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Sample records for china southern airlines

  1. Towards an Integrated Approach to Cabin Service English Curriculum Design: A Case Study of China Southern Airlines' Cabin Service English Training Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaoqin, Liu; Wenzhong, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the history of EOP (training) development and then illustrated the curriculum design of cabin service English training from the three perspectives of ESP, CLIL and Business Discourse. It takes the cabin crew English training of China Southern Airlines (CZ) as the case and puts forward an operational framework composed of…

  2. The Study of Airline Merger and Acquisition in the Great China Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shon, Zhengyi

    2003-01-01

    The Asian financial crisis in the late 20 th century has some long lasting effect on the air transportation industry in Asia, especially in the Great China Area. Starting from 1998, airlines in both China and Taiwan suffered some serious financial losses due to the diminishing travel demand caused by the economic recession. Airlines were forced to cut price to attract passengers and hence crashed the market discipline. A number of airline mergers and acquisitions were then driven by the markets and the governments. After China and Taiwan have both entered the World Trade Organization, some mega-merging cases were finalized in late 2002 for better fitting the world's aviation competitions. This paper reviews the nine merging and acquiring cases in the Great China Area in the past 5 years. Almost all the airlines in the area were involved. The new groups of airlines and the survival airlines are introduced. Market response to the airline mergers will also be examined. A general look over the performance of the new airlines will be discussed. And the future of the market will also be analyzed. Finally, the practices and the impacts of current inter-state mergers in the Great China Area will be examined. The study has expected a highly concentrated domestic market in both China and Taiwan. Each of the market will be dominated by three major airline groups of their own. Cross-holding equity within these 6 leading aviation groups would also be possible after further deregulations.

  3. Aviation Accidents: CRM to Maintaining the Share of Airlines. Case Study on Accidents Airlines in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnuaimi, Qussay A. B.

    2015-01-01

    We present Aviation Cost Risk management (CRM) methodology designed for Airlines Company, who needs to run projects beyond their normal. These airlines are critical to the survival of these organizations, such as the development and performance. The Aviation crisis can have considerable impact upon the value of the firm. Risk managers must focus…

  4. A Study of an ESP Curriculum for Airline Agents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Qi

    2008-01-01

    English for specific purpose (ESP) has for about 30 years been a separate branch of English language Teaching (ELT). Recent years in China, with the development of international trade and foreign exchange, more and more in-service and pre-service staffs are expected to learn practical al and useful English language in order to adapt to the new…

  5. The earliest unequivocally modern humans in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wu; Martinón-Torres, María; Cai, Yan-jun; Xing, Song; Tong, Hao-wen; Pei, Shu-wen; Sier, Mark Jan; Wu, Xiao-hong; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Li, Yi-yuan; Yang, Xiong-xin; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Wu, Xiu-jie

    2015-10-29

    The hominin record from southern Asia for the early Late Pleistocene epoch is scarce. Well-dated and well-preserved fossils older than ∼45,000 years that can be unequivocally attributed to Homo sapiens are lacking. Here we present evidence from the newly excavated Fuyan Cave in Daoxian (southern China). This site has provided 47 human teeth dated to more than 80,000 years old, and with an inferred maximum age of 120,000 years. The morphological and metric assessment of this sample supports its unequivocal assignment to H. sapiens. The Daoxian sample is more derived than any other anatomically modern humans, resembling middle-to-late Late Pleistocene specimens and even contemporary humans. Our study shows that fully modern morphologies were present in southern China 30,000-70,000 years earlier than in the Levant and Europe. Our data fill a chronological and geographical gap that is relevant for understanding when H. sapiens first appeared in southern Asia. The Daoxian teeth also support the hypothesis that during the same period, southern China was inhabited by more derived populations than central and northern China. This evidence is important for the study of dispersal routes of modern humans. Finally, our results are relevant to exploring the reasons for the relatively late entry of H. sapiens into Europe. Some studies have investigated how the competition with H. sapiens may have caused Neanderthals' extinction (see ref. 8 and references therein). Notably, although fully modern humans were already present in southern China at least as early as ∼80,000 years ago, there is no evidence that they entered Europe before ∼45,000 years ago. This could indicate that H. neanderthalensis was indeed an additional ecological barrier for modern humans, who could only enter Europe when the demise of Neanderthals had already started. PMID:26466566

  6. A new genus of Coelotinae (Araneae, Agelenidae) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lu; Li, Shuqiang; Zhao, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract One new genus of the spider subfamily Coelotinae, Flexicoelotes gen. n., with five new species is described from southern China: Flexicoelotes huyunensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes jiaohanyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes jinlongyanensis sp. n. (male and female), Flexicoelotes pingzhaiensis sp. n. (female), Flexicoelotes xingwangensis sp. n. (male and female). PMID:26798279

  7. Intensified Springtime Deep Convection over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea Dries Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenning; Yang, Song; He, Bian; Hu, Chundi

    2016-01-01

    Springtime rainfall, accounting for 25–40% of the annual rainfall in southern China, exerts great agricultural and socioeconomic impacts on the region. In the recent decades, southern China has experienced a significant declining trend of precipitation in boreal spring. Meanwhile, precipitation has increased over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea (SCS-PhS). This paper presents observational and modeling evidences suggesting that the intensified latent heating released by the convection over SCS-PhS leads to suppressed springtime rainfall over southern China. Moisture budget analysis indicates that the drying trend over southern China is due mainly to weakened convergence of moisture flux, which is controlled by a heat-induced anomalous overturning circulation reinforced by the convection over SCS-PhS. Further idealized simulations support the feature that the heat-induced overturning circulation and its corresponding anomalous cyclone can be well established in several days under the spring mean flow condition. Thus, this rapid dynamic process is associated with both the intraseasonal-to-interannual variations and the long-term change of the springtime rainfall over southern China. PMID:27461985

  8. Intensified Springtime Deep Convection over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea Dries Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenning; Yang, Song; He, Bian; Hu, Chundi

    2016-07-01

    Springtime rainfall, accounting for 25–40% of the annual rainfall in southern China, exerts great agricultural and socioeconomic impacts on the region. In the recent decades, southern China has experienced a significant declining trend of precipitation in boreal spring. Meanwhile, precipitation has increased over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea (SCS-PhS). This paper presents observational and modeling evidences suggesting that the intensified latent heating released by the convection over SCS-PhS leads to suppressed springtime rainfall over southern China. Moisture budget analysis indicates that the drying trend over southern China is due mainly to weakened convergence of moisture flux, which is controlled by a heat-induced anomalous overturning circulation reinforced by the convection over SCS-PhS. Further idealized simulations support the feature that the heat-induced overturning circulation and its corresponding anomalous cyclone can be well established in several days under the spring mean flow condition. Thus, this rapid dynamic process is associated with both the intraseasonal-to-interannual variations and the long-term change of the springtime rainfall over southern China.

  9. Intensified Springtime Deep Convection over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea Dries Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenning; Yang, Song; He, Bian; Hu, Chundi

    2016-01-01

    Springtime rainfall, accounting for 25-40% of the annual rainfall in southern China, exerts great agricultural and socioeconomic impacts on the region. In the recent decades, southern China has experienced a significant declining trend of precipitation in boreal spring. Meanwhile, precipitation has increased over the South China Sea and the Philippine Sea (SCS-PhS). This paper presents observational and modeling evidences suggesting that the intensified latent heating released by the convection over SCS-PhS leads to suppressed springtime rainfall over southern China. Moisture budget analysis indicates that the drying trend over southern China is due mainly to weakened convergence of moisture flux, which is controlled by a heat-induced anomalous overturning circulation reinforced by the convection over SCS-PhS. Further idealized simulations support the feature that the heat-induced overturning circulation and its corresponding anomalous cyclone can be well established in several days under the spring mean flow condition. Thus, this rapid dynamic process is associated with both the intraseasonal-to-interannual variations and the long-term change of the springtime rainfall over southern China. PMID:27461985

  10. Multi-element geochemical mapping in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhizhong; Xie, Xuejing; Yao, Wensheng; Feng, Jizhou; Zhang, Qin; Fang, Jindong

    2014-04-01

    The 76-element Geochemical Mapping (76 GEM) Project was undertaken in southwestern China in 2000 and in southeastern China in 2008. In this project, 5244 composite samples of stream sediment at a density of one composite sample for each 1:50,000-scale map sheet were prepared from sample archives of the China Regional Geochemistry-National Reconnaissance (RGNR) Project, which have been available since 1978. The 76 elements were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In the present study, a new quality-control method known as the visualized standard map method was applied to the results of the 76 GEM project. Mean value and background value, which indicate the average concentration of the 76 elements in southern China, were derived from statistical data. Moreover, geochemical maps were compiled to demonstrate the distribution of the 76 elements in southern China. PMID:24748714

  11. Late Eocene white pines (Pinus subgenus Strobus) from southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingqing; Zhou, Wenjun; Kodrul, Tatiana M.; Naugolnykh, Serge V.; Jin, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Fossil records indicate that the genus Pinus L. split into two subgenera by the Late Cretaceous, although subgenus Strobus (D. Don) Lemmon is less well documented than subgenus Pinus L., especially in eastern Asia. In this paper, Pinus maomingensis sp. nov. is established based on a compressed seed cone from the upper Eocene of the Maoming Basin of southern China. This species is attributed to genus Pinus, subgenus Strobus, section Quinquefoliae Duhamel, subsection Strobus Loudon based on the combination of morphological characters obtained from the cone scales, specifically from the terminal umbo, rhombic apophysis, and cuticle structure. Associated fascicles of needle leaves with deciduous sheaths and bulbous bases are recognized as Pinus sp. and also represent Pinus subgenus Strobus. This new discovery from the Maoming Basin constitutes the first megafossil record of subgenus Strobus from southern China and implies that the members of this subgenus arrived in the southern region of China by the late Eocene. The extant species of subgenus Strobus are mainly distributed in northern temperate and tropical to subtropical mountainous regions. We propose that the Maoming Basin was adjacent to a mountainous region during the late Eocene. PMID:26548658

  12. Overbooking Airline Flights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1982-01-01

    The problems involved in making reservations for airline flights is discussed in creating a mathematical model designed to maximize an airline's income. One issue not considered in the model is any public relations problem the airline may have. The model does take into account the issue of denied boarding compensation. (MP)

  13. Two species of Naididae (Annelida, Clitellata) from southern Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu; Wang, Hongzhu; Cui, Yongde

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One new species of Naidinae (Oligochaeta, Naididae), Nais badia sp. n. and one new record species from China, Tubifex montanus Kowalewski, 1919 (Tubificinae) are found in southern Tibet. The new species is distinguished from congeners by its large area of reddish brown pigment in the anterior segments I–VIII, serrate hairs, pectinate needles with 1–2 intermediate teeth, ventral chaetae partly with 1–2 fine intermediate teeth and wave-like movements. The new material of the species Tubifex montanus differs slightly from the previous descriptions by its vas deferens entering atrium subapically, wide ental end of penial sheath and smooth hair chaetae. PMID:25349500

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these

  15. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dogs in Zhanjiang, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Hai; Li, Ming-Wei; Xu, Min-Jun; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The present study investigated the prevalence of T. gondii in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China, using both serological and molecular detection. A total of 364 serum samples and 432 liver tissue samples were collected from the slaughter house between December 2012 and January 2013 and were examined for T. gondii IgG antibody by ELISA and T. gondii DNA by semi-nested PCR based on B1 gene, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibody was 51.9%, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 37 of 432 (8.6%) liver tissue samples. These positive DNA samples were analyzed by PCR-RFLP at 3'- and 5'-SAG2. Only 8 samples gave the PCR-RFLP data, and they were all classified as type I, which may suggest that the T. gondii isolates from dogs in Zhanjiang city may represent type I or type I variant. This study revealed the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China. Integrated measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis in dogs in this area for public health concern. PMID:26323850

  16. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Dogs in Zhanjiang, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai-Hai; Li, Ming-Wei; Xu, Min-Jun; Cong, Wei; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is a parasitic zoonosis with worldwide distribution. The present study investigated the prevalence of T. gondii in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China, using both serological and molecular detection. A total of 364 serum samples and 432 liver tissue samples were collected from the slaughter house between December 2012 and January 2013 and were examined for T. gondii IgG antibody by ELISA and T. gondii DNA by semi-nested PCR based on B1 gene, respectively. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii IgG antibody was 51.9%, and T. gondii DNA was detected in 37 of 432 (8.6%) liver tissue samples. These positive DNA samples were analyzed by PCR-RFLP at 3'- and 5'-SAG2. Only 8 samples gave the PCR-RFLP data, and they were all classified as type I, which may suggest that the T. gondii isolates from dogs in Zhanjiang city may represent type I or type I variant. This study revealed the high prevalence of T. gondii infection in dogs in Zhanjiang city, southern China. Integrated measures should be taken to prevent and control toxoplasmosis in dogs in this area for public health concern. PMID:26323850

  17. Risk assessment of drought disaster in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Drought has become an increasing concern in southern China, but the drought risk has not been adequately studied. This study presents a method for the spatial assessment of drought risk in southern China using a conceptual framework that emphasizes the combined role of hazard, vulnerability, and exposure.A drought hazard map was retrieved with a compound index of meteorological drought method in a GIS environment. Normally, a large variation in the disaster-inducing factor implies a high probability of economic/social losses caused by a drought disaster. The map indicated that areas with a higher risk of drought hazard were mainly distributed in mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The vulnerability indices were based on climate factors as well as land use, geomorphological types, soil properties, and drainage density. The water preserving capability of purple calcareous soil in the basins in Sichuan and mid-east Yunnan, and the lateritic red soil in northeastern Guangdong is relatively weak. The main geomorphological features in Guangxi and Guangdong are hills, which leads to a serious expectation of soil and water losses. Thus, the main areas with a high risk of drought vulnerability are mid-east Yunnan and the basins in eastern Sichuan.The exposure indices were based on population density and agricultural production because population and agriculture experience the main impacts of a drought disaster. Higher exposure indices mean higher economic/social losses due to drought disasters. Areas with high exposure indices were mainly distributed in Guangdong and southern Guangxi.The overall risk was then calculated as the product of the hazard, vulnerability, and exposure. The results indicated a higher risk of drought disaster in the basins in eastern Sichuan,, northeastern Yunnan, and northeastern Guangdong. The main factor influencing the risk of a drought disaster was the hazard, but the vulnerability and exposure also played important roles.

  18. Persistence of airline accidents.

    PubMed

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Faria, Joao Ricardo; Gil-Alana, Luis Alberiko

    2010-10-01

    This paper expands on air travel accident research by examining the relationship between air travel accidents and airline traffic or volume in the period from 1927-2006. The theoretical model is based on a representative airline company that aims to maximise its profits, and it utilises a fractional integration approach in order to determine whether there is a persistent pattern over time with respect to air accidents and air traffic. Furthermore, the paper analyses how airline accidents are related to traffic using a fractional cointegration approach. It finds that airline accidents are persistent and that a (non-stationary) fractional cointegration relationship exists between total airline accidents and airline passengers, airline miles and airline revenues, with shocks that affect the long-run equilibrium disappearing in the very long term. Moreover, this relation is negative, which might be due to the fact that air travel is becoming safer and there is greater competition in the airline industry. Policy implications are derived for countering accident events, based on competition and regulation. PMID:20618386

  19. Airline advisory nursing.

    PubMed

    Mark, J A

    1994-02-01

    The commercial airliner cabin is a specialized environment, usually pressurized to an equivalent of 2,438-meter pressure altitude. Such an altitude can adversely affect people prone to hypoxia. Preflight attention to this and other problems by an advisory nurse (AN) can minimize or prevent in-flight emergencies. The AN can also facilitate travel for passengers with medical needs by being familiar with airline policies and federal regulations. By educating the patient/passenger, health care providers and airline personnel, the safety, comfort and dignity of all concerned can be maximized. PMID:10131607

  20. Airline Crew Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The discovery that human error has caused many more airline crashes than mechanical malfunctions led to an increased emphasis on teamwork and coordination in airline flight training programs. Human factors research at Ames Research Center has produced two crew training programs directed toward more effective operations. Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) defines areas like decision making, workload distribution, communication skills, etc. as essential in addressing human error problems. In 1979, a workshop led to the implementation of the CRM program by United Airlines, and later other airlines. In Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), crews fly missions in realistic simulators while instructors induce emergency situations requiring crew coordination. This is followed by a self critique. Ames Research Center continues its involvement with these programs.

  1. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  2. Six new species of Triomicrus Sharp from southern China (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).

    PubMed

    Shen, Jia-Wei; Yin, Zi-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Seven species of the genus Triomicrus Sharp are recognized in southern China, six of them are described as new: T. acutus  and T. nanlingensis Shen & Yin, sp. n. (Guangdong), T. pinnatus Shen & Yin, sp. n. (Guangdong and Hunan), T. cochlis Shen & Yin, sp. n. (Guangdong, Hunan and Guangxi), and T. cavus Shen & Yin, sp. n. and T. longus Shen & Yin, sp. n. (Guangxi). A key for the identification of Triomicrus in southern China is presented. PMID:26624728

  3. Estimating Airline Operating Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    The factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs were used to develop an airline operating cost model which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model permits estimates of aircraft related costs, i.e., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees. A method for estimating the costs of certain types of airline delay is also described.

  4. Vertical microbiological variation of a coastal aquifer in southern China.

    PubMed

    Huang, X L; Chen, J Y; Zhou, S N; Xie, L C; Jiang, H B; Dong, L Y

    2012-01-01

    Microbial communities in a coastal aquifer in the Zhuhai region of southern China were investigated by culture-independent molecular approaches. Four 16S rRNA gene libraries of three groundwater samples from varied depths and one seawater sample were constructed and analysed by the amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis technique (ARDRA). The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the 16S rDNA of clones presenting dominant ARDRA patterns were most similar to Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, and candidate divisions OPx (such as OP3, OP8, and OP11). In samples extracted from wells of 5-, 20-, and 35-m depth (i.e., D1, D5, and D6) Proteobacteria made up 32.3, 34.3, and 46.7% of the microbial communities, respectively. The same samples from D1, D5, and D6 also consisted of 5.0, 11.2, and 6.5% Bacteroidetes and 5.4, 6.6, and 7.8% Actinobacteria, respectively. In contrast, the seawater clone library had a predominant number of Proteobacteria (32.8%), while Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes both accounted for 9.3%. Total microbial diversity remained relatively constant over the top layer to a depth of approximately 35 m, significant community vertical and horizontal (seawater-groundwater) shifts were observed for certain bacterial populations. PMID:22277230

  5. Surface sediment characteristics and tower karst dissolution, Guilin, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tao

    2003-01-01

    Dissolution of extensive outcrops of limestone and dolostone in humid tropical and subtropical southern China produced numerous caves and residual hills that are referred as tower karst. This study identifies and relates the physical and chemical characteristics of the surface sediment with the limestone bedrock in Guilin to assess the influence of the limestone dissolution process on sediment composition. The results of this study indicated that (i) both limestone and dolostone of the region are very pure (99.5% and 98.5% of CaCO 3 and MgCO 3, respectively); (ii) the material composition of limestone and dolostone is different from that of soil and sediment of the region: constituents of surface sediments are highly related with the clastic sedimentary rocks, such as the mudstone, but show negative correlation with limestone and dolostone; (iii) the limestone formations are highly resistant to physical weathering and disintegration; their durability versus physical weathering and their high susceptibility to chemical dissolution account for why residual towers can form and persist; (iv) a dual-zone environmental structure exists vertically downward from the surface in Guilin: the zone of unconsolidated clastic sediments that is predominantly acidic, and the zone of karstified limestone that is predominantly basic. The evidence suggests that the environment and processes differ in these two zones. The chemical dissolution of limestone that formed tower karst of the region is not mainly responsible for the accumulation of clastic sediment on the surface.

  6. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters. PMID:27394602

  7. University Flight Operations Internships with Major Airlines: Airline Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NewMyer, David A.; Ruiz, Jose R.; Rogers, Ryan E.

    2000-01-01

    Compares the internship programs among the top 12 airlines; discusses some of the myths surrounding these programs; and looks at the benefits to the participants, the airlines, and universities. (Contains 16 references.) (JOW)

  8. Population Structures of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, W; Liang, M; Guan, L; Xu, M; Wen, X; Deng, X; Chen, J

    2014-02-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a highly detrimental citrus disease associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', a nonculturable alpha-proteobacterium. Characterization of the bacterial populations is important for development of disease management strategies. In this study, the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' populations in eight provinces in southern China where HLB is endemic were analyzed based on tandem repeat number (TRN) variations in a previously characterized genomic locus CLIBASIA_01645. Of the 224 HLB samples collected, 175 (78.3%) samples yielded single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons (the single amplicon group, SAG) and 49 (21.7%) samples produced multiple PCR amplicons (the multiple amplicon group, MAG). Variations in SAG are summarized by Nei's diversity index (H) and ratio of TRN ≤ 10/TRN > 10 genotypes (R10). Variations in the MAG are described by the percentage of occurrence (PMAG). At an orchard-level comparison, the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' population from a Guangdong orchard (n = 24) showed H = 0.50, R10 = 23, and PMAG = 0, significantly different from that of the non-Guangdong orchards in Yunnan (n = 23), H = 0.83, R10 = 2.3, and PMAG = 11.5, and in Hainan (n = 35), H = 0.88, R10 = 1.5, and PMAG = 16.7. In a region-level consideration, the Guangdong 'Ca. L. asiaticus' population (n = 78) was H = 0.77, R10 = 25, and PMAG = 1.3, whereas the non-Guangdong population (n = 84) was H = 0.91, R10 = 1.6, and PMAG = 26.9. Overall, significant differences were observed between the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' population from Guangdong Province and those from the other provinces. A strong aggregation of TRN = 6, 7, and 8 genotypes is characteristic to the 'Ca. L. asiaticus' population in Guangdong. Referenced to genome annotation, we propose that rearrangement of tandem repeats at locus CLIBASIA_01645 could be associated with bacterial environmental adaptation. PMID:24093922

  9. Cloud deposition of PAHs at Mount Lushan in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Yang, Minmin; Sun, Lei; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-09-01

    Cloud water samples were collected from Mount Lushan, a high alpine area of southern China, and analyzed using GC-MS to investigate the concentration levels, seasonal variations, particle-dissolved phase partitioning, ecological risk of PAHs and its relationship to the atmosphere and rainwater. The average concentration of total (dissolved+particle) PAHs in cloud water was 819.90 ng/L, which ranged from 2.30 ng/L for DbA to 295.38 ng/L for PhA. PhA (33.11%) contributed the most individual PAHs, followed by Flu (28.24%). Distinct seasonal variations in the total PAHs measured in this research had a higher concentration during the spring and a lower concentration during the summer. When cloud events occurred, the concentration of the atmospheric PAHs of the two phases decreased. The contribution from the gaseous phase of total PAHs in the air to the dissolved phase in cloud water was up to 60.43%, but the particulate phase in the air only contributed 39.57% to the total scavenging. The contribution of total PAHs from the atmosphere to clouds is higher in the gaseous phase than in the particulate phase. A comparative study of the concentrations of cloud water and the closest rain water revealed that the PAH concentration in rainwater was 1.80 times less than that of cloud water and that the dominant individual compounds in cloud water and rainwater were PhA and Flu. A total of 81.27% of the PAHs in cloud samples and 72.21% of the PAHs in rain samples remained in the dissolved phase. Ecological risk assessment indicated that PAHs in cloud water in spring and summer caused a certain degree of ecosystem risk and the mean ecosystem risk in spring was higher than that in summer. PMID:25967478

  10. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    PubMed Central

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  11. The Airline Quality Rating 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2001-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2001, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2000. AQR scores for the calendar year 2000 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2001 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 2000. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2000 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 2000, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1999 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  12. The Airline Quality Rating 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2003-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2003, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2002. AQR scores for the calendar year 2002 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2003 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 10 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2002. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of ontime arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2002 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2002, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2001 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  13. The Airline Quality Rating 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2002-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 2002, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2001. AQR scores for the calendar year 2001 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2002 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the 11 largest U.S. airlines operating during 2001. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2001 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2001, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2000 are included for each airline to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  14. Estimating airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    A review was made of the factors affecting commercial aircraft operating and delay costs. From this work, an airline operating cost model was developed which includes a method for estimating the labor and material costs of individual airframe maintenance systems. The model, similar in some respects to the standard Air Transport Association of America (ATA) Direct Operating Cost Model, permits estimates of aircraft-related costs not now included in the standard ATA model (e.g., aircraft service, landing fees, flight attendants, and control fees). A study of the cost of aircraft delay was also made and a method for estimating the cost of certain types of airline delay is described.

  15. Holocene Evolution of Qing'ao Embayment, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, A. D.; Yu, F.; Chen, B.; Zheng, Z.; Wang, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Holocene evolution of the Qing'ao embayment, Nan'ao Island, southern China, is primarily the result of the interaction of tectonic activity, climate variation and changes in relative sea level. Characterizing the evolutionary history of the relatively small Qing'ao embayment during the Holocene will help improve our understanding of the driving mechanisms of coastal evolution in the area. To reconstruct the Holocene evolution history we analyzed the grain size, loss on ignition (LOI) and carbonate content of modern and core samples. Modern environmental analogs were examined in surface samples ranging from the coastal sand dunes through to offshore. The results of these modern samples suggest that dune sand (mean size of ~2.33Phi) are slightly finer than beach sand (mean size of 2.13Phi), and nearshore sediment is much coarser than offshore sediment (mean size of 5.90Phi). This modern analogs were then applied to 8 percussion cores from the Qing'ao embayment. A chronological framework obtained from 11 radiocarbon samples suggests that the embayment started to accept deposition since early Holocene, ~8500 cal. yr. BP. Three main phases of Holocene evolution were identified. A basin wide shell-rich sand sheet forms the basal Holocene facies and overlies clay rich presumably Pleistocene sediments or bedrock. This facies records an initial sedimentation phase associated with the early Holocene transgression into the embayment (~8500-6000 cal. yr. BP). The basal facies grades upward to a mixed sandy-mud facies which includes lagoonal clayey-silts, flood tide delta sands and records an estuarine phase lasting from ~6000-1000 cal. yr. BP that appears coincident with falling regional sea levels. Coincident with the estuarine phase is a period of coastal dune building recorded as yet undated massive sands that are found in the upper fill. Toward the end of the estuarine phase it is apparent that dune migration has restricted the lagoon entrance and that this was

  16. Airline accident response.

    PubMed

    Bettes, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This article outlines government regulations affecting accident response and offers guidelines for airline contingency plans in the face of major air disasters, such as those encountered on September 11, 2001. The author also touches upon the role of the corporate medical department in accident investigation and victim identification. PMID:11872433

  17. Improving Airline Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under a NASA-Ames Space Act Agreement, Coryphaeus Software and Simauthor, Inc., developed an Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS). This software, developed for the aerospace and airline industry, enables the replay of Digital Flight Data Recorder (DFDR) data in a flexible, user-configurable, real-time, high fidelity 3D (three dimensional) environment.

  18. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Mary M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores for the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elements in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1 % of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective regarding performance quality in the industry.

  19. The Airline Quality Rating 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline quality on combined multiple performance criteria. This current report, the Airline Quality Rating 2004, reflects monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 2003. AQR scores far the calendar year 2003 are based on 15 elemnts in four major areas that focus on airline performance aspects important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating 2004 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for U.S. airlines that have at least 1% of domestic passenger volume during 2003. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, airlines comparative performance for the calendar year of 2003 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for domestic airline operations for the 12-month period of 2003, and industry results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 2002 are included, where available, to provide historical perspective

  20. The Airline Quality Rating 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1999-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple criteria. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1999, reflects an updated approach to calculating monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1998. AQR scores for the calendar year 1998 are based on 15 elements that focus on airline performance areas important to air travel consumers. The Airline Quality Rating is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1998. Using the Airline Quality Rating system of weighted averages and monthly performance data in the areas of on-time arrivals, involuntary denied boardings, mishandled baggage, and a combination of 12 customer complaint categories, major airlines comparative performance for the calendar year 1998 is reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1998, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1997, using the updated criteria, are included to provide a reference point regarding quality in the industry.

  1. Molecular Characteristics of H6N6 Influenza Virus Isolated from Pigeons in Guangxi, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Xie, Zhiqin; Luo, Sisi; Xie, Liji; Huang, Li; Deng, Xianwen; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Wang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an H6N6 avian influenza virus (AIV) isolated from a pigeon in Guangxi, southern China, in 2014. The eight RNA segment genes shared a high nucleotide identity (97 to 99%) with H6N6 subtypes of AIV isolated from ducks in the regions around Guangxi Province. The finding of this study will help us understand the ecology and molecular characteristics of H6 avian influenza virus in wild birds in southern China. PMID:26634763

  2. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between northern and southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, C.; Chen, M.; Xiang, R.; Liu, J.; Zhang, L.; Lu, J.

    2013-12-01

    To understand pollen transport mechanic and terrigenous area is the base to explain pollen data correctly in Southern South China Sea (Fig.1). Based on Palynology analyzing the following preliminary conclusions are listed. 1. Air pollen differences between northern and southern South China Sea 15 air pollen samples were collected from northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011. 13 air pollen samples were collected from southern South China Sea in December 2011. It was found that the air pollen are different between northern and southern part of South China Sea: the pollen types in the north are more abundant than in the south, Ulmaceae, Monolete spore, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Rosaceae, Labiatae occur only in the north, they do not occur or is just sporadic in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north is 10 times of the south, one of the reasons may be that the sampling season in the north is autumn with more flowering plants, the sampling season in the south is winter, with fewer flowering plants; the second reason might be that pollen and spore in autumn and winter are mainly spread by the winter wind, thus they reduce from north to south. 2. Pollen differences of the surface sediments between northern and southern South China Sea 14 samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea from August to October, 2011. 12 samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea from year 1997 to 2002. The differences of pollen characteristics from the surface sediments between northern and southern part of South China Sea are: pollen types and quantities in the north are richer than in south. There are Trilete spores (35-100%), Pinus (3-65%) in northern of SCS, with pollen concentration of 33-1031grain/g. There are only a small amount of Trilete-spore and Pinus pollen in southern of SCS. Pollen concentration in

  3. Additions to the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) from Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of the leafhopper subgenus Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) Matsumura, 1912, P. (P.) alba Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. from Yunnan Province, Southwestern China, P. (P.) amplificata Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. and P. (P.) longiapophysis Li, Dai & Li sp. nov. from Guangdong Province, Southern China, are described and illustrated. A key and an updated checklist with distribution to the Pediopsoides (Pediopsoides) species along with geographical distribution maps of the new species are given. PMID:27515660

  4. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension among Adults in Southern China, 2013.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Yan, Jing; Tang, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoling; Yu, Wei; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of hypertension and their associated factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 cities of urban areas and 5 counties of rural areas in Southern China in 2013, a stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select a representative sample. Recruitment included a total of 19254 participants aged 15 or older. Socio-demographic profiles, examinations were administrated on each subject. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension are 24.59% and 32.11%, respectively in southern China. Among all the hypertensive patients, 67.43% were aware of their condition, 55.76% took anti-hypertension medication recent two weeks, and 30.79% had their blood pressure controlled. Compared with male, female hypertensive patients had higher rates of hypertension awareness, treatment and control. Age, gender, marital status, living areas, education, BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose index (VAI), high body fat percentage (BFP) and family hypertension history correlated with the prevalence of hypertension. SBP/DBP increased with VAI and BFP increasing. There is an increasing prevalence of hypertension and high pre-hypertension in the general population in southern China, but levels of awareness, treatment, and control remain relatively low, especially for young and middle-aged population. Innovative strategies including of adopting appropriate anti-hypertensive medication therapy and healthy lifestyles should be taken. PMID:26784948

  5. Spatial boundary of urban ‘acid islands’ in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, E.; de Vries, W.; Liu, X.; Fang, J.; Galloway, J. N.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-07-01

    Elevated emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia in China have resulted in high levels of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, being contributors to soil acidification, especially in and near large cities. However, knowledge gaps still exist in the way that large cities shape spatial patterns of acid deposition. Here, we assessed the patterns of pH, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall in southern China’s forests by synthesizing data from published literature. Concentrations and fluxes of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall exhibited a power-law increase with a closer distance to the nearest large cities, and accordingly pH showed a logarithmic decline. Our findings indicate the occurrence of urban ‘acid islands’ with a critical radius of approximately 70 km in southern China, receiving potential acid loads of more than 2 keq ha-1 yr-1. These urban acid islands covered an area of 0.70 million km2, accounting for nearly 30% of the land area in southern China. Despite a significant capacity to neutralize acids in precipitation, our analysis highlights a substantial contribution of ammonium to potential acid load. Our results suggest a joint control on emissions of multiple acid precursors from urban areas in southern China.

  6. Complete genome sequence of southern tomato virus identified from China using next generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complete genome sequence of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus, southern tomato virus (STV), on tomatoes in China, was elucidated using small RNAs deep sequencing. The identified STV_CN12 shares 99% sequence identity to other isolates from Mexico, France, Spain, and U.S. This is the first report ...

  7. Analysis of reasons for sow culling and seasonal effects on reproductive disorders in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunxiang; Liu, Xiaohong; Mo, Delin; Chen, Qingsen; Chen, Yaosheng

    2015-08-01

    Sow culling rates have a direct correlation to the economic efficiency of both breeding herd and commercial herd. Analyzing the reasons of sow culling could lead to improve production efficiency of farms. This study, which involved inspections of four farms in Southern China, manifested that the rate of unplanned sow-culling has reached to 78.1% in total culls. In which, reproductive disorders and lameness accounted for 35.3% and 22.5%, respectively. The average parity of culled sows was 4.9, but a high proportion (19.6%) of sows was culled at their first parity. Anestrus, the highest proportion of reproductive disorders, accounting for 47.7%, occurred in July followed by June (17.7% and 11.8% respectively). The frequency of culling due to reproductive disorders in Southern China was higher than others regions, which suffered from the high temperature and humidity in Southern China. The frequency of sow culling reached its peak in the summer, specifically in July (12.3%), which means that hot weather has an adverse effect on sow culling. Pig farmers should take effective measures to reduce heat stress as nutrition strategies or cooling systems in gestation and/or farrowing sow herds between May and July in Southern China. PMID:26139322

  8. Spatial boundary of urban ‘acid islands’ in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Du, E.; de Vries, W.; Liu, X.; Fang, J.; Galloway, J. N.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonia in China have resulted in high levels of sulfur and nitrogen deposition, being contributors to soil acidification, especially in and near large cities. However, knowledge gaps still exist in the way that large cities shape spatial patterns of acid deposition. Here, we assessed the patterns of pH, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall in southern China’s forests by synthesizing data from published literature. Concentrations and fluxes of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in bulk precipitation and throughfall exhibited a power-law increase with a closer distance to the nearest large cities, and accordingly pH showed a logarithmic decline. Our findings indicate the occurrence of urban ‘acid islands’ with a critical radius of approximately 70 km in southern China, receiving potential acid loads of more than 2 keq ha−1 yr−1. These urban acid islands covered an area of 0.70 million km2, accounting for nearly 30% of the land area in southern China. Despite a significant capacity to neutralize acids in precipitation, our analysis highlights a substantial contribution of ammonium to potential acid load. Our results suggest a joint control on emissions of multiple acid precursors from urban areas in southern China. PMID:26211880

  9. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, Control and Risk Factors Associated with Hypertension among Adults in Southern China, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xinhua; Xu, Xiaoling; Yu, Wei; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control of hypertension and their associated factors in southern China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 cities of urban areas and 5 counties of rural areas in Southern China in 2013, a stratified multistage random sampling method was used to select a representative sample. Recruitment included a total of 19254 participants aged 15 or older. Socio-demographic profiles, examinations were administrated on each subject. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to identify the risk factors of hypertension, awareness, treatment, and control. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension and pre-hypertension are 24.59% and 32.11%, respectively in southern China. Among all the hypertensive patients, 67.43% were aware of their condition, 55.76% took anti-hypertension medication recent two weeks, and 30.79% had their blood pressure controlled. Compared with male, female hypertensive patients had higher rates of hypertension awareness, treatment and control. Age, gender, marital status, living areas, education, BMI, waist circumference, visceral adipose index (VAI), high body fat percentage (BFP) and family hypertension history correlated with the prevalence of hypertension. SBP/DBP increased with VAI and BFP increasing. There is an increasing prevalence of hypertension and high pre-hypertension in the general population in southern China, but levels of awareness, treatment, and control remain relatively low, especially for young and middle-aged population. Innovative strategies including of adopting appropriate anti-hypertensive medication therapy and healthy lifestyles should be taken. PMID:26784948

  10. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  11. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  12. Airline Deregulation and Public Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Steven A.; Winston, Clifford

    1989-08-01

    An assessment of the effects of airline deregulation on travelers and carriers indicates that deregulation has provided travelers and carriers with 14.9 billion of annual benefits (1988 dollars). Airport congestion, airline safety, airline bankruptcy, and mergers are also analyzed and found in most cases to have reduced benefits. But, these costs should not be attributed to deregulation per se, but to failures by the government to pursue appropriate policies in these areas. Pursuit of policies that promote airline competition and efficient use of airport capacity would significantly increase the benefits from deregulation and would provide valuable guidance for other industries undergoing the transition to deregulation.

  13. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea. PMID:27410682

  14. Dynamics of the Water Circulations in the Southern South China Sea and Its Seasonal Transports.

    PubMed

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Samah, Azizan Abu; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System is used to study the seasonal water circulations and transports of the Southern South China Sea. The simulated seasonal water circulations and estimated transports show consistency with observations, e.g., satellite altimeter data set and re-analysis data of the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. It is found that the seasonal water circulations are mainly driven by the monsoonal wind stress and influenced by the water outflow/inflow and associated currents of the entire South China Sea. The intrusion of the strong current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and the eddies at different depths in all seasons are due to the conservation of the potential vorticity as the depth increases. Results show that the water circulation patterns in the northern part of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are generally dominated by the geostrophic currents while those in the southern areas are due solely to the wind stress because of negligible Coriolis force there. This study clearly shows that individual surface freshwater flux (evaporation minus precipitation) controls the sea salinity balance in the Southern South China Sea thermohaline circulations. Analysis of climatological data from a high resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System reveals that the complex bathymetry is important not only for water exchange through the Southern South China Sea but also in regulating various transports across the main passages in the Southern South China Sea, namely the Sunda Shelf and the Strait of Malacca. Apart from the above, in comparision with the dynamics of the Sunda Shelf, the Strait of Malacca reflects an equally significant role in the annual transports into the Andaman Sea. PMID:27410682

  15. Autosomal STRs provide genetic evidence for the hypothesis that Tai people originate from southern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their "siblings" to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01-0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524-0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211-0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses statistically

  16. Autosomal STRs Provide Genetic Evidence for the Hypothesis That Tai People Originate from Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Zhou, Chi; Huang, Xiaoqin; Lin, Keqin; Shi, Lei; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shuyuan; Chu, Jiayou; Yang, Zhaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Tai people are widely distributed in Thailand, Laos and southwestern China and are a large population of Southeast Asia. Although most anthropologists and historians agree that modern Tai people are from southwestern China and northern Thailand, the place from which they historically migrated remains controversial. Three popular hypotheses have been proposed: northern origin hypothesis, southern origin hypothesis or an indigenous origin. We compared the genetic relationships between the Tai in China and their “siblings” to test different hypotheses by analyzing 10 autosomal microsatellites. The genetic data of 916 samples from 19 populations were analyzed in this survey. The autosomal STR data from 15 of the 19 populations came from our previous study (Lin et al., 2010). 194 samples from four additional populations were genotyped in this study: Han (Yunnan), Dai (Dehong), Dai (Yuxi) and Mongolian. The results of genetic distance comparisons, genetic structure analyses and admixture analyses all indicate that populations from northern origin hypothesis have large genetic distances and are clearly differentiated from the Tai. The simulation-based ABC analysis also indicates this. The posterior probability of the northern origin hypothesis is just 0.04 [95%CI: (0.01–0.06)]. Conversely, genetic relationships were very close between the Tai and populations from southern origin or an indigenous origin hypothesis. Simulation-based ABC analyses were also used to distinguish the southern origin hypothesis from the indigenous origin hypothesis. The results indicate that the posterior probability of the southern origin hypothesis [0.640, 95%CI: (0.524–0.757)] is greater than that of the indigenous origin hypothesis [0.324, 95%CI: (0.211–0.438)]. Therefore, we propose that the genetic evidence does not support the hypothesis of northern origin. Our genetic data indicate that the southern origin hypothesis has higher probability than the other two hypotheses

  17. The effects of risk perception and flight experience on airline pilots' locus of control with regard to safety operation behaviors.

    PubMed

    You, Xuqun; Ji, Ming; Han, Haiyan

    2013-08-01

    The primary objective of this paper was to integrate two research traditions, social cognition approach and individual state approach, and to understand the relationships between locus of control (LOC), risk perception, flight time, and safety operation behavior (SOB) among Chinese airline pilots. The study sample consisted of 193 commercial airline pilots from China Southern Airlines Ltd. The results showed that internal locus of control directly affected pilot safety operation behavior. Risk perception seemed to mediate the relationship between locus of control and safety operation behaviors, and total flight time moderated internal locus of control. Thus, locus of control primarily influences safety operation behavior indirectly by affecting risk perception. The total effect of internal locus of control on safety behaviors is larger than that of external locus of control. Furthermore, the safety benefit of flight experience is more pronounced among pilots with high internal loci of control in the early and middle flight building stages. Practical implications for aviation safety and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:23680497

  18. Water pollution and cyanobacteria's variation of rivers surrounding southern Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingyang; Huang, Linglin; Tan, Lisha; Yang, Zhe; Baig, Shams Ali; Sheng, Tiantian; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Xinhua

    2013-05-01

    The water quality and cyanobacterial variation of rivers surrounding southern Taihu Lake, China were purposively monitored from 2008 to 2010. Trophic level index (TLI) was used to evaluate the trophic levels of southern Taihu Lake. Results showed a considerable decline in the monitored data compared with 2007, and the data showed downward trends year after year. The TLI decreased from 55.6 to 51.3, which implied that southern Taihu Lake was mildly eutrophic. The water quality and cyanobacterial variation indicated a positive response to the adopted control measures in the southern Taihu Lake basin, but the intra- and inter-annual variability was still quite varied. High concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus typically lead to algae outbreaks, however, the cyanobacteria growth may result in a decline of the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. Temperature and other weather conditions are also important factors for algae outbreaks; the risk of blue-green algal blooms still persists. PMID:23789569

  19. Epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of the PRRSV in Southern China from 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiexiong; Cui, Tiantian; Cui, Jin; Chen, Yao; Zhang, Minze; Zhou, Pei; Deng, Shengchao; Su, Shuo; Zhang, Guihong

    2014-10-01

    In 2006, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) emerged in China and caused lasting damage to the swine industry. To analyze the genetic variation of PRRSV in Southern China, 126 tissue samples were collected; 41 ORF5 and partial Nsp2 genes were sequenced and analyzed. The results showed that the PRRSV positive rate was 32.54% over the last four years, that there are two main subgenotypes in Southern China, and that the dominant strain is HP-PRRSV. An amino acid analysis of Nsp2 showed that 40 strains contained a 30-amino acid deletion in the hypervariable region. However, the 13YJ6-8 mutant exhibited a unique amino acid deletion at positions 508-514 of Nsp2. A phylogenetic analysis of ORF5 revealed that this mutant and five other strains, belong to an intermediate subgenotype (inter-subgenotype), which is characterized by extensive mutations, especially in the signal peptide and N-glycosylation sites. The results of this study demonstrate the genetic diversity of PRRSV in Southern China and provide basic knowledge of the PRRSV epidemic in this region. PMID:25131748

  20. Monitoring the Prevalence of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi in Southern China and Testing Tricyclic Compounds against Gametocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenting; Pang, Qin; Xu, Ruixue; Liu, Jianwen; Liu, Shengfa; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss on the poultry industry. Two major species of Leucocytozoon parasites have been reported in China, L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi, although L. sabrazesi appears to be more widespread than L. caulleryi in southern China. The traditional method for detecting Leucocytozoon infection is microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of mature gametocytes in circulation, which may miss infections with low parasitemia (gametocytemia) or immature gametocytes. Here we developed a PCR-based method to monitor L. sabrazesi infections at seven sites in four provinces of China after testing two PCR primer pairs based on parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase III (coxIII) genes. We compared the results of PCR detection with those of microscopic observation. As expected, the PCR assays were more sensitive than microscope examination in detecting L. sabrazesi infection and were able to detect parasite DNA after gametocytes disappeared in the blood stream. Using these methods, we investigated monthly dynamics of L. sabrazesi in chickens from a free-range farm in Xiamen, Fujian province of China, over one year. Our results showed that chickens were infected with L. sabrazesi year-round in southern China. Finally, we tested several compounds for potential treatment of Leucocytozoon infections, including primaquine, ketotifen, clomipramine hydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, sulfaquinoxaline, and pyrimethamine. Only primaquine had activity against L. sabrazesi gametocytes. Our results provide important information for controlling parasite transmission in southern China and disease management. PMID:27571513

  1. Monitoring the Prevalence of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi in Southern China and Testing Tricyclic Compounds against Gametocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenting; Pang, Qin; Xu, Ruixue; Liu, Jianwen; Liu, Shengfa; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss on the poultry industry. Two major species of Leucocytozoon parasites have been reported in China, L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi, although L. sabrazesi appears to be more widespread than L. caulleryi in southern China. The traditional method for detecting Leucocytozoon infection is microscopic examination of blood smears for the presence of mature gametocytes in circulation, which may miss infections with low parasitemia (gametocytemia) or immature gametocytes. Here we developed a PCR-based method to monitor L. sabrazesi infections at seven sites in four provinces of China after testing two PCR primer pairs based on parasite mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase III (coxIII) genes. We compared the results of PCR detection with those of microscopic observation. As expected, the PCR assays were more sensitive than microscope examination in detecting L. sabrazesi infection and were able to detect parasite DNA after gametocytes disappeared in the blood stream. Using these methods, we investigated monthly dynamics of L. sabrazesi in chickens from a free-range farm in Xiamen, Fujian province of China, over one year. Our results showed that chickens were infected with L. sabrazesi year-round in southern China. Finally, we tested several compounds for potential treatment of Leucocytozoon infections, including primaquine, ketotifen, clomipramine hydrochloride, desipramine hydrochloride, sulfaquinoxaline, and pyrimethamine. Only primaquine had activity against L. sabrazesi gametocytes. Our results provide important information for controlling parasite transmission in southern China and disease management. PMID:27571513

  2. Eleven new species of theridiosomatid spiders from southern China (Araneae, Theridiosomatidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingyuan; Li, Shuqiang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera of the spider family Theridiosomatidae, Alaria gen.n. with the type species Alaria chengguanensis sp. n., Menglunia gen.n. with the type species Menglunia inaffecta sp. n., are described from Guizhou and Yunnan, China. Nine more new species from Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan and Yunnan Provinces of southern China are described: Baalzebub rastrarius sp. n.,Baalzebub youyiensis sp. n., Karstia nitidasp. n., Karstia prolata sp. n.,Ogulnius hapalus sp. n., Theridiosoma plumaria sp. n., Theridiosoma triumphalis sp. n., Theridiosoma vimineum sp. n., Zoma fascia sp. n. The type specimens are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. PMID:23459445

  3. Genetics analysis of 38 STR loci in Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Li; Liu, Haibo; Liao, Qinxiang; Xu, Xu; Chen, Wen; Hao, Shicheng

    2016-05-01

    The allele frequencies and statistical parameters of 38 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in the Uygur population from Southern Xinjiang of China with 290 unrelated individuals. The results show these 38 STR loci have high or medium power of discrimination and probabilities of exclusion. All loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic distances between the Uygur population and other Chinese populations were also estimated. PMID:26438047

  4. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. PMID:26657252

  5. Increasing autumn drought over southern China associated with ENSO regime shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjun; Jin, Fei-Fei; Turner, Andrew

    2014-06-01

    In the two most recent decades, more frequent drought struck southern China during autumn, causing an unprecedented water crisis. We found that the increasing autumn drought is largely attributed to an ENSO regime shift. Compared to traditional eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño, central Pacific (CP) El Niño events have occurred more frequently, with maximum sea surface temperature anomalies located near the dateline. Southern China usually experiences precipitation surplus during the autumn of EP El Niño years, while the CP El Niño tends to produce precipitation deficits. Since the CP El Niño has occurred more frequently while EP El Niño has become less common after the early 1990s, there has been a significant increase in the frequency of autumn drought. This has implications for increasing precipitation shortages over southern China in a warming world, in which CP El Niño events have been suggested to become more common.

  6. Comparison of modern pollen distribution between the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chuanxiu; Chen, Muhong; Xiang, Rong; Liu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lanlan; Lu, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted a palynological analysis based on different number of air pollen samples for the northern and southern parts of the South China Sea, respectively, in order to give a reference to reconstruct the paleoclimate of the area. (1) Fifteen air pollen samples were collected from the northern part of the South China Sea from August to September 2011, and 13 air pollen samples were collected from the southern part of the South China Sea in December 2011. The pollen types were more abundant in the north than in the south. The total pollen number and concentration in the north was 10 times more than that in the south, which may be because of the sampling season. Airborne pollen types and concentrations have a close relationship with wind direction and distance from the sampling point to the continent. (2) Seventy-four samples were collected from surface sediments in the northern part of the South China Sea in the autumn. Thirty-three samples were collected from surface sediments in the southern part of the South China Sea in the winter. Pollen concentrations in the north were nearly 10 times higher than that in the south. This is because trilete spores are transported by rivers from Hainan Island to the sea and also by the summer monsoon-forced marine current. (3) Ten air pollen samples and 10 surface sediments samples were selected for comparison. The pollen and spores in the air were mainly herbaceous and woody pollen, excluding fern spores, having seasonal pollen characteristics. Pollen in the surface sediments were mainly trilete, Pinus, and herbaceous, and may also show a combination of annual pollen characteristics.

  7. Roles of Various El Nino Events in Southern China Rainfall and Typhoon Landfall Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    El Nino events have been separated into canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki because of different locations of maximum sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and climate impacts. Based on the opposite influence on rainfall in southern China during boreal fall, this paper classifies El Nino Modoki into two groups: El Nino Modoki I and II which show different origins and patterns of SST anomalies. The warm SST anomalies originate in the equatorial central Pacific and subtropical northeastern Pacific for El Nino Modoki I and II, respectively. Thus, El Nino Modoki I shows a symmetric SST anomaly distribution about the equator with the maximum warming in the equatorial central Pacific, whereas El Nino Modoki II displays an asymmetric distribution with the warm SST anomalies extending from the northeastern Pacific to equatorial central Pacific. Additionally, the warm SST anomalies in the equatorial central Pacific extend further westward for El Nino Modoki II than El Nino Modoki I. Similar to canonical El Niño, El Nino Modoki I is associated with an anomalous anticyclone in the Philippine Sea which induces southwesterly wind anomalies along the south coast of China and carries the moisture for increasing rainfall in southern China. For El Nino Modoki II, an anomalous cyclone resides east of the Philippines, associated with northerly wind anomalies and a decrease in rainfall in southern China. Canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki I are associated with a westward extension of the western North Pacific subtropical high (WNPSH), whereas El Nino Modoki II shifts the WNPSH eastward. Differing from canonical El Nino and El Nino Modoki I, El Nino Modoki II corresponds to northwesterly anomalies of the typhoon steering flow which are unfavorable for typhoons to make landfall in China.

  8. Garra longchuanensis, a new cyprinid (Teleostei: Cypriniformes) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Wang, Xuzheng; Xiong, Huan; He, Shunping

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the genus Garra is described from the Longchuan Jiang River, a tributary flowing to the Yiluowadi Jiang (Irrawaddy River) basin in Tengchong, Yunnan, South China. Garra longchuanensis is distinct from other Chinese congeners, except for G. qiaojiensis, in having 12 circumpeduncular scales, a well-developed rostral lobe with irregular distributed acanthoid tubercles, a deep groove to form a transverse lobe and a conspicuous, heavily tuberculated quadrate proboscis, and from G. qiaojiensis in having a slightly pointed snout (vs. rounded), a long and slender caudal peduncle (length 17.8-20.6% SL vs. 15.5-17.1%, width 10.9-12.6% SL vs. 11.3-12.6%), pectoral fin with 15-16 (vs. 13) branched rays, pelvic fin with 9 (vs. 8) branched rays, and an anterior position of anus (anus to anal distance 27.2-39.1% of pelvic to anal distance vs. 22.8-28.3%). PMID:27395590

  9. Neogene coupling between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    He, Guang-Yu; Chen, Han-Lin

    2004-08-01

    Based on the sedimentary and subsiding features of Kuqa foreland basin, this paper presents the following characteristics of Neogene coupling relationship between Kuqa Basin and Southern Tien Shan Orogen, Northwestern China: (1) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen underwent Neogene uplifting of 4 km in height and the Kuqa Basin underwent Neogene subsidence of 4-6 km in depth accordingly beginning in 25 Ma; (2) The Southern Tien Shan Orogen moved continuously toward the Kuqa Basin, with largest structural shortening rate of greater than 53.7%, and the north boundary of the Kuqa Basin retreated continuously southward accordingly since the Miocene; (3) There are two subsidence centers with high subsiding rates and large subsiding extent, located in the eastern and western Kuqa Basin respectively, with the subsiding maximizing in the deposition period of Kuqa Formation. PMID:15236483

  10. Food irradiation and airline catering.

    PubMed

    Preston, F S

    1988-04-01

    Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight. While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed. PMID:3370047

  11. Airline Operations Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a NASA-developed expert systems program, is used by American Airlines for three purposes: as a rapid prototyping tool; to develop production prototypes; and to develop production application. An example of the latter is CLIPS' use in "Hub S1AAshing," a knowledge based system that recommends contingency plans when severe schedule reductions must be made. Hub S1AAshing has replaced a manual, labor intensive process. It saves time and allows Operations Control Coordinators to handle more difficult situations. Because the system assimilates much of the information necessary to facilitate educated decision making, it minimizes negative impact in situations where it is impossible to operate all flights.

  12. Development of a Fish-Based Index of Biotic Integrity for Wadeable Streams in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yintao; Sui, Xiaoyun; Chen, Yifeng

    2013-10-01

    With economic development in China, human-induced pressures on aquatic environments have grown and created an urgent need for tools measuring the ecological condition of aquatic systems. However, biological indicators for wadeable streams in China were poorly developed. This study developed and validated a multi-metric index of fish assemblages for wadeable streams of southern China to meet the requirement of the water project which has been carried on in China in recent years. Fifty-seven stream sites were sampled in April-May and November-December 2010 to develop an index of biotic integrity. A set of 45 candidate metrics were evaluated for range, responsiveness and redundancy, resulting in the selection of six metrics for the index: number of native species, number of rheophilic species, proportion of benthic riffle individuals, number of lithophilic species, number of omnivore species, and number of fish per hour sampling. The publicly available census data were used as independent data set to validate our method. Twenty-three sites were assessed as subject to significant (SP) or non-significant pressures (NSP) based on anthropogenic pressure evaluation. Our index performed well in discriminating NSP and SP sites, which suggested that our method could provide an accurate measure for wadeable streams ecosystem condition. We believe this integrated approach would meet the requirements for the water projects of China, and the process of developing the method could be used as reference for managing the subtropical streams in other areas of China or other states.

  13. Cave Diplopoda of southern China with reference to millipede diversity in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Golovatch, Sergei I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The diversity of Diplopoda in caves of southern China is remarkably high, often 5–6 species per cave, consisting mostly of local endemics and presumed troglobionts. These are evidently biased to just a few lineages, mainly members of the orders Chordeumatida and Callipodida, the families Cambalopsidae (Spirostreptida) and Haplodesmidae (Polydesmida) or the genera Pacidesmus, Epanerchodus and Glenniea (all Polydesmida, Polydesmidae), Trichopeltis (Polydesmida, Cryptodesmidae), Dexmoxytes (Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) and Hyleoglomeris (Glomerida, Glomeridae). All these taxa, especially the Paradoxosomatidae and Cambalopsidae (usually amounting to about 60% and 10% of the total species diversity in the Oriental fauna, respectively), are moderately to highly speciose across Southeast Asia, being largely epigean. However, the epigean Diplopoda of southern China are yet badly understudied, since much of the collecting and taxonomic exploration efforts still focus on cavernicoles. The Oriental Region is the only biogeographic realm globally that harbours all 16 orders of Diplopoda, of which 14 have already been encountered in China and/or the immediately adjacent parts of Indochina. Thus, China may actually prove to support no less than 1,000 millipede species of various origins, mainly Oriental and Palaearctic. PMID:26257536

  14. Identification and genomic analysis of two duck-origin Tembusu virus strains in southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Linlin; An, Hejia; Sun, Minhua; Dong, Jiawen; Yuan, Jianfeng; Hu, Qilin

    2012-08-01

    Egg-laying duck flocks in Guangdong province, southern China, have been suffering a widely spreading infectious disease with abrupt egg drops and death since the winter of 2010. However, the causative pathogen was not known. We obtained two independent virus isolates named FS and JM from the diseased layer duck flocks and identified them as duck-origin Tembusu virus by PCR detection, sequencing the entire length of the open reading frames (ORFs). The two isolates FS and JM shared high sequence similarity to the isolates of duck-origin Tembusu virus that was first emerged in eastern China in April 2010. Blast analysis shows that the whole ORF sequences of FS and JM have the highest similarity (>99 %) to BYD-1(the first reported duck-origin Tembusu virus) and JS804 (the first reported goose-origin Tembusu virus), indicating that the full-length genomes were highly conserved in waterfowl-origin Tembusu viruses. The present study suggests that duck-origin Tembusu viruses have spread fast from eastern China to southern China, causing widely spreading infections. The high conservation of duck-origin Tembusu virus strains provides the genomic basis for choosing the strains for vaccine preparation for better protection against this new virus infection. PMID:22581444

  15. Observations of poleward-propagating large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, F.; Wan, W.; Ning, B.; Zhao, B.; Li, Q.; Wang, Y.; Hu, L.; Zhang, R.; Xiong, B.

    2013-02-01

    We report here on two cases of poleward-propagating large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) in China during a medium-scale storm between 27 May and 1 June 2011. The observations were conducted by making use of the Global Positioning System network and ionosondes in China and Southeast Asia. One northeastward-propagating LSTID occurred on the morning of 30 May, while the other was observed during the nighttime of 1 June. Both poleward-traveling LSTIDs occurred during the storm's recovery phase in southern China's low-latitude region (geomagnetic latitude ~ 7.3-24° N) and experienced severe dissipation during their propagation from south to north. Although the initial relative amplitude of the nighttime LSTID was ~ 60% larger than that of the morning event, the nighttime event dissipated more quickly than the morning event because of a strong nighttime enhancement in background total electronic content (TEC) during storm time, which led to strong ion-drag dissipation during the evening. The poleward-propagating LSTIDs exhibit a narrower latitudinal range, a smaller amplitude, and a slightly higher elevation compared with the equatorward-moving LSTIDs observed in the same region. Given these features, the poleward-propagating LSTIDs were likely excited by some local source near southern China. Excitation of secondary LSTIDs during the dissipation of some primary medium-scale disturbances from the lower atmosphere is a possible mechanism.

  16. Opportunities for Woman-Initiated HIV Prevention Methods among Female Sex Workers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Margaret R.; Liao, Susu; Abbott, Maryann; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiang; Jiang, Jingmei; Wei, Liu; Yu, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Rapid changes in China over the past two decades have led to significant problems associated with population migration and changing social attitudes, including a growing sex industry and concurrent increases in STIs and HIV. This article reports results of an exploratory study of microbicide acceptability and readiness and current HIV prevention efforts among female sex workers in two rural and one urban town in Hainan and Guangxi Provinces in southern China. The study focused on these women’s knowledge and cultural understandings of options for protecting themselves from exposure to STIs and HIV, and the potential viability and acceptability of woman-initiated prevention methods. We report on ethnographic elicitation interviews conducted with women working within informal sex-work establishments (hotels, massage and beauty parlors, roadside restaurants, boarding houses). We discuss implications of these findings for further promotion of woman-initiated prevention methods such as microbicides and female condoms among female sex workers in China. PMID:17599276

  17. Flight selection at United Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, W.

    1980-01-01

    Airline pilot selection proceedures are discussed including psychogical and personality tests, psychomotor performance requirements, and flight skills evaluation. Necessary attitude and personality traits are described and an outline of computer selection, testing, and training techniques is given.

  18. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John H.; Rutner, Stephen M.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America, This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  19. Outsourcing as an Airline Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutner, Stephen M.; Brown, John H.

    1999-01-01

    Since the deregulation of the airline industry, carriers have searched for any method to improve their competitive position. At the same time, there has been a growth in the use of Third Party Logistics throughout corporate America. This paper presents an overview of the Third Party Logistics system of outsourcing and insourcing within the airline industry. This discussion generated a number of propositions, possible future scenarios and opportunities for empirical testing.

  20. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85-1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29-2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83-1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53-1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02-1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55-36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0-11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0-6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant "baseline" data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China. PMID:24741355

  1. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and dysentery in Shandong province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Bi, Peng; Wang, Guoyong; Hiller, Janet E

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on dysentery transmission, the relationship between monthly dysentery cases in Shandong Province of China and the monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), a broad index of ENSO, was examined over the period 1991-2003. Spearman correlations and generalized linear models were calculated to detect the association between the SOI and dysentery cases. Data from 1991 to 2001 were used to estimate the parameters, while data from 2002 to 2003 were used to test the forecasting ability of the model. After controlling for seasonality, autocorrelation, and a time-lagged effect, the results indicate that there was a significant negative association between the number of dysentery cases and the SOI, with a lagged effect of 2 months. A one-standard-deviation decrease in the SOI might cause up to 207 more dysentery cases per month in Shandong Province. This is the first report of the impact of the Southern Oscillation on dysentery risk in China, indicating that the SOI may be a useful early indicator of potential dysentery risk in Shandong Province. PMID:16690051

  2. New reassortant H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus from waterfowl in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yafen; Cui, Jin; Song, Hui; Ye, Jiaqi; Zhao, Zhishan; Wu, Siyu; Xu, Chenggang; Jiao, Peirong; Liao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    New reassortant H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were isolated from waterfowl in Southern China. Blast analysis demonstrated that the PB2 gene in these viruses were most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1), while their NP genes were both more closely related to A/wild duck/Shandong/1/2011 (H5N1) and A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2010 (H5N8). However, the HA, NA, PB1, PA, M, and NS genes had the highest identity with A/duck/Jiangsu/k1203/2010 (H5N8). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that their HA genes belonged to the same GsGd H5 clade 2.3.4.4 detected in China in 2010. Therefore, we supposed that these H5N8 viruses might be novel reassortant viruses that have a H5N8 backbone while acquiring PB2 and NP genes from H5N1 viruses. This study is useful for better understanding the genetic and antigenic evolution of H5 avian influenza viruses in Southern China. PMID:26557113

  3. Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Barton, Huw J.; Wan, Zhiwei; Li, Quan; Ma, Zhikun; Li, Mingqi; Zhang, Dan; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poor preservation of plant macroremains in the acid soils of southern subtropical China has hampered understanding of prehistoric diets in the region and of the spread of domesticated rice southwards from the Yangtze River region. According to records in ancient books and archaeological discoveries from historical sites, it is presumed that roots and tubers were the staple plant foods in this region before rice agriculture was widely practiced. But no direct evidences provided to test the hypothesis. Here we present evidence from starch and phytolith analyses of samples obtained during systematic excavations at the site of Xincun on the southern coast of China, demonstrating that during 3,350–2,470 aBC humans exploited sago palms, bananas, freshwater roots and tubers, fern roots, acorns, Job's-tears as well as wild rice. A dominance of starches and phytoliths from palms suggest that the sago-type palms were an important plant food prior to the rice in south subtropical China. We also believe that because of their reliance on a wide range of starch-rich plant foods, the transition towards labour intensive rice agriculture was a slow process. PMID:23667584

  4. Detection of novel adenoviruses in fecal specimens from rodents and shrews in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Ke, Xue-Mei; Guan, Wei-Jie; Li, Jin-Ming; Huo, Shu-Ting; Chen, Shao-Wei; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Zhou, Wen; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ge, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of AdVs in rodents and shrews in China are still unknown. To explore the epidemiological characteristics of rodent and shrew AdVs in southern China, 255 fecal samples derived from four rodent species and 90 from shrews were collected in Xiamen and Guangzhou city of southern China. Amplification of a 314-324-bp fragment from the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs was attempted by using a nested PCR. Twenty-nine (11.4 %) specimens from rodents and one (1.1 %) specimen from shrews were tested positive for AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that nine samples from Rattus norvegicus in Guangzhou city between 2012 and 2013 might be the genuine AdV of R. norvegicus. The same putative AdV sequences were derived from samples of different host species from different/same places. A novel adenovirus was detected in Suncus murinus Linnaeus (SML/14GDGZ72) for the first time. Our findings provide new data on the prevalence and diversity of AdVs in rodents and shrews. PMID:26980673

  5. Operating cost model for local service airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Several mathematical models now exist which determine the operating economics for a United States trunk airline. These models are valuable in assessing the impact of new aircraft into an airline's fleet. The use of a trunk airline cost model for the local service airline does not result in representative operating costs. A new model is presented which is representative of the operating conditions and resultant costs for the local service airline. The calculated annual direct and indirect operating costs for two multiequipment airlines are compared with their actual operating experience.

  6. Extended-range forecast of spring rainfall in southern China based on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Hsu, Pang-chi; He, Jinhai; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenjun

    2015-11-01

    Spring (March-May) rainfall after a dry period in winter has a substantial impact on agriculture and water management in populous southern China. The occurrence of low-frequency spring rainfall anomalies has been linked with the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) through its modulation of large-scale circulation and moisture supply over southern China. Using the spatial and temporal information of the MJO as a predictor, an empirical model for extended-range forecasting of spring rainfall in southern China was constructed. We first obtained the coupled patterns between the preceding MJO evolutions (real-time multivariate MJO index) and the succeeding rainfall variability in southern China based on singular value decomposition analysis. Then, a prediction was carried out by projecting the predictor onto the spatiotemporal coupled patterns. Useful skill, in terms of the temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) between the predicted and observed rainfall over southern China, persisted up to a forecast lead-time of six pentads. The forecast amplitude bias in terms of root-mean-square error was around 1.0 standard deviation. Also, the forecast skill was highly dependent on the strength of the MJO signal. During active MJO periods, the TCC skill was around twofold larger than that during weak MJO periods. The current statistical model shows encouraging ability, but additional work is required to improve its forecasting skill.

  7. Extended-range forecast of spring rainfall in southern China based on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenkai; Hsu, Pang-chi; He, Jinhai; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    Spring (March-May) rainfall after a dry period in winter has a substantial impact on agriculture and water management in populous southern China. The occurrence of low-frequency spring rainfall anomalies has been linked with the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) through its modulation of large-scale circulation and moisture supply over southern China. Using the spatial and temporal information of the MJO as a predictor, an empirical model for extended-range forecasting of spring rainfall in southern China was constructed. We first obtained the coupled patterns between the preceding MJO evolutions (real-time multivariate MJO index) and the succeeding rainfall variability in southern China based on singular value decomposition analysis. Then, a prediction was carried out by projecting the predictor onto the spatiotemporal coupled patterns. Useful skill, in terms of the temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) between the predicted and observed rainfall over southern China, persisted up to a forecast lead-time of six pentads. The forecast amplitude bias in terms of root-mean-square error was around 1.0 standard deviation. Also, the forecast skill was highly dependent on the strength of the MJO signal. During active MJO periods, the TCC skill was around twofold larger than that during weak MJO periods. The current statistical model shows encouraging ability, but additional work is required to improve its forecasting skill.

  8. Response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests of different maturity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Liu, Xingzhao; Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types. PMID:23626790

  9. Response of Soil Respiration to Acid Rain in Forests of Different Maturity in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomei; Qiu, Qingyan; Zhang, Deqiang; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Juxiu; Liu, Shizhong; Zhou, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    The response of soil respiration to acid rain in forests, especially in forests of different maturity, is poorly understood in southern China despite the fact that acid rain has become a serious environmental threat in this region in recent years. Here, we investigated this issue in three subtropical forests of different maturity [i.e. a young pine forest (PF), a transitional mixed conifer and broadleaf forest (MF) and an old-growth broadleaved forest (BF)] in southern China. Soil respiration was measured over two years under four simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments (CK, the local lake water, pH 4.5; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.5; and T3, water pH 3.0). Results indicated that SAR did not significantly affect soil respiration in the PF, whereas it significantly reduced soil respiration in the MF and the BF. The depressed effects on both forests occurred mostly in the warm-wet seasons and were correlated with a decrease in soil microbial activity and in fine root biomass caused by soil acidification under SAR. The sensitivity of the response of soil respiration to SAR showed an increasing trend with the progressive maturity of the three forests, which may result from their differences in acid buffering ability in soil and in litter layer. These results indicated that the depressed effect of acid rain on soil respiration in southern China may be more pronounced in the future in light of the projected change in forest maturity. However, due to the nature of this field study with chronosequence design and the related pseudoreplication for forest types, this inference should be read with caution. Further studies are needed to draw rigorous conclusions regarding the response differences among forests of different maturity using replicated forest types. PMID:23626790

  10. Molecular characterization of H6 subtype influenza viruses in southern China from 2009 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shumei; Gao, Rongbao; Zhang, Ye; Li, Xiaodan; Chen, Wenbing; Bai, Tian; Dong, Libo; Wang, Dayan; Shu, Yuelong

    2016-01-01

    H6 avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in Eurasian countries, have been isolated from pigs, a dog and a human. Routine virological surveillance at live poultry markets or poultry farms was conducted in southern China from 2009 to 2011. This study investigated the genetic and antigenic characteristics, analyzed the receptor-binding properties and evaluated the kinetics of infectivity of the AIVs in A549, MDCK and PK15 cells. A total of 14 H6N6 and 2 H6N2 isolates were obtained from four provinces in southern China. Genetic analysis indicated two distinct hemagglutinin lineages of the H6 strains cocirculating in southern China, and these strains facilitated active evolution and reassortment among multiple influenza virus subtypes from different avian species in nature. None of these isolates grouped with the novel Taiwan H6N1 virus responsible for human infection. Receptor-binding specificity assays showed that five H6 AIVs may have acquired the ability to recognize human receptors. Growth kinetics experiments showed that EV/HB-JZ/02/10(H6N2) and EV/JX/15/10(H6N6) initially reproduced faster and achieved higher titers than other viruses, suggesting that enhanced binding to α-2,6-linked sialic acids correlated with increased viral replication in mammalian cells. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H6 outbreaks and extensive characterization of H6 isolates to better understand genetic changes and their implications. PMID:27436363

  11. Landscape Composition and Spatial Prediction of Alveolar Echinococcosis in Southern Ningxia, China

    PubMed Central

    Pleydell, David R. J.; Yang, Yu Rong; Danson, F. Mark; Raoul, Francis; Craig, Philip S.; McManus, Donald P.; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Wang, Qian; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Background Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) presents a serious public health challenge within China. Mass screening ultrasound surveys can detect pre-symptomatic AE, but targeting areas identified from hospital records is inefficient regarding AE. Prediction of undetected or emerging hotspots would increase detection rates. Voles and lemmings of the subfamily Arvicolinae are important intermediate hosts in sylvatic transmission systems. Their populations reach high densities in productive grasslands where food and cover are abundant. Habitat availability is thought to affect arvicoline population dynamic patterns and definitive host–intermediate host interactions. Arvicoline habitat correlates with AE prevalence in Western Europe and southern Gansu Province, China. Methods and Findings Xiji County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, borders southern Gansu. The aims of this study were to map AE prevalence across Xiji and test arvicoline habitat as a predictor. Land cover was mapped using remotely sensed (Landsat) imagery. Infection status of 3,205 individuals screened in 2002–2003 was related, using generalised additive mixed models, to covariates: gender; farming; ethnicity; dog ownership; water source; and areal cover of mountain pasture and lowland pasture. A Markov random field modelled additional spatial variation and uncertainty. Mountain pasture and lowland pasture were associated with below and above average AE prevalence, respectively. Conclusions Low values of the normalised difference vegetation index indicated sub-optimality of lowland pasture for grassland arvicolines. Unlike other known endemic areas, grassland arvicolines probably did not provide the principal reservoir for Echinococcus multilocularis in Xiji. This result is consistent with recent small mammal surveys reporting low arvicoline densities and high densities of hamsters, pikas and jerboas, all suitable intermediate hosts for E. multilocularis, in reforested lowland pasture. The risk of re

  12. Active surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis in poliomyelitis high-risk areas in southern China.

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Y.; Hikita, K.; Matuba, T.; Chosa, T.; Kyogoku, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Z.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: On 29 October 2000 poliomyelitis was officially declared to have been eradicated from the Western Pacific Region. This article describes the results of surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in China during the final phase of the eradication effort. METHODS: We conducted hospital-based active surveillance in high-risk areas for poliomyelitis in 5 provinces of southern-China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Jiangxi) between 1995 and 1997 to determine the adequacy of reporting and laboratory diagnosis of cases of AFP. FINDINGS: A total of 1069 AFP cases occurring since 1993 were identified in 311 hospital visits. Less than 50% of AFP cases occurring in 1993 and 1994 had been reported by AFP surveillance, and laboratory diagnosis had been carried out on only a small proportion of these. However, improved cooperation between hospital sectors increased the rate of case reporting and laboratory diagnosis to 85% and 78%, respectively, in 1997. Despite this overall improvement, these two indicators were approximately 10-20% lower in Yunnan Province. Epidemiological analysis revealed that cases of clinical poliomyelitis accounted for as much as one-third of all AFP in 1993 and that some of these cases were clustered. Clusters were rarely observed after 1994. Active surveillance in the China-Myanmar border areas of Yunnan over 1995-96 detected 9 cross-border cases of clinical poliomyelitis, including 2 of wild poliomyelitis. Import of poliomyelitis was thus considered to have occurred frequently until 1996 in this border area of Yunnan. These data were important for the outbreak response immunization carried out in 1996 in the border prefectures of Yunnan. CONCLUSION: Our investigation confirmed a high level of AFP surveillance in poliomyelitis high-risk areas of the five provinces and provided valuable information on the interruption of wild poliovirus circulation in southern China that will be of use to countries in other regions that have

  13. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats in southern China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H H; Qin, S Y; Wang, W; He, B; Hu, T S; Wu, J M; Fan, Q S; Tu, C C; Liu, Q; Zhu, X Q

    2014-07-14

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect a wide variety of warm-blooded animals, including bats. Limited information on T. gondii infection in bats is available in China. The objective of the present study was to determine prevalence and genetic diversity of T. gondii infection in bats in southern China. A total of 608 bats representing 12 species, including 120 Aselliscus stoliczkanus, 59 Myotis chinensis, 11 Miniopterus schreibersii, 53 Rhinolophus affinis, 32 Rhinolophus pusillus, 81 Hipposideros armiger, 28 Hipposideros fulvus, 32 Cynopterus brachyotis, 14 Cynopterus sphinx, 45 Eonycteris spelaea, 109 Hipposideros larvatus, and 24 Taphozous melanopogon, were collected from Yunnan and Guangxi provinces, southern China. They were examined for the presence of T. gondii DNA by amplification of the B1 gene using a nested PCR, and the positive samples were genotyped at 11 genetic loci (SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1 and Apico) using multilocus polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technology. Fifty-nine (9.7%) of these bats were detected positive by PCR but only five of these positive DNA samples were completely typed at all loci; of which 4 samples, 2 from A. stoliczkanus, and 2 from H. larvatus, belonged to ToxoDB Genotype #10, and the other one from H. larvatus was identified as ToxoDB Genotype #9 (http://toxodb.org/toxo/). To our knowledge, this is the first report of molecular detection and genetic characterization of T. gondii infection in bats in China. The results show that these bats are potential reservoirs for T. gondii transmission, which may pose a threat to human health. PMID:24813744

  14. Eddy kinetic energy study of the snowstorm over Southern China in January 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Qunjie; Gao, Shouting; Lü, Daren

    2014-07-01

    The energetics of the third stage of a snowstorm over China was analyzed using ECWMF data. The analysis of the energy budget for the Middle East trough and the western Pacific trough that developed toward China on 25-28 January 2008 showed the advection of the geopotential by the ageostrophic wind to be both a crucial source and the primary sink of the eddy kinetic energy centers associated with the troughs. The magnitudes of the energy conversion terms, interaction kinetic energy conversion and baroclinic conversion, were too small to explain the development of the energy centers and the jet streaks. The energy centers gained energy at their entrance regions via the convergence of the ageostrophic geopotential fluxes, and then lost energy at their exit regions by the same fluxes. At the entrance regions, the fluxes converged, increasing the geopotential gradient, which generated a stronger geostrophic wind and higher kinetic energy, resulting in an ascending motion in this area. When the troughs moved to China, the ascending motion caused by the convergence of the fluxes at entrance region intensified the snowstorms over central and southern China.

  15. SST Variability over the Southern South China Sea: Local effects and Remote forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B.; Tkalich, P.

    2012-04-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is one of the largest semi-enclosed marginal seas in the world ocean. The SCS is connected to the East China Sea through the Taiwan Strait to the northeast and the Pacific Ocean in the east through the Luzon Strait, laying between the Luzon and Taiwan Islands. To the south, SCS is connected to the Indonesian Sea (IS) through the Karimata and Gaspar Straits, and to the Indian Ocean though the Malacca Strait. The large-scale circulation and SST over the SCS is dominantly influenced by the seasonal reversal of the monsoon winds. Beyond the seasonal time scale, the circulation and temperature variability over the SCS demonstrate strong relationship with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in the Pacific Ocean. The present study addresses the inter-annual variability of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the southern South China Sea with special emphasis on the ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events during the period 1993 to 2009. Due to its geographical location, the dynamics and thermodynamics of the southern SCS is largely influenced by the anomalous events occurring in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. A high resolution, three-dimensional sigma co-ordinate, regional ocean general circulation model (ROMS) configured for the South China Sea and Bay of Bengal region is used for the analysis. The model has been forced by 12-hourly varying surface wind, air temperature, relative humidity, surface downward solar and longwave radiation and precipitation fields obtained from the ERA-interim re-analysis data set as well as space- and time-dependent lateral fluxes of temperature, salinity, currents and sea level. Detailed analysis has been done to identify the roles of the surface heat fluxes, and the water mass advection from the Java Sea and northern South China Sea in driving the SST variability over the region. The surface heat flux data set (NOC v2.0) developed by the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, is also used to

  16. Chemical overprint on the natural remanent magnetization of a subtropical red soil sequence in the Bose Basin, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Chenglong; Liu, Qingsong; Wang, Wei; Liu, Caicai

    2007-11-01

    We present a high-resolution paleomagnetic investigation of the subtropical red soil sequence at the Damei section, Bose Basin, southern China. Maghemite with low coercivities and fine-grained hematite with high coercivities but relatively low unblocking temperatures were identified as main carriers of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Strong chemical weathering occurring under subtropical climatic conditions in southern China led to a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) overprint that is sufficiently strong to mask the primary NRM. Analysis of the Bose Basin soil sequence indicates that the CRM has a large lock-in depth (>4 m). This example shows that magnetostratigraphic studies on red soil sequences in subtropical-tropical southern China should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Physicians and airline medical emergencies.

    PubMed

    Hays, M B

    1977-05-01

    Physician passengers on airlines are frequently called to assist the flight crew if an emergency medical situation arises. There have been numerous studies and reports pertaining to medical emergencies inflight, the various aspects of crew responsibility and reaction, and the types of emergency medical supplies available. This paper is to present the comments and opinions of physicians who have been called upon to assist the flight crew during inflight emergency medical situations. The background information is presented followed by statistics as to types of conditions encountered; physicians' responses; physicians' comments as to airline emergency medical supplies; flight crew, airline, and airport responses to medical emergencies and suggestions from physicians as to what significant changes may be indicated. PMID:880187

  18. Atmospheric aerosol compositions and sources at two national background sites in northern and southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiao; He, Ling-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Cao, Li-Ming; Gong, Zhao-Heng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuang, Xin; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    Although China's severe air pollution has become a focus in the field of atmospheric chemistry and the mechanisms of urban air pollution there have been researched extensively, few field sampling campaigns have been conducted at remote background sites in China, where air pollution characteristics on a larger scale are highlighted. In this study, an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), together with an Aethalometer, was deployed at two of China's national background sites in northern (Lake Hongze site; 33.23° N, 118.33° E; altitude 21 m) and southern (Mount Wuzhi site; 18.84° N, 109.49° E; altitude 958 m) China in the spring seasons in 2011 and 2015, respectively, in order to characterize submicron aerosol composition and sources. The campaign-average PM1 concentration was 36.8 ± 19.8 µg m-3 at the northern China background (NCB) site, which was far higher than that at the southern China background (SCB) site (10.9 ± 7.8 µg m-3). Organic aerosol (OA) (27.2 %), nitrate (26.7 %), and sulfate (22.0 %) contributed the most to the PM1 mass at NCB, while OA (43.5 %) and sulfate (30.5 %) were the most abundant components of the PM1 mass at SCB, where nitrate only constituted a small fraction (4.7 %) and might have contained a significant amount of organic nitrates (5-11 %). The aerosol size distributions and organic aerosol elemental compositions all indicated very aged aerosol particles at both sites. The OA at SCB was more oxidized with a higher average oxygen to carbon (O / C) ratio (0.98) than that at NCB (0.67). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis was used to classify OA into three components, including a hydrocarbon-like component (HOA, attributed to fossil fuel combustion) and two oxygenated components (OOA1 and OOA2, attributed to secondary organic aerosols from different source areas) at NCB. PMF analysis at SCB identified a semi-volatile oxygenated component (SV-OOA) and a low-volatility oxygenated

  19. 19 CFR 122.63 - Scheduled airlines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scheduled airlines. 122.63 Section 122.63 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.63 Scheduled airlines... scheduled airlines covered by this subpart. (a) Clearance at other than airport of final departure....

  20. A study of commuter airline economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerfield, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Variables are defined and cost relationships developed that describe the direct and indirect operating costs of commuter airlines. The study focused on costs for new aircraft and new aircraft technology when applied to the commuter airline industry. With proper judgement and selection of input variables, the operating costs model was shown to be capable of providing economic insight into other commuter airline system evaluations.

  1. [Medical problems among airline passengers].

    PubMed

    Owe, J O; Christensen, C C

    1998-09-30

    Worldwide, there are more than one billion air travelers each year. Flying in a modern jet airliner is a safe, efficient and relatively comfortable mode of transport, although a few susceptible passengers may be adversely affected by environmental and physiological stresses like pressure change, reduced level of oxygen, dry air, immobility due to cramped seating, noise, vibration and turbulence, in addition to stressful airports. This article describes these factors and their medical implications and includes some practical medical advice to travellers. Reported inflight illness and injuries in two major Scandinavian airlines 1993-97 are presented. PMID:9820008

  2. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    PubMed

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients. PMID:19330974

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in subtropical southern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, M J; Liu, Q Y; Fu, J H; Nisbet, A J; Shi, D S; He, X H; Pan, Y; Zhou, D H; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q

    2012-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related protozoan parasites which cause lowered production and increased abortion in dairy cows. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum infection in dairy cows in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), subtropical southern China. In total, 875 serum samples were collected from the tail veins of dairy cows in 6 main dairy cow-rearing districts of 4 administrative cities in GZAR. The samples were surveyed for T. gondii antibody using the Indirect Haemagglutination Test (IHA), and 365 of the serum samples were examined for N. caninum antibody by indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in dairy cows was 13·71% (120/875), and the average seroprevalence of N. caninum was 15·07% (55/365). There were significant differences in the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection between different districts (P = 0·002, χ 2 = 9·261). The highest prevalences of T. gondii and N. caninum were found in cows older than 8 years and those that had completed 5-6 pregnancies. Five cows (1·37%) presented antibodies against both T. gondii and N. caninum, and dairy cows with both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies had higher abortion rates. The present results indicate widespread exposure of dairy cows to T. gondii and N. caninum in GZAR, subtropical southern China. PMID:22717118

  4. Alterations in fecal Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species in type 2 diabetic patients in Southern China population

    PubMed Central

    Lê, Kim-Anne; Li, Yan; Xu, Xiaojing; Yang, Wanting; Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Xiaoning; Tang, Yongming Gorge; Cai, Dehong; Go, Vay Liang W.; Pandol, Stephen; Hui, Hongxiang

    2013-01-01

    Background: The connection between gut microbiota and metabolism and its role in the pathogenesis of diabetes are increasingly recognized. The objective of this study was to quantitatively measure Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species, members of commensal bacteria found in human gut, in type 2 diabetic patients (T2D) patients from Southern China. Methods: Fifty patients with T2D and thirty control individuals of similar body mass index (BMI) were recruited from Southern China. T2D and control subjects were confirmed with both oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and HbA1c measurements. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species in feces were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. Data were analyzed with STATA 11.0 statistical software. Results: In comparison to control subjects T2D patients had significantly more total Lactobacillus (+18%), L. bugaricus (+13%), L. rhamnosum (+37%) and L. acidophilus (+48%) (P < 0.05). In contrast, T2D patients had less amounts of total Bifidobacteria (−7%) and B. adolescentis (−12%) (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis showed that gut microbiota pattern of T2D patients is characterized by greater numbers of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophillus, together with lesser numbers of B. adolescentis (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The gut microflora in T2D patients is characterized by greater numbers of Lactobacillus and lesser numbers of Bifidobacterium species. PMID:23386831

  5. Identification of nitrosamine precursors from urban drainage during storm events: A case study in southern China.

    PubMed

    Bei, Er; Liao, Xiaobin; Meng, Xiangting; Li, Shixiang; Wang, Jun; Sheng, Deyang; Chao, Meng; Chen, Zhuohua; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chen, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The drinking water sources of many cities in southern China are frequently contaminated by upstream urban drainage during storm events, which brings high concentrations of N-nitrosamine (NA) precursors and poses a threat to the safety of drinking water. We conducted two sampling campaigns during the heavy rain season in 2015 in one representative city in southern China. We detected that the concentration of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA FP) in urban drainage during two storm events was 80-115 ng/L and the total formation potential concentration of nine nitrosamines (TNA9 FP) was 145-165 ng/L. To address the deteriorated water quality, 30 mg/L of powdered activated carbon (PAC) was fed into the water intake. PAC adsorption alone could remove 52% of NDMA FP and 52% of TNA FP, while the subsequent conventional process only removed 8% of TNA FP. We isolated six chemicals (N,N-benzyldimethylamine, 5-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-2-furanmethanol, N,N-dimethyl-3-aminophenol, N,N-dimethylethylamine, Ziram, and N,N-dimethylaniline) and confirmed them to be NA precursors. Among these NA precursors, Ziram was identified for the first time as a NA precursor that is formed via chloramination; its molar yield for NDMA was 6.73 ± 0.40%. PMID:27393968

  6. Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Characterization of Bat and Human Adenoviruses in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Chen, Hui-Fang; Chen, Shao-Wei; Xiao, Jian-Peng; Jiang, Li-Na; Huo, Shu-Ting; Shi, Ting-Li; Ma, Li-Zhen; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Qiong-Hua; Li, Xing; Chen, Zhong; Wu, Yi; Li, Jin-Ming; Guan, Wei-Jie; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Ge, Jing; Cen, Shu-Wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-06-01

    Several novel adenoviruses (AdVs) have recently been identified in humans and other animal species. In this study, we report the molecular detection of and phylogenetically characterize bat and human AdVs detected in fecal or rectal swab samples collected in southern China. To detect AdVs, a 252-261 bp fragment of the DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene was amplified using nested PCR. A total of 520 rectal swab samples were collected from eight bat species in four geographic regions of southern China (Guangzhou, Yunfu, Huizhou, and Haikou city). Thirty-six (6.9%) samples from the following species tested positive for AdVs: Myotis ricketti, Miniopterus schreibersii, Scotophilus kuhlii, Taphozous melanopogon, Rhinolophus blythi, and Cynopterus sphinx. Eight novel AdVs were detected in 13.3% of the samples from C. sphinx. Of 328 fecal samples from patients with diarrhea, 16 (4.9%) were positive for classical human AdVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that human AdVs shared low similarity (57.1-69.3%) with bat AdVs in deduced amino acid sequences of the AdV DPOL region. Thus, our study indicated that bat AdVs and human AdVs are species specific. As such, there is no evidence of cross-species transmission of AdV between bats and humans based on current data. PMID:27057618

  7. ESR, U-series and paleomagnetic dating of Gigantopithecus fauna from Chuifeng Cave, Guangxi, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qingfeng; Wang, Wei; Deng, Chenglong; Voinchet, Pierre; Lin, Min; Zazzo, Antoine; Douville, Eric; Dolo, Jean-Michel; Falguères, Christophe; Bahain, Jean-Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Several Gigantopithecus faunas associated with taxonomically undetermined hominoid fossils and/or stone artifacts are known from southern China. These faunas are particularly important for the study of the evolution of humans and other mammals in Asia. However, the geochronology of the Gigantopithecus faunas remains uncertain. In order to solve this problem, a program of geochronological studies of Gigantopithecus faunas in Guangxi Province was recently initiated. Chuifeng Cave is the first studied site, which yielded 92 Gigantopithecus blacki teeth associated with numerous other mammalian fossils. We carried out combined ESR/U-series dating of fossil teeth and sediment paleomagnetic studies. Our ESR results suggest that the lower layers at this cave can be dated to 1.92 ± 0.14 Ma and the upper layers can be dated to older than 1.38 ± 0.17 Ma. Correlation of the recognized magnetozones to the geomagnetic polarity timescale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and ESR data. The combined chronologies establish an Olduvai subchron (1.945-1.778 Ma) for the lowermost Chuifeng Cave sediments. We also analyzed the enamel δ13C values of the Gigantopithecus faunas. Our results show that southern China was dominated by C3 plants during the early Pleistocene and that the Gigantopithecus faunas lived in a woodland-forest ecosystem.

  8. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China's afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  9. Prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei Infection in Pet Dogs in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Guo-Hua; Song, Hui-Qun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Weng, Ya-Biao; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei infection in pet dogs in China. In the present study, the prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs in Guangzhou, southern China, was investigated between January and December, 2009. A total of 3,977 pet dogs admitted to animal hospitals were examined for the presence of S. scabiei using a parasitological approach. The average prevalence of S. scabiei infection in pet dogs is 1.18% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85–1.52%). The prevalence of S. scabiei was higher in winter (1.42%; 95% CI: 0.29–2.55%), summer (1.39%; 95% CI: 0.83–1.96%), and autumn (1.1%; 95% CI: 0.53–1.68%) than in spring (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.02–1.25%). Furthermore, the prevalence of S. scabiei was the highest in Pekingese (21.88%; 95% CI: 7.55–36.2%), followed by Papillon (5.26%; 95% CI: 0–11.06%) and Bichon Frise (3.19%; 95% CI: 0–6.75%). The results of the present investigation indicate that S. scabiei infection is prevalent in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China, which provides relevant “baseline” data for conducting control strategies and measures against scabies in this region and elsewhere in China. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report of S. scabiei prevalence in pet dogs in China. PMID:24741355

  10. A downscale experiment on the extreme heavy rainfall case over southern China in June 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, X.; Chen, G.; Sha, W.; Iwasaki, T.

    2012-12-01

    1. Introduction Extensive flood over southern China, brings a severe toll to the livelihood of local residents. Mesoscale heavy rainstorms, interacted with other multi-scale systems and structures, have played an important role in triggering and maintaining precipitation in southern China. By understanding the dynamic and physical mechanism, it is of great help to improve the predictability and accuracy for the heavy rainstorms. Thus, the motivation of the present work is to investigate the multi-scale interaction that leads to an intense precipitation case on June 2005 by carrying out the downscale experiments using a non-hydrostatic model (JMA-NHM) model. 2. Model settings In this test run, we employ three domains that focus on southern China (D1), Pearl River Delta (D2) and Guangzhou city (D3), respectively. All domains have 80*80 grids horizontal and 50 layers vertical. Their spatial resolutions are 15km, 4km and 1km. D1 run begins at 00LT on June 18 and drives D2 run after 3 hours; the later then drives D3 run after another 3 hours. 3. Results and discussion The results show that there area two east-west oriented rain belts over the eastern part of southern China during this long-lasting, wide-range heavy frontal rainfall. One is generated over the inland mountain region, the other is located along the windward coastline. Precipitation reaches the peak at early afternoon for the inland belt while the maximum appears in the morning for the coast belt. The extreme rainfall is mainly caused by the activities of mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) within the rainband. The MCSs formed at the upstream of the frontal rainband during midnight and then move eastward in the daytime. During this heavy rainfall process, the plentiful moisture content over southern China and monsoon surge lead to the establishment of the moist convective instability. Then the low level jet, shear line and low-level convergence offer beneficial dynamic conditions for the lifting in the

  11. Seasonal measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) in a subtropical evergreen forest in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, John J., Jr.

    Terrestrial ecosystems have long been recognized as important sources of reactive hydrocarbons. One ecosystem type that has not previously been investigated is the subtropical evergreen forest category found in Southern China. To begin a study of this ecosystem, we conducted two campaigns. First, bi-monthly air samples were collected in stainless steel canisters over a 15 month period at Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve (DHSBR) in Guangdong, China and analyzed at MIT using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. DHSBR is both mountainous and covered 79% by forest and experiences hot, wet summers and cool, dry winters. Much of the dominant subtropical vegetation in DHSBR is representative of the natural vegetation in a vast area of interior Southern China (23-32°N, 100-120°E), while the occasional tropical vegetation is representative of the natural vegetation of coastal Southern China. Seasonal variations in both isoprene and terpene concentrations were observed at DHSBR. Maximum isoprene mole fractions reached 7 ppb in the late summer afternoon compared to wintertime maximums of 0.1 ppb. Second, an in situ study was conducted during the summer of 1996. In addition to hourly NMHC samples, measurements of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO X), Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), temperature, relative humidity, wind velocity and daily rainfall were recorded. A study using a vegetation enclosure was also performed in order to estimate NMHC emissions from the individual major tree species in the forest reserve. The resulting isoprene emission estimate for this ecosystem was 8.6 +/- 16.1 mg C m -2 h-1. Using these measurements, we have assessed the sensitivity of the emissions of isoprene to environmental variables and ecosystem speciation and the importance of these emissions to regional photochemistry. Estimates of atmospheric hydroxyl radical concentrations were made from the observed decay of reactive hydrocarbons, yielding 5

  12. Language Attitudes and Gender in China: Perceptions and Reported Use of Putonghua and Cantonese in the Southern Province of Guangdong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Limei; Ladegaard, Hans J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with young people's perceptions and reported use of the two language varieties that co-exist in the urban centre of Guangzhou in southern China, Putonghua (P) and Cantonese (C). P is a typical H-variety, promoted by the government and used as a lingua franca throughout China; C is the local L-variety but it also has some…

  13. Tides and Their Dynamics over the Sunda Shelf of the Southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Daryabor, Farshid; Ooi, See Hai; Abu Samah, Azizan; Akbari, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7.2) at the open boundaries. The results are validated against observed tidal amplitudes and phases at 19 locations. Results show that the mean average power energy spectrum (in unit m2/s/cph) for diurnal tides at the southern end of the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia is approximately 43% greater than that in the East Malaysia region located in northern Borneo. In contrast, for the region of northern Borneo the semidiurnal power energy spectrum is approximately 25% greater than that in the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This implies that diurnal tides are dominant along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia while both diurnal and semidiurnal tides dominate almost equally in coastal East Malaysia. Furthermore, the diurnal tidal energy flux is found to be 60% greater than that of the semidiurnal tides in the southern South China Sea. Based on these model analyses, the significant tidal mixing frontal areas are located primarily off Sarawak coast as indicated by high chlorophyll-a concentrations in the area. PMID:27622552

  14. Biodiversity of free-living marine nematodes in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Xu, Man; Hua, Er; Zhang, Zhinan

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity patterns of free-living marine nematodes were studied using specific, taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity measures in the southern Yellow Sea, China. The results showed that the average of Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H') in the study area was 3.17. The higher values were distributed in the east part of Shandong coastal waters and north part of Jiangsu coastal waters, while the lower values were distributed in the southern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The average of taxonomic diversity ( Δ) was 62.09 in the study region. The higher values were distributed in the transitional areas between the coastal areas and the southern YSCWM, while the lower values were distributed near the north part of Jiangsu coastal waters and the YSCWM. Results of correlation analysis of species diversity and taxonomic diversity showed that some of the two kinds of diversity index were independent, which suggested that combining the two kinds of diversity indices can reflect the ecological characteristics better. A test for 95% probability funnels of average taxonomic distinctness and variation in taxonomic distinctness suggested that Station 8794 (in the YSCWM) was outside of the 95% probability funnels, which may be due to the environmental stress. Results of correlation analysis between marine nematodes biodiversity and environmental variables showed that the sediment characteristics (Mdø and Silt-clay fraction) and phaeophorbide a (Pha- a) were the most important factors to determine the biodiversity patterns of marine nematodes.

  15. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Yu, Leibin; Lin, Xinqin; Liu, Haiyan; Shi, Jian; Nong, Quanxing; Tang, Hongyang; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9-593.6) deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65-74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions. PMID:26184261

  16. Performance assessment of separate and combined sewer systems in metropolitan areas in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Cang; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    To assess the performance of urban drainage systems in metropolitan areas in southern China, 12 urban drainage systems, including nine separate sewer systems (SSSs) and three combined sewer systems (CSSs) were monitored from 2008 to 2012 in Shanghai and Hefei. Illicit connection rates of SSS were determined. The results indicate that serious illicit connections exist for most SSSs. Annual volume balance for two SSSs with serious illicit connection was assessed with a hydraulic model to determine the dry weather overflow volume. Although interception facilities have been implemented in SSSs, for some systems with serious illicit connections, a considerable volume of dry weather overflow still existed. Combined with monitoring of dry/wet weather flow quality, the pollutant load caused by wet/dry weather overflow was quantified. The results revealed that there was no obvious advantage of having SSSs over CSSs in terms of pollutant control. The serious pollution caused by illicit connections and insufficient management occurs in many cities in China. The performance assessment of separate and CSSs in Shanghai and Hefei provides important lessons and practical experience that can be applied to the construction and management of urban drainage system in China as well as other developing countries. PMID:24473315

  17. Sex and Age Differences in Mortality in Southern China, 2004–2010

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Leibin; Lin, Xinqin; Liu, Haiyan; Shi, Jian; Nong, Quanxing; Tang, Hongyang; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the mortality patterns in the southern provinces of China, and to provide epidemiologic data on sex and age differences of death outcomes. Reliable mortality and population data from January 2004 to December 2010 were obtained from 12 Disease Surveillance Point (DSP) sites in four provinces of China. Death data from all causes and respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and influenza, circulatory disease, and ischemic heart disease, were stratified by year, month of death occurrence and sex, seven age groups, and summarized by descriptive statistics. The mean annual mortality rates of the selected 12 DSP sites in the southernmost provinces of China were 543.9 (range: 423.9–593.6) deaths per 100,000 population. The death rates show that noted sex differences were higher in the male population for all-cause, COPD and circulatory diseases. Pneumonia and influenza death rates present a different sex- and age-related distribution, with higher rates in male aged 65–74 years; whereas the death rates were opposite in elderly aged ≥75 years, and relatively higher in young children. This study had practical implications for recommending target groups for public health interventions. PMID:26184261

  18. Five new species of subgenus Plesiominettia (Diptera, Lauxaniidae, Minettia) in southern China, with a key to known species

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Li; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Yang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five species of the subgenus Plesiominettia Shatalkin from the southern China are described as new to science: Minettia (Plesiominettia) flavoscutellata sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) longaciculiformis sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) nigrantennata sp. n., Minettia (Plesiominettia) tridentata sp. n. and Minettia (Plesiominettia) zhejiangica sp. n. One species, Minettia longistylis Sasakawa, is transferred to the subgenus Plesiominettia from Minettia s. str. A key to separate the known species of the subgenus is presented, along with a taxonomic list of species. The type materials of the new species are deposited in the China Agricultural University, Beijing, China (CAUC). PMID:26448714

  19. Evaluation of hazardous airborne carbonyls on a university campus in southern China.

    PubMed

    Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Ho, Kin Fai; Ng, Louisa Pan Ting; Dai, W T; Cao, Junji; Chan, Chi Sing; Ho, Legolas Baggio

    2014-08-01

    A comprehensive assessment of indoor carbonyl compounds for the academic staff workers, and students was conducted on a university campus in Xiamen, China. A total of 15 representative environment categories, including 12 indoor workplaces and three residential units, were selected. The potential indoor pollution sources were identified based on the variability in the molar compositions and correlation analyses for the target carbonyls. Furnishing materials, cooking emissions, and electronic equipment, such as photocopiers, can generate various carbonyls in the workplace. Comparison studies were conducted in the clerical offices, demonstrating that off-gases from wooden furniture and lacquer coatings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and the use of cleaning reagents elevated the indoor carbonyl levels. The measured concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in most locations surpassed the exposure limit levels. The lifetime cancer hazard risk (R) associated with formaldehyde was above the concern risk level (1 x 10(-6)) in all of the workplaces. The results indicate that formaldehyde exposure is a valid occupational health and safety concern. Wooden furniture and refurbishing materials can pose serious health threats to occupants. The information in this study could act as a basis for future indoor air quality monitoring in Mainland China. Implications: A university campus represents a microscale city environment consisting of all the working, living, and commercial needs of staff and students. The scope of this investigation covers 21 hazardous carbonyl species based on samples collected from 15 categories of workplaces and residential building in a university campus in southern China. Findings of the study provide a comprehensive assessment of indoor air quality with regards to workers' health and safety. No similar study has been carried out in China. PMID:25185393

  20. Assessing Vegetation Cover Dynamics Induced by Policy-Driven Ecological Restoration and Implication to Soil Erosion in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jien; Wang, Tianming; Ge, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    In the aftermath of the severe droughts and floods at the end of the 20th century, the Chinese government launched several ecological restoration projects, including the Natural Forest Protection Program in 1998 and the Grain-for-Green Program in 1999, to promote afforestation and reforestation to reduce surface runoff and consequent soil erosion nationwide. However, it is still unclear how vegetation has changed in southern China since the launch of these programs. In this study, we used the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) to analyze the vegetation cover dynamics in southern China from 2000 to 2009 and evaluate the resulting effects of controlling soil erosion. Our observations indicate that 5.3% of the study area significantly increased and 0.98% significantly decreased in EVI value (p < 0.05). The spring EVI had largest increase in space. The conversions of croplands on steep slopes to forests resulting from national policies led to significant increases in EVI. The increase in EVI was not driven by annual average temperature and annual precipitation. By referencing ecological restoration statistical data and field observations, we showed that ecological restoration programs significantly improved vegetation cover in southern China. Increase in the area of farmland-converted forestlands has reduced soil erosion based upon monitoring sediment yields at hydrologic stations in the Yangtze River. This study displays the spatial patterns of trend in vegetation growth since the beginning of the 21st century in southern China and highlights the important role of China’s afforestation program. PMID:26115116

  1. The 2013 severe haze over the southern Hebei, China: model evaluation, source apportionment, and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. T.; Wei, Z.; Yang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, F. F.; Su, J.; Meng, C. C.; Zhang, Q.

    2013-11-01

    Extremely severe and persistent haze occurred in January 2013 over the eastern and northern China. The record-breaking high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of more than 700 μg m-3 on hourly average and the persistence of the episodes have raised widespread, considerable public concerns. During that period, seven of the top ten polluted cities in China were within Hebei Province. The three cities in southern Hebei, Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, and Handan, have been listed as the top three polluted cities according to the statistics for the first half year of 2013. In this study, the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system are applied to simulate the 2013 severe winter regional hazes in East Asia and the northern China at horizontal grid resolutions of 36 and 12 km, respectively, using the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory of China (MEIC). The source contributions of major source regions and sectors to PM2.5 concentrations in the three most-polluted cities in southern Hebei are quantified aiming at the understanding of the sources of the severe haze pollution in this region, and the results are compared with December 2007, the haziest month in 2001-2010. Model evaluation against meteorological and air quality observations indicates an overall acceptable performance and the model tends to underpredict PM2.5 and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations during the extremely severe polluted episodes. The MEIC inventory is proved to be a good estimation in terms of total emissions of cities but uncertainties exist in the spatial allocations of emissions into fine grid resolutions within cities. The source apportionment shows that emissions from the northern Hebei and the Beijing-Tianjin city cluster are two major regional contributors to the pollution in January 2013 in Shijiazhuang, comparing with those from Shanxi and the northern Hebei for December 2007. For Xingtai and

  2. The 2013 severe haze over southern Hebei, China: model evaluation, source apportionment, and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. T.; Wei, Z.; Yang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, F. F.; Su, J.; Meng, C. C.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-03-01

    Extremely severe and persistent haze occurred in January 2013 over eastern and northern China. The record-breaking high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) of more than 700 μg m-3 on hourly average and the persistence of the episodes have raised widespread, considerable public concerns. During that period, 7 of the top 10 polluted cities in China were within the Hebei Province. The three cities in southern Hebei (Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, and Handan) have been listed as the top three polluted cities according to the statistics for the first half of the year 2013. In this study, the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system are applied to simulate the 2013 severe winter regional hazes in East Asia and northern China at horizontal grid resolutions of 36 and 12 km, respectively, using the Multi-resolution Emission Inventory for China (MEIC). The source contributions of major source regions and sectors to PM2.5 concentrations in the three most polluted cities in southern Hebei are quantified by aiming at the understanding of the sources of the severe haze pollution in this region, and the results are compared with December 2007, the haziest month in the period 2001-2010. Model evaluation against meteorological and air quality observations indicates an overall acceptable performance and the model tends to underpredict PM2.5 and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations during the extremely polluted episodes. The MEIC inventory is proven to be a good estimation in terms of total emissions of cities but uncertainties exist in the spatial allocations of emissions into fine grid resolutions within cities. The source apportionment shows that emissions from northern Hebei and the Beijing-Tianjin city cluster are two major regional contributors to the pollution in January 2013 in Shijiazhuang, compared with those from Shanxi and northern Hebei for December 2007. For Xingtai and Handan

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INJURY SEVERITY AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS: A SURVEY IN SOUTHERN CHINA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaiyong; Liang, Wenjie; Han, Shanshan; Abdullah, Abu S; Yang, Li

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the relationships between road traffic injury severity and individual characteristics in Liuzhou, a city in southern China. Data for this study were collected from the Guangxi Public Security Bureau Traffic Police Corps. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis was used. Of all 14,595 individuals involved in accidents, males, motor vehicle drivers, motorcyclists, and those aged 21-45 years accounted for the great proportion of all injuries. Children, the elderly, pedestrians, farmers and migrant workers, unemployed people, and novice drivers were at higher risk of serious injury in crashes. These findings suggest that individual characteristics (age, modes of transport, profession, driving experience) are strongly related to injury severity. To address road traffic related mortality and injuries, there is a need to develop policy strategies, strengthen road supervision, and improve public consciousness of road safety. PMID:26867372

  4. Land subsidence and earth fissures due to groundwater withdrawal in the Southern Yangtse Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Xue, Yu-Qun; Wu, Ji-Chun; Yu, Jun; Wei, Zi-Xin; Li, Qin-Fen

    2008-08-01

    Excessive extraction of groundwater has caused severe land subsidence and earth fissures in the Southern Yangtse Delta, China. Based on field data, the temporal and spatial distribution of land subsidence is investigated and the causes for earth fissures are analyzed. The areal distribution of the land subsidence is closely related to the cones of depression in the main exploited aquifers. The compaction of a hydrostratigraphic unit depends on its mechanical behavior, thickness, compressibility, and the piezometric level changing. The primary subsidence layers in Shanghai have been the first aquitard before 1990 and the third confined aquifer since then. But the second aquitard unit was the primary subsidence layer in Changzhou. Earth fissures, trending in several directions, occurred in the Husu tectonic zone. They were mainly caused by differential subsidence and horizontal displacement that resulted from tensile stress and shear stress in units. The majority of fissures in the study area are tensile.

  5. Climate and natural production of rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis) in Xishuangbanna, southern part of Yunnan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Ailiang

    1988-12-01

    According to the author's and his collaborators' investigations, the climate influences the growth of rubber trees ( Hevea brasiliensis) in Xishuangbanna, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China, in at least four aspects: (1) The yield of latex per tapping and the final yield of dry rubber per tree per year or per unit area per year; (2) the growth rate, as expressed by increment of girth in cm; (3) the survival during the over-wintering period; (4) the initiation or suppression of certain diseases; In this paper the author would like to describe the influence of climatic elements on yield of latex and on survival during the over-wintering period. As for the other two aspects, only general comments are given.

  6. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems. PMID:24292441

  7. El Nino-Southern Oscillation and vector-borne diseases in Anhui, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Peng; Parton, Kevin A; Tong, Shilu

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between monthly Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly incidences of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and malaria in Anhui Province, China, over the periods 1971-1992 and 1966-1987, respectively. On the basis of monthly data over a 22-year period, results indicated that there were positive and negative relationships, respectively, between the SOI and monthly incidences of malaria and HFRS. The results suggest that the SOI could be used as an index in the study of the association of climate variability with the transmission of such diseases, particularly over larger areas, such as at a provincial or even state level, where averaging rainfall or temperature data across regions is inappropriate. PMID:16011424

  8. Phylogenetic and molecular characterization of chicken anemia virus in southern China from 2011 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinheng; Liu, Yuanjia; Wu, Boliang; Sun, Baoli; Chen, Feng; Ji, Jun; Ma, Jingyun; Xie, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an important pathogen that causes severe immunosuppression in young chickens. We have characterized 13 CAVs isolated from different commercial farms in southern China between 2011 and 2012. We discovered 92 variable residues compared to 37 other CAV complete genome sequences from other parts of the world listed in GenBank; these residues have not been previously observed. All of the Chinese CAV genomes that were characterized in this study had a glutamine at position 394, a hallmark of highly pathogenic CAVs. We also discovered that intra-group genetic recombination plays a role in generating genetic diversity in natural populations of CAV. The GD-J-12 isolate was a possible recombinant between GD-C-12 and GD-M-12 in the genomic region that encompassed both the coding and non-coding regions. PMID:24343380

  9. Coherent and incoherent internal tides in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qian; Xie, Xiaohui; Shang, Xiaodong; Chen, Guiying

    2016-03-01

    Coherent and incoherent internal tides (CITs and ICITs) in the southern South China Sea were investigated from two sets of 18-month mooring current records. The CITs were mainly composed of diurnal Q 1, O 1, P 1 and K 1 and semidiurnal M 2. The observed diurnal internal tides (ITs) were more coherent than the semidiurnal constituents. Coherent diurnal variance accounted for approximately 58% of the diurnal motion, whereas semidiurnal tides contained a much smaller fraction (35%) of coherent motion. The ICITs mainly consisted of motion at non-tidal harmonic frequencies around the tidal frequency, and showed clear intermittency. The modal decomposition of CITs and ICITs showed that CITs were dominated by mode- 1, whereas mode-1 and higher modes in ICITs signals showed comparable amplitudes. CITs and ICITs accounted for approximately 64% and 36% of the total kinetic energy of internal tides, respectively.

  10. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-02-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are declining as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of streamflow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River Basin in southern China where massive industrialization has occurred in the region during the past three decades. We found that streamflow increased by 58% and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23% during 1986-2013 as a result of an increase in urban areas of three folds and reduction of rice paddy field by 27%. Both highflows and lowflows increased significantly by about 28% from 2002 to 2013. The increases in streamflow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS data. The reduction in ET and increase in streamflow was attributed to the large cropland conversion that overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from a water-dominated to a human-dominated landscape, and thus was considered as one of the extreme types of contemporary hydrologic disturbances. The ongoing large-scale urbanization in the rice paddy-dominated regions in the humid southern China, and East Asia, will likely elevate stormflow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban heat island effects. Understanding the linkage between land use change and changes in hydrological processes is essential for better management of urbanizing watersheds.

  11. Potential Contribution of Anammox to Nitrogen Loss from Paddy Soils in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Hu; Nie, San-An; Su, Jian-Qiang; Weng, Bo-Sen; Zhu, Gui-Bing; Yao, Huai-Ying; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) process has been observed in diverse terrestrial ecosystems, while the contribution of anammox to N2 production in paddy soils is not well documented. In this study, the anammox activity and the abundance and diversity of anammox bacteria were investigated to assess the anammox potential of 12 typical paddy soils collected in southern China. Anammox bacteria related to “Candidatus Brocadia” and “Candidatus Kuenenia” and two novel unidentified clusters were detected, with “Candidatus Brocadia” comprising 50% of the anammox population. The prevalence of the anammox was confirmed by the quantitative PCR results based on hydrazine synthase (hzsB) genes, which showed that the abundance ranged from 1.16 × 104 to 9.65 × 104 copies per gram of dry weight. The anammox rates measured by the isotope-pairing technique ranged from 0.27 to 5.25 nmol N per gram of soil per hour in these paddy soils, which contributed 0.6 to 15% to soil N2 production. It is estimated that a total loss of 2.50 × 106 Mg N per year is linked to anammox in the paddy fields in southern China, which implied that ca. 10% of the applied ammonia fertilizers is lost via the anammox process. Anammox activity was significantly correlated with the abundance of hzsB genes, soil nitrate concentration, and C/N ratio. Additionally, ammonia concentration and pH were found to be significantly correlated with the anammox bacterial structure. PMID:25416768

  12. pH regulates ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea in paddy soils in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Weng, Bo-Sen; Huang, Fu-Yi; Su, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Ru

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) play important roles in nitrogen cycling. However, the effects of environmental factors on the activity, abundance, and diversity of AOA and AOB and the relative contributions of these two groups to nitrification in paddy soils are not well explained. In this study, potential nitrification activity (PNA), abundance, and diversity of amoA genes from 12 paddy soils in Southern China were determined by potential nitrification assay, quantitative PCR, and cloning. The results showed that PNA was highly variable between paddy soils, ranging from 4.05 ± 0.21 to 9.81 ± 1.09 mg NOx-N kg(-1) dry soil day(-1), and no significant correlation with soil parameters was found. The abundance of AOA was predominant over AOB, indicating that AOA may be the major members in aerobic ammonia oxidation in these paddy soils. Community compositions of AOA and AOB were highly variable among samples, but the variations were best explained by pH. AOA sequences were affiliated to the Nitrosopumilus cluster and Nitrososphaera cluster, and AOB were classified into the lineages of Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas, with Nitrosospira being predominant over Nitrosomonas, accounting for 83.6 % of the AOB community. Moreover, the majority of Nitrosomonas was determined in neutral soils. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) analysis further demonstrated that AOA and AOB community structures were significantly affected by pH, soil total organic carbon, total nitrogen, and C/N ratio, suggesting that these factors exert strong effects on the distribution of AOB and AOA in paddy soils in Southern China. In conclusion, our results imply that soil pH was a key explanatory variable for both AOA and AOB community structure and nitrification activity. PMID:25744648

  13. Quantifying the hydrological responses to climate change in an intact forested small watershed in Southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, G.; Wei, X.; Wu, Y.; Huang, Y.; Yan, J.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.; Meng, Z.; Wang, C.; Chu, G.; Liu, S.; Tang, X.; Liu, Xiuying

    2011-01-01

    Responses of hydrological processes to climate change are key components in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) assessment. Understanding these responses is critical for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies for sustainable water resources management and protection of public safety. However, these responses are not well understood and little long-term evidence exists. Herein, we show how climate change, specifically increased air temperature and storm intensity, can affect soil moisture dynamics and hydrological variables based on both long-term observation and model simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in an intact forested watershed (the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve) in Southern China. Our results show that, although total annual precipitation changed little from 1950 to 2009, soil moisture decreased significantly. A significant decline was also found in the monthly 7-day low flow from 2000 to 2009. However, the maximum daily streamflow in the wet season and unconfined groundwater tables have significantly increased during the same 10-year period. The significant decreasing trends on soil moisture and low flow variables suggest that the study watershed is moving towards drought-like condition. Our analysis indicates that the intensification of rainfall storms and the increasing number of annual no-rain days were responsible for the increasing chance of both droughts and floods. We conclude that climate change has indeed induced more extreme hydrological events (e.g. droughts and floods) in this watershed and perhaps other areas of Southern China. This study also demonstrated usefulness of our research methodology and its possible applications on quantifying the impacts of climate change on hydrology in any other watersheds where long-term data are available and human disturbance is negligible. ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Quantifying the hydrological responses to climate change in an intact forested small watershed in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, Guo-Yi; Wei, Xiaohua; Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Huang, Yuhui; Yan, Junhua; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhang, Qianmei; Liu, Juxiu; Meng, Ze; Wang, Chunlin; Chu, Guowei; Liu, Shizhong; Tang, Xu-Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    Responses of hydrological processes to climate change are key components in the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) assessment. Understanding these responses is critical for developing appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies for sustainable water resources management and protection of public safety. However, these responses are not well understood and little long-term evidence exists. Herein, we show how climate change, specifically increased air temperature and storm intensity, can affect soil moisture dynamics and hydrological variables based on both long-term observation and model simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in an intact forested watershed (the Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve) in Southern China. Our results show that, although total annual precipitation changed little from 1950 to 2009, soil moisture decreased significantly. A significant decline was also found in the monthly 7-day low flow from 2000 to 2009. However, the maximum daily streamflow in the wet season and unconfined groundwater tables have significantly increased during the same 10-year period. The significant decreasing trends on soil moisture and low flow variables suggest that the study watershed is moving towards drought-like condition. Our analysis indicates that the intensification of rainfall storms and the increasing number of annual no-rain days were responsible for the increasing chance of both droughts and floods. We conclude that climate change has indeed induced more extreme hydrological events (e.g. droughts and floods) in this watershed and perhaps other areas of Southern China. This study also demonstrated usefulness of our research methodology and its possible applications on quantifying the impacts of climate change on hydrology in any other watersheds where long-term data are available and human disturbance is negligible.

  15. Characteristics of PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen-feng; Liu, Kang; Wang, Xiao-rong; Huang, Shi-hong

    2005-01-01

    To understand pollution level and possible sources of atmospheric fine particulates in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province of China, samples of PM2.5 were collected and analyzed in Xueyan Town and Taihu Lake Station over three seasons from July 2002 to January 2003. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and 14 principal component elements were obtained. The results showed that pollution of PM2.5 was serious and the concentration levels of S, Zn, Pb and As were similar to city. There are different seasonal distribution laws of pollutant elements in PM2.5 between two sampling sites, probably due to contribution of local sources, medium or long distance transportation of fine particulates and complicated meteorological conditions. The enrichment levels of S, Zn, Pb, As, K were high, reflecting the influence of anthropogenic activities. Particularly enrichment level of S was much higher in summer, which was probably related to meteorological condition. The result of principal components analysis showed major sources of PM2.5 included crustal resuspension, coal burning, metal processing industry or waste incineration, vehicular emission, which suggests anthropogenic activities is of important influence on PM2.5 in rural areas of southern Jiangsu Province. PMID:16465890

  16. Aragonite saturation state and dynamic mechanism in the southern Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuemei; Zang, Kunpeng; Huo, Cheng; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Huade; Wang, Juying; Sun, Bing

    2016-08-15

    Based upon surveys conducted in November 2012 and June 2013, the distribution and dynamics of aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) were investigated in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) of China. In summer, surface water Ωarag ranged from 2.1-3.8 and enhanced biological production fueled by Changjiang River freshwater input increased Ωarag to 3.8 in the southern SYS. However, subsurface water Ωarag was <2.0 in the central SYS. During autumn, surface water Ωarag was 2.0-2.9, lower than that in summer due to ventilation between surface and low Ωarag (1.0-1.4) subsurface waters in the central SYS. Community respiration and/or aerobic remineralization dominated low Ωarag in subsurface waters, while water stratification influenced the level and scale of acidity accumulation. By the end of this century, waters with Ωarag>2.0 could disappear from the SYS with increasing atmospheric CO2, while bottom waters Ωarag may become undersaturated due to the impact of eutrophication. PMID:27289282

  17. Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai

    2016-04-01

    Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9–14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the southern South China Sea (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the southern SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography.

  18. Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the southern South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai

    2016-01-01

    Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9–14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the southern South China Sea (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the southern SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography. PMID:27075644

  19. The anticyclonic circulation in the southern South China Sea: Observed structure, seasonal development and interannual variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Rong; Fang, Wendong; Zhou, Sheng-Qi

    2016-02-01

    In situ hydrographic and current observations from cruises in 1998 and 1999, together with 20-year (1993-2012) sea level anomaly (SLA) data from satellite altermeter, have been used to study the vertical structure, seasonal development, and interannual variability of the anticyclonic circulation in the southern South China Sea (SCS). The relationship between the anticyclonic circulation and its northern flanking cyclonic eddy are described. Three associated circulation patterns are identified. The anticyclonic circulation is present for an average of 108 ± 30 days per year, while its northern flanking cyclonic eddy is present for an average of 54 ± 25 days per year. The intraseasonal variability of the anticyclonic circulation is intense as a result of advection with the flanking northern cyclone, which accompanies the gyre on average about 60% of the time. The vertical structure of the anticyclonic circulation in 1998 (1999) penetrated much deeper, and its horizontal scope became wider in June (July) than in April. The anticyclonic circulation shows some difference between 1998 and 1999, displaying earlier appearance, more northward position, and non-dipole pattern in 1998, suggesting that the interannual variability of the anticyclonic circulation is related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. The effect of Sverdrup balance via westward propagating Rossby wave on the seasonal development of the anticyclonic circulation has been discussed.

  20. Persistent and energetic bottom-trapped topographic Rossby waves observed in the southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Chai, Fei; Xie, Qiang; Cai, Shuqun; Chen, Rongyu; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; He, Yunkai

    2016-01-01

    Energetic fluctuations with periods of 9-14 days below a depth of 1400 m were observed in the southern South China Sea (SCS) from 5 years of direct measurements. We interpreted such fluctuations as topographic Rossby waves (TRWs) because they obey the dispersion relation. The TRWs persisted from May 24, 2009 to August 23, 2013, and their bottom current speed with a maximum of ~10 cm/s was one order of magnitude greater than the mean current and comparable to the tidal currents near the bottom. The bottom-trapped TRWs had an approximate trapping depth of 325 m and reference wavelength of ~82 km, which were likely excited by eddies above. Upper layer current speed that peaked approximately every 2 months could offer the energy sources for the persistent TRWs in the southern SCS. Energetic bottom-trapped TRWs may have a comparable role in deep circulation to tides in areas with complex topography. PMID:27075644

  1. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39-53% of the annual net carbon sink of China's terrestrial ecosystems (190-260 Tg C yr(-1)). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. In light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26739761

  2. Acceptability of Hypothetical Microbicides among Women in Sex Establishments in Rural Areas in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Liao, Su-Su; Weeks, Margaret R.; Jiang, Jing-Mei; Abbott, Maryann; Zhou, Yue-Jiao; He, Bin; Liu, Wei; Mosack, Katie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives and Goal The objectives of this study were to measure the potential acceptability of a hypothetical microbicide among women in sex establishments in rural areas of Southern China, and demographic, behavioral and social context factors likely to affect microbicide acceptability. Study Design This was a cross-sectional survey, using a quota sampling, among 300 women from sex establishments in three rural towns. An interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire was used to measure the acceptability score of hypothetical microbicides’ characteristics, as well as sexual relationships and behaviors, and other contextual factors. Results Findings showed a generally positive response to microbicides, indicated by an acceptability index score of 2.89 (SD, 0.56, scale of 1–4) in the overall sample. Multivariate analysis shows the acceptability score varied significantly by study sites, type of sex-work establishments, marital status, sex partner type, vaginal product experience, locus of control by partners and locus of control by chance. Conclusions Microbicides may be acceptable among sex workers in rural settings in China; however, contextual factors should be carefully considered in education and promotion of microbicides in the future. PMID:17767093

  3. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Lin, Xuhui; Zhang, Longxian; Qi, Nanshan; Liao, Shenquan; Lv, Minna; Wu, Caiyan; Sun, Mingfei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the prevalence and assess the zoonotic transmission burden of Cryptosporidium species in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China, 244 fecal samples were collected from four pigeon breeding farms between June 2012 and March 2013. Cryptosporidium oocysts were purified by Sheather's sugar flotation technique and characterized by DNA sequencing of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Cryptosporidium species were determined by comparison of sequences with corresponding Cryptosporidium sequences in GenBank and phylogenetic analysis using neighbor-joining (NJ) in MEGA5.2. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in domestic pigeons in Guangdong Province was 0.82% (2/244). Two Cryptosporidium species, namely Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium meleagridis, were identified in Huizhou and Chaozhou farm, respectively. These findings confirmed the existence of C. meleagridis infection in domestic pigeons in China for the first time and provided base-line information for further studies to evaluate the public health risk from pigeon to human. PMID:25773186

  4. Inter-annual sea level variability in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumya, M.; Vethamony, P.; Tkalich, P.

    2015-10-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) is the largest marginal sea in the western Pacific Basin. Sea level anomalies (SLAs) in the southern South China Sea (SSCS) are assumed to be governed by various phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. We have used monthly sea level anomalies obtained from 12 tide gauge stations of PSMSL and UHSLC and merged and gridded AVISO products of SLAs (sea level anomalies) derived from satellite altimeter. We find that IOD-influenced inter-annual variations are found only in the southwestern and southeastern coastal regions of SSCS. Our analysis reveals that inter-annual regional sea level drops are associated with positive phase of the IOD, and the rises with negative phase of the IOD. SLA variations at decadal scale in the southeastern and northern Gulf of Thailand correlate with Pacific Decadal Oscillations (PDO). Multiple linear regression analysis of inter-annual SLAs and climate indices shows that IOD induced inter-annual variations dominate in the southwestern SCS and it contributes to about ~ 40% of inter-annual sea level variation. Meanwhile, ENSO contributes to around ~ 30% variation in sea level in the southwestern and ~ 40% variation in the southeastern SSCS. The present study also suggests that inter-annual SLA variations in the SSCS can occur by ENSO and IOD induced changes in wind stress curl and volume transport variations.

  5. Three new species of freshwater Macrostomum (Platyhelminthes, Macrostomida) from southern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Zhang, Lv; Wang, An-Tai; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Macrostomum is a diverse genus of turbellarians with more than 180 species described from around the world. However, the Macrostomum fauna in China is poorly known. In this study, three new species of freshwater Macrostomum were described from southern China based on morphology of the penis stylet, an important character for species identification in this genus. In M. heyuanensis n. sp., the penis stylet bends 108° leftwards at its 1/2 length then backwards besides the distal opening, and the terminal region is thicker than other parts of penis stylet. In M. dongyuanensis n. sp., the penis stylet is J-shaped, with the opening at the tail end. In M. bicaudatum n. sp., the penis stylet is C-shaped, with the upper margin of the distal end longer but slimmer than the lower margin. In addition, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to aid the classification of the novel species. Finally, their habitat and taxonomic status are compared and discussed. PMID:26623848

  6. Avian influenza A viruses of southern China and Hong Kong: ecological aspects and implications for man*

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, K. F.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous surveillance of the influenza viruses isolated from domestic poultry from southern China and Hong Kong over more than 4 years resulted in the isolation of influenza viruses possessing 46 different combinations of haemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) subtypes. Of these, 43 were obtained from ducks from China. In all cases, infection appeared to be asymptomatic. The antigenic combination found most commonly in the viruses isolated was H4N6, which accounted for approximately one-quarter of the duck isolates, its occurrence being more frequent than expected from a statistical analysis of the observed frequencies of the haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes among all the isolates. Some combinations of H and N occurred less frequently than expected or not at all. Influenza viruses tended to be isolated more frequently from ducks during the summer months in comparison with paramyxoviruses, which were more commonly encountered in the winter. Possible reasons for the great antigenic diversity of influenza A viruses in the poultry, especially the ducks, in the region are discussed together with the potential significance of these viruses to the emergence of human influenza pandemics. PMID:6979416

  7. Concentrations and health risk assessment of trace elements in animal-derived food in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaketon; Zhang, Huimin; Liu, Guihua; Zhang, Jianqing; Wang, Jizhong; Yu, Yingxin; Lu, Shaoyou

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the levels of trace elements in animal-derived food in Shenzhen, Southern China. The concentrations of 14 trace elements (Cd, Hg, Pb, As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Mo, Ni, Co, Se and Ti) in a total of 220 meat samples, collected from the local markets of Shenzhen were determined. Cu, Fe and Zn were the major elements, with concentrations approximately 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than those of other elements. However, the daily intakes of Cu, Fe and Zn merely via the consumption of the meat products were lower than the recommended nutrient intake values provided by the 2013 Chinese Dietary Guide. Among the non-essential trace elements, Cd was accumulated in animal viscera, and the concentration ratios of chicken gizzard/chicken, chicken liver/chicken, pig kidney/pork and pig liver/pork were 41.6, 55.2, 863 and 177, respectively. In addition, high concentrations of As were found in aquatic products, especially in marine fish. The concentration of As in marine fish was slightly higher than the limits recommended by China, USA and Croatia. The health risk assessment of trace elements through the consumption of meat products by adult residents in Shenzhen was evaluated by using the target hazard quotient (THQ) method. The total THQ was greater than 1, implying a potential health risk. Approximately 66% of total THQ values, mainly from As, were from the consumption of aquatic products. PMID:26401636

  8. A Preliminary Study in the Spratly, Southern Part of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.

    2005-12-01

    From 20 June to 1 August (a total of 44 days) this year, a group of 8 scientists conducted a preliminary geological and geophysical study from the Taiping reef island, also called as the Ita Abu, owned by Taiwan. Since the Taiping Island is the biggest island (1,300 m in length, 400 m in width) in these some 102 reef islands, atolls, and sand bars in the southern part of the South China Sea. It is also the only island having the ground water and a hospital in a radius of 1,000 km of this tropical reef islands. Before the cruise, we requested the satellite images from the Taiwan-owned FORMOSA satellite in this region. During the survey, we acquired the echo sounding and side scan sonar data in the lagoon in order to give us a first topographical expression of the seafloor and to identify the dredge sites. Inside the wave break reef and beach site, we drilled several series of 30-cm cores, about 30 sites. Outside the wave break, we had a wonderful time to conduct many underwater photography and investigations. All of these efforts are aiming to get a better understanding of early rifting of the South China Sea and the evolution of reef growth in this tropical environment. Since the corals are the doctors of their living ecological system; they record the temperature, salinity, storm events, and El Nino. Our preliminary survey will provide a first glance of the last hundred and thousand years of our climate change. We will continue with our adventures. We also understand the political conflicts in this region. However, the Spratly islands hold the major key to reveal the sciences of the South China Sea, such as the early continental rifting, reef evolution, coral ecosystem, fishery resource and possible energy resource. We intend to open the Taiping Island as an International Marine Science Observatory.

  9. Epidemiology of Superficial Fungal Infections in Guangdong, Southern China: A Retrospective Study from 2004 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wenying; Lu, Changming; Li, Xiqing; Zhang, Junmin; Zhan, Ping; Xi, Liyan; Sun, Jiufeng; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-06-01

    Superficial fungal infections are common worldwide; however, the distribution of pathogenic species varies among geographical areas and changes over time. This study aimed to determine the epidemiologic profile of superficial fungal infections during 2004-2014 in Guangzhou, Southern China. Data regarding the superficial mycoses from outpatients and inpatients in our hospital were recorded and analyzed. From the 3367 patients that were enrolled in the study, 3385 samples were collected from skin, hair and nail lesions. Of the 697 positive cultures, dermatophytes were the most prevalent isolates (84.36 %), followed by yeasts (14.92 %) and non-dermatophyte molds (0.72 %). Trichophyton rubrum (56.24 %) was the most common dermatophyte isolated from cases of tinea unguium (83.92 %), tinea pedis (71.19 %), tinea cruris (91.66 %), tinea corporis (91.81 %) and tinea manuum (65.00 %). Trichophyton mentagrophytes (13.35 %) and Microsporum canis (10.19 %) were the predominant species associated with cases of tinea faciei (54.55 %) and tinea capitis (54.13 %), respectively. Yeasts and molds were identified primarily from other cases of superficial fungal infections. In conclusion, when compared to previous studies in the same area, the epidemiology of superficial mycoses in Guangdong did not significantly change from 2004 to 2014. The prevalence of causative agents and the spectrum of superficial fungal infections, particularly tinea caused by dermatophyte infection, are similar to reports from several specific regions in China and Europe, whereas increasing incidences of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis occurred in Guangdong, China. PMID:26883512

  10. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Extremity Chronic Osteomyelitis in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan; Ma, Yun-fei; Jiang, Yi; Zhao, Xing-qi; Xie, Guo-ping; Hu, Yan-jun; Qin, Cheng-he; Yu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although extremity chronic osteomyelitis is common in China, updated data were still limited regarding its characterizations. The present study aimed to review clinical features of extremity chronic osteomyelitis in Southern China. A retrospective analysis was conducted in the patients who had sought medical attention from January 2010 to April 2015 for extremity chronic osteomyelitis in Nanfang Hospital in Southern China. Clinical data were collected and analyzed. A total of 394 patients (307 males and 87 females) were included, giving a gender ratio of 3.53. The median age at first diagnosis was 42 years for all. The most frequent type was traumatic osteomyelitis (262 cases, 66.50%), which was mainly caused by open injury (166 cases, 63.36%) and during a road accident (91 cases, 34.73%). Single-site infection accounted for 81.98% (323 cases), with tibia (126 cases), femur (79 cases), calcaneus (37 cases), and toes (37 cases) as the top sites. The positive rate of intraoperative culture was 70.63% (214/303), 78.97% (169/214) of which was monomicrobial infection. Staphylococcus aureus (59 cases) was the most frequent bacteria for monomicrobial infection, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29 cases) and Escherichia coli (11 cases). The positive ratios of preoperative serum white blood cell (WBC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were 21.63%, 64.92%, 53.27%, 42.25%, 72.82%, and 66.67%, respectively. The most frequently used intravenous antibiotic was cephalosporins. The overall cure rate was 77.74%, with a total amputation rate of 16.75%. In this representative Chinese cohort, extremity chronic osteomyelitis was mostly caused by open injury and during a road accident, predominated in males and favored the tibia. S. aureus was the most frequent pathogenic organism. Preoperative elevated levels of serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ESR may be helpful

  11. Airlines Network Optimization using Evolutionary Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Hiroki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Sakagami, Tomoya

    In recent years, various networks have come to exist in our surroundings. Not only the internet and airline routes can be thought of as networks: protein interactions are also networks. An “economic network design problem” can be discussed by assuming that a vertex is an economic player and that a link represents some connection between economic players. In this paper, the Airlines network is taken up as an example of an “economic network design problem”, and the Airlines network which the profit of the entire Airlines industry is maximized is clarified. The Airlines network is modeled based on connections models proposed by Jackson and Wolinsky, and the utility function of the network is defined. In addition, the optimization simulation using the evolutionary computation is shown for a domestic airline in Japan.

  12. Cenozoic detachment folding in the southern Tianshan foreland, NW China: Shortening distances and rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Sun, Jimin; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Zhiliang; Gong, Zhijun; Lin, Xu; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2016-03-01

    Intracontinental foreland basins with fold-and-thrust belts on the southern periphery of the Tianshan orogenic belt in China resulted from still-active contractional deformation ultimately cased by the India-Asia collision. To quantify the amounts of shortening distance and the rates of deformation, and to decipher the architectural framework, we mapped the stratigraphy and structure of four anticlines in the Kuqa and Baicheng foreland thrust belts in the central southern Tianshan. In the Baicheng foreland thrust belts, Lower Cretaceous Baxigai and Bashijiqike Formations located in the core of the Kumugeliemu anticline are overlain by the Paleocene to Eocene Kumugeliemu Formation, above which are conformable Oligocene through Pleistocene sediments. A disharmonic transition from parallel to unconformable bedding at the boundary of the Miocene Kangcun and Pliocene Kuqa Formations suggests a change from pre-detachment folded strata to beds deposited on top of a growing anticline. Most of the anticlines have steep limbs (70-90°) and are box to isoclinal folds, suggestive of detachment folding or faulted detachment folding (faults that transect a fold core or limb). Shortening estimates calculated from the cross-sections by the Excess area method indicate that the total shortening for the Kelasu, Kuchetawu, Kezile and Yaken sections are 6.3 km, 6.4 km, 5.8 km and 0.6 km, respectively, and the respective depths of the detachment zones are (2.3 km and 6.9 km), 2.3 km, 2.5 km and 3.4 km. Time estimates derived from a paleomagnetic study indicate that the transition to syn-folding strata occurred at ∼6.5 Ma at the Kuchetawu section along the Kuqa river. In addition, according to our field observations and previous sedimentary rate studies, the initial time of folding of the Yaken anticline was at 0.15-0.21 Ma. Therefore, the average shortening rate that began at ∼6 Ma was ∼2 mm/a for the Kelasu, Kuchetawu and Kezile sections. At 0.15-0.21 Ma, the average shortening

  13. Measles epidemic from 1951 to 2012 and vaccine effectiveness in Guangzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhicong; Xu, Jianxiong; Wang, Ming; Di, Biao; Tan, Huifeng; He, Qing; Cai, Yanshan; Liang, Jianhua; Hu, Wensui; Dong, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yunqing; Fu, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the National Expanded Program on Immunization was implemented in China, considerable progress has been made in reducing the incidence of measles. However, the incidence of measles increased again in 2004. Few post-marketing studies on measles vaccine effectiveness were reported in China. In this study, we aimed to describe the measles epidemic and to evaluate the effectiveness of the measles vaccine in Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Based on the surveillance data for measles, we investigated the epidemiology during different periods between 1951 and 2012. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of laboratory-confirmed cases of measles between 2009 and 2012 and conducted a case-control study using test-negative cases as controls. We determined the protective effect of measles vaccine. Results The highest annual incidence in Guangzhou was 2187.15/100 000 in 1964, and the lowest was 0.32/100 000 in 2011. The average incidence of measles from 1951 to 2012 was 306.27/100 000. There was a significant tendency of decline in recent years. From 2009 to 2012, there are 700 laboratory-confirmed cases reported with an average onset age of 2.5 (median) years. The non-vaccinated target population (age <8 months and ≥15 years) accounted for 56.7% of the cases. The transient (non-resident) population accounted for 51.3% of the cases. Fewer cases were observed in the population targeted for measles vaccine (aged 8 months to 14 years). The effectiveness of a single dose of the measles vaccine was 89.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 44.5–97.9), and the effectiveness of ≥2 doses of the measles vaccine was 97.8% (95% CI, 88.3–99.6) in children aged 8 months to 14 years old. Conclusions There is a significant overall decline in the incidence of measles (including clinical and laboratory confirmed cases) in the measles vaccine targeted population in Guangzhou. Two doses of measles vaccine are more effective than one dose in preventing measles in China

  14. Paleozoic archipelagic tectonic evolution of Western Junggar, NW China: implications for continental growth of southern Altaids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jien; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Ma, Chong; Song, Dongfang

    2013-04-01

    The Western Junggar, NW China, a dominant site for continental growth in Southern Altaids, bridges the Circum-Balkhash and Junggar belts and exposes ophiolite, igneous rocks and strata from Cambrian to Carboniferous. Recent updated data on structure, geochronology, geochemisty and paleomagnetism, integrated with previous data, present a newly Paleozoic spatial and temporal framework of Western Junggar. In Cambrian, the Western Junggar begins to birth at the Tangbale area to south, where occurs Ordovician blueschist and top-to-south vergence structures, indicating north-dipping subduction. This event triggers intra-arc extension to generate Ordovician island arc in the Hongguleleng-Xiemisitai area to north and seamount in the Mayile area, middle of Western Junggar. Until Silurian, a southeastward subduction begins in the extended back-arc basin to west of Mayile, occurring blueschist at the Barleik trench and the Nalunsuo magmatic arc, at the rear of which generates Devonian back-arc basin around the Durbut area. Meanwhile, a Silurian Xiemisitai magmatic arc has been developed at the northern part of Western Junggar, along which a northward subduction has emplaced the Tarbahatai ophiolite and generates the Carboniferous Sawur magmatic arc. At the middle part of Western Junggar, the coeval adakite and sanukitic dykes, charnockite, multiple properties of ophiolite and plutons, SSZ-like andesite, dacite and rhyolite and regional structures suggest that there develop double-subduction systems with ridge-trench interaction in Carboniferous. These features suggest that the Western Junggar experiences rollback, intra-oceanic extension and subduction polarity reversal/flip in back-arc basin settings. Furthermore, positive ɛNd(t) values and no huge movements of blocks suggest that the Western Junggar is amalgamated by juvenile elements with different orientations. Therefore, we conclude that the Western Junggar enlarges from an island arc to Paleozoic tectonic regime with

  15. Magnetostratigraphy of the Kelasu section in the Baicheng depression, Southern Tian Shan, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiliang; Shen, Zhongyue; Sun, Jimin; Wang, Xin; Tian, Zhonghua; Pan, Xiaoqing; Shi, Linquan

    2015-11-01

    In order to better constrain chronology of the Cenozoic sediments in the foreland basin of the Southern Tian Shan, we carried out a magnetostratigraphic study along the Kelasu River, in the Baicheng depression, northwestern China. This is the basis for future studies of the tectonic shortening history and paleoclimatic changes. Stepwise thermal demagnetization was used to isolate the high-temperature characteristic component (ChRM) from 1521 oriented samples collected along two overlapped sections. The ChRM directions are interpreted to be acquired at or close to the time of rock formation. A composite magnetostratigraphic column composed of 86 (45 normal and 41 reversed) polarity chrons can correlate with GPTS (CK95) from ∼54 Ma to ∼7.6 Ma. The basal ages of the Kumugeliemu, Suweiyi, Jidike and the Kangcun formations are ∼54 Ma, ∼46 Ma, ∼34 Ma and ∼9.7 Ma, respectively. The changes of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) parameters (Pj and T) cannot be used to reflect the Cenozoic uplift of the southern Chinese Tian Shan due to the parameters have a significant linear positive correlation with the bulk magnetic susceptibility (Km), suggesting a sedimentary provenance control. Based on the alignments of the AMS, we concluded that the paleo-river channel flowed from north to south, being similar to the present river flowing direction, suggesting that there was still a residue relief of the Tian Shan orogen after the long-term Mesozoic denudation or the reactivation of the Tian Shan may have been initiated as early as ∼54 Ma.

  16. Distribution and sources of lipid compound series in sediment cores of the southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Tahir, N Mohd; Pang, S Y; Simoneit, B R T

    2015-05-01

    Three short sediment cores from inner continental shelf of the southern South China Sea (5-50 km) off Terengganu were analyzed for lipid contents (i.e., homologous aliphatic compounds and sterols) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentrations of the total aliphatic hydrocarbons (TAHs) ranged from 0.152 to 6.91 μg/g dry weight. The n-alkane distribution was from nC₁₃ to nC₃₆, with a carbon preference index (CPI₁₃₋₃₅) from 1.08 to 4.28 and a carbon number maximum (Cmax), depending on a sample, at 31 or 18. In addition, a strong odd-to-even carbon number predominance was observed in nC₂₅-nC₃₅ range. The distribution of the n-alkanoic acids and n-alkanols in all samples exhibited an even-to-odd carbon number predominance and ranged from C₁₀ to C₂₆ and from C₁₂ to C₃₄, respectively. The n-alkanols were dominated by the long-chain homologs with Cmax at 22; on the other hand, the n-alkanoic acid distributions showed a predominance of short-chain homologs with a Cmax at 16. The total sterol concentrations ranged from 0.41 to 3.57 μg/g dry weight. Cholesterol was most abundant at the offshore stations, whereas sitosterol was dominant at near-shore station. Pentacyclic triterpenoids such as friedelin and taraxerol α- and β-amyrins, which are known biomarkers for higher plants, were detected at all stations with a dilution trend offshore. In conclusion, the marine sediments off southern Terengganu can still be considered uncontaminated, where the compound sources are biogenic from terrestrial plants superimposed with a marine productivity input. PMID:25752627

  17. Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field-dominated basin in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, L.; Sun, G.; Liu, Y.; Wan, J.; Qin, M.; Qian, H.; Liu, C.; Zheng, J.; John, R.; Fan, P.; Chen, J.

    2015-07-01

    Rice paddy fields provide important ecosystem services (e.g., food production, water retention, carbon sequestration) to a large population globally. However, these benefits are diminishing as a result of rapid environmental and socioeconomic transformations, characterized by population growth, urbanization, and climate change in many Asian countries. This case study examined the responses of stream flow and watershed water balances to the decline of rice paddy fields due to urbanization in the Qinhuai River basin in southern China, where massive industrialization has occurred during the past 3 decades. We found that stream flow increased by 58 % and evapotranspiration (ET) decreased by 23 % during 1986-2013 as a result of a three-fold increase in urban areas and a reduction of rice paddy fields by 27 %. Both high flows and low flows increased significantly by about 28 % from 2002 to 2013. The increases in stream flow were consistent with the decreases in ET and leaf area index monitored by independent remote sensing MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. Attribution analysis, based on two empirical models, indicated that land-use/land-cover change contributed about 82-108 % of the observed increase in stream flow from 353 ± 287 mm yr-1 during 1986-2002 to 556 ± 145 during 2003-2013. We concluded that the reduction in ET was largely attributed to the conversion of cropland to urban use. The effects of land-use change overwhelmed the effects of regional climate warming and climate variability. Converting traditional rice paddy fields to urban use dramatically altered land surface conditions from an artificial wetland-dominated landscape to an urban land-use- dominated one, and thus was considered an extreme type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance. The ongoing large-scale urbanization of the rice paddy-dominated regions, in humid southern China and East Asia, will likely elevate storm-flow volume, aggravate flood risks, and intensify urban

  18. Sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome in southern China: epidemiological survey and SCN5A gene screening

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jianding; Makielski, Jonathan C.; Yuan, Ping; Shi, Nianqing; Zhou, Feng; Ye, Bin; Tan, Bi-Hua; Kroboth, Stacie; Tang, Shuangbo; Lu, Ciyong

    2010-01-01

    Based on autopsy data collected in Southern China from 2001–2006, 975 cases of sudden unexplained nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS) were surveyed. Genetic screening of SCN5A, the gene encoding the voltage dependent cardiac Na channel, was performed in 74 available SUNDS cases. The annual occurrence rate of SUNDS in the area was estimated to be 1 per 100,000 people. 80.6% of deaths occurred between the ages of 21 to 40 years and the case number peaked at age 30 years. In 75.4% of cases where witnesses were present, victims died in their sleep between 11 PM and 4 AM and many showed abrupt respiratory distress shortly preceding death. The monthly distribution of emergency fever cases in the area during the same period was positively correlated to that of SUNDS cases (rs = 0.611, P = 0.0025). Four polymorphisms in SCN5A were identified in both SUNDS and control groups. Compared with controls, the allele frequency of C5457 and C3666+69 were significant higher in SUNDS (P<0.005) while the genotypes of both 5457CC (P=0.012, OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.3–3.2) and 3666+69CC (P=0.004, OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.3–3.3) in SUNDS cases were significantly higher. This is the first report of an epidemiological survey and SCN5A gene screening in SUNDS in the Han population of China. The genotypes of 5457CC and 3666+69CC in SCN5A gene may be Chinese SUNDS susceptible polymorphisms. PMID:20110800

  19. Willingness to Pay for Cataract Surgery Provided by a Senior Surgeon in Urban Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xianhua; Ling, Yunlan; Lin, Xiaofeng; Li, Mingge; Lamoureux, Ecosse; Zheng, Yingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study willingness to pay for cataract surgery and surgical service provided by a senior cataract surgeon in urban Southern China. Methods This study was a cross-sectional willingness-to-pay (WTP) interview using bidding formats. Two-hundred eleven persons with presenting visual impairment in either eye due to cataract were enrolled at a tertiary eye hospital. Participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination and a WTP interview for both surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon. Demographic information, socioeconomic status and clinical data were recorded. Results Among 211 (98% response rate) persons completing the interview, 53.6% were women and 80.6% were retired. About 72.2% had a monthly income lower than 1000 renminbi (US $161). A total of 189 (89.6%) were willing to pay for cataract and the median amount of WTP was 6000 renminbi (US$968). And 102 (50.7%) were willing to pay additional fees for surgery performed by a senior surgeon, and the median amount of WTP was 500 renminbi (US$81). In regression models adjusting for age and gender, persons with preexisting eye diseases other than cataract, were more likely to pay for cataract surgery and service provided by a senior surgeon (P = 0.04 for both). Conclusions In urban China, cataract patients, especially those with preexisting eye conditions, are willing to pay additional fees for a senior surgeon. Moving to a system where the price of cataract surgery is proportional to the consultant’ skill and expertise is possible and may have a potential impact on waiting list and quality of eye care. Further studies are needed to examine the impact of such pricing system on attitudes and choices of cataract patients. PMID:26575284

  20. Epidemiology and characteristics of the dengue outbreak in Guangdong, Southern China, in 2014.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Luo, X; Shao, J; Yan, H; Qiu, Y; Ke, P; Zheng, W; Xu, B; Li, W; Sun, D; Cao, D; Chen, C; Zhuo, F; Lin, X; Tang, F; Bao, B; Zhou, Y; Zhang, X; Li, H; Li, J; Wan, D; Yang, L; Chen, Y; Zhong, Q; Gu, X; Liu, J; Huang, L; Xie, R; Li, X; Xu, Y; Luo, Z; Liao, M; Wang, H; Sun, L; Li, H; Lau, G W; Duan, C

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV) and has emerged as a severe public health problem around the world. Guangdong, one of the southern Chinese provinces, experienced a serious outbreak of dengue in 2014, which was believed to be the worst dengue epidemic in China over the last 20 years. To better understand the epidemic, we collected the epidemiological data of the outbreak and analyzed 14,594 clinically suspected dengue patients from 25 hospitals in Guangdong. Dengue cases were then laboratory-confirmed by the detection of DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and/or DENV RNA. Afterwards, clinical manifestations of dengue patients were analyzed and 93 laboratory-positive serum specimens were chosen for the DENV serotyping and molecular analysis. Our data showed that the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong had spread to 20 cities and more than 45 thousand people suffered from dengue fever. Of 14,594 participants, 11,387 were definitively diagnosed. Most manifested with a typical non-severe clinical course, and 1.96 % developed to severe dengue. The strains isolated successfully from the serum samples were identified as DENV-1. Genetic analyses revealed that the strains were classified into genotypes I and V of DENV-1, and the dengue epidemic of Guangdong in 2014 was caused by indigenous cases and imported cases from the neighboring Southeast Asian countries of Malaysia and Singapore. Overall, our study is informative and significant to the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong and will provide crucial implications for dengue prevention and control in China and elsewhere. PMID:26700953

  1. Future direction in airline marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  2. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  3. Consumer Marketing and the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The fundamentals of consumer marketing as applied to the airline industry are considered. An attempt is made to boil down the mystique and jargon which frequently surround the subject of marketing. Topics covered include: (1) The marketing concept; (2) consumer expectations from airlines; (3) planning of marketing strategy; and (4) the roles of advertising, sales, and middlemen.

  4. Epidemiological survey on newborns born at the obstetric departments in hospitals in mid-southern region of China in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing-Hong; Wei, Ke-Lun; Yao, Yu-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the situations at birth of newborns in the mid-southern region of China by performing a survey on the newborns born at urban hospitals. Methods A total of 23 hospitals in the mid-southern region of China were selected to participate in this survey. The data of 15,582 newborns who were born at the obstetric departments from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005 were retrospectively investigated. Results The male to female ratio among newborns was 1.16:1. The incidence of preterm birth was 8.11%, while very low birth weight (VLBW) infants accounted for 0.73%. The rates of spontaneous vaginal delivery and cesarean section ware 57.52% and 40.82%, respectively, while the other delivery modes accounted for 1.66%. The incidence of neonatal asphyxia was 3.78% (0.75% for heavy asphyxia). The mortality of newborns was 0.55% (5.56% for preterm infants). Conclusions The incidences of preterm birth and neonatal asphyxia are relatively high in the mid-southern region of China. The rate of cesarean section is abnormally high, which is due mainly to social factors. PMID:26835280

  5. Tectono-thermal evolution of the Reed Bank Basin, Southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Chen, Lin; Hu, Shengbiao; Yang, Shuchun; Zhang, Gongcheng; Shen, Huailei; Rao, Song; Li, Weiwei

    2014-12-01

    The Reed Bank Basin in the southern margin of the South China Sea is considered to be a Cenozoic rifted basin. Tectono-thermal history is widely thought to be important to understand tectonics as well as oil and gas potential of basin. In order to investigate the Cenozoic tectono-thermal history of the Reed Bank Basin, we carried out thermal modeling on one drill well and 22 pseudo-wells using the multi-stage finite stretching model. Two stages of rifting during the time periods of ∼65.5-40.4 Ma and ∼40.4-28.4 Ma can be recognized from the tectonic subsidence rates, and there are two phases of heating corresponding to the rifting. The reconstructed average basal paleo-heat flow values at the end of the rifting events are ∼60 and ∼66.3 mW/m2, respectively. Following the heating periods, this basin has undergone a persistent thermal attenuation phase since ∼28.4 Ma and the basal heat flow cooled down to ∼57.8-63.5 mW/m2 at present. In combination with the radiogenic heat production of the sedimentary sequences, the surface heat flow of the Reed Bank Basin ranges from ∼60.4 to ∼69.9 mW/m2.

  6. Investigation of sources of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at Mount Lushan in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haiyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Hongli; Zhu, Chen; Mao, Huiting; Yang, Minmin; Wang, Ruixia; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-03-01

    Gaseous and particulate samples of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected at the summit of Mount Lushan (29.58°N, 115.98°E, 1165 m asl) in southern China from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012 except special meteorological conditions such as rainy or very foggy days. The concentration of PAHs in total (gaseous and particulate PAHs) ranged from 15.79 to 160.53 ng m-3 (mean 41.67 ng m-3). Observed logarithmic values of particulate mass fraction (log θ) and partitioning coefficient (log Kp) were all higher than values calculated by the three gas-particle partitioning models, presenting higher fraction of particulate PAHs, indicating continual contribution of gaseous PAHs to particulate PAHs concentrations during long-range transport of air masses. Identified potential source regions using potential source contribution function analysis suggested significant contributions of emissions from coking, thermal power, and steel plants. The sources of PAHs levels at Mount Lushan that were identified using positive matrix factorization included diesel vehicles (43%), coal-fired boiler combustion (33%), coke oven source (17%), and incineration source (7%).

  7. Environmental radionuclides in a coastal wetland of the Southern Laizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qidong; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Ning; Cao, Lei

    2015-08-15

    The radioactivity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K, and (137)Cs in soil samples collected in a coastal wetland of the Southern Laizhou Bay, China were measured. Mean activity concentrations were 54.4±11.7, 57.9±9.7, 28.6±4.3, 542±21, and 10.2±2.9Bqkg(-1) dry weight for (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. Statistical analyses suggested significant correlations between clay content and (40)K as well as (137)Cs. The radium equivalent activity, the absorbed dose rate in the air at 1m above the ground surface, and the external hazard index were calculated. The result showed that the radioactivity level in the wetland was in normal range. But sites along the river tended to have higher radiological hazard indexes. The vertical distributions of radionuclides in profiles illustrated some phenomena, such as vertical transport of (238)U, disequilibrium between (238)U and (226)Ra, and change in material sources. PMID:26028169

  8. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration.

    PubMed

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi'an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  9. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; et al

    2016-01-07

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg Cmore » in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39–53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190–260 Tg C yr-1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. As a result, in light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.« less

  10. Environmental and Archaeological Implications of a Late Quaternary Palynological Sequence, Poyang Lake, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qinhua; Piperno, Dolores R.

    1999-09-01

    Paleoecological data from Poyang Lake, southern China, indicate that significant natural and human-induced vegetational changes have occurred during the Late Quaternary in the Middle Yangtze River valley, the likely location of rice (Oryza sativa L.) domestication. During the late Pleistocene (from ca. 12,830 to ca. 10,500 yr B.P.), the climate was cooler and drier than today's. The subtropical, mixed deciduous-evergreen broad-leaved forest which constitutes the modern, potential vegetation was reduced and herbaceous vegetative cover expanded. A hiatus in sedimentation occurred in Poyang Lake, beginning sometime after ca. 10,500 yr B.P. and lasting until the middle Holocene (ca. 4000 yr B.P.). At ca. 4000 yr B.P., the regional vegetation was a diverse, broad-leaved forest dominated by many of the same arboreal elements (e.g., Quercus, Castanopsis, Liquidambar) that grow in the area today. A significant reduction of arboreal pollen and an increase of herbaceous pollen at ca. 2000 yr B.P. probably reflect human influence on the vegetation and the expansion of intensive rice agriculture into the dryland forests near the river valleys.

  11. New Reassortant H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Southern China, 2014.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Peirong; Cui, Jin; Song, Yafen; Song, Hui; Zhao, Zhishan; Wu, Siyu; Qu, Nannan; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    New reassortant H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Southern China in 2014. Our results show that the viruses grew efficiently in eggs and replicated systemically in chickens. They were completely lethal in chicken (100% mortality), and the mean death time was 6 to 7 days post-inoculation. The viruses could transmit in chickens by naïve contact. BLAST analysis revealed that their HA gene was most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1), and their NA genes were most closely related to A/swine/Guangdong/K6/2010 (H6N6). The other genes had the highest identity with A/wild duck/Fujian/1/2011(H5N1). The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that their HA genes clustered into clade 2.3.4.4 of the H5N1 viruses and all genes derived from H5 were Mix-like or H6-like viruses. Thus, the new H5N6 viruses were reassortmented of H5N1 and H6N6 virus. Therefore, the circulation of the new H5N6 AIVs may become a threat to poultry and human health. PMID:27242767

  12. Emergence of reticuloendotheliosis virus in pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Shao-Lun; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Lin, Tao; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Wei, Wen-Kang; Lv, Dian-Hong; Chen, Rui-Ai

    2016-07-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an important immunosuppressive pathogen, has many hosts, including chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys, and wild birds. Clinically, REV may lead to increased susceptibility to other pathogens, resulting in serious tissue damage (especially tumors) and the death of its host. In this study, we encountered a disease outbreak resulting in a large number of deaths of pigeons in Guangdong Province, Southern China. Histopathological analysis revealed apparent tumor-like lesions in multiple organs of pigeons. PCR assays for detection of tumor-associated pathogens (REV, avian leukosis virus, and Marek's disease virus) in poultry revealed the presence of REV sequences only. Moreover, fowlpox virus (FPV) with an insertion of REV long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences was also considered, but it was excluded using a specific PCR assay. To gain more genetic information, two full-length REV genome sequences were determined and found to have the highest nucleotide sequence similarity (99.9 %) and the closest genetic relationship to a vaccine strain (MD-2) and had a more distant genetic relationship (94.3 %) to a duck-origin strain (ATCC-VR775). To confirm the presence of REVs in pigeons, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and healthy pigeons were inoculated with microfiltered tumor tissue homogenates and were found to be susceptible to infection with REV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of REV in pigeons, and the data suggest that pigeons may be the natural host of REV. PMID:27120185

  13. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Su-Yan; Yang, Jie; Yan, Yue; Fu, Xiang-Ping; Lu, Shun-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO) and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB) on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and soil organic matter (OM) at 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK). However, soil moisture (SM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days), Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate. PMID:26368561

  14. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39-53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190-260 Tg C yr-1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. In light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems.

  15. Genetic polymorphism of 22 autosomal STR markers in a Han population of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Zi-Xiang; Chen, Chu-Guang; Lu, De-Jian

    2016-09-01

    Population genetic data and forensic statistics of 22 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D1S1656, D2S1338, D3S3045, D4S2366, D5S2500, D6S477, D7S3048, D8S1132, D9S925, D10S1435, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D14S608, D15S659, D16S539, D17S1290, D18S535, D19S253, D20S470, D21S1270 and GATA198B05) were determined for a sample of 515 unrelated individuals from Han population in Southern China. The expected heterozygosity and the discrimination power varied from 0.7358 to 0.8733 and 0.8915 to 0.9702, respectively. The probability of excluding an unrelated man as the true father (assuming no background relatedness in the population) for trios and for duos ranged from 0.5126 to 0.7415 and 0.3331 to 0.5864, respectively. The studied STRs appear to provide a significant improvement in the statistical power of kinship analysis. PMID:27421761

  16. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in drinking water in southern China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tiejun; Yu, Zhengrong; Zhang, Xihui; Au, Doris W T

    2011-11-01

    Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in drinking water was investigated in southern China. Fifteen and twelve PPCPs were detected with concentrations of 0-36 ng L(-1) in source water and of 0-20 ng L(-1) in treated water, respectively. Four PPCPs were detected with concentrations of approximately 1 ng L(-1) in drinking water of distribution network. Conventional water treatment processes removed the types and average concentrations of PPCPs by 30% and above 50%, respectively. Advanced water treatment processes were more efficient in the removal of most PPCPs, with the types and concentrations reduced by 50% and approximately 90%, respectively. Molecular properties of PPCPs had an important influence on their behaviors during water treatment. pK(a) (acidity coefficient) and K(oc) (organic carbon partition coefficient) of PPCPs appeared to have a combined effect on PPCPs removal during coagulation and oxidation. Adsorption and biodegradation were two possible mechanisms responsible for PPCPs removal during sand filtration. PMID:21987209

  17. Revegetation of extremely acid mine soils based on aided phytostabilization: A case study from southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Liao, Bin; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Chai, Li-Yuan; Li, Jin-Tian

    2016-08-15

    Acidification is a major constraint for revegetation of sulphidic metal-contaminated soils, as exemplified by the limited literature reporting the successful phytostabilization of mine soils associated with pH<3 and high acidification potential. In this study, a combination of ameliorants (lime and chicken manure) and five acid-tolerant plant species has been employed in order to establish a self-sustaining vegetation cover on an extremely acid (pH<3) polymetallic pyritic mine waste heap in southern China exhibiting high acidification potential. The results from the first two-year data showed that the addition of the amendments and the establishment of a plant cover were effective in preventing soil acidification. Net acid-generating potential of the mine soil decreased steadily, whilst pH and acid neutralization capacity increased over time. All the five acid-tolerant plants colonized successfully in the acidic metal-contaminated soil and developed a good vegetation cover within six months, and subsequent vegetation development enhanced organic matter accumulation and nutrient element status in the mine soil. The two-year remediation program performed on this extremely acid metalliferous soil indicated that aided phytostabilization can be a practical and effective restoration strategy for such extremely acid mine soils. PMID:27100018

  18. Diversity and abundance of arsenic biotransformation genes in paddy soils from southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si-Yu; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Sun, Guo-Xin; Su, Jian-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Ru; Li, Hu; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-04-01

    Microbe-mediated arsenic (As) biotransformation in paddy soils determines the fate of As in soils and its availability to rice plants, yet little is known about the microbial communities involved in As biotransformation. Here, we revealed wide distribution, high diversity, and abundance of arsenite (As(III)) oxidase genes (aioA), respiratory arsenate (As(V)) reductase genes (arrA), As(V) reductase genes (arsC), and As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase genes (arsM) in 13 paddy soils collected across Southern China. Sequences grouped with As biotransformation genes are mainly from rice rhizosphere bacteria, such as some Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadales, and Firmicutes. A significant correlation of gene abundance between arsC and arsM suggests that the two genes coexist well in the microbial As resistance system. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that soil pH, EC, total C, N, As, and Fe, C/N ratio, SO4(2-)-S, NO3(-)-N, and NH4(+)-N were the key factors driving diverse microbial community compositions. This study for the first time provides an overall picture of microbial communities involved in As biotransformation in paddy soils, and considering the wide distribution of paddy fields in the world, it also provides insights into the critical role of paddy fields in the As biogeochemical cycle. PMID:25738639

  19. Morphology and phylogeny of three new Loxophyllum species (ciliophora, pleurostomatida) from mangrove wetlands of southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Chen, Ruimin; Yi, Zhenzhen; Li, Jiqiu; Warren, Alan; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    Three new pleurostomatid ciliates, Loxophyllum meridionale sp. n., L. salinum sp. n., and L. planum sp. n., isolated from brackish waters of mangrove wetlands in southern China, were investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. The main characteristic feature of L. meridionale sp. n. is the presence of three contractile vacuoles (CVs) along its dorsal margin. Loxophyllum salinum sp. n. can be identified by the presence of three closely spaced CVs along the ventral margin and 12-15 right and four to six left kineties. Loxophyllum planum sp. n. is characterized by the combination of two macronuclei, a single, subterminal CV, and the absence of cortical granules. Phylogenetic trees based on the small subunit rDNA sequence data recovered Loxophyllum as a monophyletic group within the pleurostomatids. Loxophyllum meridionale sp. n., L. salinum sp. n., and L. planum sp. n. were all nested within the Loxophyllum clade. Based on its ciliary pattern and general morphological features, Loxophyllum asetosum is transferred to the genus Amphileptus and a new combination is suggested: Amphileptus asetosus (Burkovsky 1970) comb. n. [basionym L. asetosum Burkovsky 1970]. PMID:23528111

  20. Patterns and Drivers of Soil Respiration under Long-Term Citrus reticulate in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Su-Yan; Yang, Jie; Yan, Yue; Fu, Xiang-ping; Lu, Shun-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) is a major source of carbon emission in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite the fact that the influence of land use practice on Rs has been widely studied, the patterns and drivers on Rs of Citrus reticulata cultivation, a worldwide land use practice are unclear. In this current study, we investigated the influence of long-term cultivation of Citrus reticulata (CO) and of CO intercropped with soybean (CB) on soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs in southern China. Results indicated that after 21 years of cultivation, CO and CB significantly increased total soil carbon (TC), total soil nitrogen (TN), and soil organic matter (OM) at 0–20 cm and 20–40 cm, both at upslope and downslope compared with bare soil (CK). However, soil moisture (SM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) decreased under CB. In addition, no significant variation was found in soil pH between CK, CO, and CB. Across incubation time (56 days), Rs decreased exponentially with incubation time and CB showed the highest Rs rate irrespective of soil depth or topography. Linear regression further showed TC and TN as the two major factors influencing Rs upslope, while DOC was the dominant factor in regulating Rs downslope. These findings demonstrated that long-term cultivation of citrus significantly changed soil nutrients, water availability, and Rs rate. PMID:26368561

  1. Can butterflies cope with city life? Butterfly diversity in a young megacity in southern China.

    PubMed

    Sing, Kong-Wah; Dong, Hui; Wang, Wen-Zhi; Wilson, John-James

    2016-09-01

    During 30 years of unprecedented urbanization, plant diversity in Shenzhen, a young megacity in southern China, has increased dramatically. Although strongly associated with plant diversity, butterfly diversity generally declines with urbanization, but this has not been investigated in Shenzhen. Considering the speed of urbanization in Shenzhen and the large number of city parks, we investigated butterfly diversity in Shenzhen parks. We measured butterfly species richness in four microhabitats (groves, hedges, flowerbeds, and unmanaged areas) across 10 parks and examined the relationship with three park variables: park age, park size, and distance from the central business district. Butterflies were identified based on wing morphology and DNA barcoding. We collected 1933 butterflies belonging to 74 species from six families; 20% of the species were considered rare. Butterfly species richness showed weak negative correlations with park age and distance from the central business district, but the positive correlation with park size was statistically significant (p = 0.001). Among microhabitat types, highest species richness was recorded in unmanaged areas. Our findings are consistent with others in suggesting that to promote urban butterfly diversity it is necessary to make parks as large as possible and to set aside areas for limited management. In comparison to neighbouring cities, Shenzhen parks have high butterfly diversity. PMID:27314400

  2. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of 186 Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis in southern China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Li, Wen; Wang, Jie-Di; Huang, Wen-Ming; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2015-04-01

    There is limited information regarding the molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida isolates using the Neo-Sensitabs method in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). From August 2012 to March 2013, 301 non-pregnant patients aged 18-50 years with suspected VVC were prospectively screened at a teaching hospital in southern China. The vaginal isolates were identified by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and the D1/D2 domain. Antifungal susceptibility testing of seven antifungal agents was performed using the Neo-Sensitabs tablet diffusion method. Candida species were isolated from 186 cases (61.79 %). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (91.4 %), followed by Candida glabrata (4.3 %), Candida tropicalis (3.2 %) and Candida parapsilosis (1.1 %). The susceptibility rates to C. albicans were higher for caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole than those for itraconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine (P<0.01). The resistance rates to C. albicans were 4.7, 6.5, 7.1, 7.6, 12.3, 27.7 and 74.7 % for caspofungin, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole and terbinafine, respectively. No drugs tested apart from fluconazole exhibited differences in resistance between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida isolates. The results demonstrate that, using DNA sequencing, C. albicans is the most common isolate from Chinese patients with VVC. Caspofungin, voriconazole and fluconazole may be preferable to other azoles and terbinafine in the treatment of VVC. PMID:25596116

  3. Effects of climate change on rice production and strategies for adaptation in southern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Ge, D.; Chen, H.; Fang, J.

    1995-12-31

    The CERES-rice (Oryza sativa L.) model was calibrated and validated for nine sites in southern China to examine its suitability to model rice production in this area, using agronomic data from more than three successive years. After determining the genetic coefficients for the cultivars, the CERES-rice model was run a second time for the same locations for a time period of 20 to 30 yr. The model used local climate data (1958--1986) and doubled-CO{sub 2} climate change scenarios generated from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), Geophysical Fluid dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), and United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) global climate models (GCMs), with and without supplemental irrigation(to model paddy and upland rice, respectively). The study estimated the potential impacts of climate change on rice production by comparing the base runs with the runs under the three doubled-CO{sub 2} GCM scenarios and it considered the physiological effects of CO{sub 2} on rice growth in each GCM scenario. Finally, the study examined several strategies for adapting to climate change.

  4. Two new species of the genus Cobitis Linnaeus (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongxia; Sui, Xiaoyun; Liang, Na; Chen, Yifeng

    2016-05-01

    Two new species of the genus Cobitis from southern China, C. hereromacula from the Luohe River in Guangdong Province and C. baishagensis from the Nandujiang River in Hainan Province, are described and illustrated here. C. hereromacula can be distinguished from its congeners by possessing the following combination of characteristics: absence of the second and third pigmentary zones of Gambetta; 13-16 oval blotches on the dorsum and 10-13 vertical, elongated triangular blotches below the midlateral line with more than 20 vertical dark brown bars between them; 6-7 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical oval spot smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; pointed mental lobes of the lower lip pointed with a slightly filiform tip; one slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the base of the first branched ray of the male pectoral fins. C. baishagensis can be distinguished from its congeners by the fourth Gambetta zone being covered by 10-12 transverse elongated blotches; 4-5 narrow rows of dark spots on the caudal fin; a vertical blotch smaller than the eye diameter on the upper part of the caudal peduncle; males with a slender and long needle-shaped lamina circularis at the second branched pectoral fin ray in males; large scales with a slightly large focal zone; undeveloped mental lobes with a lower lip that does not end posteriorly in a filiform tip.

  5. Long-term trends in extreme temperatures in Hong Kong and southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T. C.; Chan, H. S.; Ginn, E. W. L.; Wong, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The observed long-term trends in extreme temperatures in Hong Kong were studied based on the meteorological data recorded at the Hong Kong Observatory Headquarters from 1885-2008. Results show that, over the past 124 years, the extreme daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as the length of the warm spell in Hong Kong, exhibit statistically significant long-term rising trends, while the length of the cold spell shows a statistically significant decreasing trend. The time-dependent return period analysis also indicated that the return period for daily minimum temperature at 4°C or lower lengthened considerably from 6 years in 1900 to over 150 years in 2000, while the return periods for daily maximum temperature reaching 35°C or above shortened drastically from 32 years in 1900 to 4.5 years in 2000. Past trends in extreme temperatures from selected weather stations in southern China from 1951-2004 were also assessed. Over 70% of the stations studied yielded a statistically significant rising trend in extreme daily minimum temperature, while the trend for extreme maximum temperatures was found to vary, with no significant trend established for the majority of stations.

  6. Reforestation in southern China: revisiting soil N mineralization and nitrification after 8 years restoration

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Qifeng; Li, Zhi’an; Zhu, Weixing; Zou, Bi; Li, Yingwen; Yu, Shiqin; Ding, Yongzhen; Chen, Yao; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Faming

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and tree species selection play important roles in reforestation. However, long-term field studies on the effects and mechanisms of tree species composition on N transformation are very limited. Eight years after tree seedlings were planted in a field experiment, we revisited the site and tested how tree species composition affects the dynamics of N mineralization and nitrification. Both tree species composition and season significantly influenced the soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). N-fixing Acacia crassicarpa monoculture had the highest DON, and 10-mixed species plantation had the highest DOC. The lowest DOC and DON concentrations were both observed in Eucalyptus urophylla monoculture. The tree species composition also significantly affected net N mineralization rates. The highest rate of net N mineralization was found in A. crassicarpa monoculture, which was over twice than that in Castanopsis hystrix monoculture. The annual net N mineralization rates of 10-mixed and 30-mixed plantations were similar as that of N-fixing monoculture. Since mixed plantations have good performance in increasing soil DOC, DON, N mineralization and plant biodiversity, we recommend that mixed species plantations should be used as a sustainable approach for the restoration of degraded land in southern China. PMID:26794649

  7. Severe summer heatwave and drought strongly reduced carbon uptake in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wenping; Cai, Wenwen; Chen, Yang; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Zhang, Haicheng; Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhuoqi; He, Honglin; Guo, Weidong; Liu, Dan; Liu, Shaoming; Xiang, Wenhua; Xie, Zhenghui; Zhao, Zhonghui; Zhou, Guomo

    2016-01-01

    Increasing heatwave and drought events can potentially alter the carbon cycle. Few studies have investigated the impacts of hundred-year return heatwaves and droughts, as those events are rare. In the summer of 2013, southern China experienced its strongest drought and heatwave on record for the past 113 years. We show that the record-breaking heatwave and drought lasted two months (from July to August), significantly reduced the satellite-based vegetation index and gross primary production, substantially altered the regional carbon cycle, and produced the largest negative crop yield anomaly since 1960. The event resulted in a net reduction of 101.54 Tg C in carbon sequestration in the region during these two months, which was 39–53% of the annual net carbon sink of China’s terrestrial ecosystems (190–260 Tg C yr−1). Moreover, model experiments showed that heatwaves and droughts consistently decreased ecosystem vegetation primary production but had opposite impacts on ecosystem respiration (TER), with increased TER by 6.78 ± 2.15% and decreased TER by 15.34 ± 3.57% assuming only changed temperature and precipitation, respectively. In light of increasing frequency and severity of future heatwaves and droughts, our study highlights the importance of accounting for the impacts of heatwaves and droughts in assessing the carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26739761

  8. Two typical boundary layer structures in sea fog on the coast of southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H.; Huang, J.; Mao, W.; Bi, X.

    2013-12-01

    Two kinds of sea fog exist on the coast of southern China according to our observations. The predominant one is advection fog. This kind of sea fog has the typical feature that the surface air temperature (SAT) is higher than the sea surface temperature (SST). The formation mechanism is that the eddy diffusion (mechanical turbulence) transports the upper saturation air and liquid water content to the sea surface. The maintain factor is the warm and moist transportation along the thermal turbulence interface. The other kind is the advection-radiative fog, is familiar to the sea fog on the west coast of USA and the Haar. In this kind of fog, the SAT is lower than the SST. This kind of sea fog is initially cooled by contact with the cold sea via advection, and then the mainly maintain mechanism is the radiation from the top of the sea fog and the evaporation from the sea. These two kinds of sea fog are interacted with the low cloud, and could transform from one to the other kind under certain conditions.

  9. New Reassortant H5N6 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Southern China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Peirong; Cui, Jin; Song, Yafen; Song, Hui; Zhao, Zhishan; Wu, Siyu; Qu, Nannan; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Liao, Ming

    2016-01-01

    New reassortant H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) were isolated from apparently healthy domestic ducks in Southern China in 2014. Our results show that the viruses grew efficiently in eggs and replicated systemically in chickens. They were completely lethal in chicken (100% mortality), and the mean death time was 6 to 7 days post-inoculation. The viruses could transmit in chickens by naïve contact. BLAST analysis revealed that their HA gene was most closely related to A/wild duck/Shangdong/628/2011 (H5N1), and their NA genes were most closely related to A/swine/Guangdong/K6/2010 (H6N6). The other genes had the highest identity with A/wild duck/Fujian/1/2011(H5N1). The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that their HA genes clustered into clade 2.3.4.4 of the H5N1 viruses and all genes derived from H5 were Mix-like or H6-like viruses. Thus, the new H5N6 viruses were reassortmented of H5N1 and H6N6 virus. Therefore, the circulation of the new H5N6 AIVs may become a threat to poultry and human health. PMID:27242767

  10. Triassic tectonics of the southern margin of the South China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Chu, Yang; Lepvrier, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Middle Triassic orogens are widespread around and inside the South China Block (SCB). The southern peripheral belts that develop from northwest to southeast, namely Jinshajiang, Ailaoshan, NW Vietnam, NE Vietnam, Yunkai and Hainan exhibit striking similarities, with Permian-Early Triassic magmatic arc, ophiolitic mélange, northeast- to north-directed synmetamorphic ductile nappes, and fold-and-thrust belt. These collisional belts result from oceanic, then continental subduction of the SCB below Indochina. Eastward of Hainan Island, a Triassic suture is hypothesized offshore of the SCB. Within the SCB, the Xuefengshan is a Middle Triassic intracontinental orogen with northwest-directed folds and thrusts, and an intracrustal ductile décollement. This orogen accommodated the Middle Triassic continental subduction of the western part of the SCB below the eastern part. At variance to the generally accepted models, the inter- and intracontinental Triassic orogens of the SCB are interpreted here as the result of south-directed subductions of the SCB.

  11. Emergence and Epidemiology of Ciguatera in the Coastal Cities of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the present review of 23 published case studies, the main objective is to report the emergence and epidemiology of ciguatera in the coastal cities of southern China. There was a sudden surge in ciguatera outbreaks in 2004. Ciguatera mostly occurred in the Guangdong Province. In Shenzhen, the incidence of ciguatera in 2004 was estimated to be over 7.5 per million people. In Foshan and Zhongshan, three large outbreaks each affecting over 100–200 subjects (caused by tiger grouper served at banquets) accounted for the much higher incidence of ciguatera in 2004 (>48.7 and >129.9 per million people). Humphead wrasse and areolated coral grouper were the other important ciguatoxic fish. In some subjects, risk factors for increased likelihood of (severe) ciguatera were present, namely concomitant alcohol consumption and ingestion of large reef fishes and CTX-rich fish parts. To prevent large outbreaks and severe illness, large apex predators from coral reefs should never be served at banquets and the public should realize the increased risk of severe symptoms due to ingestion of CTX-rich fish parts with alcohol. The systematic collection of accurate details, implementation of risk assessment process and continuing education for the public on prevention are of obvious importance. PMID:25738329

  12. Source apportionment and health effect of NOx over the Pearl River Delta region in southern China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xingcheng; Yao, Teng; Li, Ying; Fung, Jimmy C H; Lau, Alexis K H

    2016-05-01

    As one of the most notorious atmospheric pollutants, NOx not only promotes the formation of ozone but also has adverse health effects on humans. It is therefore of great importance to study the sources of NOx and its effects on human health. The Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) modeling system and ozone source apportionment technology (OSAT) were used to study the contribution of NOx from different emission sources over southern China. The results indicate that heavy duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) and industrial point sources are the two major local NOx sources, accounting for 30.8% and 18.5% of local NOx sources, respectively. In Hong Kong, marine emissions contributed around 43.4% of local NOx in 2011. Regional transport is another important source of this pollutant, especially in February and November, and it can contribute over 30% of ambient NOx on average. Power plant point emission is an significant regional source in Zhuhai, Zhongshan and Foshan. The total emission sources are estimated to cause 2119 (0-4405) respiratory deaths and 991 (0-2281) lung cancer deaths due to long-term exposure to NOx in the Pearl River Delta region. Our results suggest that local governments should combine their efforts and vigorously promote further reduction of NOx emissions, especially for those sources that make a substantial contribution to NOx emissions and affect human health: HDDV, LDGV, industrial point sources and marine sources. PMID:26845361

  13. Kinematic features of a bow echo in southern China observed with doppler radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xindong; Zhang, Renhe; Wang, Hongyan

    2013-11-01

    A bow echo is a type of mesoscale convective phenomenon that often induces extreme weather and appears with strong reflectivity on radar images. A strong bow echo that developed from a supercell was observed over Foshan City in southern China on 17 April 2011. The intense gusty winds and showers caused huge losses of property and severely affected human lives. This paper presents an analysis of this strong meso- β-scale convective system based on Doppler radar observations. The isolated bow echo exhibited a horizontal scale of about 80 km in terms of reflectivity above 40 dB Z, and a life span of 8 hours. The system originated from the merging of a couple of weakly organized cells in a shear line, and developed into an arch shape as it moved through the shear zone. Sufficient surface moisture supply ensured the convective instability and development of the bow echo. The low-altitude winds retrieved from single Doppler radar observations showed an obvious rear-inflow jet along the notch area. Different from the conventional definition, no bookend anticyclone was observed throughout the life cycle. Very strong slantwise updrafts and downdrafts were recognizable from the retrieved winds, even though the spatial scale of the bow echo was small. Strong winds and induced damage on the surface are considered to have been caused by the mid-level rear-inflow jet and intense convective downdrafts.

  14. Genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a lineage IV peste des petits ruminants virus in southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Peng; Zhai, Shao-Lun; He, Dong-Sheng; Guo, Peng-Ju; Lv, Dian-Hong; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Man-Lin; Chen, Rui-Ai; Wei, Wen-Kang

    2015-12-01

    Since 2013, the second outbreak of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) caused by Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) has spread over more than 20 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions in China, resulting in major economic losses for livestock industry. In 2014, we encountered a clinical PPR case on a goat farm in Guangdong province, southern China. The complete genome of this PPRV strain, named CH/GDDG/2014, was sequenced to determine its similarities and differences with other strains. The CH/GDDG/2014 genome comprised 15,954 nucleotides (six nucleotides more than classical PPRVs identified before 2013, but complying with the rule of six) with six open reading frames encoding nucleocapsid protein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, fusion protein, hemagglutinin, and large polymerase protein, respectively. The whole-genome-based alignment analysis indicated that CH/GDDG/2014 had the most proximate consensus (99.8 %) to China/XJYL/2013 and the least consensus (87.2 %) to KN5/2011. The phylogenetic analysis showed that CH/GDDG/2014 was clustered in one branch (lineage IV) with other emerging strains during the second outbreak. This study is the first report describing the whole-genome sequence of PPRV in Guangdong province, southern China and also suggests the PPR outbreak may be closely related to illegal cross-regional importation of goats. PMID:26573282

  15. The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghouwt, Guillaume; deWit, Jaap

    2003-01-01

    The deregulation of US aviation in 1978 resulted in the reconfiguration of airline networks into hub-and-spoke systems, spatially concentrated around a small number of central airports or 'hubs' through which an airline operates a number of daily waves of flights. A hub-and-spoke network requires a concentration of traffic in both space and time. In contrast to the U.S. airlines, European airlines had entered the phase of spatial network concentration long before deregulation. Bilateral negotiation of traffic fights between governments forced European airlines to focus their networks spatially on small number of 'national' airports. In general, these star-shaped networks were not coordinated in time. Transfer opportunities at central airports were mostly created 'by accident'. With the deregulation of the EU air transport market from 1988 on, a second phase of airline network concentration started. European airlines concentrated their networks in time by adopting or intensifying wave-system structures in their flight schedules. Temporal concentration may increase the competitive position of the network in a deregulated market because of certain cost and demand advantages.

  16. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers arc able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  17. Stochastic Modeling of Airlines' Scheduled Services Revenue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamed, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Airlines' revenue generated from scheduled services account for the major share in the total revenue. As such, predicting airlines' total scheduled services revenue is of great importance both to the governments (in case of national airlines) and private airlines. This importance stems from the need to formulate future airline strategic management policies, determine government subsidy levels, and formulate governmental air transportation policies. The prediction of the airlines' total scheduled services revenue is dealt with in this paper. Four key components of airline's scheduled services are considered. These include revenues generated from passenger, cargo, mail, and excess baggage. By addressing the revenue generated from each schedule service separately, air transportation planners and designers are able to enhance their ability to formulate specific strategies for each component. Estimation results clearly indicate that the four stochastic processes (scheduled services components) are represented by different Box-Jenkins ARIMA models. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of the developed models and their ability to provide air transportation planners with future information vital to the planning and design processes.

  18. Sublittoral meiofauna with particular reference to nematodes in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Shou; Zhang, Zhi-Nan; Huang, Yong

    2007-02-01

    Densities of major meiofaunal taxa were investigated at 34 sampling stations during six cruises by R/V Beidou to the southern Yellow Sea, China from 2000 to 2004, and the community structure of free-living marine nematodes was studied during one of the cruises in 2003. Meiofauna abundance ranged from 487.4 to 1655.3 individuals per 10 cm 2. Nematodes and harpacticoid copepods were the two most dominant groups, contributing 73.8-92.8% and 3.5-18.7%, respectively, to the total meiofauna abundance. One-way ANOVA showed no significant annual fluctuation of meiofauna and nematode abundances from 2000 to 2004 in the southern Yellow Sea. However, two-way ANOVA based on six stations sampled in 4 years (2001-2004) showed that there were significant differences among the six stations and the 4 sampling years for meiofauna, nematode and copepod abundance. Correlation analysis demonstrated that meiofauna abundance was mainly linked to chloroplastic pigments. Other environmental factors could not be ruled out, however. A total of 232 free-living marine nematode species, belonging to 149 genera, 35 families and 4 orders, were identified. The dominant species in the sampling area were the following: Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Microlaimus sp.1, Prochromadorella sp., Promonohystera sp., Cobbia sp.1, Daptonema sp.1, Leptolaimus sp.1, Halalaimus sp.2, Aegialoalaimus sp., Chromadorita sp., Parodontophora marina, Parasphaerolaimus paradoxus, Quadricoma sp.1, Campylaimus sp.1, Halalaimus gracilis, Paramesacanthion sp.1, Paramonohystera sp.1, and Metalinhomoeus longiseta. CLUSTER and SIMPROF analyses revealed three main types of nematode community (or station groups) in the sampling area, including I: coastal community, II: transitory community between coastal and YSCWM (Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass), and III: YSCWM community. Each community was indicated by a number of dominant nematode species. Bio-Env correlation analysis between the nematode community and environmental variables showed

  19. The model of crustal structure in Southern China and the relationship with earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Marangoni, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In the study area, some serious earthquakes were happened, i.e. an Ms8.0 earthquake happened in 2008 at (103.36 degree, 30.99 degree) and 69227 people were dead; in 2013, another Ms7.0 earthquake happened at (103.00 degree, 30.30 degree) and 196 people were dead. Usually the earthquakes are associated with the faults. In this study, we use the gravity anomaly to analysis the fault structure and inverse the crustal density in Southern China. Based on comparison with the earthquakes happened, we try to show the relationship between the earthquake and the crustal structure. We use the tilt angle method and its total horizontal derivative to process the gravity anomaly to detect the faults. The crustal density structure is obtained by the Parker inversion. Results show a strong correlation between mapped faults and anomaly edges resulted from tilt angle and horizontal derivatives. The faults mark the edge of the blocks resulted from the analysis of gravity data. Earthquakes epicenters in the region (from 2003 to 2013) are correlated with the same mapped faults. Moho depth in the area varies from 35 km at the SE to 62 km at the NW corner. The density inversion of the crust based on the Moho depth resulted in densities varying from 2.62 g/cm3 to 2.72 g/cm3. In an unexpected way two basins, SiChuan and HengYang presented high density values. Moho depth at SiChuan basin shows lower depth, almost 40 km, compared with surrounding basement of 45 km, this may be responsible for the high residual density. Another possible reason is the basements with high density. The JiangNan uplift area also shows high density in the NE direction. The earthquake epicenters are mostly located on the low density areas, and /or at the density contrast places, but show no correlation with Moho depth. Project supported by FAPESP (2012/00593-9), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China University of Geosciences (CUG120815). HZ acknowledges Dr. Ravat of University of

  20. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is becoming the most common vector born disease in Guangzhou, southern China. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of weather patterns on the incidence of Scrub typhus in the subtropical city of Guangzhou for the period 2006–2012, and assist public health prevention and control measures. Methods Scrub typhus reported cases during the period of 2006–2012 in Guangzhou were obtained from National Notifiable Disease Report System (NNDRS). Simultaneous meteorological data including temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, sunshine, and rainfall were obtained from the documentation of the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. A negative binomial regression was used to identify the relationship between meteorological variables and scrub typhus. Results Annual incidence rates of scrub typhus from 2006 to 2012 were 3.25, 2.67, 3.81, 4.22, 4.41, 5.12, and 9.75 (per 100 000) respectively. Each 1°C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 14.98% (95% CI 13.65% to 16.33%) in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, while a 1 hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 8.03% (95% CI −8.75% to −7.31%). Similarly, a 1 hour rise in sunshine corresponded to an increase of 0.17% or 0.54%, and a 1 millimeter rise in rainfall corresponded to an increase of 0.05% or 0.10%, in the monthly number of scrub typhus cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. Conclusion Our study provided evidence that climatic factors were associated with occurrence of scrub typhus in Guangzhou city, China. Temperature, duration of sunshine, and rainfall were positively associated with scrub typhus incidence, while atmospheric pressure was inversely associated with scrub typhus incidence. These findings should be considered in the prediction of future patterns of scrub typhus transmission. PMID:24620733

  1. Influence of urbanization on radon potential in Zhongshan City in the southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.

    2015-12-01

    Radon and radon progeny are the most important contribution to dose from natural sources of radiation. Most studies have demonstrated an increased risk of lung cancer at high concentration of radon for the public. Radon potential map is an essential approach for radon risk assessment. The radon potential map is based on the measured data of soil gas radon concentration and soil air permeability, combined with GIS technology, in Zhongshan City in the Southern China. The preliminary radon survey in ZC was conducted using a portable semiconductor radon monitor RAD-7 and soil air permeability instrument Rad-jok, covering a total area of 1800 km2. The sampling depth for soil gas radon measurement in the field was at the depth of 80 cm below the ground. 222Rn activity concentrations varyed between 0.74 and 158 kBq/m3, and 220Rn between 0.02 and 235 kBq/m3 in soil gas. The average value of 222Rn and 220Rn was 67.6 and 74.8 kBq/m3, respectively. The results show that: (1) the characteristics and distributions of 222Rn/220Rn concentration from soil gas in ZC are obviously related with local lithology (the Middle and the Late Jurassic and the Cretaceous biotitic-granite) and geological formation. High 222Rn/220Rn concentrations were observed in soil gas in the outcrops of weathered granite or filled back granite sands. (2) The distribution model of 220Rn is as same as that of 222Rn. The Wuguishan Mountain areas and in the south-east areas of ZC, covering with granite rocks, are high radon risk districts; the central zones in ZC are low radon potential areas, and part of the northern districts are medium radon potential areas. (3) Urbanization has increased local radon risk in some districts in the west and the north of ZC, where now covering several meters depth weathered granite products, but deposited the Quaternary sediments near surface before. The research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41474107, No.41274133 and 41074096).

  2. Error Prevention as Developed in Airlines

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Timothy J.

    2008-05-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future.

  3. Atmospheric constituent measurements using commercial 747 airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.; Reck, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    NASA is implementing a Global Atmospheric Monitoring Program to measure the temporal and spatial distribution of particulate and gaseous constituents related to aircraft engine emissions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 Km). Several 747 aircraft operated by different airlines flying routes selected for maximum world coverage will be instrumented. An instrumentation system is being assembled and tested and is scheduled for operation in airline service in late 1974. Specialized instrumentation and an electronic control unit are required for automatic unattended operation on commercial airliners. An ambient air sampling system was developed to provide undisturbed outside air to the instruments in the pressurized aircraft cabin.

  4. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2012-12-15

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide. PMID:23137981

  5. Wave climate simulation for southern region of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Ali; Tangang, Fredolin; Juneng, Liew; Mustapha, Muzneena Ahmad; Husain, Mohd Lokman; Akhir, Mohd Fadzil

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates long-term variability and wave characteristic trends in the southern region of the South China Sea (SCS). We implemented the state-of-the art WAVEWATCH III spectral wave model to simulate a 31-year wave hindcast. The simulation results were used to assess the inter-annual variability and long-term changes in the SCS wave climate for the period 1979 to 2009. The model was forced with Climate Forecast System Reanalysis winds and validated against altimeter data and limited available measurements from an Acoustic Wave and Current recorder located offshore of Terengganu, Malaysia. The mean annual significant wave height and peak wave period indicate the occurrence of higher wave heights and wave periods in the central SCS and lower in the Sunda shelf region. Consistent with wind patterns, the wave direction also shows southeasterly (northwesterly) waves during the summer (winter) monsoon. This detailed hindcast demonstrates strong inter-annual variability of wave heights, especially during the winter months in the SCS. Significant wave height correlated negatively with Niño3.4 index during winter, spring and autumn seasons but became positive in the summer monsoon. Such correlations correspond well with surface wind anomalies over the SCS during El Nino events. During El Niño Modoki, the summer time positive correlation extends northeastwards to cover the entire domain. Although significant positive trends were found at 95 % confidence levels during May, July and September, there is significant negative trend in December covering the Sunda shelf region. However, the trend appears to be largely influenced by large El Niño signals.

  6. Manganese Toxicity in Sugarcane Plantlets Grown on Acidic Soils of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu Lan; Yang, Shu; Long, Guang Xia; Zhao, Zun Kang; Li, Xiao Feng; Gu, Ming Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ratoon sugarcane plantlets in southern China have suffered a serious chlorosis problem in recent years. To reveal the causes of chlorosis, plant nutrition in chlorotic sugarcane plantlets and the role of manganese (Mn) in this condition were investigated. The study results showed that the pH of soils growing chlorotic plantlets ranged from 3.74 to 4.84. The symptoms of chlorosis were similar to those of iron (Fe) deficiency while the chlorotic and non-chlorotic plantlets contained similar amount of Fe. Chlorotic plantlets had 6.4-times more Mn in their leaf tissues compared to the control plants. There was a significantly positive correlation between Mn concentration in the leaves and the exchangeable Mn concentration in the soils. Moreover, leaf Mn concentration was related to both seasonal changes in leaf chlorophyll concentration and to the occurrence of chlorosis. Basal stalks of mature sugarcanes contained up to 564.36 mg·kg-1 DW Mn. Excess Mn in the parent stalks resulted in a depress of chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of sugarcanes as indicated by lower chlorophyll concentration in the leaves of plantlets emerged from basal stalks. Ratoon sugarcane plantlets were susceptible to chlorosis due to high Mn accumulation in their leaves (456.90–1626.95 mg·kg-1 DW), while in planted canes chlorosis did not occur because of low Mn accumulation (94.64–313.41mg·kg-1 DW). On the other hand, active Fe content in chlorotic plantlets (3.39 mg kg-1 FW) was only equivalent to 28.2% of the concentration found in the control. These results indicate that chlorosis in ratoon sugarcane plantlets results from excessive Mn accumulated in parent stalks of planted cane sugarcanes grown on excessive Mn acidic soils, while active Fe deficiency in plantlets may play a secondary role in the chlorosis. PMID:27023702

  7. Water and heat transport in hilly red soil of southern China: I. Experiment and analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Huang, Zhi-zhen; Han, Xiao-fei

    2005-01-01

    Studies on coupled transfer of soil moisture and heat have been widely carried out for decades. However, little work has been done on red soils, widespread in southern China. The simultaneous transfer of soil moisture and heat depends on soil physical properties and the climate conditions. Red soil is heavy clay and high content of free iron and aluminum oxide. The climate conditions are characterized by the clear four seasons and the serious seasonal drought. The great annual and diurnal air temperature differences result in significant fluctuation in soil temperature in top layer. The closed and evaporating columns experiments with red soil were conducted to simulate the coupled transfer of soil water and heat under the overlaying and opening fields’ conditions, and to analyze the effects of soil temperature gradient on the water transfer and the effects of initial soil water contents on the transfer of soil water and heat. The closed and evaporating columns were designed similarly with about 18 °C temperatures differences between the top and bottom boundary, except of the upper end closed or exposed to the air, respectively. Results showed that in the closed column, water moved towards the cold end driven by temperature gradient, while the transported water decreased with the increasing initial soil water content until the initial soil water content reached to field capacity equivalent, when almost no changes for the soil moisture profile. In the evaporating column, the net transport of soil water was simultaneously driven by evaporation and temperature gradients, and the drier soil was more influenced by temperature gradient than by evaporation. In drier soil, it took a longer time for the temperature to reach equilibrium, because of more net amount of transported water. PMID:15822143

  8. Risk factors for visual impairment associated with corneal diseases in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sarah C; Chow, Jessica; Liu, Ji; Li, Liang; Maslin, Jessica S; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Baihua; Teng, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify the most common etiologies of corneal disease and the risk factors associated with worse visual outcomes in Changsha, Hunan, located in southern China. Methods This observational, cross-sectional study evaluated 100 consecutive patients seen at the cornea clinic of The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. Ocular history, demographic information, and ocular use of traditional Chinese medicine were recorded and analyzed. Causes of infectious keratitis were diagnosed clinically. Fungal and acanthamoeba keratitis were confirmed by confocal microscopy. Visual impairment was categorized based on visual acuity according to World Health Organization recommendations. A binary logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratio (OR). Results One hundred consecutive patients were evaluated. Sixty patients (60%) had noninfectious corneal diseases, most commonly dry eye syndrome (26.7%, n=16), followed by corneal abrasion (18.3%, n=11). Forty-five patients had infectious keratitis, five of whom had both infectious and noninfectious etiologies. Of the patients with infectious keratitis, viral keratitis was the most frequent cause (57.8%, n=26), followed by fungal (20%, n=9) and bacterial (20%, n=9). Older age (OR =5.08, P=0.048), male sex (OR =3.37, P=0.035), and rural residence (OR =3.11, P=0.017) had increased odds of having worse visual impairment. Rural residence was also associated with infectious keratitis (P=0.005), particularly bacterial and fungal keratitis (P=0.046), and a history of ocular trauma (P=0.003). Occupation was not a significant risk factor in this population. Fourteen patients reported use of traditional Chinese medicine, with no association with visual outcomes found. Conclusion Older age, male sex, and rural residence were associated with worse visual impairment. Prevalence and outcome of corneal diseases may be improved with an increased awareness in these populations. PMID:27194904

  9. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Liu, J.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D.; Deng, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of P supply to ecosystems. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment of precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation) in three forests of early-, mid- and advanced-successional stages in Southern China was carried out. Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, no precipitation treatment depressed soil acid phosphatase activity, while doubled precipitation treatment exerted no positive effects on it, and even significantly lowered it in the advanced forest. These indicate the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. The negative responses of soil acid phosphatase activity to precipitation suggest that P supply in subtropical ecosystems might be reduced if there was a drought in a whole year or more rainfall in the wet season in the future. NP, no precipitation; Control, natural precipitation; DP, double precipitation.

  10. Effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity in three successional forests in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Liu, J.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, D.; Deng, Q.

    2011-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is often a limiting nutrient for plant growth in tropical and subtropical forests. Global climate change has led to alterations in precipitation in the recent years, which inevitably influences P cycling. Soil acid phosphatase plays a vital role in controlling P mineralization, and its activity reflects the capacity of organic P mineralization potential in soils. In order to study the effects of precipitation on soil acid phosphatase activity, an experiment with precipitation treatments (no precipitation, natural precipitation and doubled precipitation) in three successional forests in southern China was carried out. The three forests include Masson pine forest (MPF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that driven by seasonality of precipitation, changes in soil acid phosphatase activities coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with significantly higher values in the wet season than in the dry season. Soil acid phosphatase activities were closely linked to forest successional stages, with enhanced values in the later stages of forest succession. In the dry season, soil acid phosphatase activities in the three forests showed a rising trend with increasing precipitation treatments. In the wet season, soil acid phosphatase activity was depressed by no precipitation treatment in the three forests. However, doubled precipitation treatment exerted a significantly negative effect on it only in MEBF. These results indicate that the potential transformation rate of organic P might be more dependent on water in the dry season than in the wet season. A decrease in organic P turnover would occur in the three forests if there was a drought in a whole year in the future. More rainfall in the wet season would also be adverse to organic P turnover in MEBF due to its high soil moisture.

  11. [Nutrient leaching and acidification of Southern China coniferous forest red soil under stimulated N deposition].

    PubMed

    Sun, Benhua; Hu, Zhengyi; Lü, Jialong; Zhou, Lina; Xu, Chengkai

    2006-10-01

    In an eight months interval leaching experiment with soil column (10 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height) at 20 degrees C, this paper studied the effects of N deposition on the leaching losses of soil NO -, NH4+ , H+, Ca2+, Mg2+ , K+, and Na+ , and on soil acidification. Soil columns were taken from the coniferous forest experimental plot at the Red Soil Ecological Experiment Station of Chinese Academy of Sciences in Southern China, and the N deposition loads were 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) x column (-1) , respectively. The results indicated that the leaching losses of total exchangeable cations, Ca2+ , and Mg2+ increased with increasing N deposition loads, but K+ and Na+ were little affected. The proportion of net cations leaching loss (difference of cations in eluate and leachate) to total exchangeable cations was 13.9% , 18.6% , 31.8% and 57.9% under 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) column (-1) deposition loads, respectively, and that for exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ was 19. 6%, 25.8% , 45. 3% and 84.8% , and 4.4% , 6.1% , 10. 9% and 17.1% , respectively. The leaching losses of inorganic N, NO3- and H+ also increased with increasing N deposition loads. Topsoil pH decreased with increasing N deposition loads, being 3.85, 3.84, 3.80 and 3.75 under 0, 7.8, 26 and 52 mg N x month (-1) x column(-1) N deposition loads, respectively. N deposition could increase the apparent mineralization rate of soil organic nitrogen, and accelerate the nutrient losses and acidification of coniferous forest red soil. PMID:17209377

  12. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  13. Interrelationships between HIV/AIDS and risk behavior prejudice among medical students in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yang, Yi; Li, Ze-rong; Stoové, Mark A; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2009-11-01

    Stigma within health care settings poses a considerable barrier to the provision of treatment and care for patients with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Southern China is located in a region with one of the world's fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics. Attitudes towards PLWHA amongst health workers are currently under-researched in this region. This paper examines the inter-relationships between prejudicial attitudes among Chinese medical students towards HIV/AIDS and attitudes towards three risk behaviors: injecting drug use (IDU), commercial sex (CS) and commercial blood donation (CBD). Medical students (N = 352) in Guangzhou were presented with two random vignettes; each describing a hypothetical male that was identical, except for the disease diagnosis (AIDS/leukemia) and the co-characteristic (IDU/CS/CBD/blood transfusion/no co-characteristic). After reading each vignette, participants completed a standard prejudicial scale. Univariate and multivariable analyses revealed significant levels of prejudice associated with AIDS, IDU and CS. Regardless of the disease, patients with IDU or CS were judged significantly worse than patients who had received a blood transfusion. No significant interactions were found between AIDS and the stigmatized co-characteristics. The findings suggest that prejudice towards PLWHA needs to be understood within the larger context of the stigma towards risk behaviors. Although non-significant interactions were found between AIDS and the stigmatized risk behaviors, the overlap between the local HIV/AIDS, IDU and CS populations suggests that addressing risk behavior-related prejudices could be critical for improving care and treatment for PLWHA. PMID:19929795

  14. Impacts of reforestation approaches on runoff control in the hilly red soil region of Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hua; Chen, Falin; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Tu, Naimei; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoke; Miao, Hong; Li, Xiquan; Tian, Yuxin

    2008-07-01

    SummaryVegetation structure and soil properties are not only correlated with forest management practices, but also affect soil and water loss significantly. To estimate the long-term influences of regenerating forest cover on soil and water loss from degraded land, the runoff and soil loss in the context of different forest restoration approaches, including a control plot (CL) and plantations of slash pine (Pinus elliottii), Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata), tea-oil camellia (Camellia oleifera), and natural secondary forest, were monitored in runoff plots over a 4-year period (2000-2003) in a hilly red soil region in Southern China. Relevant ecological factors and management intensity, were also measured. The results indicated that the four forest restoration approaches decreased surface runoff by 63.0-88.1% and soil erosion by 75.5-97.1% compared to the control. Moreover, runoff and soil erosion in tea-camellia plantation (TCP) and natural secondary forest (NSF) plots were significantly lower than with other treatments. Canopy cover, litter fall, plant roots, plant life forms, soil properties, and vegetation structure are important ecological factors that determine the magnitude of soil loss. Vegetation structure and plant life forms are the main factors reducing surface runoff and the movement of sediments. Effective control of soil and water loss in NSF and TCP are closely related to multiply stratified communities and the presence of specific plant life forms (the herbaceous keystone species Dicranopteris linearis), respectively. In addition, the above mentioned factors were sensitive to forest management patterns, including improper mechanical cultivation. Management practices should attempt to minimize disturbances to these factors to control runoff and soil erosion in each forest management unit. In particular, mechanical cultivation should loosen the soil around the base of a tree only, instead of over the entire ground surface, in the early stages of

  15. Coral communities of the remote atoll reefs in the Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M X; Yu, K F; Shi, Q; Chen, T R; Zhang, H L; Chen, T G

    2013-09-01

    During the months of May and June in the year 2007, a survey was conducted regarding coral reef communities in the remote atolls (Zhubi Reef and Meiji Reef) of Nansha Islands, southern South China Sea. The goals of the survey were to: (1) for the first time, compile a scleractinian coral check-list; (2) estimate the total richness, coral cover, and growth forms of the community; and (3) describe preliminary patterns of community structure according to geomorphological units. Findings of this survey revealed a total of 120 species of scleractinia belonging to 40 genera, while the average coral cover was 21 %, ranging from less than 10 % to higher than 50 %. Branching and massive corals were also found to be the most important growth forms of the whole coral community, while Acropora, Montipora, and Porites were the three dominant genera in the overall region, with their contributions to total coral cover measuring 21, 22, and 23 %, respectively. Overall, coral communities of the Nansha Islands were in a relative healthy condition with high species diversity and coral cover. Spatial pattern of coral communities existed among various geomorphological units. Mean coral cover was highest in the patch reef within the lagoon, followed by the fore reef slope, reef flat, and lagoon slope. The greatest contributors to total coral cover were branching Acropora (45 %) in the lagoon slope, branching Montipora (44 %) in the reef flat, and massive Porites (51 %) in the patch reef. Coral cover in the fore reef revealed a greater range of genera than in other habitats. The leeward fore reef slope had higher coral cover (> 50 %) when compared with the windward slope (< 10 %). The coral communities of the inner reef flat were characterized by higher coral cover (27 %) and dominant branching Montipora corals, while lower coral cover (4 %) was dominated by Psammocora with massive growth forms on the outer reef flat. Destructive fishing and coral bleaching were two major threats to

  16. Water and heat transport in hilly red soil of southern China: I. Experiment and analysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Huang, Zhi-Zhen; Han, Xiao-Fei

    2005-05-01

    Studies on coupled transfer of soil moisture and heat have been widely carried out for decades. However, little work has been done on red soils, widespread in southern China. The simultaneous transfer of soil moisture and heat depended on soil physical properties and the climate conditions. Red soil is heavy clay and high content of free iron and aluminum oxide. The climate conditions are characterized by the clear four seasons and the serious seasonal drought. The great air temperature differences annually and diurnally result in significant fluctuation in soil temperature in top layer. The closed and evaporating columns experiments with red soil were conducted to simulate the coupled transfer of soil water and heat under the overlaying and opening fields' conditions, and to analyze the effects of soil temperature gradient on the water transfer and the effects of initial soil water contents on the transfer of soil water and heat. The closed and evaporating columns were designed similarly with about 18 degrees C temperatures differences between the top and bottom boundary, except of the upper end closed or exposed to the air, respectively. Results showed that in the closed column, water moved towards the cold end driven by temperature gradient, while the transported water decreased with the increasing initial soil water content until the initial soil water content reached to field capacity equivalent, when almost no changes for the soil moisture profile. In the evaporating column, the net transport of soil water was simultaneously driven by evaporation and temperature gradients, and the drier soil was more influenced by temperature gradient than by evaporation. In drier soil, it took a longer time for the temperature to reach equilibrium, because of more net amount of transported water. PMID:15822143

  17. Associations of CYP2A6 genotype with smoking behaviors in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; David, Sean P.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Qian; Ding, Peng; He, Yan-Hui; Yu, Xue-Qing; Chen, Wei; Crump, Casey; Wen, Xiao-Zhong; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2011-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association of CYP2A6 genetic polymorphisms with smoking-related phenotypes in Chinese smokers. Design Case-only genetic association study. Setting Southern China Participants A total of 1,328 Han Chinese smokers who participated in a community-based chronic disease screening project in Guangzhou and Zhuhai from 2006 to 2007. Measurements All participants were answered a structured questionnaire about socio-demographic status and smoking behaviors and informative alleles for the cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) gene (CYP2A6 *4, *5, *7, *9 and *10) were genotyped. Findings The frequencies of CYP2A6 *4, *5, *7, *9 and *10 alleles were 8.5%, 1.2%, 6.3%, 13.5% and 2.4%, which corresponded to 48.9%, 15.4%, 24.2% and 11.5% of participants being classified as normal, intermediate, slow and poor metabolizers, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that compared with normal metabolizers, poor metabolizers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day (adjusted OR = 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32–0.76), started smoking regularly later in life (adjusted OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.06–2.26) and, amongst former smokers, reported smoking for a shorter duration prior to quitting (adjusted OR = 0.33; 95% CI: 0.12–0.94). However, poor metabolizers were less likely to quit smoking and remain abstinent than normal metabolizers (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.34–0.86). Conclusions Reduced metabolism function of CYP2A6 in smokers appears to be associated with fewer cigarettes smoked, later initiation of smoking regularly, shorter smoking duration and lower likelihood of smoking cessation. PMID:21205058

  18. Dependence of soil respiration on soil temperature and soil moisture in successional forests in Southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, X.-L.; Zhou, G.-Y.; Liu, S.-G.; Zhang, D.-Q.; Liu, S.-Z.; Li, J.; Zhou, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration and its relationship with biophysical factors in forests near the Tropic of Cancer remain highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil respiration rates, soil temperature, and soil moisture were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (DNR) in southern China from March 2003 to February 2005. The overall objective of the present study was to analyze the temporal variations of soil respiration and its biophysical dependence in these forests. The relationships between biophysical factors and soil respiration rates were compared in successional forests to test the hypothesis that these forests responded similarly to biophysical factors. The seasonality of soil respiration coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high respiration rates in the hot humid season (April-September) and with low rates in the cool dry season (October-March). Soil respiration measured at these forests showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. Annual mean (?? SD) soil respiration rate in the DNR forests was (9.0 ?? 4.6) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year, ranging from (6.1 ?? 3.2) Mg CO2-C/hm2per year in early successional forests to (10.7 ?? 4.9) Mg CO2-C/hm2 per year in advanced successional forests. Soil respiration was correlated with both soil temperature and moisture. The T/M model, where the two biophysical variables are driving factors, accounted for 74%-82% of soil respiration variation in DNR forests. Temperature sensitivity decreased along progressive succession stages, suggesting that advanced-successional forests have a good ability to adjust to temperature. In contrast, moisture increased with progressive succession processes. This increase is caused, in part, by abundant respirators in advanced-successional forest, where more soil moisture is needed to maintain their activities. ?? 2006 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of

  19. Spatial patterns of methane oxidation and methanotrophic diversity in landfill cover soils of southern China.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zi-Fang; Lu, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hong-Tao

    2015-04-01

    Aerobic CH4 oxidation is an important CH4 sink in landfills. To investigate the distribution and community diversity of methanotrophs and link with soil characteristics and operational parameters (e.g., concentrations of O2, CH4), cover soil samples were collected at different locations and depths from the Mengzi semi-aerobic landfill (SAL) in Yunnan Province of southern China. Specific PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and realtime PCR were used to examine methanotrophs in the landfill cover soils. The results showed that different locations did harbor distinct methanotroph communities. Methanotrophs were more abundant in areas near the venting pipes because of the higher O2 concentrations. The depth of 20-25 cm, where the ratio of the CH4 to O2 was within the range from 1.3 to 8.6, was more conducive to the growth of CH4-oxidizing bacteria. Type II methanotrophs dominated in all samples compared with Type I methanotrophs, as evidenced by the high ratio of Type II to Type I methanotrophic copy numbers (from 1.76 to 11.60). The total copy numbers of methanotrophs detected were similar to other ecosystems, although the CH4 concentration was much higher in SAL cover soil. Methylobacter and Methylocystis were the most abundant Type I and Type II methanotrophs genera, respectively, in the Mengzi SAL. The results suggested that SALs could provide a special environment with both high concentrations of CH4 and O2 for methanotrophs, especially around the vertical venting pipes. PMID:25341468

  20. Geochronology and geochemistry of late Cenozoic basalts from the Leiqiong area, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Kung-suan; Chen, Ju-chin; Juang, Wen-shing

    2000-06-01

    The Leiqiong area, which includes the Leizhou Peninsula and the northern part of the Hainan Island, is the largest province of exposed basalts in southern China. Ar-Ar and K-Ar dating indicates that incipient volcanism in the Leiqiong area may have taken place in late Oligocene time and gradually increased in tempo toward the Miocene and Pliocene Epoch. Volcanic activities were most extensive during Pleistocene, and declined and ended in Holocene. Based on radiometric age dating and geographic distribution, Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism in Hainan Island can be grouped into two stages and six eruptive regions. The early volcanism is dominated by flood type fissure eruption of quartz tholeiites and olivine tholeiites whereas the later phase is dominated by central type eruption of alkali olivine basalts and olivine tholeiites. The systematic decrease of MgO, ΣFeO and TiO 2 with increasing SiO 2 content for basalts from Hainan Island indicates that fractional crystallization of olivine, clinopyroxene and Ti-bearing opaques may have occurred during magmatic evolution. From coexisting Fe-Ti oxide minerals, it is estimated that the equilibrium temperatures range from 895-986°C and oxygen fugacities range from 10 -13.4 to 10 -10.7 atmospheres in the basaltic magmas. The incompatible element ratios and the chondrite-normalized REE patterns of basalts from the Leiqiong area are generally similar to OIB. The Nb/U ratios (less than 37) in most of the tholeiitic rocks and the negative Nb anomaly observed in the spidergram of some basalts indicated that the influence of a paleo-subduction zone derived component can not be excluded in considering the genesis of the basalts from the Leiqiong area. The tholeiites in the Leiqiong area may have mixed with a more enriched lithospheric mantle component as well as undergone relatively larger percentages of partial melting than the alkali basalts.

  1. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  2. Hydroclimate implications of thermocline variability in the southern South China Sea over the past 180,000 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Li; Li, Qianyu; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Chuanlun L.

    2015-03-01

    Based on core-top calibration, the TEX 86H-derived temperature has been considered as representing subsurface sea temperature (SSST), and the difference between the U37K‧-derived sea-surface temperature (SST) and the TEX 86H-derived SSST can be used to reflect the depth of thermocline (DOT) in the South China Sea region (Jia et al., 2012). We evaluated the DOT dynamics in late Quaternary records using this approach on paired analysis of samples from core MD05-2896/7 in the southern South China Sea. The reconstructed DOT over the last 180,000 yr (180 ka) displays a shoaling trend in glacial periods, which may be attributed to the strengthened cyclonic gyre by the enhanced East Asian winter monsoon and Walker circulation with prominent La Niña-like state, and vice versa in interglacial periods corresponding to reduced winter monsoon with enhanced El Niño-like state. These upper-water thermal variations testify that enhanced winter monsoon was the direct cause of an uplifted local thermocline during glacial or La Niña-like states with strengthened cyclonic gyre due to positive wind stress curl in the southern South China Sea. Our results provide insights into the relationship between monsoon and ENSO on both glacial and millennial time scales.

  3. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 10⁶ for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  4. Evaluation of radar and automatic weather station data assimilation for a heavy rainfall event in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tuanjie; Kong, Fanyou; Chen, Xunlai; Lei, Hengchi; Hu, Zhaoxia

    2015-07-01

    To improve the accuracy of short-term (0-12 h) forecasts of severe weather in southern China, a real-time storm-scale forecasting system, the Hourly Assimilation and Prediction System (HAPS), has been implemented in Shenzhen, China. The forecasting system is characterized by combining the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model and the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) package. It is capable of assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity data from multiple Doppler radars as well as surface automatic weather station (AWS) data. Experiments are designed to evaluate the impacts of data assimilation on quantitative precipitation forecasting (QPF) by studying a heavy rainfall event in southern China. The forecasts from these experiments are verified against radar, surface, and precipitation observations. Comparison of echo structure and accumulated precipitation suggests that radar data assimilation is useful in improving the short-term forecast by capturing the location and orientation of the band of accumulated rainfall. The assimilation of radar data improves the short-term precipitation forecast skill by up to 9 hours by producing more convection. The slight but generally positive impact that surface AWS data has on the forecast of near-surface variables can last up to 6-9 hours. The assimilation of AWS observations alone has some benefit for improving the Fractions Skill Score (FSS) and bias scores; when radar data are assimilated, the additional AWS data may increase the degree of rainfall overprediction.

  5. Corporate/commuter airlines meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The meteorological information requirements of corporate and commuter airlines are reviewed. The skill level and needs of this class of aviator were assessed. An overview of the methodology by which meteorological data is communicated to these users is presented.

  6. Perspectives of those impacted: airline pilot's perspective.

    PubMed

    Butler, G C; Nicholas, J; Lackland, D T; Friedberg, W

    2000-11-01

    The airline pilot operates within an environment that consists of circadian dysrhythmia, reduced atmospheric pressure, mild hypoxia, low humidity, and exposure to sound, vibration, cosmic-radiation, and magnetic-field exposure. These occupational exposures present physiological challenges to the long term health of the airline pilot. In particular, exposure to cosmic radiation and its carcinogenic potential have recently received considerable attention. Given the complexity of the environment and possible synergistic exposures, there is an immediate requirement for comprehensive research into both cosmic-radiation and magnetic-field exposures in airline pilots. In response, the Airline Pilots Association International in conjunction with the Medical University of South Carolina (Department of Biometry and Epidemiology) has initiated an extensive research program into these occupational exposures. These investigations include ground based calculations, flight-dose estimates, epidemiological survey and exposure assessment, and biological marker analysis. PMID:11045538

  7. Airline Disaster Highlights Need for Ethical Coverage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kate

    1989-01-01

    Describes a Syracuse University professor/reporter's experiences covering the airline disaster that killed 35 Syracuse students. Discusses the problems of ethically covering a story where a lot of grief is involved. (MS)

  8. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are “mixing vessels,” and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses. PMID:27458456

  9. A Novel H1N2 Influenza Virus Related to the Classical and Human Influenza Viruses from Pigs in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yafen; Wu, Xiaowei; Wang, Nianchen; Ouyang, Guowen; Qu, Nannan; Cui, Jin; Qi, Yan; Liao, Ming; Jiao, Peirong

    2016-01-01

    Southern China has long been considered to be an epicenter of pandemic influenza viruses. The special environment, breeding mode, and lifestyle in southern China provides more chances for wild aquatic birds, domestic poultry, pigs, and humans to be in contact. This creates the opportunity for interspecies transmission and generation of new influenza viruses. In this study, we reported a novel reassortant H1N2 influenza virus from pigs in southern China. According to the phylogenetic trees and homology of the nucleotide sequence, the virus was confirmed to be a novel triple-reassortant H1N2 virus containing genes from classical swine (PB2, PB1, HA, NP, and NS genes), triple-reassortant swine (PA and M genes), and recent human (NA gene) lineages. It indicated that the novel reassortment virus among human and swine influenza viruses occurred in pigs in southern China. The isolation of the novel reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses provides further evidence that pigs are "mixing vessels," and swine influenza virus surveillance in southern China will provide important information about genetic evaluation and antigenic variation of swine influenza virus to formulate the prevention and control measures for the viruses. PMID:27458456

  10. Determination of thrust compression systems with a multisource geoscientific data processing in the southern margin of Ordos basin, China

    SciTech Connect

    Yongjie, T.; Genderen, J.L. van

    1996-08-01

    In this paper, the multisource geoscientific data, such as TM data, NOAA data, the data of Bouguer gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic anomaly, the multisource geophysical processing methods, such as upward continuations, vertical derivative and gradient image, and synthetic image processing method - remote sensing image processing and geophysical image processing under I{sup 2}S600, are used to study the reverse faults or thrusts in the southern margin of Ordos basin, China. On the basis of these results and with geological investigation in the field, the authors have determined three thrust compression systems, named EW thrust compression system, NE thrust compression system and NW thrust compression system. These three systems reveal the regularity of geological structural evolution in the southern margin of Ordos basis and in the north side of Qinling Orogenic Belt.

  11. Spatial distribution and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Dong, Liang; Huang, Yeru; Shi, Shuangxin; Zhang, Lifei; Zhang, Xiulan; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Lingling

    2014-07-01

    The concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in Camphor tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China. Tree bark samples were collected in August 2012. The Σ15PAHs concentrations were ranged from 6.18 to 1560 ng g(-1)dry weight (dw), with an average value of 407 ng g(-1)dw. Generally, the concentrations of PAHs in the suburban areas were the highest, followed by urban and rural areas. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratios results showed that vehicle emission, biomass and coal combustion and industrial emission were the major sources of PAHs in tree bark from Southern Jiangsu. Good correlation was found between tree bark and polyurethane foam (PUF) samplers, indicating that both of them respond well to the gas-phase PAHs monitoring. PMID:24480428

  12. Towards Detecting Fresh Submarine Groundwater Discharge at the Laizhou Bay (Southern Bohai Sea, China) by Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Qianguo; Braga, Federica; Tosi, Luigi; Lou, Mingjing; Wu, Lingling; Tang, Cheng; Zaggia, Luca; Teatini, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    Low-salinity groundwater reserves beneath the sea bottom and submarine groundwater discharges (SGD) are of great importance in the use and management of coastal water resource. A preliminary hydro- morphogeologic analysis allows for considering the presence of low-salinity groundwater in the offshore of the Laizhou Bay (Southern Bohai Sea, China). In order to detect the potential SGD the analysis of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies has been carried out by Landsat images in the seasons when seawater and groundwater are characterised by the largest difference in temperature. The main outcomes of the study are the following. At the nearshore scale, along the intertidal zone of the Southern bay, where the unconfined aquifer discharges, patchy cold water anomalies occur, approximately in the same positions in different tide conditions. At the embayment scale in the Eastern Laizhou Bay where the confined aquifer is likely exposed, cold water anomalies are spread out.

  13. Imprint of the ENSO on rainfall and latent heating variability over the Southern South China Sea from TRMM observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Ke

    2016-04-01

    Analyses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets revealed a prominent interannual variation in the convective-stratiform rainfall and latent heating over the southern South China Sea (SCS) during the winter monsoon between 1998 and 2010. Although the height of maximum latent heating remained nearly constant at around 7 km in all of the years, the year-to-year changes in the magnitudes of maximum latent heating over the region were noticeable. The interannual variations of the convective- stratiform rainfall and latent heating over the southern SCS were highly anti-correlated with the Niño-3 index, with more (less) rainfall and latent heating during La Niña (El Niño) years. Analysis of the large-scale environment revealed that years of active rainfall and latent heating corresponded to years of large deep convergence and relative humidity at 600 hPa. The moisture budget diagnosis indicated that the interannual variation of humidity at 600 hPa was largely modulated by the vertical moisture advection. The year-to-year changes in rainfall over the southern SCS were mainly caused by the interannual variations of the dynamic component associated with anomalous upward motions in the middle troposphere, while the interannual variations of the thermodynamic component associated with changes in surface specific humidity played a minor role. Larger latent heating over the southern SCS during La Niña years may possibly further enhance the local Hadley circulation over the SCS in the wintertime.

  14. Discretionary salt use in airline meal service.

    PubMed

    Wallace, S; Wellman, N S; Dierkes, K E; Johnson, P M

    1987-02-01

    Salt use in airline meal service was studied through observation of returned meal trays of 932 passengers. Observation and weighing of salt packets on returned trays revealed that 64% of passengers did not salt their airline dinner, while 6% used the entire salt packet, 0.92 gm NaCl (362 mg Na). Average discretionary salt use among the 234 passengers (25%) who added salt was 0.57 gm NaCl (232 mg Na). Estimates of total sodium in the four airline dinners averaged 2.0 gm NaCl (786 mg Na). Laboratory assays of menu items produced by the airline foodservice differed 3% to 19% from estimated values. Sodium content of the four airline dinner menus was similar and did not affect salt use. Discretionary salt use was related to the total amount of entrée consumed but was not affected by the amount of salad consumed. It is postulated that salt use in the "captive" airline situation is predicated on consistent, habitual practices. Lowering sodium consumption in this setting may require alteration in both food preparation methods and quantity of salt presented in the packets. PMID:3819236

  15. Molecular Detection and Phylogenetic Characteristics of Herpesviruses in Rectal Swab Samples from Rodents and Shrews in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-Yan; Qiu, Min; Ke, Xue-Mei; Zhou, Wen; Guan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Shao-Wei; Li, Jin-Ming; Huo, Shu-Ting; Chen, Hui-Fang; Jiang, Li-Na; Zhong, Xue-Shan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ma, Shu-Juan; Ge, Jing; Chen, Qing

    2016-07-01

    Herpesviruses (HVs) can cause asymptomatic, benign, or fatal infections in a variety of animal species. However, the prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of HVs in rodents and shrews in China are poorly understood. We thus performed a molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of rat and shrew HVs in southern China between 2012 and 2014. Seventeen (6.7%) of 255 rectal swab specimens from rats and six (6.7%) of 90 rectal swab specimens from shrews tested positive for HVs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that rodent and shrew HVs detected in this study were species specific, clustering in the Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae clade. Novel Macavirus was detected in Rattus norvegicus (RN/13YX52/24 and RN/14HC50) and gammaherpesviruses in Suncus murinus (SM/14BY7/16/20/97/99/106).These findings have contributed to our understanding of the taxonomy, phylogeny, and biology of HVs. PMID:27171015

  16. Effects of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, cropping systems and crop water requirements in southern China

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ye, Qing; Yang, Xiaoguang; Dai, Shuwei; Chen, Guangsheng; Li, Yong; Zhang, Caixia

    2015-06-05

    Here, we discuss that rice is one of the main crops grown in southern China. Global climate change has significantly altered the local water availability and temperature regime for rice production. In this study, we explored the influence of climate change on suitable rice cropping areas, rice cropping systems and crop water requirements (CWRs) during the growing season for historical (from 1951 to 2010) and future (from 2011 to 2100) time periods. The results indicated that the land areas suitable for rice cropping systems shifted northward and westward from 1951 to 2100 but with different amplitudes.

  17. On the tectonic problems of the southern East China Sea and adjacent regions: Evidence from gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Luning; Zhang, Xunhua; Han, Bo; Du, Runlin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, two sets of gravity and magnetic data were used to study the tectonics of the southern East China Sea and Ryukyu trench-arc system: one data set was from the `Geological-geophysical map series of China Seas and adjacent areas' database and the other was newly collected by R/V Kexue III in 2011. Magnetic and gravity data were reorganized and processed using the software MMDP, MGDP and RGIS. In addition to the description of the anomaly patterns in different areas, deep and shallow structure studies were performed by using several kinds of calculation, including a spectrum analysis, upward-continuation of the Bouguer anomaly and horizontal derivatives of the total-field magnetic anomaly. The depth of the Moho and magnetic basement were calculated. Based on the above work, several controversial tectonic problems were discussed. Compared to the shelf area and Ryukyu Arc, the Okinawa Trough has an obviously thinned crust, with the thinnest area having thickness less than 14 km in the southern part. The Taiwan-Sinzi belt, which terminates to the south by the NW-SE trending Miyako fault belt, contains the relic volcanic arc formed by the splitting of the paleo Ryukyu volcanic arc as a result of the opening of the Okinawa Trough. As an important tectonic boundary, the strike-slip type Miyako fault belt extends northwestward into the shelf area and consists of several discontinuous segments. A forearc terrace composed of an exotic terrane collided with the Ryukyu Arc following the subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate. Mesozoic strata of varying thicknesses exist beneath the Cenozoic strata in the shelf basin and significantly influence the magnetic pattern of this area. The gravity and magnetic data support the existence of a Great East China Sea, which suggests that the entire southern East China Sea shelf area was a basin in the Mesozoic without alternatively arranged uplifts and depressions, and might have extended southwestward and connected with the

  18. Detecting changes in extreme precipitation and extreme streamflow in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Chen, X.; Shi, P.; van Gelder, P. H. A. J. M.

    2008-02-01

    Extreme hydro-meteorological events have become the focus of more and more studies in the last decade. Due to the complexity of the spatial pattern of changes in precipitation processes, it is still hard to establish a clear view of how precipitation has changed and how it will change in the future. In the present study, changes in extreme precipitation and streamflow processes in the Dongjiang River Basin in southern China are investigated with several nonparametric methods, including one method (Mann-Kendall test) for detecting trend, and three methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test and quantile test) for detecting changes in probability distribution. It was shown that little change is observed in annual extreme precipitation in terms of various indices, but some significant changes are found in the precipitation processes on a monthly basis, which indicates that when detecting climate changes, besides annual indices, seasonal variations in extreme events should be considered as well. Despite of little change in annual extreme precipitation series, significant changes are detected in several annual extreme flood flow and low-flow series, mainly at the stations along the main channel of Dongjiang River, which are affected significantly by the operation of several major reservoirs. To assess the reliability of the results, the power of three non-parametric methods are assessed by Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation results show that, while all three methods work well for detecting changes in two groups of data with large sample size (e.g., over 200 points in each group) and large differences in distribution parameters (e.g., over 100% increase of scale parameter in Gamma distribution), none of them are powerful enough for small data sets (e.g., less than 100 points) and small distribution parameter difference (e.g., 50% increase of scale parameter in Gamma distribution). The result of the present study raises the concern of the robustness of statistical

  19. Deep Neck Infection: A Review of 130 Cases in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weiqiang; Hu, Lijing; Wang, Zhangfeng; Nie, Guohui; Li, Xiaoling; Lin, Dongfang; Luo, Jie; Qin, Hao; Wu, Jianhui; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2015-07-01

    The study aims to present our experience of the clinical course and management of deep neck infection and try to determine if the characteristics of this kind of infection were similar between the children and adults in southern China.Patients diagnosed with deep neck infection in the Division of Otolaryngology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University between January 2002 and December 2011 were screened retrospectively for demographic characteristics, presenting symptoms, antibiotic therapy before admission, the history of antibiotics abuse, leucocyte count, etiology, bacteriology, disease comorbidity, imaging, treatment, complications, and outcomes.One hundred thirty patients were included and 44 (33.8%) were younger than 18 years old (the children group), 86 patients (66.2%) were older than 18 years old (the adults group). Fever, trismus, neck pain, and odynophagia were the most common symptoms in both groups. Forty children (90.9%) and 49 adults (57.0%) had been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy before admission. Thirty one children (70.5%) and 24 adults (27.9%) had a history of antibiotics abuse. In children group, the site most commonly involved was the parapharyngeal space (18 patients, 40.9%). In adults group, the site most commonly involved was multispace (30 patients, 34.9%). In children group, the most common cause was branchial cleft cyst (5 patients, 11.4%) and the cause remained unknown in 31 patients (70.5%). In adults group, the most common cause was pharyngeal infection (19 patients, 22.2%). All of the 27 patients with associated disease comorbidity were adults and 17 were diabetes mellitus (DM). Streptococcus viridans was the most common pathogen in both children and adults groups. Eighty six (66.2%) underwent surgical drainage and complications were found in 31 patients (4 children, 27 adults).Deep neck infection in adults is easier to have multispace involvement and lead to complications and appears to be more

  20. Forensic Pathological Study of 1656 Cases of Sudden Cardiac Death in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiuping; Zhang, Liyong; Zheng, Jinxiang; Zhao, Qianhao; Wu, Yeda; Yin, Kun; Huang, Lei; Tang, Shuangbo; Cheng, Jianding

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is progressively threatening the lives of young people throughout the world. We conducted a retrospective study of SCD cases identified among sudden death cases based on comprehensive autopsies and pathological examinations in the Center for Medicolegal Expertise of Sun Yat-Sen University to investigate the exact etiological distribution and epidemiological features of SCD. One thousand six hundred fifty-six cases were identified, and SCD accounted for 43.0% of these sudden death cases. The mean age of the SCD cases—where the data of definite ages were accessible—was 38.2 years, and the highest incidence occurred among the 31- to 40-year-old cases (25.6%). The male-to-female ratio among SCD cases was 4.3:1, and this ratio peaked in the 41- to 50-year-old group (7.7:1). The places of death were confirmed in 1411 cases, and predominantly in hospitals (46.3%) and at home (33.8%). SCD occurred throughout the year with a marginally increase in April and May. The major causes of SCD were coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD, 41.6%), unexplained sudden death (15.1%), and myocarditis (11.8%). Our data indicated that in the age group of younger affected persons (below 35 years old), sudden unexplained death and myocarditis were much more prevalent than CAD. According to anatomical examinations of the CAD-related SCD cases, the proportion of cases with coronary artery stenosis exceeding 75% (grade IV) was 67.2%. Moreover, the percentages of higher grades of coronary atherosclerosis increased with age. Among all branches of the coronary arteries, the left anterior descending branch was the most prone to atherosclerosis; atherosclerosis was present in this branch in 95.4% of the cases with atherosclerosis. Additionally, lesions of multiple branches of the coronary artery were associated with ageing. This is the first study to report the causes of death and basic epidemiological data related to SCD in Southern China. PMID:26844513

  1. Deep Neck Infection: A Review of 130 Cases in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiqiang; Hu, Lijing; Wang, Zhangfeng; Nie, Guohui; Li, Xiaoling; Lin, Dongfang; Luo, Jie; Qin, Hao; Wu, Jianhui; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study aims to present our experience of the clinical course and management of deep neck infection and try to determine if the characteristics of this kind of infection were similar between the children and adults in southern China. Patients diagnosed with deep neck infection in the Division of Otolaryngology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat–sen University between January 2002 and December 2011 were screened retrospectively for demographic characteristics, presenting symptoms, antibiotic therapy before admission, the history of antibiotics abuse, leucocyte count, etiology, bacteriology, disease comorbidity, imaging, treatment, complications, and outcomes. One hundred thirty patients were included and 44 (33.8%) were younger than 18 years old (the children group), 86 patients (66.2%) were older than 18 years old (the adults group). Fever, trismus, neck pain, and odynophagia were the most common symptoms in both groups. Forty children (90.9%) and 49 adults (57.0%) had been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy before admission. Thirty one children (70.5%) and 24 adults (27.9%) had a history of antibiotics abuse. In children group, the site most commonly involved was the parapharyngeal space (18 patients, 40.9%). In adults group, the site most commonly involved was multispace (30 patients, 34.9%). In children group, the most common cause was branchial cleft cyst (5 patients, 11.4%) and the cause remained unknown in 31 patients (70.5%). In adults group, the most common cause was pharyngeal infection (19 patients, 22.2%). All of the 27 patients with associated disease comorbidity were adults and 17 were diabetes mellitus (DM). Streptococcus viridans was the most common pathogen in both children and adults groups. Eighty six (66.2%) underwent surgical drainage and complications were found in 31 patients (4 children, 27 adults). Deep neck infection in adults is easier to have multispace involvement and lead to complications and appears to

  2. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts (~ 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China.

  3. Laser countermeasures for commercial airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keirstead, Burt

    2005-05-01

    Since the attempted shoot down of an Israeli airliner departing from Mombasa, Kenya in November of 2002, there has been heightened concern that Al Qaeda, or other terrorist factions, will use shoulder-fired heat seeking missiles as part of their tactics. These weapons, known more formally as man-portable air defense systems, or MANPADS, have been widely proliferated, are easy to conceal and deploy, and can be purchased on the black market for as little as $10,000. Recognizing that MANPADS pose a potential threat to commercial airplanes throughout the world, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is executing a system design and development (SDD) program to evaluate the viability of missile countermeasures that would be installed on commercial airplanes. This paper provides an overview of the MANPADS threat, a discussion of associated countermeasure requirements for systems installed on commercial airplanes, and a description of a laser countermeasure system that is being prototyped and demonstrated as part of the DHS Counter-MANPADS program.

  4. Decadal drought deaccelerated the increasing trend of annual net primary production in tropical or subtropical forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wantong; Wang, Jinxia; Liu, Xingzhao; Zhou, Guoyi; Yan, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations have identified that the effects of climate change on net primary production (NPP) of global forests have varied both spatially and temporally, and that warming has increased the NPP for many forests. However, other factors, such as available soil water for plant growth, could limit these incremental responses to warming. In our investigation we have quantified the responses of NPP of tropical or subtropical forests in southern China to warming and drought stress over the past three decades (1981 to 2012) using data from five forest research stations and satellite measurements. NPP, mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual days without rainfall showed an increase of 0.076 g C m(-2) a(-2) (standardized), 0.057 °C a(-1) (standardized) and 0.067 d a(-1) (standardized) during the study period, respectively. However, incremental NPP was deaccelerated at a rate of approximately 20.8% per decade. This deacceleration was primarily caused by a decrease in available soil water which resulted from warming (mainly occurring in winter and autumn) and the changes in rainfall pattern. The result indicates that intensifying drought stress would limit future increases of forest NPP in southern China. PMID:27356766

  5. Decadal drought deaccelerated the increasing trend of annual net primary production in tropical or subtropical forests in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wantong; Wang, Jinxia; Liu, Xingzhao; Zhou, Guoyi; Yan, Junhua

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations have identified that the effects of climate change on net primary production (NPP) of global forests have varied both spatially and temporally, and that warming has increased the NPP for many forests. However, other factors, such as available soil water for plant growth, could limit these incremental responses to warming. In our investigation we have quantified the responses of NPP of tropical or subtropical forests in southern China to warming and drought stress over the past three decades (1981 to 2012) using data from five forest research stations and satellite measurements. NPP, mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual days without rainfall showed an increase of 0.076 g C m−2 a−2 (standardized), 0.057 °C a−1 (standardized) and 0.067 d a−1 (standardized) during the study period, respectively. However, incremental NPP was deaccelerated at a rate of approximately 20.8% per decade. This deacceleration was primarily caused by a decrease in available soil water which resulted from warming (mainly occurring in winter and autumn) and the changes in rainfall pattern. The result indicates that intensifying drought stress would limit future increases of forest NPP in southern China. PMID:27356766

  6. Decadal drought deaccelerated the increasing trend of annual net primary production in tropical or subtropical forests in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wantong; Wang, Jinxia; Liu, Xingzhao; Zhou, Guoyi; Yan, Junhua

    2016-06-01

    Previous investigations have identified that the effects of climate change on net primary production (NPP) of global forests have varied both spatially and temporally, and that warming has increased the NPP for many forests. However, other factors, such as available soil water for plant growth, could limit these incremental responses to warming. In our investigation we have quantified the responses of NPP of tropical or subtropical forests in southern China to warming and drought stress over the past three decades (1981 to 2012) using data from five forest research stations and satellite measurements. NPP, mean annual temperature (MAT) and annual days without rainfall showed an increase of 0.076 g C m‑2 a‑2 (standardized), 0.057 °C a‑1 (standardized) and 0.067 d a‑1 (standardized) during the study period, respectively. However, incremental NPP was deaccelerated at a rate of approximately 20.8% per decade. This deacceleration was primarily caused by a decrease in available soil water which resulted from warming (mainly occurring in winter and autumn) and the changes in rainfall pattern. The result indicates that intensifying drought stress would limit future increases of forest NPP in southern China.

  7. Skills of yearly prediction of the early-season rainfall over southern China by the NCEP climate forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Siyu; Yang, Song; Deng, Yi; Li, Qiaoping

    2015-11-01

    The prominent rainfall over southern China from April to June, usually characterized by a rain belt aligned in a southwest-northeast direction, is referred to here as the early-season rainfall (ESR). The predictability of the ESR is studied by analyzing the 45-day hindcast made with the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) and several observational data sets. Skills of predicting the ESR and the associated atmospheric circulation and surface air temperature (SAT) patterns in each year are assessed with multiple methods. Results show that the ESR can be well predicted by the CFSv2 in advance by 20 days in some years including 2005 and 2006, while the lead time of skillful prediction is limited to around 1 week in some other years such as 2001 and 2010. More accurate predictions of the ESR seem to be related to the higher skills of CFSv2 in predicting the dominant modes of the rainfall variability. Moreover, atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the ESR and the SAT over the western Pacific warm pool in the preceding winter can be important signals for ESR prediction since in the years with good skills of ESR prediction, the CFSv2 also predicted these signals successfully. An overestimate (underestimate) of the SAT may lead to large biases in the predicted atmospheric circulation and subsequently result in an underestimate (overestimate) southern China ESR.

  8. [Effects of different forest restoration approaches on the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Zeng, Jing; Chen, Fa-Lin; Zhang, Kai

    2013-05-01

    In 2008-2009, an investigation was conducted on the effects of three typical forest restoration approaches, i. e., naturally restored secondary forest, artificially restored native species Pinus massoniana plantation (Masson pine plantation), and introduced species Pinus elliottii plantation (slash pine plantation), on the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China. The results showed that the soil moisture content, bulk density, particle composition, and the contents of total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), organic C, available N, available P, and available potassium (K) in natural secondary forest were all superior to those in artificial plantations. The soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties were integrated into a soil quality index, which was significantly higher (1.20 +/- 0.10) in natural secondary forest than in Masson pine plantation (0.59 +/- 0.03) and slash pine plantation (0.59 +/- 0.06). Our results suggested as compared with the restoration with native species P. massoniana and with introduced P. elliottii, natural restoration could be a better forest restoration approach to improve the soil quality in red soil region of Southern China. PMID:24015552

  9. High prevalence and diversity of viruses of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, family Herpesviridae, in fecal specimens from bats of different species in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xue-yan; Qiu, Min; Chen, Shao-wei; Xiao, Jian-peng; Ma, Li-zhen; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Jun-hua; Zhang, Qiong-hua; Li, Xing; Chen, Zhong; Wu, Yi; Chen, Hui-fang; Jiang, Li-na; Xiong, Yi-quan; Ma, Shu-juan; Zhong, Xue-shan; Huo, Shu-ting; Ge, Jing; Cen, Shu-wen; Chen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have reported the detection of herpesviruses (HVs) in bats. However, the prevalence and phylogenetic characteristics of HVs in bats are still poorly understood. To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics of bat HVs in southern China, 520 fecal samples from eight bat species were collected in four geographic regions of southern China. Of these samples, 73 (14.0 %) tested positive for HVs using nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high degree of molecular diversity of HVs in bats of different species from different geographic regions. Our study provides evidence for co-evolution of bats and HVs. PMID:26446885

  10. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; Yang, Qichun

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. Themore » Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.« less

  11. Is the “ecological and economic approach for the restoration of collapsed gullies” in Southern China really economic?

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chengchao; Zhang, Yaoqi; Xu, Yecheng; Yang, Qichun

    2015-07-31

    Collapsed gully erosion constantly plagues the sustainability of rural areas in China. To control collapsed gully erosion, an ecological and economic approach, which uses tree plantation to gain economic benefits and control soil erosion, has been widely applied by local governments in Southern China. However, little is known about the economic feasibility of this new method. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness and economic benefits of the new method. Based on a case study in Changting County, Southeast China, two farms were selected to represent a timber tree plantation and a fruit tree plantation, respectively. The Annual Capital Capitalization Method and Return on Investment (ROI) were selected to conduct cost-benefit analysis. In contrast to previous studies, we found that the new approach was far from economic. The value of the newly-built forestland in Sanzhou Village and Tufang Village is 2738 RMB ha-1 and 5477 RMB ha-1, respectively, which are extremely lower than the costs of ecological restoration. Meanwhile, the annual ROI is –3.60% and –8.90%, respectively, which is negative and also far poorer than the average value of forestry in China. The costs of conservation were substantially over the related economic benefits, and the investors would suffer from greater loss if they invested more in the conservation. Low-cost terraces with timber trees had less economic loss compared with the costly terraces with fruit tree plantation. Moreover, the cost efficiency of the new approaches in soil conservation was also greatly poorer than the conventional method. The costs of conserving one ton soil per year for conventional method, new method for planting timber trees, and planting fruit trees were 164 RMB, 696 RMB, and 11,664 RMB, respectively. Therefore, the new collapsed gully erosion control methods are uneconomic and unsuitable to be widely carried out in China in the near future.

  12. Predominance of Single Prophage Carrying a CRISPR/cas System in "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" Strains in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Bao, Minli; Wu, Fengnian; Chen, Jianchi; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" (CLas) is an uncultureable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a highly destructive disease affecting citrus production worldwide. HLB was observed in Guangdong Province of China over a hundred years ago and remains endemic there. Little is known about CLas biology due to its uncultureable nature. This study began with the genome sequence analysis of CLas Strain A4 from Guangdong in the prophage region. Within the two currently known prophage types, Type 1 (SC1-like) and Type 2 (SC2-like), A4 genome contained only a Type 2 prophage, CGdP2, namely. An analysis on CLas strains collected in Guangdong showed that Type 2 prophage dominated the bacterial population (82.6%, 71/86). An extended survey covering five provinces in southern China also revealed the predominance of single prophage (Type 1 or Type 2) in the CLas population (90.4%, 169/187). CLas strains with two and no prophage types accounted for 7.2% and 2.8%, respectively. In silico analyses on CGdP2 identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) system, consisting of four 22 bp repeats, three 23 bp spacers and 9 predicted cas. Similar CRISPR/cas systems were detected in all 10 published CLas prophages as well as 13 CLas field strains in southern China. Both Type 1 and Type 2 prophages shared almost identical sequences in spacer 1 and 3 but not spacer 2. Considering that the function of a CRISPR/cas system was to destroy invading DNA, it was hypothesized that a pre-established CLas prophage could use its CRISPR/cas system guided by spacer 1 and/or 3 to defeat the invasion of the other phage/prophage. This hypothesis explained the predominance of single prophage type in the CLas population in southern China. This is the first report of CRISPR/cas system in the "Ca. Liberibacter" genera. PMID:26741827

  13. Predominance of Single Prophage Carrying a CRISPR/cas System in “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” Strains in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Bao, Minli; Wu, Fengnian; Chen, Jianchi; Deng, Xiaoling

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas) is an uncultureable α-proteobacterium associated with citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease), a highly destructive disease affecting citrus production worldwide. HLB was observed in Guangdong Province of China over a hundred years ago and remains endemic there. Little is known about CLas biology due to its uncultureable nature. This study began with the genome sequence analysis of CLas Strain A4 from Guangdong in the prophage region. Within the two currently known prophage types, Type 1 (SC1-like) and Type 2 (SC2-like), A4 genome contained only a Type 2 prophage, CGdP2, namely. An analysis on CLas strains collected in Guangdong showed that Type 2 prophage dominated the bacterial population (82.6%, 71/86). An extended survey covering five provinces in southern China also revealed the predominance of single prophage (Type 1 or Type 2) in the CLas population (90.4%, 169/187). CLas strains with two and no prophage types accounted for 7.2% and 2.8%, respectively. In silico analyses on CGdP2 identified a CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/cas (CRISPR-associated protein genes) system, consisting of four 22 bp repeats, three 23 bp spacers and 9 predicted cas. Similar CRISPR/cas systems were detected in all 10 published CLas prophages as well as 13 CLas field strains in southern China. Both Type 1 and Type 2 prophages shared almost identical sequences in spacer 1 and 3 but not spacer 2. Considering that the function of a CRISPR/cas system was to destroy invading DNA, it was hypothesized that a pre-established CLas prophage could use its CRISPR/cas system guided by spacer 1 and/or 3 to defeat the invasion of the other phage/prophage. This hypothesis explained the predominance of single prophage type in the CLas population in southern China. This is the first report of CRISPR/cas system in the “Ca. Liberibacter” genera. PMID:26741827

  14. Analysis of energy-saving potential in residential buildings in Xiamen City and its policy implications for southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Fei

    The buildings sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in the world. Residential buildings consume about three-quarters of the final energy in the buildings sector. Promoting residential energy savings is in consequence critical for addressing many energy-use-related environmental challenges, such as climate change and air pollution. Given China's robust economic growth and fast urbanization, it is now a critical time to develop policy interventions on residential energy use in the nation. With this as a background, this dissertation explores effective policy intervention opportunities in southern China through analyzing the residential energy-saving potential, using the city of Xiamen as a case study. Four types of residential energy-saving potential are analyzed: technical potential, economic potential, maximum achievable potential (MAP), and possible achievable potential (PAP). Of these, the first two types are characterized as static theoretical evaluation, while the last two represent dynamic evaluation within a certain time horizon. The achievable potential analyses are rarely seen in existing literature. The analytical results reveal that there exists a significant technical potential for residential energy savings of about 20.9-24.9% in the city of Xiamen. Of the technical potential, about two-thirds to four-fifths are cost-effective from the government or society perspective. The cost-effectiveness is evaluated by comparing the "Levelized Cost of Conserved Energy (LCOCE)" of available advanced technical measures with the "Actual Cost" of conserved energy. The "Actual Cost" of energy is defined by adding the environmental externalities costs and hidden government subsidies over the retail prices of energy. The achievable potential analyses are particularly based on two key realistic factors: 1) the gradual ramping-up adoption process of advanced technical measures; and 2) individuals' adoption-decision making on them. For implementing the achievable

  15. Screening of SOD1, FUS and TARDBP genes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in central-southern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lihua; Jiao, Bin; Xiao, Tingting; Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Zhifan; Du, Juan; Yan, Xinxiang; Wang, Junling; Tang, Beisha; Shen, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain, brainstem and spinal cord. To date, mutations in more than 30 genes have been linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Among them, SOD1, FUS and TARDBP are ranked as the three most common genes associated with ALS. However, no mutation analysis has been reported in central-southern China. In this study, we sequenced SOD1, FUS and TARDBP in a central-southern Chinese cohort of 173 patients with ALS (15 familial ALS and 158 sporadic ALS) to detect mutations. As a result, five missense mutations in SOD1, namely, p.D101N, p.D101G, p.C111Y, p.N86S and p.V87A, were identified in three unrelated familial probands and three sporadic cases; two mutations in FUS were found in two unrelated familial probands, including an insertion mutation (p.P525_Y526insY) and a missense mutation (p.R521H); no variants of TARDBP were observed in patients. Therefore, SOD1 mutations were present in 20.0% of familial ALS patients and 1.9% of sporadic ALS patients, while FUS mutations were responsible for 13.3% of familial ALS cases, and TARDBP mutations were rare in either familial or sporadic ALS cases. This study broadens the known mutational spectrum in patients with ALS and further demonstrates the necessity for genetic screening in ALS patients from central-southern China. PMID:27604643

  16. Screening of SOD1, FUS and TARDBP genes in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in central-southern China

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lihua; Jiao, Bin; Xiao, Tingting; Zhou, Lu; Zhou, Zhifan; Du, Juan; Yan, Xinxiang; Wang, Junling; Tang, Beisha; Shen, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons of the brain, brainstem and spinal cord. To date, mutations in more than 30 genes have been linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. Among them, SOD1, FUS and TARDBP are ranked as the three most common genes associated with ALS. However, no mutation analysis has been reported in central-southern China. In this study, we sequenced SOD1, FUS and TARDBP in a central-southern Chinese cohort of 173 patients with ALS (15 familial ALS and 158 sporadic ALS) to detect mutations. As a result, five missense mutations in SOD1, namely, p.D101N, p.D101G, p.C111Y, p.N86S and p.V87A, were identified in three unrelated familial probands and three sporadic cases; two mutations in FUS were found in two unrelated familial probands, including an insertion mutation (p.P525_Y526insY) and a missense mutation (p.R521H); no variants of TARDBP were observed in patients. Therefore, SOD1 mutations were present in 20.0% of familial ALS patients and 1.9% of sporadic ALS patients, while FUS mutations were responsible for 13.3% of familial ALS cases, and TARDBP mutations were rare in either familial or sporadic ALS cases. This study broadens the known mutational spectrum in patients with ALS and further demonstrates the necessity for genetic screening in ALS patients from central-southern China. PMID:27604643

  17. Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: Implications for macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B; Legendre, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3(-)), ammonium (NH4(+)), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO4(3-)), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3(-) and NH4(+)) and phosphorus (PO4(3-)). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea. PMID:27199215

  18. Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: Implications for macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    2016-01-01

    The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43−), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3− and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43−). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea. PMID:27199215

  19. Growth responses of Ulva prolifera to inorganic and organic nutrients: Implications for macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongmei; Zhang, Yongyu; Han, Xiurong; Shi, Xiaoyong; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    2016-05-01

    The marine macrophyte Ulva prolifera is the dominant green-tide-forming seaweed in the southern Yellow Sea, China. Here we assessed, in the laboratory, the growth rate and nutrient uptake responses of U. prolifera to different nutrient treatments. The growth rates were enhanced in incubations with added organic and inorganic nitrogen [i.e. nitrate (NO3‑), ammonium (NH4+), urea and glycine] and phosphorus [i.e. phosphate (PO43‑), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)], relative to the control. The relative growth rates of U. prolifera were higher when enriched with dissolved organic nitrogen (urea and glycine) and phosphorus (ATP and G-6-P) than inorganic nitrogen (NO3‑ and NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43‑). In contrast, the affinity was higher for inorganic than organic nutrients. Field data in the southern Yellow Sea showed significant inverse correlations between macroalgal biomass and dissolved organic nutrients. Our laboratory and field results indicated that organic nutrients such as urea, glycine and ATP, may contribute to the development of macroalgal blooms in the southern Yellow Sea.

  20. Prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment among high school students in Southern China: A large scale school based survey

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Phil WS; Wong, William CW; Chen, WQ; Tang, Catherine SK

    2008-01-01

    Background Child maltreatment can cause significant physical and psychological problems. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and determinants of child maltreatment in Guangzhou, China, where such issues are often considered a taboo subject. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in southern China in 2005. 24 high schools were selected using stratified random sampling strategy based on their districts and bandings. The self-administered validated Chinese version of parent-child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) was used as the main assessment tool to measure the abusive experiences encountered by students in the previous six months. Results The response rate of this survey was 99.7%. Among the 6592 responding students, the mean age was 14.68. Prevalence of parental psychological aggression, corporal punishment, severe and very serve physical maltreatment in the past 6 months were 78.3%, 23.2%, 15.1% and 2.8% respectively. The prevalence of sexual abuse is 0.6%. The most commonly cited reasons for maltreatment included 'disobedience to parents', 'poor academic performance', and 'quarrelling between parents'. Age, parental education, places of origins and types of housing were found to be associated with physical maltreatments whereas gender and fathers' education level were associated with sexual abuse. Conclusion Though largely unspoken, child maltreatment is a common problem in China. Identification of significant determinants in this study can provide valuable information for teachers and health professionals so as to pay special attention to those at-risk children. PMID:18823544

  1. Service Quality in the U.S. Airline Industry: Variations in Performance Within Airlines and Between Airlines and the Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the service quality of 25 U.S. airlines (1987-1996) using data from the Department of Transportation's Air Travel Consumer Report. After a total quality and total complaint rate was calculated for these airlines, a 95 percent confidence interval was placed around the yearly and company means calculated to examine those cases that were significantly different from the mean. Results indicate that while the major carriers are converging toward a higher level of quality, there continues to be significant yearly variation. The service quality of regional carriers was much lower than major carriers and showed much greater variation.

  2. The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals.

    PubMed

    Hatakka, M; Asplund, K

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of Salmonella in airline meals was studied in 1989-1992. Samples were collected from flight kitchens in 29 countries. The material consisted of 400 cold dishes and 1,288 hot dishes as well as salads, cheese plates and deserts. Total number of samples was 2211. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 6 samples; 1 contaminated sample was a cold dish prepared in Bangkok, 1 was a hot dish prepared in Mombasa and the remaining 4 contaminated samples were hot dishes prepared within one week in Beijing. The isolated serotypes were S. ohio, S. manchester and S. braenderup. The contaminated cold dish prepared by a flight kitchen in Bangkok was found to be connected with a Salmonella outbreak which occurred in Finland in 1990. Cold airline dishes containing food of animal origin seems to be more risky as a source of Salmonella infections among airline passengers. PMID:8147292

  3. Error prevention as developed in airlines.

    PubMed

    Logan, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    The airline industry is a high-risk endeavor. Tens of thousands of flights depart each day carrying millions of passengers with the potential for catastrophic consequences. To manage and mitigate this risk, airline operators, labor unions, and the Federal Aviation Administration have developed a partnership approach to improving safety. This partnership includes cooperative programs such as the Aviation Safety Action Partnership and the Flight Operational Quality Assurance. It also involves concentrating on the key aspects of aircraft maintenance reliability and employee training. This report discusses recent enhancements within the airline industry in the areas of proactive safety programs and the move toward safety management systems that will drive improvements in the future. PMID:18406922

  4. The Future of Regulation in the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherington, P. W.; Hill, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    The Federal regulation of airlines is analyzed to predict the amount of regulation to be expected in the future. It is stated that the regulatory powers will increase because of the advantages that such regulation provides to the airlines. Six propositions are submitted as guidelines for future airlines regulation. The loss of revenue experienced by the airlines is examined and methods for improving the economic situation are defined.

  5. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  6. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  7. 15 CFR 806.9 - Airlines and ship operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airlines and ship operators. 806.9...) BUREAU OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE DIRECT INVESTMENT SURVEYS § 806.9 Airlines and ship operators. Foreign stations, ticket offices, and terminal and port facilities of U.S. airlines and...

  8. A Comparison of CTAS and Airline Time of Arrival Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heere, Karen R.; Zelenka, Richard E.; Hsu, Rose Y.

    1999-01-01

    A statistically-based comparison of aircraft times of arrival between Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) air traffic control scheduling and airline predictions is presented. CTAS is found to provide much improved values, forming the foundation for airline operational improvements, as observed during an airline field trial of a CTAS display.

  9. Population diversity of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in southern China revealed by tandem repeat number variation in a hypervariable genomic locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ is a putative pathogen of citrus Huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease). HLB is highly destructive and has occurred in southern China for over a hundred years. Due to unsuccessful in vitro cultivation of the bacterium and lack of efficient markers to discrimin...

  10. Intensified soil acidification from chemical N fertilization and prevention by manure in an 18–year field experiment in the red soil of southern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil acidification from chemical N fertilization has worsened and is a major yield-limiting factor in the red soils of southern China. Assessment of the acidification process under field conditions over a long term is essential to develop strategies for maintaining soil productivity. The objective o...

  11. Effect of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the spatio-temporal variation in Liupan Mountain Region, southern Ningxia, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Liupan Mountains are located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between landforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population press...

  12. Source origins, modeled profiles, and apportionments of halogenated hydrocarbons in the greater Pearl River Delta region, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, T.; Simpson, I. J.; Blake, D. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Saunders, S. M.; Fu, T. M.; Hung, W. T.; Li, Y. S.

    2009-06-01

    We analyze 16-month data of 13 major halocarbons measured at a southern China coastal site in the greater Pearl River Delta (PRD). A total of 188 canister air samples were collected from August 2001 to December 2002. Overall inspection indicated that CH2Cl2, C2Cl4, and C2HCl3 had similar temporal variations while CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 showed the same emission patterns during the sampling period. Diurnal variations of halocarbons presented different patterns during ozone episode days, mainly related to emission strength, atmospheric dispersion, and photochemical lifetimes. For further statistics and source appointment, Lagrangian backward particle release simulations were conducted to help understand the potential source regions of all samples and classify them into different categories, including local Hong Kong, inner PRD, continental China, and marine air masses. With the exception of HCFC-142b, the mixing ratios of all halocarbons in marine air were significantly lower than those in urban and regional air (p < 0.01), whereas no significant difference was found between urban Hong Kong and inner PRD regional air, reflecting the dominant impact of the greater PRD regional air on the halocarbon levels. The halocarbon levels in this region were significantly influenced by anthropogenic sources, causing the halocarbon mixing ratios in South China Sea air to be higher than the corresponding background levels, as measured by global surface networks and by airborne missions such as Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific. Interspecies correlation analysis suggests that CHCl3 is mainly used as a solvent in Hong Kong but mostly as a feedstock for HCFC-22 in the inner PRD. Furthermore, CH3Cl is often used as a refrigerant and emitted from biomass/biofuel burning in the inner PRD. A positive matrix factorization receptor model was applied to the classified halocarbon samples in the greater PRD for source profiles and apportionments. Seven major sources were

  13. 76 FR 51119 - Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California Pacific Airlines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Airlines, Inc. d/b/a California Pacific Airlines fit, willing, and able, and awarding to it a certificate of public convenience and necessity to engage in interstate scheduled air transportation of persons... Office of the Secretary Application of California-Palomar Airlines, Inc.; D/B/A California...

  14. Virtual increase or latent loss? A reassessment of mangrove populations and their conservation in Guangdong, southern China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yisheng; Zheng, Mingxuan; Zheng, Zhouxiang; Wu, Guichang; Chen, Yuechao; Xu, Hualin; Tian, Guanghong; Peng, Shenghua; Chen, Guizhu; Lee, Shing Yip

    2016-08-30

    Contrary to the global trend, the area of mangrove in Guangdong Province, southern China, has been increasing over the last two decades. Currently, three exotic mangrove species have been introduced for large-scale afforestation since 1985. A reassessment of the overall status of the mangrove species, habitat change, population of introduced species, was conducted through a comprehensive literature review as well as field investigations covering 96 sites. The success of conservation efforts is also evaluated. Upstream and high intertidal habitats are more vulnerable than downstream and lower intertidal ones, with habitat alteration being the biggest threats. Five mangrove species have narrow distributional extents with small populations, which could incur regional extinction. With the introduced species having naturalized at 42 sites, their role in mangrove management needs to be reconsidered. These findings collectively suggest a need to manage latent species loss and habitat degradation beyond the apparent increase in mangrove area and protection. PMID:27368927

  15. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella in rodents of northern Thailand: a comparison with Bartonella in rodents from southern China.

    PubMed

    Castle, Kevin T; Kosoy, Michael; Lerdthusnee, Kriangkrai; Phelan, Lori; Bai, Ying; Gage, Kenneth L; Leepitakrat, Warisa; Monkanna, Taweesak; Khlaimanee, Nittaya; Chandranoi, Kirkvich; Jones, James W; Coleman, Russell E

    2004-04-01

    We report results of the first study to investigate the distribution and diversity of Bartonella in rodents from Thailand. Whole blood from 195 rodents, representing six species, was tested for the presence of Bartonella species using standard culture techniques. Isolates were obtained from 17 (8.7%) of the samples, and 14 of those isolates represented distinct strains, based upon partial sequencing of the citrate synthase (gltA) gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates and other Bartonella species indicated that five unique isolates from Bandicota indica form a cluster that may represent a new Bartonella species. Two additional isolates from B. indica clustered together, and were nearly identical to an isolate from Apodemus draco collected in southern China. Importantly, a number of the isolates from Thailand rodents are closely related to B. grahamii and B. elizabethae, species which have been associated with human illness. PMID:15100459

  16. Effects of litter manipulation on litter decomposition in a successional gradients of tropical forests in southern China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Gurmesa, Geshere A; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Shenglei; Liu, Zhanfeng; Dong, Shaofeng; Ma, Chuan; Mo, Jiangming

    2014-01-01

    Global changes such as increasing CO2, rising temperature, and land-use change are likely to drive shifts in litter inputs to forest floors, but the effects of such changes on litter decomposition remain largely unknown. We initiated a litter manipulation experiment to test the response of litter decomposition to litter removal/addition in three successional forests in southern China, namely masson pine forest (MPF), mixed coniferous and broadleaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest (MEBF). Results showed that litter removal decreased litter decomposition rates by 27%, 10% and 8% and litter addition increased litter decomposition rates by 55%, 36% and 14% in MEBF, MF and MPF, respectively. The magnitudes of changes in litter decomposition were more significant in MEBF forest and less significant in MF, but not significant in MPF. Our results suggest that change in litter quantity can affect litter decomposition, and this impact may become stronger with forest succession in tropical forest ecosystem. PMID:24901698

  17. Responses of soil respiration and its temperature/moisture sensitivity to precipitation in three subtropical forests in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, H.; Deng, Q.; Zhou, G.; Hui, D.; Zhang, D.; Liu, S.; Chu, G.; Li, J.

    2013-06-01

    Both long-term observation data and model simulations suggest an increasing chance of serious drought in the dry season and extreme flood in the wet season in southern China, yet little is known about how changes in precipitation pattern will affect soil respiration in the region. We conducted a field experiment to study the responses of soil respiration to precipitation manipulations - precipitation exclusion to mimic drought, double precipitation to simulate flood, and ambient precipitation as control (abbr. EP, DP and AP, respectively) - in three subtropical forests in southern China. The three forest sites include Masson pine forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (BF). Our observations showed that altered precipitation strongly influenced soil respiration, not only through the well-known direct effects of soil moisture on plant and microbial activities, but also by modification of both moisture and temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. In the dry season, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, as well as fine root and soil microbial biomass, showed rising trends with precipitation increases in the three forest sites. Contrarily, the moisture sensitivity of soil respiration decreased with precipitation increases. In the wet season, different treatments showed different effects in three forest sites. The EP treatment decreased fine root biomass, soil microbial biomass, soil respiration and its temperature sensitivity, but enhanced soil moisture sensitivity in all three forest sites. The DP treatment significantly increased soil respiration, fine root and soil microbial biomass in the PF only, and no significant change was found for the soil temperature sensitivity. However, the DP treatment in the MF and BF reduced soil temperature sensitivity significantly in the wet season. Our results indicated that soil respiration would decrease in the three subtropical forests if soil moisture

  18. Congress holds hearings on airliner cabin IAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.E.; Miro, C.R.

    1993-11-01

    This article reports on congressional hearings on airliner cabin IAQ. The topics of the article include lax enforcement of existing standards, inadequate standards, proposed new standards, epidemiological investigations of the possibility of transmission of airborne infectious diseases, and comparison of FAA standards with ASHRAE standards for buildings.

  19. 75 FR 36300 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: For access to the... Airline Passenger Protections (75 FR 32318), which, among other things, solicits comment, without... the current practice of not prescribing carrier practices concerning the serving of peanuts. (75...

  20. Survey of commercial airline pilots' hearing loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begault, D. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Tran, L. L.; Anderson, M. R.

    1998-01-01

    64 commercial airline pilots (ages 35-64 yr, Mdn: 53) were surveyed regarding hearing loss and tinnitus. Within specific age groups, the proportions responding positively exceed the corresponding proportions in the general population reported by the National Center for Health Statistics.

  1. Interfaces Visualize Data for Airline Safety, Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    As the A-Train Constellation orbits Earth to gather data, NASA scientists and partners visualize, analyze, and communicate the information. To this end, Langley Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Fairfax, Virginia-based WxAnalyst Ltd. to refine the company's existing user interface for Google Earth to visualize data. Hawaiian Airlines is now using the technology to help manage its flights.

  2. Objectives of the Airline Firm: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kneafsey, J. T.

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical models are formulated for airline firm operations that revolve around alternative formulations of managerial goals which these firms are persuing in practice. Consideration is given to the different objective functions which the companies are following in lieu of profit maximization.

  3. Fatigue Factors in Regional Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Weldon, Keri J.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Smith, Roy M.; Johnson, Julie M.; Gander, Philippa H.; Lebacqz, J. Victor

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes human sleep and circadian physiology regarding their role as contributors to fatigue engendered by flight operations. The demands of regional airline operations are then examined for potential areas where these physiological factors will be affected. Finally, approaches to systematically investigate these issues scientifically will be described.

  4. Understanding haze pollution over the southern Hebei area of China using the CMAQ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Litao; Xu, Jing; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Xiujuan; Wei, Wei; Cheng, Dandan; Pan, Xuemei; Su, Jie

    2012-09-01

    Haze has been one of the major air pollution problems in Chinese cities, and the southern Hebei area has attracted particular attention because of its high frequency of haze weather and the rapid deterioration in visibility in recent years. This study is aimed at understanding the characteristics and sources of the serious haze pollution in the southern Hebei area using the Mesoscale Modeling System Generation 5 (MM5) and the Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ). The haze frequencies in the cities of southern Hebei, including Shijiazhuang, Xingtai, and five other urban centers in the surrounding regions, are analyzed for a ten-year period from 2001 to 2010, which shows a very similar and clear seasonal variation. The contributions of the local and regional anthropogenic emissions to the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, particles with an aerodiameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μm) and the light extinction coefficient (Bext) are estimated by conducting simulations of seven scenarios. The results show that approximately 65% of the PM2.5 in Shijiazhuang and Xingtai originated from the local emissions of the southern Hebei area, followed by Shanxi Province and the northern area of Hebei (13.8% and 7.3% to Shijiazhuang and 10.4% and 5.2% to Xingtai, respectively). The contributions of the emissions from the local area, Shanxi Province and the northern Hebei area to Bext are approximately 59.4%, 13.8% and 6.8% for Shijiazhuang and 58.2%, 10.1% and 5.0% for Xingtai, respectively. Moreover, an analysis of a typical pollution episode indicates that the contributions from the Shandong and Henan provinces are also significant. Further investigations are still required because of the complexity of the haze pollution over the southern Hebei area.

  5. Seasonal response of the southern East China Sea shelf water to wind-modulated throughflow in the Taiwan Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Jae-Hong; Hirose, Naoki

    2014-02-01

    Seasonal change of the southern East China Sea (ECS) shelf water and its relation to the throughflow in the Taiwan Strait (TS) was examined based on comparative experiments with inserting passive tracers into a regional ocean model. Through analyzing the model output results, we found that from autumn to winter strong northeasterly wind over the TS significantly weakens the outflow from the TS (i.e., flowing into the ECS) and the Kuroshio water intrudes farther shoreward across the northern shelf of Taiwan in response to the weakened outflow. On the other hand, water flowing into the shelf from the TS extends further offshore from spring to summer when the TS throughflow is enhanced by a wind change from northeasterly to southwesterly and the Kuroshio water retreats seaward off the shelf due to the offshore extension of the shelf water. It suggests that the weakening (strengthening) of the TS throughflow could allow (inhibit) shelf-ward Kuroshio water onto the northeastern shelf of Taiwan, emphasizing that the throughflow modulated by a local wind can be an important factor controlling the seasonal variation of the southern ECS shelf water.

  6. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1998-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Quality Rating 1998, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1997. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating 1998 is a summary of month-by-month quality ratings for the ten major U.S. airlines operating during 1997. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1997, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major airlines domestic operations for the 12 month period of 1997, and industry average results. Also, comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1996 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  7. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: The Airline Quality Rating 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Brent D.; Headley, Dean E.

    1997-01-01

    The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) was developed and first announced in early 1991 as an objective method of comparing airline performance on combined multiple factors important to consumers. Development history and calculation details for the AQR rating system are detailed in The Airline Quality Rating 1991 issued in April, 1991, by the National Institute for Aviation Research at Wichita State University. This current report, Airline Rating 1997, contains monthly Airline Quality Rating scores for 1996. Additional copies are available by contacting Wichita State University or the University of Nebraska at Omaha. The Airline Quality Rating (AQR) 1997 is a summary of a month-by-month quality ratings for the nine major domestic U.S. airlines operating during 1996. Using the Airline Quality Rating system and monthly performance data for each airline for the calendar year of 1996, individual and comparative ratings are reported. This research monograph contains a brief summary of the AQR methodology, detailed data and charts that track comparative quality for major domestic airlines across the 12 month period of 1996, and industry average results. Also comparative Airline Quality Rating data for 1991 through 1995 are included to provide a longer term view of quality in the industry.

  8. Corporate instability is related to airline pilots' stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Little, L F; Gaffney, I C; Rosen, K H; Bender, M M

    1990-11-01

    The Symptoms of Stress questionnaire was administered to three random samples of commercial airline pilots. Respondents included 1 group of 212 pilots who were employed by an airline company with a history of corporate instability; and 2 groups, totalling 220 pilots, who were employed by 2 airline carriers with histories of corporate stability. The pilot group employed by the airline with a history of corporate instability reported significantly more stress and depression symptoms and a greater accumulation of symptoms than did the pilot groups employed by the stable airlines. With the advent of airline deregulation and its concomitant changes in the airline industry, including corporate instability, we conclude that the relationship between corporate instability within the aviation environment and the subjective distress reported by pilots suggests the need for further investigation into implications for health and safety. PMID:2256885

  9. Late paleozoic tectonic amalgamation of northwestern China. Sedimentary record of the northern Tarim, northwestern Turpan, and southern Junggar basins

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.R.; Graham, S.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Ying, D.; Zhou, D.

    1995-05-01

    This study focuses on areas adjacent to the Tian Shan (shan is Chinese for mountains) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China, and provides new field data on Carboniferous and Permian outcrop exposures of sedimentary rocks of the southern Junggar, northwestern Turpan, and northern Tarim basins that bear directly on the history of late Paleozoic tectonic amalgamation. We present here a multifaceted sedimentary basin analysis, including sedimentary facies, paleocurrent, and sandstone provenance analyses, and reconstructions of late Paleozoic basin subsidence. These data provide a unique record not only of the basins themselves, but also of the evolution of the adjacent orogenic belts. This study is based on fieldwork during the summers of 1987, 1988, 1991, and 1992 by workers from Stanford University, the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, and the Xinjiang Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources. Although reconnaissance in nature, the data presented here provide a basis for evaluating alternative hypotheses for the evolution of northwestern China and provide a starting point for more comprehensive future studies. 72 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic ducks, free-range and caged chickens in southern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is widely distributed in human and other animals including domestic poultry throughout the world, but little is known of the prevalence of T. gondii in chickens and ducks in People’s Republic of China. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 349 domestic du...

  11. Live Poultry Trade in Southern China Provinces and HPAIV H5N1 Infection in Humans and Poultry: The Role of Chinese New Year Festivities

    PubMed Central

    Soares Magalhães, Ricardo J.; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jia, Beibei; Guo, Fusheng; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.; Martin, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Background The number of outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype (HPAIV H5N1) over the past 5 years has been drastically reduced in China but sporadic infections in poultry and humans are still occurring. In this study, we aimed to investigate seasonal patterns in the association between the movement of live poultry originating from southern China and HPAIV H5N1 infection history in humans and poultry in China. Methodology/Principal Findings During January to April 2010, longitudinal questionnaire surveys were carried out monthly in four wholesale live bird markets (LBMs) in Hunan and Guangxi provinces of South China. Using social network analysis, we found an increase in the number of observed links and degree centrality between LBMs and poultry sources in February and March compared to the months of January and April. The association of some live poultry traders (LPT’s) with a limited set of counties (within the catchment area of LBMs) in the months of February and March may support HPAIV H5N1 transmission and contribute to perpetuating HPAIV H5N1 virus circulation among certain groups of counties. The connectivity among counties experiencing human infection was significantly higher compared to counties without human infection for the months of January, March and April. Conversely, counties with poultry infections were found to be significantly less connected than counties without poultry infection for the month of February. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that temporal variation in live poultry trade in Southern China around the Chinese New Year festivities is associated with higher HPAIV H5N1 infection risk in humans and poultry. This study has shown that capturing the dynamic nature of poultry trade networks in Southern China improves our ability to explain the spatiotemporal dissemination in avian influenza viruses in China. PMID:23166751

  12. Occurrence of organophosphorus flame retardants in indoor dust in multiple microenvironments of southern China and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    He, Chun-Tao; Zheng, Jing; Qiao, Lin; Chen, She-Jun; Yang, Jun-Zhi; Yuan, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-08-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) are important alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but information on their contamination of the environment in China is rare. We examined the occurrence of 12 OPFRs in indoor dust in four microenvironments of southern China, including a rural electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area, a rural non-e-waste area, urban homes, and urban college dormitory rooms. The OPFR concentrations (with a median of 25.0 μg g(-1)) were highest in the e-waste area, and the concentrations in other three areas were lower and comparable (7.48-11.0 μg g(-1)). The levels of OPFRs in the present study were generally relatively lower than the levels of OPFRs found in Europe, Canada, and Japan because BFRs are still widely used as the major FRs in China. The composition profile of OPFRs in the e-waste area was dominated by tricresyl phosphate (TCP) (accounting for 40.7%, on average), while tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) was the most abundant OPFR (64.4%) in the urban areas (homes and college dormitories). These two distribution patterns represent two OPFR sources (i.e., emissions from past e-waste and from current household products and building materials). The difference in the OPFR profiles in the rural area relative to the OPFR profiles in the urban and e-waste areas suggests that the occurrence of OPFRs is due mainly to emissions from characteristic household products in rural homes. Although human exposures to all the OPFRs were under the reference doses, the health risk for residents in the e-waste area is a concern, considering the poor sanitary conditions in this area and exposure from other sources. PMID:25898308

  13. Selenium in Paleozoic stone coal (carbonaceous shale) as a significant source of environmental contamination in rural southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, H. E.; Luo, K.

    2012-04-01

    Selenium occurs in high concentrations (typically > 10 and up to 700 ppm) in organic-rich Paleozoic shales and cherts (called "stone coal" - shíméi), in southern China. Stone coals are black shales that formed in anoxic to euxinic environments and typically contain high concentrations of organic carbon, are enriched in various metals such as V, Mo, Pb, As, Cr, Ni, Se, etc., and are distinguished from "humic" coal in the Chinese literature. We have examined stone coal from Shaanxi, Hubei, and Guizhou Provinces, People's Republic of China and have focused our study on the mode of occurrence of Se and other elements (e.g. As, Pb, etc.) hazardous to human health. Scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive analysis and electron microprobe wave-length dispersive spectroscopy were used to identify and determine the composition of host phases observed in the stone coals. Native selenium, Se-bearing pyrite and other sulfides are the hosts for Se, although we cannot preclude an organic or clay-mineral association. Stone coals are an important source of fuel (reserves over 1 billion tonnes), both domestically and in small industry, in some rural parts of southern China and present significant environmental problems for the indigenous population. The stone coals create three main environmental problems related to Se pollution. First, the residual soils formed on stone coal are enriched in Se and other metals contained in the stone coals and, depending on the speciation and bioavailability of the metals, may enrich crops and vegetation grown on them. Second, weathering and leaching of the stone coal contaminates the local ground water and/or surface waters with Se and other metals. Third, the local population uses the stone coal as a source of fuel, which releases the more volatile elements (Se and As) into the atmosphere in the homes. The ash will be extremely enriched with the balance of the heavy metal suite. Disposal of the ash on agricultural lands or near water

  14. A Correlational Study of How Airline Customer Service and Consumer Perception of Airline Customer Service Affect the Air Rage Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Joyce A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2000, customer service declined throughout the airline industry, as reported in February 2001 by the U.S. Department of Transportation (2001). One of the biggest problems today within the airline industry is the constant complaining from customers regarding the deterioraton of service (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Since 1995, unfortunately no airline has been immune from service deterioration, as reported by the Airline Quality Rating, an annual report by two airline industry experts who analyzed Department of Transportation statistics (Harrison & Kleinsasser, 1999). The airline' refusal to recognize the issue of customer service has perpetuated an environment that has become dangerous and detrimental to the traveling public as well as to airline employees, which in turn has fueled a new phenomenon, now referred to as "air rage".

  15. Geochronology of Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna and Gigantopithecus in Guangxi Province, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rink, W. J.; Wei, W.; Bekken, D.; Jones, H. L.

    2008-05-01

    Pleistocene faunas from south China are difficult to subdivide based on the long temporal ranges of many taxa and a reduced number of genera in comparison to faunas from temperate north China. In south China, the Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna is a very general one and includes a relatively stable suite of genera that apparently persisted for long periods of time. These attributes have made constraining its time range difficult. Application of electron spin resonance (ESR) dating of tooth enamel constrains the ages well where uranium uptake was minor. Where uranium uptake into teeth was significant, an approach combining ESR and 230Th/ 234U isotopic analysis also yields excellent ages. Previous estimates of early, middle and late Pleistocene time ranges previously determined by biostratigraphic seriation for the Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna are confirmed in all cases but are made more precise with our approach, including specific time ranges for certain archaic taxa. Absolute dating also yields an extended time range for Gigantopithecus blacki of 1200 to 310 ka.

  16. Two subtypes of HIV-1 among injection-drug users in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, X F; Chen, J; Shao, Y; Beyrer, C; Lai, S

    1998-04-25

    The rate of HIV-1 infection has increased steadily in China by about 80% annually and by the end of September 1997, 8277 HIV-1 cases had been reported, of whom more than 75% were IV drug users (IVDUs). UNAIDS, however, has estimated that up to 200,000 people could actually be infected with HIV-1 in China. Guangxi Province borders Yunnan province in the west and Vietnam to the south, and is a major transit area for heroin trafficking from the opium-growing region of Laos and Myanmar. Phylogenetic analyses of HIV-1 env sequences (C2-V3) obtained from 14 IVDUs found that 9 subjects from Pingxiang City were infected with subtype E and 5 from Baise City with subtype C. The 9 subtype E and 5 subtype C HIV-1 sequences were clustered together within each group, with significant bootstrap values of 100% and 95%, respectively. The subtype E sequences were more closely related to HIV-1 subtype E from Thailand than to those from Africa, and the subtype C sequences were clustered more closely to those from India than to those from Africa. Study results suggest 2 epidemiologically unrelated epidemics and 2 different sources; subtype C probably transmitted from Yunnan to Baise City through drug trafficking and IVDU interaction, and subtype E coming into China from Vietnam. PMID:9643749

  17. Increasing surface ozone concentrations in the background atmosphere of Southern China, 1994-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, A. J.; Poon, C. N.; Lam, K. S.; Li, Y. S.; Chan, L. Y.; Anson, M.

    2009-08-01

    Tropospheric ozone is of great importance with regard to air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. In this paper we report the first continuous record of surface ozone in the background atmosphere of South China. The data were obtained from 1994 to 2007 at a coastal site in Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the outflow of Asian continental air during the winter and the inflow of maritime air from the subtropics in the summer. Three methods are used to derive the rate of change in ozone. A linear fit to the 14-year record shows that the ozone concentration increased by 0.58 ppbv/yr, whereas comparing means in years 1994-2000 and 2001-2007 gives an increase of 0.87 ppbv/yr for a 7-year period. The ozone changes in air masses from various source regions are also examined. Using local wind and carbon monoxide (CO) data to filter out local influence, we find that ozone increased by 0.94 ppbv/yr from 1994-2000 to 2001-2007 in air masses from Eastern China, with similar changes in the other two continent-influenced air-mass groups, but no statistically significant change in the marine air. An examination of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column obtained from GOME and SCIAMACHY reveals an increase in atmospheric NO2 in China's three fastest developing coastal regions, whereas NO2 in other parts of Asia decreased during the same period, and no obvious trend over the main shipping routes in the South China Sea was indicated. Thus the observed increase in background ozone in Hong Kong is most likely due to the increased emissions of NO2 (and possibly volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well) in the upwind coastal regions of mainland China. The CO data at Hok Tsui showed less definitive changes compared to the satellite NO2 column. The increase in background ozone likely made a strong contribution (81%) to the rate of increase in "total ozone" at an urban site in Hong Kong, suggesting the need to consider distant sources when developing long-term strategies

  18. Re-emergent human adenovirus genome type 7d caused an acute respiratory disease outbreak in Southern China after a twenty-one year absence.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  19. Influence of the El Niño southern oscillation on the total ozone column and clear-sky ultraviolet radiation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiankai; Tian, Wenshou; Xie, Fei; Li, Yuanpu; Wang, Feiyang; Huang, Jinlong; Tian, Hongying

    2015-11-01

    The influence of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the total ozone column (TOC) and clear-sky ultraviolet (UV) radiation over China is analysed using various datasets and a chemistry-climate model. Higher TOC values than normal are found over most parts of China during El Niño events. La Niña events have almost the opposite effect on TOC anomalies over China. It is particularly noticeable that the maximum response of the TOC to ENSO shifts northward from southern China in winter to northern China in summer. The seasonal shift of the centre of TOC anomalies is related to the seasonal shift of the location of the East Asia westerly jet, accompanied by tropopause height changes and anomalous circulations induced by Rossby wave trains along the jet. The differences in the TOC between El Niño and La Niña events can cause up to 6-10% clear-sky erythemal UV changes over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in winter and the northwestern Tibetan Plateau during spring, which may have public health consequences.

  20. Re-emergent Human Adenovirus Genome Type 7d Caused an Acute Respiratory Disease Outbreak in Southern China After a Twenty-one Year Absence

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Suhui; Wan, Chengsong; Ke, Changwen; Seto, Jason; Dehghan, Shoaleh; Zou, Lirong; Zhou, Jie; Cheng, Zetao; Jing, Shuping; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Wan, Xuan; Wu, Xianbo; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Li; Seto, Donald; Zhang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), among other illnesses. Of the ARD genotypes, HAdV-7 presents with more severe morbidity and higher mortality than the others. We report the isolation and identification of a genome type HAdV-7d (DG01_2011) from a recent outbreak in Southern China. Genome sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) comparisons with past pathogens indicate HAdV-7d has re-emerged in Southern China after an absence of twenty-one years. Recombination analysis reveals this genome differs from the 1950s-era prototype and vaccine strains by a lateral gene transfer, substituting the coding region for the L1 52/55 kDa DNA packaging protein from HAdV-16. DG01_2011 descends from both a strain circulating in Southwestern China (2010) and a strain from Shaanxi causing a fatality and outbreak (Northwestern China; 2009). Due to the higher morbidity and mortality rates associated with HAdV-7, the surveillance, identification, and characterization of these strains in population-dense China by REA and/or whole genome sequencing are strongly indicated. With these accurate identifications of specific HAdV types and an epidemiological database of regional HAdV pathogens, along with the HAdV genome stability noted across time and space, the development, availability, and deployment of appropriate vaccines are needed. PMID:25482188

  1. Increasing surface ozone concentrations in the background atmosphere of southern China, 1994-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Wei, X. L.; Ding, A. J.; Poon, C. N.; Lam, K. S.; Li, Y. S.; Chan, L. Y.; Anson, M.

    2009-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone is of great importance with regard to air quality, atmospheric chemistry, and climate change. In this paper we report the first continuous record of surface ozone in the background atmosphere of South China. The data were obtained from 1994 to 2007 at a coastal site in Hong Kong, which is strongly influenced by the outflow of Asian continental air during the winter and the inflow of maritime air from the subtropics in the summer. Overall, the ozone concentration increased by an averaged rate of 0.55 ppbv/yr, with a larger increase in autumn (0.68 ppbv/yr). We also examine the trend in air masses from various source regions in Asia. Using local wind and concurrently measured carbon monoxide (CO) data to filter out local emissions, the mean ozone in air masses from eastern China, using the pooled averaging method, increased by 0.64 ppbv/yr, while ozone levels in other air-mass groups showed a positive trend (0.29-0.67 ppbv/yr) but with lower levels of statistical significance. An examination of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column concentration data obtained from GOME and SCIAMACHY reveals an increase in atmospheric NO2 in the three fastest developing coastal regions of China, whereas NO2 in other parts of Asia decreased during the same period. It is believed that the observed increase in background ozone in Hong Kong is primarily due to the increased emissions of NO2 (and possibly volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well) in the upwind coastal regions of mainland China, which is supported by the observed positive CO trend (5.23 ppbv/yr) at the site. The increase in background ozone contributed two thirds of the annual increase in ''total ozone'' in the downwind urban areas of Hong Kong, suggesting the need to consider distant sources when developing long-term strategies to mitigate local ozone pollution, although short-term strategies should be aimed at sources in Hong Kong and the adjacent Pearl River Delta.

  2. Wind shear measuring on board an airliner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauspe, P.

    1984-01-01

    A measurement technique which continuously determines the wind vector on board an airliner during takeoff and landing is introduced. Its implementation is intended to deliver sufficient statistical background concerning low frequency wind changes in the atmospheric boundary layer and extended knowledge about deterministic wind shear modeling. The wind measurement scheme is described and the adaptation of apparatus onboard an A300 airbus is shown. Preliminary measurements made during level flight demonstrate the validity of the method.

  3. Population genetic structure in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars revealed by fluorescent-AFLP markers in southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Chen, Xuesen; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Chunyu

    2007-11-01

    Population-wide genetic structure was studied using fluorescent-AFLP markers on 85 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars collected from Kuche, Kashi, Hetian in the Tarim Basin, southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic structure and genotypic diversity among the different eco-geographical populations. Based on the results from this study, 8 pairs of fluorescent-AFLP primers showed clear electrophoregram and high polymorphism amongst the 64 pairs of EcoR|/Mse|(Mse|--a FAM fluorescent marked primer) primers screened. There was a significant polymorphic difference for the same primer pair in different populations and for the same population with different primer pairs. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) at species level was higher than Kuche, Hetian, Kashi population levels, respectively. The Nei's gene diversity index (H) and Shannon's information index (I) at species level were higher than those of Kuche, Hetian, and Kashi at population level, respectively. H and I of Kuche population were the highest amongst the three populations. Apricot population genetic diversity was found mainly within the population. Genetic differentiation coefficient between populations (G(ST)) was 0.0882. Gene flow Nm between the populations was 5.1689. Population genetic identity was between 0.9772-0.9811 and genetic distance was between 0.0191-0.0232. These results further indicated that the similarity between populations was higher and the genetic distance between populations was smaller. The UPGMA cluster analysis indicates that the geographical populations at Kuche, Kashi, Hetian were relatively independent Mendelian populations. Concurrently, there was also partial gene exchange between the populations. All the evidences indicated that the genetic diversity in Kuche population was the highest, suggesting that it could be a transition population from wild apricot to cultivated apricot. There were abundant genetic

  4. Work-Recreation Balance, Health-Promoting Lifestyles and Suboptimal Health Status in Southern China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengwei; Xuan, Zhengzheng; Li, Fei; Xiao, Wei; Fu, Xiuqiong; Jiang, Pingping; Chen, Jieyu; Xiang, Lei; Liu, Yanyan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Sun, Xiaomin; Kwan, Hiuyee; Zhao, Xiaoshan

    2016-01-01

    Suboptimal health status (SHS)—an intermediate state between health and illness—refers to functional somatic symptoms that are medically undiagnosed. Although SHS has become a great challenge for global public health, very little about its etiology and mechanisms are known. Work-recreation balance is a part of work−life balance, and is related to stress which greatly influences health status. We therefore carried out a cross-sectional investigation between 2012 and 2013 within a clustered sample of 24,475 individuals aged 15−60 years from a population in southern China. In so doing, we hoped to illuminate the associations between work-recreation balance conditions, healthy lifestyles, and SHS. Work-recreation balance conditions were categorically defined by frequency (“rarely, sometimes, or always”). Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP-II) was used to evaluate the level of healthy lifestyles, and the medical examination report and Sub-Health Measurement Scale V1.0 (SHMS V1.0) were both used to evaluate health status. The ratio of SHS (46.3%) is higher than health status (18.4%) or disease status (35.3%). Overall, 4.9% of respondents reported the lowest level of work-recreation balance, and they scored lower on both the HPLP-II and SHMS V1.0 compared with those who frequently maintained a work-recreation balance. Significant association was found between work-recreation balance behaviors and healthy lifestyles (p < 0.001) after demographic adjustment. In comparison with those reporting a frequent work-recreation balance, individuals whose work-recreation balance was categorically “rare” were 1.69 times as likely to develop SHS (odds ratio (OR): 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.49–1.92), and those with infrequent work-recreation balance (“sometimes”) were 1.71 times more likely to develop SHS (OR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.62–1.81). These findings suggest that work-recreation balance conditions are significantly associated with, and seem to be

  5. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  6. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Carbon Storage in Forest Ecosystems on Hainan Island, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xuli; Zhang, Qianmei; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Lianlian; Chen, Xubing

    2014-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of carbon (C) storage in forest ecosystems significantly affect the terrestrial C budget, but such patterns are unclear in the forests in Hainan Province, the largest tropical island in China. Here, we estimated the spatial and temporal patterns of C storage from 1993–2008 in Hainan's forest ecosystems by combining our measured data with four consecutive national forest inventories data. Forest coverage increased from 20.7% in the 1950s to 56.4% in the 2010s. The average C density of 163.7 Mg C/ha in Hainan's forest ecosystems in this study was slightly higher than that of China's mainland forests, but was remarkably lower than that in the tropical forests worldwide. Total forest ecosystem C storage in Hainan increased from 109.51 Tg in 1993 to 279.17 Tg in 2008. Soil C accounted for more than 70% of total forest ecosystem C. The spatial distribution of forest C storage in Hainan was uneven, reflecting differences in land use change and forest management. The potential carbon sequestration of forest ecosystems was 77.3 Tg C if all forested lands were restored to natural tropical forests. To increase the C sequestration potential on Hainan Island, future forest management should focus on the conservation of natural forests, selection of tree species, planting of understory species, and implementation of sustainable practices. PMID:25229628

  7. The spectral and image characteristics of vegetation in the presence of heavy metals in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fengjie; Li, Na; Zhou, Guangzhu; Song, Cuiyu; Li, Qingting

    2008-10-01

    The principle and methodology to monitor the heavy metal pollution using hyperspectral remote sensing are put forward based on the study areas, copper mine in De-Xing and tin ore in GeJiu, and selected plants, China Sumac, Sweet Wormwood Herb, and Nephrolepis Cordifolia. In the areas defined by former information, vegetation samples and corresponding spectral data are gathered. The samples are then analyzed in chemical lab, telling us to what extent the vegetation is polluted by heavy metal. The spectral curves are also processed, and some spectral parameters are extracted, such as reflectance, blue-shift extent, position of red-edge, vegetation index, band-depth. Then the regression model from spectral characteristic parameters to heavy metal content can be built. At last, the conclusion can be attained. In copper mine area, the vegetation is polluted by seven kinds of heavy metals. As far as China Sumac, the reflectance of red band correlates the Pb content well. The reflectance of all study plants at 1240nm and 725/675(nm) correlates heavy metal content well. The reflectance of 450nm, 550nm, 670nm, 760nm, and 1240nm can be liner combined as a parameter to monitor heavy metal pollution. Besides, some band-depth can also be combined as parameters using "Enter". In a word, as an advanced technique to monitor environmental pollution, hyperspectral remote sensing has wild perspective.

  8. Fertile structures with in situ spores of a dipterid fern from the Triassic in southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongdong; Li, Liqin; Guignard, Gaëtan; Dilcher, David L; Xie, Xiaoping; Tian, Ning; Zhou, Ning; Wang, Yan

    2015-05-01

    Clathropteris was a typical dipterid fern with well documented fossil record and was widely dispersed during the Mesozoic; however, our knowledge of fertile structures including in situ spores for this genus is still very limited. Here we report well-preserved compression specimens of Clathropteris obovata Oishi from the Late Triassic of Guangyuan, Sichuan Province, China. The specimens show round to oval and exindusiate sori, vertical to oblique annuli in sporangia, and in situ trilete spores with verrucate and baculate sculptures, which are comparable to dispersed spore genera of Converrucosisporites and Conbaculatisporites. Comparisons of relevant fossil taxa suggest that specimens of C. obovata from Triassic of China provide for the first time in Asia the detailed fertile structures with in situ spore characters of dipterid fossil Clathropteris. Unlike living Dipteris, Mesozoic fossils of Dipteridaceae show a high diversity and a range of complex morphology of in situ spores, thus are significant for the evolutionary links between Dipteridaceae and other related fern clade, including Gleicheniaceae and Matoniaceae of the Gleicheniales. PMID:25773305

  9. U-Series dating of Liujiang hominid site in Guangxi, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guanjun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Jianxin; Collerson, Kenneth; Zhou, Chunlin; Tobias, Phillip V

    2002-12-01

    It has been established that modern humans were living in the Levant and Africa ca. 100ka ago. Hitherto, this has contrasted with the situation in China where no unequivocal specimens of this species have been securely dated to more than 30ka. Here we present the results of stratigraphic studies and U-series dating of the Tongtianyan Cave, the discovery site of the Liujiang hominid, which represents one of the few well-preserved fossils of modern Homo sapiens in China. The human fossils are inferred to come from either a refilling breccia or a primarily deposited gravel-bearing sandy clay layer. In the former case, which is better supported, the fossils would date to at least approximately 68ka, but more likely to approximately 111-139ka. Alternatively, they would be older than approximately 153ka. Both scenarios would make the Liujiang hominid one of the earliest modern humans in East Asia, possibly contemporaneous with the earliest known representatives from the Levant and Africa. Parallel studies on other Chinese localities have provided supporting evidence for the redating of Liujiang, which may have important implications for the origin of modern humans. PMID:12473485

  10. Occurrence and Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis from Stray Cats in Guangzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Liu, Yuanjia; Luo, Qin; Tan, Liping; Li, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to genetically characterize isolates of Giardia duodenalis and to determine if zoonotic potential of G. duodenalis could be found in stray cats from urban and suburban environments in Guangzhou, China. Among 102 fresh fecal samples of stray cats, 30 samples were collected in Baiyun district (urban) and 72 in Conghua district (suburban). G. duodenalis specimens were examined using light microscopy, then the positive specimens were subjected to PCR amplification and subsequent sequencing at 4 loci such as glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi), β-giardin (bg), and small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) genes. The phylogenetic trees were constructed using obtained sequences by MEGA5.2 software. Results show that 9.8% (10/102) feline fecal samples were found to be positive by microscopy, 10% (3/30) in Baiyun district and 9.7% (7/72) in Conghua district. Among the 10 positive samples, 9 were single infection (8 isolates, assemblage A; 1 isolate, assemblage F) and 1 sample was mixed infection with assemblages A and C. Based on tpi, gdh, and bg genes, all sequences of assemblage A showed complete homology with AI except for 1 isolate (CHC83). These findings not only confirmed the occurrence of G. duodenalis in stray cats, but also showed that zoonotic assemblage A was found for the first time in stray cats living in urban and suburban environments in China. PMID:25748719

  11. UK‧37 temperature estimates from Eemian marine sediments in the southern coast of Hainan Island, tropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengyuan; Zheng, Zhuo; Huang, Kangyou; Zong, Yongqiang; Liu, Zhonghui; Peng, Zhuolun; Shi, Suhua

    2016-09-01

    This study concerns high-resolution sea surface temperature (SST) changes for the Eemian interglacial period reconstructed from the southern coast of Hainan Island, China. The lower marine unit in the sediment core is composed of monotonous mud (31 m thick), dated to be from the Eemian interglacial period or lower part of marine isotope stage 5 (MIS 5), determined by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The high sedimentation rate and the richness of organic matter and marine fossils provide good opportunity for the study of palaeo-environments in the northern margin of the South China Sea (SCS). Sediment grain-size, foraminifer, sediment color index and long-chain alkenone were used to reveal the near-shore sedimentary environments and temperature at millennial-scale. Specifically, a high-resolution UK‧37-SST record was reconstructed for the Eemian interglacial period. The new evidence in northwestern margin of SCS shows that the maximum value of SST during the Eemian interglacial is approximately 29 °C and the lowest is 26.5 °C. The trend of decreasing SST from 29 °C throughout the marine sequence is consistent with the variations in sediment grain size, reflecting the cooling trend of SST and sea-level lowering tendency during the last interglacial period. This new Eemian SST result agrees with other records in the region of SCS, showing a coherent descending trend, but spatial heterogeneity exists in timing and amplitude. The insolation changes might be the main force for initiating the SST evolution during the penultimate interglacial period.

  12. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in indoor and outdoor air in a community in Guangzhou, a megacity of southern China.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nan; Wang, Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yu, Mei; Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-05-01

    Indoor environments contribute a significant portion of human exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) because of their extensive use in various household products. This study investigates the occurrence of a number of BFRs in the indoor and outdoor air in a megacity in southern China, in which little information on indoor BFRs contamination is available. The estimated total PBDE concentrations ranged from 1.43 to 57 pg/m(3) indoors and from 1.21 to 1522 pg/m(3) outdoors. The indoor concentrations of lower brominated PBDEs that are mainly derived from the technical penta- and octa-BDE mixtures were higher than or comparable to the outdoors, while the indoor levels of DecaBDEs and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were apparently lower than the outdoors. The seasonal variations of BFR concentrations indicated that evaporation from old indoor products is the primary source of Penta- and OctaBDEs in the air, whereas most DecaBDEs and DBDPE concentrations showing weak temperature-dependence are largely released from industrial activities. The PBDE congener profiles in the air were generally similar, which were dominated by BDE209, 28, and 47; whereas the appreciable indoor-outdoor differences in the compositions are possibly due to emission sources, photochemical degradation, or congener-specific transport of BFRs in the indoor and outdoor air. Significant correlations between the indoor and outdoor BFRs were observed suggesting the exchange of BFRs between the two compartments, which are more noticeable for PentaBDEs and DecaBDEs with strong indoor and outdoor emission sources, respectively. This study provides significant insights into the sources of BFRs in urban air in China. PMID:26952274

  13. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes for total fraction Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were one order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions vs. the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources were classified by principal component analysis (PCA), namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and parts of Hunan and Jiangxi as the major source regions and pathways for anthropogenic elements, while northern China was identified for crustal elements. In contrast, the local Jiangxi area has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements, apart from the YRD with severe air pollution. In addition, the solubility alteration of trace elements in cloud events was investigated and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis indicated that the irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was highly responsible for the enhancement of element solubility. Our work implies an important role of regional anthropogenic pollution and cloud processing in the evolution of trace element solubility during transport.

  14. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus uberis isolates from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in Southern Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of dairy cow mastitis throughout the world. The failure to control bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis is largely attributed to the little known about the epidemiology of this bacteria, especially strain differences in the same area. To define the local epidemiology of S. uberis in the south of Xinjiang, China, we explored the genetic diversity of 28 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of S. uberis, collected from 3 Chinese farms during 2009 and 2010, which was examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isolates and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to assess the relationship between PFGE patterns and to identify genetic lineages. The 28 isolates were grouped into 13 pulsotypes (U1 to U13), and 1 PFGE type (U1) accounted for almost half of the isolates (13/28, 46.4%). This major type was herd specific, indicating either cow-to-cow transmission or infection with isolates from the same environmental reservoirs. The remaining 12 PFGE types of isolates were from different herds, strongly suggesting environmental sources of S. uberis infection. All 28 isolates were analyzed by MLST and clustered into 8 sequence types (STs), of which 7 STs were found to be novel, either with 5 new alleles of 6 housekeeping and virulence genes (ST158, ST159) or with different combinations of previously assigned alleles (ST153, ST154, ST155, ST156, ST157). To our knowledge, this is the first report that documents molecular typing studies of bovine isolates of S. uberis from southern Xinjiang Province, China, which were shown to represent novel genomic backgrounds of this pathogen. PMID:24005178

  15. Impact of aerosols on regional climate in southern and northern China during strong/weak East Asian summer monsoon years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu; Wang, Tijian; Solmon, Fabien; Zhuang, Bingliang; Wu, Hao; Xie, Min; Han, Yong; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we mainly simulate the effects of aerosols on regional climate in southern China (SC) and northern China (NC) and compare the differences of aerosol climatic effects in strong/weak summer monsoon years with a modified regional climate model RegCM4. The results show that the total climatic effects of aerosols cause the decline of averaged air temperature and precipitation of SC and NC in summer. In NC, the strength of temperature drop in strong summer monsoon years is higher than that in weak summer monsoon years, indicating the possible impact from the different changes of radiation, circulation, and precipitation. The decrease of precipitation is more significant in NC in weak summer monsoon years, while it is stronger in SC in strong summer monsoon years due to the difference of aerosol distribution as well as the effects on circulation and cloud microphysics processes. Besides, aerosol effects also cause a decrease of zonal wind at 850 hPa in SC and an increase in NC. The cooling center is more northerly and stronger in strong monsoon year, while it is more southerly and weaker in weak summer monsoon years, which results in the differences of vertical circulation anomaly and meridional wind anomaly at 850 hPa. In weak summer monsoon years, meridional wind at 850 hPa is increased in NC, while it is found to be decreased in SC. In strong summer monsoon years, meridional winds at 850 hPa in both NC and SC are weakened. However, the decrease in SC is much more distinct and clear.

  16. Origin and character of loesslike silt in the southern Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pewe, T.L.; Tungsheng, Liu; Slatt, R.M.; Bingyuan, Li

    1995-01-01

    Retransported, tan, loesslike silt is widespread in the southern Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau. The silt occurs mainly in the lowlands and lower slopes and is absent on steep slopes and active flood plains. The silt covers most alluvial fans and is interbedded with the sand and gravel of the fans. It is well exposed in the agricultural fields on low terraces in the valleys and in the steep-walled scarps of dissected valley fill. The silt is primary loess on the low hill tops; however, the poorly to well-stratified loesslike silt on the lower slopes and in valley bottoms of the major river valleys is retransported loess. It probably was originally deposited by winds blowing across broad vegetation-free flood plains.

  17. Patients’ Experiences in Different Models of Community Health Centers in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Harry H. X.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Wei, Xiao Lin; Wang, Jia Ji; Li, Donald K. T.; Tang, Jin Ling; Gao, Gemma Y.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Current health care reforms in China have an overall goal of strengthening primary care through the establishment and expansion of primary care networks based on community health centers (CHCs). Implementation in urban areas has led to the emergence of different models of ownership and management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the primary care experiences of patients in the Pearl River Delta as measured by the Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) and the relationships with ownership and management in the 3 different models we describe. METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted on-site at CHCs in 3 cities within the Pearl River Delta, China, using a multistage cluster sampling method. A validated Mandarin Chinese version of the PCAT–Adult Edition (short version) was adopted to collect information from adult patients regarding their experiences with primary care sources. PCAT scores for individual primary care attributes and total primary care assessment scores were assessed with respect to sociodemographic characteristics, health characteristics, and health care service utilization across 3 primary care models. RESULTS One thousand four hundred forty (1,440) primary care patients responded to the survey, for an overall response rate of 86.1%. Respondents gave government-owned and -managed CHCs the highest overall PCAT scores when compared with CHCs either managed by hospitals (95.18 vs 90.81; P = .005) or owned by private and social entities (95.18 vs 90.69; P =.007) as a result of better first-contact care (better first-contact utilization) and coordination of care (better service coordination and information system). Factors that were positively and significantly associated with higher overall assessment scores included the presence of a chronic condition (P <.001), having medical insurance (P = .006), and a self-reported good health status (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that government-owned and -managed CHCs may be able

  18. Numerical study of summertime dynamical and physical changes in the southern South China Sea due to the monsoons and its impacts on primary productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daryabor, Farshid; Abu Samah, Azizan; Hai Ooi, See

    2016-04-01

    The ecosystem off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia is controlled by multiple physical processes during the monsoons (winter and summer) , including the air-sea interaction (such as net heat and surface freshwater fluxes), the small-scale eddies off the southern South China Sea (SSCS), and the monsoon wind induced coastal upwelling. Using high-resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), in-situ observations and remote sensing data, this paper attempts to study the hydrodynamics of the shelf and coastal processes as well as thermohaline circulation in response to changes in the hydrological seasonal cycle especially in the summer monsoon. In addition, we investigate its impacts on the spatial patterns of chlorophyll biomass which acts as a proxy for primary productivity in the SSCS. This study looks into not only the detailed small-scale-circulation such as localized eddies but also the link between the southern South China Sea and the Indian Ocean through the Straits of Malacca and the Java Sea. The flow through the Strait of Malacca and the Java Sea is not only important for navigational purpose but also has an influence on the seasonal spatial and temporal variations of primary productivity in the region. Keywords: southern South China Sea; summer monsoon; coastal upwelling; primary productivity

  19. An Economic Model of U.S. Airline Operating Expenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Franklin D.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a new economic model of operating expenses for 67 airlines. The model is based on data that the airlines reported to the United States Department of Transportation in 1999. The model incorporates expense-estimating equations that capture direct and indirect expenses of both passenger and cargo airlines. The variables and business factors included in the equations are detailed enough to calculate expenses at the flight equipment reporting level. Total operating expenses for a given airline are then obtained by summation over all aircraft operated by the airline. The model's accuracy is demonstrated by correlation with the DOT Form 41 data from which it was derived. Passenger airlines are more accurately modeled than cargo airlines. An appendix presents a concise summary of the expense estimating equations with explanatory notes. The equations include many operational and aircraft variables, which accommodate any changes that airline and aircraft manufacturers might make to lower expenses in the future. In 1999, total operating expenses of the 67 airlines included in this study amounted to slightly over $100.5 billion. The economic model reported herein estimates $109.3 billion.

  20. Airline business continuity and IT disaster recovery sites.

    PubMed

    Haji, Jassim

    2016-01-01

    Business continuity is defined as the capability of the organisation to continue delivery of products or services at acceptable predefined levels following a disruptive incident. Business continuity is fast evolving to become a critical and strategic decision for any organisation. Transportation in general, and airlines in particular, is a unique sector with a specialised set of requirements, challenges and opportunities. Business continuity in the airline sector is a concept that is generally overlooked by the airline managements. This paper reviews different risks related to airline processes and will also propose solutions to these risks based on experiences and good industry practices. PMID:26897619

  1. Diversity and biochemical features of culturable fungi from the coastal waters of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Fungi play a major role in various biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, fungi in marine environments remain to be one of the most under-studied microbial groups. This study investigates the diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal habitat off Pearl River Delta (China) using culture-dependent approach. A total of 22 fungi and 9 yeast isolates were recovered from 30 seawater and 2 sediment samples. Microscopic and ITS rRNA gene sequence analyses revealed that most of the fungi belonged to the phylum Ascomycota and Basidiomycota with a very small percentage (3%) of the subphylum Mucoromycotina of the Phylum Zygomycota. Most of these fungal isolates exhibited considerable production of extracellular enzymes, cellulase, lipase and laccase. Fungal isolates of two genera Mucor and Aspergillus sp. demonstrated pelletization capability over a wide range of pH, suggesting them as potential agents towards algae harvesting and wastewater treatment. PMID:25401065

  2. Promoting Female Condoms in the Sex Industry in Four Towns of Southern China: Context Matters

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Li; Liao, Susu; Weeks, Margaret R.; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Zhang, Qingning; Zhou, Yuejiao; He, Bin; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background The female condom (FC) is an effective tool for dual protection, but it remains underused. Individual as well as contextual reasons need to be explored. Objective To compare individual and contextual characteristics of FC multi-time users, one-time users and non-users among women in the sex industry of four study sites in China. Methods A standardized one-year FC intervention along with male condoms was implemented through outreach to sex establishments. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and after each of two six-month intervention phases. Results A total of 445, 437 and 290 eligible women were interviewed at three cross-sectional surveys, respectively. At the first and second post-intervention surveys, 83.3% and 81.7% of women reported knowing about FC, and 28.8% and 36.6% had used FC at least once. Women who used FC multiple times reported less unprotected sex than non-users in the last 30 days (3.0% vs. 17.2% at first and 3.2% vs. 16.8% at second post-intervention survey, p<0.01). Polytomous logistic regression showed that both one-time and multi-time users were more likely to come from one particular site (about 3 times more than the reference site). Higher intervention scores (adjusted OR 1.8–4.0) and working in boarding houses (adjusted OR 3.4) were associated with FC use. Conclusions Adding FC into male-condom-only intervention may reduce unprotected sex among women in sex establishments in rural and small urban areas of China. Adoption of FC may be related not only to intervention exposure, but also to contextual factors associated with study site and type of sex establishments. PMID:23403607

  3. Fate of increased nitrogen deposition in humid sub-tropical forests in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdisa Gurmesa, Geshere; Gundersen, Per; Lu, Xiankai; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-04-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) emissions from anthropogenic activities have dramatically increased N deposition to forest ecosystems particularly in the warm and humid south-east of China. Elevated N input may lead to eutrophication, nutrient imbalances, N leaching and soil acidification. The effects of deposited N depend greatly on the initial status of the forest and the fate of deposited N. However, the fate of increased N deposition is not well understood. In this study the objective was to quantify the retention of atmospheric N deposition in different ecosystem compartments as well as the leaching loss from a N-rich subtropical forest ecosystem. To this end, we investigate the fate of simulated increased N-deposition in an old growth forest using isotopic labelling (15N). We used an on-going long-term N-addition experiment in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve in South China. Stable 15N-tracer in the form of 15NH415NO3was mixed with fertilizer (NH4NO3)and sprayed to the forest floor under two different N deposition levels over one year. Following application, the recovery of added 15N in major ecosystem pools (trees, ground vegetation, forest floor and mineral soil) and in water fluxes was determined. Samples were collected in June-July 2014 about three months after the last monthly addition. We hypothesize less recovery of 15N and lower N assimilation by trees in this N-rich subtropical forest compared to the high recovery and retention usually observed in such experiments performed in N-limited boreal and temperate forests. Due to the high N status we expect the N cycle to be relatively open in this forest and that most of the deposited N to be lost from the forest ecosystem.

  4. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications.

    PubMed

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-01-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. PMID:26133245

  5. Heavy metals distribution and environmental quality assessment for sediments off the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Zhang, Yong; Bi, Shipu; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Xiaoyue; Lin, Manman; Hu, Gang

    2015-11-15

    A systematic study was conducted on the distribution characteristics of heavy metals and on associated influencing factors in sediments off the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula, China, based on the results of a heavy metals analysis on 157 surface sediment samples from coastal waters of the study area and on 46 samples from surrounding rivers flowing into the sea. An environmental quality assessment of heavy metals was performed using the Nemerow index. The results show that the distribution characteristics of sediment heavy metals in coastal waters outside of Qingdao can be divided into three classes: (1) Class I - Cr, Cu and Zn, with high-value areas extending from the northeast to the southwest in a banded or tongue-like pattern; (2) Class II - As, Cd and Pb, with high-value areas mainly distributed off the southeastern coast of Mt. Lao; and (3) Class III - Hg only, with high-value areas mainly in the northern area of Jiaozhou Bay. Integrated assessment based on the Nemerow index reveals that heavy metals pollution has occurred in surface sediments in a number of coastal water areas outside of Qingdao. This pollution is mainly found off the southeastern coast of Mt. Lao and in the northeastern section of Jiaozhou Bay. Results show that grain size of surface sediments, surrounding rivers and human activities are the main reasons for the element distribution pattern. PMID:26409816

  6. Effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic rates of three species of bivalve from southern coast of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenguang; He, Maoxian

    2012-03-01

    Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide results in a decrease in seawater pH, a process known as "ocean acidification". The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata, the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis, and the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis are species of economic and ecological importance along the southern coast of China. We evaluated the effects of seawater acidification on clearance, respiration, and excretion rates in these three species. The ammals were reared in seawater at pH 8.1 (control), 7.7, or 7.4. The clearance rate was highest at pH 7.7 for P. fucata and at pH 8.1 for C. nobilis and P. viridis. The pH had little effect on the respiration rate of P. fucata and P. viridis. In contrast, the respiration rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 in C. nobilis. The excretion rate was significantly lower at pH 7.4 than pH 8.1 for all species. The results indicate that the reduction in seawater pH likely affected the metabolic process (food intake, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion) of these bivalves. Different species respond differently to seawater acidification. Further studies are needed to demonstrate the exact mechamsms for this effect and evaluate adaptability of these bivalves to future acidified oceans.

  7. [Removal characters of ozone-biological activated carbon process for typical pollutants in southern brooky regions of China].

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei; Wang, Lei-Lei

    2009-05-15

    The products of relative molecular weight (Mr) distribution, bromate (BrO3(-)) and trihalomethanes (THMs) were studied by ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process for treating organic matters and bromide (Br(-)) in water source of southern brooky regions of China. The experimental results showed that dissolved organic matters (DOC) with Mr lower than 10(3) accounted for 80% of the total. The removal rate of DOC and SUVA (UV254/DOC) were 8% and 14% respectively by traditional treatment process with main removalonly for ones with Mr higher than 100 x 10(3). Only 30% of DOC and 31% of SUVA were decreased by O3-BAC process for the removal of ones with Mr between 10(3) and 5 x 10(3), in which the biotic degradation was certainly restricted by predominant organic matters of hydrophilic and Mr was lower than 1000. An obvious increase of BrO3(-) occurred in the effluent from ozone oxidation process when the dose of ozone beyond 2 mg/L which increased Br(-) concentration. This could increase the product of BrO3(-). A poor and unstable removal effect of BrO3(-) was observed in the effluent of BAC process during the experiment. Each species of THMs, decreasing 40% of total, was reduced by O3-BAC treatment compared with the traditional treatment process. But the products of brominated trihalomethanes, especially CHBr3 would be markedly increased by enhanced chlorine dosage and Br(-) concentration. PMID:19558108

  8. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-01-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time. PMID:26133245

  9. Who are the Preferential Targets for Intervention Programs Related to the Female Condom among Sex Workers in Southern China?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Weeks, Margaret R.; Nie, Li; Li, Jianghong; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiao; Li, Fei; Dunn, Jennifer; Zhang, Qingning

    2015-01-01

    We used a cluster analysis approach to investigate which female sex workers (FSW) are preferential targets for female condom (FC) intervention programs in southern China. Cross-sectional 6-month (N=316) and 12-month (N=217) post-intervention surveys of FSW were analyzed. Based on FC attitudes and beliefs, initially suggesting FC use to a partner, practicing insertion, total times ever used, and willingness to use in the future, cluster analysis apportioned women into two clusters, with 50.6% and 58.1% of participants in the likely future FC users group at 6-months and 12-months, respectively. Likely future FC users tended to be from boarding houses, older, currently or previously married, experienced with childbirth, with current multiple sex partners, longer history of sex work, and more unprotected sexual encounters. Focusing FC programs on sectors of the community with more FSW who are likely to use FC may be more cost-effective for enhancing FC acceptability and usage. PMID:23837812

  10. Wet Season Upwelling and Dry Season Chlorophyll-a Describe Interannual Growth Rates of Porites in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Teng Teng; Goodkin, Nathalie Fairbank

    2014-01-01

    Southern China hosts coral communities in marginal environments that are characterized by low linear extension rates, low coral cover and/or no reef formation, thus providing natural laboratories to study coral communities with below average growth rates. Here we compare the annual linear extension rates over 10 years (range 1.2 to 11.4 mm yr−1) of six Porites sp. coral cores collected from Hong Kong with monthly hydrographic data from the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. At all sites, low-density, dry season extension were more variable than high-density, wet season extension and on average, was lower at two of the three sites. We applied multi-variate linear regressions that revealed high-density, wet season band extension to inversely correlate most significantly to temperature (r = −0.39, p<0.01). In contrast, low-density, dry season band extension was more variable and correlated most significantly with dry season chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) (r = 0.64, p<0.001). Additionally, we find that corals at the site with highest dry season Chl-a have the highest dry season extension lengths. Our findings indicate that relative mixing of fresh and salt water in the wet season and primary productivity in the dry season, and their influences on aragonite saturation, are likely to impact interannual coral extension variability in marginal environments. PMID:24901939

  11. Survey and genetic variation of Spirometra erinaceieuropaei sparganum in frogs and snakes from Guangxi of southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Cui, J; Wei, T; Li, L Y; Jiang, J; Lu, J C; Jiang, P; Liu, L N; Wang, Z Q

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of sparganum infection in wild frogs (Rana rugulosa and R. temporaria) and snakes (Enhydris chinensis) was investigated in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of Southern China from June 2013 to August 2013. The results showed that 30.37% (65/214) of the caught wild frogs and 50% (3/6) of examined snakes were found to be infected with plerocercoids (spargana) of the genus Spirometra. To investigate the genetic variation of the collected spargana, three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 3 (cox1 and cox3), NADH dehydrogenase subunits 4 (nad4) were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed. The sequences of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 are 444, 387 and 585 bp in length, respectively. The base composition of cox1, cox3 and pnad4 were generally AT rich with a mean of 62.7%, 67.2% and 64.9%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum parsimony (MP) indicated that all the Spirometra sparganum isolates in Guangxi represented S. erinaceieuropaei. PMID:25776613

  12. Impact factors identification of spatial heterogeneity of herbaceous plant diversity on five southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Xiaoli; Qin, Xuebo; Zheng, Wei; Peng, Shitao

    2016-09-01

    Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands.

  13. CO2 Emission Increases with Damage Severity in Moso Bamboo Forests Following a Winter Storm in Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sheng; Xu, Hangmei; Ding, Jiuming; Chen, Han Y. H.; Wang, Jiashe; Xu, Zikun; Ruan, Honghua; Chen, Yuwei

    2016-07-01

    Despite the prevalence of disturbances in forests, the effects of disturbances on soil carbon processes are not fully understood. We examined the influences of a winter storm on soil respiration and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) of a Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycle) plantation in the Wuyi Mountains in Southern China from May 2008 to May 2009. We sampled stands that were damaged at heavy, moderate, and light levels, which yielded aboveground biomass inputs to the soil at 22.12 ± 0.73 (mean ± 1 s.e.m.), 10.40 ± 1.09, and 5.95 ± 0.73 Mg per hectare, respectively. We found that soil respiration rate and annual cumulative CO2 emissions were significantly higher in heavily damaged sites than moderately and lightly damaged sites. Soil temperature was the most important environmental factor affecting soil respiration rate across all studied stands. However, soil respiration sensitivity to temperature (Q10) decreased in heavily damaged sites. Microbial biomass carbon and its proportion to total SOC increased with damage intensity. Soil respiration rate was positively correlated to microbial biomass carbon and soil moisture. Our results indicated that the increase of soil respiration following canopy disturbance from winter storm resulted from increased microbial biomass carbon, soil moisture, and temperature.

  14. CO2 Emission Increases with Damage Severity in Moso Bamboo Forests Following a Winter Storm in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Xu, Hangmei; Ding, Jiuming; Chen, Han Y H; Wang, Jiashe; Xu, Zikun; Ruan, Honghua; Chen, Yuwei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of disturbances in forests, the effects of disturbances on soil carbon processes are not fully understood. We examined the influences of a winter storm on soil respiration and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) of a Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycle) plantation in the Wuyi Mountains in Southern China from May 2008 to May 2009. We sampled stands that were damaged at heavy, moderate, and light levels, which yielded aboveground biomass inputs to the soil at 22.12 ± 0.73 (mean ± 1 s.e.m.), 10.40 ± 1.09, and 5.95 ± 0.73 Mg per hectare, respectively. We found that soil respiration rate and annual cumulative CO2 emissions were significantly higher in heavily damaged sites than moderately and lightly damaged sites. Soil temperature was the most important environmental factor affecting soil respiration rate across all studied stands. However, soil respiration sensitivity to temperature (Q10) decreased in heavily damaged sites. Microbial biomass carbon and its proportion to total SOC increased with damage intensity. Soil respiration rate was positively correlated to microbial biomass carbon and soil moisture. Our results indicated that the increase of soil respiration following canopy disturbance from winter storm resulted from increased microbial biomass carbon, soil moisture, and temperature. PMID:27468803

  15. A New Oviraptorid Dinosaur (Dinosauria: Oviraptorosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Southern China and Its Paleobiogeographical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Junchang; Pu, Hanyong; Kobayashi, Yoshitsugu; Xu, Li; Chang, Huali; Shang, Yuhua; Liu, Di; Lee, Yuong-Nam; Kundrát, Martin; Shen, Caizhi

    2015-07-01

    The Ganzhou area of Jiangxi Province, southern China is becoming one of the most productive oviraptorosaurian localities in the world. A new oviraptorid dinosaur was unearthed from the uppermost Upper Cretaceous Nanxiong Formation of Ganzhou area. It is characterized by an anterodorsally sloping occiput and quadrate (a feature shared with Citipati), a circular supratemporal fenestra that is much smaller than the lower temporal fenestra, and a dentary in which the dorsal margin above the external mandibular fenestra is strongly concave ventrally. The position of the anteroventral corner of the external naris in relation to the posterodorsal corner of the antorbital fenestra provides new insight into the craniofacial evolution of oviraptorosaurid dinosaurs. A phylogenetic analysis recovers the new taxon as closely related to the Mongolian Citipati. Six oviraptorid dinosaurs from the Nanxiong Formation (Ganzhou and Nanxiong) are distributed within three clades of the family. Each of the three clades from the Nanxiong Formation has close relatives in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, and in both places each clade may have had a specific diet or occupied a different ecological niche. Oviraptorid dinosaurs were geographically widespread across Asia in the latest Cretaceous and were an important component of terrestrial ecosystems during this time.

  16. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources. PMID:26547321

  17. Establishment and application of a new diagnostic definition of metabolic syndrome in the Shantou region of southern China

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zan; Pi, Fuhua; Zhang, Shengchao; Dong, Wenya; Wen, Ye; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Qingying

    2016-01-01

    The existing definitions of metabolic syndrome (MetS) may not be fully appropriate for the Shantou population because of ethnic and regional differences. We sought to establish a 95% multivariate medical reference range (MMRR) model for diagnosing MetS in Shantou adults and to evaluate the prevalence of MetS by the MMRR, JCDCG (the Chinese Guidelines), and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. A total of 4,580 participants were recruited in Shantou, southern China. We developed a MMRR model based on the combinatorial indicatrixes method for three categorized indicatrixes. According to the developed MMRR criteria, men (women) in Shantou have MetS by meeting 3 or more of the following: waist circumference ≥89 (81) cm; triglycerides level ≥1.73 (1.64) mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level ≤1.07 (1.05) mmol/L; blood pressure ≥138/89 (136/85) mmHg; and fasting plasma glucose ≥5.8 (5.7) mmol/L. The agreement of the MMRR with JCDCG and IDF criteria was “substantial” (both κ > 0.68), but the recommended reference values and proportion of individual components of MetS defined by the 3 criteria differed. The population-based MMRR criteria may be appropriate for diagnosing MetS in Shantou population and the model might be useful for generalization to other geographic regions. PMID:26902456

  18. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of southern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. This study examined land cover changes during 1990-2008 to characterize and quantify the transformations in the typical oasis of Hotan. Land cover classifications of these images were performed based on the supervised classification scheme integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes. Change-detection techniques in remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS) were applied to quantify temporal and spatial dynamics of land cover changes. The overall accuracies, Kappa coefficients, and average annual increase rate or decrease rate of land cover classes were calculated to assess classification results and changing rate of land cover. The analysis revealed that major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone, which led to accelerated soil salinization and plant deterioration within the oasis. These changes were mainly attributed to the intensified human activities. The results indicated that the newly created agricultural land along the margins of the Hotan oasis could result in more potential areas of land degradation. If no effective measures are taken against the deterioration of the oasis environment, soil erosion caused by land cover change may proceed. The trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone may lead to potential risks to the eco-environment of the Hotan oasis over the next decades.

  19. Spatial distribution and ecotoxicological risk assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments of the southern Bohai Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bangqi; Li, Guogang; Li, Jun; Bi, Jianqiang; Zhao, Jingtao; Bu, Ruyuan

    2013-06-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and organic carbon in surface sediments, collected from the southern Bohai Bay, were determined to assess the potential contamination and determine the environmental risks associated with heavy metals. Results showed that heavy metal concentrations in the sediments generally met the China Marine Sediment Quality criteria. Both the ecotoxicological index and the potential ecological risk index suggest that the combined ecological risk of the six studied metals may be low, with the highest ecotoxicological potential zones located in the offshore area. The methods of enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index suggested that elevated concentrations of Cd, Cr, and Ni are presented in the region. Multivariate analysis also indicated that the lithogenic factor dominates the distribution of most part of the considered metals in the study area, whereas Cd and Cr are clearly influenced by anthropogenic inputs. The results of this study are likely to be a useful tool to authorities in charge of sustainable marine management. PMID:23224582

  20. Impact factors identification of spatial heterogeneity of herbaceous plant diversity on five southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Xiaoli; Qin, Xuebo; Zheng, Wei; Peng, Shitao

    2016-01-01

    Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands.

  1. Cyclic variations of sulfur isotopes in Cambrian stratabound Ni-Mo-(PGE-Au) ores of southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murowchick, J.B.; Coveney, R.M., Jr.; Grauch, R.I.; Eldridge, C.S.; Shelton, K.L.

    1994-01-01

    Cyclic variations of ??34S values over a range of at least 48??? in pyrite nodules from stratabound Ni-Mo-PGE(Au) ores of southern China are attributed to biogenic reduction of seawater sulfate in an anoxic, phosphogenic, and metallogenic basin. Cyclic introduction and mixing of normal seawater into typically stagnant basin waters led to extreme variations in ??34S values of aqueous sulfide species present at different times. Intermittent venting of metal-laden hydrothermal fluids into such a bacteriogenic sulfide-rich environment resulted in precipitation of metal sulfides as pseudomorphous replacements of organic debris and as sulfide sediments that record large ??34SCDT variations from -26 to +22???. Apatite and silica dominated the replacement of the organic debris when metals were not being introduced into the basin. The combination of abundant organic debris, localized topographic basins for accumulation of the debris, bacterial production of sulfide species, and introduction of metal-bearing hydrothermal fluids provided the environment necessary to form these unusually rich Ni-Mo ores. ?? 1994.

  2. CO2 Emission Increases with Damage Severity in Moso Bamboo Forests Following a Winter Storm in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sheng; Xu, Hangmei; Ding, Jiuming; Chen, Han Y. H.; Wang, Jiashe; Xu, Zikun; Ruan, Honghua; Chen, Yuwei

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of disturbances in forests, the effects of disturbances on soil carbon processes are not fully understood. We examined the influences of a winter storm on soil respiration and labile soil organic carbon (SOC) of a Moso Bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycle) plantation in the Wuyi Mountains in Southern China from May 2008 to May 2009. We sampled stands that were damaged at heavy, moderate, and light levels, which yielded aboveground biomass inputs to the soil at 22.12 ± 0.73 (mean ± 1 s.e.m.), 10.40 ± 1.09, and 5.95 ± 0.73 Mg per hectare, respectively. We found that soil respiration rate and annual cumulative CO2 emissions were significantly higher in heavily damaged sites than moderately and lightly damaged sites. Soil temperature was the most important environmental factor affecting soil respiration rate across all studied stands. However, soil respiration sensitivity to temperature (Q10) decreased in heavily damaged sites. Microbial biomass carbon and its proportion to total SOC increased with damage intensity. Soil respiration rate was positively correlated to microbial biomass carbon and soil moisture. Our results indicated that the increase of soil respiration following canopy disturbance from winter storm resulted from increased microbial biomass carbon, soil moisture, and temperature. PMID:27468803

  3. Evolution of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area, Southern China: a 50-year survey (1965-2014).

    PubMed

    Zhan, Ping; Geng, Chengfang; Li, Zhihua; Jin, Yun; Jiang, Qing; Tao, Li; Luo, Yunpeng; Xiong, Zhiwei; Wu, Shaoxi; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-05-01

    Tinea capitis remains a common public health problem worldwide especially in developing areas. Aetiologic agents and clinical pattern vary with geography and history of socioeconomic conditions. Three community surveys and a prospective study were carried out over the past 50 years (1965-2014) in the Qingyunpu District of Nanchang, Southern China. Clinical presentation and spectrum of aetiological agents were monitored to understand the evolution of tinea capitis. In 1965 favus was highly epidemic and Trichophyton schoenleinii presented as the overwhelming aetiological agents of scalp infection in the study area, with a prevalence of 3.41% of the population. During a governmental campaign to eliminate tinea capitis initiated in mid of 1960s, favus was successfully controlled and the prevalence decreased to less than 0.01% in 1977. After that period, clinical presentation and spectrum of fungi changed with social development. Trichophyton schoenleinii was replaced by Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Nowadays, the species corresponds with a dominant black dot type of tinea capitis in the Nanchang area. The prevalence of causative agents of tinea capitis is not only related to geography but also to socioeconomic factors. Multiple factors have to be considered for the management for control of this disease. PMID:25756741

  4. Distribution and risk assessment of quinolone antibiotics in the soils from organic vegetable farms of a subtropical city, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Lian; Xiang, Lei; Yan, Qing-Yun; Jiang, Yuan-Neng; Li, Yan-Wen; Huang, Xian-Pei; Li, Hui; Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui

    2014-07-15

    Organic fertilizer or manure containing antibiotics has been widely used in organic farms, but the distribution and potential impacts of antibiotics to the local environment are not well understood. In this study, four quinolone antibiotics in soil samples (n=69) from five organic vegetable farms in a subtropical city, Southern China, were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Our results indicated that quinolone compounds were ubiquitous in soil samples (detection frequency>97% for all compounds), and their concentrations ranged from not detectable to 42.0 μg/kg. Among the targets, enrofloxacin (ENR) was the dominant compound, followed by ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR). The average total concentrations of four compounds in the soils were affected by vegetable types and species cultivated, decreasing in the order of fruit>rhizome>leaf vegetables. Moreover, the average concentrations of quinolone compounds (except ENR) in open-field soils were higher than those in greenhouse soils. The concentrations of quinolone antibiotics in this study were lower than the ecotoxic effect trigger value (100 μg/kg) proposed by the Veterinary Medicine International Coordination commission. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients indicated that NOR, CIP, and ENR posed mainly medium to low risks to bacteria. PMID:24797736

  5. Who are the preferential targets for intervention programs related to the female condom among sex workers in southern China?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhong; Liao, Susu; Jiang, Jingmei; Weeks, Margaret R; Nie, Li; Li, Jianghong; He, Bin; Zhou, Yuejiao; Li, Fei; Dunn, Jennifer; Zhang, Qingning

    2013-08-01

    The authors used a cluster analysis approach to investigate which female sex workers (FSW) are preferential targets for female condom (FC) intervention programs in southern China. Cross-sectional 6-month (N = 316) and 12-month (N = 217) postintervention surveys of FSW were analyzed. Based on FC attitudes and beliefs, initially suggesting FC use to a partner, practicing insertion, total times ever used, and willingness to use in the future, cluster analysis apportioned women into two clusters, with 50.6% and 58.1% of participants in the likely future FC users group at 6 months and 12 months, respectively. Likely future FC users tended to be from boarding houses, older, currently or previously married, experienced with childbirth, with current multiple sex partners, longer history of sex work, and more unprotected sexual encounters. Focusing FC programs on sectors of the community with more FSW who are likely to use FC may be more cost-effective for enhancing FC acceptability and usage. PMID:23837812

  6. Application of a real-time PCR method for detecting and monitoring hookworm Necator americanus infections in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Xu; Pan, Cang-Sang; Cui, Li-Wang

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a quantitative PCR method for detecting hookworm infection and quantification. Methods A real-time PCR method was designed based on the intergenic region II of ribosomal DNA of the hookworm Necator americanus. The detection limit of this method was compared with the microscopy-based Kato-Katz method. The real-time PCR method was used to conduct an epidemiological survey of hookworm infection in southern Fujian Province of China. Results The real-time PCR method was specific for detecting Necator americanus infection, and was more sensitive than conventional PCR or microscopy-based method. A preliminary survey for hookworm infection in villages of Fujian Province confirmed the high prevalence of hookworm infections in the resident populations. In addition, the infection rate in women was significantly higher than that of in men. Conclusions A real-time PCR method is designed, which has increased detection sensitivity for more accurate epidemiological studies of hookworm infections, especially when intensity of the infection needs to be considered. PMID:23593570

  7. Correlation between the changes in ambulatory electroencephalography findings and epilepsy recurrence after medication withdrawal among the population in southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lian-hong; Jiang, Long-yuan; Lu, Rui-yan; Zhong, Jian-qiang; Liu, Shu-qiong; Tao, En-xiang; Ye, Jian-hong

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from epilepsy need long-term medication. However, after the epilepsy is completely under control, the recurrence rate is high once the drug dose is reduced gradually. The present study investigated the possible correlation between the changes shown by ambulatory electroencephalography (EEG) and epilepsy recurrence after medication withdrawal, and assessed the value of ambulatory EEG findings in predicting the recurrence of epilepsy after medication withdrawal, in 265 patients from Southern China followed up for 5 years. Anticonvulsants were withdrawn until onset had been controlled thoroughly for over 3 years and ambulatory EEG detected no abnormalities. Ambulatory EEG was performed at least once per year, and findings at the first visit, during treatment, and before and after medication withdrawal were compared and analyzed. There were 47 patients with recurrent epilepsy in this study. Patients with normal ambulatory EEG findings at the first visit and during treatment had lower recurrence rate (about 8.1%) compared to patients with epileptic waves (25.0%), and patients with focal epileptic waves in the temporal, occipital, frontal, and parietal lobes, or in multiple areas was even higher. Patients with epileptic waves also showed higher clinical recurrence rate during the follow-up period. Abnormal ambulatory EEG findings are an important indicator of epileptic recurrence, and is of great value in predicting the recurrence of epilepsy after medication withdrawal. PMID:23358163

  8. An Analysis of Airline Costs. Lecture Notes for MIT Courses. 16.73 Airline Management and Marketing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The cost analyst must understand the operations of the airline and how the activities of the airline are measured, as well as how the costs are incurred and recorded. The data source is usually a cost accounting process. This provides data on the cumulated expenses in various categories over a time period like a quarter, or year, and must be correlated by the analyst with cumulated measures of airline activity which seem to be causing this expense.

  9. Tectonic affinity of the Alxa Block, Northwest China: Constrained by detrital zircon U-Pb ages from the early Paleozoic strata on its southern and eastern margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Beihang; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Yiping; Zhao, Heng; Wang, Yannan; Nie, Fengjun

    2016-06-01

    The tectonic affinity of the Alxa Block is important in the reconstruction of the paleogeographical evolution of China. The early Paleozoic strata (the Dahuangshan Formation and Xiangshan Group) of the southern and eastern Alxa Block have consistent rock compositions, similar depositional ages, paleocurrents, detrital zircon age distributions, and cumulative probability curves of crystallization ages for detrital zircon grains relative to the depositional ages, and were deposited in similar slope basins. All these data indicate that the early Paleozoic strata of the Alxa Block were sourced predominantly from Neoproterozoic orogenic belts in the eastern Gondwana continent, instead of the Alxa Block to the north, the North China Block to the east and the North Qilian Orogenic Belt to the south. During the early Paleozoic, the Alxa Block was an independent block with the South China Block (SCB) to the west and the North China Block (NCB) to the east and situated to the northwest of the eastern Gondwana with its long axis trending north northwest-south southeast, and it belonged to a passive continental margin dipping to the north northwest, with the eastern part of the margin located closer to the eastern Gondwana. The Hexi Corridor is part of the Alxa Block and a part of the same slope basin during the early Paleozoic. The southern boundary of the Alxa Block is now the front thrust of the North Qilian Shan.

  10. Miocene to Holocene deformation rates in the southern Tianshan piedmont, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint-Carlier, Dimitri; Sartégou, Amandine; Charreau, Julien; Lavé, Jérôme; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Dominguez, Stéphane; Puchol, Nicolas; Wang, Shengli

    2014-05-01

    The Tianshan is one of the largest and highest mountain belts in central Asia and it accommodates an important part of the total India/Eurasia convergence. It is therefore critical to better quantify the deformation across this range, especially across its piedmonts that presently absorb most of the shortening. The deformation across the southern Tianshan piedmont is distributed over several thrusts and folds belts including the Qiulitagh and the Yakeng anticlines, which are identified as a fault-bend-fold and a detachment fold respectively. Across these two folds, we document the shortening rate from the Mio-Pliocene to the Pleistocene using two different approaches. First, we used a kinematic fold model based on kink band migration, in order to reproduce bed by bed the pre-growth and growth-strata of the Qiulitagh anticline. We focus our analysis on two different sections where seismic profiles and detailed surface structural data provide strong constrains on the geometry of the fold. The first section is located in the southern flank of the fold along the Kuqa River. In the bottom part of this section the depositional ages have been constrained by the magnetostratigraphic study of Sun et al. (2009), whereas the upper conglomeratic part remained undated. For this upper part, we have collected several new samples to better constrain the sediments ages using burial cosmogenic dating (10Be/26Al). The second section is located in the northern flank of the fold along the Yaha River where the depositional ages have also been constrained in detail from magnetostratigraphy (Charreau et al., 2009). Together, these two sections should provide new and high resolution (<1Myr) constrains on the Mio-Pliocene shortening history across the Quilitagh anticline. The Late Quaternary shortening history of the Yakeng anticline is constrained from a similar approach based on fold modeling and subsurface seismic data. However, here the fold is modeled using a simple formulation of the

  11. Diversity of Planthoppers Associated with the Winter Rice Agroecosystems in Southern Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shao-ji; Fu, Da-ying; Liu, Xiao-jun; Zhao, Tao; Han, Zhong-liang; Lü, Jian-ping; Wan, Hai-long; Ye, Hui

    2012-01-01

    A field survey of the overwintering planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) associated with the rice agroecosystems in southern Yunnan was carried out during January-February in 2010 and 2011. 22 species of planthoppers were collected and identified, with one species representing the subfamily Stenocraninae and the other 21 species in Delphacinae. Nycheuma cognatum (Muir), Peregrinus maidis (Ashmead), and Pseudosogata vatrenus (Fennah) were new provincial records for Yunnan. The pest species, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), and Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) were able to overwinter in part of the survey range. 13 species were listed to be of economic importance. Abandoned rice paddies with dense Poaceae grasses (Poaceae) were the most favorable overwintering habitat. The survey range was divided into four regions and five areas based on natural geographical characteristics. The study demonstrated that winter temperature differentiation, terrains, and habitat differences were three factors affecting planthopper diversity. Planthopper species diversity showed a reductive trend from south to north and reflected a gradient of more severe winter temperatures. In addition, planthopper diversity was influenced by smaller—scale differences in terrain and habitat, as evidenced by greater diversity in the valleys and low—altitude areas as compared to mid—mountain and Karst plain areas. PMID:22958347

  12. Culturable diversity and biochemical features of thraustochytrids from coastal waters of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Singh, Purnima; Sun, Yuan; Luan, Shengji; Wang, Guangyi

    2014-04-01

    Thraustochytrids are ubiquitous marine osmo-heterotrophic fungi-like microorganisms with only about 40 identified species till now. In this study, a total of 60 thraustochytrid strains were isolated from marine coastal habitats. Analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences revealed that they belonged to three genera, i.e., Schizochytrium, Aurantiochytrium, and Thraustochytrium. All of the isolates were found to show considerable cellulolytic and lipolytic activities. Strains of Aurantiochytrium sp. and Thraustochytrium sp. were found to produce the highest levels of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), which reached 345 μg ml(-1) in the growth media. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of the EPS samples derived from two thraustochytrids (PKU#Sed1 and #SW1) displayed peaks for carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, uronic acids, and nucleic acids. Fatty acid profiles of four thraustochytrids comprised of palmitic acid (C16:0) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as their major constituents. Schizochytrium sp. demonstrated the highest DHA production at 44 % of total fatty acids (TFA) with biomass and DHA yield of 7.1 and 1.6 g l(-1), respectively, on the fourth day of growth. All the four isolates exhibited considerable production of palmitic acid (16:0) in their fatty acid profiles ranging from 35 to 50 % TFA. This is the first report on extracellular enzymes, EPS, and DHA production from thraustochytrids isolated from the coastal habitats of China. PMID:24270895

  13. The effects of weather conditions on measles incidence in Guangzhou, Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiongying; Fu, Chuanxi; Wang, Naizhen; Dong, Zhiqiang; Hu, Wensui; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies were conducted to examine the effects of weather conditions on the incidence of measles. Methods: We used a distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) to analyze the relationship between meteorological factors and measles incidence in Guangzhou, China. Results: Nonlinear effects of temperature and relative humidity on measles incidence were observed. The relative risk (RR) for the measles incidence associated with the 75th percentile of mean temperature (27.9 °C) relative to the median of mean temperature (24.7 °C) was 1.00 (0.86,1.16) for lags 0–10 days. The RR for the measles incidence associated with the 25th percentile of relative humidity (64%) relative to the median of relative humidity (73%) was 1.36 (1.01,1.82) for lags 0–30 days. The wet effects and dry effects were larger in females than in males. The wet effects were generally increased with ages. Significantly negative effects of cold spells on measles incidence were observed. Conclusion: Both hot and cold temperatures result in decreases in the incidence of measles, and low relative humidity is a risk factor of measles morbidity. An increased number of measles cases might occur before and after a cold spell. Our findings highlight the need to pay more attention to the weather transformation and improve the immunity of susceptible population for measles elimination. Catch-up vaccination campaigns should be initiated among young adults. PMID:24509358

  14. New debris flow mitigation measures in southern Gansu, China: a case study of the Zhouqu Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Muqi; Meng, Xingmin; Li, Yajun

    2014-05-01

    A devastating debris flow occurred in Zhouqu of Gansu Province, China, on 8th August 2010, resulting in a catastrophic disaster, with 1463 people being perished. The debris flow valleys, as other numerous debris valleys in the mountainous region, had preventive engineering constructions, such as check dames, properly designed based on common engineering practices for safe guiding the town located right on the debris flow fan. However, failures of such preventive measures often cause even heavier disasters than those that have no human interactions, as the mitigations give a false safety impression. Given such a weird situation and in order to explore a much more effective disaster prevention strategy against debris flows in the mountainous region, this paper makes a comparative study based on two cases in the area of which one had preventive structures and one hasn't. The result shows that inappropriate mitigation measures that have commonly been applying in the disaster reduction practices in the region are of questionable. It is concluded that going with the nature and following with the natural rules are the best strategy for disaster reduction in the region. Key words: debris flow disasters, disaster reduction strategy, preventive measures

  15. Early responses to H7N9 in southern Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background H7N9 posed potentially serious health challenges for Chinese society. The previous SARS outbreak in this country was accompanied by contradictory information, while worries about wide-spread influenza led to discrimination worldwide. Early understanding of public threat perceptions is therefore important for effective public health communication and intervention. Methods We interviewed 1011 respondents by phone two weeks after the first case. Questions examined risk awareness and media use, beliefs about the emergence of the threat and those most at risk, anxiety about infection and preventive and avoidant behaviours. Results Results demonstrate moderate levels of anxiety but relatively high levels of trust towards government officials. Threat emergence was associated with hygiene levels, temperature change, floating pigs in the Huangpu River and migration to the city. Anxiety predicted both recommended and non-recommended behavioural changes. Conclusions Comparatively high levels of trust in Chinese government advice about H7N9 contrast positively with previous pandemic communications in China. Anxiety helped drive both recommended and non-recommended behaviours, with potentially important economic and social implications. This included evidence of 'othering’ of those associated with the threat (e.g. migrants). Findings emphasise the need to manage public communications early during new influenza outbreaks. PMID:24397830

  16. New Early Eocene Basal tapiromorph from Southern China and Its Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bin; Wang, Yuanqing; Meng, Jin; Li, Qian; Jin, Xun

    2014-01-01

    A new Early Eocene tapiromorph, Meridiolophus expansus gen. et sp. nov., from the Sanshui Basin, Guangdong Province, China, is described and discussed. It is the first reported Eocene mammal from the basin. The new taxon, represented by a left fragmentary mandible, is characterized by an expanded anterior symphyseal region, a long diastema between c1 and p1, a rather short diastema between p1 and p2, smaller premolars relative to molars, an incipient metaconid appressed to the protoconid on p3, a prominent entoconid on p4, molar metaconid not twinned, cristid obliqua extending mesially and slightly lingually from the hypoconid, inclined metalophid and hypolophid, and small hypoconulid on the lower preultimate molars. Meridiolophus is morphologically intermediate between basal Homogalax-like taxa and derived tapiromorphs (such as Heptodon). Phylogenetic analysis indicates Equidae is more closely related to Tapiromorpha than to Palaeotheriidae, although the latter is only represented by a single species Pachynolophus eulaliensis. ‘Isectolophidae’, with exception of Meridiolophus and Karagalax, has the closest affinity with Chalicotherioidea. Furthermore, the majority rule consensus tree shows that Meridiolophus is closer to Karagalax than to any other ‘isectolophid’, and both genera represent stem taxa to crown group Ceratomorpha. PMID:25353987

  17. What drives the aerosol distribution in Guangdong--the most developed province in Southern China?

    PubMed

    Li, Lili; Wang, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Guangdong, the most developed province in China, during 2010-2012. Linear regression and self-organizing maps (SOM) are used to investigate the relationship between AOT and its affecting factors, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, urbanized land fraction, and several socio-economic variables. Results show that the highest values of τ 0.55 mainly occur over the rapidly-developing Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the eastern coast. Seasonal averaged AOT is highest in summer (0.416), followed by spring (0.351), winter (0.292), and autumn (0.254). From unary linear regression and SOM analysis, AOT is shown to be strongly negatively correlated to NDVI (R(2) = 0.782) and elevation (R(2) = 0.731), and positively correlated with socio-economic factors, especially GDP, industry and vehicle density (R(2) above 0.73), but not primary industry. Multiple linear regression between AOT and the contributing factors shows much higher R(2) values (>0.8), indicative of the clear relationships between AOT and variables. This study illustrates that human activities have strong impacts on aerosols distribution in Guangdong Province. Economic and industrial developments, as well as vehicle density, are the main controlling factors on aerosol distribution. PMID:25096216

  18. What drives the aerosol distribution in Guangdong - the most developed province in Southern China?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lili; Wang, Yunpeng

    2014-08-01

    This paper uses Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over Guangdong, the most developed province in China, during 2010-2012. Linear regression and self-organizing maps (SOM) are used to investigate the relationship between AOT and its affecting factors, including Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), elevation, urbanized land fraction, and several socio-economic variables. Results show that the highest values of τ0.55 mainly occur over the rapidly-developing Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the eastern coast. Seasonal averaged AOT is highest in summer (0.416), followed by spring (0.351), winter (0.292), and autumn (0.254). From unary linear regression and SOM analysis, AOT is shown to be strongly negatively correlated to NDVI (R2 = 0.782) and elevation (R2 = 0.731), and positively correlated with socio-economic factors, especially GDP, industry and vehicle density (R2 above 0.73), but not primary industry. Multiple linear regression between AOT and the contributing factors shows much higher R2 values (>0.8), indicative of the clear relationships between AOT and variables. This study illustrates that human activities have strong impacts on aerosols distribution in Guangdong Province. Economic and industrial developments, as well as vehicle density, are the main controlling factors on aerosol distribution.

  19. Microdochium paspali, a new species causing seashore paspalum disease in southern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wu; Nan, Zhibiao; Tian, Pei; Hu, Meijiao; Gao, Zhaoyin; Li, Min; Liu, Guodαo

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Microdochium was identified as the causal agent of leaf blight of seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), a turf grass widely used in tropical and subtropical golf courses. In 2010 foliar necrosis and canopy thinning were observed on 11 surveyed golf courses in Hainan province, China, especially on fairways and putting greens. The infected leaves initially appeared water-soaked and dark green, rapidly faded to yellow or became chlorotic and quickly died, resulting in a sparse appearance in infected areas, leading to the disease name "sparse leaf patch." Isolates with rich and light pink to yellow mycelia and salmon-colored pionnotes were cultured from diseased turf foliage. Pathogenicity was demonstrated by inoculating these isolates onto "seaspray" seashore paspalum. Phylogenetic analysis based on the nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8S-internal transcribed spacer 2 region (ITS), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF1-α) and β-tubulin (BenA) indicated these isolates formed as a distinct clade within Microdochium (Xylariales). Further microscopic examination demonstrated that the species was morphologically distinct from three similar species of Microdochium. The name Microdochium paspali sp. nov. is proposed for this novel fungal pathogen. PMID:25261493

  20. Flight Training Technology for Regional/Commuter Airline Operations: Regional Airline Association/NASA Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, A. T. (Editor); Lauber, J. K. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Programs which have been developed for training commercial airline pilots and flight crews are discussed. The concept of cockpit resource management and the concomitant issues of management techniques, interpersonal communication, psychological factors, and flight stress are addressed. Training devices and simulation techniques are reported.

  1. Large and very large subaqueous dunes on the continental shelf off southern Vietnam, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, A.

    2008-08-01

    In the course of two regional side-scan sonar surveys on the continental shelf off southern Vietnam after the winter monsoon seasons of 2003 and 2004, and covering a total distance of over 1,000 km, the widespread occurrence of large and very large subaqueous dunes was discovered. On the basis of their size, shape, depth of occurrence and orientation, the dunes were grouped into five spatially distinct regions. In each case, a different height/wavelength relationship is observed. With the exception of region no. 3 where dune dimensions follow the mean global trend, the dimensions in the other regions lie below the mean global trend. The most plausible explanation for this is sediment starvation and/or insufficient time for the larger dunes to fully adjust to changing flow conditions. A good correlation is observed between average dune height in each region and water depth, although this is not the case for dune length. The orientation of the dunes corresponds to the direction of the current pattern induced by the regional winter monsoon winds (NE to SW and S). The generally well-developed asymmetrical shapes and the large size of the dunes suggest that the wind-induced currents are strong enough to reactivate most of the dunes during the winter monsoon season, a conclusion supported also by theoretical calculations of critical current velocities. The largest dunes, which seem to have reached their maximum sizes for the local water depths, may not be reactivated regularly but rather only by exceptionally strong episodic flows.

  2. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  3. Space weather effects and commerical airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Bentley, R.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D.

    Space Weather (SW) phenomena can effect many areas of commercial airline operations including avionics, communications and GPS navigation systems. Of particular importance at present is the recently introduced EU legislation requiring the monitoring of aircrew radiation exposure, including any variations at aircraft altitudes due to solar activity. The Mullard Space Science Laboratory is collaborating with Virgin Atlantic Airways, the Civil Aviation Authority and the National Physical Laboratory on a 3- year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether computer models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It also aims to determine whether solar or geomagnetic activity can cause significant modifications to the doses. This presentation will begin by showing some of the preliminary results obtained so far. As an example, we present a comparison of flight doses measured following the 14t h July 2000 X - class flare that was accompanied by a major Solar Particle Event (SPE). The results highlight the importance of a range of external factors that can strongly influence how SPEs may effect the measured dose at aircraft altitudes. At present, any SPE contributions in the airlines' dose records can only be poorly estimated retrospectively. Ideally, it would be better to try to avoid operating during these possibly significant radiation - enhancing events by utilising SW information (alerts, warnings, etc.). However, doing so poses many difficult operational problems for such a heavily regulated international industry, in terms of safety, security and procedures. Therefore, the use of timely SW information, which is still very unreliable, in a similar manner to terrestrial weather will require agreement from the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) and International Air Transport Association (IATA) to Air Traffic Control and Aviation Regulatory Authority's. This

  4. Preliminary Sizing of an Hypersonic Airbreathing Airliner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingenito, Antonella; Gulli, Stefano; Bruno, Claudio

    The purpose of this paper is to identify, for given technology levels (TRL) and mission requirements, those parameters that are critical for preliminary sizing of a hypersonic airbreathing airliner. Mission requirements will dictate a solution space of possible vehicle architecture capable of meeting cruise conditions as well as of taking-off (TO) and landing. In practice, once defined a range of cruise vehicle architectures, constraints are imposed (as to all passenger airliners), such as: 1. take off (=TO) and landing distance (so-called field length, FL): FL no longer than for the B-747-400, or 10000 ft; 2. completing TO with one engine off; 3. max acceleration at TO and climb-out (CO) = 0.4 g; 4. Hydrogen fuel (Meeting NOx emission limits (EINOx) is a further constraint not discussed in this paper). These constraints enable focusing on a realistic design out of the broad range of vehicles capable of performing the given mission. Thus a realistic vehicle must not only integrate aerodynamics and propulsion system; in fact, it is the result of many iterations in the design space, until performance and constraints are successfully achieved and met. The Gross Weight at Take Off (TOGW) was deliberately discarded as a constraint, based on Previous studies by Czysz. Typically, limiting from the beginning the TOGW leads to a vicious spiral where weight and propulsion system requirements keep growing, eventually denying convergence. In designing passenger airliners, in fact, it is the payload that is assumed fixed from the start, not the total weight. A parametric analysis of the hypersonic vehicle architecture is presented: in particular, optimal size, weight and geometrical shape are defined for different mission requirements. This analysis has shown that, it is possible to define a range of possible successful solutions for the European LAPCAT II project.

  5. Genotype identification and prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in pet dogs of Guangzhou, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Peiyuan; Alsarakibi, Muhamd; Zhu, Haibo; Liu, Yuanjia; Meng, Xianglong; Li, Jinping; Guo, Jianchao; Li, Guoqing

    2012-09-10

    Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated parasite and is considered one of the most common causes of protozoal diarrhea in both humans and animals worldwide. This paper represents the first study of the prevalence of G. duodenalis in pet dogs in Guangzhou, China. Faecal samples (209 specimens) were obtained from young (<6 months old), adult (6 months to 3 years) and elder dogs (>3 years old). 8.61% (18/209) faecal samples were recorded positive using microscopy examination, and 11.00% (23/209) using PCR. The prevalence was significantly higher in diarrheic dogs (26.31%) compared with non-diarrheic dogs (5.10%), while it was higher in young (25.58%) than both adult (7.37%) and elder (7.04%) dogs and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The prevalence in male dogs 11.30% (13/115) was higher than females 10.87% (10/92), and in suburban dogs (12.15%) higher than urban 9.80%, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Sequence analysis of the 23 PCR-positive samples revealed the presence of Assemblage D (18/23), and zoonotic Assemblage A (5/23). The present investigation reported a high infection rate of G. duodenalis in pet dogs, especially in young dogs. Genotypic characterization demonstrated that the zoonotic Assemblage A was found, a fact that poses a potential risk of G. duodenalis transmission from pet dogs to humans. It is suggested that pet owners should take appropriate hygiene measures to prevent and control giardiasis in this region. PMID:22554420

  6. Genetic Structure and Demographic History Reveal Migration of the Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) from the Southern to Northern Regions of China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Jun; Shi, Bao-Cai; Gong, Ya-Jun; Jin, Gui-Hua; Chen, Xue-Xin; Meng, Xiang-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the most destructive insect pests of cruciferous plants worldwide. Biological, ecological and genetic studies have indicated that this moth is migratory in many regions around the world. Although outbreaks of this pest occur annually in China and cause heavy damage, little is known concerning its migration. To better understand its migration pattern, we investigated the population genetic structure and demographic history of the diamondback moth by analyzing 27 geographical populations across China using four mitochondrial genes and nine microsatellite loci. The results showed that high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity occurred in the diamondback moth populations, a finding that is typical for migratory species. No genetic differentiation among all populations and no correlation between genetic and geographical distance were found. However, pairwise analysis of the mitochondrial genes has indicated that populations from the southern region were more differentiated than those from the northern region. Gene flow analysis revealed that the effective number of migrants per generation into populations of the northern region is very high, whereas that into populations of the southern region is quite low. Neutrality testing, mismatch distribution and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses based on mitochondrial genes all revealed that deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and sudden expansion of the effective population size were present in populations from the northern region but not in those from the southern region. In conclusion, all our analyses strongly demonstrated that the diamondback moth migrates within China from the southern to northern regions with rare effective migration in the reverse direction. Our research provides a successful example of using population genetic approaches to resolve the seasonal migration of insects. PMID:23565158

  7. Crew coordination concepts: Continental Airlines CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Darryl; Morgan, Alice

    1987-01-01

    The outline of the crew coordination concepts at Continental airlines is: (1) Present relevant theory: Contained in a pre-work package and in lecture/discussion form during the work course, (2) Discuss case examples: Contained in the pre-work for study and use during the course; and (3) Simulate practice problems: Introduced during the course as the beginning of an ongoing process. These concepts which are designed to address the problem pilots have in understanding the interaction between situations and their own theories of practice are briefly discussed.

  8. Comparison of airline passenger oxygen systems.

    PubMed

    Byrne, N J

    1995-08-01

    The principal sources of oxygen for inflight passenger use, scheduled and unscheduled, are examined. Present practices of assessment of the passenger's "fitness to fly" are described. Three partner airlines, British Airways, U.S. Air, and Qantas, catering for more than 8000 oxygen requests annually, are compared. Analysis of customer use suggests that medical oxygen requests are frequently not clinically justified. The growth in demand, for both scheduled and unscheduled use of an expensive resource, supports the need for a "recommended best practice" among carriers. Passengers with respiratory disorders who will most benefit from inflight oxygen are vulnerable either to hypoxia or asthma. PMID:7487813

  9. The Effects of Commercial Airline Traffic on LSST Observing Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Rose; Claver, Charles; Stubbs, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a ten-year survey that will map the southern sky in six different filters 800 times before the end of its run. In this paper, we explore the primary effect of airline traffic on scheduling the LSST observations in addition to the secondary effect of condensation trails, or contrails, created by the presence of the aircraft. The large national investment being made in LSST implies that small improvments observing efficiency through aircraft and contrail avoidance can result in a significant improvement in the quality of the survey and its science. We have used the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signals received from commercial aircraft to monitor and record activity over the LSST site. We installed a ADS-B ground station on Cerro Pachón, Chile consiting of a1090Mhz antenna on the Andes Lidar Observatory feeding a RTL2832U software defined radio. We used dump1090 to convert the received ADS-B telementry into Basestation format, where we found that during the busiest time of the night there were only 4 signals being received each minute on average, which will have very small direct effect, if any, on the LSST observing scheduler. As part of future studies we will examin the effects of contrals on LSST observations. Gibson was supported by the NOAO/KPNO Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program which is funded by the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (AST-1262829).

  10. Detection of structural deterioration and associated airline maintenance problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henniker, H. D.; Mitchell, R. G.

    1972-01-01

    Airline operations involving the detection of structural deterioration and associated maintenance problems are discussed. The standard approach to the maintenance and inspection of aircraft components and systems is described. The frequency of inspections and the application of preventive maintenance practices are examined. The types of failure which airline transport aircraft encounter and the steps taken to prevent catastrophic failure are reported.

  11. Fare Deals from Scheduled Airlines: A Primer for Migratory Geographers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britton, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    Airline travel provides those interested in geography with opportunities to see and photograph rural and urban scenes. Author describes circuitous routing, joint fares, and stopover techniques that maximize domestic and international air travel experiences. Defines various airline and travel agent terminology. (Author/BC)

  12. New physical model calculates airline crews' radiation exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Airline pilots and crews, who spend hundreds of hours each year flying at high altitude, are exposed to increased doses of radiation from galactic cosmic rays and solar energy particles, enough that airline crew members are actually considered radiation workers by the International Commission on Radiological Protection.

  13. Morphodynamics and lake level variations at Paiku Co, southern Tibetan Plateau, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wünnemann, Bernd; Yan, Dada; Ci, Ren

    2015-10-01

    Proxy records from lakes on the Tibetan Plateau are commonly used to infer monsoon-related climatic changes during the late Quaternary. Specific influences of catchment processes and their interaction with the lake basin are seldom utilized. Based on morphological field investigations, supported by remote sensing analyses in combination with radiocarbon-dated sediment data from lacustrine sequences along paleoshorelines and terraces, we can demonstrate that close relationships exist between glacier dynamics, fluvial-alluvial fan/terrace formation and lake level and lake area changes of Paiku Co, southern Tibet. Our results show that the formation of large-scale, fluvial-alluvial fans (F1) predates the maximum advance of the Xixiabangma glaciers. The latter formed a distinct terminal moraine complex north of the present glaciers during the local LGM (LLGM) at 42-21 cal ky BP. A younger fan generation (F2) developed from the LLGM to the late Holocene, which was accompanied by lake level fluctuations with a generally decreasing trend. The highest morphologically traceable lake level at 4665 m asl existed prior to 25 cal ky BP and induced a potential overflow to the neighboring Langqiang Co and Pengqu River. A high level also existed during the LLGM, followed by a minor decline until ca. 15 cal ky BP, owing to reduced meltwater discharge under cold and dry climatic conditions. A return to the previous level during the late-glacial/early Holocene period between 11.9 and 9.5 cal ky BP is likely caused by climate warming, increased meltwater discharge, and enhanced Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) moisture supply. Afterwards, Paiku Co shrank gradually toward its present level, while the youngest fan (F3) generation evolved as individual small-sized bodies under ephemeral discharge conditions from the mid-Holocene to the present. The formation of four terrace levels (T4-1) is likely the result of sequential incision into the fan generations with a mean erosion rate of 50 cm

  14. Effect of Different Fertilizer Application on the Soil Fertility of Paddy Soils in Red Soil Region of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenyi; Zhang, Xinyu; Wang, Huimin; Dai, Xiaoqin; Sun, Xiaomin; Qiu, Weiwen; Yang, Fengting

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate fertilizer application is an important management practice to improve soil fertility and quality in the red soil regions of China. In the present study, we examined the effects of five fertilization treatments [these were: no fertilizer (CK), rice straw return (SR), chemical fertilizer (NPK), organic manure (OM) and green manure (GM)] on soil pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C/N ratio and available nutrients (AN, AP and AK) contents in the plowed layer (0–20 cm) of paddy soil from 1998 to 2009 in Jiangxi Province, southern China. Results showed that the soil pH was the lowest with an average of 5.33 units in CK and was significantly higher in NPK (5.89 units) and OM (5.63 units) treatments (P<0.05). The application of fertilizers have remarkably improved SOC and TN values compared with the CK, Specifically, the OM treatment resulted in the highest SOC and TN concentrations (72.5% and 51.2% higher than CK) and NPK treatment increased the SOC and TN contents by 22.0% and 17.8% compared with CK. The average amounts of C/N ratio ranged from 9.66 to 10.98 in different treatments, and reached the highest in OM treatment (P<0.05). During the experimental period, the average AN and AP contents were highest in OM treatment (about 1.6 and 29.6 times of that in the CK, respectively) and second highest in NPK treatment (about 1.2 and 20.3 times of that in the CK). Unlike AN and AP, the highest value of AK content was observed in NPK treatments with 38.10 mg·kg−1. Thus, these indicated that organic manure should be recommended to improve soil fertility in this region and K fertilizer should be simultaneously applied considering the soil K contents. Considering the long-term fertilizer efficiency, our results also suggest that annual straw returning application could improve soil fertility in this trial region. PMID:23028550

  15. Concentrations and solubility of trace elements in fine particles at a mountain site, southern China: regional sources and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, T.; Wang, Y.; Li, W. J.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, W. X.

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations and solubility of twelve trace elements in PM2.5 at Mt. Lushan, southern China, were investigated during the summer of 2011 and the spring of 2012. The average PM2.5 mass was 55.2 ± 20.1 μg m-3 during the observation period. Temporal variations of all trace elements including total and water-soluble fractions with several dust storm spikes in total fractions of Al and Fe were observed. The enrichment factor (EF) values were 1 order of magnitude higher for the water-soluble fractions versus the total fractions of trace elements. Four major emission sources, namely nonferrous metal mining and smelting (for Cr, As, Ba and parts of Zn), coal combustion (for Pb, Zn, Se, Cu and Mn), crustal materials (for Al and Fe) and municipal solid waste incineration (for Cd and Mo), were classified by principal component analysis (PCA). Trajectory cluster analysis and the potential source contribution function (PSCF) consistently identified the Yangtze River delta (YRD), the Pearl River delta (PRD), and the neighbouring provinces of Mt. Lushan as the major source regions and transport pathways for anthropogenic elements. Northern China was identified as a major source region for crustal elements. It should be noted that apart from the YRD, the area around Mt. Lushan has become the most significant contributor to the solubility of most trace elements. Element solubility can be partially determined by emission sources. However, enhanced solubility of trace elements corresponding to increased concentrations of sulfate after the occurrence of cloud events indicated significant effects of cloud processing on aerosol element dissolution. Metal particles mixed with sulfate in cloud droplet residues were further investigated through transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Irreversible alteration of particle morphology by cloud processing was confirmed to be highly responsible for the enhancement of trace element solubility. The findings from this study imply an

  16. Changes in soil quality after converting Pinus to Eucalyptus plantations in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, K.; Zheng, H.; Chen, F. L.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Wu, Y. F.; Lan, J.; Fu, M.; Xiang, X. W.

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in maintaining soil quality, but long-term changes in soil quality due to plant species change and successive planting are rarely reported. Using the space-for-time substitution method, adjacent plantations of Pinus and first, second, third and fourth generations of Eucalyptus in Guangxi, China were used to study changes in soil quality caused by converting Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Soil chemical and biological properties were measured and a soil quality index was calculated using principal component analysis. Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, alkaline hydrolytic nitrogen, microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass nitrogen, cellobiosidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly lower in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations compared with Pinus plantation, but they were significantly higher in the third and fourth generations than in the first and second generations and significantly lower than in Pinus plantation. Soil total and available potassium were significantly lower in Eucalyptus plantations (1.8-2.5 g kg-1 and 26-66 mg kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (14.3 g kg-1 and 92 mg kg-1), but total phosphorus was significantly higher in Eucalyptus plantations (0.9-1.1 g kg-1) compared to the Pinus plantation (0.4 g kg-1). As an integrated indicator, soil quality index was highest in the Pinus plantation (0.92) and lowest in the first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations (0.24 and 0.13). Soil quality index in the third and fourth generations (0.36 and 0.38) was between that in Pinus plantation and in first and second generations of Eucalyptus plantations. Changing tree species, reclamation and fertilization may have contributed to the change observed in soil quality during conversion of Pinus to Eucalyptus and successive Eucalyptus planting. Litter retention, keeping understorey coverage, and reducing soil disturbance during

  17. Re-emergence of Rabies in the Guangxi Province of Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wu; Yang, Jian; He, Xiao-Xia; Xie, Lin-Juan; Zeng, Lan; Zheng, Lie-Feng; Xiong, Yi; Minamoto, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rabies cases in the Guangxi province of China decreased from 839 in 1982 to 24 in 1995, but subsequently underwent a sharp increase, and has since maintained a high level. Methodology/Principal Findings 3,040 brain samples from normal dogs and cats were collected from 14 districts of Guangxi and assessed by RT-PCR. The brain samples showed an average rabies virus (RV) positivity rate of 3.26%, but reached 4.71% for the period Apr 2002 to Dec 2003. A total of 30 isolates were obtained from normal dogs and 28 isolates from rabid animals by the mouse inoculation test (MIT). Six representative group I and II RV isolates showed an LD50 of 10−5.35/ml to 10−6.19/ml. The reactivity of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to group I and II RV isolates from the Guangxi major epidemic showed that eight anti-G MAbs showed strong reactivity with isolates of group I and II with titers of ≥10,000; however, the MAbs 9-6, 13-3 and 12-14 showed lower reactivity. Phylogenetic analysis based on the G gene demonstrated that the Guangxi RV isolates have similar topologies with strong bootstrap values and are closely bonded. Alignment of deduced amino acids revealed that the mature G protein has four substitutions A96S, L132F, N436S, and A447I specific to group I, and 13 substitutions T90M, Y168C, S204G, T249I, P253S, S289T, V332I, Q382H, V427I, L474P, R463K Q486H, and T487N specific to group II, coinciding with the phylogenetic analysis of the isolates. Conclusions Re-emergence of human rabies has mainly occurred in rural areas of Guangxi since 1996. The human rabies incidence rate increased is related with RV positive rate of normal dogs. The Guangxi isolates tested showed a similar pathogenicity and antigenicity. The results of phylogenetic analysis coincide with that of alignment of deduced amino acids. PMID:25275567

  18. HAND-FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STATUS AND RELATIONSHIP WITH METEOROLOGICAL VARIABLES IN GUANGZHOU, SOUTHERN CHINA, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiegang; Yang, Zhicong; Liu, Xiangyi; Kang, Yan; Wang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is becoming one of the extremely common airborne and contact transmission diseases in Guangzhou, southern China, leading public health authorities to be concerned about its increased incidence. In this study, it was used an ecological study plus the negative binomial regression to identify the epidemic status of HFMD and its relationship with meteorological variables. During 2008-2012, a total of 173,524 HFMD confirmed cases were reported, 12 cases of death, yielding a fatality rate of 0.69 per 10,000. The annual incidence rates from 2008 to 2012 were 60.56, 132.44, 311.40, 402.76, and 468.59 (per 100,000), respectively, showing a rapid increasing trend. Each 1 °C rise in temperature corresponded to an increase of 9.47% (95% CI 9.36% to 9.58%) in the weekly number of HFMD cases, while a one hPa rise in atmospheric pressure corresponded to a decrease in the number of cases by 7.53% (95% CI -7.60% to -7.45%). Similarly, each one percent rise in relative humidity corresponded to an increase of 1.48% or 3.3%, and a one meter per hour rise in wind speed corresponded to an increase of 2.18% or 4.57%, in the weekly number of HFMD cases, depending on the variables considered in the model. These findings revealed that epidemic status of HFMD in Guangzhou is characterized by high morbidity but low fatality. Weather factors had a significant influence on the incidence of HFMD. PMID:25351550

  19. Sources of halogenated brominated retardants in house dust in an industrial city in southern China and associated human exposure.

    PubMed

    Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-11-01

    Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a class of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and attract increasing attention. In the present study, HFR concentrations were measured in indoor and outdoor dust in an important industrial city (Dongguan) in southern China, in which their presence and associated human exposure are unknown. The HFRs were dominated by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean concentrations of 2365 and 2441 ng/g in the indoor dust, respectively, which were 2-3 order of magnitude higher the concentrations of other HFRs. However elevated tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations (869 ng/g) were found in Houjie Town, a furniture manufacturing center. The mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of HFR concentrations in the dust were all larger than one (1.55-16.4), suggesting the importance of indoors sources for HFRs in indoor dust in this industrial city. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the correlations among the HFRs in the indoor dust probably revealed differences in their commercial applications, while most HFRs in the outdoor dust have similar sources except for phased-out BDE47 and 99. The compositions of lower brominated PBDEs varied among the towns, probably due to their different sources or influence of photo-degradation. Nevertheless, the similar composition of highly brominated congeners indicated little photo-degradation encountered in the ambient environment. The non-cancer risk associated with indoor dust ingestion is low for the general population in Dongguan, but some children in the furniture manufacturing center have significantly high risk of exposure to banned PBDEs. PMID:25282276

  20. Spatial distribution and partition of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in rivers of the Pearl River Delta, southern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baolin; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Liuwei; Li, Juying; Wang, Xinxuan; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yanping; Yang, Bo

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water from 67 sampling sites along rivers of the Pearl River Delta in southern China. Sixteen PFAAs, including perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs, C5-14, C16 and C18) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs, C4, C6, C8 and C10) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-negative electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). Total PFAA concentrations (∑ PFAAs) in the surface water ranged from 1.53 to 33.5 ng·L(-1) with an average of 7.58 ng·L(-1). Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were the three most abundant PFAAs and on average accounted for 28%, 16% and 10% of ∑ PFAAs, respectively. Higher concentrations of ∑ PFAAs were found in the samples collected from Jiangmen section of Xijiang River, Dongguan section of Dongjiang River and the Pearl River flowing the cities which had very well-developed manufacturing industries. PCA model was employed to quantitatively calculate the contributions of extracted sources. Factor 1 (72.48% of the total variance) had high loading for perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), PFBS and PFOS. For factor 2 (10.93% of the total variance), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUdA) got high loading. The sorption of PFCAs on suspended particulate matter (SPM) increased by approximately 0.1 log units for each additional CF2 moiety and that on sediment was approximately 0.8 log units lower than the SPM logKd values. In addition, the differences in the partition coefficients were influenced by the structure discrepancy of absorbents and influx of fresh river water. These data are essential for modeling the transport and environmental fate of PFAAs. PMID:25889539

  1. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to common respiratory viruses in intravenous immunoglobulin and in healthy donors in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xingui; Jiang, Zaixue; Ma, Qiang; Liu, Qian; Lu, Xiaomei; Liu, Wenkuan; Liao, Xiaohong; Zhou, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a leading cause of death among children under the age of 5. However, there are no effective drugs for most of these severe viral infections. Passive immunotherapy with convalescent plasma or hyperimmune intravenous immunoglobulin (H-IVIG) is a potential therapeutic option for serious viral infections. It is important to find a suitable source of convalescent plasma and of H-IVIG containing high titer neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Methods Sera from 96 healthy adult donors in southern China and commercially available IVIG were analyzed for the titers of NAb to several most common respiratory viruses including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), seasonal influenza A (InfA), enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), adenovirus type 3 (Ad3) and a recent epidemic adenovirus type 55 (Ad55) by microneutralization test. Results A high proportion of samples from healthy adult donors were positive for NAbs (>16) to all the viruses except Ad55. A different proportion of these samples had high NAb titers (>512) for InfA (25%), Ad3 (17.71%), RSV (9.38%), EV71 (1.04%), CA16 (3.13%), and Ad55 (4.17%). Commercially available IVIG had high NAb titers to InfA and Ad3 (>1,000) and lower NAb titers to RSV [320], EV71 [160], and CA16 [160]. Strikingly, IVIG also had a high NAb titer to Ad55 (>1,000). Conclusions Convalescent plasma could be screened from healthy blood volunteers to establish blood banks and to prepare specific H-IVIG for treating severe ARIs caused by common respiratory viruses. PMID:27162653

  2. Genetic polymorphisms and mutation rates of 27 Y-chromosomal STRs in a Han population from Guangdong Province, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yong-Ji; Zhang, Chu-chu; Li, Ran; Yang, Yang; Ou, Xue-Ling; Tong, Da-yue; Sun, Hong-Yu

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we collected blood samples from 1033 father-son pairs of a Han population from Guangdong Province, Southern China, of which 1007 fathers were unrelated male individuals. All together, 2040 male individuals were analyzed at 27 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) with Yfiler(®) Plus system. A total of 1003 different haplotypes were observed among 1007 unrelated fathers, with the overall haplotype diversity (HD) 0.999992 and discrimination capacity (DC) 0.996. The gene diversity (GD) values for the 27 Y-STR loci ranged from 0.4400 at DYS438 to 0.9597 at DYS385a/b. 11 off-ladder alleles and 25 copy number variants were detected in 1007 males. Population relationships were analyzed by comparison with 19 other worldwide populations. With 27,920 allele transfers in 1033 father-son pairs, 124 mutation events occurred, of which 118 were one-step mutations and 6 were two-step mutations. Eleven father-son pairs were found to have mutations at two loci, while one pair at three loci. The estimated locus-specific mutation rates varied from 0 to 1.74×10(-2), with an average estimated mutation rate 4.4×10(-3) (95%CI: 3.7×10(-3) to 5.3×10(-3)). Mutations were most frequently observed at three rapidly mutating Y-STRs (RM Y-STRs), DYS576, DYS518 and DYS627. However, at DYS570, DYS449 and DYF387S1 loci, which were also described as RM Y-STRs, the mutation rates in Guangdong Han population were not as high as estimated in other populations. PMID:26619377

  3. Variations in nitrogen-15 natural abundance of plant and soil systems in four remote tropical rainforests, southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ang; Fang, Yun-Ting; Chen, De-Xiang; Koba, Keisuke; Makabe, Akiko; Li, Yi-De; Luo, Tu-Shou; Yoh, Muneoki

    2014-02-01

    The foliar stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) can provide integrated information on ecosystem N cycling. Here we present the δ(15)N of plant and soil in four remote typical tropical rainforests (one primary and three secondary) of southern China. We aimed to examine if (1) foliar δ(15)N in the study forests is negative, as observed in other tropical and subtropical sites in eastern Asia; (2) variation in δ(15)N among different species is smaller compared to that in many N-limited temperate and boreal ecosystems; and (3) the primary forest is more N rich than the younger secondary forests and therefore is more (15)N enriched. Our results show that foliar δ(15)N ranged from -5.1 to 1.3‰ for 39 collected plant species with different growth strategies and mycorrhizal types, and that for 35 species it was negative. Soil NO3 (-) had low δ(15)N (-11.4 to -3.2‰) and plant NO3 (-) uptake could not explain the negative foliar δ(15)N values (NH4 (+) was dominant in the soil inorganic-N fraction). We suggest that negative values might be caused by isotope fractionation during soil NH4 (+) uptake and mycorrhizal N transfer, and by direct uptake of atmospheric NH3/NH4 (+). The variation in foliar δ(15)N among species (by about 6‰) was smaller than in many N-limited ecosystems, which is typically about or over 10‰. The primary forest had a larger N capital in plants than the secondary forests. Foliar δ(15)N and the enrichment factor (foliar δ(15)N minus soil δ(15)N) were higher in the primary forest than in the secondary forests, albeit differences were small, while there was no consistent pattern in soil δ(15)N between primary and secondary forests. PMID:24085637

  4. Tree Diversity Mediates the Distribution of Longhorn Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in a Changing Tropical Landscape (Southern Yunnan, SW China)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Ling-Zeng; Martin, Konrad; Weigel, Andreas; Yang, Xiao-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Longhorn beetles (Coleoptera : Cerambycidae) have been used to identify sites of high biological diversity and conservation value in cultivated landscapes, but were rarely studied in changing landscapes of humid tropics. This study was conducted in a region of southern Yunnan, China, which was dominated by natural rainforest until 30 years ago, but is successively transformed into commercial rubber monoculture plantations since that time. The objectives were to investigate longhorn beetle species diversity and distribution in the major land use types of this landscape and to estimate the effects of an expected expansion of rubber plantations on the longhorn beetle assemblages. The results showed that tree species diversity (181 species in total) and longhorn beetle diversity (220 species in total) were closely related with no significant differences between the tree and longhorn beetles assemblages shown by similarity distance analysis. There was a highly positive relationship between the estimated species richness of longhorn beetles and the number of tree species. Individual numbers of longhorn beetles and trees were also highly positive related at the sampling sites. Non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed that the degree of canopy coverage, succession age and tree diversity explained 78.5% of the total variation in longhorn beetle assemblage composition. Natural forest sites had significantly higher numbers of species and individuals than any other type of habitat. Although young rubber plantations bear the highest longhorn beetle diversity outside forests (half of the total number of longhorn beetle species recorded in total), they can not provide permanent habitats for most of these species, because they develop into closed canopy plantations with less suitable habitat conditions. Therefore, along with an expected expansion of rubber cultivation which largely proceeds at the expense of forest areas, the habitat conditions for longhorn beetles in this

  5. An interdecadal change in the intensity of interannual variability in summer rainfall over southern China around early 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Xin; He, Chao; Chen, Zesheng

    2016-03-01

    The intensity of interannual variability (IIV) in southern China (SC) summer rainfall experienced a remarkable increase in early 1990s, concurrent with the interdecadal increase in SC summer rainfall. Two factors are proposed for this interdecadal change. One is the interdecadal increase of IIV in tropical eastern Indian Ocean (TEIO) sea surface temperature (SST) after early 1990s. Anomalous warmer (cooler) TEIO SST triggers anomalous ascending (descending) motion and lower-level cyclonic (anticyclone) circulation in situ, which in turn induces anomalous descent (ascent) over SC through an anomalous meridional vertical circulation. This contributes to interannual summer rainfall variability over SC. The increase in the amplitude of TEIO SST anomalies in early 1990s led to an intensified interannual variability of summer rainfall over SC. The other is the strengthened influence of a coupled mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and North Atlantic triple SST anomaly on interannual variability in summer rainfall over SC after early 1990s. The leading EOF mode of the North Atlantic SST is characterized by a stripe pattern during 1979-1992, while during 1993-2008 the dominant mode of the North Atlantic SST is a triple pattern. The triple pattern of North Atlantic SST may exert positive effect on the NAO after early 1990s. Compared to the period 1979-1992, the relationship between the NAO and interannual summer rainfall over SC is enhanced during 1993-2008. The NAO coupled with North Atlantic SST triple exerts an important impact on SC summer rainfall variability through Eurasian wave-like train.

  6. Large Cohort Screening of G6PD Deficiency and the Mutational Spectrum in the Dongguan District in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Keze; Li, Wenrui; Ma, Qiang; He, Xiaoguang; He, Yuejing; He, Ting; Lu, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common enzymatic disorder of the erythrocytes that affects 400 million people worldwide. We developed a PCR-reverse dot blot (RDB) assay to screen twenty genotypes of seventeen Chinese G6PD mutations and investigate the spectrum of G6PD deficiency mutations in Dongguan District, Guangdong Province, in southern China. Method The PCR-RDB assay consists of multiplex PCR amplification of seven fragments in the G6PD target sequence of wild-type and mutant genomic DNA samples followed by hybridization to a test strip containing allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. A total of 16,464 individuals were analyzed by a combination of phenotypic screening and genotypic detection using the PCR-RDB assay and DNA sequence analysis. Results The PCR-RDB assay had a detection rate of 98.1%, which was validated by direct sequencing in a blind study with 100% concordance. The G6PD deficiency incidence rate in Dongguan District is 4.08%. Thirty-two genotypes from 469 individuals were found. The two most common variants were c.1376G>T and c.1388G>A, followed by c.95A>G, c.871G>A, c.392G>T, and c.1024 C>T. In addition, two rare mutations (c.703C>A and c.406C>T) were detected by DNA sequencing analysis. In our study, 65 cases harbored the C1311T/IVS polymorphism and 67 cases were homozygote. Conclusion The PCR-RDB assay we established is a reliable and effective method for screening G6PD mutations in the Chinese population. Data on the spectrum of mutations in the Dongguan District is beneficial to the clinical diagnosis and prevention of G6PD deficiency. PMID:25775246

  7. [Algicidal activity against red-tide algaes by marine bacterial strain N3 isolated from a HABs area, southern China].

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-jun; Huang, Hong-hui; Qi, Zhan-hui; Hu, Wei-an; Tian, Zi-yang; Dai, Ming

    2013-05-01

    A marine algicidal bacterium N3 was isolated from a HABs area in Mirs Bay, a subtropical bay, in southern China. Algicidal activity and algicidal mode against Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Prorocentrum micans and Skeletonema costatum were observed by the liquid infection method. The results showed that there were no algicidal activities against P. tricornutum and S. costatum. However, when the bacterial volume fractions were 2% and 10% , S. trochoidea and P. micans could be killed, respectively. S. trochoidea cells which were exposed to strain N3 became irregular in shape and the cellular components lost their integrity and were decomposed. While, the P. micans cells became inflated and the cellular components aggregated, followed by cell lysis. Strain N3 killed S. trochoidea and P. micans directly, and the algicidal activities of the bacterial strain N3 was concentration-dependent. To S. trochoidea, 2% (V/V) of bacteria in algae showed the strongest algicidal activity, all of the S. trochoidea cells were killed within 120 h. But the growth rates of cells, in the 1% and 0. 1% treatment groups, were only slightly lower than that in the control group. In all treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 were in declining trends. While, to P. micans, 10% and 5% of bacteria in algae showed strong algicidal activities, 78% and 70% of the S. trochoidea were killed within 120 h, respectively. However, the number of S. trochoidea after exposure to 1% of bacterial cultures still increased up to 5 incubation days. And in the three treatment groups, the densities of strain N3 experienced a decrease process. The isolated strain N3 was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characterization, and homology comparisons based on 16S rRNA sequences. PMID:23914549

  8. Change and fragmentation trends of Zhanjiang mangrove forests in southern China using multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1977-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. S.; Mao, L. J.; Shen, W. J.; Liu, S. Q.; Wei, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Mangrove forests, which are found in saline coastal environments around the tropical and subtropical latitudes, are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems in the world and provide valuable ecological and societal goods and services. The objective of this work was to characterize the spatio-temporal changes in mangrove distribution and fragmentation patterns in the Zhanjiang National Mangrove Forest Nature Reserve, Guangdong province of Southern China, from 1977 through 2010. In addition, a major goal was to assess the socio-economic drivers contributing to the chronic changes taking place within and around the mangrove reserve. Land use and land cover data sets were generated for the reserve for multiple years via unsupervised classification using Landsat time series images. Mangrove fragmentation patterns were then assessed with a fragmentation model. Results revealed that the mangrove spatial extent decreased sharply during the period from 1977 to 1991 due to deforestation caused by diverse development programs, particularly shrimp farming. Afterwards, there was a continuous increase in mangrove extent from 1991 to 2010 due to afforestation and conservation efforts. The mangrove fragmentation trends depicted by the fragmentation model had a high degree of correlation with the observed areal changes. Additionally, the recorded dynamics of the local biodiversity (mainly birds) were consistent with the mangrove ecosystem fragmentation trends over time, and different fragmentation components, including interior, perforated and edge, had distinct impacts on the local mangrove-dependent biodiversity. The most effective way to protect and expand the current mangroves include the following: (1) establishment of mangrove natural reserves, (2) forceful implementation of regulations, (3) establishment of educational programs related to mangrove management, (4) deepening international exchanges and cooperation and (5) increasing the transparency of the project

  9. Diagenesis and reservoir quality of the Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation tight sandstones in the southern Songliao Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Kelai; Cao, Yingchang; Jahren, Jens; Zhu, Rukai; Bjørlykke, Knut; Haile, Beyene Girma; Zheng, Lijing; Hellevang, Helge

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Quantou Formation in the southern Songliao Basin is the typical tight oil sandstone in China. For effective exploration, appraisal and production from such a tight oil sandstone, the diagenesis and reservoir quality must be thoroughly studied first. The tight oil sandstone has been examined by a variety of methods, including core and thin section observation, XRD, SEM, CL, fluorescence, electron probing analysis, fluid inclusion and isotope testing and quantitative determination of reservoir properties. The sandstones are mostly lithic arkoses and feldspathic litharenites with fine to medium grain size and moderate to good sorting. The sandstones are dominated by feldspar, quartz, and volcanic rock fragments showing various stages of disintegration. The reservoir properties are quite poor, with low porosity (average 8.54%) and permeability (average 0.493 mD), small pore-throat radius (average 0.206 μm) and high displacement pressure (mostly higher than 1 MPa). The tight sandstone reservoirs have undergone significant diagenetic alterations such as compaction, feldspar dissolution, quartz cementation, carbonate cementation (mainly ferrocalcite and ankerite) and clay mineral alteration. As to the onset time, the oil emplacement was prior to the carbonate cementation but posterior to the quartz cementation and feldspar dissolution. The smectite to illite reaction and pressure solution at stylolites provide a most important silica sources for quartz cementation. Carbonate cements increase towards interbedded mudstones. Mechanical compaction has played a more important role than cementation in destroying the reservoir quality of the K1q4 sandstone reservoirs. Mixed-layer illite/smectite and illite reduced the porosity and permeability significantly, while chlorite preserved the porosity and permeability since it tends to be oil wet so that later carbonate cementation can be inhibited to some extent. It is likely that the oil emplacement occurred

  10. Spatial driving forces of dominant land use/land cover transformations in the Dongjiang River watershed, Southern China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changjun; Zhou, Ping; Jia, Peng; Liu, Zhiyong; Wei, Long; Tian, Huiling

    2016-02-01

    Information about changes in, and causes of, land use/land cover (LULC) is crucial for land use resource planning. We investigated the processes involved in LULC change (LUCC) in the Dongjiang Watershed, in Southern China, over a 15-year period to gain a better understanding of the causes of the main types of LUCC. Using a depth transition matrix and redundancy analysis (RDA), the major types and causes of LUCC for each LULC type over the past 15 years were identified. LUCC exhibited obvious net change, relatively low persistence, and high swap change. The swap changes in most LULC types were considered as a strong signal of LULC transformations. The driving forces behind swap changes were quantified and identified through RDA. The results showed that all driving forces played important roles in explaining swap changes of LULC, although the relative effects of these drivers varied widely with both LULC type and time period. Swap changes of the LULC types were generally classified into two categories. Some, e.g., built-up land and wetland, were affected mostly by landform and/or distance factors, while others, e.g., grassland and woodland, were modulated mostly by climate and/or socioeconomic factors. Selected spatial driving forces and local land use policies played important roles in explaining the dominant LUCC types, but on different timescales. These findings may improve understanding of the detailed processes involved in LUCC, landscape transformation, and the causes of LUCC in other areas with extensive LUCC and could help managers plan, design, and implement land resource management. PMID:26746657

  11. Genomic characterization of influenza A (H7N9) viruses isolated in Shenzhen, Southern China, during the second epidemic wave.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shisong; Wang, Xin; Dong, Fangyuan; Jin, Tao; Liu, Guang; Lu, Xing; Peng, Bo; Wu, Weihua; Liu, Hui; Kong, Dongfeng; Tang, Xiujuan; Qin, Yanmin; Mei, Shujiang; Xie, Xu; He, Jianfan; Ma, Hanwu; Zhang, Renli; Cheng, Jinquan

    2016-08-01

    There were three epidemic waves of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in 2013-2014. While many analyses of the genomic origin, evolution, and molecular characteristics of the influenza A (H7N9) virus have been performed using sequences from the first epidemic wave, genomic characterization of the virus from the second epidemic wave has been comparatively less reported. In this study, an in-depth analysis was performed with respect to the genomic characteristics of 11 H7N9 virus strains isolated from confirmed cases and four H7N9 virus strains isolated from environmental samples in Shenzhen during the second epidemic wave. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that six internal segments of the influenza A (H7N9) virus isolated from confirmed cases and environmental samples in Shenzhen were clustered into two different clades and that the origin of the influenza A (H7N9) virus isolated from confirmed cases in Shenzhen was different from that of viruses isolated during the first wave. In addition, H9N2 viruses, which were prevalent in southern China, played an important role in the reassortment of the influenza A (H7N9) virus isolated in Shenzhen. HA-R47K and -T122A, PB2-V139I, PB1-I397M, and NS1-T216P were the signature amino acids of the influenza A (H7N9) virus isolated from confirmed cases in Shenzhen. We found that the HA, NA, M, and PA genes of the A(H7N9) viruses underwent positive selection in the human population. Therefore, enhanced surveillance should be carried out to determine the origin and mode of transmission of the novel influenza A (H7N9) virus and to facilitate the formulation of effective policies for prevention and containment of a human infection epidemics. PMID:27169600

  12. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China. PMID:27305977

  13. Magnetic evaluation of sediment provenance in the southern shelf of Korea (East China Sea) using Fuzzy c-means cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, J.; Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Yu, Y.; Shin, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Southern shelf of the Korean Peninsula has three potential sediment sources: China, Japan and Korea. However, dominance of clay and/or silt grained sediments causes ambiguity in the allocation of sediment sources and sedimentation features by conventional sedimentological approach. As an alternative analytic method, mineral magnetic techniques have been widely used to sediment provenances that are highly sensitive to micron-scale mineral fractions. In this study, various mineral magnetic parameters representing grain-size, magnetic concentration, and magnetic mineralogy were obtained from 480 sediment samples collected from 98 regularly spaced spots in the southern shelf of Korea. For the multivariate fuzzy cluster analysis, six parameters independent of magnetic mineral concentration were used. The interpretive routine suggests that the best statistical solution for the samples is four clusters. In addition, the solution shows a prominent spatial discrimination based on the magnetic data set. Samples characterized by relatively coarse and high-coercivity magnetic minerals are found in west of the study area (close to China, cluster 1). Clusters 2 and 3 include the samples showing a dominance of fine and low-coercivity ferrimagnetic minerals (center of the study area). Samples with close affinity to cluster 4 are found in northeast, which dominated by fine and high-coercivity minerals. Such longitudinal dichotomy in fuzzy clustering implies two possible sediment provenances: west in China and northeast in Korea. It is likely that Kuroshio Current flows are responsible for the spreads of finer grains in center of the study area (clusters 2 and 3).

  14. NPP changes of Larix chinensis estimated by tree-ring data and its response to climate change in the northern and southern slopes of Mt. Taibai, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, O.; Xuemei, S.

    2015-12-01

    Larix chinensis is mainly distributed in timberline of Mt. Taibai in the Qinling Mountains, a critical geographic demarcation for climate and vegetation distribution in China. Combined with biomass equations and the annual diameter at breast height calculated from tree-ring widths and investigation data of sampling plots, annual biomass and net primary productivity (NPP) of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes were estimated. Correlation and response analyses were used to illustrate the relationship between the climate and NPP. The results show that from 1949 to 2014, the biomass of L. chinensis in the pure forests increases from 54.03 to 94.43 t/ha in the northern slope and 28.32 to 55.80 t/ha in the southern slope. The NPP of L. chinensis in northern and southern slopes has varied concordantly over the past 65 years, with an average value of 0.62 and 0.42 t/(ha·a) respectively. The difference in NPPs between the northern and southern slope is decreasing for the slight decrease trend of NPP in northern slope. Temperature plays an important role in the growth of L. chinensis. Low temperature before the growing seasons (from pervious November to April) and warm conditions in the growing seasons (mainly from June to July) can increase the growth of L. chinensis. However, the relationships between NPP and temperature are different in the northern and southern slope. The NPP in southern slope is more positively correlated with the temperature in the growing seasons and there is no significant correlation relationship between the NPP and the temperature in previous winter (from pervious November to January), while the NPP in northern slope is more negatively correlated with the temperature before the growing seasons. These results will provide useful information for the future research of forest carbon cycling.

  15. When did the subduction first initiate in the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean: New constraints from a Cambrian intra-oceanic arc system in West Junggar, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Rong; Han, Bao-Fu; Xu, Zhao; Zhou, Yin-Zhang; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Jia-Fu; Su, Li; Li, Jiao; Li, Xian-Hua; Li, Qiu-Li

    2014-02-01

    We report here a Cambrian southward-subducting intra-oceanic arc system in the southern West Junggar, NW China, where an immature arc occurred initially on SSZ-type ophiolites and finally evolved into a more mature one. The immature arc is dominantly represented by Early-Middle Cambrian (∼510 Ma) low-K tholeiitic felsic rocks, whereas the mature arc is characterized by Late Cambrian (∼495 Ma) medium- and high-K calc-alkaline felsic and mafic rocks. The SSZ-type ophiolites show remarkable depletion of Nb and Ta and contain high-Cr spinel (Cr# > 0.6), resembling these formed in the forearc. Altogether, they record the initiation of subduction and transformation of crust during early subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The subduction initiation might occur in the Early Cambrian (>515 Ma), as constrained by both the SSZ-type ophiolites (516 Ma) and the oldest arc plutons (515-509 Ma) that crosscut the ophiolites. The immature felsic plutons have high SiO2 (>72 wt%) contents and variable MgO (0.42-1.49 wt%) and Mg# values (22-62). Crustal anatexis may be responsible for the genesis of those plutons and thus the transformation from oceanic to continental crust. These results, combined with regional data, convincingly indicate that it is one of the oldest intra-oceanic arc systems in the southern CAOB, which may mark the initial subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in its southern part, much later than those reported in the north. An archipelago-type model is proposed for the evolution of the southern West Junggar and has implications for the development of the southern part of the CAOB.

  16. 41 CFR 301-10.105 - What are the basic requirements for using airlines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for using airlines? 301-10.105 Section 301-10.105 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Common Carrier Transportation Airline § 301-10.105 What are the basic requirements for using airlines? The requirements for using airlines fall into three categories: (a) Using...

  17. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci of Chinese Tujia ethnic group residing in Youyang Region of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ran; Jing, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Fang, Xiang-Dong; Yan, Jiang-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Y-STR haplotype data were obtained in a population sample of 197 unrelated healthy male individuals of Chinese Tujia ethnic minority group residing in an autonomous county of Southern China using 17 Y-chromosome STR markers. A total of 197 haplotypes were identified in the set of Y-STR loci. The overall haplotype diversity for the Tujia population at 17 Y-STR loci was 1.0000±0.0005. Genetic distance was estimated between this population and other 14 Chinese populations including Paiwan and Atayal populations of Taiwan, and Southern Han, Dong, Jing, Miao, Yao, Zhuang, Yi, Maonan, She, Hui, Sala, and Tibetan ethnic groups. The results demonstrated that the 17 Y-STR loci analyzed were highly polymorphic in Tujia ethnic group examined and hence useful for forensic cases, paternity testing, and population genetic studies. PMID:24565965

  18. Medical emergencies on board commercial airlines: is documentation as expected?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to perform a descriptive, content-based analysis on the different forms of documentation for in-flight medical emergencies that are currently provided in the emergency medical kits on board commercial airlines. Methods Passenger airlines in the World Airline Directory were contacted between March and May 2011. For each participating airline, sample in-flight medical emergency documentation forms were obtained. All items in the sample documentation forms were subjected to a descriptive analysis and compared to a sample "medical incident report" form published by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Results A total of 1,318 airlines were contacted. Ten airlines agreed to participate in the study and provided a copy of their documentation forms. A descriptive analysis revealed a total of 199 different items, which were summarized into five sub-categories: non-medical data (63), signs and symptoms (68), diagnosis (26), treatment (22) and outcome (20). Conclusions The data in this study illustrate a large variation in the documentation of in-flight medical emergencies by different airlines. A higher degree of standardization is preferable to increase the data quality in epidemiologic aeromedical research in the future. PMID:22397530

  19. [Characteristics and adaption of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of global climate change. II. Spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for wintering grain- and oil crops based on crop water deficit index].

    PubMed

    Sui, Yue; Huang, Wan-Hua; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Li, Mao-Song

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, seasonal drought occurs frequently in southern China, giving severe impact on the production of local wintering crops. Based on the 1959-2009 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, and by using crop water deficit index (CWDI) as agricultural drought index, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal characteristics of drought for winter wheat and rapeseed. The results showed that in southern China, drought happened more frequently in Southwest China, north Huaihe basin, and parts of South China during the developmental stages of wintering crops. In the mid-lower Yangtze basin, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the mid-late developmental stages of winter wheat, and became much heavier at its later developmental stages. For rapeseed, the intensity and extent of drought increased during the developmental stage before winter and the late developmental stages. In southwest part, the intensity and extent of drought increased significantly during the developmental stage before winter for winter wheat and rapeseed. Since the early 1990s, the intensity and extent of drought in southern China increased during the mid-late developmental stages of wintering crops. PMID:23286003

  20. Terrigenous supplies variability over the past 22,000 yr in the southern South China Sea slope: Relation to sea level and monsoon rainfall changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jie; Jiang, Fuqing; Wan, Shiming; Zhang, Jin; Li, Anchun; Li, Tiegang

    2016-03-01

    Changing weathering intensity, sediment transport, and provenance variations over the past 22.0 ka BP have been investigated by high-resolution clay mineralogy, grain-size and stable oxygen isotopes of planktonic foraminifera records along core CG2 recovered from the continental slope of the Sunda Shelf (southern South China Sea). Our results indicated that the reworking of older sediments outcropping on the Sunda Shelf exerted a great influence on the sediment supply during the last glacial and most of the last deglacial, modulated by sea level and monsoon rainfall changes. During the last 9.0 ka BP, relative increased kaolinite and heavier δ18Oseawater values might reflect the higher influence of the tropical Indonesian Islands sources due to the reopen of southern straits, implying the formation of modern oceanic circulation and depositional patterns. High sediment fluxes in core CG2 during Heinrich stadial 1 might be a synthetic result of the intensified monsoon rainfall originated from the southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the proximal location of the study core before the flooding of the Sunda Shelf. Fluctuations in smectite/(illite + chlorite) ratios correlated well with monsoon intensity, and periods of strong monsoon rainfall (lighter δ18Oseawater values) were associated with an intensification of erosion of pre-existing, more weathered materials on the Sunda Shelf. Finally, we concluded that sediment composition and mineralogy in the southern South China Sea slope were controlled by varying degrees of reworking on the Sunda Shelf, as well as climatically modulated sediment supply from the Mekong River and southern tropical islands over the last 22.0 ka BP.

  1. Regularities of the distribution and heavy metal forms in technogenically transformed chernozems of the southern Angara River basin and northeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogolova, G. A.; Gordeeva, O. N.; Koval, P. V.; Zhou, Q. X.; Guo, G. L.

    2009-04-01

    Specific features of heavy metals and As migration in the system soil-plant are considered on the basis of the results obtained in the analysis of different forms of toxic elements in technogenically transformed chernozems of the southern Baikal Lake basin. These results are compared to the data of analogous studies conducted in northeastern China. The regularities in the bioaccumulation of heavy metals and As were related to their forms, their concentration in the soils, and the plant species. Cadmium was found to be the most mobile element, which accumulated in the chernozems to the greatest degree; lead was the least mobile element.

  2. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt in the southern Qinling orogen, central China: Constraints from surface geology and reflection seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Dong, Shuwen; Yin, An; Zhang, Yueqiao; Shi, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The Daba Shan Thrust Belt is located along the southern margin of the Qinling orogen that separates the north China block in the north from the south China block in the south. Despite decades of research, the total magnitude of shortening accommodated by continent-continent convergence across the Qinling orogen after Triassic ocean closure between north and south China remains poorly constrained. The lack of knowledge on the shortening magnitude in turn limits our ability to test a wide array of tectonic models for the development of the Qinling orogen and thus the convergence history between north and south China. In order to address this issue, we construct a balanced cross section and develop a new kinematic model for the evolution of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt. This work was accomplished by integrating (1) surface geologic mapping, (2) detailed kinematic analysis of key structures, (3) existing geochronologic and thermochronological data, and (4) a recently obtained lithospheric-scale seismic reflection profile. Restoration of the cross section indicates that the minimum shortening strain increases northward from ~10% in the foreland to >45% in the thrust belt interior. The estimated amount of upper crustal shortening across the Daba Shan Thrust Belt is >130 km, which is sufficient to allow the inferred mafic lower crust of the subducted south China lithosphere to have experienced eclogite phase transition. Thus, our work supports that the development of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt may have been driven by slab pull of the subducted mafic lower crust at the leading edge of the down-plunging south China continental lithosphere.

  3. Evaluation of water quality in surface water and shallow groundwater: a case study of a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuzhen; Wang, Dengjun; Wang, Peiran; Wang, Yuxia; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality of surface water and shallow groundwater near a rare earth mining area in southern Jiangxi Province, China. Water samples from paddy fields, ponds, streams, wells, and springs were collected and analyzed. The results showed that water bodies were characterized by low pH and high concentrations of total nitrogen (total N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N), manganese (Mn), and rare earth elements (REEs), which was likely due to residual chemicals in the soil after mining activity. A comparison with the surface water standard (State Environmental Protection Administration & General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China GB3838, 2002) and drinking water sanitary standard (Ministry of Health & National Standardization Management Committee of China GB5749, 2006) of China revealed that 88 % of pond and stream water samples investigated were unsuitable for agricultural use and aquaculture water supply, and 50 % of well and spring water samples were unsuitable for drinking water. Moreover, significant cerium (Ce) negative and heavy REEs enrichment was observed after the data were normalized to the Post-Archean Australian Shales (PAAS). Principal component analysis indicated that the mining activity had a more significant impact on local water quality than terrace field farming and poultry breeding activities. Moreover, greater risk of water pollution and adverse effects on local residents' health was observed with closer proximity to mining sites. Overall, these findings indicate that effective measures to prevent contamination of surrounding water bodies from the effects of mining activity are needed. PMID:26661960

  4. Zircon U-Pb geochronology of the basement rocks and dioritic intrusion associated with the Fushan skarn iron deposit, southern Taihang Mountains, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun-Feng; Li, Sheng-Rong; Santosh, M.; Dong, Guo-Chen; Wang, Yan-Juan; Liu, Hai-Ming; Peng, Zi-Dong; Zhang, Zhao-Yu

    2015-12-01

    The Fushan iron ores, located in the southern part of the Taihang Mountains (TM) within the Trans-North China Orogen, is among the medium-sized skarn iron deposits in China. In this paper we report U-Pb age data on zircon grains from the magmatic intrusion related with the skarn formation and from the Neoarchean metamorphic basement in the area. The results show that the dioritic intrusion which generated the skarn mineralization was emplaced at 128.8 ± 1.9 Ma. Zircon grains from the basement rocks and xenoliths, as well as inherited zircon in the dioritic intrusion show Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic ages, corresponding to similar ages reported from elsewhere in the North China Craton. Our results and those from previous studies suggest that the continental lower crust was the major source of Mesozoic magmatism and associated ore mineralization. The Mesozoic magmatism and metallogeny in the Fushan region correlate with the peak of lithospheric destruction of the North China Craton.

  5. Laminar Flow Control Leading Edge Systems in Simulated Airline Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving laminar flow on the wings of a commercial transport involves difficult problems associated with the wing leading edge. The NASA Leading Edge Flight Test Program has made major progress toward the solution of these problems. The effectiveness and practicality of candidate laminar flow leading edge systems were proven under representative airline service conditions. This was accomplished in a series of simulated airline service flights by modifying a JetStar aircraft with laminar flow leading edge systems and operating it out of three commercial airports in the United States. The aircraft was operated as an airliner would under actual air traffic conditions, in bad weather, and in insect infested environments.

  6. Airline Maintenance Manpower Optimization from the De Novo Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, James J. H.; Tzeng, Gwo-Hshiung

    Human resource management (HRM) is an important issue for today’s competitive airline marketing. In this paper, we discuss a multi-objective model designed from the De Novo perspective to help airlines optimize their maintenance manpower portfolio. The effectiveness of the model and solution algorithm is demonstrated in an empirical study of the optimization of the human resources needed for airline line maintenance. Both De Novo and traditional multiple objective programming (MOP) methods are analyzed. A comparison of the results with those of traditional MOP indicates that the proposed model and solution algorithm does provide better performance and an improved human resource portfolio.

  7. Application of Core Theory to the Airline Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, Sunder

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the airline industry has been fierce since the industry was deregulated in 1978. The proponents of deregulation believed that more competition would improve efficiency and reduce prices and bring overall benefits to the consumer. In this paper, a case is made based on core theory that under certain demand and cost conditions more competition can actually lead to harmful consequences for industries like the airline industry or cause an empty core problem. Practices like monopolies, cartels, price discrimination, which is considered inefficient allocation of resources in many other industries, can actually be beneficial in the case of the airline industry in bringing about an efficient equilibrium.

  8. Air Travel and TB: an airline perspective.

    PubMed

    Dowdall, Nigel P; Evans, Anthony D; Thibeault, Claude

    2010-03-01

    The commercial airline industry in the 21st century is a global business, able to transport large numbers of people to almost any part of the world within a few hours. There has long been concern in public health circles about the potential for transmission of communicable diseases, such as TB, on board aircraft. The recent threats from novel and emerging infectious diseases including SARS and pandemic flu has facilitated unprecedented levels of cooperation between international industry representatives, regulators and public health authorities in addressing the issues of air travel and communicable disease. This paper reviews the regulatory environment, ways in which the risks are mitigated through aspects of aircraft design, opportunities for prevention by identifying individuals who may be suffering from a communicable disease prior to flight and the approach used in managing suspected cases of communicable disease on board aircraft. PMID:20478517

  9. Airline Transport Pilot Preferences for Predictive Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1996-01-01

    This experiment assessed certain issues about the usefulness of predictive information: (1) the relative time criticality of failures, (2) the subjective utility of predictive information for different parameters or sensors, and (3) the preferred form and prediction time for displaying predictive information. To address these issues, three separate tasks were administered to 22 airline pilots. As shown by the data, these pilots preferred predictive information on parameters they considered vital to the safety of the flight. These parameters were related to the checklists performed first for alert messages. These pilots also preferred to know whether a parameter was changing abnormally and the time to a certain value being reached. Furthermore, they considered this information most useful during the cruise, the climb, and the descent phases of flight. Lastly, these pilots preferred the information to predict as far ahead as possible.

  10. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  11. Studies on the community structures of meiofauna and marine nematode at six stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhinan; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162±0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum 2.35g dwt m-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified. Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 ind m-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2 cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from O.Ol µg to 31.32f*g with an average of 0.261 µg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp.1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (J), evenness index (d) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdø). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  12. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y. T.; Koba, K.; Wang, X. M.; Wen, D. Z.; Li, J.; Takebayashi, Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Yoh, M.

    2010-09-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3) or nitrate (NO3-) is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we used the denitrifier method to measure nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopic composition of NO3- in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3- formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3- (versus air N2) ranged from -4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3- were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively), a range being lower than those reported for high altitude and polar areas. Several δ18O values were observed lower than the expected minimum of 50‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3-. Our results highlight that the influence of human activities on atmospheric chemistry can be recorded by the N and O isotopic composition of atmospheric NO3- in a N-polluted city.

  13. Anthropogenic imprints on nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation nitrate in a nitrogen-polluted city in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Y. T.; Koba, K.; Wang, X. M.; Wen, D. Z.; Li, J.; Takebayashi, Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Yoh, M.

    2011-02-01

    Nitric acid (HNO3) or nitrate (NO3-) is the dominant sink for reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) in the atmosphere. In many Chinese cities, HNO3 is becoming a significant contributor to acid deposition. In the present study, we measured nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopic composition of NO3- in 113 precipitation samples collected from Guangzhou City in southern China over a two-year period (2008 and 2009). We attempted to better understand the spatial and seasonal variability of atmospheric NOx sources and the NO3- formation pathways in this N-polluted city in the Pearl River Delta region. The δ15N values of NO3- (versus air N2) ranged from -4.9 to +10.1‰, and averaged +3.9‰ in 2008 and +3.3‰ in 2009. Positive δ15N values were observed throughout the year, indicating the anthropogenic contribution of NOx emissions, particularly from coal combustion. Different seasonal patterns of δ15N-NO3- were observed between 2008 and 2009, which might reflect different human activities associated with the global financial crisis and the intensive preparations for the 16th Asian Games. Nitrate δ18O values (versus Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water) varied from +33.4 to +86.5‰ (average +65.0‰ and +67.0‰ in 2008 and 2009, respectively), a range being lower than those reported for high latitude and polar areas. Sixteen percent of δ18O values was observed lower than the expected minimum of +55‰ at our study site. This was likely caused by the reaction of NO with peroxy radicals; peroxy radicals can compete with O3 to convert NO to NO2, thereby donate O atoms with much lower δ18O value than that of O3 to atmospheric NO3-. Our results highlight that the influence of human activities on atmospheric chemistry can be recorded by the N and O isotopic composition of atmospheric NO3- in a N-polluted city.

  14. Spatiotemporal variations in rainfall erosivity during the period of 1960-2011 in Guangdong Province, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qinghe; Liu, Qian; Ma, Lijiao; Ding, Shengyan; Xu, Shanshan; Wu, Changsong; Liu, Pu

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall erosivity, which shows a potential risk of soil loss caused by water erosion, is an important factor in soil erosion process. In consideration of the critical condition of soil erosion induced by rainfall in Guangdong Province of southern China, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal variations in rainfall erosivity based on daily rainfall data observed at 25 meteorological stations during the period of 1960-2011. The methods of global spatial autocorrelation, kriging interpolation, Mann-Kendall test, and continuous wavelet transform were used. Results revealed that the annual rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province, which spatially varied with the maximum level observed in June, was classified as high erosivity with two peaks that occur in spring and summer. In the direction of south-north, mean annual rainfall erosivity, which showed significant relationships with mean annual rainfall and latitude, gradually decreased with the high values mainly distributed in the coastal area and the low values mainly occurring in the lowlands of northwestern Guangdong. Meanwhile, a significant positive spatial autocorrelation which implied a clustered pattern was observed for annual rainfall erosivity. The spatial distribution of seasonal rainfall erosivity exhibited clustering tendencies, except spring erosivity with Moran's I and Z values of 0.1 and 1.04, respectively. The spatial distribution of monthly rainfall erosivity presented clustered patterns in January-March and July-October as well as random patterns in the remaining months. The temporal trend of mean rainfall erosivity in Guangdong Province showed no statistically significant trend at the annual, seasonal, and monthly scales. However, at each station, 1 out of 25 stations exhibited a statistically significant trend at the annual scale; 4 stations located around the Pearl River Delta presented significant trends in summer at the seasonal scale; significant trends were observed in March (increasing

  15. Summer carbonate chemistry dynamics in the Southern Yellow Sea and the East China Sea: Regional variations and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Baoxiao; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin; Chen, Xin; Lu, Xi

    2015-12-01

    Surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and pertinent parameters (i.e., pH, total alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a) were investigated in the southern Yellow Sea (SYS) and the East China Sea (ECS) basing on two surveys conducted in June and August of 2013. The results suggested carbonate chemistry dynamics and related controlling factors were provided with significant temporal and spatial variations in different subregions of these two continental shelf seas. The western of SYS (SYSW) was CO2-undersaturated both in June and August, with the average FCO2 -1.88 mmol m-2 d-1 and -3.72 mmol m-2 d-1, respectively. The phytoplankton initiated CO2-absorption and the suspended sediment induced CO2-emission jointly controlled the air-sea CO2 exchange there. The center of SYS (SYSC) also behaved as an obvious CO2 sink (-1.57 mmol m-2 d-1and -3.99 mmol m-2 d-1 in June and August, respectively), probably due to elevated TA/DIC ratio and the subsequent effects of spring bloom. As for the Yangtze River estuary (YRE), it changed from an obvious CO2 sink (-1.28 mmol m-2 d-1) in June into a very weak CO2 source (0.04 mmol m-2 d-1) in August. This change was probably associated with the rising of seawater temperature and monthly variation of Yangtze River discharge. The inner shelf of ECS (ECSS) experienced obvious air-sea CO2 flux changes during from June (-8.88 mmol m-2 d-1) to August (-0.36 mmol m-2 d-1) as well. Biological DIC consumption in the upper layer and DIC regenerated from respiration in the subsurface jointly controlled this pCO2 variation. As a whole, the SYS and ECS acted as an obvious CO2 sink during summer and could absorb atmospheric CO2 with the average air-sea flux (FCO2) -2.68 mmol m-2 d-1. The summary of air-sea CO2 flux in the ECS and SYS during recent two decades indicated the ECS served as quite a stable CO2 sink, whereas the SYS experienced obvious change. Discharge of Yangtze River and anthropogenic nutrients loading could profoundly affect the

  16. Organic geochemistry and petroleum geology, tectonics and basin analysis of southern Tarim and northern Qaidam basins, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Andrew Dean

    Organic geochemistry of oils from the Tarim basin, NW China, distinguish at least seven genetic groups of oils. The largest group are derived from Middle-Upper Ordovician anoxic slope-facies marls coincident with the margins of structural uplifts. Other groups include non-marine derived oils in the Luntai uplift, from southwest Tarim, in the Kuqa depression, and west of the Bachu uplift. A seep sample from west of Kashi clusters with Luntai oils. These results suggest that numerous source-rock horizons occur, but they are really restricted. Organic geochemistry of oils from northern Qaidam defines a family of hypersaline, anoxic lacustrine derived oils. Cenozoic outcrop samples from northern Qaidam are too organic lean to be of source quality, but dark laminated upper Oligocene mudstones from the Shi 28 well are of fair to good quality. Biomarkers provide a good correlation between the oils and the core samples. Organic matter is from algae and bacteria and lacks terrestrial material. Hydrocarbons are contained in upper Oligocene, Miocene, and Pliocene reservoirs. Eight oils are from NW Qaidam, but one sample comes from NE Qaidam, an area previously believed to only produce oils derived from Jurassic source rocks. Thus an unidentified Cenozoic source rock occurs in NE Qaidam. Thermal modeling indicates generation occurred in northwestern Qaidam within the last 3 million years, agreeing with observed low maturity biomarker parameters. Cenozoic stratigraphy in northern Qaidam and southern Tarim basins record the tectonic history of the surrounding structural/topographic elements. Paleocurrents record flow away from adjacent ranges from the Miocene to the present. Provenance data tie sediments to adjacent structural elements. Petrography indicates increasingly immature sandstones in Miocene and younger sediments relative to pre-Miocene samples. Apatite fission-track results from southeastern Tarim yield a cooling age of 17 +/- 1 Ma indicative of unroofing since at

  17. An analysis of short haul airline operating costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanafani, A.; Taghavi, S.

    1975-01-01

    The demand and supply characteristics of short haul air transportation systems are investigated in terms of airline operating costs. Direct, indirect, and ground handling costs are included. Supply models of short haul air transportation systems are constructed.

  18. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, John

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear which occured on 31 May 1984 on a United Airlines aircraft is discussed by a member of the National Center for Atmospheric Research. The meteorological parameters important to this incident are detailed.

  19. Some airline experience in preventing engine rotor failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Methods used by airlines, with the assistance of the engine manufacturers to achieve control over the type of problems which lead to uncontained failure and avoid many potential problems are discussed.

  20. United Airlines wind shear incident of May 31, 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmon, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An incident involving wind shear on 31 May 1984 is discussed by an airline employee. The specs of the plane are given, the weather conditions are listed, and the actions taken by the flight crew are discussed.

  1. Role of intraseasonal oscillation in asymmetric impacts of El Niño and La Niña on the rainfall over southern China in boreal winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renhe; Li, Tianran; Wen, Min; Liu, Liangke

    2015-08-01

    The impacts of El Niño and La Niña on the rainfall over southern China in winter half year (November-April) are investigated diagnostically. It is found that positive rainfall anomalies with statistical significance appear over southern China in El Niño winter but no reversed significant rainfall anomalies in La Niña winter. The asymmetry of the rainfall anomalies are related with the asymmetry in anomalous circulation over western North Pacific (WNP) in lower troposphere, with a strong anomalous anticyclone in El Niño winter but a weak anomalous cyclone in La Niña winter. It is revealed that the asymmetric responses in anomalous circulation to El Nino and La Niña are affected by the intraseasonal oscillation (ISO). In El Niño winter the interannual variation is dominant and the ISO is weak, and the strong interannual variation leads to a strong response of the anomalous anticyclone over WNP in winter half year. However, in La Niña winter the ISO is dominant and the interannual variation is weak, and the weak interannual variation results in a weak response of the anomalous cyclone over WNP.

  2. Trans-oceanic transport of 137Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident and impact of hypothetical Fukushima-like events of future nuclear plants in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wai, Ka-Ming; Yu, Peter K N

    2015-03-01

    A Lagrangian model was adopted to assess the potential impact of (137)Cs released from hypothetical Fukushima-like accidents occurring on three potential nuclear power plant sites in Southern China in the near future (planned within 10 years) in four different seasons. The maximum surface (0-500 m) (137)Cs air concentrations would be reached 10 Bq m(-3) near the source, comparable to the Fukushima case. In January, Southeast Asian countries would be mostly affected by the radioactive plume due to the effects of winter monsoon. In April, the impact would be mainly on Southern and Northern China. Debris of radioactive plume (~1 mBq m(-3)) would carry out long-range transport to North America. The area of influence would be the smallest in July due to the frequent and intense wet removal events by trough of low pressure and tropical cyclone. The maximum worst-case areas of influence were 2382000, 2327000, 517000 and 1395000 km(2) in January, April, July and October, respectively. Prior to the above calculations, the model was employed to simulate the trans-oceanic transport of (137)Cs from the Fukushima nuclear accident. Observed and modeled (137)Cs concentrations were comparable. Sensitivity runs were performed to optimize the wet scavenging parameterization. The adoption of higher-resolution (1° × 1°) meteorological fields improved the prediction. The computed large-scale plume transport pattern over the Pacific Ocean was compared with that reported in the literature. PMID:25474170

  3. To "bee" or not to be-on some ornamental shrimp from Guangdong Province, Southern China and Hong Kong SAR, with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Klotz, Werner; Von Rintelen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several atyid specimens were collected from hill streams in Guangdong Province, Southern China and Hong Kong during fieldtrips between 2004 and 2013. Some of these species, most of them also sold as ornamental pet shrimp in the international aquarium trade, proved to be new to science by morphological observation and analysis of mtDNA sequences. Three new species, Caridina logemanni n. sp., Caridina mariae n. sp. and Caridina conghuensis n. sp., all of them members of the so called Caridina serrata species group  (Cai & Ng 1999) are described in detail below. Caridina tumida Wang, Liang & Li, 2008 is synonymised with Caridina venusta Wang, Liang & Li, 2008. Caridina meridionalis Wang, Liang & Li, 2008 is moved to the genus Paracaridina Liang, Guo & Tang, 1999 and synonymised with Paracaridina zijinica Liang, 2002. New records for Caridina trifasciata Yam & Cai, 2003 and Caridina serrata Stimpson, 1860 are recorded. All species are compared to their morphologically closest congeners and the phylogenetic relationships between atyid shrimps from Southern China are shown.  PMID:25544138

  4. Genetic similarity of HIV type 1 subtype E in a recent outbreak among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam to strains in Guangxi Province of southern China.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Shiino, T; Kusagawa, S; Sato, H; Nohtomi, K; Shibamura, K; Nguyen, T H; Pham, K C; Truong, X L; Mai, H A; Hoang, T L; Bunyaraksyotin, G; Fukushima, Y; Honda, M; Wasi, C; Yamazaki, S; Nagai, Y; Takebe, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the molecular epidemiology of a recent HIV-1 outbreak in northern Vietnam and its relation to the epidemic in surrounding areas, we analyzed 17 HIV-positive blood specimens from 3 heterosexuals, 2 sexually transmitted disease patients, and 12 injecting drug users (IDUs), collected in 4 provinces near Hanoi in 1998. These were compared with the specimens from Ho Chi Minh City (n = 10) and An Giang Province (n = 10) in southern Vietnam and with published sequences from neighboring countries. Genetic subtyping based on the env C2/V3 sequences revealed that HIV-1 subtype E predominated throughout Vietnam in all risk populations; the exception was one typical United States-European-type HIV-1 subtype B detected in a patient in Ho Chi Minh City, the first case of HIV infection identified in Vietnam in 1990. The HIV-1 subtype E sequences identified in 9 of the 12 IDUs from northern provinces were closely related phylogenetically to those in IDUs in nearby Guangxi Province of China, and also shared a common amino acid signature downstream of the env V3 loop region. The low interperson nucleotide diversity among IDUs in northern Vietnam supports the view that HIV-1 subtype E was introduced recently among IDUs in northern Vietnam. These data indicate a linkage between HIV-1 circulating among IDUs in northern Vietnam and southern China, and suggest recent transborder introductions as the likely source of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Vietnam. PMID:10480629

  5. China.

    PubMed

    1983-12-01

    This discussion of China focuses on the following: the people; geography; history (early history, 20th century China, the People's Republic of China; the "Great Leap Forward" and the Sino Soviet Split, the Cultural Revolution, and Mao's death and present directions); government (state structure, Chinese Communist Party, and legal system); education; economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between China and the US. As of 1982, China's population totaled just over 1.008 billion with an annual growth rate of 1.5%. Life expectancy is 68 years. Government authorities endorsed birth control in the 1950s, played it down in 1958, and began to promote it again in 1962. The present family planning program began in the early 1970s and has become more fully mobilized since 1979. The largest ethnic group is the Han Chinese, who constitute 93.3% of the total population. The People's Republic of China, located in eastern Asia, is almost as large as the European continent. 2/3 of China's area is mountainous or semidesert; only about 1/10 is cultivated. China is the oldest continuous major world civilization with records dating back about 3500 years. Mao's death in September 1976 removed a towering figure from Chinese politics and set off a scramble for succession. The post 11th Party Congress leadership has emphasized economic development and renounced the mass political movements of prior years. Important educational reforms were made in early 1978. Since 1979, the Chinese leadership has moved toward more pragmatic positions in almost all fields. The Chinese government has always been subordinate to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its role being to implement party policies. The primary instruments of state power are the State Council, an executive body corresponding to a cabinet, and the NPC, a legislative body. China has made impressive progress in primary education since 1949. About 93% of eligible children are enrolled in 1st grade, though only 65% finish primary

  6. Design, development and trials of an airline passenger telephone system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenenberger, Jim; Mckinlay, Roger

    1988-01-01

    The design, development and trials of a satellite telephone system for airline passengers is described. The requirements for ground and space infrastructure are discussed and the aeronautical system is described. Design criteria for the antennas and avionic boxes are given and system operation and technical flight trial requirements are discussed, together with test methodology and development towards fully commercial trials. Finally, an indication of development requirements to achieve the desired aims of airline users is given.

  7. The Empirical Analysis of Impact of Alliances on Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iatrou, Kostas; Alamdari, Fariba

    2003-01-01

    Airline alliances are dominating the current air transport industry with the largest carriers of the world belonging to one of the four alliance groupings - "Wings", Star Alliance, one world, SkyTeam - which represent 56% of world Revenue Passenger Kilometers. Although much research has been carried out to evaluate the impact of alliance membership on performance of airlines, it would be of interest to ascertain the degree of impact perceived by participating airlines in alliances. It is the purpose of this paper to gather the opinion of all the airlines, belonging to the four global alliance groupings on the impact alliances have had on their traffic and on their performance in general To achieve this, a comprehensive survey of the alliance management departments of airlines participating in the four global strategic alliances was carried out. With this framework the survey has examined which type of cooperation among carriers (FFP, Code Share, Strategic Alliance without antitrust immunity, Strategic Alliance with antitrust immunity) has produced the most positive impact on traffic and which type of route (short haul, long haul, hub-hub, hub-non hub, non hub-non hub) has been mostly affected. In addition, the respondent airlines quantified the effect alliances have had on specific areas of their operation, such as load factors, traffic, costs, revenue and fares. Their responses have been analysed under each global alliances grouping, under airline and under geographic region to establish which group, type of carrier and geographic region has benefited most. The results show that each of the four global alliances groupings has experienced different results according to the type of collaboration agreed amongst their member airlines.

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of the urban sprawl in a typical urban agglomeration: a case study on Southern Jiangsu, China (1983-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongxue; Chen, Jieli; Cheng, Wangyu; Sun, Chao; Zhao, Saishuai; Pu, Yingxia

    2014-12-01

    China has experienced urbanization at an unprecedented rate over the past decades. Against this background, this paper demonstrates the multi-level spatiotemporal urban sprawl process from 1983 to 2007 on the perspective of urban agglomeration with a case study in Southern Jiangsu. Based on a combination of eight rounds of satellite images from 1983 to 2007, the presented results suggest the following three main findings: (1) At the prefecture-city level, the urban sprawl in Southern Jiangsu has presented significantly divergent growth patterns, with more than half of this vast growth occurring in the Suzhou prefecture-level city. (2) At the county level, clear spatial differentiations exist in the direction of the urban sprawl. The centroids of all county seats in the Suzhou and Wuxi prefecture-level cities have an eastward tendency (Shanghai oriented), while those of the county seats in the Changzhou prefecture-level city tend to be westward (Nanjing oriented). (3) At the township level, two convergent groups have gradually formed over time; namely, the low density urban zone in the western hilly land and the high density urban zone around the three central downtown areas. The urban areas close to urban cores tend to merge, showing a high-density convergent growth pattern, as do the western and southwestern townships in Southern Jiangsu, showing a low-density convergent growth pattern. All of these findings may be valuable for researchers and local authorities in providing reference for regional coordinated growth, environmental management, and urban planning decision-making.

  9. Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide and carbon disulfide in the Pearl River Delta of southern China: Impact of anthropogenic and biogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Simpson, I. J.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, T.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, T. J.; Cheng, H. R.; Barletta, B.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D. R.; Rowland, F. S.

    2010-10-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) such as carbonyl sulfide (OCS), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and carbon disulfide (CS 2) impact radiative forcing, ozone depletion, and acid rain. Although Asia is a large source of these compounds, until now a long-term study of their emission patterns has not been carried out. Here we analyze 16 months of RSC data measured at a polluted rural/coastal site in the greater Pearl River Delta (PRD) of southern China. A total of 188 canister air samples were collected from August 2001 to December 2002. The OCS and CS 2 mixing ratios within these samples were higher in autumn/winter and lower in summer due to the influence of Asian monsoon circulations. Comparatively low DMS values observed in this coastal region suggest a relatively low biological productivity during summer months. The springtime OCS levels in the study region (574 ± 40 pptv) were 25% higher than those on other East Asia coasts such Japan, whereas the springtime CS 2 and DMS mixing ratios in the PRD (47 ± 38 pptv and 22 ± 5 pptv, respectively) were 3-30 times lower than elevated values that have been measured elsewhere in East Asia (Japan and Korea) at this time of year. Poor correlations were found among the three RSCs in the whole group of 188 samples, suggesting their complex and variable sources in the region. By means of backward Lagrangian particle release simulations, air samples originating from the inner PRD, urban Hong Kong and South China Sea were identified. The mean mixing ratio of OCS in the inner PRD was significantly higher than that in Hong Kong urban air and South China Sea marine air ( p < 0.001), whereas no statistical differences were found for DMS and CS 2 among the three regions ( p > 0.05). Using a linear regression method based on correlations with the urban tracer CO, the estimated OCS emission in inner PRD (49.6 ± 4.7 Gg yr -1) was much higher than that in Hong Kong (0.32 ± 0.05 Gg yr -1), whereas the estimated CS 2 and DMS emissions in the

  10. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

  11. Petrogenesis of the Late Triassic volcanic rocks in the Southern Yidun arc, SW China: Constraints from the geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Cheng-Biao; Huang, Qiu-Yue; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Wang, Shou-Xu; Zhong, Hong; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Bi, Xian-Wu; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Wang, Xin-Song

    2014-03-01

    Studies on zircon ages, petrology, major and trace element geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic geochemistry of intermediate volcanic rocks from the Southern Yidun arc, Sanjiang-Tethyan Orogenic Belt, SW China have been undertaken in this paper. They are used to discuss the petrogenesis of these rocks and to constrain the tectonic setting and evolution of the Yidun arc. These intermediate volcanic rocks were erupted at ca. 220 Ma (U-Pb zircon ages). Trachyandesite is the dominant lithology among these volcanic rocks, and is mainly composed of hornblende and plagioclase, with minor clinopyroxene and biotite. A hornblende geobarometer suggests that the stagnation of magma in the lower crust, where plagioclase crystallization was suppressed while hornblende crystallized, giving rise to high Sr/Y ratios that are one of the distinguishing features of adakites, after the primary magma originated from the lithospheric mantle wedge. Steeply right-inclined Rare Earth Element (REE) pattern combined with high La/Yb ratios suggests adakitic affinity of these volcanic rocks, implying that slab-melt from the subducting oceanic crust is a necessary component in the primary magma. Besides, trace element geochemistry and isotopic geochemistry also indicate that partial melting of pelagic sediments in the subduction zone and noticeable contamination with the lower crust were involved in the evolution of parental magma of these volcanic rocks. Based on previous work on the Northern Yidun arc and this study, we propose that the subduction was initiated in the Northern Yidun arc and extended to the southern part and that the Northern Yidun arc is an island arc while the Southern Yidun arc represents a continental arc, probably caused by the existence of the Zhongza Massif, that was invoked to be derived from Yangtze Block, as a possible basement of the Southern Yidun arc.

  12. Robustness of airline alliance route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Simo, Pep; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the robustness of the three major airline alliances' (i.e., Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) route networks. Firstly, the normalization of a multi-scale measure of vulnerability is proposed in order to perform the analysis in networks with different sizes, i.e., number of nodes. An alternative node selection criterion is also proposed in order to study robustness and vulnerability of such complex networks, based on network efficiency. And lastly, a new procedure - the inverted adaptive strategy - is presented to sort the nodes in order to anticipate network breakdown. Finally, the robustness of the three alliance networks are analyzed with (1) a normalized multi-scale measure of vulnerability, (2) an adaptive strategy based on four different criteria and (3) an inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion. The results show that Star Alliance has the most resilient route network, followed by SkyTeam and then oneworld. It was also shown that the inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion - inverted efficiency - shows a great success in quickly breaking networks similar to that found with betweenness criterion but with even better results.

  13. Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the current downturn in demand for air travel, major airlines are revising and rationalizing their networks in an attempt to improve financial performance and strengthen their defences against both new entrants and traditional rivals. Expansion of commercial agreements or alliances with other airlines has become a key reaction to the increasingly competitive marketplace. In the absence, for regulatory reasons, of cross-border mergers these are the principal means by which the industry can consolidate internationally. This paper analyzes the developments which have been taking place and attempts to itentify the implications for airline network structures and the function of different hub airports. The range of services available to passengers in long-haul markets to/from Europe is evaluated before and after recent industry reorganization. Hubs are crucial to interlink the route networks of parmers in an alliance. However, duplication between nearby hub airports that find themselves within the same airline alliance can lead to loss of service at the weaker locations. The extent to which the alliance hubs in Europe duplicate or complement each other in terms of network coverage is assessed and this methodology also enables the optimal partnerships for "unattached" airlines to be identified. The future role of the various European hubs is considered under different scenarios of global alliance development. The paper concludes by considering possible longer-term developments. In an environment where the low-cost carriers will provide a major element of customer choice, it is suggested that the traditional airlines will retrench around their hubs, surrendering many secondary cities to the low-cost sector. Further reduction in the number of alliances could threaten more of the European hubs. For both regulatory and commercial reasons, the end result may be just one airline alliance - so recreating in the deregulated market the historic rule of IATA.

  14. A missing geographic link in the distribution of the genus Echinotriton (Caudata: Salamandridae) with description of a new species from southern China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mian; Wu, Yunke; Yang, Kelin; Zheng, Sheng; Yuan, Zhiyong; Li, Pipeng

    2014-01-01

    Disjunct geographic distribution of a species or a group of species is the product of long-term interaction between organisms and the environment. Filling the distributional gap by discovery of a new population or a species has significant biogeographic implications, because it suggests a much wider past distribution and provides evidence for the route of range expansion/contraction. The salamandrid genus Echinotriton (commonly known as spiny salamanders, spiny newts, or crocodile newts) has two species that are restricted to two widely separated areas, one in eastern Zhejiang province, China and the other in the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan. It has been hypothesized that Echinotriton was once continuously distributed between the two areas through a historical land bridge that connected mainland China, Taiwan, and the archipelago. Finding fossils or relic populations along the postulated distribution are strong evidence for the hypothesis. Hundred-twenty-two years after the description of E. andersoni and eight-one years after that of E. chinhaiensis, we discover a third species of Echinotriton in southern China, which fills the distributional gap of the former two species. Species status of the new species is confirmed through molecular phylogenetic analysis and morphological comparison. Mitochondrial DNA indicates that the new species is sister to E. chinhaiensis, while nuclear DNA does not support this relationship. The new species has a very large quadrate projection, a single line of lateral warts pierced by distal rib extremities, normally developed 5th toes, and conical skin tubercles. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that there was a continuous distribution of Echinotriton from eastern coastal China to the Ryukyu Archipelago. We suggest that other species of this genus may also be found in Taiwan. Due to the rarity of this new species, we urge all hobbyists to refrain themselves from collecting this salamander or leaking locality information if

  15. Out-of-phase decadal changes in boreal summer rainfall between Yellow-Huaihe River Valley and southern China around 2002/2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Yao; Zhong, Zhong; Chen, Haishan; Hu, Yijia

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the decadal variability of rainfall over China in boreal summer (June-August) since the early 1990s. Results show that the rainfall experiences an abrupt decadal change at around 2002/2003. The decadal change is statistically significant and characterized by an out-of-phase pattern between southern China (SC) and the Yellow-Huaihe River Valley (YHRV). The rainfall over SC decreases during the decade 2003-2012 compared to that in the preceding decade 1993-2002. A simultaneous decadal increase in rainfall has occurred over the YHRV. Meanwhile, a significant sea surface temperature warming appears over the western Pacific Ocean and the northern Indian Ocean after 2002 on the decadal time scale. Further analysis reveals that enhanced convections are activated over the tropical regions between 130°E and 160°E and west of 80°E due to the SST anomalies, which induce the dry air in an area of anomalous subsidence located over SC and the northern South China Sea (SCS) via zonal circulation. Accompanied by the anomalous descending flow over the northern SCS, tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the SCS also experience a concurrent decadal reduction. The decrease in landfall TCs contributes to the decadal decrease in SC rainfall since 2003. Corresponding to the anomalous descending motion that is dominant south of 30°N, an anomalous moist ascending flow develops over the YHRV at around 35°N. Meanwhile, the western Pacific subtropical high becomes stronger and extends further westward during 2003-2012, leading to enhanced moisture transport by the southwesterly in the northwestern flank of subtropical high. As a result, more precipitation occurs over the YHRV. The above analysis has revealed the physical-dynamical processes involved in the decadal changes in rainfall over China. The mechanisms behind the out-of-phase pattern of rainfall changes between SC and the YHRV that occurred at 2002/2003 are explored.

  16. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Lloyd, J. M.; Zong, Y.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary δ13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low δ13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650-2215 cal yr BP due to the weakening insolation over northern hemisphere most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between δ13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the δ13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the δ18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong Y, Huang G, Switzer

  17. Mid-Holocene variability of the East Asian monsoon based on bulk organic δ13C and C/N records from the Pearl River estuary, southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, F.; Zong, Y.; Lloyd, J. M.; Leng, M. J.; Switzer, A. D.; Yim, W. W.; Huang, G.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the mid-Holocene dynamics of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) is integral to modelling the Holocene development of the global climate system (Webster et al., 1998). Thus the mid-Holocene EAM history was reconstructed using bulk organic carbon isotopes (δ13C), total carbon to total nitrogen (C/N) ratios and total organic carbon (TOC) from a sediment core (UV1), at a mean resolution of 7-10 years, from the Pearl River estuary, southern China. Sedimentary δ13C, C/N and TOC from the Pearl River estuary is a good indicator of changes in monsoonal precipitation strength (Zong et al., 2006; Yang et al., 2010; Yu et al., 2010), eg sediments buried during a period of high precipitation exhibit a high proportion of terrigenous sediments, and have low δ13C and high C/N, and vice versa (Yu et al., 2010). Results suggest a general decreasing trend in monsoonal precipitation from 6650 to 2215 cal yr BP because of the weakening Northern Hemisphere insolation most likely related to the current precession circle (An, 2000). Superimposed on this trend are apparent dry-wet oscillations at centennial to millennial timescales most likely in response to solar activity. Mismatch between δ13C and results from the Dongge Cave in southern China at millennial-timescale oscillations (Wang et al., 2005), may indicate that the δ13C from the Pearl River estuary reveals changes in precipitation in a broader area than the δ18O from Dongge Cave does. Reference An Z (2000) The history and variability of the East Asian paleomonsoon climate. Quaternary Science Reviews 19: 171-187. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards RL, He Y, Kong X, An Z, Wu J, Kelly MJ, Dykoski CA and Li X (2005) The Holocene Asian Monsoon: Links to Solar Changes and North Atlantic Climate. Science 308: 854-857. Webster PJ, Magaña VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J and Tomas RA (1998) Monsoons: Processes, predictability, and the prospects for prediction. Journal of Geophysical Research 103(C7): 14451-14510. Yang S, Tang M, Yim WWS, Zong

  18. In silico analyses of antigenicity and surface structure variation of an emerging porcine circovirus genotype 2b mutant, prevalent in southern China from 2013 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yang; Wang, Naidong; Zhu, Zhe; Wang, Zhanfeng; Wang, Aibing; Deng, Zhibang; Yang, Yi

    2016-04-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the pivotal pathogen causing porcine circovirus-associated diseases. In this study, 62 PCV2 isolates were identified from seven farms in southern China from 2013 to 2015 and phylogenetic trees were reconstructed based on whole-genome sequences or the cap gene. In this investigation, PCV2b was the main genotype in circulation throughout these farms. Furthermore, an emerging mutant (PCV2b-1C), isolated from PCV2-vaccinated farms, was the predominant strain prevalent on these farms. In addition, we isolated a new cluster that may represent evolution of the virus through recombination of PCV2b-1A/1B and PCV2b-1C. Finally, we discuss evidence that antigenicity and surface structure variation of the capsid resulted from mutation of the C-terminal loop (Loop CT) of the PCV2b-1C Cap in silico. PMID:26758466

  19. 41 CFR 301-10.117 - May I keep compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline... compensation an airline gives me for voluntarily vacating my seat on my scheduled airline flight when the airline asks for volunteers? Yes: (a) If voluntarily vacating your seat will not interfere with...

  20. Advisory Systems Save Time, Fuel for Airlines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Heinz Erzberger never thought the sky was falling, but he knew it could benefit from enhanced traffic control. Throughout the 1990s, Erzberger led a team at Ames Research Center to develop a suite of automated tools to reduce restrictions and improve the efficiency of air traffic control operations. Called CTAS, or Center-TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach Control) Automation System, the software won NASA s Software of the Year award in 1998, and one of the tools in the suite - the traffic management advisor - was adopted by the Federal Aviation Administration and implemented at traffic control centers across the United States. Another one of the tools, Direct-To, has followed a different path. The idea behind Direct-To, explains Erzberger, a senior scientist at Ames, was that airlines could save fuel and money by shortening the routes they flew between take-off and landing. Aircraft are often limited to following established airways comprised of inefficient route segments. The routes are not easily adjusted because neither the pilot nor the aircraft controller can anticipate the constantly changing air traffic situation. To make the routes more direct while in flight, Erzberger came up with an idea for a software algorithm that could automatically examine air traffic in real-time, check to see if a shortcut was available, and then check for conflicts. If there were no conflicts and the shortcut saved more than 1 minute of flight time, the controller could be notified. "I was trying to figure out what goes on in the pilot and controller s minds when they decide to guide the aircraft in a certain way. That resulted in a different kind analysis," Erzberger says. As the engineer s idea went from theory to practice, in 2001, NASA demonstrated Direct-To in the airspace of Dallas-Ft. Worth. Estimations based on the demonstration found the technology was capable of saving 900 flying minutes per day for the aircraft in the test area.

  1. Effects of simulated acid rain on soil respiration and its components in a subtropical mixed conifer and broadleaf forest in southern China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Wu, Xiaoying; Wu, Jianping; Liu, Juxiu; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-01

    Soil respiration is a major pathway in the global carbon cycle and its response to environmental changes is an increasing concern. Here we explored how total soil respiration (RT) and its components respond to elevated acid rain in a mixed conifer and broadleaf forest, one of the major forest types in southern China. RT was measured twice a month in the first year under four treatment levels of simulated acid rain (SAR: CK, the local lake water, pH 4.7; T1, water pH 4.0; T2, water pH 3.25; and T3, water pH 2.5), and in the second year, RT, litter-free soil respiration (RS), and litter respiration (RL) were measured simultaneously. The results indicated that the mean rate of RT was 2.84 ± 0.20 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) in the CK plots, and RS and RL contributed 60.7% and 39.3% to RT, respectively. SAR marginally reduced (P = 0.08) RT in the first year, but significantly reduced RT and its two components in the second year (P < 0.05). The negative effects were correlated with the decrease in soil microbial biomass and fine root biomass due to soil acidification under the SAR. The temperature coefficients (Q10) of RT and its two components generally decreased with increasing levels of the SAR, but only the decrease of RT and RL was significant (P < 0.05). In addition, the contribution of RL to RT decreased significantly under the SAR, indicating that RL was more sensitive to the SAR than RS. In the context of elevated acid rain, the decline trend of RT in the forests in southern China appears to be attributable to the decline of soil respiration in the litter layer. PMID:26755128

  2. Effects of Land-Use Conversion from Double Rice Cropping to Vegetables on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqin; Wang, Huimin; Xu, Ming; Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting

    2016-01-01

    Compared with CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are potent greenhouse gases in terms of their global warming potentials. Previous studies have indicated that land-use conversion has a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions. However, little is known regarding the impact of converting rice (Oryza sativa L.) to vegetable fields, an increasing trend in land-use change in southern China, on CH4 and N2O fluxes. The effects of converting double rice cropping to vegetables on CH4 and N2O fluxes were examined using a static chamber method in southern China from July 2012 to July 2013. The results indicate that CH4 fluxes could reach 31.6 mg C m−2 h−1 under rice before land conversion. The cumulative CH4 emissions for fertilized and unfertilized rice were 348.9 and 321.0 kg C ha−1 yr−1, respectively. After the land conversion, the cumulative CH4 emissions were −0.4 and 1.4 kg C ha−1 yr−1 for the fertilized and unfertilized vegetable fields, respectively. Similarly, the cumulative N2O fluxes under rice were 1.27 and 0.56 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for the fertilized and unfertilized treatments before the land conversion and 19.2 and 8.5 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively, after the land conversion. By combining the global warming potentials (GWPs) of both gases, the overall land-use conversion effect was minor (P = 0.36) with fertilization, but the conversion reduced GWP by 63% when rice and vegetables were not fertilized. Increase in CH4 emissions increased GWP under rice compared with vegetables with non-fertilization, but increased N2O emissions compensated for similar GWPs with fertilization under rice and vegetables. PMID:27195497

  3. Development of a stem taper equation and modelling the effect of stand density on taper for Chinese fir plantations in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sensen; Zhang, Xiongqing

    2016-01-01

    Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) is the most important commercial tree species in southern China. The objective of this study was to develop a variable taper equation for Chinese fir, and to quantify the effects of stand planting density on stem taper in Chinese fir. Five equations were fitted or evaluated using the diameter-height data from 293 Chinese fir trees sampled from stands with four different densities in Fenyi County, Jiangxi Province, in southern China. A total of 183 trees were randomly selected for the model development, with the remaining 110 trees used for model evaluation. The results show that the Kozak’s, Sharma/Oderwald, Sharma/Zhang and modified Brink’s equations are superior to the Pain/Boyer equation in terms of the fitting and validation statistics, and the modified Brink’s and Sharma/Zhang equations should be recommended for use as taper equations for Chinese fir because of their high accuracy and variable exponent. The relationships between some parameters of the three selected equations and stand planting densities can be built by adopting some simple mathematical functions to examine the effects of stand planting density on tree taper. The modelling and prediction precision of the three taper equations were compared with or without incorporation of the stand density variable. The predictive accuracy of the model was improved by including the stand density variable and the mean absolute bias of the modified Brink’s and Sharma/Zhang equations with a stand density variable were all below 1.0 cm in the study area. The modelling results showed that the trees have larger butt diameters and more taper when stand density was lower than at higher stand density. PMID:27168964

  4. Effects of Land-Use Conversion from Double Rice Cropping to Vegetables on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye; Dai, Xiaoqin; Wang, Huimin; Xu, Ming; Fu, Xiaoli; Yang, Fengting

    2016-01-01

    Compared with CO2, methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) are potent greenhouse gases in terms of their global warming potentials. Previous studies have indicated that land-use conversion has a significant impact on greenhouse gas emissions. However, little is known regarding the impact of converting rice (Oryza sativa L.) to vegetable fields, an increasing trend in land-use change in southern China, on CH4 and N2O fluxes. The effects of converting double rice cropping to vegetables on CH4 and N2O fluxes were examined using a static chamber method in southern China from July 2012 to July 2013. The results indicate that CH4 fluxes could reach 31.6 mg C m-2 h-1 under rice before land conversion. The cumulative CH4 emissions for fertilized and unfertilized rice were 348.9 and 321.0 kg C ha-1 yr-1, respectively. After the land conversion, the cumulative CH4 emissions were -0.4 and 1.4 kg C ha-1 yr-1 for the fertilized and unfertilized vegetable fields, respectively. Similarly, the cumulative N2O fluxes under rice were 1.27 and 0.56 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for the fertilized and unfertilized treatments before the land conversion and 19.2 and 8.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively, after the land conversion. By combining the global warming potentials (GWPs) of both gases, the overall land-use conversion effect was minor (P = 0.36) with fertilization, but the conversion reduced GWP by 63% when rice and vegetables were not fertilized. Increase in CH4 emissions increased GWP under rice compared with vegetables with non-fertilization, but increased N2O emissions compensated for similar GWPs with fertilization under rice and vegetables. PMID:27195497

  5. [Levels and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) tree bark from Southern Jiangsu, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiu-Lan; Yang, Wen-Long; Li, Ling-Ling; Shi, Shuang-Xin; Zhang, Li-Fei; Dong, Liang; Huang, Ye-Ru

    2014-03-01

    Thirty-three camphor tree bark samples were collected from Southern Jiangsu in August 2012. They were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), DDTs (o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT), trans-chlordane and cis-chlordane. The concentrations of HCB, sigma6 DDTs and sigma Chlordanes ranged (dw) from 0.31 ng x g(-1) to 1.81 ng x g(-1), 0.40 ng x g(-1) to 17.3 ng x g(-1) and n. d. to 1.03 ng x g(-1), respectively. Due to the high volatility, the spatial distribution of HCB in Southern Jiangsu was uniform. Compared to the other results, the HCB concentration in Southern Jiangsu was lower. The historical usage of technical DDT mixture and the dicofol-type DDT were the major sources of DDTs in southern Jiangsu. The TC/CC ratio is usually used to distinguish between aged and fresh chlordane. According to the ratio of TC/CC, the chlordane in the urban area was derived from the fresh application of technical chlordane, and that in the rural area was attributed to the historical usage. PMID:24881411

  6. Short-term effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on pediatric hand, foot and mouth disease in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hualiang; Zou, Hong; Wang, Qinzhou; Liu, Chunxiao; Lang, Lingling; Hou, Xuexin; Li, Zhenjun

    2013-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) was an emerging viral infectious disease in recent years in Shenzhen. The underlying risk factors have not yet been systematically examined. This study analyzed the short-term effect of El Niño-Southern Oscillation on pediatric HFMD in Shenzhen, China. Daily count of HFMD among children aged below 15 years old, Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), and weather variables were collected to construct the time series. A distributed lag non-linear model was applied to investigate the effect of daily SOI on pediatric HFMD occurrence during 2008-2010. We observed an acute effect of SOI variation on HFMD occurrence. The extremely high SOI (SOI = 45, with 0 as reference) was associated with increased HFMD, with the relative risk (RR) being 1.66 (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.34-2.04). Further analyses of the association between HFMD and daily mean temperature and relative humidity supported the correlation between pediatric HFMD and SOI. Meteorological factors might be important predictors of pediatric HFMD occurrence in Shenzhen. PMID:23935817

  7. Composition and distribution of planktonic ciliates in the southern South China Sea during late summer: Comparison between surface and 75 m deep layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaxue; Shen, Pingping; Li, Chunhou; Chen, Zuozhi; Qi, Zhanhui; Huang, Honghui

    2016-02-01

    Ciliates are very important components in most marine ecosystem. They are trophic link between the microbial food web and grazing food chain. In this study, ciliates were collected from 11 sites in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during August 25 to September 28, 2011. Their composition and distribution at the surface and 75 m deep depth of the ocean were studied. A total of 30 species belonging to 22 genera were identified, and 22 species of 15 genera were Tintinnids. Eutintinnus fraknoii and E. stramentus were the most common species. The other dominants were strombidiids ciliates including Strombidium conicum and S. globosaneum, which were followed by the tide form, Mesodinium pulex. Ciliates abundance ranged from 46 ind L-1 to 368 ind L-1 in the open sites, 46-368 ind L-1 at surface and 73-198 ind L-1 at 75 m deep layer. In the Yongshu reef, ciliates abundance ranged from 167 ind L-1 to 365 ind L-1 in the water column, similar to that in Sanya coral reef waters. Ciliates composition showed obvious difference between surface and 75 m deep layer at station S2 ( P < 0.05), while no similar result was observed at other sites. At 75 m deep layer, salinity was negatively related to mixed layer depth ( P < 0.05), but positively to chlorophyll a concentration ( P < 0.05), indicating that the change of vertical mixing in water column influenced vertical distribution of ciliates in the southern SCS.

  8. Status of Urban Bed Bug Infestations in Southern China: An Analysis of Pest Control Service Records in Shenzhen in 2012 and Dongguan in 2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Xuquan; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) in many developed countries has drawn increasing attention worldwide. The status of urban bed bug infestations were investigated in Shenzhen and Dongguan, two major cities in southern Guangdong Province of southern China, based on pest control service records from two different companies (one during 2012 and another during 2013). The results showed that Shenzhen and Dongguan have a severe problem with bed bug infestations: the control of bed bugs is a constant concern, except during the winter. In Shenzhen, a similar number of premises were treated for bed bugs in central business districts and suburban districts. However, in Dongguan, more premises were treated for bed bugs in suburban districts than in central business districts. The treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses in Shenzhen was 53.8, 43.0, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. The percentage of treated rooms was 56.1% for worker sleeping quarters and 91.1% for apartments. In Dongguan, the treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses was 90.0, 10.0, 0.0, and 0.0%, respectively. PMID:26336282

  9. The relationship between labor unions and safety in US airlines: Is there a "union effect?"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapf, Renee Catherine

    Every airline union claims to work for safety and presents anecdotes where greater airline safety has been achieved through union efforts. The effect unionization has on safety outcomes in U.S. commercial airlines, however, wasn't found to be previously tested. Studies have shown that in industries such as coal mining, retail, and construction, unionization does lead to an increase in safety. This study evaluated the safety rates of 15 major US commercial airlines to compare the difference between unionized and non-unionized airlines. These safety rates were compared based on if and how long each airline's pilots and flight attendants have been unionized, to determine if unionization had an effect on safety outcomes. The 15 airlines included in the study identified as operating most of the years between 1990 and 2013, with annual departures averaging over 130,000, available through the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Accident and Incident information was acquired through the National Transportation Safety Board database. The number of accident and incidents divided by the total departures at each airline was used as the safety rate. Union websites provided information on unionization at the airlines. Due to the complex nature of the aviation industry, a number of confounding factors could have affected the tests, including mergers, route structures, and legislation. To help control for these confounding factors, this study was limited to airlines with a stable presence in the industry over time, which limited the number of airlines included. No significant difference was found between unionized and non-unionized airlines in this study, though the mean safety rate of unionized airlines was found be better than non-unionized airlines. This study did not take into account safety improvements that were union-backed and eventually required at all airlines, regardless of unionization. Due to the large sample size of the small population the difference in safety rate

  10. Source identification and risk assessment of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils of Changsha, a mine-impacted city in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Li, Lei; Wang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    The urban soils suffered seriously from heavy metal pollutions with rapid industrialization and urbanization in China. In this study, 54 urban soil samples were collected from Changsha, a mine-impacted city located in Southern China. The concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were determined by ICP-MS. The pollution sources of heavy metals were discriminated and identified by the combination of multivariate statistical and geostatistical methods. Four main sources were identified according to the results of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and spatial distribution patterns. Co and Mn were primarily derived from soil parent material. Cu, Pb, and Zn with significant positive relationships were associated with mining activities and traffic emissions. Cd and Ni might be affected by commercial activities and industrial discharges. As isolated into a single group was considered to have correlation with coal combustion and waste incineration. Risk assessment of heavy metals in urban soils indicated an overall moderate potential ecological risk in the urban region of Changsha. PMID:27206756

  11. Historical levels of heavy metals reconstructed from sedimentary record in the Hejiang River, located in a typical mining region of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaopeng; Wang, Yinghui; Zhang, Ruijie; Wang, Weitao; Xu, Daoquan; Guo, Jing; Li, Pingyang; Yu, Kefu

    2015-11-01

    Historical levels of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, As, Fe, Al and Mn were found in C1 and C2 sediment cores from the Hejiang River, which is located in a typical mining region of Southern China, the levels date back approximately 57 and 83 years. Temporal variations in the core C1 around the mining peaked in the 1960s, after which they exhibited a decreasing trend, which reflects successful government management. Historical events such as the Pacific War and China's first 5-year economic plan were recorded in core C2, which was collected from the downstream portion of the Hejiang River. Enrichment factors (EF), geo-accumulation (Igeo), and excess flux indicate that severe contamination occurred during the period between 1956 and 1985 due to the release of high amounts of mining waste from human activities around the core C1 region. The highest EF value was displayed by As (67); this was followed by Pb (64), Cd (39), and Zn (35). In contrast, the core C2 sediments exhibited minor pollution because of dilution from tributaries (the Fu River and the Daning River) that do not flow through the mined area and because C2 was farther from the source of the metals. The results of the risk assessment codes (RAC) for both cores indicate that Cd posed a high risk to the local environment. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis (CA) revealed that accumulation of heavy metals was mainly due to mining pollution. PMID:26119379

  12. 14 CFR 61.167 - Airline transport pilot privileges and limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airline transport pilot privileges and... Transport Pilots § 61.167 Airline transport pilot privileges and limitations. (a) Privileges. (1) A person who holds an airline transport pilot certificate is entitled to the same privileges as a person...

  13. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  14. 22 CFR 102.9 - Arranging for entry and travel of investigating and airline representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and airline representatives. 102.9 Section 102.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND... travel of investigating and airline representatives. Representatives of the Civil Aeronautics Board, the Civil Aeronautics Administration and the United States airline involved may not have the...

  15. 41 CFR 301-10.122 - What class of airline accommodations must I use?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What class of airline accommodations must I use? 301-10.122 Section 301-10.122 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel... Common Carrier Transportation Airline Accommodations § 301-10.122 What class of airline...

  16. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... received a request from Allegiant Air and Spirit Airlines as well as Southwest Airlines to postpone or stay... Federal Register (76 FR 23110), titled ``Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections,'' containing many new... July 28, 2011. The effective date of the final rule published at 76 FR 23110, April 25, 2011,...

  17. Genomic Analysis Reveals Multi-Drug Resistance Clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 Hypervirulent Isolates Causing Neonatal Invasive Disease in Southern Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rosini, Roberto; Ji, Wenjing; Guidotti, Silvia; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Geng, Guozhu; Deng, Qiulian; Zhong, Huamin; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Haiying; Nan, Cassandra; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C D

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution, and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013-2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide type, pilus islands (PIs) distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD). Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases), particularly among LOD strains (n = 11), followed by types Ib (n = 5), V (n = 3), Ia (n = 2) and II (n = 1). We performed whole-genome sequencing analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17). The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistance could in part explain the spread of

  18. Genomic Analysis Reveals Multi-Drug Resistance Clusters in Group B Streptococcus CC17 Hypervirulent Isolates Causing Neonatal Invasive Disease in Southern Mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Campisi, Edmondo; Rosini, Roberto; Ji, Wenjing; Guidotti, Silvia; Rojas-López, Maricarmen; Geng, Guozhu; Deng, Qiulian; Zhong, Huamin; Wang, Weidong; Liu, Haiying; Nan, Cassandra; Margarit, Immaculada; Rinaudo, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal invasive disease caused by group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a significant public health care concern globally. However, data related to disease burden, serotype distribution, and molecular epidemiology in China and other Asian countries are very few and specifically relative to confined regions. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic characteristics of GBS isolates recovered from neonates with invasive disease during 2013–2014 at Guangzhou and Changsha hospitals in southern mainland China. We assessed the capsular polysaccharide type, pilus islands (PIs) distribution and hvgA gene presence in a panel of 26 neonatal clinical isolates, of which 8 were recovered from Early Onset Disease and 18 from Late Onset Disease (LOD). Among 26 isolates examined, five serotypes were identified. Type III was the most represented (15 cases), particularly among LOD strains (n = 11), followed by types Ib (n = 5), V (n = 3), Ia (n = 2) and II (n = 1). We performed whole-genome sequencing analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the 14 serotype III isolates belonging to the hypervirulent Clonal Complex 17 (serotype III-CC17). The presence of PI-2b alone was associated with 13 out of 14 serotype III-CC17 strains. Genome analysis led us to identify two multi-drug resistance gene clusters harbored in two new versions of integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), carrying five or eight antibiotic resistance genes, respectively. These ICEs replaced the 16 kb-locus that normally contains the PI-1 operon. All isolates harboring the identified ICEs showed multiple resistances to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline antibiotic classes. In conclusion, we report the first whole-genome sequence analysis of 14 GBS serotype III-CC17 strains isolated in China, representing the most prevalent lineage causing neonatal invasive disease. The acquisition of newly identified ICEs conferring multiple antibiotic resistance could in part explain the spread

  19. A Cryptic Species of the Tylonycteris pachypus Complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and Its Population Genetic Structure in Southern China and nearby Regions

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, Chujing; YU, Wenhua; XU, Zhongxian; QIU, Yuanxiong; CHEN, Miao; QIU, Bing; MOTOKAWA, Masaharu; HARADA, Masashi; LI, Yuchun; WU, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Three distinct bamboo bat species (Tylonycteris) are known to inhabit tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, i.e., T. pachypus, T. robustula, and T. pygmaeus. This study performed karyotypic examinations of 4 specimens from southern Chinese T. p. fulvidus populations and one specimen from Thai T. p. fulvidus population, which detected distinct karyotypes (2n=30) compared with previous karyotypic descriptions of T. p. pachypus (2n=46) and T. robustula (2n=32) from Malaysia. This finding suggested a cryptic Tylonycteris species within T. pachypus complex in China and Thailand. Morphometric studies indicated the difficulty in distinguishing the cryptic species and T. p. pachypus from Indonesia apart from the external measurements, which might be the reason for their historical misidentification. Based on 623 bp mtDNA COI segments, a phylogeographic examination including T. pachypus individuals from China and nearby regions, i.e., Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, was conducted to examine the population genetic structure. Genealogical and phylogeographical results indicated that at least two diverged lineages existed in these regions (average 3.4 % of Kimura 2-parameter distances) and their population structure did not match the geographic pattern. These results suggested that at least two historical colonizations have occurred by the cryptic species. Furthermore, through integration of traditional and geometric morphological results, morphological differences on zygomatic arches, toothrows and bullae were detected between two lineages in China. Given the similarity of vegetation and climate of Guangdong and Guangxi regions, we suggested that such differences might be derived from their historical adaptation or distinct evolutionary history rather than the differences of habitats they occurred currently. PMID:24550688

  20. Laminar flow control leading edge systems in simulated airline service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.; Maddalon, D. V.; Fisher, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of two candidate leading-edge flow laminarization systems applicable to airline service was tested using representative airline operational conditions with respect to air traffic, weather, and airport insect infestation. One of the systems involved a perforated Ti alloy suction surface with about 1 million 0.0025-in. diameter holes drilled by electron beam, as well as a Krueger-type flap that offered protective shielding against insect impingement; the other supplied surface suction through a slotted Ti alloy skin with 27 spanwise slots on the upper and lower surface.

  1. Using Simulations to Investigate Decision Making in Airline Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Peter J.; Gray, Judy H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines a range of methods to collect data for the investigation of decision-making in airline Operations Control Centres (OCCs). A study was conducted of 52 controllers in five OCCs of both domestic and international airlines in the Asia-Pacific region. A range of methods was used including: surveys, interviews, observations, simulations, and think-aloud protocol. The paper compares and evaluates the suitability of these techniques for gathering data and provides recommendations on the application of simulations. Keywords Data Collection, Decision-Making, Research Methods, Simulation, Think-Aloud Protocol.

  2. Concorde with the airlines. [operating costs and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leyman, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The only supersonic aircraft in airline service, Concorde, offers the first actual test of supersonic cruise feasibility and the only real experience relative to passenger, airline, and community acceptance. The dominant characteristic of Concorde operations is low aircraft utilization, due partly to the restricted route network. Operating costs, the maintenance/reliability record and associated dispatch delays are discussed. Problems with overwater operations, and the secondary boom phenomena are examined. Monthly average load factors for various routes, major causes of technical delays, aircraft technical performance, and aircraft tracks are graphically depicted.

  3. Suit proceeds over airline's ejection of passenger with AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-06-12

    A Federal judge refused to dismiss a disability-discrimination lawsuit where an airline refused service to an AIDS patient because his Kaposi's sarcoma lesions emitted an odor. This ruling supports the law that a carrier is only allowed to remove a passenger if the passenger poses a threat to safety. The judge ruled that a jury would need to decide if Delta Airlines violated this law. The judge also is allowing claims for punitive damages, but ruled against any claims about intentional infliction of emotional distress. PMID:11365499

  4. Network bipartivity and the transportation efficiency of European passenger airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of the structural organization of the interaction network of a complex system is central to understand its functioning. Here, we focus on the analysis of the bipartivity of graphs. We first introduce a mathematical approach to quantify bipartivity and show its implementation in general and random graphs. Then, we tackle the analysis of the transportation networks of European airlines from the point of view of their bipartivity and observe significant differences between traditional and low cost carriers. Bipartivity shows also that alliances and major mergers of traditional airlines provide a way to reduce bipartivity which, in its turn, is closely related to an increase of the transportation efficiency.

  5. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  6. Variability of cloudiness at airline cruise altitudes from GASP measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasperson, W. H.; Nastrom, G. D.; Davis, R. E.; Holdeman, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Additional statistics relating to the climatology of cloud cover at airline cruise altitudes are presented. The data were obtained between 1975 and 1979 from commercial airliners participating in the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). The statistics describe the seasonal, latitudinal and altitudinal variation in cloudiness parameters as well as differences in the high-altitude cloud structure attributed to cyclone and convective-cloud generation processes. The latitudinal distribution of cloud cover derived form the GASP data was found to agree with high-altitude satellite observations. The relationships between three different measures of cloudiness and the relative vorticity at high altitudes is also discussed.

  7. Risk Analysis for Unintentional Slide Deployment During Airline Operations.

    PubMed

    Ayra, Eduardo S; Insua, David Ríos; Castellanos, María Eugenia; Larbi, Lydia

    2015-09-01

    We present a risk analysis undertaken to mitigate problems in relation to the unintended deployment of slides under normal operations within a commercial airline. This type of incident entails relevant costs for the airline industry. After assessing the likelihood and severity of its consequences, we conclude that such risks need to be managed. We then evaluate the effectiveness of various countermeasures, describing and justifying the chosen ones. We also discuss several issues faced when implementing and communicating the proposed measures, thus fully illustrating the risk analysis process. PMID:26061899

  8. Optimal Airline Multi-Leg Flight Seat Inventory Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechval, Nicholas A.; Rozite, Kristine; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, the problem of determining optimal booking policy for multiple fare classes in a pool of identical seats for multi-leg flights is considered. For large commercial airlines, efficiently setting and updating seat allocation targets for each passenger category on each multi-leg flight is an extremely difficult problem. This paper presents static and dynamic policies of allocation of airline seats for multi-leg flights with multiple fare classes, which allow one to maximize an expected contribution to profit. The dynamic policy uses the most recent demand and capacity information and allows one to allocate seats dynamically with anticipation over time. A numerical example is given.

  9. Change of urinary fluoride and bone metabolism indicators in the endemic fluorosis areas of southern china after supplying low fluoride public water

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated health impacts, especially biomarker changes, following implementation of a new environmental policy. This study examined changes in water fluoride, urinary fluoride (UF), and bone metabolism indicators in children after supplying low fluoride public water in endemic fluorosis areas of Southern China. We also assessed the relationship between UF and serum osteocalcin (BGP), calcitonin (CT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bone mineral density to identify the most sensitive bone metabolism indicators related to fluoride exposure. Methods Four fluorosis-endemic villages (intervention villages) in Guangdong, China were randomly selected to receive low-fluoride water. One non-endemic fluorosis village with similar socio-economic status, living conditions, and health care access, was selected as the control group. 120 children aged 6-12 years old were randomly chosen from local schools in each village for the study. Water and urinary fluoride content as well as serum BGP, CT, ALP and bone mineral density were measured by the standard methods and compared between the children residing in the intervention villages and the control village. Benchmark dose (BMD) and benchmark dose lower limit (BMDL) were calculated for each bone damage indicator. Results Our study found that after water source change, fluoride concentrations in drinking water in all intervention villages (A-D) were significantly reduced to 0.11 mg/l, similar to that in the control village (E). Except for Village A where water change has only been taken place for 6 years, urinary fluoride concentrations in children of the intervention villages were lower or comparable to those in the control village after 10 years of supplying new public water. The values of almost all bone indicators in children living in Villages B-D and ALP in Village A were either lower or similar to those in the control village after the intervention. CT and BGP are sensitive bone metabolism

  10. Effect of warming on larch trees in the Asian southern border of the boreal forest, Mongolia and China in the 20th century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Caceres, Maximo Larry; Cho, Qiqin; Nobori, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Kazuo; Byambasuren, Mijidsuren; Zhang, Yandong; Sugimoto, Atsuko

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades air temperature (Ta) has been increasing steadily around the globe and it is reported that in the last 40 years Ta in Mongolia alone has increased by about 2.1 deg.C. The boreal region as a whole is expected to experience changes due to atmospheric drying, permafrost degradation, increases in the frequency of forest fires and other factors that will lead to a shift of the forest ecosystems northward. The southern border of the boreal forest distributes in northern Mongolia and northeast China, which as transition areas are more sensitive to changes. In a 500 km long south-north transect of larch forests extending in each of these two countries, larch forest sites were chosen (Larix sibirica in Mongolia and Larix gmeliini in China). Studies until now have used only tree-ring analysis to determined past and recent climate in Mongolia and China. However, isotope analysis has not been coupled with this analysis to give a wider overview of the environmental changes taking place in these regions. Therefore in this study tree core samples were collected for tree-ring and carbon isotope analysis to be coupled with available meteorological data. These data indicate that in the last four decades, the northernmost site of the selected transect has experienced the largest increase in Ta, but nevertheless the annual Ta in the southernmost site remained several degrees higher. On the other hand precipitation shows a very slight increase in the central and northernmost sites while an insignificant decrease is observed in the southernmost site. Tree-ring analysis shows that for most of the 20th century tree ring growth had lower inter-annual variability until the beginning of the 1970's but from then on the annual variability has increased. Unlike the results of the tree-ring analysis, the carbon isotope analysis revealed that until the 1970's the increases in the drying atmospheric conditions (higher temperature-no changes in rainfall) were not present but the

  11. Descriptions of new species of the genera Sarima Melichar and Sarimodes Matsumura from southern China (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Rui; Wang, Yinglun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two Issini genera, Sarima Melichar, 1903 and Sarimodes Matsumura, 1916, are examined. One new Sarima species: Sarima bifurcus sp. n. and two new Sarimodes species Sarimodes clavatus sp. n. and Sarimodes parallelus sp. n. are added from South China. A checklist of species in the genus Sarima with data on distribution is provided. The distribution and morphological peculiarities of the genera Sarima and Sarimodes are briefly discussed. PMID:26877702

  12. Elimination of schistosomiasis japonica from formerly endemic areas in mountainous regions of southern China using a praziquantel regimen.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Dong, Guo-Dong; Liu, Jin-Ming; Gao, Jian-Xing; Shi, Yao-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Guo; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lu, Ke; Cheng, Guo-feng; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Domestic animals play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. To better understand the epidemiology of schistosomiasis japonica in domestic animals in the mountainous areas of China, we performed a 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis in cattle and horses in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2013. We also performed a concurrent drug-based intervention study in three settlement groups in Yunnan Province aimed at developing an effective means of controlling transmission in this region. The prevalence of infection in cattle fluctuated between 1.67% and 3.05% from 2009 to 2011, and monthly treatments of schistosome-positive animals reduced the prevalence to 0% (P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013. Prior to the intervention, we found that schistosomiasis was prevalent from May to October, with the highest prevalence observed in June (10.00%). We surveyed for environmental schistosome contamination, and 94.29% of the miracidia found were from cattle. Our study showed that it is possible to eliminate schistosomiasis in domestic animals in the mountainous regions of China by monthly treating cattle and horses from schistosome-positive households from May to October. PMID:25591407

  13. Assessing flight safety differences between the United States regional and major airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Broderick H.

    During 2008, the U.S. domestic airline departures exceeded 28,000 flights per day. Thirty-nine or less than 0.2 of 1% of these flights resulted in operational incidents or accidents. However, even a low percentage of airline accidents and incidents continue to cause human suffering and property loss. The charge of this study was the comparison of U.S. major and regional airline safety histories. The study spans safety events from January 1982 through December 2008. In this quantitative analysis, domestic major and regional airlines were statistically tested for their flight safety differences. Four major airlines and thirty-seven regional airlines qualified for the safety study which compared the airline groups' fatal accidents, incidents, non-fatal accidents, pilot errors, and the remaining six safety event probable cause types. The six other probable cause types are mechanical failure, weather, air traffic control, maintenance, other, and unknown causes. The National Transportation Safety Board investigated each airline safety event, and assigned a probable cause to each event. A sample of 500 events was randomly selected from the 1,391 airlines' accident and incident population. The airline groups' safety event probabilities were estimated using the least squares linear regression. A probability significance level of 5% was chosen to conclude the appropriate research question hypothesis. The airline fatal accidents and incidents probability levels were 1.2% and 0.05% respectively. These two research questions did not reach the 5% significance level threshold. Therefore, the airline groups' fatal accidents and non-destructive incidents probabilities favored the airline groups' safety differences hypothesis. The linear progression estimates for the remaining three research questions were 71.5% for non-fatal accidents, 21.8% for the pilot errors, and 7.4% significance level for the six probable causes. These research questions' linear regressions are greater than

  14. Zagreb and Tenerife: Airline Accidents Involving Linguistic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is currently implementing a program to improve the language proficiency of pilots and air traffic controllers worldwide. In justifying the program, ICAO has cited a number of airline accidents that were at least partly caused by language factors. Two accidents cited by ICAO are analysed in this…

  15. Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is information useful to applicants who are preparing for the Airline Transport Pilot-Airplane (Air Carrier) Written Test. The guide describes the basic aeronautical knowledge and associated requirements for certification, as well as information on source material, instructions for taking the official test, and questions that are…

  16. Aviation Centers Take Off as Airlines Face Pilot Shortfall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses aviation training requirements for pilots planning to fly for commercial airlines within or outside the United States. Describes two aviation training programs at Western Michigan University, a fast-track 13-month program and the traditional four-year program required for U.S. pilots. Notes that decreasing numbers of pilots trained in…

  17. Seafloor in the Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 Search Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Walter H. F.; Marks, Karen M.

    2014-05-01

    On the morning of 8 March 2014, Malaysia Airlines flight MH370, from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing, lost contact with air traffic control shortly after takeoff and vanished. While the world waited for any sign of the missing aircraft and the 239 people on board, authorities and scientists began to investigate what little information was known about the plane's actual movements.

  18. Early Cretaceous low-Mg# adakitic rocks in the southern margin of the central North China Craton: Partial melting of thickened lower continental crust and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports new whole-rock geochemical, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic, and zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for Early Cretaceous intrusive rocks in the Sanmenxia-Houma area of central China, and uses these data to constrain the petrogenesis of low-Mg adakitic rocks (LMAR) and the spatial extent of the influence of the deeply subducted Yangtze slab during the Triassic evolution of this region. New zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb data indicate that the early- and late-stage southern Quli, Qiligou, and Gaomiao porphyritic quartz diorites, the Canfang granodiorite, and the northern Wangmao porphyritic quartz monzodiorite were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous (~130 Ma) and the late Early Cretaceous (116 Ma). These rocks are characterized by high Na2O/K2O, Sr/Y, and (La/Yb)n ratios as well as high Sr concentrations, low Mg# values, and low heavy rare earth element and Y concentrations, all of which indicate an LMAR affinity. The samples have relatively high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7054-0.7095), and low eNd(t) (-11.90 to -22.20) and eHf(t) (-16.7 to -32.7) values, indicative of a lower continental crust origin. The presence of Neoproterozoic (754-542 Ma) and inherited Late Triassic (220 Ma) metamorphic zircons within the late Early Cretaceous LMAR and the relatively high 206Pb/204Pb ratios of these rocks suggest that they formed from primary magmas derived from partial melting of Yangtze Craton (YC) basement material that had undergone ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism. In contrast, the presence of Paleoproterozoic and Archean inherited zircons within early Early Cretaceous LMAR in this area and the relatively low 206Pb/204Pb ratios of these rocks are indicative of derivation from primary magmas generated by partial melting of the thickened lower continental crust of the North China Craton (NCC). These rocks may have formed in an extensional environment associated with the upwelling of asthenospheric mantle material. The presence of YC basement material within the NCC in the

  19. Elemental and Sr Nd isotopic systematics of the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuejun; Fan, Weiming; Peng, Touping; Guo, Feng

    2005-02-01

    Elemental and Sr Nd isotopic results are presented for the early Mesozoic volcanic sequence (~172 Ma) in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. The sequence is voluminously composed of ~45% subalkaline basaltic rocks (group 1), <5% high-mg andesite dacites (group 2) and ~50% rhyolites (group 3). The group 1 rocks are characterized by (La/Yb)cn = 3.8 7.2, Eu/Eu* = 0.65 1.15, Nb/La = 0.64 0.99, 87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70602~0.70822 and ɛNd(t) = -1.63 to +0.11, similar to those of an EMII-like source. The group 2 rocks have mg=0.42~0.60, SiO2=60.24~66.71%, MgO=2.65~ 5.54%, Ni=24~102 ppm and Cr=84~266 ppm, classified as high-mg andesitic rocks. These rocks are more enriched in LILEs and LREE with more significant negative Eu anomaly (0.63~0.79), are more depleted in HFSEs with Nb/La ratios of 0.40 0.56 and have lower ɛNd(t) (-9.44 to -7.78) and higher 87Sr/86Sr(t) (0.70985~0.71016), in comparison with the group 1 rocks. They most likely originated from metasomatised veins in the lithospheric mantle. The origination of the group 1 and group 2 magma suggests the development of a peridotite-plus-vein lithospheric mantle during early Mesozoic era beneath the interior of the Cathaysian block. The group 3 rhyolites are characterized by high SiO2 (72.75~77.97%), Zr (99~290 ppm), Hf (3.9~9.7 ppm) and Ga/Al (2.76~3.87) and significant Nb Ta, Ba Sr and P Ti depletions. These rhyolites exhibit Sr Nd isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(t) = 0.70962~0.71104, ɛNd(t) = -4.63 to -5.80) similar to the contemporaneous Zhaibei and Pitou A-type granites in the area. Such characteristics suggest that they might be derived from the underplating basaltic magma contaminated by crustal materials. Therefore, an early Mesozoic rifting model in response to intracontinental lithospheric extension is proposed to account for the early Mesozoic volcanism in southern Jiangxi Province, South China.

  20. Soil-atmospheric exchange of CO2, CH4, and N2O in three subtropical forest ecosystems in southern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tang, X.; Liu, S.; Zhou, G.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Zhou, C.

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude, temporal, and spatial patterns of soil-atmospheric greenhouse gas (hereafter referred to as GHG) exchanges in forests near the Tropic of Cancer are still highly uncertain. To contribute towards an improvement of actual estimates, soil-atmospheric CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes were measured in three successional subtropical forests at the Dinghushan Nature Reserve (hereafter referred to as DNR) in southern China. Soils in DNR forests behaved as N2O sources and CH4 sinks. Annual mean CO2, N2O, and CH4 fluxes (mean ?? SD) were 7.7 ?? 4.6MgCO2-Cha-1 yr-1, 3.2 ?? 1.2 kg N2ONha-1 yr-1, and 3.4 ?? 0.9 kgCH4-Cha-1 yr-1, respectively. The climate was warm and wet from April through September 2003 (the hot-humid season) and became cool and dry from October 2003 through March 2004 (the cool-dry season). The seasonality of soil CO2 emission coincided with the seasonal climate pattern, with high CO2 emission rates in the hot-humid season and low rates in the cool-dry season. In contrast, seasonal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes were not clear, although higher CH4 uptake rates were often observed in the cool-dry season and higher N2O emission rates were often observed in the hot-humid season. GHG fluxes measured at these three sites showed a clear increasing trend with the progressive succession. If this trend is representative at the regional scale, CO2 and N2O emissions and CH4 uptake in southern China may increase in the future in light of the projected change in forest age structure. Removal of surface litter reduced soil CO2 effluxes by 17-44% in the three forests but had no significant effect on CH4 absorption and N2O emission rates. This suggests that microbial CH4 uptake and N2O production was mainly related to the mineral soil rather than in the surface litter layer. ?? 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Interannual variations in wheat rust development in China and the United States in relation to the El Nino/Southern oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Scherm, H.; Yang, X.B.

    1995-09-01

    The El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is one of the most important and best-characterized mechanisms of global climatic variation. Because regional temperature and precipitation patterns are influenced by the ENSO and plant diseases are responsive to these factors, historical disease records may contain an ENSO-related signal. We used cross-spectral analysis to establish coherence and phase relationships between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), which is a measure of the ENSO, and long-term (>40 years) data on wheat stripe rust in five regions of northern China and wheat stem rust in four climatic divisions of the midwestern United States. Monthly SOI values were averaged from March to June and October to March for analysis of the rust data from China and the United States, respectively, based when weather patterns in these regions are influenced by the ENSO. The coherence relationships showed consistent and significant (0.01 {le} P {le} 0.10) cooscillations between the rust and SOI series at temporal scales characteristic of the ENSO. The five stripe rust series were coherent with the SOI series at periodicities of 2.0 to 3.0 and 8.0 to 10.0 years, and three of the four stem rust series were coherent with the SOI series at a periodicity of 6.8 to 8.2 years. The phase relationships showed that, in most cases, the rust and SOI series cooscillated out of phase, suggesting that the associations between them are indirect. In a separate analysis of a shorter (18 years) stripe rust series form the Pacific Northwest of the United States, disease severity was significantly lower during El Nino years (warm phases of the ENSO) than during non-El Nino years (P {le} 0.0222) or during La Nina years (cold phases of the ENSO) (P {le}0.0253). Although no cause-and-effect relationships could be deduced, this analysis identified methods and directions for future research into relationships between climate and disease at extended temporal scales. 34 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Multi-Strain Infections and ‘Relapse’ of Leucocytozoon sabrazesi Gametocytes in Domestic Chickens in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenting; Cai, Baowei; Qi, Yanwei; Liu, Shengfa; Hong, Lingxian; Lu, Mingke; Chen, Xin; Qiu, Chunhui; Peng, Wenfeng; Li, Jian; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2014-01-01

    Leucocytozoon parasites infect many species of avian hosts, including domestic chicken, and can inflict heavy economic loss to the poultry industry. Although the prevalence and distribution of two Leucocytozoon species (L. sabrazesi and L. caulleryi) have been reported in China previously, there are many questions related to the parasite infection that remain unanswered, including population diversity and transmission dynamics in domestic chickens. Here we surveyed chicken blood samples from seven sites in four provinces of China to identify Leucocytozoon infection, characterized parasite diversity within individual infected hosts and between sampling sites, and investigated the dynamics of gametocytemia in chickens over time. We found high infection rates in three of the seven sites. Clustering parasite sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase III (coxIII) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes showed lack of grouping according to geographic origins and individual hosts carrying large numbers of L. sabrazesi strains. Monitoring gametocytemia in blood samples from infected chickens over time showed ‘relapse’ or persistence of low-level gametocytemia for 4–5 months, which could be explored as an in vivo model for testing drugs against liver stages of Apicomplexan parasites. This study provides important information on population diversity and transmission dynamics of L. sabrazesi and for disease control. PMID:24728499

  3. Location-specific patterns of exposure to recent pre-pandemic strains of influenza A in southern China

    PubMed Central

    Lessler, Justin; Read, Jonathan M.; Wang, Shuying; Zhu, Huachen; Smith, Gavin J.D.; Guan, Yi; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Riley, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Variation in influenza incidence between locations is commonly observed on large spatial scales. It is unclear whether such variation occurs on smaller spatial scales and whether it is the result of heterogeneities in population demographics or more subtle differences in population structure and connectivity. Here we show significant differences in immunity to influenza A viruses among communities in China not explained by differences in population demographics. We randomly selected households from 5 randomly selected locations near Guangzhou, China to answer a questionnaire and provide a blood sample for serological testing against 5 recently circulating influenza viruses. We find a significant reduction in the frequency of detectable neutralization titers with increasing age, leveling off in older age groups. There are significant differences between locations in age, employment status, vaccination history, household size and housing conditions. However, after adjustment, significant variations in the frequency of detectable neutralization titers persists between locations. These results suggest there are characteristics of communities that drive influenza transmission dynamics apart from individual and household level risk factors, and that such factors have effects independent of strain. PMID:21829185

  4. Drown carbonate platform and crustal characters in the northern offshore area of the Taiping Island, southern South China Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Ying-Hui; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Hsu, Ho-Han

    2015-04-01

    A 217-km long multichannel seismic reflection profile, together with magnetic and gravity data have been acquired in a marine geophysical survey of the Taiping Island, north of the Chengho Reefs in northern Dangerous Grounds, South China Sea. A volcanic province is identified at the west end of the seismic profile. Eastward, the seismic profile is characterized by several sets of strong reflectors with their amplitudes dropping off westward. In addition, these reflectors are not vertically aggradational, but show reciprocal stacking patterns of progradation and retrogradation. These reciprocal stacking patterns implicate the relative sea-level fluctuations, and may mark the cessation of the South China Sea seafloor spreading. In the middle of the seismic section, several packages of reflections bounded by disconformible surfaces may stand for tilted carbonate platforms sitting above the rotated blocks. The application of gravity modeling help to delineate the crustal thickness and characteristics of the Chengho Reefs. Magnetic modeling help us determine the magnetic sources underlie the Taiping island, a carbonate platform.

  5. The Structure Difference in the Southern Margin of the Dangerous Grounds: Implications for the Final Evolution of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, P.; Shen, C.; Zhao, Z.; Xie, X.; Mei, L.; Gong, J.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    We interpret two multi-channel seismic reflection profiles, more than 900 km across the entire Dangerous Grounds, locating in east and west of the southern margin of the South China Sea respectively. Eight Cenozoic sequence boundaries are determined as well as three tectono-stratigraphic units. Detailed analysis of extensional features and unconformities revealed the tectonic in the east and west. Early extension (syn-rifting sequence) occurred in the two profiles during continental rifting, which lasted from Palaeocene to Early Oligocene, and resulted in formation of half-grabens and rotated fault-blocks. Late extension (drift-rifting sequence) has the significant difference in the both profiles. The eastern Dangerous Grounds entered rifting-depression stage and some compressional deformation occurred in the Reed Bank basin at about the beginning of Early Miocene, probably resulting from the collision of the Dangerous Grounds and the Sabah-Cagayan Arc. The western Dangerous Grounds was still in rifting until the end of Early Miocene, forming the MMU or DRU which is strongly erosional and represents a major break in sedimentation and/or erosion in partial area. Denudation fold and inverted fault can be distinguished blow the MMU, indicating the cessation of the South China Sea accompanied the NW compression, while the boundary corresponding the MMU is nearly a plano-conformity in the east. The thermal sag (post-rifting sequence) is characterized by non-faulted draping strata in the whole area. The different structure in east and west may be related to the final evolution of the SCS. When the proto-SCS closed in a scissor fashion plus the clockwise rotation of Borneo, the initial collision (c.20Ma) appeared in east part building the NW foreland basin system from Palawan Trough to Reed Bank in a short-live process, while the west part was drifting southwards until c.15Ma to form the even more remarkable foreland system from Borneo Trough to deep-water Sarawak.

  6. Effects of food availability and climate on activity patterns of western black-crested gibbons in an isolated forest fragment in southern Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qingyong; Xie, Meng; Grueter, Cyril C; Jiang, Xuelong; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Zhang, Mingwang; Li, Yan; Yang, Jiandong

    2015-10-01

    The critically endangered western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) is distributed in isolated habitat fragments in northern Vietnam, northwestern Laos, and southwestern China. To assess the behavioral adaptation of this species to forest fragments and its response to seasonal variation in food availability and climate, we present activity patterns of a group inhabiting an isolated forest based on two year-long studies in southern Yunnan, China. Annually, the gibbons spent nearly half of their active time resting, followed by moving and feeding. In both study periods, the time allocated to activities varied significantly between months, and was affected by food availability and climate factors. The group delayed retirement when tree fruit was abundant, and they decreased time spent moving and playing during periods of low fruit availability. In the cold months, the gibbons decreased time spent moving, and they decreased active time and resting time when rainfall was high. The results suggest that the group may seek to maximize net energy intake like energy maximizers when high quality food is most available, and adopt an energy-conserving strategy during periods of lower food availability and temperature. The gibbons showed similar diurnal variation in activity patterns to a group inhabiting a continuous forest at Dazhaizi, Mt. Wuliang, central Yunnan. However, they had a longer active period, and devoted more time to resting but less time to feeding. The individuals also spent lower percentages of time engaged in social behavior than those at Dazhaizi. These differences may be due to their smaller home range and unusual group composition caused by habitat fragmentation. PMID:26275664

  7. Evaluating controlling factors to Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in acidic soil water, southern and southwestern China: multivariate approach.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing-Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Shan; Vogt, Rolf D; Xiao, Jin-Song; Zhao, Da-Wei; Xiang, Ren-Jun; Luo, Jia-Hai

    2007-06-01

    Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water has been used as an indicator to the effects of acid deposition on terrestrial ecosystems. However, the main factors controlling this ratio have not been well documented in southern and southwestern China. In this study, we presented the variation in inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) and Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in different sites and soil horizons based on two to three years monitoring data, and evaluated the main factors controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio using principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square (PLS) regression. Monitoring data showed although Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratios in most soil water were lower than assumed critical 1.0, higher molar ratios were found in some soil water at TSP and LXH site. Besides acid loading, both soil properties and soil water chemistry affected the value of Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. Partial least square (PLS) indicated that they had different relative importance in different soil horizons. In A-horizon, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) had higher influence on Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio than soil water chemistry did; higher soil aluminum saturation (AlS) led to higher Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio in soil water. In the deeper horizons (i.e., B(1)-, B(2)- and BC-horizon), inorganic aluminum (Al(i)) in soil water had more and more important role in regulating Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. On regional scale, soil aluminum saturation (AlS) as well as cation exchange capacity (CEC) was the dominant factor controlling Al(i)/(Ca + Mg) molar ratio. This should be paid enough attention on when making regional acid rain control policy in China. PMID:17057971

  8. Emissions of CH4 and N2O under Different Tillage Systems from Double-Cropped Paddy Fields in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Lin; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Xue, Jian-Fu; Chen, Zhong-Du; Tang, Hai-Ming; Chen, Fu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is becoming increasingly important with the climate change. Most previous studies have focused on the assessment of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential and GHG emissions from agriculture. However, specific experiments assessing tillage impacts on GHG emission from double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China are relatively scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of tillage systems on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in a double rice (Oryza sativa L.) cropping system. The experiment was established in 2005 in Hunan Province, China. Three tillage treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design: conventional tillage (CT), rotary tillage (RT) and no-till (NT). Fluxes of CH4 from different tillage treatments followed a similar trend during the two years, with a single peak emission for the early rice season and a double peak emission for the late rice season. Compared with other treatments, NT significantly reduced CH4 emission among the rice growing seasons (P<0.05). However, much higher variations in N2O emission were observed across the rice growing seasons due to the vulnerability of N2O to external influences. The amount of CH4 emission in paddy fields was much higher relative to N2O emission. Conversion of CT to NT significantly reduced the cumulative CH4 emission for both rice seasons compared with other treatments (P<0.05). The mean value of global warming potentials (GWPs) of CH4 and N2O emissions over 100 years was in the order of NT

  9. Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis and tectonic significance of Paleozoic dolerite dykes in the southern margin of Alxa Block, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jun; Li, Chusi; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Jiao, Jiangang

    2015-11-01

    Dolerite dykes are common in the southern margin of Alxa Block which is the westernmost part of North China Craton. The ages and petrogenesis of the dolerite dykes, which are important for a better understanding of tectonic-magmatic evolution in the region, are uncertain. This paper reports the results of an integrated geochronological and geochemical study of the dolerite dykes in the Jinchuan area. Previously, these dolerite dykes were considered to be coeval with the ∼831 Ma Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion by some researchers, despite a cross-cutting relationship for the dykes. Our new zircon U-Pb dating indicates that the dolerite dykes were emplaced at ∼424 Ma, >400 Ma younger than the Jinchuan intrusion. The Jinchuan dolerite dykes contain 5-9 wt.% MgO and 47-51 wt.% SiO2, and are characterized by light REE (rare earth elements) enrichments relative to heavy REE, pronounced negative Nb anomaly, elevated initial 87Sr/86Sr from 0.7056 to 0.7068, negative εNd from -2 to -5, and zircon εHf from -2 to -20. The trace element and isotope data are consistent with an asthenosphere-derived parental magma that experienced 10-25% crustal contamination prior to final emplacement. Since the Jinchuan dolerite dykes are 20-40 Ma younger than the subduction-related basaltic volcanic rocks, blueschists and eclogites in the nearby North Qilian orogenic belt to the south, we propose that the Jinchuan dolerite dykes are the products of basaltic magmatism induced by delamination of previously subducted oceanic lithosphere and the associated asthenosphere upwelling in a post-subduction setting. The occurrence of ∼424 Ma post-subduction dolerite dykes in the Jinchuan area and the ∼450 Ma arc basalts to the south indicate that the southwestern margin of North China Craton was an active plate margin in Early Paleozoic.

  10. Environmental changes in the Ulan Buh Desert, southern Inner Mongolia, China since the middle Pleistocene based on sedimentology, chronology and proxy indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqiang; Jin, Ming; Chen, Xuemei; Wen, Lijuan; Zhang, Jiawu; Madsen, David; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Xin; Fan, Tianlai; Duan, Yanwu; Liu, Xiaokang; Wu, Duo; Li, Fangliang; Chen, Fahu

    2015-11-01

    The Ulan Buh Desert (UBD), in southwestern Inner Mongolia, is one of the main dune fields and dust source areas in northern China. The formation of the desert and associated environmental changes since the middle Pleistocene are still unclear due to a lack of depositional records and environmental proxy index analyses. In this study, quartz and K-feldspar optical dating, environmental proxy indexes of grain size, loss on ignition, pollen, and ostracod analysis were employed to supplement the sediment record of a 120.5 m drill core, WL12ZK-1, from the southern UBD. In combination with previous stratigraphic records obtained from drill cores WL10ZK-1 (35 m deep) and WL10ZK-2 (32 m deep) from the northern UBD, and drill core WL12ZK-2 (80 m deep) from the northeastern UBD, these proxies indicate there has been essentially an arid environment in the UBD, with desert or steppe vegetation, since the middle Pleistocene, and that sand dunes were widely distributed in the UBD beginning at least ˜230 ka ago. The Yellow River filled a freshwater paleolake beginning ˜15 ka ago that covered both the UBD and the adjacent Hetao Plain. The paleolake lasted until ˜87 ka, and was associated with wetlands along its margins. Steppe vegetation was present in the surrounding region. An arid environment appeared again after ˜87 ka, and there is no evidence of a large stable lake in the UBD at any time thereafter. Sand dune deposition and a very arid desert environment were present throughout the last glacial period and lasted into the early Holocene. During the Holocene these arid conditions were interrupted by minor wetland intervals. Deserts in southern Inner Mongolia formed at least since the middle Pleistocene, expanded during the last glaciation and into the early Holocene and again after ˜2 ka. We suggest that a combination of tectonic activity and climate change may be responsible for desert formation and environmental changes in southern Inner Mongolia since the middle