. It has a triple helical structure. Various studies have proved that mutations that modify folding of the triple helix result in identifiable genetic disorders. Collagen diseases share certain similarities with autoimmune diseases, because autoantibodies specific to each collagen disease are produced. Therefore, this review highlights the role of collagen in normal health and also the disorders associated with structural and functional defects in collagen. PMID:27601823

  4. Enigmatic insight into collagen

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Shrutal Narendra; Dive, Alka M; Moharil, Rohit; Munde, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a unique, triple helical molecule which forms the major part of extracellular matrix. It is the most abundant protein in the human body, representing 30% of its dry weight. It is the fibrous structural protein that makes up the white fibers (collagen fibers) of skin, tendons, bones, cartilage and all other connective tissues. Collagens are not only essential for the mechanical resistance and resilience of multicellular organisms, but are also signaling molecules defining cellular shape and behavior. The human body has at least 16 types of collagen, but the most prominent types are I, II and III. Collagens are produced by several cell types and are distinguishable by their molecular compositions, morphologic characteristics, distribution, functions and pathogenesis. This is the major fibrous glycoprotein present in the extracellular matrix and in connective tissue and helps in maintaining the structural integrity of these tissues. It has a triple helical structure. Various studies have proved that mutations that modify folding of the triple helix result in identifiable genetic disorders. Collagen diseases share certain similarities with autoimmune diseases, because autoantibodies specific to each collagen disease are produced. Therefore, this review highlights the role of collagen in normal health and also the disorders associated with structural and functional defects in collagen. PMID:27601823

  5. Recent Neurobiological Insights into the Concept of Insight in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, Starlin Vijay; Sanjay, Y

    2016-01-01

    The concept of insight in psychosis has been an interesting area in clinical psychiatry for well over a century with a surge in research interest over the past 25 years. Moreover, the past 5 years have been particularly fruitful in deciphering its neurobiological underpinnings. This article presents the development of the concept of insight in psychosis and reviews the current neurobiological research findings in this area. PMID:27335512

  6. China and Korea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

  7. Manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.

    This paper introduces the manufacture and application of valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in China. The contents cover the following topics: (i) background development; (ii) materials; (iii) manufacturing technology and equipment; (iv) application and market prospects.

  8. China petrochemical expansion progressing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-05

    This paper reports on China's petrochemical expansion surge which is picking up speed. A worldscale petrochemical complex is emerging at Shanghai with an eye to expanding China's petrochemical exports, possibly through joint ventures with foreign companies, China Features reported. In other action, Beijing and Henan province have approved plans for a $1.2 billion chemical fibers complex at the proposed Luoyang refinery, China Daily reported.

  9. Aging in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Harold L.; Streib, Gordon F.

    This document consists of facts and impressions gathered during 1984, in the course of an 18-day visit to the Peoples Republic of China by a team of epidemiologists and gerontologists from the United States. The major portion of the paper presents demographic, economic, and social perspectives on aging in China. It is noted that China remains a…

  10. Doing Business with China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Commerce, Washington, DC. Industry and Trade Administration.

    This publication provides background and practical information for those interested in doing business with China. The United States officially recognized the People's Republic of China (PRC) on January 1, 1979. Chinese leaders view international trade as an important factor in transforming China into a modern industrial state as well as an…

  11. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed. PMID:26050092

  12. Three legacies of humanitarianism in China.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Miwa

    2013-10-01

    The rise of China has altered the context of the international humanitarian community of donors and aid agencies. China is becoming one of the key actors in this grouping, undertaking infrastructure projects in areas in which paramount humanitarian challenges exist. The literature discusses how the Chinese approach differs from that of Western donors, but it does not pay much attention to why China concentrates on its state-centric and infrastructure-based approach. This paper seeks to shed some light on this subject by examining the historical evolution of the concept of humanitarianism in China. This evolution has produced three legacies: (i) the ideal of a well-ordered state; (ii) anti-Western sentiment; and (iii) the notion of comprehensive development based on a human-oriented approach. China's policies and discourses on assistance in humanitarian crises today rest on these three legacies. Traditional donors would be well advised to consider carefully the implications of the Chinese understanding of humanitarianism when engaging with the country. PMID:23876108

  13. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  14. China`s environmental labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Xia, Q.

    1999-09-01

    China`s environmental labeling program was created because the government wanted to improve environmental management, and some Chinese enterprises expected that labeling would help eliminate non-tariff barriers for their exports and allow them to expand their domestic market shares. The labeling program, which is managed by the Chinese government, is a voluntary third-party certification system based on labeling procedures developed in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. Thus far, China`s labeling program has increased consumer awareness of labeled products and encouraged some enterprises to adopt cleaner technologies in products that have close relationships with consumers` health. However, the effectiveness of the program is very limited because only a small number of product categories are included in the program, consumers` purchasing behavior in China has been influenced by environmental labels for only several types of products, and relatively few enterprises participate in this program. The following measures would improve the effectiveness of the labeling program: enhancing public awareness of environmental labeling and environmental protection, increasing the number of product categories involved in environmental labeling, displaying more information on labels, and integrating the labeling program into China`s efforts to promote cleaner production and to encourage compliance with ISO 14000 standards.

  15. Group II Intron Self-Splicing.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Anna Marie

    2016-07-01

    Group II introns are large, autocatalytic ribozymes that catalyze RNA splicing and retrotransposition. Splicing by group II introns plays a major role in the metabolism of plants, fungi, and yeast and contributes to genetic variation in many bacteria. Group II introns have played a major role in genome evolution, as they are likely progenitors of spliceosomal introns, retroelements, and other machinery that controls genetic variation and stability. The structure and catalytic mechanism of group II introns have recently been elucidated through a combination of genetics, chemical biology, solution biochemistry, and crystallography. These studies reveal a dynamic machine that cycles progressively through multiple conformations as it stimulates the various stages of splicing. A central active site, containing a reactive metal ion cluster, catalyzes both steps of self-splicing. These studies provide insights into RNA structure, folding, and catalysis, as they raise new questions about the behavior of RNA machines. PMID:27391926

  16. Adsorption of mercury on laterite from Guizhou Province, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Lijun; Guo, Baiwei; He, Shouyang

    2008-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of Hg(II) on laterite from Guizhou Province, China, were studied and the adsorption mechanism was discussed. The results showed that different mineral compositons in the laterite will cause differences in the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). Illite and non-crystalloids are the main contributors to enhancing the adsorption capacity of laterite to Hg(II). The pH of the solution is an important factor affecting the adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite. The alkalescent environment (pH 7-9) is favorable to the adsorption of Hg(II). The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) increases with increasing pH. When the pH reaches a certain value, the amount of the adsorbed Hg(II) will reach the maximum level. The amount of adsorbed Hg(II) decreases with increasing pH. The optimal pHs of laterite and kaolinite are 9 and 8, respectively. The optimal initial concentrations of Hg(II) on laterite and kaolinite are 250 and 200 microg/ml, respectively. The adsorption isotherms were described by the Langmuir model. The adsorption of Hg(II) on laterite is a quick process while that of Hg(II) on kaolinite is a slow reaction. Laterite from Guizhou Province is a promising environmental material which can be used in the removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. PMID:19202872

  17. Understanding Insight in the Context of Q

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghlan, David

    2012-01-01

    In Revans' learning formula, L = P + Q, Q represents "questioning insight", by which Revans means that insight comes out of the process of questioning programmed knowledge (P) in the light of experience. We typically focus on the content of an insight rather than on the act of insight. Drawing primarily on the work of Bernard Lonergan this paper…

  18. Shedding light on insight: Priming bright ideas

    PubMed Central

    Slepian, Michael L.; Weisbuch, Max; Rutchick, Abraham M.; Newman, Leonard S.; Ambady, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has characterized insight as the product of internal processes, and has thus investigated the cognitive and motivational processes that immediately precede it. In this research, however, we investigate whether insight can be catalyzed by a cultural artifact, an external object imbued with learned meaning. Specifically, we exposed participants to an illuminating lightbulb – an iconic image of insight – prior to or during insight problem-solving. Across four studies, exposing participants to an illuminating lightbulb primed concepts associated with achieving an insight, and enhanced insight problem-solving in three different domains (spatial, verbal, and mathematical), but did not enhance general (non-insight) problem-solving. PMID:20652087

  19. 75 FR 11557 - Woven Electric Blankets From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... permitted by section 201.8 of the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where... specified in II (C) of the Commission's Handbook on Electronic Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173... COMMISSION Woven Electric Blankets From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission....

  20. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Heilongjiang Province, China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Miao; Wang, Shida; Liu, Zaisi; Shen, Nan; Si, Wei; Sun, Gang; Drewe, Julian A.; Cai, Xuehui

    2015-01-01

    During March 25–May 5, 2014, we investigated 11 outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in Heilongjiang Province, China. We found that the most likely source of the outbreaks was animals from livestock markets in Shandong. Peste des petits ruminants viruses belonging to lineages II and IV were detected in sick animals. PMID:25811935

  1. Telecommunications in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jintong L.; Wan, Yan

    2004-04-01

    Even among the global telecommunications boom over the past decade starting early 1990s, the phenomenal rate of growth in the telecommunications sector in China is no less than a miracle. Not only that China now has the largest fixed line telecommunications network and the biggest mobile telephone market in the world, but China has also become a global power in telecommunications equipment supply and a serious contender in technology provision. This paper gives an overview on the telecommunications sector in China, with particular concerns on the policy and regulatory regime, the market structure and competition landscape, R&D activities and technical progress, and educational systems and human resource development. It is hoped that the explanation of the development process can serve as an indication of the future development of China"s telecommunications sector in a more open and globalized economy.

  2. Disabled Readers: Insight, Assessment, Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Diane J., Ed.

    Focusing on helping teachers to understand and help children who have reading disabilities, the 13 papers in this volume were prepared by practitioners at various levels from public school, community, and university settings. The papers included in part one offer insights into the concomitant aspects of reading difficulties. Specific topics…

  3. Psychology of Sport. Issues & Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, A. Craig, Ed.

    This book is designed to provide instructors and students in sport psychology courses with a learning instrument that combines the continuity of a textbook with the range of opinion, in-depth treatment of selected issues, and insight into research methods of a book of readings. The subject is divided into four topical categories. Under the heading…

  4. New Insights about Letter Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of alphabetic knowledge (letter names, letter sounds, and letter forms) is an important predictor of later literacy achievement. This article describes research findings that provide new insights about how children learn the alphabetic principle and the implications for effective and efficient instruction of the alphabet. Teachers…

  5. Environmental Management in Mainland China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Thomas T.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of China's environmental pollution management by discussing: China's Environmental Protection Organization; laws and regulations; environmental protection program; education and manpower training; and research into environmental pollution problems. (The author provided technical assistance to China's environmental pollution…

  6. Response of Biogeochemical Cycles and Ecosystem in the East China Sea to Multi-stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Huang, Daji; Xiao, Tian; Liu, Su Mei; Fang, Jianguang

    2016-02-01

    This editorial article introduces the research progress of IMBER-China Study on "Sustainability of Marine Ecosystem Production under Multi-stressors and Adaptive Management" (MEcoPAM), funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (MoST-China No. 2011CB409800). There are 12 research articles in this Special Issue of Deep-Sea Research II on the "East China Sea", which provide the reader with snapshots of "Impact of Multi-stressors on the Structure and Function of Marine Ecosystems", one of research foci of MEcoPAM in the period of 2011-2015.

  7. Emergence of babesiosis in China-Myanmar border areas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Xia, Shang; Yin, Shou-Qin; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2015-01-01

    E. Vannier and P. J. Krause presented an excellent article on "Babesiosis in China, an emerging threat" in the Lancet Infectious Diseases in December 2014, which updated research on human babesiosis in China. However, a neglected and emerging issue has not been mentioned in EV & PJK's article, that is the co-infections with B. microti and P. falciparum parasites that exist in syndemic areas, spatially in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan province, China. Therefore, two important issues are addressed in here, including (i) the new emerging infections with Babesia spp. which are normally ignored in malaria endemic areas due to similarities in pathogenic morphology and clinical symptoms, (ii) additional consideration on babesiosis rather than drug-resistant malaria when anti-malaria treatment for the febrile cases in clinics fails. PMID:26204984

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-01-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  9. Complete genome sequence of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei BD-II.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Chen; Zhou, Fangfang; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Guo, Benheng

    2011-06-01

    Lactobacillus casei BD-II, a patented probiotic strain (U.S. patent 7,270,994 B2), was isolated from homemade koumiss in China and has been implemented in the industrial production as starter cultures. Here we report the complete genome sequence of BD-II, which shows high similarity with the well-studied probiotic BL23. PMID:21478345

  10. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two methods to teach radioactive decay to secondary students with wide ranging abilities. Activities are designed to follow classroom discussions of atomic structure, transmutation, half life, and nuclear decay. Includes "The Tasmanian Empire: A Radioactive Dating Activity" and an exercise to teach concepts of half life without using…

  11. Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogner, Donna, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an approach to solving oxidation-reduction reactions. The advantage of this procedure for both acidic and basic equations is stressed and emphasizes the electrical nature of redox equations. (KR)

  12. Insights from Genomics into Bacterial Pathogen Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens impose a heavy burden of disease on human populations worldwide. The gravest threats are posed by highly virulent respiratory pathogens, enteric pathogens, and HIV-associated infections. Tuberculosis alone is responsible for the deaths of 1.5 million people annually. Treatment options for bacterial pathogens are being steadily eroded by the evolution and spread of drug resistance. However, population-level whole genome sequencing offers new hope in the fight against pathogenic bacteria. By providing insights into bacterial evolution and disease etiology, these approaches pave the way for novel interventions and therapeutic targets. Sequencing populations of bacteria across the whole genome provides unprecedented resolution to investigate (i) within-host evolution, (ii) transmission history, and (iii) population structure. Moreover, advances in rapid benchtop sequencing herald a new era of real-time genomics in which sequencing and analysis can be deployed within hours in response to rapidly changing public health emergencies. The purpose of this review is to highlight the transformative effect of population genomics on bacteriology, and to consider the prospects for answering abiding questions such as why bacteria cause disease. PMID:22969423

  13. China`s first true IPP

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, K.

    1997-06-01

    No guarantees - that`s what the Chinese government has been telling potential infrastructure investors lately. One recent power plant financing may show the way to financing without guarantees from the Chinese government, export credit agencies or multilateral lenders. {open_quotes}Financing without government guarantees is less of a financing strategy but rather the reality in China,{close_quotes} says Jack Su, assistant vice president and counsel for Sithe China Holdings Ltd. Sithe China is 39 percent owned by Sithe Energies of New York, 30.5 percent by AIG Asian Infrastructure Fund and 30.5 percent by the Government of Singapore Investment Corp. Sithe`s 2 X 50 MW coal-fired cogeneration plant in Tangshan Municipality, Hebei province, was the first independent power project to proceed in the country without government, multilateral lender or credit agency guarantees. The deal, which was signed in Beijing last October, could lead project financing in China to a level where project risks can be borne internally, without recourse to either sovereign guarantors or export credit agencies. Project backers believe that it is more than just a one-off, but rather a first for truly independent power production in China.

  14. China Dust and Sand

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust and Sand Sweep Over Northeast China     View Larger Image ... these views of the dust and sand that swept over northeast China on March 10, 2004. Information on the height of the dust and an ...

  15. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  16. Educational Technology in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meifeng, Liu; Jinjiao, Lv; Cui, Kang

    2010-01-01

    This paper elaborates the two different academic views of the identity of educational technology in China at the current time--advanced-technology-oriented cognition, known as Electrifying Education, and problem-solving-oriented cognition, known as Educational Technology. It addresses five main modes of educational technology in China: as a…

  17. China targets the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-08-01

    China has already launched two spacecraft to the Moon and wants to send rovers and astronauts there as well - and to eventually build its own lunar base. Ziuyan Ouyang, chief scientist of China's lunarprogramme, talks about the country's ambitious Moon plans.

  18. China's Youth Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, K. P.

    As a central feature of China's current domestic policy, rural resettlement is considered a vital strategy for combating revisionism, consolidating the proletariat dictatorship, restricting bourgeois rights, narrowing differences, strengthening the countryside, and promoting agricultural development. Since rural China has suffered from excessive…

  19. Sports Medicine in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Lorraine E.

    This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…

  20. Sport in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuttgen, Howard G., Ed.; And Others

    Part 1 of this book, "Evoluation and Organization of Physical Culture," examines the history and current organization of physical education and sport in the People's Republic of China. This part includes chapters on: the evolution and organization of physical culture; physical culture in China today; the organizational structure of physical…

  1. Special Education in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hanlin; Wang, HongBo

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the history and development of special education in China. The historical review covers antiquity to the 1800s, 1800s to 1900s, 1949 to 1965, and 1966 to 1976. Current special education in China is discussed in terms of laws and regulations and major achievements. Major problems and future prospects are also noted. (Author/DB)

  2. Outsourcing to China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jacqueline

    2004-12-01

    To enhance competitive advantage in the face of increasing globalisation, companies need to consider moving certain operations to China, if they have not done so already. This article describes the evolving nature of outsourcing to China and what companies need to consider to be successful in this business model. PMID:16225277

  3. China: Background Notes Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  4. China's Innovation Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  5. [Films: China and Japan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumport, Roberta H.

    The history of filmmaking in China and Japan and film usage in teaching are considered in this document. Pointing out how films describe historical context and culture, the document also describes various techniques of film making. Films in China were heavily influenced by western models and have tended to be tools of the power structure, as…

  6. Earthquake research in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, B.

    1977-01-01

    The prediction of the Haicheng earthquake was an extraordinary achievement by the geophysical workers of the People's Republic of China, whose national program in earthquake reserach was less than 10 years old at the time. To study the background to this prediction, a delgation of 10 U.S scientists, which I led, visited China in June 1976. 

  7. Area Studies: China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, Virginia; And Others

    The guide outlines a course of study for elementary students on the history, geography, language, and general culture of China. Course objectives are to identify the major mountains, the major cities, and the types of climate affecting each region of China; locate and record on a time line the important events in the development of Chinese…

  8. Personal Experiences of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessler, Peter; Bradeen, Ryan; Wang, Richard; Masalski, Kathleen Woods

    2010-01-01

    This article presents four stories of personal experiences of China. In "A Journey Between China's Past and Present," Peter Hessler, a former Peace Corps volunteer and author, highlights misconceptions between Chinese and Americans and the desire both peoples share for knowledge about one another. In "Life on Liberation Avenue," Ryan Bradeen…

  9. Transmission planning in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2009-07-15

    Though China is well along in restructuring its power markets, it still has some way to travel before economic considerations receive adequate weight in transmission planning decisions. Adoption of more sophisticated tools such as multi-agent modeling will help China continue in its progress in achieving this. (author)

  10. The Media in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howkins, John

    1980-01-01

    Provides a brief history of television and radio in China and describes the use of television, radio, and film there, noting the number of television sets, radios, public loudspeakers, and cinemas. Article is comprised of extracts from the author's 193-page publication "China Media Industry Report 1980." (JD)

  11. Clinical development of oncolytic viruses in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Min

    2012-07-01

    The oncolytic virus, being a promising new therapeutic strategy for cancer, has inspired a wave of recent clinical research and development in China. The first commercialized oncolytic virus, Oncorine, was approved by Chinese SFDA in November 2005 for nasopharyngeal carcinoma combined with chemotherapy. Since then, a number of oncolytic viruses have been moved into clinical trials. Among these are the armed oncolytic adenoviruses such as H103 (expressing the heat shock protein) currently has finished phase I trial, and KH901 (expressing GM-CSF) now launched in phase II trial In this review, we will discuss the current status of ongoing oncolytic virus projects being conducted at various clinical stages in China, including the preliminary market response for Oncorine after it was launched into the Chinese market in 2006. PMID:21740357

  12. Traditional and Contemporary Painting in China. A Report of the Visit of the Chinese Painting Delegation to the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC. Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China.

    A group of American scholars who visited the People's Republic of China in October and November of 1977 to study Chinese paintings report on their trip. The purpose of the report is to provide information and insights which will be useful to other scholars in the field and which will help promote the development of strong ties between U.S. and…

  13. Virtual scarce water in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified. PMID:24922282

  14. Hazardous waste and environmental trade: China`s issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jiang

    1996-12-31

    By presenting some case studies, this paper analyzes China`s situation with regard to hazardous waste: its environmental trade, treatment, and management. The paper describes China`s experiences with the environmental trade of hazardous waste in both the internal and international market. Regulations for managing the import of waste are discussed, as are China`s major approaches to the trading of hazardous waste both at home and overseas. The major reasons for setting up the Asian-Pacific Regional Training Center for Technology Transfer and Environmental Sound Management of Wastes in China and the activities involved in this effort are also described. 1 tab.

  15. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  16. Insights on the Minority Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newsome, Barbara L., Ed.

    Recorded in this booklet are presentations from two symposia entitled "Training Faculty in Aging I and II," sponsored by the Institute of Gerontology, University of the District of Columbia, which were designed to sensitize and educate faculty in colleges and universities on gerontological problems and issues. The first symposium recorded is of a…

  17. The Pursuit of Happiness in China: Individualism, Collectivism, and Subjective Well-Being during China's Economic and Social Transformation*

    PubMed

    Steele, Liza G; Lynch, Scott M

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the consequences of China's dramatic socioeconomic and political transformations for individual subjective well-being (SWB) from 1990 to 2007. Although many still consider China to be a collectivist country, and some scholars have argued that collectivist factors would be important predictors of individual well-being in such a context, our analysis demonstrates that the Chinese are increasingly prioritizing individualist factors in assessments of their own happiness and life satisfaction thus substantiating descriptions of their society as increasingly individualistic. While the vast majority of quality of life studies have focused on Westerners, this study contributes findings from the unique cultural context of China. Moreover, concentration on this particular period in Chinese history offers insight into the relationship between SWB and rapid socioeconomic and political change. PMID:24288434

  18. Observations of atmospheric mercury in China: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. W.; Zhang, H.; Wang, X.; Yu, B.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X. B.

    2015-04-01

    China is presently the largest contributor of global anthropogenic Hg emission to the atmosphere. Over the past two decades, extensive studies have been conducted to characterize the concentration and speciation of atmospheric Hg in China. These studies provide important insight into the spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric Hg species in China through ground-based measurements at a wide range of altitude over diverse geographical locations, and cruise and flight campaigns. In this critical review, we synthesize the available data to date to delineate the spatial and temporal patterns of atmospheric Hg, the long-range transport pattern of atmospheric Hg, and the impacts of Hg emissions on atmospheric Hg distribution and deposition in China. Atmospheric Hg species in China are substantially elevated compared to the background values in the Northern Hemisphere. The highly elevated Hg levels in Chinese urban areas were derived from local and regional anthropogenic and natural emissions, while long-range transport plays an important role in the atmospheric Hg concentration in remote areas. Preliminary studies suggested that atmosphere GEM levels are increasing at an urban and remote sites over the last decade, which were likely caused by the increasing anthropogenic emissions. The anthropogenic emission quantity in China estimated through the observed concentration ratios of GEM to CO (observed from 2001 to 2013) is approximately 983 t in 2009, ~ 3 folds of the published anthropogenic GEM emission inventories using activity data. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg in remote regions are low but the fluxes in Chinese urban areas are much higher than that in urban areas of North America and Europe. Dry deposition fluxes of Hg measured as litterfall input in forest areas of China were 2.5-9.0 times higher than the wet deposition fluxes and 1.8-13.6 times higher than the dry deposition fluxes of Hg in North America and Europe, suggesting that dry deposition to forest

  19. The INSIGHT SEIS VBB Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillier, S.; De Raucourt, S.; Lognonne, P. H.; Banerdt, B.; Mimoun, D.; Giardini, D.; Christensen, U. R.; Pike, W. T.; Zweifel, P.; Mance, D.; Bierwirth, M.; Laudet, P.; Perez, R.; Kerjean, L.; Hurst, K. J.; Mocquet, A.; Garcia, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The SEIS experiment is the primary payload of the Interior Structure investigation using Seismology and Heat Transport (INSIGHT) Mission Proposal, submitted to NASA in the frame of the 2010 Discovery program, and selected for a competitive phase A study, together with two other projects. The objective of the INSIGHT SEIS experiment is the determination of the deep internal structure of Mars. In particular, geophysical parameters of first importance, such as the state (liquid/solid) and size of the core, structure of the mantle, shape of discontinuities, thickness of the crust will be determined by the experiment. It will measure seismic activity in a very broad band of signal, from the tidal frequencies (0.05 mHz) up to the short period frequencies (50 Hz), to address the widest range of scientific questions, from the state of the core to the meteoritic impact and quake rates. The instrument integrates a Very Broad Band (VBB) 3 axis seismometer, completed by another trihedron of MEMS short period seismometers, environmental sensors for pressure, wind and temperature, The sensors will be deployed on the Martian ground by a robotic arm from a Phoenix-type lander platform and protected by a wind and thermal shield. The sensor assembly, which contains all seismic sensors, the leveling system, as well as house-keeping and temperature measurements, will be deployed on the soil in order to allow the best possible mechanical coupling with the ground motion. The wind and thermal shield, the sensors' specific containers (vacuum sphere for VBBs) and a passive thermal compensation system will achieve a very high protection of the VBB against temperature and pressure variations, allowing the sensor to operate in the rough Martian thermal environment while reaching a deection threshold below 10-9 ms-2 Hz-1/2 in the VBB bandwidth. A dedicated electronics will manage the overall experiment and ultra-low noise, space qualified 24 bits A/D converters will perform the acquisition

  20. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  1. Networking with China

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, R.L.A.; Granieri, C.; Fan, Lan; Xu, Rongsheng; Karita, Yukio

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the history and current status of computer networking between IHEP in Beijing, China and the rest of the world, starting with no links at the beginning of 1987 through X.25 public networks and dial up links, to the installing, in March 1993, of one of the first dedicated 64 kbps satellite computer links between China and the outside world. In May 1994, IHEP became the first operational worldwide Internet connection. Experience with this dedicated link between SLAC and IHEP will be presented together with future plans to add a land line between KEK and IHEP and to extend the links within China.

  2. Theoretical insights into interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Hean, Sarah; Craddock, Deborah; Hammick, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the need for theory in the practice of interprofessional education. It highlights the range of theories available to interprofessional educators and promotes the practical application of these to interprofessional learning and teaching. It summarises the AMEE Guides in Medical Education publication entitled Theoretical Insights into Interprofessional Education: AMEE Guide No. 62, where the practical application of three theories, social capital, social constructivism and a sociological perspective of interprofessional education are discussed in-depth through the lens of a case study. The key conclusions of these discussions are presented in this article. PMID:22288995

  3. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about “yes or no,” insight is related to “what” is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight. PMID:27555833

  4. Approaching the Distinction between Intuition and Insight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhonglu; Lei, Yi; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intuition and insight share similar cognitive and neural basis. Though, there are still some essential differences between the two. Here in this short review, we discriminated between intuition, and insight in two aspects. First, intuition, and insight are toward different aspects of information processing. Whereas intuition involves judgment about "yes or no," insight is related to "what" is the solution. Second, tacit knowledge play different roles in between intuition and insight. On the one hand, tacit knowledge is conducive to intuitive judgment. On the other hand, tacit knowledge may first impede but later facilitate insight occurrence. Furthermore, we share theoretical, and methodological views on how to access the distinction between intuition and insight. PMID:27555833

  5. GOES-R: Satellite Insight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Leon, Nancy J.; Novati, Alexander; Lincoln, Laura K.; Fisher, Diane K.

    2012-01-01

    GOES-R: Satellite Insight seeks to bring awareness of the GOES-R (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite -- R Series) satellite currently in development to an audience of all ages on the emerging medium of mobile games. The iPhone app (Satellite Insight) was created for the GOES-R Program. The app describes in simple terms the types of data products that can be produced from GOES-R measurements. The game is easy to learn, yet challenging for all audiences. It includes educational content and a path to further information about GOESR, its technology, and the benefits of the data it collects. The game features action-puzzle game play in which the player must prevent an overflow of data by matching falling blocks that represent different types of GOES-R data. The game adds more different types of data blocks over time, as long as the player can prevent a data overflow condition. Points are awarded for matches, and players can compete with themselves to beat their highest score.

  6. Impact of template backbone heterogeneity on RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Lu; Chong, Jenny; Huang, Xuhui; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the sugar component (ribose or deoxyribose) and the nature of the phosphodiester linkage (3′-5′ or 2′-5′ orientation) have been a challenge for genetic information transfer from the very beginning of evolution. RNA polymerase II (pol II) governs the transcription of DNA into precursor mRNA in all eukaryotic cells. How pol II recognizes DNA template backbone (phosphodiester linkage and sugar) and whether it tolerates the backbone heterogeneity remain elusive. Such knowledge is not only important for elucidating the chemical basis of transcriptional fidelity but also provides new insights into molecular evolution. In this study, we systematically and quantitatively investigated pol II transcriptional behaviors through different template backbone variants. We revealed that pol II can well tolerate and bypass sugar heterogeneity sites at the template but stalls at phosphodiester linkage heterogeneity sites. The distinct impacts of these two backbone components on pol II transcription reveal the molecular basis of template recognition during pol II transcription and provide the evolutionary insight from the RNA world to the contemporary ‘imperfect’ DNA world. In addition, our results also reveal the transcriptional consequences from ribose-containing genomic DNA. PMID:25662224

  7. Drug addiction in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Xi

    2008-10-01

    Drug addiction in China began with the importation of Indian opium by the British in the 16th century and brought severe social and health problems. While drug abuse abated following the establishment of People's Republic of China, modernization and Westernization in the 1980s led to the reemergence of this problem. Drug abuse in China became epidemic, facilitating the spread of HIV/AIDS. The Chinese government has made great efforts to address these problems, focusing both on treatments of drug addiction and on harm-reduction programs. Although the new trends of drug addiction in China pose great public health challenges, these government interventions are likely to successfully stem the problem of drug abuse in the future. PMID:18991965

  8. Geoinformatics Education in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Gong, J.; Yue, P.

    2014-04-01

    The paper will give an overview of the current status of education in Geoinformatics in China. First, the paper will provide a general review of the scientific and technological development of Geoinformatics in China. It then presents how the development affects the education and training in China. In the paper, universities and institutes in China that can award academic degrees related to Geoinformatics will be summarized. Next, the paper will report the work having been done by the expert group on Surveying and Mapping, including the revision of discipline catalogue and guide for graduate education and requirements. A list of typical curriculain Geoinformatics education is suggested. Finally, activities on promoting the graduate student exchange platform will be presented.

  9. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B.; Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi

    1992-12-31

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China`s State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People`s Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises` investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  10. Biofuels in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Tianwei; Yu, Jianliang; Lu, Jike; Zhang, Tao

    The Chinese government is stimulating the biofuels development to replace partially fossil fuels in the transport sector, which can enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and stimulate rural development. Bioethanol, biodiesel, biobutanol, biogas, and biohydrogen are the main biofuels developed in China. In this chapter, we mainly present the current status of biofuel development in China, and illustrate the issues of feedstocks, food security and conversion processes.

  11. The One-Child-Per-Family Movement in China: An Analysis of Situational Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovell, Pamela Wineburner

    Examining the one-child-per-family movement (OCFM) in China using Lloyd Bitzer's "Functional Communication: A Situational Perspective," this essay provides insight into how rhetoric has functioned and is functioning in this difficult situation. A brief geographic review provides a basis for understanding the complex set of problems surrounding the…

  12. Insight Into Sustainability of Fresh Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonovic, S. P.

    2002-05-01

    Global modeling often assumes that water is not an issue on the macro scale. WorldWater system dynamics model has been developed for modeling global world water balance and capturing the dynamic character of main variables affecting water availability and use in the future. In spite of not being a novel approach, system dynamics offers (i) a new way for identifying factors that are affecting the future availability of fresh water and provides (ii) insight into the impacts of different development strategies on the future availability of fresh water. WorldWater simulations are clearly demonstrating the strong feedback relation between water availability and different aspects of world development. Results of numerous simulations are contradictory to the assumption made by many global modelers and do confirm that water is an issue on the global scale. Two major observations are made from early model simulations: (a) the use of clean water for dilution and transport of wastewater, if not dealt in other ways, imposes a major stress on the global world water balance; and (b) water use by different sectors is demonstrating quite different dynamics then predicted by classical forecasting tools and other water-models. Inherent linkages between water quantity and quality sectors with food, industry, persistent pollution, technology, and nonrenewable resources sectors of the model create shoot and collapse behavior in water use dynamics. This presentation is discussing a number of different water-related scenarios and their implications on the future water balance. In particular, two extreme scenarios (business as usual - named `Chaos', and unlimited desalination - named `Ocean') will be discussed. Based on the conclusions derived from these two extreme cases a set of more moderate and realistic scenarios (named `Conservation') is proposed.

  13. Juno II (AM-14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Juno II (AM-14) on the launch pad just prior to launch, March 3, 1959. The payload of AM-14 was Pioneer IV, America's first successful lunar mission. The Juno II was a modification of Jupiter ballistic missile

  14. When higher working memory capacity hinders insight.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Marci S; Van Stockum, Charles A; Wieth, Mareike B

    2016-01-01

    Higher working memory capacity (WMC) improves performance on a range of cognitive and academic tasks. However, a greater ability to control attention sometimes leads individuals with higher WMC to persist in using complex, attention-demanding approaches that are suboptimal for a given task. We examined whether higher WMC would hinder insight problem solving, which is thought to rely on associative processes that operate largely outside of close attentional control. In addition, we examined whether characteristics of the insight problems influence whether this negative relationship will be revealed. In Experiment 1, participants completed matchstick arithmetic problems, which require a similar initial problem representation for all problems. Higher WMC was associated with less accurate insight problem solving. In Experiment 2, participants completed insight word problems, which require substantially different representations for each problem. Higher WMC was again negatively associated with insight, but only after statistically controlling for shared variance between insight and incremental problem-solving accuracy. These findings suggest that WMC may benefit performance on fundamental processes common to both incremental and insight problem solving (e.g., initial problem representation), but hinder performance on the processes that are unique to insight (e.g., solution and restructuring). By considering the WMC of the individual, and the nature of the insight task, we may better understand the process of insight and how to best support it. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26120772

  15. Interdecadal and Interannual Variability of Winter Precipitation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Fraedrich, K.; Zhu, X.; Sielmann, F.

    2013-12-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961 to 2010) is characterized by the first EOF of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean, while the differences from the original describe the interannual fluctuations. For interdecadal time scales the dominating spatial modes represent monopole features over Southeast China involving the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over western Pacific. Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyzes) reveals the following results: (i) Interdecadal SPI-variations show a trend from a dryer state in the 1970s via an increase during the 1980s towards stabilization of wetter conditions commencing with the 1990s. (ii) In mid-to-high latitudes the weakened southward flow of polar airmasses induces low-level warming over Eurasia due to stronger Arctic Oscillation (AO) by warmer zonal temperature advection. This indicates that the precipitation increase in Southeast is attributed circulation anomalies over mid-to-high latitudes which are related to AO. (iii) The abnormal moisture flux along the southwestern boundary of the abnormal anticyclone over south Japan (and its anomalous south-easterlies) is modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies over Western Pacific; a positive (negative) SST anomaly will strengthen (weaken) the warm and moist air flow, leading to abundant (less) precipitation in Southeast China. This demonstrates the collaborative effect of AO and SST anomalies in determining the nonlinear trend observed in winter precipitation over Southeast China. For interannual time scales the dominating spatial pattern also represents monopole patterns. Composite analysis (with resampling test) of the associated circulation anomalies reveals the following results: (i) The wet (dry) winter is a result of the strengthened (weakened) northward warm moist air over east coast of

  16. South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Morton, B; Blackmore, G

    2001-12-01

    The South China Sea is poorly understood in terms of its marine biota, ecology and the human impacts upon it. What is known is most often contained in reports and workshop and conference documents that are not available to the wider scientific community. The South China Sea has an area of some 3.3 million km2 and depths range from the shallowest coastal fringe to 5377 m in the Manila Trench. It is also studded with numerous islets, atolls and reefs many of which are just awash at low tide. It is largely confined within the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, experiences a monsoonal climate being influenced by the Southwest Monsoon in summer and the Northeast Monsoon in winter. The South China Sea is a marginal sea and, therefore, largely surrounded by land. Countries that have a major influence on and claims to the sea include China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam, although Thailand, Indonesia and Taiwan have some too. The coastal fringes of the South China Sea are home to about 270 million people that have had some of the fastest developing and most vibrant economies on the globe. Consequently, anthropogenic impacts, such as over-exploitation of resources and pollution, are anticipated to be huge although, in reality, relatively little is known about them. The Indo-West Pacific biogeographic province, at the centre of which the South China Sea lies, is probably the world's most diverse shallow-water marine area. Of three major nearshore habitat types, i.e., coral reefs, mangroves and seagrasses, 45 mangrove species out of a global total of 51, most of the currently recognised 70 coral genera and 20 of 50 known seagrass species have been recorded from the South China Sea. The island groups of the South China Sea are all disputed and sovereignty is claimed over them by a number of countries. Conflicts have in recent decades arisen over them because of perceived national rights. It is perhaps because of this that so little research has been undertaken on the

  17. New Insights into Ovarian Function

    PubMed Central

    Pangas, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Infertility adversely affects many couples worldwide. Conversely, the exponential increase in world population threatens our planet and its resources. Therefore, a greater understanding of the fundamental cellular and molecular events that control the size of the primordial follicle pool and follicular development is of utmost importance to develop improved in vitro fertilization as well as to design novel approaches to regulate fertility. In this review we attempt to highlight some new advances in basic research of the mammalian ovary that have occurred in recent years focusing primarily on mouse models that have contributed to our understanding of ovarian follicle formation, development, and ovulation. We hope that these new insights into ovarian function will trigger more research and translation to clinically relevant problems. PMID:20839083

  18. Mercury emissions from coal combustion in China

    SciTech Connect

    David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Shuxiao Wang; Ye Wu

    2009-07-01

    This chapter reviews the magnitude and spatial distribution of mercury emissions from coal combustion in China. Due to the large quantities of coal burned and the relatively low level of technology, particularly in industry, emissions are high. Emissions were stable at about 200-210 Mg during the period 1995-2000, but because of rapid economic growth starting in 2001, mercury emissions grew quickly to a value of 334 Mg in 2005. The annual average growth rate for the period 1995-2005 was 5.1%. The uncertainty in emission estimates is about {+-}35% (95% confidence intervals). Emissions are concentrated in those provinces with high concentrations of mercury in coal (like Guizhou Province) and provinces in which a lot of coal is burned (like Shanxi Province). Because significant amounts of coal are burned in homes and small industrial facilities, without any kind of emission control at all, emissions of particulate mercury are higher in China than in the developed world; the speciation profile nationwide is: 64% Hg{sup II}, 19% Hg{sup p}, and 17% Hg{sup 0}. In the future, growth in mercury emissions is expected to be limited by the application of FGD for SO{sub 2} control and other advanced technologies. Estimates of emissions are hampered by the lack of comprehensive and reliable emissions testing programs in China.

  19. Insightful Workflow For Grid Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Charles Earl

    2008-10-09

    We developed a workflow adaptation and scheduling system for Grid workflow. The system currently interfaces with and uses the Karajan workflow system. We developed machine learning agents that provide the planner/scheduler with information needed to make decisions about when and how to replan. The Kubrick restructures workflow at runtime, making it unique among workflow scheduling systems. The existing Kubrick system provides a platform on which to integrate additional quality of service constraints and in which to explore the use of an ensemble of scheduling and planning algorithms. This will be the principle thrust of our Phase II work.

  20. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. ); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi )

    1992-01-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first became involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industrics morc energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of cncrgy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. Preparing this volume confronted us with a number of difficult issues. The most frustrating usually involved the different approaches to sectoral divisions taken in China and the US. For instance, fuel used by motor vehicles belonging to industrial enterprises is counted as industrial consumption in China; only fuel use by vehicles belonging to enterprises engaged primarily in transportation is countcd as transportation use. The estimated adjustment to count all fuel use by vehicles as transportation energy use is quite large, since a large fraction of motor vehicles belong to industrial enterprises. Similarly, Chinese industrial investment figures are skewed compared to those collected in the US because a large portion of enterprises' investment funds is directed towards providing housing and social services for workers and their families.

  1. China`s new {open_quotes}old thinking{close_quotes}: The concept of limited deterrence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, A.I.

    1995-12-31

    In the last five to ten years, Chinese military strategists have developed a concept of limited deterrence that is now used to describe what China`s nuclear forces ought to be able to do. Limited deterrence rests on a limited war-fighting capability aimed at communicating China`s ability to inflict costly damage on the adversary at every rung on the escalation ladder and thus denying the adversary victory in a nuclear war. It is this capability, Chinese strategists argue, that will deter such a war in the first place. Limited deterrence therefore requires the development of a greater number of tactical, theater, and strategic nuclear weapons that are accurate enough to hit counterforce targets, are mobile, can be used in the earliest stages of a nuclear crisis, and in a world of THAAD are capable of penetrating ballistic missile defense systems. These forces would thus require effective space-based early warning, and some configuration of BMD capabilities. Given that China does not now have such capabilities, the straight-line prediction would be that over the next decade or so, we should expect to see a discernible effort to shift the forces away from a minimum strike-back assured destruction posture, which China now has, toward limited war-fighting. This may or may not entail a dramatic short-run increase in the absolute numbers of warheads and delivery systems: the pace will depend in part on whether the United States proceeds with TMD deployment. The speed of change in China`s nuclear capabilities will also depend in part on whether the implementation of START II leads to a steep relative increase in the size of the Chinese arsenal and reduces the relative number of counterforce targets. The primary constraints on any such efforts are exogenous, namely, budgetary and arms control constraints. It is an open question whether endogenous constraints-a shift in doctrine toward minimum deterrence-might be encouraged. 120 refs.

  2. Learning from Moshe, Hu Hu Zhu and Khokha: Insights into the Global Application of the Formative Research Component of the Sesame Workshop Model. Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charlotte, Frances

    2002-01-01

    Provides examples from six studies to illustrate how the formative research element of the Sesame Workshop production model has been used to create effective educational media in the United States, South Africa, Egypt, and China. Shows how lessons learned from formative studies provide insights into the development of new research methodologies…

  3. Lifting China's water spell.

    PubMed

    Guan, Dabo; Hubacek, Klaus; Tillotson, Martin; Zhao, Hongyan; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Liang, Sai

    2014-10-01

    China is a country with significant but unevenly distributed water resources. The water stressed North stays in contrast to the water abundant and polluted South defining China's current water environment. In this paper we use the latest available data sets and adopt structural decomposition analysis for the years 1992 to 2007 to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging water crisis in China. We employ four water indicators in China, that is, freshwater consumption, discharge of COD (chemical oxygen demand) in effluent water, cumulative COD and dilution water requirements for cumulative pollution, to investigate the driving forces behind the emerging crisis. The paper finds water intensity improvements can effectively offset annual freshwater consumption and COD discharge driven by per capita GDP growth, but that it had failed to eliminate cumulative pollution in water bodies. Between 1992 and 2007, 225 million tones of COD accumulated in Chinese water bodies, which would require 3.2-8.5 trillion m(3) freshwater, depending on the water quality of the recipient water bodies to dilute pollution to a minimum reusable standard. Cumulative water pollution is a key driver to pollution induced water scarcity across China. In addition, urban household consumption, export of goods and services, and infrastructure investment are the main factors contributing to accumulated water pollution since 2000. PMID:25226569

  4. Pension Reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent. PMID:26549002

  5. Healthy Aging in China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James P.; Strauss, John; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-01-01

    China has aged rapidly and the rate is accelerating in decades to come. We review positive and negative forces for healthy aging in China now and in the future. The most positive force is the spectacular growth in education over time especially for Chinese women, which should improve all dimensions of cognitive and physical health and eliminate vast gender disparities in healthy aging that currently exist. Other positive forces include increasing detection and treatment of disease and the availability of health insurance and health services so that diseases like hypertension and diabetes do not remain silent killers in China. Transparency is eased on the research level by publicly available data such as CHARLS, a sharp departure from prior scientific norm in China. Negative forces center on disturbing trends in personal health behaviors such as growing rates of smoking (among men) and obesity (for both genders), and pollution—,especially in urban centers. Public health campaigns and incentives are needed on all these fronts so that predictable long-term consequences of these behaviors on older age disease are not realized. There will not be a simple demographic fix to healthy aging in China as fertility rates are unlikely to rise much, while migration will likely continue to rise leaving growing numbers of elderly parents geographically separated from their adult children. Government policy will have to allow migration of elderly parents to live with their adult children while reducing the rigid connection of policy (health insurance and health services) with place of residence. PMID:25621202

  6. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Levine, M.D.; Feng Liu; Davis, W.B. ); Jiang Zhenping; Zhuang Xing; Jiang Kejun; Zhou Dadi )

    1992-11-01

    The Energy Analysis Program (EAP) at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) first becamc involved in Chinese energy issues through a joint China-US symposium on markets and demand for energy held in Nanjing in November of 1988. Discovering common interests, EAP began to collaborate on projects with the Energy Research Institute (ERI) of China's State Planning Commission. In the course of this work it became clear that a major issue in the furtherance of our research was the acquisition of reliable data. In addition to other, more focused activities-evaluating programs of energy conservation undertaken in China and the prospects for making Chinese industries more energy-efficient, preparing historical reviews of energy supply and demand in the People's Republic of China, sponsoring researchers from China to work with experts at LBL on such topics as energy efficiency standards for buildings, adaptation of US energy analysis software to Chinese conditions, and transportation issues-we decided to compile, assess, and organize Chinese energy data. We are hopeful that this volume will not only help us in our work, but help build a broader community of Chinese energy policy studies within the US.

  7. Appropriate technology in China

    SciTech Connect

    Sardinsky, R.

    1981-12-01

    The technology of China (based on a visit to China in 1980) is described. The human labor intensity, particularly in the rural areas, is emphasized. Most tasks are accomplished using simple tools. Plowing, using water buffalo or single-piston diesel tractors, is discussed as well as the methods of nutrient recycling. All organic wastes are considered precious resources to be recycled (including human wastes). Biogas digesters, producing fuel (methane) and fertilizer, are described briefly. Livestock (pigs, geese, ducks, chickens), gardens, and ponds in rural China are discussed as well as the transportation system, which is primarily the bicycle. Primary energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas and hydroelectric power) are used in the urban areas and by industry. The considerable interest in renewable energy sources is discussed with particular emphasis on the biogas digesters in the rural areas. Interest in applications of solar energy is high. The goals of China are to speed development and mechanization of their agriculture, industry, science, technology and defense. It is concluded that there is much to learn from China, as it has much to learn and perhaps the ideal would be a middle ground. (MJJ)

  8. First insights into disassembled "evapotranspiration"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormański, Jarosław; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatyłowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present an initial data analysis obtained from a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them fromthe total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its component transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project

  9. An Early Cambrian tunicate from China.

    PubMed

    Shu, D G; Chen, L; Han, J; Zhang, X L

    2001-05-24

    Like the Burgess Shales of Canada, the Chengjiang Lagerstätte from the Lower Cambrian of China is renowned for the detailed preservation as fossils of delicate, soft-bodied creatures, providing an insight into the Cambrian explosion. The fossils of possible hemichordate chordates and vertebrates have attracted particular attention. Tunicates, or urochordates, comprise the most basal chordate clade, and details of their evolution could be important in understanding the sequence of character acquisition that led to the emergence of chordates and vertebrates. However, definitive fossils of tunicates from the Cambrian are scarce or debatable. Here we report a probable tunicate Cheungkongella ancestralis from the Chengjiang fauna. It resembles the extant ascidian tunicate genus Styela whose morphology could be useful in understanding the origin of the vertebrates. PMID:11373678

  10. Locating True North in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankenier, D. W.

    2009-08-01

    Archaeological discoveries from the Chinese Bronze Age have demonstrated a dominant concern with achieving cardinal orientation that persisted throughout the Xià, Shāng, and Zhōdu dynasties (ca. 2000 -- 300 BCE). It has long been understood that cardinality is an index of the paradigmatic roles of ``the center'' and ``the four quarters'', both core organizing principles of early Chinese cosmological thinking. Here, however, I focus on a very early practical technique used to identify the location of the pole in the absence of a pole star. This method takes advantage of the unique orientation of the Great Square of Pegasus (known as Ding} in early China) and offers insight into a fundamental mindset that figured importantly in the formation of early Chinese Civilization.

  11. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  12. Household Wealth in China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  13. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  14. Insight Into Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Medalia, Alice; Thysen, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Insight into psychotic symptoms is typically poor in schizophrenia; however, it is not known whether insight into neurocognitive impairment is similarly impaired. Most people with schizophrenia experience cognitive dysfunction, and the deficits in attention, memory, and critical thinking have been associated with poor functional outcome. As new treatments are developed for the cognitive impairments, it will be important to know whether patients will be receptive to yet another therapy. Insight is an important factor in treatment compliance and treatment outcome; however, it is not known if patients have insight into their cognitive dysfunction. In order to assess insight into neuro cognitive dysfunction, 75 subjects were administered the Measure of Insight into Cognition–Clinician Rated, a newly created measure based on the Scale to Access the Unawareness of Mental Disorder, that assesses insight into cognitive impairment. Subjects were also administered the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and Independent Living Scale–Problem Solving to objectively assess neuropsychological status and problem-solving skills needed for independent living. Results demonstrated that virtually all subjects had cognitive impairment, yet insight into their neuro cognitive symptoms was limited. This finding has potential implications for treatment programs seeking to improve cognitive functioning in schizophrenia PMID:18199632

  15. Mining Login Data for Actionable Student Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnihotri, Lalitha; Aghababyan, Ani; Mojarad, Shirin; Riedesel, Mark; Essa, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Student login data is a key resource for gaining insight into their learning experience. However, the scale and the complexity of this data necessitate a thorough exploration to identify potential actionable insights, thus rendering it less valuable compared to student achievement data. To compensate for the underestimation of login data…

  16. Working wonders? investigating insight with magic tricks.

    PubMed

    Danek, Amory H; Fraps, Thomas; von Müller, Albrecht; Grothe, Benedikt; Ollinger, Michael

    2014-02-01

    We propose a new approach to differentiate between insight and noninsight problem solving, by introducing magic tricks as problem solving domain. We argue that magic tricks are ideally suited to investigate representational change, the key mechanism that yields sudden insight into the solution of a problem, because in order to gain insight into the magicians' secret method, observers must overcome implicit constraints and thus change their problem representation. In Experiment 1, 50 participants were exposed to 34 different magic tricks, asking them to find out how the trick was accomplished. Upon solving a trick, participants indicated if they had reached the solution either with or without insight. Insight was reported in 41.1% of solutions. The new task domain revealed differences in solution accuracy, time course and solution confidence with insight solutions being more likely to be true, reached earlier, and obtaining higher confidence ratings. In Experiment 2, we explored which role self-imposed constraints actually play in magic tricks. 62 participants were presented with 12 magic tricks. One group received verbal cues, providing solution relevant information without giving the solution away. The control group received no informative cue. Experiment 2 showed that participants' constraints were suggestible to verbal cues, resulting in higher solution rates. Thus, magic tricks provide more detailed information about the differences between insightful and noninsightful problem solving, and the underlying mechanisms that are necessary to have an insight. PMID:24300080

  17. Roles of Various El Nino Events in Southern China Rainfall and Typhoon Landfall Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    El Nino events have been separated into canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki because of different locations of maximum sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and climate impacts. Based on the opposite influence on rainfall in southern China during boreal fall, this paper classifies El Nino Modoki into two groups: El Nino Modoki I and II which show different origins and patterns of SST anomalies. The warm SST anomalies originate in the equatorial central Pacific and subtropical northeastern Pacific for El Nino Modoki I and II, respectively. Thus, El Nino Modoki I shows a symmetric SST anomaly distribution about the equator with the maximum warming in the equatorial central Pacific, whereas El Nino Modoki II displays an asymmetric distribution with the warm SST anomalies extending from the northeastern Pacific to equatorial central Pacific. Additionally, the warm SST anomalies in the equatorial central Pacific extend further westward for El Nino Modoki II than El Nino Modoki I. Similar to canonical El Niño, El Nino Modoki I is associated with an anomalous anticyclone in the Philippine Sea which induces southwesterly wind anomalies along the south coast of China and carries the moisture for increasing rainfall in southern China. For El Nino Modoki II, an anomalous cyclone resides east of the Philippines, associated with northerly wind anomalies and a decrease in rainfall in southern China. Canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki I are associated with a westward extension of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), whereas El Nino Modoki II shifts the WNPSH eastward. Differing from canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki I, El Nino Modoki II corresponds to northwesterly anomalies of the typhoon steering flow which are unfavorable for typhoons to make landfall in China.

  18. Editorial: Insight from the unexpected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, J. P.; Jones, A. P.; Brownlee, D. E.

    2009-11-01

    The NASA Stardust mission returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2, an active Jupiter-family comet that is believed to have formed at a heliocentric distance beyond the orbit of Neptune. The study of the samples has provided a critical first look at the micrometer and larger solid materials that were at the edge of the solar system at the time that Kuiper Belt comets formed. Analysis of the samples has involved a number of challenges and surprises. These issues and the full implications of the information that the samples provide were intently discussed at the Timber Cove II meeting October 26-28, 2008. The meeting was sponsored by the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) and it was held at a ruggedly beautiful and remote location on the Sonoma coast of northern California once protected by a Russian fort. Seventeen of the papers presented at the meeting are presented in this volume.

  19. China's Space Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The scope of mankind's explorations has expanded from the land to the ocean, from the ocean to the air and from the air to outer space. Space technology, which emerged in the 1950's, opened up a new era of human exploration of outer space. Having developed rapidly for the last half century, mankind's activities in space have come a long way, greatly promoted social progress and had profound and far-reaching effects. Space technology is the field of high technology that has exerted the most profound influence on modern society. The continuous development and application of space technology has become an important endeavor in the modernization drives of countries all over the world. After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, China carried out space activities on its own. It succeed in developing and launching its first man-made satellite in 1970. China has made notable achievements and now ranks among the world's most advanced countries in some important fields of space technology. In the 21st century, China will continue to promote the development of its space industry in accordance with its national conditions, and make due contributions to the peaceful use of outer space and to the civilization and progress of all the human beings. At the turn of the century, it is important to give a brief introduction to the aims and principles, the present situation, future development plans and international co-operation concerning China's space activities. This paper covers the following aspects: development strategy, and held that the exploration and utilization of outer space should be for peaceful purposes and for the benefit of all human beings. China is drafting a space development strategy for the 21st century according to the actual demands and long-term targets of national development and to encourage growth of the space industry.

  20. Functional Insights from Structural Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Forouhar,F.; Kuzin, A.; Seetharaman, J.; Lee, I.; Zhou, W.; Abashidze, M.; Chen, Y.; Montelione, G.; Tong, L.; et al

    2007-01-01

    Structural genomics efforts have produced structural information, either directly or by modeling, for thousands of proteins over the past few years. While many of these proteins have known functions, a large percentage of them have not been characterized at the functional level. The structural information has provided valuable functional insights on some of these proteins, through careful structural analyses, serendipity, and structure-guided functional screening. Some of the success stories based on structures solved at the Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium (NESG) are reported here. These include a novel methyl salicylate esterase with important role in plant innate immunity, a novel RNA methyltransferase (H. influenzae yggJ (HI0303)), a novel spermidine/spermine N-acetyltransferase (B. subtilis PaiA), a novel methyltransferase or AdoMet binding protein (A. fulgidus AF{_}0241), an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (B. subtilis YvqK), a novel carboxysome pore (E. coli EutN), a proline racemase homolog with a disrupted active site (B. melitensis BME11586), an FMN-dependent enzyme (S. pneumoniae SP{_}1951), and a 12-stranded {beta}-barrel with a novel fold (V. parahaemolyticus VPA1032).

  1. Iron and cancer: recent insights.

    PubMed

    Manz, David H; Blanchette, Nicole L; Paul, Bibbin T; Torti, Frank M; Torti, Suzy V

    2016-03-01

    Iron is an essential dietary element. However, the ability of iron to cycle between oxidized and reduced forms also renders it capable of contributing to free radical formation, which can have deleterious effects, including promutagenic effects that can potentiate tumor formation. Dysregulation of iron metabolism can increase cancer risk and promote tumor growth. Cancer cells exhibit an enhanced dependence on iron relative to their normal counterparts, a phenomenon we have termed iron addiction. Work conducted in the past few years has revealed new cellular processes and mechanisms that deepen our understanding of the link between iron and cancer. Control of iron efflux through the combined action of ferroportin, an iron efflux pump, and its regulator hepcidin appears to play an important role in tumorigenesis. Ferroptosis is a form of iron-dependent cell death involving the production of reactive oxygen species. Specific mechanisms involved in ferroptosis, including depletion of glutathione and inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4, have been uncovered. Ferritinophagy is a newly identified mechanism for degradation of the iron storage protein ferritin. Perturbations of mechanisms that control transcripts encoding proteins that regulate iron have been observed in cancer cells, including differences in miRNA, methylation, and acetylation. These new insights may ultimately provide new therapeutic opportunities for treating cancer. PMID:26890363

  2. Structural Insight into Proteorhodopsin Oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Katherine M.; Voska, Jeda; Kinnebrew, Maia; Pavlova, Anna; Junk, Matthias J.N.; Han, Songi

    2013-01-01

    Oligomerization has important functional implications for many membrane proteins. However, obtaining structural insight into oligomeric assemblies is challenging, as they are large and resist crystallization. We focus on proteorhodopsin (PR), a protein with seven transmembrane α-helices that was found to assemble to hexamers in densely packed lipid membrane, or detergent-solubilized environments. Yet, the structural organization and the subunit interface of these PR oligomers were unknown. We used site-directed spin-labeling together with electron spin-resonance lineshape and Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization analysis to construct a model for the specific orientation of PR subunits within the hexameric complex. We found intersubunit distances to average 16 Å between neighboring 55 residues and that residues 177 are >20 Å apart from each other. These distance constraints show that PR has a defined and radial orientation within a hexamer, with the 55-site of the A-B loop facing the hexamer core and the 177-site of the E-F loop facing the hexamer exterior. Dynamic nuclear polarization measurements of the local solvent dynamics complement the electron spin-resonance-based distance analysis, by resolving whether protein surfaces at positions 55, 58, and 177 are exposed to solvent, or covered by protein-protein or protein-detergent contacts. PMID:23442869

  3. China's satellite communications discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhou, Z.

    1986-04-01

    In 1972, China began to enter the age of satellite comunications, and it was realized that satellites could play a large role in television transmission in China. The experimental broadcasting of satellite television programs was begun in 1978, and satisfactory results were obtained. The success of the television transmission demonstration has led to important decisions regarding development of a domestic satellite communications system. Before specialized communications satellites are launched, the decision was made to lease an international communications satellite transmitter. The responsibility of the ground stations were discussed.

  4. Gnomons in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  5. Nursing homes in China.

    PubMed

    Chu, Leung-Wing; Chi, Iris

    2008-05-01

    China will face a dramatic transition from a young to an aged society in the coming 30 to 40 years. In 2000, there were 88,110,000 persons aged 65 years and older, which represented 7% of the population. This percentage is projected to increase to 23% in 2050. Regarding health and long-term care for older adults, the current challenge is to build a comprehensive system of care for older adults. Nursing home care is an inevitable care model for frail older adults in China, which is largely sponsored by the government of China with contributions from some nongovernment organizations and private investors. China is a large country. Within the country, long-term care varies greatly between rural and urban areas, and among the different economic developing areas. In urban and better-developed areas, the range of services exists; however, in rural and less-developed areas, the range of services is limited. The "Star Light Program" and "Beloved Care Engineering" were recent government initiatives to improve aged care. They were launched in 2001 and have dramatically increased the number of both senior centers and nursing homes for older adults. While the quantity of nursing homes is still inadequate with an additional mismatch problem between the supply and demand, the quality of care in most nursing homes is suboptimal. At present, most administrative and frontline workers in nursing homes have received little training in elder care. There is a need for good-quality structured training in long-term care for all types of staff. Moreover, quality standard for care, including standard setting, assessment, and monitoring, is an important issue and needs substantial improvement for nursing homes in China. Currently, 1.5% of older people live in nursing homes and apartments for older people. Because of the peculiar 4-2-1 family structure in China, we expect the prevalence of nursing home placement of older adults will increase in the coming years. The government of China has

  6. Assessment of forest geospatial patterns over the three giant forest areas of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, M.-S.; Zhu, Z.-L.; Lu, H.; Xu, D.; Liu, A.-X.; Peng, S.-K.

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial patterns of forest fragmentation over the three traditional giant forested areas of China (Northeastern, southwestern and Southern China) were analyzed comparatively and reported based on a 250-m resolution land cover dataset. Specifically, the spatial patterns of forest fragmentation were characterized by combining geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models. The driving forces resulting in the differences of the forest spatial patterns were also investigated. Results suggested that forests in southwest China had the highest severity of forest fragmentation, followed by south region and northeast region. The driving forces of forest fragmentation in China were primarily the giant population and improper exploitation of forests. In conclusion, the generated information in the study provided valuable insights and implications as to the fragmentation patterns and the conservation of biodiversity or genes, and the use of the chosen geospatial metrics and forest fragmentation models was quite useful for depicting forest fragmentation patterns. ?? 2008 Northeast Forestry University.

  7. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  8. The Human Endocrine Pancreas: New Insights on Replacement and Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Bendala, Juan; Lanzoni, Giacomo; Klein, Dagmar; Álvarez-Cubela, Silvia; Pastori, Ricardo L

    2016-03-01

    Islet transplantation is an effective cell therapy for type 1 diabetes (T1D) but its clinical application is limited due to shortage of donors. After a decade-long period of exploration of potential alternative cell sources, the field has only recently zeroed in on two of them as the most likely to replace islets. These are pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) (through directed differentiation) and pancreatic non-endocrine cells (through directed differentiation or reprogramming). Here we review progress in both areas, including the initiation of Phase I/II clinical trials using human embryonic stem cell (hESc)-derived progenitors, advances in hESc differentiation in vitro, novel insights on the developmental plasticity of the pancreas, and groundbreaking new approaches to induce β cell conversion from the non-endocrine compartment without genetic manipulation. PMID:26774512

  9. Winter Precipitation in Southeast China: Interdecadal and Interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ling; Zhu, xiuhua; Fraedrich, Klaus; Zhi, xiefei

    2013-04-01

    Interdecadal variability of observed winter (DJF) precipitation in Southeast China (1961 to 2010) is characterized by the first EOF of the three-monthly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) subjected to a 9-year running mean, while the differences from the original describe the interannual fluctuations. For both time scales the dominating spatial modes represent similar features involving the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Dynamic composite analysis (based on NCEP/NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyses) reveals the following results: (i) Interdecadal SPI-variations show a nonlinear trend from a dryer state in the 1970s via an increase during the 1980s towards stabilization on wetter conditions commencing with the 1990s. The associated large-scale circulation features are derived from composites of the wetter (1988-2002) and dryer (1962-1976) period. Increasing wetness in Southeast China is attributed to a weakened East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) which, due to weaker northerlies along the east coast of China, favors northward transport of warm and humid air from tropical oceans to South China. After the 1980s the reduced EAWM, in turn, is related to low-level warming over high-latitude Eurasia due to stronger Arctic Oscillation (AO) by warmer zonal temperature advection. This demonstrates the role of AO in determining the nonlinear trend observed in winter precipitation over South China. (ii) Interannual variability of winter precipitation in Southeast China is related to EAWM modulated by the East Asian Trough (EAT); a weaker (stronger) EAT than normal will weaken (strengthen) EAWM, leading to abundant (less) precipitation in Southeast China.

  10. Fick's Insights on Liquid Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2004-10-07

    In 1855, Adolph Fick published ''On Liquid Diffusion'', mathematically treating salt movements in liquids as a diffusion process, analogous to heat diffusion. Less recognized is the fact that Fick also provided a detailed account of the implications of salt diffusion to transport through membranes. A careful look at Fick (1855) shows that his conceptualization of molecular diffusion was more comprehensive than could be captured with the mathematical methods available to him, and therefore his expression, referred to as Fick's Law, dealt only with salt flux. He viewed salt diffusion in liquids as a binary process, with salt moving in one way and water moving in the other. Fick's analysis of the consequences of such a binary process operating in a hydrophilic pore in a membrane offers insights that are relevant to earth systems. This paper draws attention to Fick's rationale, and its implications to hydrogeological systems. Fick (1829-1901; Figure 1), a gifted scientist, published the first book on medical physics (Fick, 1858), discussing the application of optics, solid mechanics, gas diffusion, and heat budget to biological systems. Fick's paper is divisible into two parts. The first describes his experimental verification of the applicability of Fourier's equation to liquid diffusion. The second is a detailed discussion of diffusion through a membrane. Although Fick's Law specifically quantifies solute flux, Fick visualized a simultaneous movement of water and stated, ''It is evident that a volume of water equal to that of the salt passes simultaneously out of the upper stratum into the lower.'' (Fick, 1855, p.30). Fick drew upon Fourier's model purely by analogy. He assumed that concentration gradient impelled salt movement, without inquiring why concentration gradient should constitute a driving force. As for water movement, he stated intuitively, ''a force of suction comes into play on each side of the membrane, proportional to the difference of concentration

  11. Bioanalytical insights into mediator lipidomics.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Kie; Suga, Takahiro; Mano, Nariyasu

    2015-09-10

    The importance of lipids in health and disease has been widely acknowledged. Lipids are well known to undergo enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic conversions to lipid mediators (LMs), which demonstrate potent actions in various biological events, such as the regulation of cellular signaling pathways and the promotion and resolution of inflammation. LMs activate G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to exert various functions. Monitoring these mediators in disease is essential to uncover the mechanisms of pathogenesis for many diseases, such as asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer. Along with technical developments in mass spectrometry, highly sensitive and multiplexed analyses of LMs in the human periphery and other tissues have become available. These advancements enable the temporal and spatial profiling of LMs; therefore, the findings obtained from LM profiling are expected to decode pathology. As trace amounts of LMs can exert functions, the development of a highly sensitive, accurate, and robust analytical method is necessary. Although not mandatory, mediator lipidomics validation is becoming popular and remains challenging. Because LMs already exist in biological matrices, evaluations of the matrix effect and extraction efficiencies are important issues. Thus, more careful analyses are required. In this review, we focus on mediator lipidomics, including polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and LMs derived from PUFAs, such as eicosanoids, lipoxins and resolvins. In addition to the recent progress in human mediator lipidomics, bioanalytical insights derived from this field (i.e., effective sample preparation from biological matrices and evaluation of the matrix effect) are described herein. PMID:25769667

  12. Rare insights into cancer biology.

    PubMed

    Adam, J; Yang, M; Soga, T; Pollard, P J

    2014-05-15

    Cancer-associated mutations have been identified in the metabolic genes succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), fumarate hydratase (FH) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), advancing and challenging our understanding of cellular function and disease mechanisms and providing direct links between dysregulated metabolism and cancer. Some striking parallels exist in the cellular consequences of the genetic mutations within this triad of cancer syndromes, including accumulation of oncometabolites and competitive inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, particularly, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylases, JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases (part of the JMJD family) and the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of 5methyl cytosine (5mC) DNA hydroxylases. These lead to activation of HIF-dependent oncogenic pathways and inhibition of histone and DNA demethylation. Mutations in FH, resulting in loss of enzyme activity, predispose affected individuals to a rare cancer, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), characterised by benign smooth muscle cutaneous and uterine tumours (leiomyomata) and an aggressive form of collecting duct and type 2 papillary renal cancer. Interestingly, loss of FH activity results in the accumulation of high levels of fumarate that can lead to the non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues in multiple proteins (succination) and in some cases to their disrupted function. Here we consider that the study of rare diseases such as HLRCC, combining analyses of human tumours and cell lines with in vitro and in vivo murine models has provided novel insights into cancer biology associated with dysregulated metabolism and represents a useful paradigm for cancer research. PMID:23812428

  13. Investigation of lead(II) uptake by Bacillus thuringiensis 016.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Hui; Lin, Zhang; Guan, Xiong

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we investigated the lead(II) biosorption mechanism of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) 016 through batch and microscopic experiments. We found that the maximum lead(II) biosorption capacity of Bt 016 was 164.77 mg/g (dry weight). The pH value could affect the biosorption of lead(II) in a large extent. Fourier transform infrared analyses and selective passivation experiments suggested that the carboxyl, amide and phosphate functional groups of Bt 016 played an important role in lead(II) biosorption. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that noticeable lead(II) precipitates were accumulated on bacterial surfaces. Further transmission electron microscopy thin section analysis coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as well as selected area electron diffraction indicated that lead(II) immobilized on the bacteria could be transformated into random-shaped crystalline lead-containing minerals eventually. This work provided a new insight into lead(II) uptake of Bt, highlighting the potential of Bt in the restoration of lead(II) contaminated repositories. PMID:26271773

  14. Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) chelates of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Singh, R.

    1985-01-01

    Bis chelates of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with the enolic form of diethyl ketone and methyl n-propyl thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moments, i.r. and electronic and electron spin resonance spectral studies. All the complexes were found to have the composition ML 2 [where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(ii) and Pt(II) and L = thiosemicarbazones of diethyl ketone and methyl n-propyl ketone]. Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are paramagnetic and may have polymeric six-coordinate octahedral and square planar geometries, respectively. The Ni(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes are diamagnetic and may have square planar geometries. Pyridine adducts (ML 2·2Py) of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were also prepared and characterized.

  15. China's Demographic Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, H. Yuan; And Others

    1992-01-01

    China's herculean efforts to slow the increase of its giant population appear to have worked: the annual birth rate fell from about 35 births per 1,000 in the 1950s to 20 per 1,000 in the 1990s. This bulletin examines the development and consequences of the strict population planning control measures introduced in the 1970s, and strengthened in…

  16. English in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzau, Y. F.; And Others

    This collection of writings on the history and status of English language teaching (ELT) in China includes the following essays: "Historical Background" (Y. F. Dzau); "How English is Taught in Tertiary Educational Institutions" (Dzau); "Teaching English in Chinese Secondary Schools" (Yu Yining); "Teachers, Students, and Administrators" (Dzau);…

  17. Acting Decisively: China's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Gerald W.; Harvey, James J.

    2009-01-01

    During a 10-day visit to China last year, 25 American superintendents observed a global giant in pursuit of educational excellence. In this article, two of the travelers reflect on what they learned from their experience and what it could mean for Americans. They saw a profound respect for education and pride in learning. They also found support…

  18. Biomaterials research in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xingdong; Cui, Fuzhai

    2012-01-01

    It is a great honour that Interface Focus will publish a special issue to introduce the progress and achievements of biomaterials research in China. We feel it is a good opportunity to present the progress in Chinese biomaterials research to the international biomaterials community, and to promote the collaboration between international and Chinese biomaterials scientists.

  19. China Flexes Linguistic Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2010-01-01

    With China's growing power and influence on the global stage, efforts are burgeoning to promote teaching the official Chinese language in U.S. schools. And while those activities are getting help from a variety of sources--including the U.S. government--one key player taking an increased role is the Chinese government itself. Just this year, the…

  20. Report from China

    SciTech Connect

    O`Leary, H.

    1995-07-01

    Hazel O`Leary`s recent trip to China as head of a Presidential trade mission confirmed two things: significant opportunities exist for US electric companies to do business with one of the world`s largest producers and consumers of energy; but this high potential will be no quick sell. China currently has about 180 GW of installed generating capacity and has plans to increase this to about 300 GW by 2000 and 800 GW by 2020. About 25% of that new capacity is expected to be provided by foreign investors. This is an area where US electric companies have the world-class technology and expertise the Chinese want. The Chinese government also expressed the need to refurbish many existing and small-scale generating plants - representing about 20,000 megawatts - and to install new environmental control technologies. The Chinese transmission and distribution systems require upgrade and expansion to meet the country`s growing demand and to develop further China`s integrated system network. US companies can play a major role in addressing these needs. But, US companies must compete diligently with those from other nations, especially Japan, Canada, Germany, and France. The Chinese market, while opening up to foreign investment, particularly in the energy sector, is still in the early phase of developing market-oriented policies and institutions. Those US companies willing to make a long-term commitment to develop working relationships with their Chinese partners will fare best.

  1. Green Schools in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zuqiang

    2002-01-01

    Describes the establishment of Green Schools, facilitated environmental education (EE) in primary and middle schools in China, with different detailed criteria among the provinces. Suggests that the transformation from examination-based to quality-oriented education will provide greater opportunity for EE. Recommends strategies to foster Green…

  2. Selected bibliography of China

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography contains 276 records related to the geology of the China. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; lithology; paleontology; stratigraphy; tectonics; drilling; earthquakes; exploration; geophysics; mineral resources; and seismology. The subject index provides listings of records related to each of the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (10) are themselves bibliographies.

  3. China's Libraries in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stueart, Robert D.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses issues facing librarianship in the People's Republic of China based on observations by a delegation of American and Canadian librarians in 1985. Highlights include the impact of the Cultural Revolution, collection development strategies, user needs and barriers to use, outreach to special populations, networking and resource sharing, and…

  4. Spirulina cultivation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bo-Tang; Xiang, Wen-Zhou; Zeng, Cheng-Kui

    1998-03-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development and many problems of Spirulina cultivation in China, points out the advantages and disadvantages of open photobioreactor system, and predicts that seawater Spirulina cultivation will be a new trend to be strengthened and emphasized due to its special physiological characteristics, easier management, lower fertilizer cost, and higher resistance to contaminants and rare pollution of chemicals.

  5. Reading the World: China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffa, Jane

    1997-01-01

    Presents picture books, fiction, nonfiction, biographies, folklore, and poetry for young students (kindergarten-grade 8) studying China. Suggests activities based on the books using art, physical education, language arts, research skills, math, science, geography, and drama. Highlights books and collections of folk tales with stories about…

  6. China energy databook

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, J.E.; Fridley, D.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1996-06-01

    The response to the first edition of the China Energy Databook was overwhelmingly positive, and has encouraged us to issue this revised, updated, and expanded edition. It has been a natural counterpart to the Energy Analysis Program`s continuing program of collaborative research with the Energy Research Institute. No other current reference volume dedicated to China`s energy system contains a similar variety and quality of material. We have revised some of the categories and data that appeared in the old volume. The adjustment for energy consumption in the transportation sector, for instance, has been slightly changed to include some fuel use in the commercial sector, which was previously left out. As another example, natural gas consumption statistics in the first edition greatly overstated electric utility use; we have rectified that error. Some tables have changed as statistical collection and reporting practices change in China. Figures on gross output value by sector stop with 1992, and economic output in subsequent years is covered by various measures of value-added, such as national income and gross domestic product.

  7. Juvenile Delinquency in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Irving, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Contains nine articles which describe the causes and treatment of juvenile delinquency in China. Focuses on the social causes of delinquency, family factors shaping juvenile crimes and mistakes, criminal peer groups, psychological factors related to delinquency, and the role of education in prevention of delinquency. (JDH)

  8. My Classroom: China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the teaching practice of two senior high school English teachers, Yu Huang and Yu Zhu. Their school is in Hezhang County--the No. 2 Middle School in the province of Guizhou. In China, most middle schools consist of six grades of students; the first three years are considered junior middle school and the latter three years…

  9. Observations of atmospheric mercury in China: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. W.; Zhang, H.; Yu, B.; Wang, X.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X. B.

    2015-08-01

    China presently contributes the largest amount of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) emission into the atmosphere in the world. Over the past decade, numerous studies have been conducted to characterize the concentration and forms of atmospheric Hg in China, which provide insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of atmospheric Hg through ground-based measurements at widely diverse geographical locations and during cruise and flight campaigns. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of the state of understanding in atmospheric Hg in China. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and particulate-bound mercury (PBM) measured at the remote sites in China are substantially elevated compared to the background values in the Northern Hemisphere. In Chinese urban areas, the highly elevated GEM, PBM and gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) were mainly derived from local anthropogenic Hg emissions, whereas regional anthropogenic emissions and long-range transport from domestic source regions are the primary causes of the elevated GEM and PBM concentrations at remote sites. Using 7-9 years of continuous observations at a remote site and an urban site, a slight increase in atmospheric GEM (2.4-2.5 % yr-1) was identified (paired samples test: p < 0.01), which is in agreement with the increasing domestic anthropogenic emissions. Anthropogenic GEM emission quantity in China estimated through the observed GEM / CO concentration ratios ranged from 632 to 1138 t annually over the past decade, 2-3 times larger than published values using emission activity data. Modeling results and filed measurements show dry deposition is the predominant process for removing Hg from the atmosphere, 2.5-9.0 times larger than wet deposition, due to the elevated atmospheric GEM and PBM concentrations that facilitate dry deposition to terrestrial landscapes. Further studies to reconcile the observed and simulated Hg concentrations, to understand the impact of domestic emission reduction on Hg

  10. Urologic cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Pang, Cheng; Guan, Youyan; Li, Hongbo; Chen, Wanqing; Zhu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Cancer remains to be the second most common cause of death, and its incidence and mortality rates are increasing in China. According to the 2015 National Central Cancer Registry (NCCR) of China, the incidence of bladder cancer and prostate cancer ranked sixth and seventh, respectively, in male cancers. The majority of prostate cancer patients were diagnosed at an advanced stage. Early diagnosis of prostate cancer is the key to improve prostate cancer survival in China. Radical prostatectomy or radical radiotherapy is the main treatment for localized prostate cancer, and a comprehensive therapy based on androgen deprivation therapy is the treatment for advanced disease. The most common histologic types of bladder cancer in China were urothelial carcinoma, followed by adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma. The majority of patients were diagnosed using white-light cystoscopy with biopsy. Fluorescence and narrow-band imaging cystoscopy had additional detection rates and are becoming more popular. Following Chinese guidelines, most non-muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with diagnostic transurethral resection and more than half of the muscle invasive bladder cancer patients were treated with radical cystectomy. Due to the increased detection rate of kidney tumors by ultrasound in physical examination, the number of incidentally diagnosed renal cell carcinoma has increased. Localized kidney cancers are more and more often treated by nephron-sparing surgery. Radical nephrectomy is still the main treatment option for patients with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma. Both laparoscopic and robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgeries have been used in big medical centers. Both testicular cancer and penile cancer have lower incidence levels than that in Europe. As we have an enormous population base, the absolute patient number is big. The diagnosis and treatment follows the Chinese guidelines. In China, both medical professionals and public should concern

  11. Bronchiectasis in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jie-Lu; Xu, Jin-Fu; Qu, Jie-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Bronchiectasis is a common but long-neglected disease in China, causing a substantial disease burden both to patients and to society. The overall prevalence of physician-diagnosed bronchiectasis in people aged 40 years or older is estimated at 1.2% and is trending upward with aging of the population. The etiology of bronchiectasis has not been identified heretofore in more than 70% of patients in China, although pneumonia and tuberculosis still appear to be the most common causes of acquired bronchiectasis. Etiologies, comorbidities, and infecting organisms vary greatly across previously published epidemiological studies, resulting in considerable uncertainty. Little is known about the spectrum of severity of bronchiectasis in China. Presently, engagement of pulmonologists is largely limited to acute treatment of exacerbations of severe bronchiectasis. Based on limited available data and expert consensus, the first comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of bronchiectasis in China were published in 2012. Research to advance medical care for patients with this disease in China should focus on several priorities, including: standardization of diagnostic criteria with appropriate application of computed tomographic imaging; use of validated multidimensional grading systems to assess the severity of bronchiectasis; and epidemiological studies that are designed to measure mild to moderate as well as severe disease, and to represent the population beyond large urban centers. Better estimates of the true burden of bronchiectasis are needed to guide allocation of national medical resources and to implement public health strategies for prevention of the disease. Treatment should be expanded to include expert maintenance care of ambulatory patients in addition to treatment of exacerbations. PMID:26882271

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 gene sequences of waterfowl parvoviruses from the Mainland of China revealed genetic diversity and recombination.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao; Cheng, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Shao-Ying; Lin, Feng-Qiang; Chen, Shi-Long; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Huang, Mei-Qing; Zheng, Min

    2016-03-01

    To determine the origin and evolution of goose parvovirus (GPV) and Muscovy duck parvovirus (MDPV) in the Mainland of China, phylogenetic and recombination analyses in the present study were performed on 32 complete VP1 gene sequences from China and other countries. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, GPV strains studied here from Mainland China (PRC) could be divided into three genotypes, namely PRC-I, PRC-II and PRC-III. Genotype PRC-I is indigenous to Mainland China. Only one GPV strain from Northeast China was of Genotype PRC-II and was thought to be imported from Europe. Genotype PRC-III, which was the most isolated genotype during 1999-2012, is related to GPVs in Taiwan and has been the predominant pathogen responsible for recent Derzy's disease outbreaks in Mainland China. Current vaccine strains used in Mainland China belong to Genotype PRC-I that is evolutionary distant from Genotypes PRC-II and PRC-III. In comparison, MDPV strains herein from Mainland China are clustered in a single group which is closely related to Taiwanese MDPV strains, and the full-length sequences of the VP1 gene of China MDPVs are phylogenetic closely related to the VP1 sequence of a Hungarian MDPV strain. Moreover, We also found that homologous recombination within VP1 gene plays a role in generating genetic diversity in GPV evolution. The GPV GDFSh from Guangdong Province appears to be the evolutionary product of a recombination event between parental GPV strains GD and B, while the major parent B proved to be a reference strain for virulent European GPVs. Our findings provide valuable information on waterfowl parvoviral evolution in Mainland China. PMID:26692144

  13. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area. PMID:27119389

  14. The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Rabies in China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jinning; Li, Hao; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Han, Na; Guo, Zhenyang; Liu, Haizhou; Adams, James; Fang, Wei; Tao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Shumei; Liang, Guodong

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the number of rabies cases in China and an expansion in the geographic distribution of the virus. In spite of the seriousness of the outbreak and increasing number of fatalities, little is known about the phylogeography of the disease in China. In this study, we report an analysis of a set of Nucleocapsid sequences consisting of samples collected through the trial Chinese National Surveillance System as well as publicly available sequences. This sequence set represents the most comprehensive dataset from China to date, comprising 210 sequences (including 57 new samples) from 15 provinces and covering all epidemic regions. Using this dataset we investigated genetic diversity, patterns of distribution, and evolutionary history. Results Our analysis indicates that the rabies virus in China is primarily defined by two clades that exhibit distinct population subdivision and translocation patterns and that contributed to the epidemic in different ways. The younger clade originated around 1992 and has properties that closely match the observed spread of the recent epidemic. The older clade originated around 1960 and has a dispersion pattern that suggests it represents a strain associated with a previous outbreak that remained at low levels throughout the country and reemerged in the current epidemic. Conclusions Our findings provide new insight into factors associated with the recent epidemic and are relevant to determining an effective policy for controlling the virus. PMID:22563518

  15. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  16. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of a Potential Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacterium, Aquabacterium parvum B6

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoxin

    2016-01-01

    Aquabacterium parvum B6 is a potential nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium. The genes related to its denitrifying mechanism and iron metabolisms were unknown. We present the draft genome of Aquabacterium parvum B6, which could provide further insight into the nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing mechanism of strain B6. PMID:26823591

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of a Potential Nitrate-Dependent Fe(II)-Oxidizing Bacterium, Aquabacterium parvum B6.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Ma, Fang; Szewzyk, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Aquabacterium parvum B6 is a potential nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium. The genes related to its denitrifying mechanism and iron metabolisms were unknown. We present the draft genome of Aquabacterium parvum B6, which could provide further insight into the nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing mechanism of strain B6. PMID:26823591

  19. Conundrum of angiotensin II and TGF-β interactions in aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaofeng; Lu, Hong; Rateri, Debra L; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) has been invoked as a principal mediator for the development and progression of both thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms. While there is consistency in experimental and clinical studies that overactivation of the renin angiotensin system promotes aortic aneurysm development, there are many unknowns regarding the mechanistic basis underlying AngII-induced aneurysms. Interactions of AngII with TGF-β in both thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms have been the focus of recent studies. While these studies have demonstrated profound effects of manipulating TGF-β activity on AngII-induced aortic aneurysms, they have also led to more questions regarding the interactions between AngII and this multifunctional cytokine. This review compiled the recent literature to provide insights into understanding the potentially complex interactions between AngII and TGF-β in the development of aortic aneurysms. PMID:23395156

  20. Multi-Objective Scheduling for the Cluster II Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Giuliano, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the MUSE multiobjecctive scheduling framework to the Cluster II WBD scheduling domain. Cluster II is an ESA four-spacecraft constellation designed to study the plasma environment of the Earth and it's magnetosphere. One of the instruments on each of the four spacecraft is the Wide Band Data (WBD) plasma wave experiment. We have applied the MUSE evolutionary algorithm to the scheduling problem represented by this instrument, and the result has been adopted and utilized by the WBD schedulers for nearly a year. This paper describes the WBD scheduling problem, its representation in MUSE, and some of the visualization elements that provide insight into objective value tradeoffs.

  1. The pol II CTD: new twists in the tail.

    PubMed

    Zaborowska, Justyna; Egloff, Sylvain; Murphy, Shona

    2016-09-01

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase (pol) II comprises conserved heptad repeats, and post-translational modification of the CTD regulates transcription and cotranscriptional RNA processing. Recently, the spatial patterns of modification of the CTD repeats have been investigated, and new functions of CTD modification have been revealed. In addition, there are new insights into the roles of the enzymes that decorate the CTD. We review these new findings and reassess the role of the pol II CTD in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:27605205

  2. Wintertime Temperature Predictability in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiayang; Wu, Qigang

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal climate prediction remains a challenge and has bee receiving a lot of attention in China. Many studies have shown that early-season surface boundary anomalies are significantly correlated with wintertime atmospheric circulation variability in the Northern Hemisphere, and thus provide great predictability for seasonal climate variability in China. Here we use four summer-autumn predictors (the Eurasian snow cover, Arctic sea ice, sea surface temperature (SST) of in the North Pacific and tropical Indian Ocean) to predict the upcoming winter land surface temperatures of China. We first perform singular value decomposition (SVD) analyses between anomaly fields of these predictors and 160-station temperature in China during the period of 1979-2011, and find the key areas of interaction between these predictors and wintertime temperature in China. We then create cross-validated hindcasts of winter temperature using as the above four predictors, and calculate the anomaly correlation coefficient (ACC) at each station. It is found that the above four predictors explain a large fraction of temperature variance. ACC is above 0.5 for most stations over east China, and ranges from 0.6 to 0.8 over many stations of northeastern and southwest China. Autumn sea ice and snow cover contributes to larger predictability in northeastern China, while both autumn snow cover and summer SST contributes to larger predictability in southwestern China. Overall, these four predictors may present a significant potential for winter temperature predictability in China and significantly improve the hindcast skill.

  3. Stem cell therapies and regenerative medicine in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sha; Fu, XiaoBing

    2014-02-01

    Stem cells are the core of tissue repair and regeneration, and a promising cell source for novel therapies. In recent years, research into stem cell therapies has been particularly exciting in China. The remarkable advancements in basic stem cell research and clinically effective trials have led to fresh insights into regenerative medicine, such as treatments for sweat gland injury after burns, diabetes, and liver injury. High hopes have inspired numerous experimental and clinical trials. At the same time, government investment and policy support of research continues to increase markedly. However, numerous challenges must be overcome before novel stem cell therapies can achieve meaningful clinical outcomes. PMID:24430560

  4. Recent Insights into the Neurobiology of Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with various psychopathologies, and elevated impulsivity is typically disadvantageous. This manuscript reviews recent investigations into the neurobiology of impulsivity using human imaging techniques and animal models. Both human imaging and preclinical pharmacological manipulations have yielded important insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsivity. A more thorough understanding of the complex neurobiology underlying aspects of impulsivity may provide insight into new treatment options that target elevated impulsivity and psychopathologies such as addictions. PMID:25431750

  5. China`s macro economic trends and power industry structure

    SciTech Connect

    Binsheng Li; Johnson, C.J.; Hagen, R.

    1994-09-01

    Since China adopted an open door policy in 1978, its economy has grown rapidly. Between 1980 and 1993, China`s real GNP growth averaged 9.4 percent per year. Economists at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences forecast that GNP will increase by 11.5 percent in 1994. During the rest of the decade, the Chinese government plans to reduce its annual GNP growth rate to 8-9 percent. During the 2001-2010 period, the economic growth rate is projected to decline to 6.5 percent per year. Table 1 compares China`s economic growth to other Asia-Pacific Economies, and includes projections to 2010. During the 1980s, China`s GDP growth rate was only second to that of South Korea. In the 1990`s, China is projected to have the highest economic growth in the Asia-Pacific region. China`s rapid economic growth is due to dramatic increases in the effective labor supply and effective capital stock. For the remainder of the 1990s, the effective labor supply should continue to increase rapidly because: (1) Chinese state enterprises are over-staffed and labor system reforms will move millions of these workers into more productive activities; (2) reforms in the wage system will provide increased incentives to work harder; (3) relaxation of migration controls from rural to urban areas will cause nominal labor in the industrial sector to accelerate; (4) differentials in personal income will increase and develop peer pressure on workers to work harder and earn more money; and (5) at China`s low personal income level, Chinese people are willing to trade leisure for more income as wages increase.

  6. Institutions of Higher Education as Public Diplomacy Tools: China-Based University Programs for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzgar, Emily T.

    2016-01-01

    Two flagship Chinese universities are home to newly established English-language graduate programs intended to arm international cohorts of future leaders with the skills, knowledge, and insights necessary to thrive in a world in which China will play a leading role. Employing the literature of international education and public diplomacy, this…

  7. Challenges in Retraining Workers Laid-Off by State-Owned Enterprises in China: Findings from a Field Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Bingxin; Lewis, Ramon; Greenwood, Kenneth Mark

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses one of the many sensitive and challenging problems generated by China's era of reform and economic growth: the need to retrain or educate laid-off (displaced) workers from state owned enterprises (SOEs). It does so to provide valuable insight for those responsible for the changes associated with the move to the current…

  8. Insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Rowena; Fish, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment is common in individuals with schizophrenia and is associated with poor social functioning. Poor insight has also been linked to poor outcome in schizophrenia. Social developmental research has shown representations of self (insight) and representations of others (ToM) are related. In schizophrenia, contradictory reports of associations between insight and ToM have emerged, possibly due to a failure to account for neurocognitive impairments and symptoms associated with both mentalization constructs. This study investigated the relationships between ToM (intentions of others on the Hinting task) and clinical and cognitive insight, while accounting for shared variance with neurocognitive impairment and symptom severity in 193 individuals with schizophrenia. Clinical, but not cognitive, insight was associated with ToM. A unique association between Awareness of Mental Illness and Hinting Task performance was found, independent of shared variance with neurocognition and symptoms. Importantly, ToM was found to mediate Awareness of Mental Illness and neurocognition. Results suggested treatments targeting mentalization abilities that contribute to representations of self and others may improve insight deficits associated with poor outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:25467703

  9. Insight and theory of mind in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Rowena; Fish, Scott; Granholm, Eric

    2015-01-30

    Theory of mind (ToM) impairment is common in individuals with schizophrenia and is associated with poor social functioning. Poor insight has also been linked to poor outcome in schizophrenia. Social developmental research has shown representations of self (insight) and representations of others (ToM) are related. In schizophrenia, contradictory reports of associations between insight and ToM have emerged, possibly due to a failure to account for neurocognitive impairments and symptoms associated with both mentalization constructs. This study investigated the relationships between ToM (intentions of others on the Hinting Task) and clinical and cognitive insight, while accounting for shared variance with neurocognitive impairment and symptom severity in 193 individuals with schizophrenia. Clinical, but not cognitive, insight was associated with ToM. A unique association between Awareness of Mental Illness and Hinting Task performance was found, independent of shared variance with neurocognition and symptoms. Importantly, ToM was found to mediate Awareness of Mental Illness and neurocognition. Results suggested that treatments targeting mentalization abilities that contribute to representations of self and others may improve insight deficits associated with poor outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:25467703

  10. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  11. Design and Measurement of the NSLS II Quadrupole Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak,M.; Jain, A. K.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.

    2009-05-04

    The design and measurement of the NSLS-II ring quadrupoles prototypes are presented. These magnets are part of a larger prototype program described in [1]. Advances in software, hardware, and manufacturing have led to some new level of insight in the quest for the perfect magnet design. Three geometric features are used to minimize the first three allowed harmonics by way of optimization. Validations through measurement and confidence levels in calculations are established.

  12. Tectonic activity and structural features of active intracontinental normal faults in the Weihe Graben, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Gang; Lin, Aiming; Yan, Bing; Jia, Dong; Wu, Xiaojun

    2014-12-01

    This study examines the tectonic activity and structural features of active normal faults in the Weihe Graben, central China. The Weihe Graben is an area with a high level of historic seismicity, and it is one of the intracontinental systems that developed since Tertiary in the extensional environment around the Ordos Block. Analysis of high-resolution remote-sensing imagery data, field observations, and radiocarbon dating results reveal the following: i) active normal faults are mainly developed within a zone < 500 m wide along the southern border of the eastern part of the Weihe Graben; ii) the active faults that have been identified are characterized by stepwise fault scarps dipping into the graben at angles of 40°-71°; iii) there are numerous discontinuous individual fault traces, ranging in length from a few tens of meters to 450 m (generally < 200 m); iv) fault zone structures, topographic features, and fault striations on the main fault planes indicate almost pure normal-slip; and v) late Pleistocene-Holocene terrace risers, loess, and alluvial deposits have been vertically offset by up to ~ 80 m, with a non-uniform dip-slip rate (throw-rates) ranging from ~ 2.1 to 5.7 mm/yr, mostly 2-3 mm/yr. Our results reveal that active normal faults have been developing in the Weihe Graben under an ongoing extensional environment, probably associated with the pre-existing graben and spreading of the continental crust, and this is in contrast with the Ordos Block and neighboring orogenic regions. These results provide new insights into the nature of extensional tectonic deformation in intracontinental graben systems.

  13. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  14. Juno II Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The modified Jupiter C (sometimes called Juno I), used to launch Explorer I, had minimum payload lifting capabilities. Explorer I weighed slightly less than 31 pounds. Juno II was part of America's effort to increase payload lifting capabilities. Among other achievements, the vehicle successfully launched a Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959, and an Explorer VII satellite on October 13, 1959. Responsibility for Juno II passed from the Army to the Marshall Space Flight Center when the Center was activated on July 1, 1960. On November 3, 1960, a Juno II sent Explorer VIII into a 1,000-mile deep orbit within the ionosphere.

  15. Solar cooking in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiping

    1992-12-31

    In the past 20 years, solar cooking has developed rapidly in China. Its popularity is easy to understand since China is a nation with a rural population of 800 million, 30% to 40% of which lack firewood. In recent years a number of scientists and engineers have researched solar cooking and tested solar cookers. The Solar Energy Laboratory has worked on the application of solar energy, especially solar cookers, and has made a number of significant achievements in the following areas: solar cooker theory; methods of designing solar cookers, testing characteristics of thermal efficiency; materials for cooker construction, and technological processes for producing cookers. This paper discusses their achievements and plans for future research.

  16. Environmental Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang Jiang; Liu, Lei; Chaudhry, Muhammad Tausif; Wang, Lei; Chen, Ying Guang; Zhou, Qi; Liu, He; Chen, Jian

    Environmental biotechnology has emerged as an important measure to tackle the environmental pollution as China experiences great economic success. Over the past decade, much emphasis has been paid to the following fields in environmental biotechnology: microbial degradation of toxic and organic chemicals, bio-treatment of wastewater, waste recycling. The Chinese researchers have done a lot of work to understand the natural degradation processes for organic and toxic compounds and finally to clean these compounds from polluted environments. For the treatment of wastewater, many new processes were proposed and optimized to meet the more strict effluent standards in China. Finally, more and more attention has been paid to the reuse of discharged wastes. In this chapter we review the development in the above fields.

  17. Family planning in China.

    PubMed

    Wadia, A B

    1976-10-01

    The family planning program in China is integrated into the general political situation and the overall development program. The organization covers workers, peasants, and soldiers. The program is based on the following 3 aspects of Chinese society: 1) the equality of women, 3) late marriage, and 3) free and accessible contraceptive services. No incentives are offered since family planning is considered a national duty. Participation is said to be voluntary but peer opinion exerts its own social pressure. All contraceptive devices used in China are domestically produced. Barefoot doctors have a large role in their distribution. Examples from several localities indicate that the acceptance rate for contraception is high. An official with the Health Ministry is quoted regarding the family planning program. PMID:12277575

  18. Insights into quasar UV spectra using unsupervised clustering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammour, A.; Gallagher, S. C.; Daley, M.; Richards, G. T.

    2016-06-01

    Machine learning techniques can provide powerful tools to detect patterns in multidimensional parameter space. We use K-means - a simple yet powerful unsupervised clustering algorithm which picks out structure in unlabelled data - to study a sample of quasar UV spectra from the Quasar Catalog of the 10th Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-DR10) of Paris et al. Detecting patterns in large data sets helps us gain insights into the physical conditions and processes giving rise to the observed properties of quasars. We use K-means to find clusters in the parameter space of the equivalent width (EW), the blue- and red-half-width at half-maximum (HWHM) of the Mg II 2800 Å line, the C IV 1549 Å line, and the C III] 1908 Å blend in samples of broad absorption line (BAL) and non-BAL quasars at redshift 1.6-2.1. Using this method, we successfully recover correlations well-known in the UV regime such as the anti-correlation between the EW and blueshift of the C IV emission line and the shape of the ionizing spectra energy distribution (SED) probed by the strength of He II and the Si III]/C III] ratio. We find this to be particularly evident when the properties of C III] are used to find the clusters, while those of Mg II proved to be less strongly correlated with the properties of the other lines in the spectra such as the width of C IV or the Si III]/C III] ratio. We conclude that unsupervised clustering methods (such as K-means) are powerful methods for finding `natural' binning boundaries in multidimensional data sets and discuss caveats and future work.

  19. Sonochemistry in China.

    PubMed

    Ruo, F; Yiyun, Z; Ciguang, B

    1997-04-01

    A comprehensive review of the studies on sonochemistry carried out in China over the last 10 years or so is presented and includes 71 references. The studies involve both the fundamentals and applications of ultrasound in a variety of areas which include polymer science, organic synthesis, chemical analysis, biochemistry, the extraction and isolation of natural materials, regeneration of waste ion-exchange resins and charcoal, plating and crystallization processes. PMID:11237040

  20. Environmental protection in China

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. Univ. of Knoxville, TN )

    1990-01-01

    Environmental conditions in China are dramatically worse than those in the USA, but the Chinese are acting with commendable vigor in attempting to contain and ultimately reverse the damage. The Chinese have air, water and soil contamination, along with garbage and trash problems. They are also experiencing deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, destruction of wildlife habitat and wetlands, and the depletion of ground water. Attempts are being made to reduce the pollutants being produced, but economic factors weigh heavily against cleaning up current pollution.

  1. Schistosomiasis transmission and control in China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Lan; Ruan, Shigui

    2015-03-01

    In the last 60 years, great progress has been made in controlling and preventing schistosomiasis in China. However, due to the ecosystem changes caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dams and the South-north Water Conversion Project, the effects of climate change, the scarcity of a highly sensitive surveillance and response system, schistosomiasis is still considered as a major public health problem and is listed among the top infectious diseases in the country prioritized for control and elimination. Based on the epidemiological pattern of schistosomiasis and ecological characteristics of the vector snail, endemic areas of schistosomiasis in China were categorized into three types: (i) plain region with waterway networks, (ii) mountainous and hilly regions, and (iii) marshland and lake regions. China aims to reach the criteria of transmission control threshold of less than 1% in the lake and marshland provinces and reach transmission interruption threshold in hilly provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan by the end of 2015. The purpose of this article is to use the deterministic model proposed in our earlier study in (Chen et al., 2010) to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from other lake and marshland provinces, including Hunan, Jiangxi and Anhui. Our simulations demonstrate that the model can reasonably mimic the schistosomiasis infection data from these lake and marshland provinces. Thus, similar control and prevention measures can be designed and proposed for these provinces. We will also try to use the model to simulate the schistosomiasis infection data from Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in the mountainous and hilly regions where cattle farming is not as popular and important as in the lake and marshland provinces and find out that different control and prevention strategies are required. PMID:25559046

  2. Hypolipidaemic foods in China.

    PubMed

    Gu, J

    1996-12-01

    With the changes in dietary pattern in China, in recent years, hyperlipidaemia has become an important problem in the pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases, especially the cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases. From studies on laboratory animals and people with hyperlipidaemia, a number of hypolipidaemic foods and beverages have been identified, of relevance to traditional Chinese food culture. Their absence from the diet may, in part account for the increasing prevalence of hyperlipidaemia in China. The several groups of foods used in China with hypolipidaemic effects include: •Cereals: oats, naked oats (Avena stiva L. var. nuda Mordv.), millet, buckwheat, wheat germ, maize germ. •Beans: soybean, kidney bean, hyacinth bean, red bean, mung bean, broad bean, pea, Phaseolus L., soy dregs. •Aquatic: prawn, Greater croaker, Crucian carp, squid, mussel, scallop, Silvery pomfret. •Fungi and algae: mushroom, algin, kelp, laver (Porphyra yezoensis Veda), (Enteromorpha prolifera), (Auricularia polytricha). •Vegetables: garlic, celery, onion, spring onion, chives, pepper. •Nuts and fruits: peanut seed, walnut seed. Splinar pear (Rosa voxburghi Tratt), kiwifruit (Achinida chinensis planch). •Oil: soybean oil, rice bran oil, tea seed oil, rubber seed oil, grape seed oil. fish oil, soybean phospholipid. •Others: tea, brown sugar, Cr-enriched yeast, iodine-enriched eggs. The present enquiry into a range of factors in food which may influence lipoprotein metabolism encouraging new ways of thinking about the pathogenesis, prevention and management of lipid disorders and their sequelae. PMID:24394619

  3. Extreme Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David; Cai, Lixue

    2013-06-01

    Over the last decade, China has focused its policies simultaneously on moderating the rapid energy demand growth that has been driven by three decades of rapid economic growth and industrialization and on increasing its energy supply. In spite of these concerted efforts, however, China continues to face growing energy supply challenges, particularly with accelerating demand for oil and natural gas, both of which are now heavily dependent on imports. On the supply side, the recent 11th and 12th Five-Year Plans have emphasized accelerating conventional and nonconventional oil and gas exploration and development through pricing reforms, pipeline infrastructure expansions and 2015 production targets for shale gas and coal seam methane. This study will analyze China’s new and nonconventional oil and gas resources base, possible development paths and outlook, and the potential role for these nonconventional resources in meeting oil and gas demand. The nonconventional resources currently being considered by China and included in this study include: shale gas, coal seam methane (coal mine methane and coal bed methane), tight gas, in-situ coal gasification, tight oil and oil shale, and gas hydrates.

  4. Biorefinery projects in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yinging, R.M.; Lambert, R.O.; Barrier, J.W.; Broder, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    YSC Holdings (YSC) is working on a three joint venture project in the Peoples Republic of China to convert cellulosic feedstock such as corn stover to fuels, chemicals and electricity. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is providing technology and technical assistance for these project to YSC under a contractual agreement. TVA has developed a biorefinery process which uses dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis technology to convert cellulosic feedstocks to sugars which can then be used to produce chemicals. Lignin, the solid residue of the process can be used as a combustion fuel for production of steam and electricity. The process will accept a variety of feedstocks which include agricultural residues, such as corn stover, sugar cane baggas, wheat straw, wood waste, short rotation woody crops, grass crops, and the cellulosic portion of municipal solid waste (MSW). The primary products of the biorefinery process are ethanol, furfural, and clean burning lignin as a solid boiler fuel. Electricity can also be produced if the price paid for electricity provides a better return on an investment than direct sale of lignin as a boiler fuel. By-products are carbon dioxide, gypsum, and biogas (60% methane). The three plants will each process 1,800 metric ton/day of corn stover. The first plant, in Weifang, China has central government approval. The second and third plants, in Benxi and Jinzhou, China are awaiting local approval. The projected economics for these commercial facilities will be presented.

  5. [China and development].

    PubMed

    Gentelle, P

    1981-01-01

    The strategy of the Chinese government in creating new socioeconomic structures has always been to rely on China's own forces. The impressions that a foreigner receives are contradictory and contrasting; for example, China has multiplied its industrial production 16 times in the last 30 years, but the poverty of equipment of industrial installations, and the widespread use of manpower instead of machines is obvious everywhere. Chinese economic policies have been changed in 1956, then in 1961, then again in 1964-65; in 1966 the standard of life of the average citizen was more or less that of 1957; in 1977 things had not greatly improved; 20 years had been wasted and the population had suffered a great deal especially during the Cultural Revolution. No high-level administrator in the Chinese government is reluctant to admit the mistakes committed during those years. An economic readjustment was done in 1979 and a quinquennial agricultural plan, 1981-85, is now underway. Notwithstanding the past mistakes, China, which in 1949 was far behind India from an economical point of view, now produces more iron, coal, steel, electricity, textile materials, chemical materials, and food with a lower percentage of cultivated land. Health services all over the country have been incredibly improved, and the complete elimination of epidemics and of parasites has been achieved, especially in urban areas. In 1981, sociological, demographic, and political studies and publications have not only reapperared, but are often made available to the foreign press and public. PMID:12263478

  6. Can China afford rapid aging?

    PubMed

    Jiang, Quanbao; Yang, Shucai; Sánchez-Barricarte, Jesús J

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid aging has caused widespread concern, but it seems that the situations and consequences of rapid aging are not adequately acknowledged. This study analyzed the problem of ageing in China from the aspects of elderly people's health status, income source, daily care, suicide, the weak social security system in terms of pension, health expenses, and long-term care costs as well as incoming accelerating ageing process in China. All these factors indicate that it is difficult for China to afford the issue of a rapidly aging population. PMID:27478724

  7. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  8. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lu, Hongyou; Fino-Chen, Cecilia

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  9. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  10. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...

  11. Using inpatient data to estimate the prevalence of Wegener's granulomatosis in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Cui, Yazhou; Li, Yan; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Heng; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Summary China lacks a registry for most rare diseases, so specific epidemiological data on those diseases are lacking. A strategy involving the DISMOD II model was recently formulated to estimate the epidemiological parameters of rare diseases, and this strategy has been used to study several rare diseases. The current study used this strategy to estimate the prevalence of one such rare disease, Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), in China based on its incidence, mortality, and rate of remission according to the software tool DISMOD II. The incidence of WG was calculated based on inpatient data from 100 hospitals throughout China. The cause-specific mortality from WG was estimated based on data from the National Vital Statistics System of the United States and adjusted for the Chinese population. The rate of disease remission was based on the results of previous study. The current results indicated that the prevalence of WG in China is 1.94/100,000, which is slightly lower than that in Europe and the United States. The mean age at onset of WG in China was calculated to be 38.9 years for males and 39.3 years for females and the duration of disease was 28 years for both male and female patients. These figures are similar to published data from other countries. In conclusion, the DISMOD II model was used to estimate the prevalence of WG in China, providing a basis to evaluate the potential disease burden and orphan drug use by patients with WG. The DISMOD II model could be used to estimate the prevalence of other rare diseases. PMID:26989646

  12. Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

    2010-09-01

    The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential

  13. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; La Duc, Myron; Willis, Jason

    The NASA Discovery Program’s next mission, Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSIght), consists of a single spacecraft that will be launched aboard an Atlas V 401 rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base (Space Launch Complex 3E) during the March 2016 timeframe. The overarching mission goal is to illuminate the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system consists of a heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and Lander from the 2008 Phoenix mission. Included in the lander payload are various cameras, a seismometer, an auxiliary sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure, and a mole to penetrate the regolith (<5 meters) and assess the subsurface geothermal gradient of Mars. Being a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, InSight has been designated a PP Category Iva mission. As such, planetary protection bioburden requirements apply which require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reporting. The InSight project is current with required PP documentation, having completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, and a PP Implementation Plan. The InSight mission’s early planetary protection campaign has commenced, coinciding with the fabrication and assembly of payload and flight system hardware and the baseline analysis of existing flight spares. A report on the status of InSight PP activities will be provided.

  14. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  15. Extreme optical Fe II emission in luminous IRAS active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipari, Sebastian; Terlevich, Roberto; Macchetto, F.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a program of studies and observations of strong optical Fe II emission in luminous and ultraluminous IRAS AGN are presented. New spectroscopic observations and studies of three known ultraluminous IRAS AGN with extreme optical Fe II emission, the discovery that PHL 1092 is a new ultraluminous IRAS AGN, and the detection of two new AGN with strongly variable flux in the optical Fe II emission lines are reported. These results are used to test the correlations between the Fe II emission and properties at other wavelengths such as the L(IR) and the radio emission. IR AGN with extreme Fe II emission are found to belong to a very important group of AGN, whose properties provide insight into the origin of the extreme Fe II emission and into the relation between the starburst and AGN phenomena.

  16. Molecular insights into intracellular RNA localization

    PubMed Central

    Blower, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Localization of mRNAs to specific destinations within a cell or an embryo is important for local control of protein expression. mRNA localization is well-known to function in very large and polarized cells such as neurons, and to facilitate embryonic patterning during early development. However, recent genome-wide studies have revealed that mRNA localization is more widely utilized than previously thought to control gene expression. Not only can transcripts be localized asymmetrically within the cytoplasm, they are often also localized to symmetrically-distributed organelles. Recent genetic, cytological, and biochemical studies have begun to provide molecular insight into how cells select RNAs for transport, move them to specific destinations, and control their translation. This review will summarize recent insights into the mechanisms and function of RNA localization with a specific emphasis on molecular insights into each step in the mRNA localization process. PMID:23351709

  17. Exploring China's materialization process with economic transition: analysis of raw material consumption and its socioeconomic drivers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Tian, Xin; Tanikawa, Hiroki; Chang, Miao; Hashimoto, Seiji; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Lu, Zhongwu

    2014-05-01

    China's rapidly growing economy is accelerating its materialization process and thereby creating serious environmental problems at both local and global levels. Understanding the key drivers behind China's mass consumption of raw materials is thus crucial for developing sustainable resource management and providing valuable insights into how other emerging economies may be aiming to accomplish a low resource-dependent future. Our results show that China's raw material consumption (RMC) rose dramatically from 11.9 billion tons in 1997 to 20.4 billion tons in 2007, at an average annual growth rate at 5.5%. In particular, nonferrous metal minerals and iron ores increased at the highest rate, while nonmetallic minerals showed the greatest proportion (over 60%). We find that China's accelerating materialization process is closely related to its levels of urbanization and industrialization, notably demand for raw materials in the construction, services, and heavy manufacturing sectors. The growing domestic final demand level is the strongest contributor of China's growth in RMC, whereas changes in final demand composition are the largest contributors to reducing it. However, the expected offsetting effect from changes in production pattern and production-related technology level, which should be the focus of future dematerialization in China, could not be found. PMID:24717125

  18. BOOK PUBLISHING IN COMMUNIST CHINA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIU, ALAN P.

    A GENERAL STUDY WAS MADE OF THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK PUBLISHING INDUSTRY IN COMMUNIST CHINA. FIRST THE PAPER REVIEWS BRIEFLY THE PRIVATE INDUSTRY OF PUBLISHING IN PRE-COMMUNIST CHINA. NEXT THE COMMUNIST NATIONALIZATION OF THE PUBLISHING ENTERPRISE IS DESCRIBED. THEN THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE PUBLISHING OF THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES OF…

  19. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  20. English Teaching in China's Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jiaying

    The political, cultural, and social factors that have influenced English language teaching in the People's Republic of China's colleges are examined. First, a brief history of English teaching in China is presented, beginning in the mid-19th century and focusing on the 1949 Revolution, the 1960 Sino-Soviet split, and the the Cultural Revolution of…

  1. The Great Firewall of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    Although China has made notable progress in liberalizing its economy over the past three decades, the Communist Party maintains a stranglehold on political freedom, and in no place is this more apparent than the roadblocks it places on the Information Superhighway. Indeed, according to Reporters Without Borders, China stands as "... the world's…

  2. China's Statistical System and Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xue, Susan

    2004-01-01

    As the People's Republic of China plays an increasingly important role in international politics and trade, countries with economic interests there find they need to know more about this nation. Access to primary information sources, including official statistics from China, however, is very limited, as little exploration has been done into this…

  3. China and Japan (Theme Issue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Henry, Ed.; Pyne, John, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This serial issue is devoted to the theme "China and Japan" and contains six articles that focus on educational, political, and cultural issues in the two Asian countries. In the first article, "China and Japan: A New Era in Relations with the United States," Henry Kiernan and John Pyne provide a brief overview of the history of United States'…

  4. Couching for Cataracts in China

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chi-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Couching for cataract is one of the most ancient surgical procedures. Maharshi Sushruta, an ancient Indian surgeon, first described the procedure around 600 BC in Sushruta Samhita. The procedure, also known as jin pi shu in Mandarin, was introduced to China via the Silk Road during the late West Han Dynasty (206 BC - 9 AD), and it spread throughout China during the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD). As the procedure was combined with the Chinese concept of acupuncture, jin pi shu was integrated into Chinese medical practice until the founding of the Republic of China in 1911. The government of the Republic of China considered jin pi shu to be unscientific. In 1949, the Communists established the People’s Republic of China. Jin pi shu was revitalized by Chairman Mao (1893-1976), who thought that traditional Chinese medicine, including jin pi shu, was a great treasure. After his death and the opening of China to the external world, many Chinese ophthalmologists pointed out that jin pi shu has relatively high complications and a low success rate, compared to various modern techniques for cataract surgery. This procedure is gradually fading away in China. The use of jin pi shu reflects the history, culture, and political transformation of China. PMID:20451942

  5. Teaching about China. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.

    In spring 1989, the United States watched intently as televised reports relayed the events unfolding in Beijing's (China) Tiananmen Square. This concern for a people whose culture and political institutions are significantly different reflects a continuing and compelling interest in China. Although historians and journalists in the United States…

  6. Family Law: Notes from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Cynthia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the newly emerging legal system of the People's Republic of China, particularly the 1980 marriage law and its effects on marriage customs and divorce. In China, many roles perceived as social work roles are blended with the role of attorney. (JAC)

  7. TCSL and TESL in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Shi-zhong

    2006-01-01

    The recent drive of Chinese modernization and world globalization has caused the rapid development of TESL (Teaching of English as a Second Language) and there are currently 300 million ESL (English as a Second Language) students in China. At the same time, due to similar forces and China's market economy reform, more and more foreigners are…

  8. Media Monitor: Images of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sive, Mary Robinson

    1981-01-01

    The author briefly describes selected instructional media--excluding films--on the geography, history, art, culture, and everyday life of China. Grade levels and ordering sources are provided. This is one of several articles on China studies appearing in this issue. (SJL)

  9. Use of ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) Data to Study Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhanqing

    2012-12-19

    General goals: 1) Facilitating the deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) and Ancillary Facility (AAF) in China in 2008, 2) Processing, retrieving, improving and analyzing observation data from ground-based, air-borne and space-borne instruments; 3) Conducting a series of studies to gain insights into the direct and indirect effects of these aerosols on radiation, clouds, and precipitation using both

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Yersinia pestis Isolates from Natural Foci of Endemic Plague in China

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Mark; Guo, Zhaobiao; Sebastian, Yinong; Song, Yajun; Lindler, Luther E.; Yang, Ruifu; Ravel, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    To gain insights into the evolutionary origin, emergence, and pathogenicity of the etiologic agent of plague, we have sequenced the genomes of four Yersinia pestis strains isolated from the zoonotic rodent reservoir in foci of endemic plague in China. These resources enable in-depth studies of Y. pestis sequence variations and detailed whole-genome comparisons of very closely related genomes from the supposed site of the origin and the emergence of global pandemics of plague. PMID:19820101

  11. [Family planning in China].

    PubMed

    Suyin, H

    1972-01-01

    Family planning in People's Republic of China between 1956 to 1970 has been marked by rapid change and total interrelation with the political and social developments. Since 1949, the Communist government has taken several measures to protect the mother and child. The campaign for family planning was started in 1956 by public meetings, posters, lectures with films, and an extensive distribution of contraceptive means. However, in 1965 there were still 2 trends among women: 1, based on tradition, supported the idea that a large number of children was a source of honor, prosperity and security; the other taking hold among younger women was in favor of family planning. The rural population was the latest to start practicing family planning. In 1963 a movement of socialist education was launched together with the formation of mobile medical teams to inform and educate people all over the country and to make known the various forms available for family planning. The contraceptive methods used included: male and female sterilisation (vasectomy for men and tube ligation for women), IUD, and condom; abortion, legal for women who already had children or if it was necessary for the mother's health; and oral contraceptives, which were produced in China. Medical services were reorganized and teams of "bare-foot doctors" were sent all over China. They lectured on health measures and fertility regulation. Intellectuals were sent to live in villages and exchange their knowledge with that of the peasants and workers. The tendency has been to limit the number of children to 2 or 3. The young people are recommended to postpone their marriage, women till they are 25, men till later. Nationally produced contraceptive means are being experimented with such as herbs, or a new intrauterine plastic device called "flower". The regions with national minorities like Tibet, the Inner Mongolia and Sinkiang had been under underpopulated and therefore population growth has been encouraged mainly

  12. Urbanization in China.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1995-06-01

    This paper discusses the growth and structure of urbanization in major cities and in rural areas in China. The definition of urban area in China is complex and unique in distinguishing between cities with and without an urban status. The designation of "urban" to a city has important implications for social welfare of the urban population. Urban cities grant registration to citizens, which entitles them to food, an occupation, and housing. Since 1949, "city" changed definition in 1955, 1963, and 1984. Urban and rural districts are thus separated administratively. Government statistics are based on five designations of urban population: officially designated cities and towns, areas under municipal jurisdiction, urban population, urban population with an urban registry, and city district population. There are city-administered counties also in a three-tiered structure of government: provincial government, city administration, and county administration. Population statistics are based on population censuses or city registries and do not account for migration. Commune populations are people who have quit agriculture but are counted as rural population, unless they are registered in officially designated towns. Commune populations are people working in village and township enterprises. World Bank statistics indicate an increase in urbanization rates from 1965 to 1989, from 18% to 53%, but most of the growth occurred during the 1980s. It is argued that China's population statistics must not be accepted uncritically. The author offers a reconstructed set of Chinese urbanization figures that would be compatible with other countries. Urbanization was estimated to be 21% in 1961, 16% in 1971, 18.7% in 1981, and 29.7% in 1991. Seven major conclusions are drawn. For instance, it is concluded that urban population growth was 5% or more during the 1980s in nine provinces having populations of 380 million or more. Three provinces had rates of 4-5%. The 1990s are expected to show

  13. New Found Hope for Antibiotic Discovery: Lipid II Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Vivian; Chan, Weng C

    2016-08-26

    Research into antibacterial agents has recently gathered pace in light of the disturbing crisis of antimicrobial resistance. The development of modern tools offers the opportunity of reviving the fallen era of antibacterial discovery through uncovering novel lead compounds that target vital bacterial cell components, such as lipid II. This paper provides a summary of the role of lipid II as well as an overview and insight into the structural features of macrocyclic peptides that inhibit this bacterial cell wall component. The recent discovery of teixobactin, a new class of lipid II inhibitor has generated substantial research interests. As such, the significant progress that has been achieved towards its development as a promising antibacterial agent is discussed. PMID:27388768

  14. Improving urban air quality in China: Beijing case study

    SciTech Connect

    Jiming Hao; Litao Wang

    2005-09-01

    China is undergoing rapid urbanization because of unprecedented economic growth. As a result, many cities suffer from air pollution. Two-thirds of China's cities have not attained the ambient air quality standards applicable to urban residential areas (Grade II). Particulate matter (PM), rather than sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), is the major pollutant reflecting the shift from coal burning to mixed source pollution. In 2002, 63.2 and 22.4% of the monitored cities have PM and SO{sub 2} concentrations exceeding the Grade II standard, respectively. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration kept a relatively stable level near the Grade II standard in the last decade and had an increasing potential in recent years because of the rapid motorization. In general, the air pollutants emission did not increase as quickly as the economic growth and energy consumption, and air quality in Chinese cities has improved to some extent. Beijing, a typical representative of rapidly developing cities, is an example to illustrate the possible options for urban air pollution control. Beijing's case provides hope that the challenges associated with improving air quality can be met during a period of explosive development and motorization. 21 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Shooting Stars over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, John

    International cultural exchange and education in the sciences and arts is one of the chief aims of the British Council (BC). The 1998 Leonids Meteor Shower was recognised by the BC in China as an event that would offer an opportunity, both to promote the public understanding of space science at an international level, and to encourage on-going cultural links between the United Kingdom and China. Predictions suggested that the 1998 shower, which was likely to be the most intense for more than three decades, would be best viewed in north-east Asia. The BC contracted the Orbital Mechanics Educational Network, an independent organisation that promotes space education amongst young people, to organise several activities aimed particularly at teenagers. The culmination of the project was a visit to Beijing by a party of British teenagers, to take part in meteor observation at China's Mi Yun Observatory. The paper focusses on the practicalities of organising and running such a project and reports on the achievements and shortcomings of the overall venture. It also reports on the observations and findings that were made by the UK group and their Chinese student partners, all of whom were observing a meteor shower for the first time. It reports on the techniques of observing that were tried, the observations themselves and the findings that were made by the group. It also offers advice to those who might wish to set up similar bi-lateral ventures, particularly with China and the UK, and outlines plans to continue and improve the relationships that have been established. (Please note: I realise this is topic not directly covered by the Conference, but how the subject of the meteor phenomenon in particular and, for that matter, science in general is conveyed to the " man in the street" should be important to all scientists, not least because they depend on external funding and public goodwill! Perhaps a suitable slot can be made for this presentation on Tuesday, which is the

  16. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Local actions of angiotensin II: quantitative in vitro autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptor binding and angiotensin converting enzyme in target tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, S.Y.; Allen, A.M.; Adam, W.R.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to gain insight into the local actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) we have determined the distribution of a component of the effector system for the peptide, the ANG II receptor, and that of an enzyme-catalysing ANG II formation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), by in vitro autoradiography in several target tissues. The superagonist ANG II analog, /sup 125/I(Sar1)ANG II, or the antagonist analog, /sup 125/I(Sar1,Ile8)ANG II, were used as specific radioligands for ANG II receptors. A derivative of the specific ACE inhibitor, lysinopril, called /sup 125/I-351A, was used to label ACE in tissues. In the adrenal, a high density of ANG II receptors occurs in the glomerulosa zone of the cortex and in the medulla. ACE is also localized in these two zones, indicating that local production of ANG II may occur close to its sites of action in the zona glomerulosa and adrenal medulla. In the kidney, a high density of ANG II receptors is associated with glomeruli in the cortex and also with vasa recta bundles in the inner stripe of the outer medulla. ACE is found in very high concentration in deep proximal convoluted tubules of the cortex, while much lower concentrations of the enzyme occur in the vascular endothelium throughout the kidney. In the central nervous system three classes of relationships between ANG II receptors and ACE are observed: In the circumventricular organs, including the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, a high concentration of both components occurs. Since these structures have a deficient blood-brain barrier, local conversion of circulating angiotensin I (ANG I) to ANG II may contribute to the action of ANG II at these sites.

  18. Binding of Kinetically Inert Metal Ions to RNA: The Case of Platinum(II)

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Erich G.; Hostetter, Alethia A.; Osborn, Maire F.; Miller, Amanda L.; DeRose, Victoria J.

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter several aspects of Pt(II) are highlighted that focus on the properties of Pt(II)-RNA adducts and the possibility that they influence RNA-based processes in cells. Cellular distribution of Pt(II) complexes results in significant platination of RNA, and localization studies find Pt(II) in the nucleus, nucleolus, and a distribution of other sites in cells. Treatment with Pt(II) compounds disrupts RNA-based processes including enzymatic processing, splicing, and translation, and this disruption may be indicative of structural changes to RNA or RNA-protein complexes. Several RNA-Pt(II) adducts have been characterized in vitro by biochemical and other methods. Evidence for Pt(II) binding in non-helical regions and for Pt(II) cross-linking of internal loops has been found. Although platinated sites have been identified, there currently exists very little in the way of detailed structural characterization of RNA-Pt(II) adducts. Some insight into the details of Pt(II) coordination to RNA, especially RNA helices, can be gained from DNA model systems. Many RNA structures, however, contain complex tertiary folds and common, purine-rich structural elements that present suitable Pt(II) nucleophiles in unique arrangements which may hold the potential for novel types of platinum-RNA adducts. Future research aimed at structural characterization of platinum-RNA adducts may provide further insights into platinum-nucleic acid binding motifs, and perhaps provide a rationale for the observed inhibition by Pt(II) complexes of splicing, translation, and enzymatic processing. PMID:22010278

  19. International trade of CITES listed bird species in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  20. International Trade of CITES Listed Bird Species in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Jiang, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Commercial trade of wild birds may devastate wild bird populations. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) controls the trade of wild species listed in its appendices to avoid these species being threatened by international trade. China used to be one of the major trading countries with significant bird trade with foreign countries; on the other hand, China is a country with unique avian fauna, many Important Bird Areas and critically endangered bird species. What is the role of the country in world wild bird trade? What kind of insights can we extract from trade records for improving future management of wild bird trade in the country? We retrieved and analyzed international trade records of the CITES listed bird species of China from 1981 to 2010 from the CITES Trade Database maintained by United Nations Environment Program and World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). We found that: (1) International trade of live birds in China peaked during the late 1990s, then decreased to the level before the surge of trade in a few years, the trade dynamics of wild birds may be affected by governmental policy and the outbreak of avian influenza during the period. (2) Most frequently traded CITES Appendix listed birds in China were parrots, most of which were exotic species to the country. (3) Birds were mainly traded for commercial purpose. Exotic birds in trade were mainly captive-bred while the most Chinese birds traded internationally were captured from the wild. Since many bird species in international trade are threatened to extinction, China should take stricter measures on importing of wild-captured birds and should collaborate with the countries of original in the international bird trade to avoid unsustainable harvesting of wild birds. It is urgent for China to carry out population surveys on those domestic bird species once in significant international trade and to make better conservation decisions based on

  1. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  2. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  3. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  4. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  5. New Insights of Asteroid 4179 Toutatis Using China Chang'e-2 Close Flyby Optical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Yanlong; Tang, Geshi; Di, KaiChang; Fa, Wenzhe; Hu, Tianjiang; Ding, Chibiao; Xu, Bin; Liu, Bin; Cao, Jianfeng; Hu, Songjie; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Chuankai

    2015-01-01

    The mysteries of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis have been more comprehensively unveiled by analyzing the optical images taken during the Chang'e-2 flyby in 2012. Compared with previous works, this paper concentrates on the photogrammetric relation between the Chang'e-2 spacecraft and Toutatis and the imaging shadow effect during the flyby. Accurate models of imaging and optical measurements are developed to study Toutatis's dimensions and rotational state at the time of imaging. As the illumination study shows, the shadowed region perpendicular to the long axis accounts for 27.78% of the Toutatis images, while the long axis of the body is fully captured. With a compensation on the shadow effect, the optical measurements reveal that Toutatis's long axis is 4354 ± 56 m, the maximum length is 4391 ± 56 m, and the spatial orientation described with the angles of direction cosine during the flyby is (126.°13 ± 0.°29, 122.°98 ± 0.°21, 126.°63 ± 0.°46). Furthermore, a new triaxial ellipsoid of 4354 × 1835 × 2216 m and a volume of 7.5158 km3 are proposed based on the previous Toutatis shape model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated, since typical features such as the neck and endpoints agree well with the results simultaneously observed by the ground radar. Moreover, it also potentially provides a feasible approach to precisely calculate the spin period of Toutatis.

  6. New insights of asteroid 4179 Toutatis using China Chang'e-2 close flyby optical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Yanlong; Tang, Geshi; Cao, Jianfeng; Hu, Songjie; Yang, Cheng; Liu, Chuankai; Di, KaiChang; Xu, Bin; Liu, Bin; Fa, Wenzhe; Hu, Tianjiang; Ding, Chibiao E-mail: tanggeshi@bacc.org.cn

    2015-01-01

    The mysteries of near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis have been more comprehensively unveiled by analyzing the optical images taken during the Chang'e-2 flyby in 2012. Compared with previous works, this paper concentrates on the photogrammetric relation between the Chang'e-2 spacecraft and Toutatis and the imaging shadow effect during the flyby. Accurate models of imaging and optical measurements are developed to study Toutatis's dimensions and rotational state at the time of imaging. As the illumination study shows, the shadowed region perpendicular to the long axis accounts for 27.78% of the Toutatis images, while the long axis of the body is fully captured. With a compensation on the shadow effect, the optical measurements reveal that Toutatis's long axis is 4354 ± 56 m, the maximum length is 4391 ± 56 m, and the spatial orientation described with the angles of direction cosine during the flyby is (126.°13 ± 0.°29, 122.°98 ± 0.°21, 126.°63 ± 0.°46). Furthermore, a new triaxial ellipsoid of 4354 × 1835 × 2216 m and a volume of 7.5158 km{sup 3} are proposed based on the previous Toutatis shape model. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated, since typical features such as the neck and endpoints agree well with the results simultaneously observed by the ground radar. Moreover, it also potentially provides a feasible approach to precisely calculate the spin period of Toutatis.

  7. Source Apportionment of Elemental Carbon in Beijing, China: Insights from Radiocarbon and Organic Marker Measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Zimmermann, Ralf; Zotter, Peter; Shen, Rong-rong; Schäfer, Klaus; Shao, Longyi; Prévôt, André S H; Szidat, Sönke

    2015-07-21

    Elemental carbon (EC) or black carbon (BC) in the atmosphere has a strong influence on both climate and human health. In this study, radiocarbon ((14)C) based source apportionment is used to distinguish between fossil fuel and biomass burning sources of EC isolated from aerosol filter samples collected in Beijing from June 2010 to May 2011. The (14)C results demonstrate that EC is consistently dominated by fossil-fuel combustion throughout the whole year with a mean contribution of 79% ± 6% (ranging from 70% to 91%), though EC has a higher mean and peak concentrations in the cold season. The seasonal molecular pattern of hopanes (i.e., a class of organic markers mainly emitted during the combustion of different fossil fuels) indicates that traffic-related emissions are the most important fossil source in the warm period and coal combustion emissions are significantly increased in the cold season. By combining (14)C based source apportionment results and picene (i.e., an organic marker for coal emissions) concentrations, relative contributions from coal (mainly from residential bituminous coal) and vehicle to EC in the cold period were estimated as 25 ± 4% and 50 ± 7%, respectively, whereas the coal combustion contribution was negligible or very small in the warm period. PMID:26114602

  8. The effectiveness of China's RMB exchange rate reforms: An insight from multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Xinsheng; Zhou, Ying; Qu, Ling

    2015-03-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of the RMB regime reforms on market efficiency improving for the mainland onshore market and Hong Kong offshore market. Based on multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA), we study the multifractal properties as well as multifractality degree of RMB/USD and RMB/HKD exchange markets. Our empirical results show that, the first RMB regime reform undertaken on July 21, 2005 has a greater impact on RMB/USD exchange market in the short term, while the second RMB exchange reform undertaken on June 19, 2010 exerts the long-term influences on the efficiency of both RMB/USD and RMB/HKD markets. Further, RMB/HKD market is found to work more efficiently, although both mainland onshore market and Hong Kong offshore market have achieved a higher level of efficiency post reforms.

  9. A comparative DFT study on aquation and nucleobase binding of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) arene complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hanlu; Zeng, Xingye; Zhou, Rujin; Zhao, Cunyuan

    2013-11-01

    The potential energy surfaces of the reactions of organometallic arene complexes of the type [(η (6)-arene)M(II)(pic)Cl] (where pic = 2-picolinic acid, M = Ru or Os) were examined by a DFT computational study. Among the seven density functional methods, hybrid exchange functional B3LYP outperforms the others to explain the aquation of the complexes. The reactions and binding energies of Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes with both 9EtG and 9EtA were studied to gain insight into the reactivity of these types of organometallic complexes with DNA. The obtained data rationalize experimental observation, contributing to partly understanding the potential biological and medical applications of organometallic complexes. PMID:24037457

  10. Structural insight into the inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by the COX-2-selective inhibitor polmacoxib (CG100649).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Cha, Hyunju; Hwang, Kwang Yeon

    2016-09-01

    Polmacoxib is not only a selective COX-2 inhibitor but also a potent inhibitor of carbonic anhydrases (CAs). Both CA I and CA II are highly expressed in the GI tract and kidneys, organs that are also thought to be the sites at which selective COX-2 inhibitors show their side effects. By inhibition assays, we show that both CA I and CA II are strongly inhibited by polmacoxib, while CA II also demonstrates direct competition with COX-2. To understand, at the molecular level, how polmacoxib interacts with CA I and II, we solved the first crystal structures of CA I and CA II in complex with polmacoxib, at 2.0 Å and 1.8 Å, respectively. Interestingly, three polmacoxib molecules bind to the active site of CA I, whereas only one molecule binds CA II. In the active site, the three molecules of polmacoxib organize itself along hydrophobic interaction as "stack-on-formation", and fully occupy a cone-shaped active pocket in CA I. The binding mode of polmacoxib to CA II was found different than its binding to celecoxib and valdecoxib. Our results provide structural insight into inhibition of CA I and CA II by polmacoxib, to assess its potential clinical efficacy. PMID:27475498

  11. Suicide in China: unique demographic patterns and relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Law, Samuel; Liu, Pozi

    2008-02-01

    Recent research on suicide in China reveals several unique findings: 1) female suicides outnumber male suicides by a 3:1 ratio; 2) rural suicides outnumber urban suicides by a 3:1 ratio; 3) a large upsurge of young adult and older adult suicides has occurred; 4) a comparatively high national suicide rate two to three times the global average is evident; and, most startlingly, 5) a low rate of psychiatric illness, particularly depression, exists in suicide victims. The strongest empirical data suggest that these trends result from a high number of rural, young females who experience acute interpersonal or financial crises and then impulsively attempt suicide using lethal pesticides or poisons. Other suicide risk factors in China are similar to those that are well known internationally. Interactive sociological, cultural, and economic hypotheses unique to China provide further insight. Among those, the cultural-socioeconomic disadvantages of the Chinese rural female and cultural attitudes toward suicide are particularly noteworthy. PMID:18269899

  12. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  13. Experiment Tgv II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Briancon, Ch.; Šimkovic, F.

    2004-07-01

    The project aims at the measurement of very rare processes of double-beta decay of 106Cd and 48Ca. The experimental facility TGV II (Telescope Germanium Vertical) makes use of 32 HPGe planar detectors mounted in one common cryostat. The detectors are interleaved with thin foils containing ββ sources. Besides passive shielding against background radiation made of pure copper, lead and boron dopped polyethylene additional techniques for background suppression based on digital pulse shape analysis are used. The experimental setup is located in Modane underground laboratory (France). A review of the TGV II facility, its performance parameters and capabilities are presented.

  14. Palladium (II) Hydrazopyrazolone Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Maraghy, Salah B.; Salib, K. A.; Stefan, Shaker L.

    1989-12-01

    Palladium (II) complexes with 1-pheny1-3-methy1-4-(arylhydrazo)-5- pyrazolone dyes were studied spectrophotometrically. Pd (II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with the ligands by the replacement of their phenolic and hydrazo protons. The ligands behave as tridentate in the 1:1 complex and as bidentate in the 1:2 complex. The sability constants of these complexes are dependent on the type of substituents in the benzene ring of the arylazo moiety.

  15. A Jurassic ceratosaur from China helps clarify avian digital homologies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Mo, Jinyou; Choiniere, Jonah; Forster, Catherine A; Erickson, Gregory M; Hone, David W E; Sullivan, Corwin; Eberth, David A; Nesbitt, Sterling; Zhao, Qi; Hernandez, Rene; Jia, Cheng-kai; Han, Feng-lu; Guo, Yu

    2009-06-18

    Theropods have traditionally been assumed to have lost manual digits from the lateral side inward, which differs from the bilateral reduction pattern seen in other tetrapod groups. This unusual reduction pattern is clearly present in basal theropods, and has also been inferred in non-avian tetanurans based on identification of their three digits as the medial ones of the hand (I-II-III). This contradicts the many developmental studies indicating II-III-IV identities for the three manual digits of the only extant tetanurans, the birds. Here we report a new basal ceratosaur from the Oxfordian stage of the Jurassic period of China (156-161 million years ago), representing the first known Asian ceratosaur and the only known beaked, herbivorous Jurassic theropod. Most significantly, this taxon possesses a strongly reduced manual digit I, documenting a complex pattern of digital reduction within the Theropoda. Comparisons among theropod hands show that the three manual digits of basal tetanurans are similar in many metacarpal features to digits II-III-IV, but in phalangeal features to digits I-II-III, of more basal theropods. Given II-III-IV identities in avians, the simplest interpretation is that these identities were shared by all tetanurans. The transition to tetanurans involved complex changes in the hand including a shift in digit identities, with ceratosaurs displaying an intermediate condition. PMID:19536256

  16. Modern Biotechnology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned.

  17. Torture in China.

    PubMed

    Thelle, Hatla

    2006-01-01

    Torture and inhuman and degrading treatment of persons by state functionaries in China is documented by both international and domestic sources as being fairly widespread. It takes place in pre-trial detention as well as in prisons and labor camps. Its roots are to be found firstly in a weak legal system; the fair trail guarantees are still not observed in the Chinese legal system and the courts are not sufficiently independent from political and economic interests. Secondly, a tradition of coercion and uncontested bureaucratic power, inherited from communist and imperial times, is still alive. Thirdly, China lacks efficient monitoring mechanisms, like complaints boards and a free press. The legislation prohibiting torture is relatively clear, compared to so many other countries, but a huge gap between black-letter-law and practice mar all parts of Chinese society, including the legal procedural system. There are efforts taken by public authorities, legal professionals and activists to combat the use of torture, but these are met with opposition and inertia, especially from the police system, and there is still a long way to go. PMID:17251654

  18. Breastfeeding in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, D S; Wang, X

    1995-01-01

    In China, where breast feeding was almost universal 30-40 years ago, the prevalence of breast feeding has declined rapidly in urban and periurban areas because of 1) separation of the newborn and mother in the hospital, 2) mothers returning to work early and working far from home, 3) perceptions of too little milk, and 4) easy access to substitutes. Studies have revealed that breast-fed babies over 6 months old grow at a slightly lower rate than bottle-fed babies, suggesting that proper weaning foods should be provided after 6 months of age. Breast feeding is associated with lower infant morbidity (lower respiratory infection, gastrointestinal tract infection, eczema, and rickets). Despite their fears to the contrary, Chinese mothers produce an amount of breast milk in the range of that produced by women in Western countries and greater than that produced by women in other developing countries. Studies of the nutritional composition of the milk of Chinese mothers also found that it is adequate for the baby's needs. Research has indicated, however, that the foods offered to the baby during weaning satisfy only about 18% of their caloric needs. Thus, not only does breast feeding need promotion in China, weaning practices also require modification. PMID:7495141

  19. China's demographic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Tien, H Y; Zhang, T; Ping, Y; Li, J; Liang, Z

    1992-06-01

    China's demographic dilemmas are discussed as the demographic surge during the 20th century, the demographic transition, the struggle to regulate fertility, population and development, and prospects for the future. Brief accounts are given of China's household registration system and the efforts in entry into the global economy. There are references, suggested readings, and discussion questions. Ample figures and tables express population growth, birth and death rates, fertility, sex ratios, population projections for these older than 65 and total population, contraception (IUDs, sterilizations, and abortions), abortion ratios, ethnic minority groups, provincial population data for 1990, schools and enrollment, health care resources, selected economic indicators, and availability of selected consumer items (sewing machines, watches, bicycles, electric fans, washers, refrigerators, televisions, radios, and cameras). Population planning has been successful in reducing the birth rate from 35/1000 in the 1950s to 20/1000 in the 1990s. 17 million persons are added annually. The projection for 2000 is 1.3 billion persons. The emphasis of the discussion is on the development and consequences of strict population planning control measures instituted in the 1970s and strengthened in the 1980s. In addition to curbing numbers, the measures have also led to a rapid aging of the population, a marriage squeeze, charges of female infanticide, and international censure. Population pressure is felt in urban areas, and in the labor force, education, and health systems. Industrialization has led to serious deterioration of natural resources. The gap between rural and urban population has widened. PMID:12286597

  20. Environmental issues in China

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Modern biotechnology in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Zhao; Zhao, Xue-Ming

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, with the booming economy, the Chinese government has increased its financial input to biotechnology research, which has led to remarkable achievements by China in modern biotechnology. As one of the key parts of modern biotechnology, industrial biotechnology will be crucial for China's sustainable development in this century. This review presents an overview of Chinese industrial biotechnology in last 10 years. Modern biotechnology had been classified into metabolic engineering and systems biology framework. Metabolic engineering is a field of broad fundamental and practical concept so we integrated the related technology achievements into the real practices of many metabolic engineering cases, such as biobased products production, environmental control and others. Now metabolic engineering is developing towards the systems level. Chinese researchers have also embraced this concept and have contributed invaluable things in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and related bioinformatics. A series of advanced laboratories or centers were established which will represent Chinese modern biotechnology development in the near future. At the end of this review, metabolic network research advances have also been mentioned. PMID:19626302

  2. Anticounterfeit holograms in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Dahsiung; Zhou, Jing; Pei, Wen; Li, Qiang; Huang, Xuhuai; Cao, Yulin

    1995-02-01

    The Chinese holography industry has been given an enormous boost by the energetic sales and technology transfer of several western businesses. It is a fast growing industry which can keep up with domestic demand for anti-counterfeit embossed holograms because product counterfeiting is so rife internally. Tax papers, stamps, plastic cards, identification cards, and many packaged goods are authenticated with embossed holograms. Up to now, about 1,000 kinds of products in China have used holograms to protect themselves. Anti-counterfeit holograms with secret codes have also been used. After dependence on imports, China is rapidly developing its own sources of equipment, holographic materials, and embossing substrates. The quality of this equipment and materials is improving. The new Chinese Holography Association, a national industry association aiming to develop the application of holograms and to promote cooperation between organizations, was established in 1993. The CHA has requested affiliation to the International Hologram Manufacturers Association, a move which should improve the communication between the Chinese industry and the rest of the world industry.

  3. General aviation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  4. China's Schools in Flux. Wingspread Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson Foundation, Inc., Racine, WI.

    Fourteen prominent American educators report on their trips to China in October through November 1977. The educators hope that reports of their China visit will help Americans better understand what is happening in China and that this understanding will give studies of China a place in America's school curriculum which is commensurate with its…

  5. Gaining Insights into Children's Geometric Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Nancy K.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how research on children's geometric thinking was used in conjunction with the picture book "The Greedy Triangle" to gain valuable insights into children's prior geometric knowledge of polygons. Exercises focused on the names, visual appearance, and properties of polygons, as well as real-world connections for each, are…

  6. Gaining Algorithmic Insight through Simplifying Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginat, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses algorithmic problem solving in computer science education, particularly algorithmic insight, and focuses on the relevance and effectiveness of the heuristic simplifying constraints which involves simplification of a given problem to a problem in which constraints are imposed on the input data. Presents three examples involving…

  7. Insights into Our Understandings of Large Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastberg, Signe E.; Walker, Vicki

    2008-01-01

    This article explores prospective teachers' understandings of one million to gain insights into the development of adult understanding of large numbers. Themes in the prospective teachers' work included number associated with a quantity of objects, number as an abstraction, and additive and multiplicative approaches. The authors suggest that the…

  8. Insight into an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Jen

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author shares some insights on the characteristics of a person with Asperger's syndrome, a condition on the higher-functioning end of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Born in 1955, the author was raised in rural South Auckland. As a baby, she propelled herself around the floor on her stomach, using her limbs as flippers,…

  9. Developmental Social Cognitive Neuroscience: Insights from Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corina, David; Singleton, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    The condition of deafness presents a developmental context that provides insight into the biological, cultural, and linguistic factors underlying the development of neural systems that impact social cognition. Studies of visual attention, behavioral regulation, language development, and face and human action perception are discussed. Visually…

  10. Gestures and Insight in Advanced Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Caroline; Thomas, Michael O. J.; Dreyfus, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    What role do gestures play in advanced mathematical thinking? We argue that the role of gestures goes beyond merely communicating thought and supporting understanding--in some cases, gestures can help generate new mathematical insights. Gestures feature prominently in a case study of two participants working on a sequence of calculus activities.…

  11. Innovative Leadership: Insights from a Learning Technologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Professor Ricardo Torres Kompen is a leading proponent for, and researcher in, personal learning environments (PLEs). During his interview, Torres Kompen clarified his research on PLEs, particularly the digital toolbox within PLEs. He elaborated on experiences with implementing PLE initiatives, personal insights on using social media and Web 2.0…

  12. InSight Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benardini, James; Vaishampayan, Parag; Chen, Fei; Kazarians, Gayane; Willis, Jason; Witte, Joe; Hendrickson, Ryan

    2016-07-01

    The InSight Project is a Discovery mission that consists of a single spacecraft with an overarching mission goal of illuminating the fundamentals of formation and evolution of terrestrial planets by investigating the interior structure and processes of Mars. The flight system is comprised of a 2008 Phoenix mission heritage cruise stage, aeroshell (heatshield and backshell), and lander. The lander payload contains cameras, a seismometer, a mole to penetrate the regolith (≤5 meters) to measure the geothermal gradient of Mars, and an auxiliary payload sensor suite to measure wind, temperature, and pressure. As a Mars lander mission without life detection instruments, the InSight mission has been designated PP Category IVa. Therefore, planetary protection bioburden requirements are applicable to this mission and require microbial reduction procedures and biological burden reports. Due to primary payload technical issues, InSight's 2016 launch has been delayed by NASA. The mission is currently under a re-planning phase. InSight has completed an approved Planetary Protection Plan, Subsidiary PP Plans, PP Implementation Documentation, and ~50% of the PPO verification biological assays. The flight system and additional payloads were assembled and being readied for launch at the launch site at the time of the project stand-down and has since been secured for storage. The status of the PP activities will be reported.

  13. Vitamin D and Adipogenesis: New Molecular Insights

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of the current review is to highlight some new insights into the molecular mechanism by which vitamin D, a potentially nutritionally modulated factor, influences adipogenesis. Recent studies, predominantly using the mouse 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte cell culture model, have shown that the role of...

  14. Development and Testing of "Math Insight" Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2006-01-01

    Computers running appropriate software hold great promise for teaching and learning mathematics. To this end, SRI International developed an integrated, computer-based problem solving environment called "Math Insight" that included interactive tools, such as a spreadsheet and dynamic geometric sketches, and professionally produced videos used to…

  15. Insights on the College, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdle, Michael A.; Silverman, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    This document contains the 2000-2001 issues of Mt. San Antonio College's (Mt. SAC's) "Insights on the College." The first issue, "Mt. SAC Progress Report on Partnership for Excellence Goals," is a report on the self-assessment of the Partnership for Excellence (PFE) program conducted by Mt. SAC. The PFE program addresses the goal of the community…

  16. University Student Employment: Insights Gained under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Ding

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the perilous state of Chinese university graduates in seeking jobs. This pressure has given people many valuable insights, enabling them to look at the problems among university students and the direction of higher education development from a new perspective. To overcome this problem, the State Council held a…

  17. Cognitive Psychology--An Educational Insight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive psychology offers relevant insights into improving the teaching and learning process. The author has selected ten questions from a graduate class in cognition and learning taken at The Teachers College, Columbia University. The questions will be used to examine the most effective ways to learn and recall information.

  18. Factorising a Quadratic Expression with Geometric Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joarder, Anwar H.

    2015-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for factorising a quadratic expression to facilitate instruction and learning. It appeals to elementary geometry which may provide better insights to some students or teachers. There have been many methods for factorising a quadratic expression described in school text books. However, students often seem to struggle with…

  19. Vehicular volatile organic compounds losses due to refueling and diurnal process in China: 2010-2050.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Huan; Cui, Hongyang; Man, Hanyang; Fu, Mingliang; Hao, Jiming; He, Kebin

    2015-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are crucial to control air pollution in major Chinese cities since VOCs are the dominant factor influencing ambient ozone level, and also an important precursor of secondary organic aerosols. Vehicular evaporative emissions have become a major and growing source of VOC emissions in China. This study consists of lab tests, technology evaluation, emissions modeling, policy projections and cost-benefit analysis to draw a roadmap for China for controlling vehicular evaporative emissions. The analysis suggests that evaporative VOC emissions from China's light-duty gasoline vehicles were approximately 185,000 ton in 2010 and would peak at 1,200,000 ton in 2040 without control. The current control strategy implemented in China, as shown in business as usual (BAU) scenario, will barely reduce the long-term growth in emissions. Even if Stage II gasoline station vapor control policies were extended national wide (BAU+extended Stage II), there would still be over 400,000 ton fuel loss in 2050. In contrast, the implementation of on-board refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) on new cars could reduce 97.5% of evaporative VOCs by 2050 (BAU+ORVR/BAU+delayed ORVR). According to the results, a combined Stage II and ORVR program is a comprehensive solution that provides both short-term and long-term benefits. The net cost to achieve the optimal total evaporative VOC control is approximately 62 billion CNY in 2025 and 149 billion CNY in 2050. PMID:26141881

  20. Decontamination effects of low-temperature plasma generated by corona discharge. Part II: new insights.

    PubMed

    Scholtz, V; Julák, J; Kríha, V; Mosinger, J; Kopecká, S

    2007-01-01

    The second part of our paper presents the results of experiments with the decontamination of surfaces by low-temperature plasma generated by corona discharge in air at atmospheric pressure. A simple device is described and the effects of the corona discharge on model microorganisms, viz. the yeast Candida albicans, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria sicca, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Gram-positive bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and vegetative and spore forms of Geobacillus stearothermophilus are discussed. A similar microbicidal effect after about one-minute exposure was observed in all vegetative forms of the microorganisms. Measurement in growth inhibition zones on a semisolid medium was used to determine the dependence of the microbicidal effect on exposure time and the distance between electrodes. Counting of colonies served to assess the microbicidal effect of the discharge on contaminated inert surfaces observable after more than 1 min exposure. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were found to have several times lower susceptibility to the action of the discharge and the microbicidal effect was observed only after an 8 min exposure. Reaction with the iodide reagent did not unambiguously demonstrate the difference between ozone and singlet oxygen as presumed active components of the corona. The area distribution of reactive oxygen species was determined; it was found to differ from the Wartburg law depending on exposure time. Qualitative evidence was obtained on the penetration of the reactive oxygen species into the semisolid medium. PMID:18225640

  1. Structural and Functional Insights into the Pilotin-Secretin Complex of the Type II Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohui; Shevchik, Vladimir E.; Pickersgill, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria secrete virulence factors and assemble fibre structures on their cell surface using specialized secretion systems. Three of these, T2SS, T3SS and T4PS, are characterized by large outer membrane channels formed by proteins called secretins. Usually, a cognate lipoprotein pilot is essential for the assembly of the secretin in the outer membrane. The structures of the pilotins of the T3SS and T4PS have been described. However in the T2SS, the molecular mechanism of this process is poorly understood and its structural basis is unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the pilotin of the T2SS that comprises an arrangement of four α-helices profoundly different from previously solved pilotins from the T3SS and T4P and known four α-helix bundles. The architecture can be described as the insertion of one α-helical hairpin into a second open α-helical hairpin with bent final helix. NMR, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy show that the pilotin binds tightly to 18 residues close to the C-terminus of the secretin. These residues, unstructured before binding to the pilotin, become helical on binding. Data collected from crystals of the complex suggests how the secretin peptide binds to the pilotin and further experiments confirm the importance of these C-terminal residues in vivo. PMID:22346756

  2. Structure of the Mn complex in photosystem II: Insights from x-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2002-04-02

    We have used Mn K-edge absorption and Kb emission spectroscopies to determine the oxidation states of the Mn complex in the various S-states. We have started exploring the new technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectroscopy (RIXS); this technique can be characterized as a Raman process that uses K-edge energies (1s to 4p, {approx}6550 eV) to obtain L-edge-like spectra (2p to 3d, {approx}650 eV). The relevance of these data to the oxidation states and structure of the Mn complex is presented. We have obtained EXAFS data from the S0 and S3 states and observed heterogeneity in the Mn-Mn distances, leading us to conclude that there may be three rather than two di-(mu)-oxo bridged units present per tetranuclear Mn cluster. In addition, we have obtained data using Ca/Sr X-ray spectroscopy that provide evidence for a heteronuclear Mn/Ca cluster. The possibility of three di-(mu)-oxo-bridged Mn Mn moieties and the proximity of Ca is incorporated into developing structural models for the Mn cluster. The involvement of bridging and terminal O ligands of Mn in the mechanism of oxygen evolution is discussed in the context of our X-ray spectroscopy results.

  3. Insight into the short- and long-term effects of Cu(II) on denitrifying biogranules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Hu, Hai-Yan; Shi, Man-Ling; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of Cu(2+) on the activity and performance of denitrifying bacteria. The short-term effects of various concentrations of Cu(2+) on the denitrifying bacteria were evaluated using batch assays. The specific denitrifying activity (SDA) decreased from 14.3 ± 2.2 (without Cu(2+)) to 6.1 ± 0.1 mg N h(-1)g(-1) VSS (100 mg Cu(2+)L(-1)) when Cu(2+) increased from 0 to 100 mg L(-1) with an increment of 10 mg Cu(2+)L(-1). A non-competitive inhibition model was used to calculate the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of Cu(2+) on denitrifying sludge (30.6 ± 2.5 mg L(-1)). Monod and Luong models were applied to investigate the influence of the initial substrate concentration, and the results suggested that the maximum substrate removal rate would be reduced with Cu(2+) supplementation. Pre-exposure to Cu(2+) could lead to an 18.2-46.2% decrease in the SDA and decreasing percentage of the SDA increased with both exposure time and concentration. In the continuous-flow test, Cu(2+) concentration varied from 1 to 75 mg L(-1); however, no clear deterioration was observed in the reactor, and the reactor was kept stable, with the total nitrogen removal efficiency and total organic carbon efficiency greater than 89.0 and 85.0%, respectively. The results demonstrated the short-term inhibition of Cu(2+) upon denitrification, and no notable adversity was observed during the continuous-flow test after long-term acclimation. PMID:26610098

  4. A Numerical Simulation of Cosmic Ray Modulation Near the Heliopause. II. Some Physical Insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xi; Potgieter, Marius S.; Zhang, Ming; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Feng, Xueshang; du Toit Strauss, R.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) transport near the heliopause (HP) is studied using a hybrid transport model, with the parameters constrained by observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft. We simulate the CR radial flux along different directions in the heliosphere. There is no well-defined thin layer between the solar wind region and the interstellar region along the tail and polar directions of the heliosphere. By analyzing the radial flux curve along the direction of Voyager 2, together with its trajectory information, the crossing time of the HP by Voyager 2 is predicted to be in 2017.14. We simulate the CR radial flux for different energy values along the direction of Voyager 1. We find that there is only a modest modulation region of about 10 au wide beyond the HP, so that Voyager 1 observing the Local Interstellar Spectra is justified in numerical modeling. We analyze the heliospheric exit information of pseudo-particles in our stochastic numerical (time-backward) method, conjecturing that they represent the behavior of CR particles, and we find that pseudo-particles that have been traced from the nose region exit in the tail region. This implies that many CR particles diffuse directly from the heliospheric tail region to the nose region near the HP. In addition, when pseudo-particles were traced from the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), it is found that their exit location (entrance for real particles) from the simulation domain is along the prescribed Interstellar Magnetic Field direction. This indicates that parallel diffusion dominates CR particle transport in the LISM.

  5. Insights into Planet Formation from Debris Disks - II. Giant Impacts in Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Mark C.; Jackson, Alan P.

    2016-03-01

    Giant impacts refer to collisions between two objects each of which is massive enough to be considered at least a planetary embryo. The putative collision suffered by the proto-Earth that created the Moon is a prime example, though most Solar System bodies bear signatures of such collisions. Current planet formation models predict that an epoch of giant impacts may be inevitable, and observations of debris around other stars are providing mounting evidence that giant impacts feature in the evolution of many planetary systems. This chapter reviews giant impacts, focussing on what we can learn about planet formation by studying debris around other stars. Giant impact debris evolves through mutual collisions and dynamical interactions with planets. General aspects of this evolution are outlined, noting the importance of the collision-point geometry. The detectability of the debris is discussed using the example of the Moon-forming impact. Such debris could be detectable around another star up to 10 Myr post-impact, but model uncertainties could reduce detectability to a few 100 yr window. Nevertheless the 3 % of young stars with debris at levels expected during terrestrial planet formation provide valuable constraints on formation models; implications for super-Earth formation are also discussed. Variability recently observed in some bright disks promises to illuminate the evolution during the earliest phases when vapour condensates may be optically thick and acutely affected by the collision-point geometry. The outer reaches of planetary systems may also exhibit signatures of giant impacts, such as the clumpy debris structures seen around some stars.

  6. Matter from Outside Our Solar System -- New Insights, Part II. Experimental Measurements and Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wefel, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The second of two parts (part 1 in v20 n4, p222, Apr 1982) focuses on experimental techniques used to study cosmic-ray isotopic composition, experimental results, and comparison between cosmic-ray source matter and solar-system material. Several models for nucleosynthesis and evolution of cosmic-source matter are also discussed. (Author/JN)

  7. Literature and patent analysis of the cloning and identification of human functional genes in China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yan; Tang, LiSha; Yao, Lei; Wan, Bo; Yang, XianMei; Yu, Long

    2012-03-01

    The Human Genome Project was launched at the end of the 1980s. Since then, the cloning and identification of functional genes has been a major focus of research across the world. In China too, the potentially profound impact of such studies on the life sciences and on human health was realized, and relevant studies were initiated in the 1990s. To advance China's involvement in the Human Genome Project, in the mid-1990s, Committee of Experts in Biology from National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) proposed the "two 1%" goal. This goal envisaged China contributing 1% of the total sequencing work, and cloning and identifying 1% of the total human functional genes. Over the past 20 years, tremendous achievement has been accomplished by Chinese scientists. It is well known that scientists in China finished the 1% of sequencing work of the Human Genome Project, whereas, there is no comprehensive report about "whether China had finished cloning and identifying 1% of human functional genes". In the present study, the GenBank database at the National Center of Biotechnology Information, the PubMed search tool, and the patent database of the State Intellectual Property Office, China, were used to retrieve entries based on two screening standards: (i) Were the newly cloned and identified genes first reported by Chinese scientists? (ii) Were the Chinese scientists awarded the gene sequence patent? Entries were retrieved from the databases up to the cut-off date of 30 June 2011 and the obtained data were analyzed further. The results showed that 589 new human functional genes were first reported by Chinese scientists and 159 gene sequences were patented (http://gene.fudan.sh.cn/introduction/database/chinagene/chinagene.html). This study systematically summarizes China's contributions to human functional genomics research and answers the question "has China finished cloning and identifying 1% of human functional genes?" in the affirmative

  8. Complete genome sequence of the bioleaching bacterium Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Alonso; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Valdés, Natalia; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Orellana, Omar; Levicán, Gloria

    2016-03-20

    We describe the complete genome sequence of Leptospirillum sp. group II strain CF-1, an acidophilic bioleaching bacterium isolated from an acid mine drainage (AMD). This work provides data to gain insights about adaptive response of Leptospirillum spp. to the extreme conditions of bioleaching environments. PMID:26853478

  9. REDUCTION OF NITROSOBENZENES AND N-HYDROXYLANILINES BY FE (II) SPECIES: ELUCIDATION OF REACTION MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been a substantial effort toward understanding the reduction of nitroaromatics in Fe(II)-treated ferric oxide systems, little has been done to gain insight into the factors controlling the transformation of their reaction intermediates, nitrosobenzenes and N-hydroxylani...

  10. Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Herein, we show that an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) under laboratory conditions which is intended to represent in real water flowing system in lead pipes. These results will give an insight in understanding the scale formation in lead pipes and dissolution of lea...

  11. The Depression and World War II as Seen through Country Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sheldon

    1985-01-01

    The social upheaval of the Great Depression and the U.S. reaction to World War II are analyzed to demonstrate how country music songs, artists, and composers can help students gain historical insights. Songs appropriate for studying these two topics in U.S. history are listed. (RM)

  12. Nuclear technology transfer to China

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    China has severe power shortages and considerable nuclear expertise available from its military programs. These factors led to great expectations of how fast its nuclear power program might expand. The U.S. recently implemented a controversial nuclear cooperation agreement with China, permitting U.S. companies to compete if this market reopens. The major concern over the agreement was that in the past China apparently showed an alarming disregard for the dangers of nuclear proliferation. It is unlikely that China would use nuclear power equipment to further its nuclear weapons program, but the effectiveness of the U.S. nonproliferation stance has been in part dependent on other countries viewing our position as uncompromising. The vagueness of certain provisions in the agreement with China may have weakened this stance. Another concern is that access to U.S. pressurized water reactor technology could improve their submarine reactors, which could be detrimental to U.S. security interests if relations with China deteriorate. However, it appears that the only significant advantage that would accrue would be a general upgrading of management practices and quality control, which would be available from any other nuclear supplier. If the opportunity for the sale of nuclear equipment to China emerges, the nuclear technology transfer that would be involved, if carefully managed, should contribute to the national interest.

  13. [Insight into illness and compliance in schizophrenic disorders].

    PubMed

    Zsolt, Juhász Levente; György, Bartkó

    2006-01-01

    Poor insight into illness is a characteristic and common phenomenon in schizophrenic disorders. Lack of insight may lead to poor clinical outcome, thus, research focused on this phenomenon could help develop effective treatment strategies. The relationship between compliance with treatment and insight is complex and it may be influenced mostly by specific components of insight. The aim of the present study was to review the current definitions of insight, the tools and questionnaires used for its measurement, as well as the relationship between insight and psychopathological symptoms. Three theoretical models developed for the explanation of impaired insight are described; the Psychological Defence Model, the Cognitive Deficit Model, and the Neuropsychological Deficit Model. The neurocognitive bases of impaired insight is given special attention in this article. Administration of second generation antipsychotics and psychosocial interventions (psychoeducation with problem solving procedures and motivating techniques) can improve insight, and enhance compliance with treatment, thus, optimizing long-term therapeutic outcome for schizophrenia patients. PMID:17438658

  14. New Insights into the Assembly of Bacterial Secretins

    PubMed Central

    Van der Meeren, Ruben; Wen, Yurong; Van Gelder, Patrick; Tommassen, Jan; Devreese, Bart; Savvides, Savvas N.

    2013-01-01

    The type II secretion system is a multiprotein assembly spanning the inner and outer membranes in Gram-negative bacteria. It is found in almost all pathogenic bacteria where it contributes to virulence, host tissue colonization, and infection. The exoproteins are secreted across the outer membrane via a large translocation channel, the secretin, which typically adopts a dodecameric structure. These secretin channels have large periplasmic N-terminal domains that reach out into the periplasm for communication with the inner membrane platform and with a pseudopilus structure that spans the periplasm. Here we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal periplasmic domain of the secretin XcpQ from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealing a two-lobe dimeric assembly featuring parallel subunits engaging in well defined interactions at the tips of each lobe. We have employed structure-based engineering of disulfide bridges and native mass spectrometry to show that the periplasmic domain of XcpQ dimerizes in a concentration-dependent manner. Validation of these insights in the context of cellular full-length XcpQ and further evaluation of the functionality of disulfide-linked XcpQ establishes that the basic oligomerization unit of XcpQ is a dimer. This is consistent with the notion that the dodecameric secretin assembles as a hexamer of dimers to ensure correct projection of the N-terminal domains into the periplasm. Therefore, our studies provide a key conceptual advancement in understanding the assembly principles and dynamic function of type II secretion system secretins and challenge recent studies reporting monomers as the basic subunit of the secretin oligomer. PMID:23188826

  15. Insights into the reactivation of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Koutmos, Markos; Datta, Supratim; Pattridge, Katherine A.; Smith, Janet L.; Matthews, Rowena G.

    2009-12-10

    Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) is a modular protein that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to produce methionine and tetrahydrofolate. The cobalamin cofactor, which serves as both acceptor and donor of the methyl group, is oxidized once every {approx}2,000 catalytic cycles and must be reactivated by the uptake of an electron from reduced flavodoxin and a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). Previous structures of a C-terminal fragment of MetH (MetH{sup CT}) revealed a reactivation conformation that juxtaposes the cobalamin- and AdoMet-binding domains. Here we describe 2 structures of a disulfide stabilized MetH{sup CT} ({sub s-s}MetH{sup CT}) that offer further insight into the reactivation of MetH. The structure of {sub s-s}MetH{sup CT} with cob(II)alamin and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine represents the enzyme in the reactivation step preceding electron transfer from flavodoxin. The structure supports earlier suggestions that the enzyme acts to lower the reduction potential of the Co(II)/Co(I) couple by elongating the bond between the cobalt and its upper axial water ligand, effectively making the cobalt 4-coordinate, and illuminates the role of Tyr-1139 in the stabilization of this 4-coordinate state. The structure of {sub s-s}MetH{sub CT} with aquocobalamin may represent a transient state at the end of reactivation as the newly remethylated 5-coordinate methylcobalamin returns to the 6-coordinate state, triggering the rearrangement to a catalytic conformation.

  16. Newer insights to the neurological diseases among biblical characters of old testament

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Stephen K.; Pandian, Jeyaraj D.

    2010-01-01

    Many people over the years have studied the Bible from a medical point of view offering diagnoses for the symptoms and signs that appear to have afflicted numerous individuals in the Bible. We review the biblical characters in the Old Testament and offer newer insights to their neurological diseases. We first look at the battle between Goliath and David. Interestingly, Goliath probably suffered from acromegaly. We propose autism as a diagnosis for Samson which would precede the first known case of autism by centuries. Isaac was a diabetic, and he probably had autonomic neuropathy. Few verses from the books of I Samuel, Psalms, and Ezekiel reveal symptoms suggestive of stroke. Jacob suffered from sciatica, and the child of the Shunnamite woman in II Kings had a subarachnoid hemorrhage. These instances among others found in the Old Testament of the Bible offer newer insights on the history of current neurological diseases. PMID:21085524

  17. Understanding the China energy market: trends and opportunities 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara Drazga

    2005-05-15

    The report is broken up into 4 Sections: Section I - Overview of China Energy Market (historical background, market value, consumption, production, reserves, export and import, market segmentation, market forecast); Section II - Market Analysis (PEST analysis, Porter's five forces analysis, socio-economic trends, consumption trends); Section III - Market Segments (electricity, oil, natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, nuclear power, coal, renewables, photovoltaics, wind power, hydroelectric power. Each market segment details current and planned projects, and lists participants in that sector); and Section IV - Breaking Into the Market (regulatory framework, methods of market entry, foreign investment, challenges, government agencies).

  18. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  19. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  20. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…