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Immunological Deregulation in Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL) has a unique histology since only a few neoplastic cells are surrounded by inflammatory accessory cells that in the last years have emerged as crucial players in sustaining the course of disease. In addition, recent studies suggest that the abnormal activity of these inflammatory cells (such as deregulation in regulatory T cells signaling, expansion of myeloid derived suppressor cells, HLA-G signaling and natural killer cells dysfunction) may have prognostic significance. This review is focused on summarizing recent advanced in immunological defects in cHL with translational implications. PMID:24959336

Romano, Alessandra; Vetro, Calogero; Caocci, Giovanni; Greco, Marianna; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Di Raimondo, Francesco; La Nasa, Giorgio



Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Survival in Classic Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Despite advances in treatments for Hodgkin's lymphoma, about 20% of patients still die from progressive disease. Current prognostic models predict the outcome of treatment with imperfect accuracy, and clinically relevant biomarkers have not been established to improve on the International Prognostic Score. Methods Using gene-expression profiling, we analyzed 130 frozen samples obtained from patients with classic Hodgkin's lymphoma during diagnostic lymph-node biopsy to determine which cellular signatures were correlated with treatment outcome. We confirmed our findings in an independent cohort of 166 patients, using immunohistochemical analysis. Results Gene-expression profiling identified a gene signature of tumor-associated macrophages that was significantly associated with primary treatment failure (P = 0.02). In an independent cohort of patients, we found that an increased number of CD68+ macrophages was correlated with a shortened progression-free survival (P = 0.03) and with an increased likelihood of relapse after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (P = 0.008), resulting in shortened disease-specific survival (P = 0.003). In multivariate analysis, this adverse prognostic factor outperformed the International Prognostic Score for disease-specific survival (P = 0.003 vs. P = 0.03). The absence of an elevated number of CD68+ cells in patients with limited-stage disease defined a subgroup of patients with a long-term disease-specific survival of 100% with the use of current treatment strategies. Conclusions An increased number of tumor-associated macrophages was strongly associated with shortened survival in patients with classic Hodgkin's lymphoma and provides a new biomarker for risk stratification. PMID:20220182

Steidl, Christian; Lee, Tang; Shah, Sohrab P.; Farinha, Pedro; Han, Guangming; Nayar, Tarun; Delaney, Allen; Jones, Steven J.; Iqbal, Javeed; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Bast, Martin A.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Muller-Hermelink, Hans-Konrad; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Campo, Elias; Delabie, Jan; Braziel, Rita M.; Cook, James R.; Tubbs, Ray R.; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Lenz, Georg; Connors, Joseph M.; Staudt, Louis M.; Chan, Wing C.; Gascoyne, Randy D.



Classical Hodgkin lymphoma, lymphocyte depleted type: clinicopathological analysis and prognostic comparison with other types of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.  


The lymphocyte-depleted type (LD) is a morphological subtype of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), but its rarity and heterogeneous morphological character makes a definite clinicopathological identification difficult. To characterize this disease, LD cases were compared with other types of CHL. From 1982 to 2006, we collected 310 CHL cases. Among them, 29 cases were diagnosed as LD. We could additionally analyze clinical data of 157 CHL cases (including 28 LD cases) and the immunophenotype of 150 CHL cases (including 28 LD cases). We compared clinicopathological data between LD cases and other types of CHL cases and determined prognostic factors by univariate and multivariate analysis. LD showed a more progressive disease stage (stage 3/4, 64%) than other types of CHL (stage 3/4, 30%; P<0.001), more frequent B symptoms (89% vs. 40%; P<0.001) and extranodal invasion (50% vs. 11%; P<0.001), older age (median: 66 vs. 33; P<0.001), higher serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor levels (median: 8240U/ml vs. 1705U/ml; P<0.001), and much poorer prognosis regardless of the international prognostic score (IPS) (five-year overall survival: 29% vs. 86%; P<0.001). The morphological subtype of LD represented an independent prognostic factor as did age and IPS by multivariate analysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that the characteristics of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of LD are basically not different from those of other types of CHL in terms of CD30, CD15, and chemokine receptors, except for high-level EB-virus infection (72% vs. 41%; P=0.002). LD should be distinguished from other types of classical Hodgkin lymphoma because of its definitive clinicopathological characters. PMID:23478005

Karube, Kennosuke; Niino, Daisuke; Kimura, Yoshizo; Ohshima, Koichi



A single slide multiplex assay for the evaluation of classical Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Classical Hodgkin lymphoma can be diagnosed with confidence in the majority of cases, but there is a significant subset that remains a diagnostic challenge. The authors have investigated the utility of a novel hyperplexing technology, MultiOmyx™, which may be applied to stain with >60 antibodies on single tissue sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue as an aid to the diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The multiplexing protocol included CD30, CD15, PAX-5, CD20, CD79a, CD45, BOB.1, OCT-2, and CD3 antibodies. The technology showed a high degree of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Comparison studies with routine hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical assessment of hematopathology cases in which classical Hodgkin lymphoma was included in the differential diagnosis showed concordance in 54 of 56 cases, with the 2 discordant cases illustrating the potential of this multiplexed immunofluorescence technology to improve on traditional immunohistochemistry for classical Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis. This technology is practical for routine diagnosis and may be particularly useful in cases in which the sample size is limited, few Hodgkin-like cells are present, or in CD30-positive lymphoma cases with difficult morphology. MultiOmyx may potentially benefit other areas of research and diagnostic pathology. PMID:24854113

Hollman-Hewgley, Denise; Lazare, Michael; Bordwell, Alex; Zebadua, Emily; Tripathi, Pinky; Ross, Alexander S; Fisher, Deanna; Adams, Alisha; Bouman, Derek; O'Malley, Dennis P; Weiss, Lawrence M



Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression by Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg Cells Is Associated with Reduced Overall Survival in Young Adult Patients with Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have investigated the prognostic relevance of MMP9 in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), with negative results. However, we have found that MMP9 immunoistochemical expression by Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells is associated with reduced overall survival in a subset of young adult Brazilian patients diagnosed with cHL. Additionally, we have observed that MMP9 expression by neoplastic cells in cHL is associated with EBV positivity. These results may support a rational basis for additional studies on the role of this metalloproteinase as a target for therapy in classical Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:24086377

Campos, Antonio Hugo; Vassallo, Jose; Soares, Fernando Augusto



B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma without mediastinal disease: mimicking nodular sclerosis classical Hodgkin lymphoma.  


B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (BCLu-DLBCL/CHL), also known as gray-zone lymphoma, has overlapping clinical and biological characteristics of both diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). These lymphomas are typically associated with mediastinal disease, and extranodal involvement is rare. In the present report, we describe a case of a 78-year-old woman with BCLu-DLBCL/CHL found to have extranodal lesions and no evidence of mediastinal disease. Although biopsy specimens were histologically similar to nodular sclerosis CHL, the tumor cells were positive for CD30 and mature B-cell markers, such as CD20, CD79a, PAX5, BOB.1, and OCT-2, but negative for CD15. Furthermore, the patient had extranodal lesions and an increased level of soluble IL-2 receptor. These findings are unusual in CHL. Therefore, we diagnosed the patient with BCLu-DLBCL/CHL. She received adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine, and dacarbazine therapy and exhibited partial response. Some cases without mediastinal disease, such as our case, have been reported; however, these cases are rare and further studies are required. PMID:23512149

Iwaki, Noriko; Sato, Yasuharu; Kurokawa, Toshiro; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Ohno, Kyotaro; Takeuchi, Mai; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Orita, Yorihisa; Nakao, Shinji; Yoshino, Tadashi



Nodular sclerosing classical Hodgkin lymphoma masquerading as acute suppurative-necrotizing lymphadenitis.  


The diagnosis of nodular sclerosing classical Hodgkin lymphoma (NSCHL) by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy has historically been a diagnostic challenge due to the usual paucicellularity of the specimen. This case report, and other previously published reports, suggests that there is another facet to the potentially challenging diagnosis of this particular variant of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL): the presence of suppurative-necrotizing changes mimicking an infectious etiology. The patient presented here underwent FNA biopsy of an acutely enlarged supraclavicular lymph node and cytologic smears showed marked acute inflammation in a background of necrosis. A diagnosis of infectious suppurative lymphadenitis was made at that time. After a negative infectious work-up with infectious disease consultation, an excisional biopsy was performed and the patient was definitively diagnosed with NSCHL. The presence of neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in the purulent exudate was minimal and only appropriately identified after retrospective review. This particular subtype of classical HL represents a potential pitfall in FNA biopsy cytology. Consequently, the cytopathologist and surgeon should always consider this entity in the differential diagnosis of a suppurative, lymphadenitis-like aspirate, and pursue repeat FNA or an excisional biopsy if there is any clinical index of suspicion. PMID:21965120

Florentine, Barbara D; Cohen, Alen N



Clinicopathological analysis of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma of the mediastinum.  


Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) and nodular sclerosing classical Hodgkin lymphoma (NSCHL) are the major histological types of lymphoma affecting the mediastinum. We reviewed 27 patients with PMLBCL and 14 patients with NSCHL. A poor performance status, high serum lactate dehydrogenase level and strong positivity for PAX5 were all significantly more common in patients with PMLBCL than in those with NSCHL. Severe fibrosis was frequent in NSCHL, but not in PMLBCL. PDL1 was expressed by 11/25 PMLBCLs (44.0%) vs. 1/9 NSCHLs (11.1%). Expression of BCL6 was significantly more frequent in PDL1-positive PMLBCL than in PDL1-negative PMLBCL, but there were no clinical differences between these two groups. Two patients with PMLBCL with a poor prognosis had CD20(-), CD79a(+), CD15(-), and CD30(-), possibly representing a subtype of mediastinal gray zone lymphoma. PMID:23020783

Yamamoto, Wataru; Nakamura, Naoya; Tomita, Naoto; Ishii, Yoshimi; Takasaki, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Chizuko; Motomura, Shigeki; Yamazaki, Etsuko; Ohshima, Rika; Numata, Ayumi; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Sakai, Rika



Classical Hodgkin lymphoma arising in the setting of iatrogenic immunodeficiency: a clinicopathologic study of 10 cases.  


Iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders are rare. A small subset of these lesions resembles classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), but there are few data in the literature about these lesions. We describe 10 patients with autoimmune diseases treated with immunomodulator therapeutic agents who developed CHL. The autoimmune diseases included rheumatoid arthritis (n=5), systemic lupus erythematosus (n=2), dermatomyositis (n=1), autoimmune hepatitis (n=1), and Crohn disease (n=1), and the immunomodulatory therapies were methotrexate, azathioprine, tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors, and thalidomide alone or in various combinations. The study group included 9 women and 1 man with a median age of 50 years (range, 25 to 77 y). The histologic features supported CHL in all cases with Reed-Sternberg (RS) and Hodgkin (H) cells in an inflammatory cell background, although the neoplasm could only be subclassified in 3 patients: 2 nodular sclerosis and 1 mixed cellularity. Immunohistochemical analysis supported the diagnosis of CHL. In all cases the RS-H cells were CD30. Nine of 10 cases were CD15, whereas CD20 was expressed variably in 4/10 cases. CD45/LCA was negative in 8 cases assessed. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was positive in the RS-H cells in 8/10 cases. The microenvironment of these lesions depicted a predominance of T-regulatory cells and M2 histiocytes. Clinical follow-up data were available for 7 patients, with a median posttreatment period of 27 months (range, 12 mo to 7 y). In all 7 patients immunomodulatory drug therapy was discontinued, and chemotherapy for CHL was administered; 2 patients also received local radiation. All 7 patients achieved complete remission and are alive. We conclude that iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated CHL is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection, and patients usually have a good outcome after discontinuation of immunomodulatory agents and chemotherapy for CHL. PMID:23774171

Loo, Eric Y; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Aladily, Tariq N; Hoehn, Daniela; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Young, Ken H; Lin, Pei; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E; Manning, John T; Patel, Keyur; Thomazy, Vilmos; Brynes, Russell K; Goswami, Maitrayee; Fayad, Luis E; Miranda, Roberto N



Germ-Line Transmitted, Chromosomally Integrated HHV-6 and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

A unique feature of both human herpesvirus 6A and B (HHV-6A and B) among human herpesviruses is their ability to integrate into chromosomal telomeres. In some individuals integrated viral genomes are present in the germ-line and result in the vertical transmission of HHV-6; however, little is known about the disease associations of germ-line transmitted, chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (ciHHV-6). Recent publications suggest that HHV-6 is associated with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Here we examine the prevalence of ciHHV-6 in 936 cases of cHL and 563 controls by screening with a duplex TaqMan assay and confirming with droplet digital PCR. ciHHV-6 was detected in 10/563 (1.8%) controls and in all but one individual the virus was HHV-6B. Amongst cases 16/936 (1.7%) harboured ciHHV-6, thus demonstrating no association between ciHHV-6 and risk of cHL. PMID:25384040

Bell, Adam J.; Gallagher, Alice; Mottram, Timothy; Lake, Annette; Kane, Eleanor V.; Lightfoot, Tracy; Roman, Eve; Jarrett, Ruth F.



Galectin-1 serum levels reflect tumor burden and adverse clinical features in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a member of a highly conserved family of carbohydrate-binding proteins. It modulates innate and adaptive immune responses and fosters tumor-immune escape. Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) Reed-Sternberg cells overexpress and secrete Gal1, which selectively kills T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells and cytotoxic T cells and promotes the immunosuppressive Th2/regulatory T-cell-predominant HL microenvironment. We developed a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and assessed serum Gal1 levels in 293 newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with classical HL (cHL) enrolled in 3 risk-adapted clinical trials. Serum Gal1 levels were significantly higher in patients with cHL than in normal controls (P < .0001). Gal1 serum levels also increased with Ann Arbor stage (P = .012), areas of nodal involvement (P < .0001), and the International Prognostic Score (2-7, P = .019). We conclude that Gal1 serum levels are significantly associated with tumor burden and related clinical features in newly diagnosed cHL patients. PMID:23444403

Ouyang, Jing; Plütschow, Annette; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke; Reiners, Katrin S; Ponader, Sabine; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Neuberg, Donna; Engert, Andreas; Shipp, Margaret A



Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg Cells in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Show Alterations of Genes Encoding the NADPH Oxidase Complex and Impaired Reactive Oxygen Species Synthesis Capacity  

PubMed Central

The membrane bound NADPH oxidase involved in the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a multi-protein enzyme encoded by CYBA, CYBB, NCF1, NCF2 and NCF4 genes. Growing evidence suggests a role of ROS in the modulation of signaling pathways of non-phagocytic cells, including differentiation and proliferation of B-cell progenitors. Transcriptional downregulation of the CYBB gene has been previously reported in cell lines of the B-cell derived classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Thus, we explored functional consequences of CYBB downregulation on the NADPH complex. Using flow cytometry to detect and quantify superoxide anion synthesis in cHL cell lines we identified recurrent loss of superoxide anion production in all stimulated cHL cell lines in contrast to stimulated non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines. As CYBB loss proved to exert a deleterious effect on the NADPH oxidase complex in cHL cell lines, we analyzed the CYBB locus in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of primary cHL biopsies by in situ hybridisation and identified recurrent deletions of the gene in 8/18 cases. Immunohistochemical analysis to 14 of these cases revealed a complete lack of detectable CYBB protein expression in all HRS cells in all cases studied. Moreover, by microarray profiling of cHL cell lines we identified additional alterations of NADPH oxidase genes including CYBA copy number loss in 3/7 cell lines and a significant downregulation of the NCF1 transcription (p=0.006) compared to normal B-cell subsets. Besides, NCF1 protein was significantly downregulated (p<0.005) in cHL compared to other lymphoma cell lines. Together this findings show recurrent alterations of the NADPH oxidase encoding genes that result in functional inactivation of the enzyme and reduced production of superoxide anion in cHL. PMID:24376854

Sosna, Justyna; Döring, Claudia; Klapper, Wolfram; Küppers, Ralf; Böttcher, Sebastian; Adam, Dieter; Siebert, Reiner; Schütze, Stefan



Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma involving the central nervous system (brain) - an unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message Intracranial Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is considered so atypical that an intracranial space-occupying lesion in a patient with known HL should be thoroughly investigated to rule out a second disease process.

van Blydenstein, Sarah Alexandra; Patel, Moosa; Philip, Vinitha; Lakha, Atul; Pather, Sugeshnee; Westgarth-Taylor, Tracy; Thompson, Eddison; Kolloori, Avinash



Composite diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma of the stomach: Case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

The combination of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (cHL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma coexisting in the same patient is not common, especially in one extranodal location. Here we present a rare case of composite diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and cHL occurring simultaneously in the stomach of a 53-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal discomfort and gas pain. Surgery was performed and the disease was diagnosed pathologically as composite lymphoma of DLBCL and cHL using hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical staining. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was not detected by in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA or immunohistochemistry for EBV latent membrane protein-1. Polymerase chain reaction analysis from the two distinct components of the tumor demonstrated clonal immunoglobulin ? light chain gene rearrangements. The patient died approximately 11 mo after diagnosis in spite of receiving eight courses of the CHOP and two courses of the rituximab-CHOP (RCHOP) chemotherapy regimen. This case report showed that the two distinct components, DLBCL and cHL, appeared to originate from the same clonal progenitor cell, and that EBV infection was not essential for transformation during the course of tumorigenesis. PMID:24115832

Wang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Wen; Wang, Lin; Lu, Yun-Long; Lu, Jiang-Yang



Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Presenting with Atypical Cutaneous Involvement and Diagnosis of ZZ Phenotype Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare condition. Specific neoplastic involvement can be primary (confined to the skin) or secondary to systemic involvement (metastatic). Cutaneous involvement by HL usually occurs late in the course and is associated with poor prognosis; however in some cases it can exhibit indolent behavior. Skin involvement with nonspecific cutaneous findings may represent a paraneoplastic syndrome. We describe a case of 46-year-old white male patient presented with rash and lymphadenopathy which led to the diagnosis of stage IVE mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin lymphoma with skin involvement. His disease was refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy including (1) AVD (doxorubicin/bleomycin/dacarbazine), (2) brentuximab, and (3) bendamustine, he later achieved complete remission with (4) GCD (gemcitabine/carboplatin/dexamethasone) salvage regimen. Bleomycin was not given secondary to poor pulmonary function tests. His treatment was complicated after AVD with multiple pneumothoraces which unmasked the diagnosis of ZZ phenotype alpha-1 antitrypsin (ATT) deficiency. Simultaneous existence of Hodgkin lymphoma and ATT is rarely reported. PMID:24955265

Kraus, Teresa; Cherry, Mohamad



c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) is activated and contributes to tumor cell proliferation in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.  


c-JUN N-terminal Kinase (JNK) is activated/phosphorylated by upstream MAPK kinases (MKK), and, in turn, phosphorylates and activates its major substrate c-JUN, a member of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factors. c-JUN is overexpressed and activated in Hodgkin and Reed Sternberg cells (HRS) of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), however, the mechanism of its activation remains unknown. JNK activation was immunohistochemically assessed in 60 cases of HL and in a control group of 151 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The biologic effects of JNK activation in cultured HRS cells were investigated using colony formation, cell growth and viability assays and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry. Western blotting was used to assess protein levels. p-JNK was expressed in 90% of HL, 83% of Burkitt lymphomas, 28% of mantle cell lymphomas, 23% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, 19% of follicular lymphomas, and 18% of extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of MALT type. None of the 48 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and 18 cases of plasma cell myeloma showed JNK phosphorylation (P < 001, Kruskall-Wallis test). Pharmacological inhibition of JNK activity in cultured HRS cells resulted in a significant decrease of cell growth, which was associated with cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. The cell cycle effects were linked to deactivation of c-JUN and upregulation of its known target, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21. JNK is highly activated in HRS cells, and may contribute to uncontrolled cell cycle progression and proliferation of tumor cells in cHL. PMID:24457077

Leventaki, Vasiliki; Drakos, Elias; Karanikou, Maria; Psatha, Konstantina; Lin, Pei; Schlette, Ellen; Eliopoulos, Aris; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros P; Papadaki, Helen; Patsouris, Efstratios; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Rassidakis, George Z



Mapping of transcription factor motifs in active chromatin identifies IRF5 as key regulator in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Deregulated transcription factor (TF) activities are commonly observed in hematopoietic malignancies. Understanding tumorigenesis therefore requires determining the function and hierarchical role of individual TFs. To identify TFs central to lymphomagenesis, we identified lymphoma type-specific accessible chromatin by global mapping of DNaseI hypersensitive sites and analyzed enriched TF-binding motifs in these regions. Applying this unbiased approach to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), a common B-cell-derived lymphoma with a complex pattern of deregulated TFs, we discovered interferon regulatory factor (IRF) sites among the top enriched motifs. High-level expression of the proinflammatory TF IRF5 was specific to HL cells and crucial for their survival. Furthermore, IRF5 initiated a regulatory cascade in human non-Hodgkin B-cell lines and primary murine B cells by inducing the TF AP-1 and cooperating with NF-?B to activate essential characteristic features of HL. Our strategy efficiently identified a lymphoma type-specific key regulator and uncovered a tumor promoting role of IRF5. PMID:25288773

Kreher, Stephan; Bouhlel, M Amine; Cauchy, Pierre; Lamprecht, Björn; Li, Shuang; Grau, Michael; Hummel, Franziska; Köchert, Karl; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Jöhrens, Korinna; Hummel, Michael; Hiscott, John; Wenzel, Sören-Sebastian; Lenz, Peter; Schneider, Markus; Küppers, Ralf; Scheidereit, Claus; Giefing, Maciej; Siebert, Reiner; Rajewsky, Klaus; Lenz, Georg; Cockerill, Peter N; Janz, Martin; Dörken, Bernd; Bonifer, Constanze; Mathas, Stephan



Reed-Sternberg cell-derived lymphotoxin-? activates endothelial cells to enhance T-cell recruitment in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.  


It is known that cells within the inflammatory background in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) provide signals essential for the continual survival of the neoplastic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the recruitment of this inflammatory infiltrate into the involved lymph nodes are less well understood. In this study, we show in vitro that HRS cells secrete lymphotoxin-? (LT?) which acts on endothelial cells to upregulate the expression of adhesion molecules that are important for T cell recruitment. LT? also enhances the expression of hyaluronan which preferentially contributes to the recruitment of CD4(+) CD45RA(+) naïve T cells under in vitro defined flow conditions. Enhanced expression of LT? in HRS cells and tissue stroma; and hyaluronan on endothelial cells are readily detected in involved lymph nodes from cHL patients. Our study also shows that although NF-?B and AP-1 are involved, the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway is the dominant regulator of LT? production in HRS cells. Using pharmacological inhibitors, our data suggest that activity of COX1, but not of COX2, directly regulates the expression of nuclear c-Fos in HRS cells. Our findings suggest that HRS cell-derived LT? is an important mediator that contributes to T cell recruitment into lesional lymph nodes in cHL. PMID:25139349

Fhu, Chee Wai; Graham, Anne M; Yap, Celestial T; Al-Salam, Suhail; Castella, Antonio; Chong, Siew Meng; Lim, Yaw-Chyn



Mapping of transcription factor motifs in active chromatin identifies IRF5 as key regulator in classical Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Deregulated transcription factor (TF) activities are commonly observed in hematopoietic malignancies. Understanding tumorigenesis therefore requires determining the function and hierarchical role of individual TFs. To identify TFs central to lymphomagenesis, we identified lymphoma type-specific accessible chromatin by global mapping of DNaseI hypersensitive sites and analyzed enriched TF-binding motifs in these regions. Applying this unbiased approach to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), a common B-cell–derived lymphoma with a complex pattern of deregulated TFs, we discovered interferon regulatory factor (IRF) sites among the top enriched motifs. High-level expression of the proinflammatory TF IRF5 was specific to HL cells and crucial for their survival. Furthermore, IRF5 initiated a regulatory cascade in human non-Hodgkin B-cell lines and primary murine B cells by inducing the TF AP-1 and cooperating with NF-?B to activate essential characteristic features of HL. Our strategy efficiently identified a lymphoma type-specific key regulator and uncovered a tumor promoting role of IRF5. PMID:25288773

Kreher, Stephan; Bouhlel, M. Amine; Cauchy, Pierre; Lamprecht, Bjorn; Li, Shuang; Grau, Michael; Hummel, Franziska; Kochert, Karl; Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis; Johrens, Korinna; Hummel, Michael; Hiscott, John; Wenzel, Soren-Sebastian; Lenz, Peter; Schneider, Markus; Kuppers, Ralf; Scheidereit, Claus; Giefing, Maciej; Siebert, Reiner; Rajewsky, Klaus; Lenz, Georg; Cockerill, Peter N.; Janz, Martin; Dorken, Bernd; Bonifer, Constanze; Mathas, Stephan



Why Chinese People Play Western Classical Music: Transcultural Roots of Music Philosophy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the complex relationship between Confucian values and music education in East Asia, particularly its history in China. How does one account for the present "cultural fever" of Western classical music that has infected more than 100 million Chinese practitioners? It is proposed that Western classical music finds transcultural…

Huang, Hao



Lymphotoxin Alpha (LTA) Polymorphism Is Associated with Prognosis of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in a Chinese Population  

PubMed Central

Background Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has been widely reported to be associated with autoimmune and pro-inflammatory response, and genetic polymorphisms of candidate genes involved in autoimmune and pro-inflammatory response may influence the survival and prognosis of NHL patients. To evaluate the role of such genetic variations in prognosis of NHL, we conducted this study in a Chinese population. Methods We used the TaqMan assay to genotype six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (TNF rs1799964T>C, LTA rs1800683G>A, IL-10 rs1800872T>G, LEP rs2167270G>A, LEPR rs1327118C>G, TNFAIP8 rs1045241C>T) for 215 NHL cases. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to compare progression free survival among two common genotypes. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify independent risk factors. Results We observed that LTA rs1800683G>A was significantly associated with risk of progression or relapse in NHL patients (HR?=?1.63, 95%CI?=?1.06–2.51; P?=?0.028), particularly in Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases (HR?=?1.50, 95%CI?=?1.10–2.04, P?=?0.01). Both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that in DLBCL patients, Ann Arbor stage III/IV, elevated LDH level before treatment and LTA rs1800683 AA genotype carrier were independent risk factors for progression or relapse. While in NK/T cell lymphoma, Ann Arbor stage III/IV and elevated ?2-MG level before treatment indicated poorer prognosis. Conclusions The polymorphism of LTA rs1800683G>A contributes to NHL prognosis in a Chinese population. Further large-scale and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:23840460

Zhang, Yan; Chen, Min-Bin; Zhou, Xiao-Yan; Hong, Xiao-Nan



Harvard Yen-ching Classification 0100 to 0999 Chinese Classics  

E-print Network

-1609 Logic 1610-1649 Metaphysics 1650-1699 Ethics 1700-1729 Religion in general 1730-1738 Mythology 1739-0849 Xiao Jing 0850-0999 Si Shu 1000 to 1999 Philosophy and Religion 1000-1008 Philosophy & religion-1749 Occultism numerology 1750-1779 History of religions 1780-1799 Chinese state cults 1800-1919 Buddhism 1920

California at Berkeley, University of


B cells in classical Hodgkin lymphoma are important actors rather than bystanders in the local immune reaction.  


Recent studies, largely focusing on cellular immunity, have demonstrated that the composition of the abundant inflammatory background of Hodgkin lymphoma may affect outcome. This investigation aimed to characterize the potential role of infiltrating B cells and follicular dendritic cell networks in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) to better assess the role of components of humoral immunity. One hundred two cHL biopsies were investigated by immunohistochemistry with antibodies specific for CD20, CD138, activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and CD21 to characterize B cell distribution and follicular structures. To further subclassify B cells, analyses of tissue microarrays were performed investigating the expression of Mum1, Bcl6, IgD, IgG, IgG4, IgM, T-bet, CD38, CD5, and CD10. For evaluation a computer assisted quantification method was compared with a scoring system. Survival analysis and correlation analysis were performed. The B cell infiltrate was dominated by CD20+ B cells, followed by plasma cells, whereas only few AID+ cells were observed. High numbers of CD21+ follicular dendritic cell networks, CD20+ B cells, IgM+ cells, CD20+ aggregates, and Bcl6+ cells were associated with a better outcome of cHL patients, whereas Pax5+/CD38+ cells had an adverse prognostic impact. Other parameters showed no influence on survival. Our findings suggest that a complex network of B cells is present in the microenvironment of cHL and that B cells might actively contribute to a local anti- as well as pro-tumoral immune response. This indicates that the network of B cells in tumors is probably just as diverse as the T cellular infiltrate and probably functionally as heterogenous. PMID:24029709

Tudor, Christiane S; Distel, Luitpold V; Eckhardt, Jenny; Hartmann, Arndt; Niedobitek, Gerald; Buettner, Maike



Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma: the Lymphoma Study Association guidelines for relapsed and refractory adult patients eligible for transplant  

PubMed Central

The Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Committee of the Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) gathered in 2012 to prepare guidelines on the management of transplant-eligible patients with relapsing or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The working group is made up of a multidisciplinary panel of experts with a significant background in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Each member of the panel of experts provided an interpretation of the evidence and a systematic approach to obtain consensus was used. Grades of recommendation were not required since levels of evidence are mainly based on phase II trials or standard practice. Data arising from randomized trials are emphasized. The final version was endorsed by the scientific council of the LYSA. The expert panel recommends a risk-adapted strategy (conventional treatment, or single/double transplantation and/or radiotherapy) based on three risk factors at progression (primary refractory disease, remission duration < 1 year, stage III/IV), and an early evaluation of salvage chemosensitivity, including 18fluorodeoxy glucose-positron emission tomography interpreted according to the Deauville scoring system. Most relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients chemosensitive to salvage should receive high-dose therapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation as standard. Efforts should be made to increase the proportion of chemosensitive patients by alternating non-cross-resistant chemotherapy lines or exploring the role of novel drugs. PMID:23904236

Van Den Neste, Eric; Casasnovas, Olivier; Andre, Marc; Touati, Mohamed; Senecal, Delphine; Edeline, Veronique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Fornecker, Luc; Deau, Benedicte; Gastinne, Thomas; Reman, Oumedaly; Gaillard, Isabelle; Borel, Cecile; Brice, Pauline; Ferme, Christophe



CD137 Is Expressed in Follicular Dendritic Cell Tumors and in Classical Hodgkin and T-Cell Lymphomas  

PubMed Central

CD137 (also known as 4-1BB and TNFRSF9) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Originally identified as a costimulatory molecule expressed by activated T cells and NK cells, CD137 is also expressed by follicular dendritic cells, monocytes, mast cells, granulocytes, and endothelial cells. Anti-CD137 immunotherapy has recently shown promise as a treatment for solid tumors and lymphoid malignancies in preclinical models. We defined the expression of CD137 protein in both normal and neoplastic hematolymphoid tissue. CD137 protein is expressed by follicular dendritic cells in the germinal center and scattered paracortical T cells, but not by normal germinal-center B cells, bone marrow progenitor cells, or maturing thymocytes. CD137 protein is expressed by a select group of hematolymphoid tumors, including classical Hodgkin lymphoma, T-cell and NK/T-cell lymphomas, and follicular dendritic cells neoplasms. CD137 is a novel diagnostic marker of these tumors and suggests a possible target for tumor-directed antibody therapy. PMID:22901750

Anderson, Matthew W.; Zhao, Shuchun; Freud, Aharon G.; Czerwinski, Debra K.; Kohrt, Holbrook; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Houot, Roch; Azambuja, Denize; Biasoli, Irene; Morais, Jose Carlos; Spector, Nelson; Molina-Kirsch, Hernan F.; Warnke, Roger A.; Levy, Ronald; Natkunam, Yasodha



Concurrent malignant melanoma and cutaneous involvement by classical hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) in a 63 year-old man  

PubMed Central

Abstract Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder that has a bimodal age distribution, affecting young and elderly individuals, and is curable in more than 90% of patients. Here we report the coexistence of cutaneous CHL and malignant melanoma as the presentation of papules and a plaque, in an individual with remote history of systemic CHL. One of the biopsies showed a mononuclear cell infiltrate with Reed-Sternberg (RS) like cells that were positive for CD30 and CD15, but negative for CD45. A second concurrent biopsy showed an atypical melanocytic proliferation with significant pagetoid spreading and diffuse Melan-A staining. Based on morphology alone, it is almost impossible to distinguish CHL from other primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders, such as CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder (lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) and primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma), or even tumor stage mycosis fungoides when the epidermotropism is minimal. Additionally, bizarre melanocytic cells can also appear similar to RS cells. Our case illustrates the first case report of malignant melanoma and CHL in a patient presenting simultaneously. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: PMID:23938065



BOB.1-positive Classical Hodgkin's Lymphoma Carries Hypermethylation of Its Promoter as Epigenetic Marker of Gene-silencing Memory  

PubMed Central

Analysis of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) pathological specimens of three case of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and three cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) revealed that hypermethylation of the BOB.1 gene promoter was exclusively observed in CHL. A discrepancy was observed, however, between the methylation status of the BOB.1 gene promoter and its expression in the EBV-positive mixed cellular CHL (MCCHL). Since MCCHL lacks the typical B-cell phenotype even in the presence of abundant BOB.1 transcription factors, functional activity of BOB.1 may be lost or reduced by a mechanism other than epigenetic gene silencing. When some tumor-suppressor gene products have lost their biological function, impact or significance of derepression of such genes may be little. Therefore, when interpreting immunohistochemical results for diagnostic or research purposes, it must be borne in mind that apparent positive immunostaining can merely be the result of chromatin remodeling and that such transient expression often has little functional significance. Any apparent positive immunohistochemical result needs to be interpreted carefully with the help of the hypermethylation status as a molecular marker of gene silencing memory. PMID:25320409

Watanabe, Takafumi; Kitazawa, Riko; Mizuno, Yosuke; Kuwahara, Natsumi; Ito, Chizu; Sugita, Atsuro; Haraguchi, Ryuma; Kitazawa, Sohei



Why Study Chinese Classics and How to Go about It: Response to Zongjie Wu's "Interpretation, Autonomy, and Transformation--Chinese Pedagogic Discourse in Cross-Cultural Perspective"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This response to Zongjie Wu's "Interpretation, autonomy, and interpretation" focuses on the "battle between East and West" which contextualizes Wu's proposal to counter the current Western domination of Chinese pedagogic discourse with an "authentic language" recovered from the Chinese classics. It points out that it is impossible and undesirable…

Tan, Sor-Hoon



Variable Expression of B-cell Transcription Factors in Reactive Immunoblastic Proliferations: A Potential Mimic of Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.  


Reactive immunoblastic proliferations can histologically mimic classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), and show diffuse CD30 expression in large cells. The lack of expression of CD15 in a subset of CHL further complicates their separation from immunoblastic proliferations. Loss of expression of B-cell transcription factors is frequently exploited in making a diagnosis of CHL; however, the staining patterns of B-cell transcription factors in immunoblastic proliferations have not been extensively studied. Thirty-three cases of reactive immunoblastic proliferations were evaluated using a panel of immunohistochemistry for CD30, CD15, CD20, CD3, ?, ?, CD45RB, MUM1, PAX5, OCT2, and BOB.1, as well as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)/EBV-encoded ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization. A newly developed dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization technology for detection of ?/? mRNAs was also used. The majority of immunoblasts expressed CD30 in 14 of 33 (42%) cases; none expressed CD15. Loss or weak expression of at least 1 transcription factor in B immunoblasts, most commonly PAX5, was noted in 24 of 29 (83%) cases. A polytypic light chain expression pattern was detected by immunohistochemistry in 14 of 22 (63.6%) cases and by dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization in 9 of 10 (90%) cases studied. EBV-encoded ribonucleic acid was detected in 8 of 33 (24.2%) cases, 5 of which were clinically unrelated to infectious mononucleosis. We conclude that B-cell transcription factors can show loss or weak expression in a significant proportion of reactive immunoblastic proliferations, and, therefore, staining for B-cell transcription factors together with CD30 should be interpreted with caution before a diagnosis of CHL is made. PMID:24921642

Treetipsatit, Jitsupa; Rimzsa, Lisa; Grogan, Thomas; Warnke, Roger A; Natkunam, Yasodha



A Web 2.0 Personal Learning Environment for Classical Chinese Poetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classical Chinese Poetry (CCP) is a valuable but almost locked treasure chest of human wisdom and civilization since 2000 years. With the advent of the Web 2.0 a renaissance of CCP is possible even outside Chinese-speaking communities world-wide. With mobile technologies and educational games we can address new learning communities for CCP and open the chest again. In this paper, we introduce a Web 2.0 personal learning environment for CCP. We have developed a generic and interoperable data model for CCP we utilize not only for mobile learning scenarios but also for educational gaming with different levels of difficulty. Learners are empowered to learn Chinese poetry, language, history, and culture. This research work shows how modern information technologies assist users to diffuse knowledge across the borderlines of communities and societies.

Cao, Yiwei; Klamma, Ralf; Gao, Yan; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Jarke, Matthias


Detection of ABCC1 expression in classical Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with increased risk of treatment failure using standard chemotherapy protocols  

PubMed Central

Background The mechanisms responsible for chemoresistance in patients with refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) are unknown. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters confer multidrug resistance in various cancers and ABCC1 overexpression has been shown to contribute to drug resistance in the CHL cell line, KMH2. Findings We analyzed for expression of five ABC transporters ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC2, ABCC3 and ABCG2 using immunohistochemistry in 103 pre-treatment tumor specimens obtained from patients with CHL. All patients received first-line standard chemotherapy with doxorubicin (Adriamycin®), bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) or equivalent regimens. ABCC1 was expressed in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in 16 of 82 cases (19.5%) and ABCG2 was expressed by HRS cells in 25 of 77 cases (32.5%). All tumors were negative for ABCB1, ABCC2 and ABCC3. ABCC1 expression was associated with refractory disease (p?=?0.01) and was marginally associated with poorer failure-free survival (p?=?0.06). Multivariate analysis after adjusting for hemoglobin and albumin levels and age showed that patients with CHL with HRS cells positive for ABCC1 had a higher risk of not responding to treatment (HR?=?2.84, 95%, CI: 1.12-7.19 p?=?0.028). Conclusions Expression of ABCC1 by HRS cells in CHL patients predicts a higher risk of treatment failure and is marginally associated with poorer failure-free survival using standard frontline chemotherapy regimens. PMID:22871336



Chinese Tone and Vowel Processing Exhibits Distinctive Temporal Characteristics: An Electrophysiological Perspective from Classical Chinese Poem Processing  

PubMed Central

Classical Chinese poems have strict regulations on the acoustic pattern of each syllable and are semantically meaningless. Using such poems, this study characterized the temporal order of tone and vowel processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). The target syllable of the poem was either correct or deviated from the correct syllable at tone, vowel or both levels. Vowel violation elicited a negative effect between 300 and 500 ms regardless of the tone correctness, while tone violation elicited a positive effect between 600 and 1000 ms. The results suggest that the vowel information was available earlier than the tone information. Moreover, there was an interaction between the effect of vowel and tone violations between 600 and 1000 ms, showing that the vowel violation produced a positive effect only when the tone was correct. This indicates that vowel and tone processing interacts in the later processing stage, which involves both error detection and reanalysis of the spoken input. Implications of the present results for models of speech perception are discussed. PMID:24416438

Li, Weijun; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang



CD137 is expressed in follicular dendritic cell tumors and in classical Hodgkin and T-cell lymphomas: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.  


CD137 (also known as 4-1BB and TNFRSF9) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Originally identified as a costimulatory molecule expressed by activated T cells and NK cells, CD137 is also expressed by follicular dendritic cells, monocytes, mast cells, granulocytes, and endothelial cells. Anti-CD137 immunotherapy has recently shown promise as a treatment for solid tumors and lymphoid malignancies in preclinical models. We defined the expression of CD137 protein in both normal and neoplastic hematolymphoid tissue. CD137 protein is expressed by follicular dendritic cells in the germinal center and scattered paracortical T cells, but not by normal germinal-center B cells, bone marrow progenitor cells, or maturing thymocytes. CD137 protein is expressed by a select group of hematolymphoid tumors, including classical Hodgkin lymphoma, T-cell and NK/T-cell lymphomas, and follicular dendritic cells neoplasms. CD137 is a novel diagnostic marker of these tumors and suggests a possible target for tumor-directed antibody therapy. PMID:22901750

Anderson, Matthew W; Zhao, Shuchun; Freud, Aharon G; Czerwinski, Debra K; Kohrt, Holbrook; Alizadeh, Ash A; Houot, Roch; Azambuja, Denize; Biasoli, Irene; Morais, José Carlos; Spector, Nelson; Molina-Kirsch, Hernan F; Warnke, Roger A; Levy, Ronald; Natkunam, Yasodha



Pathobiology of Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Hodgkin’s lymphoma is a lymphoid tumour that represents about 1% of all de novo neoplasms occurring every year worldwide. Its diagnosis is based on the identification of characteristic neoplastic cells within an inflammatory milieu. Molecular studies have shown that most, if not all cases, belong to the same clonal population, which is derived from peripheral B-cells. The relevance of Epstein-Barr virus infection at least in a proportion of patients was also demonstrated. The REAL/WHO classification recognizes a basic distinction between nodular lymphocyte predominance HL (NLPHL) and classic HL (CHL), reflecting the differences in clinical presentation, behavior, morphology, phenotype, molecular features as well as in the composition of their cellular background. CHL has been classified into four subtypes: lymphocyte rich, nodular sclerosing, mixed cellularity and lymphocyte depleted. Despite its well known histological and clinical features, Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) has recently been the object of intense research activity, leading to a better understanding of its phenotype, molecular characteristics and possible mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. PMID:24959337

Agostinelli, Claudio; Pileri, Stefano



Classical risk factors of cardiovascular disease among Chinese male steel workers: a prospective cohort study for 20 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Cardiovascular disease (CVD) constitutes a major public health problem in China and worldwide. We aimed to examine classical\\u000a risk factors and their magnitudes for CVD in a Chinese cohort with over 20 years follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cohort of 5092 male steelworkers recruited from 1974 to 1980 in Beijing of China was followed up for an average of 20.84\\u000a years. Cox proportional-hazards

Jingfeng Ji; Enchun Pan; Jianxin Li; Jichun Chen; Jie Cao; Dongling Sun; Xiangfeng Lu; Shufeng Chen; Dongfeng Gu; Xiufang Duan; Xigui Wu; Jianfeng Huang



Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a curable malignancy which shows a bimodal curve in incidence in economically developed countries; there is a putative association with Epstein-Barr virus. The WHO 2008 classification schema recognises two histological types of HL: the nodular lymphocyte predominant and the "classic" HL. The latter encompasses four entities: nodular sclerosis, mixed cellularity, lymphocyte depletion, and lymphocyte-rich. Most patients with HL present with asymptomatic superficial lymphadenopathy. The commonest sites of disease are the cervical, supraclavicular and mediastinal lymph nodes, while sub-diaphragmatic presentations and bone marrow and hepatic involvement are less common. Splenic involvement is usually concomitant with hepatic disease and systemic symptoms; extranodal presentations are quite rare. Systemic symptoms are present in ?35% of cases. The stage of disease is defined according to the Ann Arbor staging system or its Cotswolds variant, and staging work-up includes physical examination, chest X-rays, chest and abdominal CT scan, and bone marrow biopsy. (18)FDG-PET ((18)fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) plays a central role in staging, response assessment and prognosis definition. Classic HL usually spreads by contiguity within the lymphatic tissue network, with a late extension to adjacent and distant viscera. Mortality from HL has been progressively decreasing, as confirmed by the most recent 5-year survival figure of 81%. The list of putative prognostic factors in HL has been increasing, but most factors still require prospective validation. Some of these variables are used to stratify early-stage disease into "favourable" and "unfavourable" categories, with "unfavourable early-stage" being intermediate between "favourable early-stage" and "advanced-stage". ABVD (adriamycin(doxorubicin), bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine) combination chemotherapy followed by involved-field irradiation is the standard treatment for patients with early-stage HL, with a 5-year OS >95%. Several trials assessing less intensive approaches for patients with favourable early-stage HL are ongoing. More intensified combinations, such as the BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine (Oncovin), procarbazine, prednisone) regimen, are being investigated, usually in patients with unfavourable early-stage HL and interim PET+. ABVD is the standard chemotherapy treatment also for patients with advanced disease. Although some evidence suggests that more intensive combinations provide better disease control, the inevitable increased risk of relevant late toxicity worries investigators. Consequently, there has been a shift towards investigating the innovative strategy of a more aggressive schedule for patients with (18)FDG-PET positive results after the first 2 courses of ABVD. High-dose chemotherapy supported by ASCT (autologous stem cell transplantation) is considered the standard of care in patients with HL which has relapsed after, or is refractory to conventional chemoradiotherapy, while allogeneic transplant is a suitable tool for patients with chemorefractory disease and patients failed after ASCT. PMID:22867814

Gobbi, Paolo G; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Levis, Alessandro



Biology, Clinical Course and Management of Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) differs in histological and clinical presenta- tion from classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The typical morphologic signs of NLPHL are atypical \\

Lucia Nogová; Thomas Rudiger; Andreas Engert


Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma in adults: guidelines of the Italian Society of Hematology, the Italian Society of Experimental Hematology, and the Italian Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation on initial work-up, management, and follow-up  

PubMed Central

The Italian Society of Hematology (SIE), the Italian Society of Experimental Haematology (SIES) and the Italian Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation (GITMO) commissioned a project to develop practice guidelines for the initial work-up, therapy and follow-up of classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Key questions to the clinical evaluation and treatment of this disease were formulated by an Advisory Committee, discussed and approved by an Expert Panel (EP) composed of senior hematologists and one radiotherapist. After a comprehensive and systematic literature review, the EP recommendations were graded according to their supporting evidence. An explicit approach to consensus methodologies was used for evidence interpretation and for producing recommendations in the absence of a strong evidence. The EP decided that the target domain of the guidelines should include only classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, as defined by the WHO classification, and exclude lymphocyte predominant histology. Distinct recommendations were produced for initial work-up, first-line therapy of early and advanced stage disease, monitoring procedures and salvage therapy, including hemopoietic stem cell transplant. Separate recommendations were formulated for elderly patients. Pre-treatment volumetric CT scan of the neck, thorax, abdomen, and pelvis is mandatory, while FDG-PET is recommended. As to the therapy of early stage disease, a combined modality approach is still recommended with ABVD followed by involved-field radiotherapy; the number of courses of ABVD will depend on the patient risk category (favorable or unfavorable). Full-term chemotherapy with ABVD is recommended in advanced stage disease; adjuvant radiotherapy in patients without initial bulk who achieved a complete remission is not recommended. In the elderly, chemotherapy regimens more intensive than ABVD are not recommended. Early evaluation of response with FDG-PET scan is suggested. Relapsed or refractory patients should receive high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hemopoietic stem cells transplant. Allogeneic transplant is recommended in patients relapsing after autologous transplant. All fertile patients should be informed of the possible effects of therapy on gonadal function and fertility preservation measures should be taken before the initiation of therapy. PMID:19278966

Brusamolino, Ercole; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Barosi, Giovanni; Biti, Giampaolo; Gobbi, Paolo G.; Levis, Alessandro; Marchetti, Monia; Santoro, Armando; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Tura, Sante



Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), a B cell–derived cancer, is one of the most common lymphomas. In HL, the tumor cells — Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells — are usually very rare in the tissue. Although HRS cells are derived from mature B cells, they have largely lost their B cell phenotype and show a very unusual co-expression of markers of various hematopoietic cell types. HRS cells show deregulated activation of multiple signaling pathways and transcription factors. The activation of these pathways and factors is partly mediated through interactions of HRS cells with various other types of cells in the microenvironment, but also through genetic lesions. The transforming events involved in the pathogenesis of HL are only partly understood, but mutations affecting the NF-?B and JAK/STAT pathways are frequent. The dependency of HRS cells on microenvironmental interactions and deregulated signaling pathways may offer novel strategies for targeted therapies. PMID:23023715

Kuppers, Ralf; Engert, Andreas; Hansmann, Martin-Leo



[Pathological diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma].  


This lymphoma was recognized by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832. In 1865, Samuel Wilks named it Hodgkin disease. Now, the term Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is acceptable over Hodgkin disease. Since the neoplastic cells of the disease is well-recognized to be a lymphoid cell, especially B lymphocyte. In WHO classification published in 2008, HLs are divided into two entities: Classical HL and nodular lymphocyte predominat HL. The former is composed of four different subtypes: nodular sclerosis (NS), mixed cellularity (MC), lymphocyte rich (LR), and lymphocyte depletion (LD). HL is characterized by the morphological feature comprising a minority of neoplastic cells, Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells and popcorn (LP) cells and a majority of non-neoplastic reactive cells. Antigen receptor gene analyses by prevailing molecular methods and flow cytometry are not appropriate method for the diagnosis of HL, because of small number of neoplastic cells. They are, however, very useful in the differential diagnosis to rule out other lymphomas. Even the present when science progressed, pathological (morphological and immunohistochemical) examination is very worth for diagnosis of HL. PMID:24724402

Tamaru, Jun-ichi



Adoptive Immunotherapy for Hodgkin’s Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T-cells is an attractive strategy for the treatment of patients with refractory or relapsed\\u000a Hodgkin’s lymphoma. However, Hodgkin’s lymphomas possess a range of tumor-evasion mechanisms, which must be overcome before\\u000a the full potential of immunotherapies can be achieved. In this article, we discuss the promise of Epstein-Barr virus-specific\\u000a cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, the roles of cytokines, and other

Alana A. Kennedy-Nasser; Catherine M. Bollard; Cliona M. Rooney



What Is Hodgkin Disease?  


... Cancer Society document Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma . The lymph system and lymphoid tissue To understand what Hodgkin disease is, it helps to know how the lymph system works. The lymph system (also known as the ...


Chinese Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The School of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of St. Andrews Scotland offers this website on the history of Chinese Mathematics. Key features highlighted in the overview include: a discussion of the Chinese version of Pythagoras's theorem, a famous Chinese mathematics book commonly known as the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, and the work of several Chinese mathematicians. Visitors to the website can also browse a chronological listing of several Chinese mathematicians and read about their careers. Other features of the website include a section summarizing each chapter from the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, a section highlighting ten other mathematical classics, a review of the Chinese numeral system, and a collection of Chinese problems, which are extracted from various articles in their archive.


Oral immunisation of swine with a classical swine fever vaccine (Chinese strain) and transmission studies in rabbits and sheep.  


Seven experiments including a total of 47 pigs, 11 wild boars, 26 rabbits, 10 hares and 16 sheep were carried out to assess the efficacy, safety and transmission of the Chinese vaccine strain of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) administrated by the oral route. Within 3 weeks after oral vaccination, a clear seroconversion occurred in the pigs. Six weeks after vaccination, vaccinated pigs were fully protected against a virulent challenge. The C-strain was not isolated from tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, saliva, urine and faeces of pigs within 4 days after oral vaccination. In one experiment, susceptible pigs were placed in direct contact with vaccinated pigs. None of these contact-exposed pigs became serologically positive for CSFV antibodies. It is concluded that the C-strain induces protection in pigs when administrated by the oral route and is not shed by vaccinated pigs. Serum anti-CSFV antibodies developed in seven out of eight wild boars vaccinated by the oral route. No vaccine virus was detected in the spleen and tonsils of these animals. The results in wild boar were in accordance with those obtained in domestic pigs. Sheep did not show any clinical signs after oral vaccination while rabbits had moderate hyperthermia and growth retardation. No clinical response to oral immunisation in hares was detected. At the end of the experiment, no sheep had detectable serum antibodies against CSFV, whereas a few vaccinated rabbits and hares became seropositive. None of the contact-exposed rabbits and hares seroconverted. These data indicate that the C-strain is safe for sheep and as expected, moderately or not pathogenic for rabbits and hares. These efficacy and safety studies on oral vaccination with the C-strain under experimental conditions provide essential information for further studies in wild boars under experimental and field conditions, including assays with baits to control a CSF epidemic. PMID:10063532

Chenut, G; Saintilan, A F; Burger, C; Rosenthal, F; Crucière, C; Picard, M; Bruyère, V; Albina, E



Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction People with Hodgkin's lymphoma usually present with a lump in the neck or upper chest, but a quarter of people also have fever, sweating, weight loss, fatigue, and itch. Almost all people with localised disease can be cured, and, even among people with relapsed advanced disease, almost 80% survive event free for 4 years or more. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of: single-regimen chemotherapy treatments; combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments compared with radiotherapy alone; and combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments compared with the same chemotherapy agent alone, for first presentation stage I or II non-bulky disease? What are the effects of: specific combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatments versus each other; or different radiotherapy treatment strategies in stage I or II non-bulky disease? What are the effects of: single-regimen chemotherapy treatments; dose-intensified chemotherapy treatments; or combined chemotherapy plus radiotherapy treatments compared with chemotherapy alone, for first presentation stage II (bulky) disease, III, or IV disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ABVD (with or without radiotherapy); ABVPP plus radiotherapy; ChlVPP-EVA; COPP-ABVD plus radiotherapy; CVPP plus radiotherapy; EBVP plus radiotherapy; escalating-dose BEACOPP; extended-field radiotherapy; increased-dose regimens; involved-field radiotherapy; MOPP (with or without radiotherapy); MOPP-ABV plus radiotherapy; and VBM plus radiotherapy. PMID:21726488



Nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma: biology, diagnosis and treatment.  


Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon variant of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized histologically by presence of lymphohistiocytic cells which have B-cell phenotype, are positive for CD19, CD20, CD45, CD79a, BOB.1, Oct.2, and negative for CD15 and CD30. Patients often present with early stage of disease and do not have classical B symptoms. The clinical behavior appears to mimic that of an indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma more than that of classical Hodgkin disease. The purpose of the present report is to define the biology of NLPHL, review its clinical presentation, and summarize the available clinical data regarding treatment. PMID:24650975

Goel, Anupama; Fan, Wen; Patel, Amit A; Devabhaktuni, Madhuri; Grossbard, Michael L



Hodgkins Lymphoma of Bone - A Rare Case Report  

PubMed Central

Primary Hodgkins lymphoma presenting as a lytic bone lesion is very rare. A 27-year-old male presented with deformity and pain in lower back region from past 1 year. X-ray and CT scan revealed T12 and L1 vertebral destruction and an osteolytic lesion with destruction of the Right Ilium. Clinically a diagnosis of giant cell tumour was made. However histopathology & Immunohistochemical evaluation helped in diagnosing the case as a classical Hodgkin’s disease of the bone. PMID:24596755

S R, Mangala gouri; Rao, Saraswathi G; D.C, Sundaresh



Open Questions in the Management of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Localized Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma is a rare disease with an overall good prognosis but frequent late relapses. Due to it's rarity there is no standard therapeutic approach and pathological diagnosis may be hard. In this paper we discuss the technical aspects of the radiation therapy and histological issues. The new fields reductions proposed for classical Hodgkin lymphoma cannot be applied to early stages Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin lymphomas which are usually treated with radiation therapy without systemic chemotherapy. PMID:24772357

Tyran, Marguerite; Gonzague, Laurence; Bouabdallah, Reda; Resbeut, Michel



Hodgkin's disease and leukemia  

PubMed Central

Four cases of acute leukemia occurring in patients with Hodgkin's disease are described. The literature on the association of these two diseases is reviewed. Acute myeloid or undifferentiated leukemias appear to be, at least in part, a complication affecting long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease. Reed Sternberg cell leukemia is an unusual form of Hodgkin's disease and may be associated with a poor prognosis. The cytology and cytochemistry of Reed Sternberg cells are briefly discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4503267

Chan, B. W. B.; McBride, J. A.



Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  


... trouble breathing and was coughing a lot during football practice. He also started having fever without knowing ... and other issues. This is called the medical history . If your family doctor suspects non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ...


Non-Hodgkin lymphoma  


... it originates from, and whether there are certain DNA changes in the tumor cells themselves. ... Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute. Date last modified Feb. 28, 2014. Available at http://www.cancer. ...


Modern management of lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) represents 5% of all Hodgkin lymphoma and has distinct clinico-pathological features. It is typified by the presence of lymphocyte predominant cells, which are CD20(+) , CD15(-) and CD30(-) and are found scattered amongst small B-lymphocytes arranged in a nodular pattern. Patients typically are males presenting with localized, peripheral lymphadenopathy. Despite frequent and often late or multiple relapses the prognosis is favourable. Deaths due to NLPHL are uncommon, but secondary malignancies and other treatment toxicities contribute appreciably to overall mortality. Secondary aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma can occur in approximately 7-14% of cases of NLPHL. Given this diseases' rarity, the optimal management is unclear and opinions differ as to whether treatment paradigms should be similar to or differ from those for classical Hodgkin lymphoma. This review provides an overview of the existing literature describing of the outcome and treatment approaches for limited and advanced stage NLPHL. PMID:23398605

Xing, Katharine H; Savage, Kerry J



Systemic to Pulmonary Fistulas in Hodgkin’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic to pulmonary fistula is an unusual entity and its association with hematological diseases like Hodgkin’s is extremely rare. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman with a thoracic mass and large arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis of Hodgkin’s disease, nodular sclerosis, was obtained by a biopsy of the supraclavicular lymph node. We achieved an excellent response after combined treatment

C. Sabadell; J. Ruiz-Manzano; J. Muchart; J. Pereandreu; M. Batlle; J. Morera




E-print Network

NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA 65 8. NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA 8.1. SUMMARY Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL lymphocytes. NHL was the fifth most common cancer in Ireland, accounting for 3.4% of all malignant neoplasms diagnosed increased by approximately 3% per annum overall. The risk of developing NHL up to the age of 74

Paxton, Anthony T.


Chinese Herbalism  

PubMed Central

Chinese herbalism dates back to 2852 B.C. More than 2,600 herbs and thousands of herbal formulae are used to treat illness. Classical theories of Chinese medicine are integrated with the Taoist philosophy, whereby the universe is composed of two basic forces: a positive one called yang, and a negative one called yin. Illness is thought to occur when there is too much yang (tonification) or too much yin (sedation) in the body and herbal medicines are therefore intended either to tonify or to sedate the body so that balance is restored. Since 1954, some Chinese herbal remedies have been scientifically analyzed and tested. Several have been proven effective in treating a variety of diseases and conditions. PMID:21283498

Cheng, Richard



SGN-30 and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma



Frances Mary hodgkins.  


SUMMARY Frances Hodgkins was one of a number of expatriate New Zealanders during the early twentieth century who lived in Britain or Europe, where it was easier to find supportive friendship circles for their lives as artists or as people attracted to their own sex. In this article, I explore the primacy of women in Hodgkins' life and read this as lesbian and argue that many of these relationships were sexual, from the evidence of her letters, which suggest that she moved in lesbian worlds of work and friendship. I also discuss the financial and emotional support given by her male homosexual as well as her lesbian friends who made her life as an artist possible. PMID:24807565

Laurie, A J



Leucocyte zinc in non?Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc status and the effect of zinc supplementation were assessed in groups of patients with non?Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's disease; patients were either untreated or in remission. In the patients in remission, plasma zinc was normal; and whereas 30% of untreated patients had low plasma zinc, the group as a whole did not differ from normal. For mononuclear cell zinc,

Helen P. Field; Robert Jones; Barry E. Walker; Jerry Kelleher; Adrian V. Simmons



Chinese Cultural Studies: Bibliographical Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers a number of references of use to Asian Studies scholars. Created by Paul Halsall (formerly of Brooklyn College), it is organized by subject, including Classic Chinese Sources in Translation, Gender, Chinese Women, Philosophy and Religion, and Movies Addressing Chinese History and Culture. Historical texts are divided into periods, from the Zhou Dynasty to Post-Mao China. A Guide to Chinese Philosophical Texts for Inclusion in Introductory Courses is also featured.

Halsall, Paul.



Hodgkin's lymphoma: the pathologist's viewpoint  

PubMed Central

Despite its well known histological and clinical features, Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) has recently been the object of intense research activity, leading to a better understanding of its phenotype, molecular characteristics, histogenesis, and possible mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. There is complete consensus on the B cell derivation of the tumour in most cases, and on the relevance of Epstein-Barr virus infection and defective cytokinesis in at least a proportion of patients. The REAL/WHO classification recognises a basic distinction between lymphocyte predominance HL (LP-HL) and classic HL (CHL), reflecting the differences in clinical presentation and behaviour, morphology, phenotype, and molecular features. CHL has been classified into four subtypes: lymphocyte rich, nodular sclerosing, with mixed cellularity, and lymphocyte depleted. The borders between CHL and anaplastic large cell lymphoma have become sharper, whereas those between LP-HL and T cell rich B cell lymphoma remain ill defined. Treatments adjusted to the pathobiological characteristics of the tumour in at risk patients have been proposed and are on the way to being applied. PMID:11896065

Pileri, S A; Ascani, S; Leoncini, L; Sabattini, E; Zinzani, P L; Piccaluga, P P; Pileri, A; Giunti, M; Falini, B; Bolis, G B; Stein, H



Gemcitabine and Bendamustine in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma



Combination Chemotherapy Followed by Radiation Therapy in Treating Young Patients With Newly Diagnosed Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Childhood Favorable Prognosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Childhood Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Childhood Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Childhood Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma



How Is Hodgkin Disease Diagnosed?  


... she will recommend a biopsy of the area. Biopsies Many of the symptoms of Hodgkin disease are ... also tell what type it is. Types of biopsies There are different types of biopsies. Doctors choose ...




The histopathological and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is based on demonstration of pathognomonic mononucleated Hodgkin and bi- to multinucleated Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells among reactive cellular components composed of lymphocytes, benign histiocytes, neutrophils and eosinophils. In the WHO classification, Hodgkins lymphoma is classified as nodular lymphocytic predominant HL (NLPHL) and classical HL which is in turn sub-classified into lymphocyte-rich (LR), mixed cellular (MC), lymphocytic depleted (MC) and nodular sclerosis (NS) types. The sub-classification of classical HL into LR, MC, and LD depends on relative proportions of neoplastic HRS cells and reactive cellular components. Whereas in HL-NS shows a special type of R-S cells called lacunar cells, NLPHL is characterized by popcorn cells. CHL-MC to some extent and other HL subtypes to a large extent may pose diagnostic challenges in the cytologic material. Reed-Sternberg-like cells have been reported in benign lympho-proliferative conditions like reactive hyperplasia and infectious mononucleosis, and certain of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes as well as non-lymphoid malignancies like metastatic carcinoma, melanoma, sarcomas and germ cell tumors. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes, e.g., anaplastic large cell lymphoma, T-cell-histiocytic-rich B-cell lymphoma, and pleomorphic peripheral T-cell lymphoma, which can be misdiagnosed as Hodgkin lymphoma, need immunohistochemical studies to be differentiated. PMID:25188197

Das, Dilip Kumar



Brentuximab Vedotin and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II-IV Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Lymphocyte Depletion Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma; Adult Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma



Clinical and Pathologic Studies in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients Receiving Antibody Treatment

Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin; Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin Cutaneous Lymphoma; Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin Diffuse Large B-Cell; Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin Follicular / Indolent B-Cell; Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin Mantle Cell; Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin Marginal Zone; Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin Peripheral T-Cell; Lymphomas: Non-Hodgkin Waldenstr Macroglobulinemia



Determination of AntiTumor Constitute Mollugin from Traditional Chinese Medicine Rubia cordifolia: Comparative Study of Classical and Microwave Extraction Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rubia cordifolia is a common traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) used for centuries for the treatment of cough, inflammation of the joints, uterine hemorrhage, and uteritis. Mollugin is a major active component present in R. cordifolia and recognized as a potential anti-tumor compound. In this work, a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method has been developed for extracting mollugin from R. cordifolia. Several

Wenyan Ma; Yanbin Lu; Xiaojing Dai; Rui Liu; Ruilin Hu; Yuanjiang Pan



Hodgkin's lymphoma with exuberant granulomatous reaction.  


We report a 36-year-old woman, presented with cervical lymphadenopathy and low-grade fever. Two fine needle aspiration cytology and one excisional biopsy were performed in the referral hospital, all showed granulomatous lesions without necrosis. A tentative diagnosis of tuberculosis was made, and she started on antituberculous treatment. However, there was no clinical improvement. She presented to our institution one year after the initial diagnosis, and a new biopsy from the cervical lymph node revealed effacement of the whole node by marked non-necrotizing granulomatous reaction. However, there were scattered large cells with few classic Reed-Sternberg cells between the granulomas. Immunohistochemistry reveals strong reaction of CD15 and CD30, and negative staining for CD45RB, CD45RO, and CD20. These findings confirmed the diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma with remarkable granulomatous reaction that almost masked the malignant component. She was treated with chemotherapy, and she showed an excellent response. PMID:17143374

Al-Maghrabi, Jaudah A; Sawan, Ali S; Kanaan, Hassan D



[Intracranial Hodgkin disease: case report].  


Hodgkin disease intracranial lesions are uncommon. We report the case of a 24-year-old man who presented with an intracranial relapse without other evidence of disease 24 months after multiple drug therapy and extended field radiation therapy for stage III Bb type 3 Hodgkin disease. The patient was treated by whole brain irradiation (40 Gy/20 fractions/4 weeks). Six months after completion of therapy, the patient had a second relapse, with bilateral inguinal metastatic nodes, which were treated by a second line polychemotherapy. The patient was free of disease 9 months later. PMID:12412365

Hadadi, K; Sifat, H; Saâdi, I; Kebdani, T; Kanouni, L; el Marjany, M; Mansouri, H; el Ghazi, E; Mansouri, A; Errihani, H; Benjaafar, N; el Gueddari, B K



Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease. An immunohistochemical analysis of 208 reviewed Hodgkin's disease cases from the German Hodgkin Study Group.  

PubMed Central

There is wide consensus that lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease (LPHD) represents a distinct clinicopathological entity of B-cell origin. However, inconsistent results of immunophenotyping studies and low confirmation rates among multi-center trials pose the question of whether LPHD really expresses heterogeneous marker profiles or whether it represents a mixture of morphologically similar entities. Among 2,836 cases reviewed by the German Hodgkin Study Group, immunophenotyping was performed on 1) cases classified or confirmed as LPHD by the reference panel (n = 104) or 2) cases not confirmed as LPHD but classified as classical HD (cHD) within the reference study trial (n = 104). In most cases, immunohistochemistry revealed a phenotype either LPHD-like (CD20+, CD15-, CD30-, CD45+) or cHD-like (CD15+, CD30+, CD20-, CD45-). In 27 cases, the immunophenotype was not fully conclusive. Additional markers for Epstein-Barr virus and CD57 and in situ hybridization for mRNA light chains allowed for a more clear-cut distinction between LPHD and cHD. However, in 25 of 104 cases, immunohistochemistry disproved the morphological diagnosis of LPHD of the panel experts, whereas 13 cases originally not confirmed as LPHD showed a LPHD-like immunopattern. Immunohistochemically confirmed LPHD cases showed a significantly better freedom from treatment failure (P = 0.033) than cHD; this was not observed in the original study classification based only on morphology (P > 0.05). Significantly better survival for LPHD cases improved from P = 0.047 (original study classification) to P = 0.0071 when classified by immunohistochemistry. Our results show that LPHD is a more immunohistochemical rather than a purely morphological diagnosis. Immunophenotyping of HD biopsies suspected of being LPHD is mandatory when a modified therapy protocol, that is, one different from those used in cHD, is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9060817

von Wasielewski, R.; Werner, M.; Fischer, R.; Hansmann, M. L.; Hubner, K.; Hasenclever, D.; Franklin, J.; Sextro, M.; Diehl, V.; Georgii, A.



Drugs Approved for Hodgkin Lymphoma

This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Hodgkin lymphoma. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.



PubMed Central

Several authors have proposed the use of exponential time differencing (ETD) for Hodgkin–Huxley-like partial and ordinary differential equations (PDEs and ODEs). For Hodgkin–Huxley-like PDEs, ETD is attractive because it can deal effectively with the stiffness issues that diffusion gives rise to. However, large neuronal networks are often simulated assuming “space-clamped” neurons, i.e., using the Hodgkin–Huxley ODEs, in which there are no diffusion terms. Our goal is to clarify whether ETD is a good idea even in that case. We present a numerical comparison of first- and second-order ETD with standard explicit time-stepping schemes (Euler’s method, the midpoint method, and the classical fourth-order Runge–Kutta method). We find that in the standard schemes, the stable computation of the very rapid rising phase of the action potential often forces time steps of a small fraction of a millisecond. This can result in an expensive calculation yielding greater overall accuracy than needed. Although it is tempting at first to try to address this issue with adaptive or fully implicit time-stepping, we argue that neither is effective here. The main advantage of ETD for Hodgkin–Huxley-like systems of ODEs is that it allows underresolution of the rising phase of the action potential without causing instability, using time steps on the order of one millisecond. When high quantitative accuracy is not necessary and perhaps, because of modeling inaccuracies, not even useful, ETD allows much faster simulations than standard explicit time-stepping schemes. The second-order ETD scheme is found to be substantially more accurate than the first-order one even for large values of ?t. PMID:24058276

Borgers, Christoph; Nectow, Alexander R.



Simultaneous presentation of relapsing Hodgkin's disease and treatment-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

A 55-year-old white man was diagnosed in 1975 with Hodgkin's disease stage IIA, mixed cellularity. He was treated with 4,500 rads to an inverted-Y field followed by six cycles of MOPP and remained in complete remission. In 1983 a right axillary lymph node biopsy showed recurrent Hodgkin's disease, mixed cellularity. While receiving his initial chemotherapy he developed persistent epigastric distress. Endoscopic gastric biopsy demonstrated a diffuse large-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Surface marker studies confirmed the separate identity of these two malignant lymphoproliferative processes. This represents the first reported simultaneous occurrence of relapsing Hodgkin's disease with treatment-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Perri, R.T.; Allen, J.I.; Oken, M.M.; Limas, C.; Kay, N.E.



Chinese Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

Hsu, Kai-yu


Epidemiology of EBV and Hodgkin's lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The incidence of Hodgkin's disease shows marked hetero- geneity with respect to age, gender, race, geographical locale, social class and histological subtype. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a proportion of cases, approxi- mately 40% in developed countries, and there is a body of evidence which suggests that mixed cellularity Hodgkin's dis- ease is more likely to be

A. F. Jarrett; A. A. Armstrong; E. Alexander



Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has steadily risen and while other cancers have increased 25%, NHL has increased >80%. In the majority of NHL patients, the disease arises in lymph nodes, but primary extranodal disease accounts for 30% of new lymphoma patients and often present as localized disease. We report a rare and interesting case of intermediate grade diffuse Non-Hodgkin's




The Pathology and Nomenclature of Hodgkin's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The diverse morphologic expressions of Hodgkin's disease have been reviewed and compared to the numerous histologie terms in the literature and the author's recently proposed histologie types. The relationship of the histologie findings to the clinical stages and survival has also been analyzed. The histologie ex pressions of the Hodgkin's disease process appear to be reparable into the following



Teaching Chinese through Chinese Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problems involved in teaching the Chinese language through literature include: the difficulty of the language; the lack of good anthologies of Chinese literature for classroom use; the question of original works vs. abridgements; lack of good critical introductions and studies and Chinese approaches to philosophy and literary construction. (CHK)

Yang, Winston L. Y.



Fumanjian, a Classic Chinese Herbal Formula, Can Ameliorate the Impairment of Spatial Learning and Memory through Apoptotic Signaling Pathway in the Hippocampus of Rats with A?1–40-Induced Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and lacks disease-altering treatments. Fumanjian (FMJ), a famous classic Chinese herbal prescription for dementia, was first recorded in the Complete Works of Jingyue during the Ming Dynasty. This study aimed to investigate whether FMJ could prevent cognitive deficit and take neuroprotective effects in A?1–40-induced rat model through apoptotic signaling pathway. AD model was established by bilateral injection of A?1–40 into hippocampus in rat. All rats were tested for their capabilities of spatial navigation and memorization by Morris water maze. Apoptosis was tested using TUNEL staining in hippocampus neuronal cells; RT-PCR tested expression of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA; western blotting tested protein level of cleaved caspase-3. After 14 days of treatment, FMJ significantly improved the escape latency and enhanced platform-cross number compared with the A?1–40-injected group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). FMJ also significantly decreased number of TUNEL-positive neuronal apoptosis and the expressions of Bax and cleaved Caspase-3 and increased the expression of Bcl-2 (P < 0.01) compared with AD model group. In conclusion, FMJ exerts a protective effect against A?1–40-induced learning and memory deficits and neuronal apoptosis, suggesting that FMJ could be used as a potential therapeutic formula for AD. PMID:25050129

Hu, Hai-yan; Cui, Zhi-hui; Li, Hui-qin; Wang, Yi-ru; Chen, Xiang; Li, Ji-huang; Xv, Dong-mei



Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Review of Neurologic Complications.  


Hodgkin's lymphoma is a hematolymphoid neoplasm, primarily of B cell lineage, that has unique histologic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features. Neurologic complications of Hodgkin's Lymphoma can be separated into those that result directly from the disease, indirectly from the disease, or from its treatment. Direct neurologic dysfunction from Hodgkin's Lymphoma results from metastatic intracranial spinal disease, epidural metastases causing spinal cord/cauda equina compression, leptomeningeal metastases, or intradural intramedullary spinal cord metastases. Indirect neurologic dysfunction may be caused by paraneoplastic disorders (such as paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration or limbic encephalitis) and primary angiitis of the central nervous system. Hodgkin's lymphoma treatment typically includes chemotherapy or radiotherapy with potential treatment-related complications affecting the nervous system. Neurologic complications resulting from mantle-field radiotherapy include the "dropped head syndrome," acute brachial plexopathy, and transient ischemic attacks/cerebral infarcts. Chemotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma may cause cerebral infarction (due to emboli from anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy) and peripheral neuropathy. PMID:20975772

Grimm, Sean; Chamberlain, Marc



Continuity and Change in Modern Chinese Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese Literary Revolution of 1917, origi nally concerned with the problem of replacing the classical lan guage with the living language of the people as a medium for written communication, introduced a period of rapid change and experimentation in Chinese literature. During the 1920's and 1930's, political as well as literary issues were involved in the debates over literary

Tien-Yi Li



Telemedical database of Hodgkin's disease.  


The creation of a complex telemedical system oriented towards childhood Hodgkin's disease has been undertaken at the Department of Bioinformatics and Telemedicine of the Jagiellonian University Medical College in cooperation with the Department of Oncology and Pediatric Hematology of the Polish-American Institute of Pediatrics, JU MC. Data collecting, data processing and data transmission is aimed to aid and/or supervise surgical and drug treatment. The Tele-Database of Childhood Hodgkin's Disease (TDCHD) is not a simple Internet database project. A few hundred data items are presented in each patient's record, covering the complete medical treatment period. Efficient management and proper data protection are necessary for a medical database. Therefore, the interface for entering data has been divided into several parts. Each part is subjected to separate editing and transfer. A double-layer debugging system has been applied in the program: the first pass occurs on the client side (programmed in JavaScript and XML), the second - on the server side (programmed in PHP). Strict authorization is requested for all participants. Clinical data collected according to management standards and information governance (data quality, security and confidentiality) is organized in a way that facilitates practical and scientific use. PMID:15718594

Walecki, Piotr; Sarapata, Krzysztof; Laso?, Wojciech; Pyrczak, Wies?aw; Roterman-Konieczna, Irena; Balwierz, Walentyna



Chinese Cooking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

Kane, Tony


Hypotension Associated with Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Hypotension is an extremely rare manifestation of Hodgkin lymphoma. We report the case of a patient who presented with new onset hypotension and was diagnosed with urosepsis and septic shock requiring pressor support for maintaining his blood pressure. computed tomography (CT) scan of abdomen showed liver lesions, which were new on comparison with a CT abdomen done 3 weeks back. Biopsy of the liver lesions and subsequently a bone marrow biopsy showed large atypical Reed-Sternberg cells, positive for CD15 and CD 30 and negative for CD45, CD3 and CD20 on immuno-histochemical staining, hence establishing the diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma. The mechanism involved in Hodgkin lymphoma causing hypotension remains anecdotal, but since it is mostly seen in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, it is hypothetically related to a complex interaction between cytokines and mediators of vasodilatation. Here we review relevant literature pertaining to presentation and pathogenesis of this elusive and rare association. PMID:25317321

Dang, Geetanjali; Hamad, Hussein; Mohajer, Roozbeh; Catchatourian, Rosalind; Kovarik, Paula



What Is Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?  


... the section “ How is non-Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosed? ” Spleen: The spleen is an organ under the lower part of ... left side of the body. An average adult spleen weighs about 5 ounces. The spleen makes lymphocytes ...


Gastrointestinal cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study aimed to quantify the risk of gastrointestinal cancer following Hodgkin's disease treatment according to age at treatment, type of treatment, and anatomic sites.Methods and Materials: Cases were identified from the records of 2,441 patients treated for Hodgkin's disease between 1961 and 1994. Follow-up averaged 10.9 years, representing 26,590 person-years of observation. Relative risks (RR) for gastrointestinal cancer

Sandra H. Birdwell; Steven L. Hancock; Anna Varghese; Richard S. Cox; Richard T. Hoppe



Systemic to pulmonary fistulas in Hodgkin's disease.  


Systemic to pulmonary fistula is an unusual entity and its association with hematological diseases like Hodgkin's is extremely rare. We present a case of a 26-year-old woman with a thoracic mass and large arteriovenous fistula. The diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerosis, was obtained by a biopsy of the supraclavicular lymph node. We achieved an excellent response after combined treatment with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and arterial embolization with complete disappearance of the mass. PMID:10940804

Sabadell, C; Ruiz-Manzano, J; Muchart, J; Pereandreu, J; Batlle, M; Morera, J



CD40 expression in Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed Central

CD40 is a transmembrane protein that belongs to a superfamily of proteins related to nerve growth factor receptor. CD40 is expressed on B cells and some B cell malignancies. It appears to be involved in B cell proliferation and the prevention of apoptosis in germinal center cells, which is accompanied by expression of bcl-2. Its expression is up-regulated by the EBV protein latent membrane protein-1 and cytokines interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma. The expression of CD40 in 37 cases of Hodgkin's disease and 23 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (11 T cell lymphomas and 12 B cell lymphomas) was examined by paraffin section immunohistochemistry using the BB-20 monoclonal antibody. In 26 of 37 cases of Hodgkin's disease the Reed-Sternberg cells showed strong membrane or cytoplasmic expression of CD40. Only 3 of 23 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas showed any expression of CD40 and then only weakly. There was no correlation between expression of bcl-2 or latent membrane protein-1 with CD40 expression. These results show that there is probable hyperexpression of CD40 in Hodgkin's disease and suggest that dysregulation of CD40 expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of Hodgkin's disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:7507299

O'Grady, J. T.; Stewart, S.; Lowrey, J.; Howie, S. E.; Krajewski, A. S.



Relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma: management strategies.  


Although Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is largely curable with first-line therapy, approximately one-third of patients will not have a complete response to frontline treatment or will subsequently relapse. Only 50% of these patients will be effectively salvaged with conventional therapies. The prognosis is particularly poor for those patients with chemotherapy refractory disease, who are unable to obtain even transient disease control, and for patients who relapse following high dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. In this review, we summarize the most recent updates on the management of patients with relapsed HL, the role of novel therapies such as brentuximab vedotin, and an overview of promising new agents currently under investigation. We also discuss the role of consolidation strategies such as high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant, and reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, and the need for new strategies in the elderly patient population. PMID:24942298

Montanari, Francesca; Diefenbach, Catherine



Breast Cancer in Women following Supradiaphragmatic Irradiation for Hodgkin’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: In women treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation for Hodgkin’s disease (HD) the relative risk (RR) of breast cancer (BC) has been reported to be elevated, particularly in younger women. A retrospective chart review was conducted to investigate the incidence of BC and to describe the characteristics of these cases. Based on these results, predictions were made regarding the future incidence

Danielle D. Gervais-Fagnou; Caroline Girouard; Normand Laperriere; Melania Pintillie; Paul E. Goss



Radiation-induced splenic atrophy in patients with Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas  

SciTech Connect

Effective treatment of Hodgkin's disease requires the determination of the extent of the disease. This usually involves staging laparotomy, which includes splenectomy and biopsies of the para-aortic lymph nodes, liver, and bone marrow. Absence of the spleen predisposes a person to fulminant septicemia from encapsulated bacteria, a risk even greater in patients undergoing treatment for Hodgkin's disease. For this reason, some investigators have suggested that spleens not be removed for diagnosis but, rather, that they be included within the fields of radiation, which would preserve normal splenic function. We present a case of fatal spontaneous pneumococcal sepsis in a patient with splenic atrophy; the sepsis occurred 12 years after successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease by total nodal and splenic irradiation. A retrospective study of patients treated for Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas indicated that atrophy and functional asplenia may be an important sequela of splenic irradiation.

Dailey, M.O.; Coleman, C.N.; Kaplan, H.S.



What Are the Key Statistics about Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?  


... statistics about non-Hodgkin lymphoma? Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most common cancers in ... and 32,530 females) will be diagnosed with NHL. This includes both adults and children. About 18, ...


What's New in Hodgkin Disease Research and Treatment?  


... Next Topic Additional resources for Hodgkin disease What’s new in Hodgkin disease research and treatment? Important research ... yet still cure as many patients as possible. New chemotherapy (chemo) combinations of as many as 10 ...


Chinese microelectronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report covers the status of microelectronics in China as of the end of 1987. The information pertains only to silicon integrated circuits (ICs) and not to other semiconducting materials or microelectronic technologies and devices. There is a brief review of the Chinese effort before 1980, followed by chapters that focus on computer-aided design; silicon devices and circuits; integrated circuit processes, equipment and manufacturing; applications of integrated circuits; amorphous silicon; and policy choices in Chinese microelectronics.

Spencer, William J.; Chen, John Y.; Chiang, Anne; Frieman, Wendy; Kuh, Ernest S.; Moll, John L.; Pease, R. Fabian; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Sluzar, Natalie; McGrain, Moira M.



Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among Vietnam veterans.  


In light of findings suggesting an increase in the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men exposed to phenoxyherbicides and concerns among veterans over Agent Orange exposure, a hospital-based case-control study was undertaken to examine the association between military service in Vietnam and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The cases consisted of 201 Vietnam-era veteran patients who were treated in one of 172 Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals from 1969 through 1985 with a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. 358 Vietnam-era veteran patients with a diagnosis other than malignant lymphoma served as a comparison group. Military service information was obtained from a review of the veteran's military personnel records. Service in Vietnam did not increase the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma either in general (branch adjusted odds ratio = 1.03, 95% confidence interval = 0.70-1.50) or with increased latency period as defined as the duration in years from first service in Vietnam to hospital discharge. Surrogate measures of potential Agent Orange exposure such as service in a specific military branch, in a certain region within Vietnam, or in a combat role as determined by military occupational speciality were not associated with any increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:1890487

Dalager, N A; Kang, H K; Burt, V L; Weatherbee, L



Genomic Instability: The Driving Force behind Refractory/Relapsing Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

In classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) the malignant mononuclear Hodgkin (H) and multinuclear, diagnostic Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells are rare and generally make up <3% of the total cellular mass of the affected lymph nodes. During recent years, the introduction of laser micro-dissection techniques at the single cell level has substantially improved our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HL. Gene expression profiling, comparative genomic hybridization analysis, micro-RNA expression profiling and viral oncogene sequencing have deepened our knowledge of numerous facets of H- and RS-cell gene expression deregulation. The question remains whether disturbed signaling pathways and deregulated transcription factors are at the origin of refractory/relapsing Hodgkin’s lymphoma or whether these hallmarks are at least partially related to another major factor. We recently showed that the 3D nuclear organization of telomeres and chromosomes marked the transition from H- to RS-cells in HL cell lines. This transition is associated with progression of telomere dysfunction, shelterin disruption and progression of complex chromosomal rearrangements. We reported analogous findings in refractory/relapsing HL and identified the shelterin proteins TRF1, TRF2 and POT1 as targets of the LMP1 oncogene in post-germinal center B-cells. Here we summarize our findings, including data not previously published, and propose a model in which progressive disruption of nuclear integrity, a form of genomic instability, is the key-player in refractory/relapsing HL. Therapeutic approaches should take these findings into account. PMID:24216998

Knecht, Hans; Righolt, Christiaan; Mai, Sabine



Prognostic Factors in Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is among the neoplastic diseases that has the best long-term outcome after cytotoxic treatment. Cure rates approach 80–90%; however, 15–20% of patients will be resistant to therapy (primary refractory) or relapse after treatment. Prognostic factors should help to stratify treatment according to the risk profile and identify patients at risk for failure. Significance of prognostic factors partly depends on the efficacy of the treatments administered, since new effective therapies can variably counterbalance the adverse effects of some unfavorable clinical determinants. As a consequence, some prognostic factors thought to be important in the past may become meaningless when modern successful therapies are used. Therefore, the value of prognostic factors has to be updated periodically, and then adapted to new emerging biomarkers. Besides the prognostic role of PET imaging, tissue and circulating biomarkers, as the number of tumor-infiltrating macrophages, cytokine and chemokine levels and profiling of circulating nucleic acids (DNA and microRNAs) have shown promise. PMID:25045461

Cuccaro, Annarosa; Bartolomei, Francesca; Cupelli, Elisa; Galli, Eugenio; Giachelia, Manuela; Hohaus, Stefan



Hodgkin's disease and Vietnam service.  


Earlier studies that showed an association between exposure to phenoxy herbicides and the risk of malignant lymphomas have sparked concerns among Vietnam veterans over Agent Orange exposure. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) undertook a hospital-based case-control study to examine the association between military service in Vietnam and several histologic types of malignant lymphomas. This is a report of 283 Vietnam-era veteran patients who were treated in one of 172 VA hospitals from 1969 to 1985 with a diagnosis of Hodgkin's Disease (HD). Four hundred and four Vietnam-era veteran patients with diagnosis other than malignant lymphoma served as a comparison group. Military service in Vietnam was not associated with any significant increase in the risk of HD (adjusted odds ratio = 1.28; 95% confidence interval = 0.94, 1.76). Surrogate measures of potential Agent Orange exposure such as service in a specific military branch, in a certain region within Vietnam, in a combat role, or extended Vietnam service time were not associated with any significant increased risk of HD. PMID:8653213

Dalager, N A; Kang, H K; Burt, V L; Weatherbee, L



Classical Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This textbook, a standard in advanced classical mechanics, covers the breadth of the subject. This latest edition contains sections in contemporary classical mechanics, applications, and computer and mathematical techniques for solving systems.

Goldstein, Herbert; Poole Jr., Charles P.; Safko, John L.



Incidence and Characteristics of Childhood Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Greece: A Nationwide Study (Greece)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To estimate the incidence and epidemiological profile of childhood (0–14 years) Hodgkin’s lymphoma in Greece derived by\\u000a the network of childhood Hematology–Oncology departments on the basis of all 95 newly diagnosed cases during a seven-year\\u000a period.\\u000a \\u000a Methods Seventy-one of these cases were individually age and gender matched to an equal number of controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results The incidence of childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

E. Petridou; E. Andrie; N. Dessypris; S. K. Dikalioti; D. Trichopoulos



Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Followed by Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

A 22-year-old man was referred to our institution due to lower back pain and was diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thoracic and lumbar spine. The patient achieved complete remission with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. One year later, right cervical lymphadenopathy was observed and Hodgkin's lymphoma was confirmed on biopsy. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and experienced no further symptoms. Further, no evidence of recurrence was observed on follow-up imaging. This report discusses the association between Langerhans cell histiocytosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:23269889

Park, IK Soo; Park, In Keun; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Shin; Jeon, Sang Ryong; Huh, Joo Ryung



[Hodgkin's disease with concurrent infection of toxoplasmosis].  


Hodgkin's disease (HD) is a specific type of malignant lymphoma characteristic of local and general lymphadenectasis. Aquired toxoplasmosis (AT) is one kind of lymphoadenopathy without fever and fatigue. When the two diseases coexist, clinical and pathological misdiagnosis may be made. This is the first male case of toxoplasmosis and Hodgkin's disease in China, diagnosed by surgical removal of the major part of the cervical and supraclavicular masses, detection of blood anti-toxoplasma gondii antibody, PCR analysis of toxoplasma gondii DNA, and pathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies of the tumour tissues. The patient treated by radiation and chemotherapy was abated. PMID:10374505

Yu, Z; Zhang, M; Shi, Q



Hydrocele following treatment for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen Hodgkin's disease patients developed hydrocele after treatment with radiotherapy (12 patients) or chemotherapy (one patient). An additional patient developed testicular swelling following radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Eleven of 13 patients were staged with laparotomy (nine initially, two at restaging) which included pelvic and aortic node biopsies prior to development of hydrocele. Five of the patients developed radiation-related pericarditis. These data suggest that staging and treatment of Hodgkin's disease may disrupt pelvic lymphatic flow and lead to hydrocele formation. The high incidence of treatment-related pericarditis may suggest unusual sensitivity to radiation in this group of patients.

Duffey, P.; Campbell, E.W.; Wiernik, P.H.



Hodgkin’s lymphoma presenting as a complex paraneoplastic neurological syndrome: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Paraneoplastic neuropathies are rare. They are often difficult to diagnose, especially when they precede the diagnosis of cancer. Hodgkin's lymphoma is associated with multiple paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, of which demyelinating polyneuropathies are very unusual. Association with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is even more uncommon. Case presentation We report the rare case of a 74-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a complex neurological syndrome and was eventually diagnosed with the nodular sclerosing variant of Hodgkin's lymphoma. With timely diagnosis and early institution of treatment of the underlying malignancy, our patient began to show gradual improvement of his symptoms. Conclusion Hodgkin's lymphoma is associated with several paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Sometimes it can be the only presenting feature of an underlying Hodgkin's lymphoma, posing a diagnostic challenge. Prompt oncologic treatment and immunotherapy can be beneficial if instituted early in the course of the disease. PMID:23566362



Thyroid dysfunction in Hodgkin's disease.  


Radiotherapy to the neck and/or polychemotherapy late effects on the thyroid were investigated in 51 patients (34 males and 17 females) with Hodgkin's disease. Except for two untreated, recently diagnosed patients, all were studied after 1 to 105 months (median, 27.5 months) of completion of polychemotherapy. Age ranged from 6.2 to 36.6 years (median, 13.6 years). Patients were divided according to treatment into four groups: (A) patients treated with CVPP (cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone); (B) 22 patients treated with CVPP plus radiotherapy (median radiation dose to the thyroid, 3000 cGy); (C) seven patients with ACOP/BVP (adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, bleomycin, vinblastine, procarbazine); and (D) seven patients treated with different polychemotherapy protocols, four of whom also received radiotherapy. Elevated basal and/or post-TRH, -TSH levels were found in the following: Group A: two of 12 patients (17%); Group B: 11 of 22 (50%); Group C: four of seven (57%); and Group D: two of seven (28%). Positive antimicrosomal thyroid antibody titers (AM Ab) were found in the following: Group A: three of 12 patients (25%); Group B: six of 21 (28%), Group C: two of seven (28%); and Group D: one of six (17%). Of 46 patients studied, 12 (26%) had positive AM Ab; 37 of 46 patients were younger than 20 years of age, 11 (30%) of whom had positive AM Ab versus 4% in the normal population (P less than 0.001). Two recently diagnosed, untreated patients had either high TSH response to TRH or positive AM Ab. In conclusion, higher frequency of thyroid dysfunction was observed in patients receiving radiotherapy (50% versus 27%). Prevalence of positive AM Ab, apparently unrelated to therapy, was higher in young patients than in the normal population. A predisposition to autoimmune thyroid disease seems to be present in these patients, but it is not possible to discern how lymphoma and thyroiditis are interrelated. PMID:2463071

Pasqualini, T; Iorcansky, S; Gruñeiro, L; Diez, B; Pavlovsky, S; Sackmann-Muriel, F; Rivarola, M A



T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

A rapidly fatal T-cell lymphoma developed in a 25-year-old man who, over a period of seven years, had been treated with radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease (HD). Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is increasingly being recognized as a late sequel of therapy for HD, but this is the first case in which NHL of T-cell type has been identified in such circumstances.

Lowenthal, R.M.; Harlow, R.W.H.; Mead, A.E.; Tuck, D.; Challis, D.R.



Aneuploidy in sperm of Hodgkin`s disease patients receiving NOVP chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Induction of genetic damage in germ cells of young patients receiving chemo- or radiotherapy for cancers with probable cure, such as Hodgkin`s disease, is cause for concern. These young patients may someday desire children, and germ cell alterations presenting as numerical chromosomal abnormalities in sperm may place their future offspring at risk. To address this concern, we measured aneuploidy in sperm from eight young Hodgkin`s disease patients: four pre-treatment, four during treatment, and three over a 45 month period following treatment with NOVP (Novantrone, Oncovin, Vinblastine and Prednisone). Patients ranged in stage of disease from IA-IIEB and none had received prior radiation or chemotherapy. Using multi-chromosome sperm FISH with repetitive sequence probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, we found a significant 2-4 fold increase in particular numerical chromosomal abnormalities during treatment which were limited in persistence post-treatment. Additionally, pre-treatment Hodgkin`s disease patients showed elevations in some numerical chromosomal abnormalities when compared to a healthy reference group. In several men, the fraction of aneuploid sperm did not return to healthy reference group levels even after completion of therapy. These results show that elevated sperm aneuploidy occurs in germ cells of young cancer patients during chemotherapy and suggest caution to prevent conceptions during this period. The elevated sperm aneuploidy appears transient, but in some cases never returns to healthy reference group levels.

Robbins, W.A.; Cassel, M.J.; Wyrobek, A.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others



Chinese Connections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When L. Brooks Patterson, the executive of Oakland County, Michigan, publicly called for the county to become the first in America to teach Mandarin Chinese in every public school district, the Oxford Community Schools responded immediately. Over the past four years, the school district of 5,030 students in southeastern Michigan has elevated the…

Skilling, William C.



ACR Appropriateness Criteria Pediatric Hodgkin Lymphoma.  


Pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma is a highly curable malignancy and potential long-term effects of therapy need to be considered in optimizing clinical care. An expert panel was convened to reach consensus on the most appropriate approach to evaluation and treatment of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Four clinical variants were developed to assess common clinical scenarios and render recommendations for evaluation and treatment approaches to pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. We provide a summary of the literature as well as numerical ratings with commentary. By combining available data in published literature and expert medical opinion, we present a consensus to the approach for management of pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:24616347

Terezakis, Stephanie A; Metzger, Monika L; Hodgson, David C; Schwartz, Cindy L; Advani, Ranjana; Flowers, Christopher R; Hoppe, Bradford S; Ng, Andrea; Roberts, Kenneth B; Shapiro, Ronald; Wilder, Richard B; Yunes, Michael J; Constine, Louis S



Electron-microscopic aspects of Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymph nodes from patients with Hodgkin's disease of the nodular sclerosis or mixed cellularity type were examined by electron microscopy to classify all the cells that occur in these types of lymphoma. Most of the cells showed morphological features that were the same, or nearly the same as those of cells of normal lymphoid tissue. These included typical interdigitating reticulum

M. L. Hansmann; E. Kaiserling



Incomplete cytokinesis and re-fusion of small mononucleated Hodgkin cells lead to giant multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells.  


Multinucleated Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells are pathognomonic for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and their presence is essential for diagnosis. How these giant tumor cells develop is controversial, however. It has been postulated that RS cells arise from mononucleated Hodgkin cells via endomitosis. Conversely, continuous single-cell tracking of HL cell lines by long-term time-lapse microscopy has identified cell fusion as the main route of RS cell formation. In contrast to growth-induced formation of giant Hodgkin cells, fusion of small mononuclear cells followed by a size increase gives rise to giant RS cells. Of note, fusion of cells originating from the same ancestor, termed re-fusion, is seen nearly exclusively. In the majority of cases, re-fusion of daughter cells is preceded by incomplete cytokinesis, as demonstrated by microtubule bonds among the cells. We confirm at the level of individual tracked cells that giant Hodgkin and RS cells have little proliferative capacity, further supporting small mononuclear Hodgkin cells as the proliferative compartment of the HL tumor clone. In addition, sister cells show a shared propensity for re-fusion, providing evidence of early RS cell fate commitment. Thus, RS cell generation is related neither to cell fusion of unrelated Hodgkin cells nor to endomitosis, but rather is mediated by re-fusion of daughter cells that underwent mitosis. This surprising finding supports the existence of a unique mechanism for the generation of multinuclear RS cells that may have implications beyond HL, given that RS-like cells are frequently observed in several other lymphoproliferative diseases as well. PMID:24302766

Rengstl, Benjamin; Newrzela, Sebastian; Heinrich, Tim; Weiser, Christian; Thalheimer, Frederic B; Schmid, Frederike; Warner, Kathrin; Hartmann, Sylvia; Schroeder, Timm; Küppers, Ralf; Rieger, Michael A; Hansmann, Martin-Leo



What Are the Key Statistics for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children?  


... non-Hodgkin lymphoma in children? Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for about 6% of all childhood cancers. ( ... equal, and there are about 900 cases of NHL diagnosed each year. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is about ...


Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

Lipman, Jonathan



Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis in a Patient with Hodgkin's Disease: Characterization of a New Papillomavirus Type and Interferon Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new human papillomaviurs (HPV) was discovered in disseminated, macular, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions on the skin of the neck, face, scalp, and public region of a 42-year-old male suffering from Hodgkin's disease. Histopathology revealed features characteristic of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (ev). In contrast to classical ev, the lesions were almost exclusively seen in previously irradiated and UV-exposed skin areas. Papillomavirus capsid

Gerd Gross; Klaus Ellinger; Angelika Roussaki; Pawel G. Fuchs; Hans-Hartmut Peter; Herbert Pfister



Interspike Interval Statistics in the Stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley Model: Coexistence of Gamma Frequency Bursts and Highly Irregular Firing  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the classical Hodgkin-Huxley equations are simulated with Na- and K-channel noise and constant applied current, the distribution of interspike intervals is bimodal: one part is an exponential tail, as often assumed, while the other is a narrow gaussian peak centered at a short interspike interval value. The gaussian arises from bursts of spikes in the gamma-frequency range, the tail

Peter F. Rowat



Classics Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Appraises several databases devoted to classical literature. Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) contains the entire extant corpus of ancient Greek literature, including works on lexicography and historiography, extending into the 15th century. Other works awaiting completion are the Database of Classical Bibliography and a CD-ROM pictorial dictionary…

Clayman, Dee L.



Ancient Greek and Chinese Patterns of Definition: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to the understanding of the difference between Western and Chinese thought by comparing the cultural patterns of definition in ancient Greece and China, two cultures that have, in many ways, come to define the West and East. Current studies of the classical period of these two ancient cultures have focused on what the Greek and Chinese sages

Xiaosui Xiao



Expression and Functional Relevance of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 in Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is expressed in certain types of malignancies. An analysis of CB1 expression and function in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), one of the most frequent lymphomas, was not performed to date. Design and Methods We examined the distribution of CB1 protein in primary cases of HL. Using lymphoma derived cell lines, the role of CB1 signaling on cell survival was investigated. Results A predominant expression of CB1 was found in Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells in a vast majority of classical HL cases. The HL cell lines L428, L540 and KM-H2 showed strong CB1-abundance and displayed a dose-dependent decline of viability under CB1 inhibition with AM251. Further, application of AM251 led to decrease of constitutively active NF?B/p65, a crucial survival factor of HRS-cells, and was followed by elevation of apoptotic markers in HL cells. Conclusions The present study identifies CB1 as a feature of HL, which might serve as a potential selective target in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:24349109

Benz, Alexander H.; Renne, Christoph; Maronde, Erik; Koch, Marco; Grabiec, Urszula; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Rengstl, Benjamin; Newrzela, Sebastian; Hartmann, Sylvia; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Dehghani, Faramarz



Role of brentuximab vedotin in the treatment of relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjugate that targets CD30-positive malignancies via an anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody linked to monomethyl auristatin E, a microtubule-disrupting agent, by a protease-cleavable linker. BV has received accelerated approval from the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma that has relapsed either after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) or after two lines of combination chemotherapy in patients ineligible for ASCT, and in systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma after failure of at least one line of multiagent chemotherapy. Phase I studies in CD30-positive lymphomas have determined the maximum tolerated dose to be 1.8 mg/kg intravenously every 21 days. In relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, a pivotal Phase II study of single-agent BV showed an overall response rate of 75%, with 34% complete responses and a median remission duration of 20 months for complete responders. BV has a modest toxicity profile, with peripheral neuropathy as one of the most clinically significant side effects, and this is largely reversible. Therefore, BV is the treatment of choice for patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma after ASCT or two standard regimens. Ongoing trials are evaluating the role of BV as salvage therapy prior to ASCT and for maintenance after ASCT for patients with relapsed/refractory disease. PMID:24672256

Siddiqi, Tanya; Thomas, Sandra H; Chen, Robert



Hodgkin's lymphoma rectosigmoid in a patient with ulcerative colitis on long-term azathioprine therapy.  


Hodgkin's lymphoma complicating chronic ulcerative colitis is extremely rare. We report a case of extranodal Hodgkin's lymphoma involving rectosigmoid in a patient of chronic ulcerative colitis on long-term azathioprine. A 67-year-old man presented with extensive ulcerative colitis, on follow-up since September 2005. He received long-term steroids, mesalamine and azathioprine. Serial surveillance colonoscopic examinations and colonic biopsies were performed. Surveillance colonoscopy performed 8?years after the onset of disease showed multiple deep ulcers and nodular masses involving the rectum and sigmoid colon. Histological examination of rectosigmoid biopsies showed classic Hodgkin's disease. Azathioprine was withdrawn. He received mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine and prednisone (MOPP) chemotherapy protocol and was planned for total colectomy in follow-up. We believe patients with ulcerative colitis on long-term azathioprine should be on vigil for development of lymphomas by protocol surveillance colonoscopic examinations and biopsies. The risk of lymphoma in such patients is small and outweighs the benefits of long-term azathioprine therapy. PMID:24849639

Khuroo, Mehnaaz S



Chinese Dinosaurs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What's "Jurassic Park" in Mandarin? That isn't easy to say, but if you're interested in Chinese dinosaurs, then you will love the new online (and real) exhibit hosted by the Australian Museum in Sydney. A vast land containing many of the world's best-preserved dinosaur specimens, China offers remnants of many species not commonly available in Western exhibits. With lots to explore, the site features a readily accessible list of dinosaurs, each arranged under its Chinese-derived species name. Not like anything most of us have ever heard, many of the specimens look and seem familiar, at least as members of the dinosaur family. While generally well-executed, particularly worthy of note is the site's presentation of China's celebrated feathered dinosaurs, Caudipteryx zoui and Protarchaeopteryx, two curious figures believed to represent part of the great reptilian leap from land to air.



Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas in U.S. Navy Personnel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas are one of the most commonly occurring cancers in the age groups heavily represented in the U.S. Navy. The Navy has a wide range of potential occupational exposures. This study was initiated to identify any occupational associations of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that may adversely affect naval readiness. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of non-Hodgkin's

Frank C. Garland; Edward D. Gorham; Cedric F. Garland; Jay A. Ferns



Alopecia areata as a paraneoplastic syndrome of Hodgkin's lymphoma: A case report  

PubMed Central

Alopecia areata (AA) has been classically associated with several autoimmune disorders. However, AA as a paraneoplastic syndrome of Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) remains a rare entity and our understanding of this phenomenon is limited to a few case reports. This is the case report of a 46-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with AA several months prior to the onset of B symptoms and the diagnosis of stage IVB classical HL. The patient was subsequently treated with 6 cycles of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine and experienced a complete response and resolution of his AA. In our case, the onset of AA preceded the onset of systemic manifestations and diagnosis of HL, whereas in other cases AA was shown to occur concurrently with the clinical manifestations of HL. In all the cases, however, treatment of the HL subsequently led to resolution of the AA. The present case report highlights the significance of AA as a herald of underlying malignancy, although AA in classical HL remains poorly characterized in the literature. PMID:24940502




Late-onset cervicoscapular muscle atrophy and weakness after radiotherapy for Hodgkin disease: a case series.  


Patients with cervical or mediastinal Hodgkin disease (HD) classically underwent chemotherapy plus extended-field radiation therapy. We report six patients who gradually developed severe atrophy and weakness of cervical paraspinal and shoulder girdle muscles 5-30 years after mantle irradiation for HD. Although clinical presentation was uniform, including a dropped head syndrome, electrophysiological and pathological findings were rather heterogeneous. Either neurogenic or myogenic processes may be involved and sometimes combined. We discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these cervicoscapular motor complications of mantle irradiation in HD. PMID:20019226

Furby, A; Béhin, A; Lefaucheur, J-P; Beauvais, K; Marcorelles, P; Mussini, J-M; Bassez, G; Créange, A; Eymard, B; Pénisson-Besnier, I



Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma with Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg-like cells: a new histopathologic variant.  


Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) is the most frequent cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. A 62-year-old man presented with a solitary indolent subcutaneous nodule for 3 years duration, without other abnormalities. Histological examination showed lymphoproliferation with a nodular growth pattern characterized by fibrous collagen bands surrounding nodules. The nodules were composed of medium-sized centrocytes admixed with many large multilobulated and lacunar cells without eosinophils or granulomatous aspect. Hodgkin-like cells were CD30+, CD15+, PAX5+, OCT2+, BOB1+, MUM1+, Ki67+, Bcl6+ and focally CD20+ and EMA-, CD79a-, Bcl2- and CD10-. The medium-sized cells were CD20+, CD79a+, Bcl2+, Bcl6+ and CD10+, enmeshed in a network of CD21-positive follicular dendritic cells. Epstein-Barr virus detection was negative. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization showed the absence of BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangement. In such a case, the presence of Hodgkin-like cells intermixed with the tumor population may result in a pitfall diagnosis of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). Differential diagnoses to be ruled out are secondary or primary skin localization of rather CHL, or systemic follicular lymphoma. Several clinical, radiological, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular arguments indicated the diagnosis of PCFCL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCFCL with Hodgkin-like cells. PMID:25099172

Marie, Dilly; Houda, Ben-Rejeb; Béatrice, Vergier; Matthieu, Feldis; Louis, Toty; Olivier, Nohra; Marie, Beylot-Barry; Audrey, Gros; Jean-Philippe, Merlio; Marie, Parrens



Primary colorectal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The gastrointestinal tract is the most common site of extranodal involvement in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Primary colorectal NHL comprises 13–18% of all gastrointestinal NHL but is not commonly reported as a separate entity.\\u000aMethods: This was a retrospective review of the medical records of 19 patients over a 16-year period to evaluate the clinical features and behavior of colorectal

Erna Busch; Miguel Rodriguez-Bigas; Eleftherios Mamounas; Maurice Barcos; Nicholas J. Petrelli



Lung cancer following therapy for Hodgkin's disease  

PubMed Central

We describe a patient in whom lung cancer developed several years after he had received combined-modality therapy for Hodgkin's disease. The literature concerning second malignant diseases, particularly thoracic tumours, that occur following combined-modality therapy for cancer is reviewed. It is important to recognize these entities, because chest symptoms or findings on x-ray films may be misinterpreted as representing late recrudescence of the first neo-plastic disease. Imagesp533-a PMID:3971271

Oliphant, Lawrie; McFadden, Robin G.



The analysis of mood taxonomy comparision between chinese and western music  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic discrimination of music mood is one important field of MIR. Considering the difference of Chinese traditional music and Western classical music, it is necessary to study these two kinds of music's mood taxonomy. In this paper, the mood taxonomy models of Chinese traditional music and Western classical music are implemented, and then three content feature sets are extracted directly

Zhijun Zhao; Lingyun Xie; Jing Liu; Wen Wu



Ferritin, a Hodgkin's Disease Associated Antigen  

PubMed Central

Antigens which exist in high frequency in tumor tissues of patients with Hodgkin's disease have been obtained in relatively concentrated form by gel chromatography procedures. Further purification and analysis of these antigens performed in the present study have demonstrated that the antigen of fast electrophoretic mobility (F-antigen) is normal tissue ferritin. The identification of F-antigen as ferritin has been made on the basis of comparative physicochemical and immunological analyses of purified F-antigen and normal ferritin. Thus, F-antigen was found to contain iron and to be similar to ferritin in molecular weight, amino-acid composition, electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric distribution, and immunological reactivity. Absorption of a monospecific heterologous anti-F antiserum with normal tissue ferritin completely removed all anti-F antibody activity. Moreover, the absorption of polyspecific heterologous antiserum to crude Hodgkin's extracts, which contains antibodies reacting with F-antigen, the slower migrating S-antigen, and a third specificity present in lysates of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes (PL-antigen), with ferritin, removed only anti-F activity, thus distinguishing the S- and PL-antigens from ferritin. The existence of ferritin in high quantities in serum of Hodgkin's disease patients may provide a tool of potential diagnostic and prognostic importance in the management of this disease. Images PMID:4139706

Eshhar, Zelig; Order, Stanley E.; Katz, David H.



Evaluation of Occupational Risk Factors in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Hodgkin's Disease in Iranian Men  

PubMed Central

Background Lymphoma is a malignancy, arises from lymphoid tissue. Nowadays, it is the ninth most common cancer in Iran. The risk factors of malignant lymphomas have not well determined, but since 20 years ago till now, too many epidemiological researches have been concerning either Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) or Hodgkin's Disease (HD). It is a common usual hypothesis that idiosyncratic reaction to common physical, chemical, and viral agents could lead to lymphoma without obvious immune deficiency. Some occupations has reported to cause increasing "NHL" risks, such as rubber industry, veterinaries, uranium mining, metal working, asbestos exposing, farming, textile industry, and benzene exposing. The roles of ionizing radiation, benzene and other environmental agents have not been clear, because of the lack of confirmed evidences for relation between the occupational and environmental agents with "HD". Methods A case-control study with 150 cases of malignant lymphoma and 150 controls have performed in Tehran. Data have selected through face-to-face interviews about the medical and occupational histories. Results In this study, there was a significantly increased risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in these occupations; welders, metal workers, founders, aluminium workers OR=4.6 [Confidence Interval (CI): 1.47-14.35] and increased risk for Hodgkin's Disease in drivers OR=2.34 [(CI):0.86-6.35]. We have found out decreased NHL risk in office workers OR=0.54 [(CI):0.29-1.02] and also found out a non-significant increased NHL risk in farmers OR=1.58 [(CI):0.82-3.03]. In this study, we have found no relation between smoking and HD, or NHL. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that several occupations could alter the risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Hodgkin's Disease.

Aminian, Omid; Abedi, Ali; Chavoshi, Farzaneh; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Rahmati-Najarkolaei, Fatemeh



Interleukin-12 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma or Hodgkin's Disease

Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia



Development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma following therapy for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Three patients developed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) 3 to 6 years after treatment for Hodgkin's disease (HD). In no instance was there evidence of recurrence of HD following the initial chemotherapy or radiotherapy. None of these patients had received both radiation therapy and chemotherapy. All patients responded well to conventional chemotherapy for NHL and are alive at 23 +, 37 +, and 65+ months after that secondary diagnosis. This report, when coupled with at least ten other such reported patients, suggests that NHL may be a relatively uncommon but significant complication of therapy for HD and must be distinguished for recurrence of HD.

Kim, H.D.; Bedetti, C.D.; Boggs, D.R.



Mammary carcinoma developing after radiotherapy and chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Two patients developed breast cancer after treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Both had received mediastinal irradiation 13 to 15 years, respectively, before the diagnosis of breast carcinoma. One patient had synchronous bilateral breast cancer when the diagnosis was made. Discussed is the risk of mammary carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease.

Janjan, N.A.; Wilson, J.F.; Gillin, M.; Anderson, T.; Greenberg, M.; Schewe, K.; Cox, J.D.



Lymphocyte depleted Hodgkin lymphoma: an evaluation with immunophenotyping and genetic analysis.  


Lymphocyte depleted classical Hodgkin lymphoma (LDHL) is a vanishing category of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL); many cases previously placed in this category are now recognised as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), or nodular sclerosis CHL with lymphocyte depletion. In addition, the recent recognition of high grade B-cell lymphomas intermediate between DLBCL and CHL (grey-zone lymphomas) raises the question of whether LDHL exists at all as a category of CHL. We studied eight cases that fulfilled diagnostic criteria of LDHL according to the 2008 WHO Classification. The cases involved lymph nodes (7 cases) and pleura (1 case) from four males and four females (age 30-71 years; median 62 years). All tumors contained numerous Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, fibroblasts and histiocytes and scattered lymphocytes. In three cases the tumors had a more diffuse fibrotic appearance, while in five cases they appeared reticular and anaplastic. Neoplastic cells in all cases expressed CD30, CD15, fascin, weak PAX5 and MUM-1 and lacked CD45, Alk-1, EMA, CD3, CD68, Mart-1 and cytokeratin. Oct.2 and/or Bob-1 were expressed in all cases. Two cases variably expressed CD20 but were CD79a negative. Four cases were positive for EBV. All the four cases with adequate DNA had clonally rearranged IGH genes. The combined morphologic, immunophenotypic and molecular genetic features of this group of cases distinguish LDHL from other disease entities, including grey-zone lymphomas. PMID:19455461

Slack, Graham W; Ferry, Judith A; Hasserjian, Robert P; Sohani, Aliyah R; Longtine, Janina A; Harris, Nancy L; Zukerberg, Lawrence R



Identification of stromal proteins overexpressed in nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) represents a category of lymphoid neoplasms with unique features, notably the usual scarcity of tumour cells in involved tissues. The most common subtype of classical HL, nodular sclerosis HL, characteristically comprises abundant fibrous tissue stroma. Little information is available about the protein composition of the stromal environment from HL. Moreover, the identification of valid protein targets, specifically and abundantly expressed in HL, would be of utmost importance for targeted therapies and imaging, yet the biomarkers must necessarily be accessible from the bloodstream. To characterize HL stroma and to identify potentially accessible proteins, we used a chemical proteomic approach, consisting in the labelling of accessible proteins and their subsequent purification and identification by mass spectrometry. We performed an analysis of potentially accessible proteins in lymph node biopsies from HL and reactive lymphoid tissues, and in total, more than 1400 proteins were identified in 7 samples. We have identified several extracellular matrix proteins overexpressed in HL, such as versican, fibulin-1, periostin, and other proteins such as S100-A8. These proteins were validated by immunohistochemistry on a larger series of biopsy samples, and bear the potential to become targets for antibody-based anti-cancer therapies. PMID:21975223

Kischel, Philippe; Waltregny, David; Greffe, Yannick; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; De Pauw, Edwin; de Leval, Laurence; Castronovo, Vincent



The Hodgkin-Huxley Heritage: From Channels to Circuits  

PubMed Central

The Hodgkin-Huxley studies of the action potential, published 60 years ago, are a central pillar of modern neuroscience research, ranging from molecular investigations of the structural basis of ion channel function to the computational implications at circuit level. In this Symposium Review, we aim to demonstrate the ongoing impact of Hodgkin’s and Huxley’s ideas. The Hodgkin-Huxley model established a framework in which to describe the structural and functional properties of ion channels, including the mechanisms of ion permeation, selectivity, and gating. At a cellular level, the model is used to understand the conditions that control both the rate and timing of action potentials, essential for neural encoding of information. Finally, the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism is central to computational neuroscience to understand both neuronal integration and circuit level information processing, and how these mechanisms might have evolved to minimize energy cost. PMID:23055474

Catterall, William A.; Raman, Indira M.; Robinson, Hugh P. C.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Paulsen, Ole



Discrete epithelioid cells: useful clue to Hodgkin's disease cytodiagnosis.  


Diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease is made with more confidence than diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma on cytology. This study was undertaken to describe the presence of granulomas and a new cytologic feature, discrete epithelioid cells (DECs), in smears from Hodgkin's disease. Fine-needle aspiration smears from 39 cases of biopsy-proven Hodgkin's disease, collected over a period of 43 months, were reviewed. Epithelioid granulomas were seen in 38.5% of the smears. DECs, which were noted in 70% of the cases, may be useful in raising the suspicion of Hodgkin's disease when other features are not evident; their presence should encourage the cytopathologist to obtain aspirations from other lymph nodes. PMID:11892016

Iyengar, Krishnan R; Mutha, Sucheeta



Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Buccal Vestibule -Case Report  

PubMed Central

Lymphomas are malignant neoplasms arising from lymphocytes B cell or T cell that affects mainly lymph nodes, spleen and other non hematopoietic tissues. They are classified as Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) is the most common variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and frequently involves extranodal sites. In the oral soft tissues lesions can occur as hard and diffuse tumors involving oral vestibule, gums and posterior region of the hard palate. Most lymphomas, including DLBL arise from B cells are characterized by diffuse population of large cells with cleaved or non cleaved oval nuclei. Both histopathlogical and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis were strongly advisable for proper management and prognosis. We hereby report a rare case of Diffuse large B-cell variant of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in a male patient of age 50yrs in left upper buccal vestibule. PMID:25302245

G, Sreenath; Reddy Y, Raghavendra; Prakash A, Ravi; T R, Swathi



Classic Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classic problems from the Ask Dr. Math FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) files, including: age word problems, birthday probability, boy or girl?, camel and bananas, coin problems, doubling pennies, grazing animals, liars and truthtellers, the missing dollar, Monty Hall (three doors), three houses three utilities, the Tower of Hanoi, two trains, two trains and a fly, and working together.

Forum, Math; Math Forum; Ask Dr. Math FAQ



Prognostic factors and treatment outcome in primary progressive Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine prognostic factors and treat- ment outcome, patients with primary pro- gressive Hodgkin lymphoma (HD) regis- tered in the database of the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (GHSG) were analyzed retrospectively. Detailed records from randomized prospective multicenter trials performed between 1988 and 1998 of 3807 patients recruited in these trials were reviewed. The median age of the 206 patients

Andreas Josting; Ulrich Rueffer; Jeremy Franklin; Markus Sieber; Volker Diehl; Andreas Engert



Solid tumors in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease: a report from the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Long-term survivors of successfully treated Hodgkin's disease (HD) are at risk for late complications. Among these, secondary solid tumors are most serious because they are often fatal. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to assess the incidence, relative risk and risk factors of secondary solid tumors in HD patients registered in the database of the German Hodgkin Lym-

K. Behringer; A. Josting; P. Schiller; H. T. Eich; H. Bredenfeld; V. Diehl; A. Engert



Chinese Posters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fascinating site, brought to fruition by Dutch Sinologist Stefan R. Landsberger, seeks to provide âÂÂa visual chronicle of the history of modern Chinaâ through the exhibition of over 5,000 PeopleâÂÂs Republic of China propaganda posters. Viewers may want to start with the Gallery of Chinese Propaganda Posters â an overview of 200 highlights from the collection. A visit to Our Most Visited Theme Pages and Recently Added Posters also pays intellectual dividends (Iron Women and Foxy Ladies is an especially great find). But perhaps the true gem of the site is the 200 theme presentations found under the Themes link, where readers can explore categories such as Before the PeopleâÂÂs Republic, Campaigns â 1949-1965, Models and Martyrs, and Mao Zedong.


Pathology Case Study: History of Hodgkin's Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 37-year-old man, previously diagnosed with stage III nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's Disease has recently had a brief episode of syncope. Visitors are given the gross descriptions and radiology, including images, and are given the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student learning in neuropathology.

Brown, Henry G.; Fox, Karl R.; Prostko, E. R.; Whiting, Donald M.; Zhang, Jin



Curcuma Contra Cancer? Curcumin and Hodgkin's Lymphoma.  


Curcumin, a phytochemical isolated from curcuma plants which are used as coloring ingredient for the preparation of curry powder, has several activities which suggest that it might be an interesting drug for the treatment or prevention of cancer. Curcumin targets different pathways which are involved in the malignant phenotype of tumor cells, including the nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) pathway. This pathway is deregulated in multiple tumor entities, including Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Indeed, curcumin can inhibit growth of HL cell lines and increases the sensitivity of these cells for cisplatin. In this review we summarize curcumin activities with special focus on possible activities against HL cells. PMID:24665206

Kewitz, Stefanie; Volkmer, Ines; Staege, Martin S



Fatal measles pneumonitis during Hodgkin's lymphoma.  


The treatment of measles pneumonitis in immunocompromised adults is not established. We describe a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma who developed acute pneumonia during a measles infection. On day 13, intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulins were administrated. On day 18, the patient developed acute respiratory failure. An examination of transbronchial pulmonary biopsies showed Warthin-Finkeldey giant cells that are pathognomonic of measles pneumonitis. The patient died despite aggressive supportive care. Our case and a review of literature show that measles pneumonitis is routinely fatal in patients with cancer. We suggest that antiviral drugs should be considered as soon as the diagnosis has been established. PMID:24105383

Wyplosz, Benjamin; Lafarge, Marion; Escaut, Lélia; Stern, Jean-Baptiste



Second cancers following non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

The risk of second malignancies following non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) was estimated in 29,153 patients diagnosed with NHL between 1973 and 1987 in one of nine areas participating in the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Compared with the general population, NHL patients were at a significantly increased risk of developing second cancers (observed/expected (O/E) = 1.18; O = 1231). The O/E ratio increased significantly with time to reach 1.77 in 10-year survivors. Significant excesses were noted for acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (O/E = 2.88), cancers of the bladder (O/E = 1.30), kidney (O/E = 1.47), and lung (O/E = 1.57), malignant melanoma (O/E = 2.44), and Hodgkin's disease (O/E = 4.16). Chemotherapy appeared related to subsequent acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) and bladder cancer. Radiation therapy was associated with ANLL and possibly cancers of the lung, bladder, and bone. Malignant melanoma was not clearly related to initial NHL treatment.

Travis, L.B.; Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Hankey, B.F.; Fraumeni, J.F. Jr. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))



Morphologic changes in the thyroid after irradiation for Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Four cases of thyroidectomy for suspected thyroid carcinoma after previous irradiation for Hodgkin's or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are reviewed. The patients ranged in age from 18 to 33 years at the time of thyroid surgery with an average latency period of 12 years (range, 8-20 years) from radiation therapy to thyroidectomy. All patients had a clinically palpable thyroid nodule, and pathologically showed a pattern of multiple adenomatous nodules with cytologic atypia. The microscopic changes were sufficiently striking to cause the primary pathologist to request consultation to rule out thyroid carcinoma in each case. Fine-needle aspiration was performed in one case and suggested a thyroid neoplasm. The pathologic findings are reviewed and distinction of this lesion from thyroid carcinoma is discussed.

Carr, R.F.; LiVolsi, V.A.



Ancient Chinese Kitchens  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Few people don't love Chinese food: The delicate flavors; the bite size pieces; the flavorful sauces; the healthful spices. Well, here's at least one reason why Chinese food is so good: they've been ...

Hacker, Randi



Teaching Business Chinese Online.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a comprehensive approach to teaching business Chinese online that is beng developed in the language learning laboratory at the University of Illinois. The courseware consists of two complementary parts: a business Chinese workbook and a business Chinese simulation. (Author/VWL)

Zhang, Hang




E-print Network

as the overall impact of student migration on Chinese society. WE INVITE PAPERS EXPLORING - how studying abroad experience, networks and ideas of these students impact upon the future of Chinese society AbstractsAARHUS UNIVERSITET CHINESE STUDENTS ABROAD Reflections, Strategies and Impacts of a Global


General Information about Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  


... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Aggressive, Stage I and Contiguous Stage II Adult Non- ... trials is available from the NCI Web site . Aggressive, Noncontiguous Stage II/III/IV Adult Non-Hodgkin ...


Episodic neurologic dysfunction in patients with Hodgkin's disease.  


Fourteen young patients, 12 women and two men, believed to be cured of Hodgkin's disease, suffered episodes of neurologic dysfunction. The mechanism responsible for these symptoms is unknown, but transient ischemia seems most likely. PMID:3778257

Feldmann, E; Posner, J B



[Diagnosis and treatment of primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma].  


The primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which has been first described in 1866, is a very uncommon type of urological neoplasia occuring mostly in the elderly ages. It only gives 5% of the testicular tumors, 2% of extranodal lymphomas, and barely 1% of all non-Hodgkin diseases. Patients with testicular non-Hodgkin lymphomas need prompt multidisciplinary aid because without treatment the outcome can be unfavorable. The authors discuss the attributes, diagnostic modalities and treatment options of the primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma and present a case of a 68-year-old patient who underwent orchiectomy, chemo- and radiotherapy after having been diagnosed with the tumor. The follow-up PET-CT and cerebrospinal fluid analysis found no further sign of the disease, and complete remission has been achieved. PMID:24389323

Romics, Miklós; Demeter, Judit; Romics, Imre; Nyirády, Péter



Combination chemotherapy of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas  

SciTech Connect

The rationale for the treatment of the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in childhood is discussed. Results from recent trials of combination chemotherapy are given, and the treatment strategy of the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group is described.

Mott, M.G.



Hodgkin Disease and the Role of the Immune System  

PubMed Central

Hodgkin disease (HD) is a malignancy of primarily B lymphocytes, which has the unique ability to cause immunodeficiency, as well as provide immune evasion mechanisms to avoid self-destruction. In this review, we will discuss Hodgkin disease, its association with EBV, the immune deficiency caused by HD, tumor immune evasion mechanisms. Specifically, we will closely evaluate the roles of regulatory T cells in HD, cytotoxic T cells, cytokine and chemokine secretion, downregulation of Fas ligand and IDO secretion. PMID:21381869

Kennedy-Nasser, Alana A.; Hanley, Patrick; Bollard, Catherine M.



Extended-Field Isocentric Irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease  

PubMed Central

Extended-field therapeutic irradiation is the treatment of choice for the majority of patients diagnosed with pathologic stages I and II Hodgkin's disease, and total nodal irradiation can be effectively used to treat selected stage III Hodgkin's patients. Standard 100-cm source-to-axis distance extended-field isocentric technique and results are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:3312619

Kumar, P. Pradeep; Good, Roger R.; Jones, Ernest O.; Somers, James E.; McAnulty, Bruce E.; McCaul, Gayle F.; Rogers, Sally S.; Reeves, Michael A.; Sanders, Cheryl K.



Pancoast syndrome: A rare presentation of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Pancoast syndrome is a common presentation of bronchogenic carcinoma, but other malignancies are rarely cited as its cause. Pancoast syndrome due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is rarely described in the literature. Here, we report a case of Pancoast syndrome due to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma to increase the awareness of the clinicians regarding essentiality of tissue diagnosis of Pancoast tumor before starting the treatment. PMID:24049257

Sarkar, Anirban; Das, Anirban; Basuthakur, Sumitra; Pandit, Sudipta; Das, Sibes K.; Choudhury, Sabyasachi



[Secondary malignant tumors following treatment of Hodgkin's disease].  


Secondary tumors were noted in 8 out of 675 patients with Hodgkin's disease during remission following treatment. The following diseases were diagnosed:acute myeloblastic leukemia (1), lung cancer (2), gastric cancer (3), cervical cancer (1), and basalioma (2). The incidence of secondary tumors among patients with Hodgkin's disease turned out to be much higher than in general population. Complications were more frequently observed in men after combined therapy (radio- and drug therapy). PMID:6590941

Shishkin, I P



Combination chemotherapy of Hodgkin's disease in children.  


Forty-five children with advanced Hodgkin's disease (stages III and IV) received combination chemotherapy in three schedules: MOPP (mustargen, Oncovin, procarbazine, prednisolone); COPP (cyclophosphamide was substituted for mustargen); and CVPP (cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, prednisone). The results showed the efficacy of all drug combinations (93% complete and partial remissions). However, the superiority of the MOPP program in prolonging the duration of the complete remission rate was demonstrated. Of 29 patients who showed complete response, 24 continued in complete remission from 8 to 53 months (median duration, 21 months). The other five patients relapsed within 2 to 6 months. Thirty-six of the 45 treated patients are still alive after an average period of follow-up of 19 months. The nine patients who died were followed for an average of seven months. The histologic type, prior chemotherapy, and the age of the patients influenced the results of treatment. The role of maintenance therapy is not discussed in this series PMID:991072

Kolygin, B A



Clinical and laboratory findings in untreated patients with Hodgkin’s disease with special reference to age  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a 6-yr period 258 adult patients (?15 yr) with biopsy verified Hodgkin’s disease (HD) were reported to the Stockholm-Gotland\\u000a Oncologic Center. In 57 elderly patients (mean age 74 yr) the diagnosis was established shortly before death or at autopsy.\\u000a One hundred and eighty-two of remaining 201 patients (118 men and 64 women, mean age 47 yr) were investigated. They

Christina Wedelin; Magnus Björkholm; Bo Johansson; Håkan Mellstedt



Hodgkin’s Disease in the Elderly : A Retrospective Clinicopathologic Study of 61 Patients Aged over 60 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

61 cases of Hodgkin’s disease (HD) with age over sixty years were diagnosed in a series of 387 patients. Mixed cellularity (57.4%) and nodular sclerosis (14.7%) were the most common histologic subtypes. Clinical presentation was characterized by superficial lymphadenopathy (92%) and\\/or general symptoms (57.4%). Mediastinal involvement was observed in 24.6% of cases, and 24.6% of patients had a primitive infradiaphragmatic

Rossi Ferrini; A. Bosi; C. Casini; A. Messori; G. Bellesi



Family history of cancer in children with acute leukemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: the  

E-print Network

's lymphoma; NHL, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; CI, confidence interval; OR, odds ratio; ENT, ear, nose or throat of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and 1681 population-based controls were included. The controls were.0-2.2]) and NHL (OR = 1.8 [1.3-2.5]), but not AL (OR = 1.0 [0.9-1.2]). The ORs were higher when at least two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Radiation dose selection in Hodgkin’s disease patients with large mediastinal adenopathy treated with combined modality therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To determine the effective dose of consolidation radiation in Hodgkin’s disease (HD) patients with large mediastinal adenopathy (LMA) treated with combined modality therapy (CMT).Methods and Materials: Eighty-three HD patients with LMA receiving CMT between 1983 and 1997 at Duke University and Yale University were identified. Patients underwent complete clinical staging. The staging breakdown was: IA, 4 patients; IB, 1

Joel H Elconin; Kenneth B Roberts; David A Rizzieri; Carmen Vermont; Robert W Clough; Charlotte Kim; Richard K Dodge; Leonard R Prosnitz



IMP3 as a supplemental diagnostic marker for Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Insulin-like growth factor II mRNA-binding protein 3 (IMP3) is ubiquitously expressed in embryos, mediating organogenesis, RNA trafficking, and cell growth, and is generally down-regulated in adult tissue. However, IMP3 has recently been shown to be overexpressed in some malignant epithelial neoplasms and to be a useful diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarker for several carcinomas. To determine whether IMP3 might also be an accurate biomarker of Hodgkin lymphoma, we examined 81 Hodgkin lymphomas for immunoreactivity to IMP3 as compared to commonly used markers such as CD30, CD15, PAX5, and MUM1. Consequently, in 98.8% (80/81) of Hodgkin lymphomas, the malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells were selectively reactive for IMP3, with 72.8% (59/81) of the tumors showing strong, diffuse cytoplasmic staining. Positive staining of the Hodgkin lymphomas was also seen for CD30 (82.7%, 67/81), CD15 (65.4%, 53/81), PAX5 (84.0%, 68/81), and MUM1 85.2% (69/81), but significantly fewer cells showed strong staining intensity for CD30 (32.1%, 26/81), CD15 (17.3%, 14/81), PAX5 (12.3%, 10/81), and MUM1 (29.6%, 24/81). Furthermore, the IMP3 staining was selectively restricted to Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells, with a clearly negative background, and complementary to CD30 staining. Our findings show that IMP3 may be a useful diagnostic marker of Hodgkin lymphoma, helping to improve diagnostic accuracy for this malignancy. PMID:23845468

Tang, Hongping; Wei, Qingzhu; Ge, Juan; Jian, Wenjing; Liu, Jiangchuan; Zhong, Lin; Fu, Bo; Zhao, Tong



Whole-body FDG-PET imaging for staging of Hodgkin`s disease and lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Accurate staging of Hodgkin`s disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma (NHL) is important for treatment management. In this study, the utility of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) wholebody PET was evaluated as an imaging modality for initial staging or restaging of 7 HD and 11 NHL patients. Whole-body PET-based staging results were compared to the patient`s clinical stage based on conventional staging studies, which included combinations of CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, MRI scans, gallium scans, lymphangiograms, staging laparatomies and bone scans. Accurate staging was performed in 17 of 18 patients using a whole-body PET-based staging algorithm compared to the conventional staging algorithm in 15 of 18 patients. In 5 of 18 patients, whole-body PET-based staging showed additional lesions not detected by conventional staging modalities, whereas conventional staging demonstrated additional lesions in 4 of 18 patients not detected by whole-body PET. The total cost of conventional staging was $66,292 for 16 CT chest scans, 16 CT abdominal/pelvis scans, three limited MRI scans, four bone scans, give gallium scans, two laparotomies and one lymphangiogram. In contrast, scans cost $36,250 for 18 whole-body PET studies and additional selected correlative studies: one plain film radiograph, one limited CT, one bone marrow san, one upper GI and one endoscopy. A whole-body FDG-PET-based staging algorithm may be an accurate and cost-effective method for staging or restaging HD and NHL. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Hoh, C.K.; Glaspy, J.; Rosen, P. [Crump Institute of Biological Imaging, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others



3D Guqin: Digital Playground to Explore Music that Embodies Chinese Culture and Philosophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This media art installation aims to digitally reconstruct a traditional Chinese Guqin string instrument using physical sensing techniques, to invite bodily interpretation of the classical instrument. Guqin has a unique place in the Chinese history, as a symbol of the high culture of the nobles and intellectuals (Junzi, Superior Man). It's also seen as the vessel for pursuing harmony. Guqin

Eng Tat Khoo; Roshan Lalintha Peiris; Matthias Rauterberg



[The differential diagnosis of lymphogranulomatosis (Hodgkin's disease) and sialoadenitis of the submandibular salivary gland].  


A case of Hodgkin's disease with local involvement of the submandibular area is described. Profound examinations found that the tumor did not originate from the salivary gland. Anatomic examination of the resected tumor revealed Hodgkin's diseases. The authors emphasize the necessity of differential diagnosis between Hodgkin's disease and chronic sialadenitis. PMID:9148511

Afanas'ev, V V; Starodubtsev, V S



Learn Chinese Characters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library is a valuable online resource for individuals just beginning to learn Chinese, as well as those who want to learn more. The site contains the complete on line text of "Chinese Character: A Genealogy and Dictionary". All the Chinese characters are hyperlinked so that users of the site can quickly decipher new and unfamiliar characters in English. Additionally, the site has readings about Chinese culture written in Chinese such as the "Art of War" and "Mao Sayings". Finally, for those who may just have basic questions about the Chinese language there is a frequently asked questions section that addresses common questions such as "Why are characters so complicated?" and "Are they pictures?"

Harbaugh, Rick



Second malignant lesions after therapy for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Among 169 adult pathologically staged patients with Hodgkin's disease who were treated at the Mayo Clinic between 1974 and 1978, four cases of second malignant lesions were identified. The median duration of follow-up after diagnosis for the entire population was 4.1 years. Of the 169 patients, 73 received irradiation only, 19 received chemotherapy only, and 77 received both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In all four patients with second malignant lesions, Hodgkin's disease was in apparent remission at the time of diagnosis of the second tumor. These four patients had received either total nodal irradiation or six or more cycles of chemotherapy as initial treatment (and one of them had received both treatment modalities). Thus, intensive therapy might be hypothesized to have played a role in the development of the second malignant tumor. The development of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma within a previously irradiated field after treatment of Hodgkin's disease with radiation therapy only is not know to have been reported previously. Although further studies with longer follow-up should be conducted, this analysis supports a definite risk for development of a second malignant lesion not only after combined-modality treatment or chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease but also after irradiation only.

Schomberg, P.J.; Evans, R.G.; Banks, P.M.; White, W.L.; O'Connell, M.J.; Earle, J.D.



Primary nasopharyngeal Hodgkin's disease: case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

Introduction Primary Hodgkin's disease of the nasopharynx is a rare and uncommon event. It has a relatively favorable prognosis and represents less than 1% of all documented cases of Hodgkin's disease. Case presentation A 40-year-old Arabic man presented initially with bilateral nasal obstruction, which was then followed by a significant involvement of his bilateral cervical lymph nodes. His nasopharyngeal biopsy together with immunohistochemistry analysis showed negative expressions of CD15, CD20 and CD3, but positive expressions of CD30 and epithelial membrane antigen. This confirmed the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal Hodgkin's disease of a mixed cellularity subtype. The disease was at stage IIEA. Our patient received four cycles of chemotherapy, which yielded a 75% response. This was followed by irradiation of his Waldeyer's ring and supraclavicular lymph nodes. He remains in good local control after 30 months of follow-up. Conclusion The literature review and our case report discuss the optimal management of this rare and atypical localization of Hodgkin's disease, which should be differentiated from lymphoproliferations associated with Epstein-Barr virus and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:20420699



The Chinese hospital.  


The Chinese hospital serves three separate but overlapping functions. Like Western hospitals, the Chinese hospital provides patient care in a wide range of settings and with various levels of facilities. The Chinese hospital is also a danwei or work unit, that employs not only health care personnel, but also day-care teachers, builders, drivers, repairmen, and other auxiliary personnel. The third function is political and organizational. Hospital leaders act as local representatives of the Chinese Communist Party and the state, with jurisdiction over personal, professional, legal, and political activities of the workers in the hospital. PMID:6625391

Cohen, M S; Henderson, G E



LACE-conditioned autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma: treatment outcome and risk factor analysis in 67 patients from a single centre.  


High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a recognized treatment option for patients with relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma. We have analysed 67 patients who underwent ASCT after LACE (lomustine (CCNU), cytarabine (Ara-C), cyclophosphamide, etoposide) conditioning for relapsed (n=61) or primary refractory (n=6) Hodgkin's lymphoma. The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 3%. With a median follow-up of 67 months (range 3.3-161.0) the probabilities of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years were 68 and 64%, respectively. Probabilities for OS and PFS at 5 years for patients with chemosensitive relapse (n=40) were 81 and 78% versus 50 and 35%, respectively, for patients (n=27) with chemoresistant relapse (P=0.012 for OS, P=0.002 for PFS). In multivariate analysis mixed cellularity classical or lymphocyte-depleted classical histology subtype and haemoglobin level of 10 g/dl or less at the time of ASCT were identified as risk factors for worse OS, whereas stage III or IV disease at diagnosis and disease status at ASCT other than complete or partial remission predicted inferior PFS. LACE followed by ASCT is an effective treatment for the majority of patients with chemosensitive relapsed Hodgkin's lymphoma and a proportion of chemorefractory patients also benefit. PMID:17115062

Perz, J B; Giles, C; Szydlo, R; O'Shea, D; Sanz, J; Chaidos, A; Wagner, S; Davis, J; Loaiza, S; Marin, D; Apperley, J; Olavarria, E; Rahemtulla, A; Lampert, I; Naresh, K; Samson, D; MacDonald, D; Kanfer, E J



Risk Factors of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction Despite decades of intensive research, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) remains poorly understood and is largely incurable. NHL is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with multiple subtypes, each of which has distinct morphologic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features. Identifying the risk factors for NHL may improve our understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms and have an impact on clinical practice. Areas covered This article provides a review of several aspects of NHL, including epidemiology and subtype classification, clinical, environmental, genetic, and genomic risk factors identified for etiology and prognosis, and available statistical and bioinformatics tools for identification of genetic and genomic risk factors from the analysis of high-throughput studies. Expert opinion Multiple clinical and environmental risk factors have been identified. However, they have failed to provide practically effective prediction. Genetic and genomic risk factors identified from high-throughput studies have suffered a lack of reproducibility. The identification of genetic/genomic risk factors demands innovative statistical and bioinformatics tools. Although multiple analysis methods have been developed, there is still room for improvement. There is a critical need for well-designed, prospective, large-scale pangenomic studies. PMID:22059093

Zhang, Yawei; Dai, Ying; Zheng, Tongzhang; Ma, Shuangge



Cellular telephones and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Dramatic increase in hand-held cellular telephone use since the 1980s and excess risk of lymphoproliferative malignancies associated with radio-frequency radiation (RFR) exposures in epidemiological and experimental studies motivated assessment of cellular telephones within a comprehensive US case-control investigation of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A questionnaire ascertained cellular telephone use in 551 NHL cases and 462 frequency-matched population controls. Compared to persons who had never used cellular telephones, risks were not increased among individuals whose lifetime use was fewer than 10 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.9, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.6, 1.3), 10-100 (OR = 1.0, 95 % CI: 0.7, 1.5) or more than 100 times (e.g., regular users, OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.6, 1.4). Among regular users compared to those who had never used hand-held cellular telephones, risks of NHL were not significantly associated with minutes per week, duration, cumulative lifetime or year of first use, although NHL was non-significantly higher in men who used cellular telephones for more than 8 years. Little evidence linked use of cellular telephones with total, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or follicular NHL. These findings must be interpreted in the context of less than 5% of the population reporting duration of use of 6 or more years or lifetime cumulative use of 200 or more hours. PMID:16894556

Linet, Martha S; Taggart, Theresa; Severson, Richard K; Cerhan, James R; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Colt, Joanne



Spectrum of immunodeficiencies with Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed Central

The role of six suppressor mechanisms upon T and B cell responses was studied on 17 untreated patients with Hodgkin's disease. Proliferative hyporesponsiveness to mitogen was greatly impaired in 8 of the 13 patients. 10 of these patients had an excessive degree of suppression by cells that adhered to foreign surfaces. Suppression by adherent cells correlated with impairment of proliferative responses and, in some instances, suppression was largely inhibited with indomethacin. Likewise, adherent cells suppressed immunoglobulin synthesis. A correlation was evident between suppression of T and B cell responses by adherent mononuclear leukocytes from individual patients. This suppression coincided with elevated percentages of monocytes in the patient mononuclear cell preparations. This excess of monocytes was not the result of a circulating monocytosis. The monocyte excess may have been acquired during isopyknic cell separation. A second form of suppression was observed in 5 of the 11 patients affected by a lymphocyte that neither adhered to glass wool nor required preactivation. It did not inhibit allogeneic lymphocytes, which contrasts with the suppressor abnormality of monocytoid cells. PMID:6448268

Twomey, J J; Laughter, A H; Rice, L; Ford, R



Changing patterns of relapse in Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed Central

The patterns of early and late relapses (those occurring later than 3 years after diagnosis) in 432 patients achieving complete remission after treatment for stage I and II Hodgkin's disease at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1964 and 1983 were studied to identify factors predicting for late relapse. The incidence of early relapse has fallen progressively in recent treatment eras as staging procedures and management have improved but in contrast there has been no decrease in the risk of late relapse. The incidence of late relapse was greater in patients treated with radiotherapy rather than combined modality therapy (P less than 0.05). However, patients who were clinically staged and treated with combined modality therapy retained as high a risk of relapse between 3 and 6 years as in years 2 and 3. The risk of late relapse was also greater in patients with stage II disease and in those without B symptoms at presentation. Patients falling into the higher risk categories for late relapse require continued close follow-up beyond 3 years to monitor for possible relapse. PMID:2765370

Duchesne, G.; Crow, J.; Ashley, S.; Brada, M.; Horwich, A.



Hodgkin's Lymphoma Therapy: Past, Present, and Future  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field The treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) with the use of radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy has been one of the success stories of modern oncology. HL therapy has been the paradigm for the systematic evaluation of different curative modalities resulting in cure for the majority of patients. The current focus is on designing initial therapeutic strategies which retain efficacy and minimize long-term toxicity. Appropriate use of pathologic, clinical, biologic and radiologic prognostic factors in identification of aggressive HL is paramount in designing a successful therapeutic strategy. Areas covered in this review This review addresses the current and future use of prognostic tools, including PET scanning and other biomarkers, in identifying patients with aggressive HL with reference to publications from the last two decades. The current standard approaches with the use of combined modality therapy and systemic chemotherapy as well as the promising role of future response-adapted strategies is reviewed. What the reader will gain The reader will obtain a comprehensive review of risk assessment strategies as well as current and investigational therapeutic approaches in the management of HL. Take home message In HL, appropriate utilization of risk assessment strategies is required to maximize therapeutic outcomes while minimizing toxicity, especially long-term toxicity. Response-adapted therapy utilizing PET has the potential to profoundly improve the therapeutic landscape in HL. PMID:21050034

Kadin, M; Rathore, B



Deregulated FOX genes in Hodgkin lymphoma.  


FOX genes encode transcription factors which regulate basic developmental processes during embryogenesis and in the adult. Several FOX genes show deregulated expression in particular malignancies, representing oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Here, we screened six Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cell lines for FOX gene activity by comparative microarray profiling, revealing overexpression of FOXC1 and FOXD1, and reduced transcription of FOXN3, FOXO1, and FOXP1. In silico expression analyses of these FOX gene candidates in HL patient samples supported the cell line data. Chromosomal analyses demonstrated an amplification of the FOXC1 locus at 6p25 and a gain of the FOXR2 locus at Xp11, indicting genomic aberrations for their upregulation. Comparative expression profiling and ensuing stimulation experiments revealed implementation of the TGF?- and WNT-signaling pathways in deregulation of FOXD1 and FOXN3. Functional analysis of FOXP1 implicated miR9 and miR34a as upstream regulators and PAX5, TCF3, and RAG2 as downstream targets. A similar exercise for FOXC1 revealed repression of MSX1 and activation of IPO7, both mediating inhibition of the B-cell specific homeobox gene ZHX2. Taken together, our data show that aberrantly expressed FOX genes and their downstream targets are involved in the pathogenesis of HL via deregulation of B-cell differentiation and may represent useful diagnostic markers and/or therapeutic targets. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25043849

Nagel, Stefan; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G; MacLeod, Roderick A F



The Functional TP53 rs1042522 and MDM4 rs4245739 Genetic Variants Contribute to Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk  

PubMed Central

As a heterogeneous kind of malignances, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic cancer worldwide with the significantly increased morbidity in China. Accumulated evidences demonstrated that oncoprotein MDM4 plays a crucial role in the TP53 tumor suppressor signaling pathway. An rs4245739 A>C polymorphism locating in the MDM4 3?-untranslated region creates a miR-191 target site and results in allele-specific MDM4 expression. In this study, we examined the association between this polymorphism as well as the TP53 Arg72Pro (rs1042522 G>C) genetic variant and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) risk in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined in 200 NHL cases and 400 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. We found significantly increased NHL risk among carriers of the TP53 72Pro allele compared with those with the 72Arg allele (P?=?0.002 for the Pro/Pro genotype). We also observed a significantly decreased NHL risks among carriers of the MDM4 rs4245739 C allele compared with those with the A allele in Chinese (P?=?0.014 for the AC genotype). Stratified analyses revealed the associations between these SNPs and NHL risk are especially noteworthy in young or male individuals. Additionally, the associations are much pronounced in NHL patients with B-cell lymphomas or grade 3 or 4 disease. Our results indicate that the TP53 Arg72Pro and the MDM4 rs4245739 polymorphisms contribute to NHL susceptibility and support the hypothesis that genetic variants in the TP53 pathway genes can act as important modifiers of NHL risk. PMID:25203442

Fan, Chuanbo; Wei, Jinyu; Yuan, Chenglu; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Chuanwu; Zhou, Changchun; Yang, Ming



Hodgkin's Lymphoma Revealed by Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis in a Child  

PubMed Central

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe life-threatening disorder, responsible for extensive phagocytosis of hematopoietic cells and causing a multisystem organ failure. If lymphomas are common causes of HLH, the association with Hodgkin's lymphoma is rarely described in children. We report a case of a 9-year-old boy presenting with HLH as an initial manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma. He has been suffering from persistent high fever, asthenia, weight loss, and hepatosplenomegaly with no lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis of HLH secondary to infectious disease was initially worn. The patient received high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin with broad-spectrum antibiotics. However, his state got worse with the onset of dry cough and pleural effusion. Histopathologic examination of pleural fluid showed the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. The outcome was favorable after treatment by corticosteroid and chemotherapy. Hodgkin's lymphoma revealed by HLH is a source of delayed diagnosis and should be borne in mind in children. PMID:25328742

Benmiloud, Sarra; Hbibi, Mohamed; Chaouki, Sana; Abourazzak, Sana; Hida, Moustapha



Female reproductive potential after treatment for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

The probability of maintaining ovarian function, becoming pregnant, and delivering a normal child is important to young women anticipating successful therapy for Hodgkin's disease. In this study, reproductive function was retrospectively examined in 103 women 40 years old or younger who had undergone treatment for Hodgkin's disease with total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI) alone, combination chemotherapy, or combined TLI and chemotherapy. Infertility was directly related to gonadal exposure to therapy and to age at treatment. Twenty women became pregnant after receiving total-nodal irradiation or combination chemotherapy or both. No fetal wastage occurred, and no birth defects were seen in the 24 infants born to these women. Even after intensive treatment programs, women successfully treated for Hodgkin's disease have become pregnant and delivered phenotypically normal children.

Horning, S.J.; Hoppe, R.T.; Kaplan, H.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.



Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: General Review  

SciTech Connect

The improved survival rates among patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma over the past few decades have come with increased incidence of second malignancies. One of the major concerns among female survivors is the significantly elevated risk of breast cancer that appears with extended follow-up. In this review, we include the published literature regarding the risk of breast cancer after irradiation for Hodgkin's lymphoma. We also present the possible long-term surveillance strategies and the optimal time to start screening these women. This could potentially help in early detection of secondary breast cancers and consequently improve outcomes. Furthermore, because of prior radiotherapy, the management of the breast cancer among this unique population has been controversial. We discuss the characteristics of breast cancer that occurs after Hodgkin's lymphoma and also treatment options that could be implemented.

Alm El-Din, Mohamed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tanta University Hospitals, Tanta Faculty of Medicine, Tanta (Egypt); El-Badawy, Samy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Taghian, Alphonse G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail:



Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of maxillary sinus: An unusual presentation  

PubMed Central

Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) are a group of neoplasms that originate from the cells of the lymphoreticular system. Forty percent of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arises from extranodal sites. The nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses are rarely affected by primary NHL. Common primary extranodal sites of lymphomas include stomach, liver, soft tissue, dura, bone, intestine and bone marrow. Most patients present with rapidly enlarging masses, often with symptoms both locally and systemically (fever, recurrent night sweats, or weight loss). The vast majority of patients with localized disease are curable with combined modality therapy or combination chemotherapy alone. About 50% patients are cured with doxorubicin based combination chemotherapy and rituximab. An atypical case of extranodal Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of maxillary sinus is discussed. PMID:23662270

Adwani, Dwarkadas Gokuldas; Arora, Rajender Singh; Bhattacharya, Anirudh; Bhagat, Bhushan



Chinese Business Law Postgraduate  

E-print Network

writing · Methodologies · Methodologies for comparative legal research China's legal system 4 1 · Legal-Operate-Transfer) & variants · Entry modes Chinese tax law 6 2 · Corporate taxation · Individual taxation · VAT Chinese customs to unexpected circumstances. ** ECTS: European Credit Transfer and accumulation System *** SEM: Semester #12

Einmahl, Uwe


Ancient Chinese mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains a timeline and examples of early Chinese mathematics. Included are the Chinese version of the Pythagorean Theorem, a method of solving a system of linear equations, Pascals triangle, permutations and combinations, rule of false position, rule of three, magic squares, and puzzles. Other terms: fractions, algebra, negative numbers, scholars. (Includes 11 references)

Tommasina Tripodi, Joint C.



Chinese Language Learning Motivation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 77 Asian and Asian-American university students enrolled in first- and second-year Chinese language courses investigated the students' motivations for studying the language and their expectations of what they will gain from studying it. Results indicate two factors accounting for beginning Chinese language study: interest in cultural…

Wen, Xiaohong


Panobinostat and Everolimus in Treating Patients With Recurrent Multiple Myeloma, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Primary Central Nervous System Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Multiple Myeloma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia



Growing Up the Chinese Way: Chinese Child and Adolescent Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is a collection of current research by noted scholars on Chinese child development. The volume re-examines long-held beliefs and preconceptions about Chinese culture, draws forth incompatible pictures and contradictory facts about Chinese children, and draws attention to new problems of the modern Chinese family. The chapters of the…

Lau, Sing, Ed.


A crash course in Chinese herbology for the psychopharmocological prescriber.  


Given the unparalleled popularity of botanicals in the United States, it is safe to say that almost every psychopharmacological prescriber will see some patients using Chinese herbs. Data show that between 36% and 42% of Americans use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) each year and that persons suffering from depression and anxiety (67%) use CAM services significantly more than do their nonanxious and nondepressed counterparts (39%). This article gives an overview of several classical Chinese medical single herbs and herbal formulas commonly used for persons with psychiatric disorders and discusses some of the herbs that have the potential to interact with various pharmaceutical drugs. In addition, the article reviews scientific evidence and, at times, the lack thereof to validate the use of Chinese herbs and formulas in treating psychiatric conditions. Overall, the article seeks to prepare the pharmacological prescriber for working with patients concomitantly taking psychiatric medications and Chinese herbs. PMID:19968403

White, Kathryn P



Tree Biomass Estimation of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) Based on Bayesian Method  

PubMed Central

Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook.) is the most important conifer species for timber production with huge distribution area in southern China. Accurate estimation of biomass is required for accounting and monitoring Chinese forest carbon stocking. In the study, allometric equation was used to analyze tree biomass of Chinese fir. The common methods for estimating allometric model have taken the classical approach based on the frequency interpretation of probability. However, many different biotic and abiotic factors introduce variability in Chinese fir biomass model, suggesting that parameters of biomass model are better represented by probability distributions rather than fixed values as classical method. To deal with the problem, Bayesian method was used for estimating Chinese fir biomass model. In the Bayesian framework, two priors were introduced: non-informative priors and informative priors. For informative priors, 32 biomass equations of Chinese fir were collected from published literature in the paper. The parameter distributions from published literature were regarded as prior distributions in Bayesian model for estimating Chinese fir biomass. Therefore, the Bayesian method with informative priors was better than non-informative priors and classical method, which provides a reasonable method for estimating Chinese fir biomass. PMID:24278198

Zhang, Jianguo



Four Proofs of the Converse of the Chinese Remainder Theorem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four proofs, designed for classroom use in varying levels of courses on abstract algebra, are given for the converse of the classical Chinese Remainder Theorem over the integers. In other words, it is proved that if m and n are integers greater than 1 such that the abelian groups [double-struck z][subscript m] [direct sum] [double-struck…

Dobbs, D. E.



Differentiation of Classical Music Requires Little Learning but Rhythm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Detecting distinctions between the styles of classical music (e.g. Baroque and Romantic) is often viewed as the privilege of musicians. However, this elite perspective underestimates the abilities of non-musicians. We report that Western musicians and non-musicians, and non-Westerners (i.e. Chinese participants) rated pairs of excerpts presented…

Dalla Bella, S.; Peretz, I.



Season of birth and risk of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  


Infectious etiologies have been hypothesized for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HL and NHL) in early life, but findings to date for specific lymphomas and periods of susceptibility are conflicting. We conducted the first national cohort study to examine whether season of birth, a proxy for infectious exposures in the first few months of life, is associated with HL or NHL in childhood through young adulthood. A total of 3,571,574 persons born in Sweden in 1973-2008 were followed up through 2009 to examine the association between season of birth and incidence of HL (943 cases) or NHL (936 cases). We found a sinusoidal pattern in NHL risk by season of birth (p?=?0.04), with peak risk occurring among birthdates in April. Relative to persons born in fall (September-November), odds ratios for NHL by season of birth were 1.25 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.50; p?=?0.02] for spring (March-May), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.48; p?=?0.04) for summer (June-August) and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.91-1.35; p?=?0.29) for winter (December-February). These findings did not vary by sex, age at diagnosis or major subtypes. In contrast, there was no seasonal association between birthdate and risk of HL (p?=?0.78). In this large cohort study, birth in spring or summer was associated with increased risk of NHL (but not HL) in childhood through young adulthood, possibly related to immunologic effects of delayed infectious exposures compared with fall or winter birth. These findings suggest that immunologic responses in early infancy may play an important role in the development of NHL. PMID:24752499

Crump, Casey; Sundquist, Jan; Sieh, Weiva; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Kristina



Decomposing the Dynamics of Delayed Hodgkin-Huxley Neurons  

E-print Network

of time delays on the nonlinear dynamics of neural networks are investigated. A decomposition method is investigated using Floquet theory. These methods are applied to a system of delay coupled Hodgkin.), Delay Systems, 343 Advances in Delays and Dynamics 1, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-01695-5_25, c Springer

Daly, Samantha


Novel Drug Effectively Shrinks Tumors in Hodgkin Lymphoma

An investigational drug composed of a monoclonal antibody linked to a potent chemotherapy agent led to complete or substantial tumor shrinkage in nearly 40 percent of patients with Hodgkin lymphoma in a phase I clinical trial, researchers reported November 4, 2010, in the New England Journal of Medicine.


Trial Suggests New Treatment Option for Hodgkin Lymphoma

Intermediate results from a phase II clinical trial presented at the 2010 American Society of Hematology annual meeting indicate that an investigational agent called brentuximab vedotin may be an effective alternative for some patients with Hodgkin lymphoma who have few viable treatment options.


Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, obesity and energy homeostasis polymorphisms  

E-print Network

details from 699 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cases and 914 controls. Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg mÃ?2 at five years before diagnosis,, was associated with an increased risk of NHL (LEPR 223Q4R), previously shown to modulate NHL risk, as well as a polymorphism in the energy regulatory

California at Berkeley, University of


Short Communication Risk of NonHodgkin Lymphoma Associated with  

E-print Network

in the pathogenesis of lymphoproliferative dis- orders such as non­Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). DNA synthesis and transport may have a role in determining the risk of developing NHL, we analyzed several polymorphisms using6 and 28­bp repeat, and reduced folate carrier (RFC) 80 G>A. Increased risks for NHL [odds ratio (OR

California at Berkeley, University of


Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas in U.S. Navy Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas was examined in a prospective study of all white U.S. Navy enlisted men during 1974-83 to test for existence of any short-term risk possibly related to occupation. A total of 103 cases were detected during active servi...

F. C. Garland, E. D. Gorham, C. F. Garland, J. A. Ferns



Breast Cancer Risk Among Young Women with Hodgkin Disease

Fifty years ago, Hodgkin disease (HD), a cancer of the lymphatic system, was nearly uniformly fatal. With the introduction of effective treatment regimens, HD is now a potentially curable cancer, associated with an 85 percent five-year relative survival rate.


Multifocal follicular carcinoma of thyroid following radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

PubMed Central

A 21-year-old white male developed multifocal follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland 17 years after receiving neck irradiation (3000 rad) for Hodgkin's disease. The tumour was unique in that follicular carcinoma has not previously been reported as having a multifocal origin, even after high dose radiotherapy. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7100046

Nicol, Fiona; McLaren, Kathryn M.; Toft, Anthony D.



Results of radiotherapy for stage I and II Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-six patients with pathologically staged I and II (A and B) Hodgkin's disease were treated with radiation therapy. Three-year relapse-free survival, total survival, and complications were analyzed. Chemotherapy was valuable as rescue treatment and as part of the initial treatment in patients with stage IIB disease. Complications were minimal.

Lowery, G.S.; Ferree, C.R.; Raben, M.



Results of radiotherapy for Stage I and II Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Fifty-six patients with pathologically Staged I and II (A and B) Hodgkin's disease were treated with radiation therapy. Three-year relapse-free survival, total survival, and complications were analyzed. Chemotherapy was valuable as rescue treatment and as part of the initial treatment in patients with Stage IIB disease. Complications were minimal.

Lowery, G.S.; Ferree, C.R.; Raben, M.



Hodgkin's disease terminating in oat cell carcinoma of the lung.  


A 27-year-old woman with Hodgkin's disease, nodular sclerasing type, having received two courses of radiation therapy with one year and nine months interval and a prolonged course of chemotherapy with combinations of COPP, MOPP and CVPP, developed oat cell carcinoma of the lung, four years after the initial diagnosis. PMID:221092

Cehreli, C; Ruacan, S A; Firat, D; Kucuksu, N



Hodgkin's disease in childhood: therapy results in Argentina.  


From 1940 to 1977, a total of 152 children aged 15 years or less with the histologic diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease were treated in Argentina. For analysis, these patients were placed into three periods which displayed the most outstanding changes in diagnostic workup and therapy. The periods are as follows: (1) 1940 to 1966 (43 children), (2) 1967 to 1972 (35 children), and (3) 1973 to 1977 (74 children). The patients were treated with extended field radiation therapy and followed by courses of cyclophosphamide-vinblastine-procarbazine-prednisone, with CCNU added (CCVPP) or not added (CVPP) in a randomized trial. The mean age of the whole group was 7.5 years (range 2 to 15 years) and there was a predominance of males (79%). Crude 6-year survival for the three periods were as follows: 1940 to 1966, 34%; 1967 to 1972, 50%; and 1973 to 1977, 79%. We conclude that (1) survival of Hodgkin's disease of childhood has shown a rather marked improvement during the last decade and this progress is probably due to the use of combined multidrug chemotherapy administered under collaborative controlled clinical trials; (2) preliminary evaluation of the results of CVPP and CCVPP therapy shows that the latter combination (CCVPP) neither increases the percent of patients achieving complete remission nor prolongs relapse-survival in Hodgkin's disease of childhood: and (3) all stages of childhood Hodgkin's disease can be successfully managed with multidrug chemotherapy alone. PMID:7025683

Sackmann-Muriel, F; Bonesana, A C; Pavlovsky, S; Papendieck, C; Morgenfeld, M; Penchansky, L; Schwartz, L; Kvicala, R; Sica, M; Ojeda, F



FALL 2002 PHILOSOPHY ELECTIVES PL 193 01 Chinese Classical Philosophy  

E-print Network

:// #12;Satisfies Cultural Diversity Core Requirement Starting from the general introduction Services and Health Care David Manzo Th 4 30--5 KathleenHirsch PL23301 39 VALUES/SOCSERV/HLTH CARE TH4 30-7 DavidManzo PL25901 3271 PERSP

Huang, Jianyu


Spotlight on Confucius: Chinese Classics and Cultural Values. Updated.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This updated set of lesson plans focuses on Confucius and Confucian thought, especially Confucian ethics. The lesson plans are divided into the following chapters: (1) "How do the Analects embody the ethical framework of Confucian thought?"; (2) "How does Confucianism affect behavior, attitudes and beliefs?"; (3) "How did other belief systems…

Arkin, Linda, Ed.


Association between simian virus 40 and non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma has increased in frequency over the past 30 years, and is a common cancer in HIV-1-infected patients. Although no definite risk factors have emerged, a viral cause has been postulated. Polyomaviruses are known to infect human beings and to induce tumours in laboratory animals. We aimed to identify which one of the three polyomaviruses able to infect human beings (simian virus 40 [SV40], JC virus, and BK virus) was associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: We analysed systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma from 76 HIV-1-infected and 78 HIV-1-uninfected patients, and non-malignant lymphoid samples from 79 HIV-1-positive and 107 HIV-1-negative patients without tumours; 54 colon and breast carcinoma samples served as cancer controls. We used PCR followed by Southern blot hybridisation and DNA sequence analysis to detect DNAs of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses. FINDINGS: Polyomavirus T antigen sequences, all of which were SV40-specific, were detected in 64 (42%) of 154 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, none of 186 non-malignant lymphoid samples, and none of 54 control cancers. This difference was similar for HIV-1-infected patients and HIV-1-uninfected patients alike. Few tumours were positive for both SV40 and Epstein-Barr virus. Human herpesvirus type 8 was not detected. SV40 sequences were found most frequently in diffuse large B-cell and follicular-type lymphomas. INTERPRETATION: SV40 is significantly associated with some types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These results add lymphomas to the types of human cancers associated with SV40.

Vilchez, Regis A.; Madden, Charles R.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Halvorson, Steven J.; White, Zoe S.; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Finch, Chris J.; Butel, Janet S.



Toxicity of the Chinese herb mu tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis). What history tells us.  


Plant sources of some traditional Chinese herbs may have changed over time. History records of herbal toxicity should be viewed critically when different plants might have been used under the same name in earlier eras. The current main source of the Chinese herb Mu Tong is Aristolochia manshuriensis. Examination of classical Chinese herbal literature revealed that until the mid 17th century the original source plants of Mu Tong had been several Akebia species. From the 17th century until the early 20th century Clematis species were the main source of Mu Tong. A manshuriensis has only been widely used since the 1950s. Renal failure due to ingestion of large doses of A. manshuriensis has been reported in China and other countries while no such toxicity has been recorded in traditional Chinese herbal texts. Documentation of traditional Chinese herbal literature should help to ensure the safe use of Chinese herbs. PMID:12503251

Zhu, You-Ping



Differentiation between sarcoidosis and Hodgkin's lymphoma based on mediastinal lymph node involvement pattern: Evaluation using spiral CT scan  

PubMed Central

Summary Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the specific and detailed anatomic sites and morphologic characteristics of mediastinal lymph nodes on spiral computed tomography for the purpose of differentiation between sarcoidosis and Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Material/Methods: Anatomical distribution of mediastinal lymph nodes on spiral CT was reviewed in 39 patients with sarcoidosis and 37 patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma using the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) lymph node map. Other morphologic features such as lymph node calcification or coalescence of adjacent lymph nodes were also compared. Results: Zone 10 was involved more often in sarcoidosis than in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. On the other hand, there was a higher tendency for presence of zone 1 and 3 as well as retrocrural and internal mammary lymphadenopathy in Hodgkin’s lymphoma than in sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis presented with intranodal calcifications more often than Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Coalescence, pressure effect on adjacent structures and central cavitations were significantly more common in Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Conclusions: Findings of the present study indicate that specific anatomical distribution and morphological patterns of mediastinal lymph nodes, as demonstrated on spiral CT, can be useful in differentiating sarcoidosis from Hodgkin’s lymphoma. PMID:24115955

Mehrian, Payam; Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Amir



Genetically Modified Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With HIV-Associated Non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; AIDS-related Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Peripheral/Systemic Lymphoma; AIDS-related Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; HIV-associated Hodgkin Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage II AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage III AIDS-related Lymphoma; Stage IV AIDS-related Lymphoma; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia



Lenalidomide and Temsirolimus in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; HIV-associated Hodgkin Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia



Chinese Air Quality  

Chinese Air Quality Project Title:  GTE Discipline:  ... Ground based Instrument:  in situ Location:  North Western Pacific Spatial Coverage:  ... Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  Air Pollution Index Order Data:  Data Pool:  Order Data ...



Traditional Chinese Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian


Chinese Medical Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: High tibial osteotomy; An investigation of digoxin radioimmunoassay; Comparative studies on the absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-gossypol in 4 animal species; Maldimelsu antimicrobial activities; Pharmacognostic study of the Chinese...



Registration Announcement for HSKK (Chinese Speaking Test) The UO Confucius Institute is sponsoring the Chinese HSKK (Chinese Speaking Test)  

E-print Network

Registration Announcement for HSKK (Chinese Speaking Test) The UO Confucius Institute is sponsoring the Chinese HSKK (Chinese Speaking Test) (http The deadline for "HSKK or Chinese Speaking Test" on-line registration is March 15

Oregon, University of


Increased risk of lung cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and leukemia following Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

The risk of second cancers (SCs) was assessed in 744 patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) admitted to The Netherlands Cancer Institute from 1966 to 1983. Sixty-nine SCs were observed one month or more after start of first treatment. These included 14 cases of lung cancer, nine cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), 16 cases of leukemia, and six cases of the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The median interval between the diagnosis of HD and that of second lung cancer, NHL, and leukemia was 8.1, 13.3, and 5.7 years, respectively. The overall relative risks (RR) (observed/expected (O/E) ratios) of developing lung cancer, NHL, and leukemia were 4.9 (95% confidence limit (CL), 2.7 to 8.2), 31.0 (95% CL, 14.2 to 58.9) and 45.7 (95% CL, 26.1 to 74.2), respectively. At 15 years the cumulative risk of developing an SC amounted to 20.6% +/- 2.9%. The 15-year estimates of lung cancer, NHL, and leukemia were 6.2% +/- 1.9%, 5.9% +/- 2.1% and 6.3% +/- 1.7%, respectively. Increased lung cancer risk following HD has not frequently been clearly demonstrated before; that we were able to demonstrate such risk may be due to the completeness of follow-up over long periods that could be achieved in this study. Excess lung cancer risk was only noted in treatment regimens with radiotherapy (RT); also, all lung cancers arose in irradiation fields. Excess risk of leukemia was only found in treatment regimens involving chemotherapy (CT). For NHL, combined modality treatment was shown to be the most important risk factor. Risk of lung cancer and NHL increased with time since diagnosis. A time-dependent covariate analysis (Cox model) performed on leukemia and MDS showed an increasing risk with intensity of CT, age (greater than 40 years), and a splenectomy.

van Leeuwen, F.E.; Somers, R.; Taal, B.G.; van Heerde, P.; Coster, B.; Dozeman, T.; Huisman, S.J.; Hart, A.A. (Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam)



Positron emission tomography response at the time of autologous stem cell transplantation predicts outcome of patients with relapsed and/or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma responding to prior salvage therapy  

PubMed Central

Background High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation is the standard treatment for relapsed and/or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma although half of patients relapse after transplantation. Predictive factors, such as relapse within 12 months, Ann-Arbor stage at relapse, and relapse in previously irradiated fields are classically used to identify patients with poor outcome. Recently, 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography has emerged as a new method for providing information to predict outcome. The aim of this study was to confirm the predictive value of positron emission tomography status after salvage therapy and to compare single versus tandem autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with relapsed and/or refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Design and Methods We report a series of 111 consecutive patients with treatment-sensitive relapsed and/or treatment-refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma who achieved complete (positron emission tomography-negative group) or partial remission (positron emission tomography-positive group) at positron emission tomography evaluation after salvage chemotherapy and who underwent single or tandem autologous stem cell transplantation. Results Five-year overall and progression-free survival rates were 81% and 64%, respectively. There were significant differences in 5-year progression-free survival (79% versus 23%; P<0.001) and 5-year overall survival (90% versus 55%, P=0.001) between the positron emission tomography-negative and -positive groups, respectively. A complete response, as determined by positron emission tomography evaluation, after salvage therapy predicted significantly better 5-year overall survival rates in both intermediate (91% versus 50%; P=0.029) and unfavorable (89% versus 58%; P=0.026) risk subgroup analyses. In the positron emission tomography-positive subgroup, tandem transplantation improved 5-year progression-free survival from 0% (in the single transplantation group) to 43% (P=0.034). Multivariate analysis showed that positron emission tomography status (hazard ratio: 5.26 [2.57–10.73]) and tandem transplantation (hazard ratio: 0.39 [0.19–0.78]) but not risk factors at relapse (hazard ratio: 1.77 [0.80–3.92]) significantly influenced progression-free survival, while only tomography status significantly influenced overall survival (hazard ratio: 4.03 [1.38–11.75]). Conclusions In patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin’s lymphoma responding to prior salvage therapy, positron emission tomography response at time of autologous stem cell transplantation favorably influences outcome and enables identification of patients requiring single or tandem transplantation. PMID:22271893

Devillier, Raynier; Coso, Diane; Castagna, Luca; Brenot Rossi, Isabelle; Anastasia, Antonella; Chiti, Arturo; Ivanov, Vadim; Schiano, Jean Marc; Santoro, Armando; Chabannon, Christian; Balzarotti, Monica; Blaise, Didier; Bouabdallah, Reda



Paraneoplastic pruritus presenting with Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Paraneoplastic pruritus is defined as pruritus that occurs before or during the natural evolution of a hematologic disease. The reported prevalence is 30% in patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The severity of this pruritus has a very negative impact on patients’ quality of life. Very few studies have been made to examine the efficacy of pharmacological treatments for this type of pruritus. One drug that appears to be effective in this respect is off-label aprepitant, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist. Case presentation A 20-year-old Caucasian woman presented with lateral neck nodes, sweating, and pruritus and was diagnosed with stage IIB nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Throughout this period during the disease the pruritus was ever-present. Improvement was achieved with some of the chemotherapy treatments, but the symptom returned when the various treatments were withdrawn due to disease progression or poor tolerance. In the middle of the seventh year, she was admitted to our hospital with uncontrolled pruritus that resulted in severe lesions due to scratching. In response, aprepitant (off-label) 80mg/day was added to the chemotherapic treatment of the pruritus, after studying the various treatment options. She reported a score of 9 on a visual analogue scale for the pruritus, and a score of 3 on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status scale of performance status. After two weeks of treatment with aprepitant, she reported a score of 5 on the visual analogue scale for the pruritus, and this improved to a score of 4 in a month, which allowed her to lead a better quality of life, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score between 1 and 2. Conclusions Several cases and case series have been reported on the use of aprepitant for paraneoplastic pruritus, but none have referred to its use for Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of this drug in refractory pruritus secondary to Sezary syndrome, and other authors have studied the effectiveness of aprepitant against pruritus, secondary to biological therapy with erlotinib. In our case report, treatment was started with daily doses of aprepitant 80mg. Pruritus improvement appeared to be attributable exclusively to the administration of aprepitant. PMID:25200537



Thyroid nodule as a first manifestation of Hodgkin lymphoma-report of two cases and literature review  

PubMed Central

Abstract Lymphomas account for less than 5% of thyroid malignant lesions. Vast majority of them are B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), while Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of HL, at baseline manifesting as a thyroid lesion. First patient, 29-year-old pregnant female, initially suspected for metastatic medullary thyroid cancer, was eventually diagnosed with mixed cellularity type of thyroid HL. Second patient, 22-year-old woman with suspicion of advanced thyroid cancer, was in the end diagnosed with an extra-lymphatic classical HL of the thyroid. In both cases, despite repeated fine-needle aspiration biopsy, cytological examination gave inconclusive or misleading results. On histopathological examination, thyroid tumor cells were positive for CD15 and CD30 antigen, which is typical for Reed-Sternberg cells. In the report authors also discuss difficulties in management as well as potential importance of novel methods such as FISH, PCR and other molecular techniques in diagnostics of thyroid lymphomas. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: PMID:23856094



Recent Advances in the Pathobiology of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Potential Impact on Diagnostic, Predictive, and Therapeutic Strategies  

PubMed Central

From its first description by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832, Hodgkin's disease, now called Hodgkin's lymphoma, has continued to be a fascinating neoplasm even to this day. In this review, historical aspects, epidemiology, diagnosis, tumor biology, new observations related to host-microenvironment interactions, gene copy number variation, and gene expression profiling in this complex neoplasm are described, with an exploration of chemoresistance mechanisms and potential novel therapies for refractory disease. PMID:21318045

Banerjee, Diponkar



Dose Monitoring of Busulfan and Combination Chemotherapy in Hodgkin or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant

Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage



Hodgkin's disease: origin of an eponym--and one that got away.  

PubMed Central

Hodgkin's disease, the syndrome of enlarged lymph nodes associated with enlarged spleen, was described in 1832 on the basis of the gross appearance of the affected parts. The eponym entered the medical literature after repeated attempts by Dr. Samuel Wilks to credit Thomas Hodgkin with the priority of discovery. Today, this malady, also known by many other names, is recognized by microscopic examination of histological features. Hodgkin also described retroversion of the aortic valves with insufficiency in 1827 but Dr. Dominic Corrigan, whose report appeared in 1832, was credited with the eponym, despite efforts again by Wilks on behalf of Hodgkin. Images p622-a PMID:2688767

Rosenfeld, L.



Etiological risk factors and clinical characteristics of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Uganda.  

E-print Network

??Introduction: Incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has increased greatly over time, especially in children. Improved diagnostic methods alone cannot explain this increase, especially the increase… (more)

Orem, Jackson



A Tumor Antigen in Tissue Cultures Derived from Patients with Hodgkin's Disease  

PubMed Central

Pellets obtained from supernatant fluids of monolayer cultures of cells from patients with Hodgkin's disease were fractionated by isopycnic density sedimentation. Material in a peak of specific gravity 1.15-1.21 g/ml from two Hodgkin's disease cultures was used to immunize rabbits, and the antisera obtained in this manner were reacted by agar-gel diffusion and immunoelectrophoresis with antigens from the purified peaks and the unfractionated pellets of centrifuged culture medium from all the cultures. The antisera reacted with material from 9 of 10 lines derived from spleens of patients with Hodgkin's disease, 2 of 8 cell lines from histologically negative spleens from patients with Hodgkin's disease and with 3 of 6 lymphoma cell lines not diagnosed as Hodgkin's disease. The antisera did not react with 12 cell cultures prepared from normal adult and fetal spleen and thymus. The antigen from cultures from patients with Hodgkin's disease was not found in material sedimenting at lower specific gravities; it resisted Tweenether solubilization, and migrated as a single band by immunoelectrophoresis. The antigen was not found in disrupted, noncultured tumor cells from patients with Hodgkin's disease, and an antiserum against noncultured, minced tumor tissue did not react with the Hodgkin's disease tissue-culture material. No immunological relationship was found between the tissue culture antigen and Epstein-Barr, RD-114, or Rauscher murine leukemia viruses. The Hodgkin's disease antigen may be a tumorrelated antigen or a component of an oncogenic virus. Images PMID:4351181

Long, John C.; Aisenberg, Alan C.; Zamecnik, Mary V.; Zamecnik, Paul C.



Hodgkin lymphoma transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Transformation to a large cell lymphoma may occur during the course of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) in approximately 5% of the cases. This is known as Richter's transformation. A much less frequent transformation to Hodgkin lymphoma may occur. We report a case of CLL/SLL in which a transformation to Hodgkin lymphoma occurred, and we review previously published reports of this transformation. Transformation to Hodgkin lymphoma in CLL/SLL has a poor outcome compared to de novo cases of Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:23382602

Krause, John R.; Drinkard, Lee C.; Keglovits, Latoya C.



The Internet Classics Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Classics Archive has recently been extensively updated and more than doubled in size. This premier classical literature resource now offers 375 works by 30 classical authors, in English translation. The complete body of work is attractively and logically formatted for easy and swift browsing. It is supported by a newly improved search engine. The Tech Classics Archive is a non-commercial, student-created World-Wide Web site that will be one year old in October.



Bridging to the Classics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author is an enthusiastic supporter of using young adult literature in the classroom with gifted learners--so much, that he has been accused of being "against" the classics. Not so, but he does ask about and challenges teachers to tell him if their classroom use of the classics is appropriate. Do the classics provide the kind of interaction…

Seney, Bob




E-print Network

) CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY 30124 CLAS 103 01 Dr. Joann Gulizio MTWRF 11:45-1:30 An introduction to the divine mythsCHARLESTON CLASSICS SUMMER 2013 MAYMESTER May 15 ­ May 31 INTERMEDIATE LATIN: LATN 201 30121 LATN, and vocabulary. (Prerequisite: Placement or Latin 102) SUMMER I DAY June 5 - July 5 STUDY ABROAD CLASSICS ­ 2013

Kunkle, Tom


The Classics Revivified.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The eight articles in this bulletin suggest methods of introducing classical literature into the English curriculum. Article titles are: "Ideas for Teaching Classical Mythology"; "What Novels Should High School Students Read?"; "Enlivening the Classics for Live Students"; "Poetry in Performance: The Value of Song and Oral Interpretation in…

Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.



On the origin of giant cells in Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Multinucleated giant tumor cells are frequently observed in tissue sections of lymphoma patients. In Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), these cells are pathognomonic for the disease and named Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells. Despite the well-described disease-promoting functions of RS cells, their development has remained obscure. We addressed this open question by continuous live cell imaging to observe the generation of RS cells. Single-cell tracking of HL cell lines revealed that RS cells develop from mononucleated progenitors that divide and subsequently re-fuse, before they grow and become multinucleated giant cells. Thus, RS cell generation is neither due to cell fusion of unrelated Hodgkin cells nor to endomitosis, as previously suggested. In the majority of cases, re-fusion of daughter cells was preceded by an incomplete cytokinesis, visualized by a persistent microtubule bridge connecting the cells. This surprising finding describes a novel mechanism for the formation of multinuclear giant cells with potential relevance beyond HL.

Rengstl, Benjamin; Rieger, Michael A.; Newrzela, Sebastian



Complications of treatment of Hodgkin's disease in children  

SciTech Connect

An analysis of complications of therapy requires long-term and frequent followup. Reported here is a review of 179 consecutive children with Hodgkin's disease from Stanford University Medical Center who were seen, treated, and followed over a 20-year period. Complications of treatment are related to the extent of disease and the aggressiveness of therapy. Severe complications from radiotherapy are associated with high-dose, extended-field treatment in preadolescent children. Severe chemotherapy-associated complications include immunosuppression, sterility, and secondary oncogenesis. As cure rates are increasingly optimistic among children with Hodgkin's disease, successful treatment with minimal morbidity remains our greatest challenge. Therapy programs require continual refinement utilizing assessment of short- and long-term side effects of treatment.

Donaldson, S.S.; Kaplan, H.S.



Unusual thoracic radiographic findings in children treated for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Mantle irradiation is often part of the treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Localized pneumonitis and fibrosis are well-known sequelae of this treatment. We report nine patients with unusual thoracic radiographic findings following treatment for Hodgkin's disease. All nine had mediastinal widening. Seven of these patients received combined modality therapy in which prednisone was given with their MOPP. In these seven patients, an increase in mediastinal width developed at the same time as the radiographic changes of radiation pneumonitis. Two patients developed bilateral infiltrates extending beyond the field of radiation to the lung periphery. In one of these patients, a spontaneous pneumomediastinum developed. One patient underwent mediastinal biopsy that revealed inflammatory changes similar to those seen in radiation pneumonitis. All patients either responded to steroids or had spontaneous regression of radiographic abnormalities supporting the presumed diagnosis of treatment related changes. Recognition of these unusual sequelae of mantle irradiation will aid in differentiating them from infection or tumor and lead to prompt, appropriate treatment.

Jochelson, M.S.; Tarbell, N.J.; Weinstein, H.J.



Multimodality therapy of favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-seven previously untreated patients with favorable prognosis non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with a combination of total body irradiation followed by cyclophosphamide - vincristine - prednisone (CVP). The dose of total body irradiation was planned to be 150 rad followed by 6 cycles of chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 59%; the complete plus partial response rate, 93%. The 50% disease-free survival was 8 months. The actuarial projected 5 year survival was 60% and the disease-free survival at 5 years was 27%. The program was well tolerated by the majority of patients. It is possible for some patients with favorable non-Hodgkin's lymphomas to achieve prolonged periods of disesase-free survival when treated with combinations of irradiation plus chemotherapy.

Corder, M.P. (Univ. of Iowa Hospitals, Iowa City); Leimert, J.T.; Tewfik, H.H.; Lovett, J.M.



Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the urinary bladder.  


Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the bladder is a rare entity and when found in such an unusual location is often difficult to distinguish from other vesical or extravesical neoplasms. Understanding of the pathobiological characteristics of this malignancy has been hampered not only because of its rarity but also by the previous confusion in its nomenclature. Factors that influence survival most strongly are the stage and the bulk of disease at presentation and the histologic classification of the tumor. We report a case of primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the bladder presenting as a large pelvic mass which dramatically regressed with systemic chemotherapy with simultaneous restoration of the upper dilated urinary tracts. In addition, the incidence, clinical picture, staging procedures, histologic classification and treatment modalities of this disease are reviewed. PMID:1606990

Melekos, M D; Matsouka, P; Fokaefs, E; Pantazakos, A; Repanti, M



The Early Chinese Canadians  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This bilingual website offered by the Library and Archives of Canada (LAC) explores Canada's early Chinese immigrants, covering the period 1858 to 1947. To learn why the Chinese immigrated to Canada, visitors should click on "The History" on the far left side of the page. Once there, visitors can choose from several specific sections to read about, including "Working in B.C.: Gold, Railway, Mining and Salmon", "Racism and Law in Society", and "Communities for Canada and China". Additionally, each contains suggestions for further reading on the subject for both adults and children. Visitors who desire to browse photos and documents can click on "Historical Photographs and Documents" on the far left side of the page. There are three sections, "Research Guide", "Gallery of Documents", and "Gallery of Photographs". The Research Guide provides a thorough explanation on how to research the "photographs, artwork, published books, personal archives, and, in particular, government records" of Chinese Canadians, which are dispersed throughout the LAC collection. The documents and photographs galleries allow visitors to view, and even order, a print or digital copy of the historic materials. Finally, the "Head Tax Records" link located on the far left side of the page, allows visitors to search for Chinese immigrants to Canada that were recorded in the General Registers of Chinese Immigration. Visitors can search these registers online by the person's name, arrival year, or certificate number. [KMG


Tracking and control of neuronal Hodgkin-Huxley dynamics  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear ensemble state estimation offers a paradigm-shifting improvement in our ability to observe, predict, and control the state of spiking neuronal systems. We use an ensemble Kalman filter to predict hidden states and future trajectories in the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, reconstruct ion dynamics, control neuronal activity including a strategy for dynamic conductance clamping, and show the feasibility of controlling pathological cellular activity such as seizures. PMID:19518166

Ullah, Ghanim; Schiff, Steven J.



CNS manifestations in non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In a group of 241 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma investigated retrospectively, CNS manifestations occurred in 8%, mainly as meningeosis lymphoblastomatosa. Lymphoblastic and immunoblastic NHL showed the highest risk of CNS infiltration (40.7% and 12.5% respectively). Further risk factors were disseminated stage of the disease, prior involvement of the bone marrow and juvenile age. Characteristic symptoms were eye muscle paresis,

M. Freund; P. Ostendorf; V. H. Gärtner; H. D. Waller



Medication Use and Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conflicting results from previous epidemiologic studies shed little light on whether medication use is associated with risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). To investigate this question, the authors conducted a population- based case-control study in Denmark and Sweden from 1999 to 2002, including 3,055 incident NHL cases and 3,187 controls. Participants reported their past use of medications and history of particular

Ellen T. Chang; Karin Ekstrom Smedby; Henrik Hjalgrim; Claudia Schollkopf; Anna Porwit-MacDonald; Christer Sundstrom; Edneia Tani; Francesco d'Amore; Mads Melbye; Hans-Olov Adami; Bengt Glimelius



Irinotecan in relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  


Irinotecan (CPT-11, Camptosar) is a topoisomerase I inhibitor with a broad spectrum of antitumor clinical activity. Various schedules and doses have been studied, and major complications were delayed diarrhea and myelosuppression. We explored the activity of irinotecan in patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, using a 3-week schedule of administration. Eligible patients had histologically proven relapse, had received no more than two previous regimens, were > or = 15 years and < or = 75 years old, had normal renal function, neutrophil count > 1,500/microL, platelet count > 100,000/microL, and no human immunodeficiency virus infection or central nervous system involvement. Patients were treated with irinotecan 300 mg/m2 i.v. every 21 days with intensive loperamide management of diarrhea. Responders received up to six treatment cycles. Of 25 patients registered so far, 22 are evaluable for response. The median age was 67 years (range: 25 to 74 years) and 11 were male. The median number of previous regimens was 2 (range: 1 to 4 regimens), and 16 patients had disease that was refractory to their last regimen. Serum lactate dehydrogenase level was high in 75%, and beta2-microglobulin was > 3.0 mg/L in 26% of patients. Responses were seen in 8 of 22 (36%) patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Response rates were 40% for indolent, 0% for mantle cell, 45% for relapsed aggressive, and 33% for refractory aggressive lymphomas. Grade 3/4 toxicities included myelosuppression, neutropenic fever, and delayed diarrhea. Irinotecan appears active and relatively well tolerated in patients with relapsed aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Accrual to this study is continuing for better determination of the response rate in all histologic subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:11497233

Sarris, A H; Romaguera, J; Hagemeister, F B; Rodriguez, M A; McLaughlin, P; Pro, B; Younes, A; Mesina, O; Cabanillas, F; Medeiros, L J; Samuels, B



VIM-D salvage chemotherapy in Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 15 patients with relapsed or resistant Hodgkin's disease were treated with a combination of etoposide (VP16), ifosfamide, mitozantrone and dexamethasone (VIM-D). The regime was well tolerated, the only major toxicity being myelosuppression. Complete remissions (CRs) were obtained in 4 patients and were maintained for 2,4, 10 and 14 months, 10 subjects subsequently received an autologous bone marrow

Julia K. Phillips; Ruth L. Spearing; John M. Davies; Charles R. M. Hay; Huw Parry; John R. Nash



Hodgkin Lenfomada Endobron?iyal Tutulum (Olgu Sunumu)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY ENDOBRONCHIAL INVOLVEMENT OF HODGKIN LYMPHOMA (CASE REPORT) Twenty-three year-old female patient presented with a year history of cough, sputum, left chest pain, fever and weight loss. Bilateral, multiple supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy and crackles on the left hemithorax were detec- ted by physical examination. Chest X-ray revealed left hilar enlargement and a non-homogenous density on the midd- le and

Nilgün KALAÇ; Funda DEM?RA?; Esra ÖZAYDIN; Hastaliklari Servisi


Tracking and control of neuronal Hodgkin-Huxley dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear ensemble state estimation offers a paradigm-shifting improvement in our ability to observe, predict, and control the state of spiking neuronal systems. We use an ensemble Kalman filter to predict hidden states and future trajectories in the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, reconstruct ion dynamics, control neuronal activity including a strategy for dynamic conductance clamping, and show the feasibility of controlling pathological cellular activity such as seizures.

Ullah, Ghanim; Schiff, Steven J.



Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia: onset after treatment for Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to examine the influence of various factors on the occurrence of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia\\u000a (ANLL) in a group of long-term survivors of Hodgkin's disease (HD). From 1972 to 1992, 1045 patients with HD were assessed\\u000a and treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, the Institute of Radiology, and the Department of Human Biopathology,\\u000a Hematology Section, University

R. Maurizi Enrici; A. P. Anselmo; M. F. Osti; M. Santoro; S. Sbarbati; V. Tombolini; F. Mandelli; E. D'Arcangelo; C. Biagini



[New antitumor drugs for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].  


We summarize in this article the antitumor activity of newly developed drugs against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The Taxans (paclitaxel and docetaxel), complex polycyclic organic chemicals isolated from the yew tree, have a broad antitumor spectrum with impressive activity in solid tumors. In the SWOG Phase II study on relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, paclitaxel (Taxol), showed 30% CR and 14% PR. In the CALGB study on docetaxel, a 14.5% response rate (12.5% for low-grade lymphoma and 16.1% for intermediate-high grade lymphoma) was found. In the Japanese phase II study of docetaxel, the response rate was 29.4% for all patients (14.3% for low-grade lymphoma and 40.0% for intermediate-high grade lymphoma). Rituximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the B-cell specific antigen CD20. A phase II trial was conducted with four weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2 in patients with relapsed low-grade or follicular lymphoma. The response rate was 46%. A clinical trial combining Rituximab with 6 cycles of CHOP chemotherapy in newly diagnosed patients has recently been completed. Early evaluation of this experience suggests that this combination resulted in a PR or CR in all patients. New purine nucleoside analogs (fludarabine, cladribine, pentostatin) are active against common and generally incurable low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders. These new drugs combined with other chemotherapeutic reagents are expected to overcome refractory or incurable non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. PMID:9881079

Ohnishi, K; Ohno, R



Concepts of Chinese Folk Happiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discourses on Chinese folk happiness are often based on anecdotal narratives or qualitative analysis. Two traditional concepts of happiness popular in Chinese culture are introduced. The paper constructs a concept of Chinese folk happiness on basis of the findings of a scientific survey on the Taiwanese people regarding their concepts of…

Ip, Po Keung



Traditional Chinese drug therapy.  


More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

Borchardt, John K



Chinese Movie Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An English version of the Chinese Movie Database has recently been made available. Edited by Lu Pin, the database covers Chinese movies made in mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and other countries/regions from 1905 to the present. Users can search by movie title or by individual's name or select movie titles from the Movie Index Page. Search returns for individuals include films they have starred in, directed, or written. Returns for film titles include region, language, and hyperlinked production and acting credits.



Ancient Chinese constellations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

Xu, Junjun



Distribution of Chinese names  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a statistical model for the distribution of Chinese names. Both family names and given names are studied on the same basis. With naive expectation, the distribution of family names can be very different from that of given names. One is affected mostly by genealogy, while the other can be dominated by cultural effects. However, we find that both distributions can be well described by the same model. Various scaling behaviors can be understood as a result of stochastic processes. The exponents of different power-law distributions are controlled by a single parameter. We also comment on the significance of full-name repetition in Chinese population.

Huang, Ding-wei



Chinese Foreign Policy Net  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by M. Taylor Fravel of Stanford University, Chinese Foreign Policy Net is a compendium of online information resources related to the study of Chinese foreign relations. The site organizes resources into sections that cover major issues: Security, Trade, Human Rights, and Bilateral Relations. Information resources include news services, academic reports, think tank policy papers, government documents, scholarly journals, economic data sets, and much more. The site also links to numerous academic and military research centers monitoring the foreign policy of People's Republic of China.


Bibliographies for Chinese Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Dr. Barend ter Haar, an instructor in the social and economic history of China at the Sinologisches Seminar (Sinological Institute) at Heidelberg University, offers this collection of regularly updated (with one exception) bibliographies on various aspects of Chinese culture and history. Topics include violence in Chinese culture, literacy, writing and education, the study of Yao religion, Shamanism in China, and religious culture in China. Each bibliography varies in length, but most are prefaced by some helpful remarks on the field and/or the secondary literature. Suggestions are welcome.


Vorinostat and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma; Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia



Impact of highly effective antiretroviral therapy on the risk for Hodgkin lymphoma among people with human immunodeficiency virus infection  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To estimate the impact of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the incidence and prognosis of Hodgkin lymphoma among people with human immunodeficiency virus infection or AIDS (PWHA). Recent findings Age-adjusted incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma in PWHA is unchanged and is still five-fold to fifteen-fold higher than in the general population. Aging of the PWHA population with ART may account for increasing numbers of Hodgkin lymphoma cases. CD4 cell count has a complex relationship to Hodgkin lymphoma risk in PWHA. Depending on the time of measurement, Hodgkin lymphoma risk is highest with 50–249 CD4cells/µl, and falling CD4 count on ART may be a harbinger of Hodgkin lymphoma onset. HIV load appears irrelevant to Hodgkin lymphoma. For obscure reasons, Hodgkin lymphoma risk may be elevated soon after starting ART, but the risk is probably modestly reduced with 6 or more months on ART. For PWHA who develop Hodgkin lymphoma, ART and ABVD chemotherapy can be administered safely, with one recent study demonstrating equivalent outcomes for HIV-positive and HIV-negative Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Summary Vigilance for Hodgkin lymphoma is needed for immune-deficient PWHA, including those on ART. ART with opportunistic infection prophylaxis enables the delivery of effective chemotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma, leading to a good prognosis. PMID:22729154

Goedert, James J.; Bower, Mark



Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 and Photodynamic Therapy in Stage IA-IIA Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage I Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Stage II Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IIA Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome



On the natural medical features of traditional Chinese medicine.  


Heaven-human-earth Pattern (HHE) regarded as a crucial conception of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been applied extensively in TCM diagnostics, etiology, acupuncture therapeutics, materia medica and herbal formula, etc. It associates closely with Chinese classic cosmology. Since ancient time of China, many cosmic phenomena have been introduced to prove or illustrate TCM theories. Moreover, the five-element theory has been proven to be in keeping with some modern approaches of life provenance and life evolution. As a result, Chinese materia medica develops in a way of a pure natural medicine. It is of great significance that by realizing the natural features, the public nowadays can understand TCM better in its scientific connotations. PMID:17710818

Zhu, Ming; Gong, Jiapei; Liu, Yuanlong



Serious pulmonary complications in patients receiving recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor during BACOP chemotherapy for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed Central

Four of 12 Chinese patients receiving BACOP, in combination with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developed a rapidly progressive pneumonic illness characterised by diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxaemia. The condition proved fatal in three, and in none could an infective cause be identified. A retrospective analysis revealed only one episode of pneumonia in the previous 24 patients in whom the same BACOP regimen was administered without granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, by augmenting white cell production, pulmonary sequestration and margination and production of toxic oxygen species, may exacerbate underlying subclinical bleomycin pulmonary toxicity. Caution should be exercised before using granulocyte-stimulating factors in bleomycin-containing regimens. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:7524599

Lei, K. I.; Leung, W. T.; Johnson, P. J.



Striated pattern on scrotal ultrasonography: A marker for Non-hodgkins lymphoma of testis  

PubMed Central

We present a case of 52 year old man who presented with bilateral painless testicular swelling. On evaluation with high resolution ultrasonography of the scrotum, typical “striated pattern” which is highly suggestive of Non Hodgkins lymphoma of the testis was seen. The patient underwent bilateral inguinal orchidectomy and the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of Non Hodgkins lymphoma. PMID:24497696

Bhat, Suresh; Sachin, Joseph; Ramaprasad; Job, Suma



Osteosarcoma and acute myeloblastic leukemia after therapy for childhood Hodgkin disease - a case report.  


A child diagnosed with Stage IVB Hodgkin disease at nine and one-half years of age subsequently developed osteosarcoma and acute myelogenous leukemia ten years after her initial diagnosis. She received multiple courses of radiotherapy and several single chemotherapeutic agents for her Hodgkin disease. Theraphy-induced multiple malignancies and intrinsic predisposition to carcinogenesis in this case is discussed. PMID:6932564

Chan, K W; Miller, D R; Tan, C T



Etoposide, vinblastine, adriamycin and prednisolone (EVAP) combination chemotherapy as first-line treatment for Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisolone (MOPP) and doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblas- tine, dacarbazine (ABVD) are well established first-line chemo- therapy protocols for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease. The aim of this study was to try a new combination of drugs that individually have a proven efficacy in Hodgkin's disease but have less incidence of severe nausea, vomiting, pulmonary toxicity and sterility.




Absence of Treatment-Induced Second Neoplasms After ABVD in Hodgkin's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most serious complications of successful treat- ments for Hodgkin's disease is an increased incidence of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANIL) and other malig- nancies. A retrospective analysis carried out on 1032 consecutive patients with Hodgkin's disease admitted to our Institute between 1 965 and 1 978 and treated with radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy or both modalities revealed that

P. Valagussa; A. Santoro; F. Fossati Bellani; F. Franchi; A. Banfi; G. Bonadonna



Chinese Students' Constructive Nationalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last June the author, a teacher of political theory at Tsinghua University, was asked by a Canadian television crew to get hold of some students for a special on modern China. During the discussion, the author observed that his Chinese students express a thoughtful and informed nationalism, and a distrust of Western-style democracy. Some of the…

Bell, Daniel A.



The Imperative in Chinese.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary study of the syntactic characteristics of the imperative construction in modern Chinese is presented. The term "imperative" is used to refer to the type of syntactic construction which is marked by an implicit or explicit second person subject, and which expresses a direct command. Indirect or implied commands expressed by a…

Hashimoto, Anne Yue


The Chinese House Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of simulations to teach international relations (IR) highlights the Chinese House Game, a computer-based decision-making game based on Inter Nation Simulation (INS). Topics discussed include the increasing role of artificial intelligence in IR simulations, multi-disciplinary approaches, and the direction of IR as a…

Lee, James R.



Chinese Festivals and Customs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

Green, Sandra Aili


Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda



Classical QGP : IV. Thermodynamics  

E-print Network

We construct the equation of a state of the classical QGP valid for all values of Gamma=V/K, the ratio of the mean Coulomb to kinetic energy. By enforcing the Gibbs relations, we derive the pertinent pressure and entropy densities for all Gamma. For the case of an SU(2) classical gluonic plasma our results compare well with lattice simulations. We show that the strongly coupled component of the classical QGP contributes significantly to the bulk thermodynamics across T_c.

Sungtae Cho; Ismail Zahed



Rituximab in relapsed lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term results of a phase 2 trial by the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (GHSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because nodular lymphocyte-predomi- nant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) ex- press CD20, rituximab may be used as a nonmutagenic treatment option to avoid late toxicities in this rather indolent en- tity. Between 1999 and 2004, the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) investi- gated the activity of rituximab (375 mg\\/m2 in 4 doses) in a phase 2 trial in 21 relapsed or refractory

Holger Schulz; Ute Rehwald; Franck Morschhauser; Thomas Elter; Christoph Driessen; Thomas Rudiger; Peter Borchmann; Roland Schnell; Volker Diehl; Andreas Engert; Marcel Reiser



Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated extranodal T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the oral cavity.  


T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma is characterized by uncontrolled cellular proliferation of immature malignant clones. HIV-associated T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma comprises a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative neoplastic entities classified according to morphological, immunological, genetic and clinical features. Extranodal T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the oral cavity is uncommon. A case is presented with extranodal T cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma as an initial sign of HIV-infection. The characteristics of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma are discussed. PMID:18689348

Wood, Neil H; Feller, Liviu; Raubenheimer, Erich J; Jadwat, Yusuf; Meyerov, Robin; Lemmer, Johan



Treatment of patients with minimal stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

Treatment recommendations for patients with upper abdominal Stage IIIA Hodgkin's (III1A) disease have varied widely. The current study reports on a combined institutional retrospective review of 85 patients with surgically staged III1A Hodgkin's disease. Twenty-two patients received combined modality therapy (CMT), 36 patients were treated initially with total nodal irradiation (TNI), and 27 with mantle and para-aortic radiotherapy (MPA). Patients treated with CMT had an actuarial 8-year freedom from relapse (FFR) of 96% as compared to a FFR of 51% in TNI treated patients (p = 0.002), and a FFR of 54% in MPA treated patients (p = 0.004). Of the 11 relapses in MPA treated patients, 7 had a component of their failure in the untreated pelvic or inguinal nodes. The patients treated with CMT had an 8-year actuarial survival of 100% as compared to 79% in TNI treated patients (p = 0.055) and 78% in patients treated with MPA (p = 0.025). Histology and the number of splenic nodules were the most important prognostic variables. Patients with MC/LD histology and greater than or equal to 5 splenic nodules have a high risk of relapse (10/13) when treated with radiation alone (TNI or MPA). We recommend CMT for this group of patients. Patients with NS/LP histology and 1-4 splenic nodules represent a favorable subset of Stage III1A patients. Only 4/21 patients have relapsed and all 21 patients are currently alive without disease regardless of treatment. We currently feel that patients with Stage III1A Hodgkin's disease with NS/LP histology and splenic disease limited to 1-4 nodules are good candidates for MPA as an alternative to TNI or CMT.

Powlis, W.D.; Mauch, P.; Goffman, T.; Goodman, R.L.



The Classics, Con Brio  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sponsored by a consortium of 30 American universities, Rome's Intercollegiate Center for Classical Studies offers a year of study to American undergraduate classics majors. Instructors are also American and normally stay only a year; teaching assistants are always ex-students of the center. Extensive field trips are an important part of the…

Hansen, James



Fermions from classical statistics  

SciTech Connect

We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states {tau} of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p{sub {tau}} amounts to a rotation of the wave function q{sub {tau}}(t)={+-}{radical}(p{sub {tau}}(t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

Wetterich, C., E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)



The Management of Elderly Patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a The treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has been substantially improved during the past decades. Using stage-adapted poly-chemotherapy\\u000a regimens and innovative radiation techniques, the 5-years progression-free survival (PFS) has reached almost 90% in young\\u000a patients (N Engl J Med 348:2386–95, 2003; J Clin Oncol 20:630–7, 2002; J Clin Oncol 20:2988–94, 2002). Since the median age\\u000a at first diagnosis is around 32

Peter Borchmann; Teresa Halbsguth; Stephen J. Proctor


Bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  


Bendamustine (Treanda(®); Pharmachemie BV, The Netherlands for Cephalon, Inc., PA, USA) is a unique cytotoxic agent with both alkylating and antimetabolite properties. A growing body of evidence demonstrates its efficacy in a number of hematologic malignancies, and as such, it has been US FDA approved for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that has not responded to, or progressed within 6 months of, a rituximab-based regimen. Bendamustine has efficacy both as a single agent as well as in combination with other chemotherapeutics and immunotherapeutics. Here, we will discuss in the detail the molecular properties, clinical efficacy and safety profile of bendamustine. PMID:20836669

Ujjani, Chaitra; Cheson, Bruce D



[Fujian oversea Chinese and Chinese traditional pharmacist in Southeast Asia].  


Hakka from Yongding and southern part of Fujian, engaged in Chinese traditional medicine enterprise in south - east Asia, make up the majority of overseas from Fujian. They played an important part in the development of traditional Chinese medicine and insurance of people's health, in planting Chinese herbs, opening pharmaceutical factory, organizing pharmaceutical company and associations of medicine etc. They made great contributions to the communication and cooperation of medicine between PR China and other countries, especially Fujian and south - east Asia. PMID:11871437

Hua, B; Du, J



Polymorphisms in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a multi-ethnic population.  


An imbalance in folate metabolism can adversely affect DNA synthesis and methylation systems which can lead to susceptibility to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are associated with NHL, remain inconclusive. We investigated the association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs and NHL risk in a population which is made up of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic subgroups. A total of 372 NHL patients and 722 controls were genotyped using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Our results of the pooled subjects failed to demonstrate significant association between the MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs with NHL and its subtypes. The results were in agreement with the previous meta-analyses. In the Indian ethnic subgroup however, single locus analysis of MTHFR A1298C appears to confer risk to NHL (Odds ratio (OR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22-3.00, P=0.006). The risk is almost doubled in homozygous carrier of MTHFR 1298CC (OR 4.03, 95% CI 1.56-10.43, P=0.004). Haplotype analysis revealed higher frequency of CC in the Indian NHL patients compared with controls (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.18-2.93, P=0.007). There is lack of evidence to suggest an association between MTHFR C677T and A1298C with the risk of NHL in the Malays and Chinese. In the Indians however, the MTHFR A1298C confers risk to NHL. This study suggests ethnicity modifies the relationship between polymorphisms in the folate-metabolizing gene and NHL. PMID:24646728

Suthandiram, Sujatha; Gan, Gin Gin; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Bee, Ping Chong; Lian, Lay Hoong; Chang, Kian Meng; Ong, Tee Chuan; Mohamed, Zahurin



Chinese Biographical Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maintained by Marilyn A. Levine, Professor of Asian History at Lewis-Clark State College, this site is an effort to develop new ways to access historical database materials via the Internet. Visitors can query the database of better and lesser-known historical Chinese figures using 22 searches for specific or aggregate data questions. General search areas are: Biographical Information, Birth Year, Career, and Origin Searches; Alternate Names, Education, Family, and Youth Searches; Affiliations, Positions, and Historical Events Searches. More detailed information on individuals is available in the Reports section, which includes nine forms: Biographical Information and Career Report; Sources Report; Alternate Names Report, Education Report, Family Report, Youth Activities Report, Affiliations Report, Positions Report, and Historical Events Report. Instructions for using the site in Chinese are also provided.



British Museum: Chinese Jade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world of jade is utterly fascinating, and those captivated by this material will have a field day here. This online tour is part of the British Museum's commitment to broadening access to their vast array of items that might not normally be visible to the general public. Here, visitors can learn about the Chinese fascination with jade through 21 slides that profile unique and valuable items constructed of jade. The tour illustrates the development of Chinese jade from around 5000 BC to the modern period. The items here include lovely, long, and smooth Neolithic blades to later plaques, ornaments, dragons, animal and human sculptures. First-time visitors simply must start by looking at the magnificent coiled dragon that offers smooth contours and compelling details.



Singapore Chinese Health Study

The current research project continues support for a residential cohort of 63,257 middle-aged and older (45 to 74 years of age) Singapore Chinese men and women accrued between 1993 and 1998. At recruitment, each study participant was interviewed in person by a trained interviewer using a structured questionnaire that emphasized current diet assessed via a validated, 165-item food frequency questionnaire.


Chinese Spacesuit Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2008, China became only the 3rd nation to perform an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) from a spacecraft. An overview of the Chinese spacesuit and life support system were assessed from video downlinks during their EVA; from those assessments, spacesuit characteristics were identified. The spacesuits were compared against the Russian Orlan Spacesuit and the U.S. Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). China's plans for future missions also were presented.

Croog, Lewis



Chinese foot binding.  


Chinese foot binding embraced several modern principles of brace treatment. It was initiated in childhood while the foot was cartilaginous and moldable. Culturally, the practice attempted to shape the foot into a pointed lotus flower. The resultant cavus foot deformity was dysfunctional and crippling. This curious custom, outlawed by the Communist party, is ironically analogous in some ways to high-heel shoe wear. PMID:7567086

Berg, E E



Chinese Space Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

China will soon make history by sending the first Chinese man to space. Scheduled for sometime in 2003, it will be the first step toward China's highly ambitious plans for space exploration.The China National Space Administration Web site (1) has a detailed description of the country's space policy. Aerospace China, a journal published online by the administration, has information on space development plans and other issues. The history of China's space program is recounted by the online Encyclopedia Astronautica (2). Several influential scientists and their contributions to Chinese rocketry and satellite technology are highlighted. The China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (3) sent the first Chinese satellite into space. Its home page showcases eight launch vehicles and offers an extensive technical description of the LM-3C model. The work of various research groups at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (4) deals with topics ranging from satellite dynamics to stellar astronomy. Some of the groups have details of their projects and facilities online. Another observatory studies molecular clouds and star formation (5). A large collection of its research papers are provided on its Web site. A news article from (6) discusses the forthcoming launch of the Shenzhou IV spacecraft, scheduled for later this year. It is generating considerable interest, since it is said to be identical to China's first manned spacecraft, expected to launch in 2003. Another article (7) considers China's rapidly developing space program. With the tremendous effort and lofty goals for moon bases and Mars missions, the author argues that China could eventually rival the US. Many more news stories about the Chinese space program can be found on the Dragon Space Web site (8).

Leske, Cavin.



Dermatoglyphs of Chinese Children with Down's Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A dermatoglyphic study of a group of 314 Chinese controls and 53 Chinese patients with the clinical and cytogenetic diagnosis of Down's syndrome has been presented, and results compared with other studies of European groups. The Chinese patient group had ...

J. I. Bryant, I. Emanuel, S. W. Huang, R. Kronmal, J. Lo



Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants  

E-print Network

medicinal plants and their products. 2. Learn the methods of Chinese herbal classification;2 2. To introduce students the philosophy of Traditional Chinese Medicine and herbal uses. 3Coming This Fall: Common Chinese Medicinal Plants Identification, Classification and Application

Weiblen, George D


among Chinese adults  

E-print Network

Objectives: To study the dietary behavior and knowledge about dental erosion and self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Methods: Chinese adults aged 25-45 years were randomly selected from a list of registered telephone numbers generated by computer. A telephone survey was administered to obtain information on demographic characteristics, dietary habits, dental visits, and knowledge of and presence of self-reported symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Results: A total of 520 participants were interviewed (response rate, 75%; sampling error, ± 4.4%) and their mean age was 37. Most respondents (79%) had ever had caries, and about two thirds (64%) attended dental check-ups at least once a year. Respondents had a mean of 5.4 meals per day and 36 % had at least 6 meals per day. Fruit (89%) and lemon tea/water (41%) were the most commonly consumed acidic food and beverage. When asked if they ever noticed changes in their teeth, most respondents (92%) said they had experienced change that can be related to erosion. However, many (71%) had never heard about dental erosion and 53 % mixed up dental erosion with dental caries. Conclusion: Hong Kong Chinese adults have frequent intake of food and many have experienced symptoms that can be related to dental erosion. Their level of awareness of and knowledge about dental erosion is generally low, despite

Ch Chu; Karie Kl Pang; Edward Cm Lo


GR Classical Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GR Classical program simulates orbits of objects around a central mass using Newtonian mechanics. It also displays a plot of the effective potential well in which the orbiting particle resides. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_classical.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. GR Classical is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne



Classical Mythology Directory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Dr. Robin Mitchell-Boyask, Professor in the Department of Greek, Hebrew, and Roman Classics at Temple University, this site is primarily intended for students enrolled in the Dr. Mitchell-Boyask's summer or fall 2002 Classical Mythology course. However, the site provides a host of information on classical mythology and would be useful to anyone studying and/or interested in this area of specialization. Not only does the site contain study guides, which could be valuable material for English teachers, but it also contains information on the myths of Rome and Athens, numerous paintings and sculptures, as well as many links to other relevant sites.

Mitchell-Boyask, Robin, 1961-.



Classical Helium Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Classical Helium Model is an example of a three-body problem that is similar to the gravitational three-body problem of a heavy sun and two light planets. The important difference is that the helium atom's two electrons repel one another, unlike the planetary case where the intraplanetary interaction is attractive. The EJS Classical Helium Model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_mech_orbits_ClassicalHelium.jar file will run the program if Java is installed.

Christian, Wolfgang



GR Classical Exploding Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GR Classical Exploding program uses Newtonian mechanics to simulate the orbits of objects that explode near a central massive object. It also shows the effective potential of the orbiting particle. The default configuration is an explosion located at r = 1. GR Classical Exploding is part of a suite of Open Source Physics programs that model aspects of General Relativity. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the gr_classical_exploding.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Other programs provide additional visualizations. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or General Relativity.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario; Cox, Anne



Health Information in Chinese - Traditional (????): MedlinePlus  


... Bilingual PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Dietary Fiber Fiber -- Are You Getting Enough? - English ????????????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center High Fiber Foods - English ????????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese ...


Thresholds and Plateaus in the Hodgkin-Huxley Nerve Equations  

PubMed Central

Phase space methods and an analog computer are used to analyze the Hodgkin-Huxley non-linear differential equations for the squid giant axon membrane. V is the membrane potential, m the Na+ activation, h the Na+ inactivation, and n the K+ activation. V and m change rapidly, relative to h and n. The (V, m) phase plane of a reduced system of equations, with h and n held constant at their resting values, has three singular points: a stable resting point, a threshold saddle point, and a stable excited point. When h and n are allowed to vary, recovery and refractoriness result from the movement with subsequent disappearance of the threshold and excited points. Multiplying the time constant of n by 100 or more, and that of h by one-third, reproduces the experimental plateau action potentials obtained with tetraethylammonium by Tasaki and Hagiwara, including the phenomena of abolition and of refractoriness of the plateau duration. The equations have, transiently, two stable states, as found in the real axon by these authors. Since the theoretical membrane conductance curves differ significantly from the experimental ones, further experimental analysis of ionic currents with tetraethylammonium is needed to decide whether the Hodgkin-Huxley model can be generalized to explain these experiments completely. PMID:13823315

Fitzhugh, Richard



Hepatitis C virus and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.  


The etiology of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) remains a controversial matter, but, in the last few years, considerable evidence suggests that aberrations of the immune system and viruses may act as etiologic agents, in at least some cases of NHL. In fact, patients with primary immuno-deficiencies, or those suffering from diseases characterized by autoimmune dysfunction, show an increased risk for the development of NHL. Several viruses have been identified as possible etiologic agents for NHL; one of the best studied is the Epstein-Barr virus, which was detected in cultures of tumor cells from patients with Burkitt's lymphoma. The pathogenetic potential of this virus is illustrated by its association with an increasing number of malignant diseases. In addition, the human T-cell lymphotropic virus family (HTLV), was also recognized as possible etiologic agents for several lymphomas, such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and T-cell leukemia-lymphoma syndrome (HTLV-I), and T-cell hairy cell leukemia (HTLV-II). Recently, the presence of hepatitis C virus infection has also been recognized in several hematological malignancies such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, low-grade malignant lymphomas and Waldenström's disease. The possible etiopathogenetic role of this virus in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas is discussed on the basis of molecular, clinical, and epidemiological considerations. PMID:8724528

Pozzato, G; Mazzaro, C; Santini, G; Burrone, O



Plasma Biomarkers for Detecting Hodgkin's Lymphoma in HIV Patients  

SciTech Connect

The lifespan of AIDS patients has increased as a result of aggressive antiretroviral therapy, and the incidences of the AIDS-defining cancers, Hodgkin's lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma, are declining, Still, the increased longevity of AIDS patients is now associated with increased incidence of other cancers, including Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). In order to determine if we could identify biomarkers for the early detection of HL, we undertook an accurate mass and elution time tag proteomics analysis of individual plasma samples from AIDS patients without HL (n=14) and with HL (n=22). This analysis identified 33 proteins, included C-reactive protein and three serum amyloid proteins, that were statistically (p<0.05) altered by at least 1.5-fold between the two groups. At least three of these proteins have previously been reported to be altered in the blood of HL patients. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software identified 'inflammatory response' and 'cancer' as the top two, biological functions commonly associated with these proteins. The clear association of these proteins with cancer and inflammation suggests that they are truly associated with HL and that they would be useful in the detection of this disease.

Varnum, Susan M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Hessol, Nancey; Smith, Richard D.; Zangar, Richard C.



Pericarditis and myocardial infarctions after Hodgkin's disease therapy  

SciTech Connect

From 1971 to 1984, 499 patients with all stages of Hodgkin's disease received mediastinal irradiation at the Institut Gustave-Roussy by 25 MV photons from a linear accelerator. Thirty-five pericarditis (10-year cumulative incidence rate of 9.5%) and 13 myocardial infarctions (MI) (10-year cumulative incidence rate of 3.9%) were observed. In contrast, no cases were diagnosed in a parallel series of 138 Hodgkin's disease patients treated without mediastinal irradiation during the same period of time (p less than 0.005 for pericarditis, p less than 0.05 for MI). By multivariate analysis, the role of total radiation dose given to the mediastinum and that of fraction size were evaluated, adjusting for age, sex, mediastinal involvement, and type of chemotherapy. The pericarditis risk was significantly increased with total dose greater than or equal to 41 Gy (relative risk (RR) = 3.25, p = 0.006) and with dose per fraction greater than or equal to 3.0 Gy (RR = 2.0, p = 0.06). The myocardial infarction risk was not found to be related to total dose nor to fraction size in this series, possibly because of the small number of events.

Cosset, J.M.; Henry-Amar, M.; Pellae-Cosset, B.; Carde, P.; Girinski, T.; Tubiana, M.; Hayat, M. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France))



How to exploit stress-related immunity against Hodgkin's lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Stress-related immunity can be activated in the course of lymphoproliferative disorders, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma, upon the interaction between killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily K, member 1 (KLRK1, best known as NKG2D) on effector lymphocytes and NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL), such as MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MICA), MICB and various UL16-binding proteins (ULBPs), on lymphoma cells. However, NKG2DLs can also bind NKG2D upon shedding, thus affecting the recognition of lymphoma cells by the immune system. The proteolytic cleavage of MICA depends on protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 6 (PDIA6, a thiol isomerase best known as ERp5) as well as on the disintegrins and metalloproteinases ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17, which also cleave ULPBs. These enzymes can be targeted in novel therapeutic schemes to avoid the escape of malignant cells from stress-evoked immune responses. PMID:24498565

Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella



Diagnosis and management of Hodgkin's disease in the adult.  


Appropriate management of Hodgkin's disease is based on both the stage of disease and the specific anatomic sites of involvement within each stage. As a result of the combination of sequential staging and effective treatment, histopathologic subclassification has become less important. Although not generally appreciated, this is also true for constitutional symptoms. During the past 15 years, differences in survival between early and advanced stages have diminished progressively with refinements both in management of newly diagnosed patients, and in management of relapsing disease. Currently, our five-year survival figure for laparotomy-Staged I and II patients is 95%. The corresponding result for Stages IIIA and IIIB patients is 85%; and 67% of our Stage IV patients, who were treated with mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) are projected to be surviving at five years. With the anticipation of a high probability for cure, quality of life including the possibility for parenthood has become increasingly important. In the past, the trend has been to increase treatment for patients with poor prognostic factors. However, very little attention has been paid to the possibility of administering less treatment for very precisely staged patients with good prognostic factors. In this review, management is discussed by stage. Emphasis is placed on the indications for less treatment as well as for more intensive therapy in adult patients with Hodgkin's disease. PMID:6687831

Fuller, L M; Hagemeister, F B



Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.  


Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibrato-free tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level. PMID:21621380

Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping



Teaching Classical Mythology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses ways to organize a course in classical mythology. Presents classroom exercises including matching and word games, as well as extension exercises. Concludes with a list of sources on mythology. (HTH)

Mavrogenes, Nancy A.



Illustrating the Classical Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity that (1) illustrates the classical experiment as a research tool; (2) demonstrates the interplay among hypotheses, methods, and data; and (3) nurtures the excitement of a method of study. (BSR)

Zeller, Richard A.



The classical Bloch equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent control of a quantum mechanical two-level system is at the heart of magnetic resonance imaging, quantum information processing, and quantum optics. Among the most prominent phenomena in quantum coherent control are Rabi oscillations, Ramsey fringes, and Hahn echoes. We demonstrate that these phenomena can be derived classically by use of a simple coupled-harmonic-oscillator model. The classical problem can be cast in a form that is formally equivalent to the quantum mechanical Bloch equations with the exception that the longitudinal and the transverse relaxation times (T1 and T2) are equal. The classical analysis is intuitive and well suited for familiarizing students with the basic concepts of quantum coherent control, while at the same time highlighting the fundamental differences between classical and quantum theories.

Frimmer, Martin; Novotny, Lukas



Leadership Studies of Chinese, Chinese-Americans and American Indians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies of leadership effectiveness were conducted in three different cultural settings: Hong Kong Chinese, Chinese-Americans who have been born and reared in Hawaii but whose parents grew up in China, and American Indians of the Pacific Northwest. In Hon...

R. D. Meade



Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation  

E-print Network

Chinese demand drives global deforestation Chinese demand drives global deforestation By Tansa Musa. Evidence of rampant deforestation around the globe points in one direction: booming demand in China, where buy from Amazon. com. POPULAR PAGES Rainforests Rain forests Amazon deforestation Deforestation


Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti


Classical confined particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative picture of classical many body mechanics is proposed. In this picture particles possess individual kinematics but are deprived from individual dynamics. Dynamics exists only for the many particle system as a whole. The theory is complete and allows to determine the trajectories of each particle. It is proposed to use our picture as a classical prototype for a realistic theory of confined particles.

Horzela, Andrzej; Kapuscik, Edward



Quality of Radiotherapy Reporting in Randomized Controlled Trials of Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: A Systematic Review  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Standards for the reporting of radiotherapy details in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are lacking. Although radiotherapy (RT) is an important component of curative therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), we postulated that RT reporting may be inadequate in Phase III HL and NHL trials. Methods and Materials: We searched PubMed and the Cochrane registry for reports of RCTs involving RT and either HL or NHL published between 1998 and 2007. We screened 133 titles and abstracts to identify relevant studies. We included a total of 61 reports. We assessed these reports for the presence of six quality measures: target volume, radiation dose, fractionation, radiation prescription, quality assurance (QA) process use, and adherence to QA (i.e., reporting of major or minor deviations). Results: Of 61 reports, 23 (38%) described the target volume. Of the 42 reports involving involved-field RT alone, only 8 (19%) adequately described the target volume. The radiation dose and fractionation was described in most reports (54 reports [89%] and 39 reports [64%], respectively). Thirteen reports specified the RT prescription point (21%). Only 12 reports (20%) described using a RT QA process, and 7 reports (11%) described adherence to the QA process. Conclusion: Reporting of RT in HL and NHL RCTs is deficient. Because the interpretation, replication, and application of RCT results depend on adequate description and QA of therapeutic interventions, consensus standards for RT reporting should be developed and integrated into the peer-review process.

Bekelman, Justin E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)], E-mail:; Yahalom, Joachim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)



SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Solid Tumors or Hodgkin's or Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Emergy analysis of Chinese agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an ecological analysis of Chinese agriculture for the period from 1980 to 2000, on the basis of Odum's well-known concept of emergy in ecological economy. Emergy analysis methods are explained, illustrated and used to diagram the agro-ecosystem, to evaluate environmental and economic inputs and harvested yield, and to assess the sustainability of the Chinese agriculture as a

G. Q. Chen; M. M. Jiang; B. Chen; Z. F. Yang; C. Lin



Homeland, Gender and Chinese Drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taiwan and Hong Kong represent areas of rapid industrial development and the attenuation of traditional Chinese attitudes toward drinking. To measure the influence of the different homelands on alcohol consumption, a survey of 150 foreign Chinese students (94 males and 56 females) was conducted. In terms of homeland, 95 participants (63.3%) were from mainland China, 29 (19.3%) were from Taiwan,

Israel Colón; Cindy A. Wuollet



Chinese American Manpower and Employment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the economic characteristics and occupational status of the Chinese in the United States, based primarily on a special tabulation of the 1970 census, has resulted in a demographic profile of this bicultural and physically distinct ethnic group. Potential improvement and expansion of the occupational sphere of the Chinese is discussed in…

Sung, Betty Lee


The Chinese-American Workforce  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors




The Anxiety of Chinese Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to better understand and counsel Chinese students in the United States, the trait anxiety and test anxiety of 67 Chinese graduate students in education attending two universities in Taiwan were measured. Normative assessments for the total group showed that the sample fell within the normal range of U.S. students as defined in Test…

MacDougall, Mary Ann; Corcoran, Miriam D.


Do We Know What Causes Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Children?  


... of most cases of childhood non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is not known. However, scientists have found that ... a type of DNA change that can cause NHL to develop. A translocation means that DNA from ...


VACOP-B chemotherapy for high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in pregnancy.  


A patient presenting with high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the second trimester of pregnancy was treated with combination chemotherapy, with successful outcome for both mother and foetus. PMID:8580059

Rodriguez, J M; Haggag, M



Cranio-maxillofacial non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: Clinical and histological presentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma represents about 5% of all malignant lesions of the head and neck. In this study we retrospectively evaluated clinical presentation, histological subtype and long-term prognosis of 42 patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma involving the craniofacial area. The mean age at diagnosis was 64years. More than half of the patients presented with disseminated disease at multiple sites (55%, n=23). In

Sebastian Scherfler; Kolja Freier; Robin Seeberger; Claire Bacon; Jürgen Hoffmann; Oliver C. Thiele


Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Membrane Protein Expression in Hodgkin and Reed Sternberg Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryostat sections from lymph nodes of 47 Hodgkin disease patients were examined by immunohistology for the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein (LMP), nuclear antigen 2, and late viral glycoprotein gp350\\/250. A distinct LMP-specific membrane and cytoplasmic staining was detected exclusively in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in 18 patients (38%); EBV nuclear antigen 2 and gp350\\/250 immunoreactivity was absent in

Hermann Herbst; Friederike Lymphomas; Michael Hummel; Gerald Niedobitek; Stefano Pileri; Nikolaus Muller-Lantzsch; Harald Stein; Malignant Lymphomas; Oncogenes; Immunohistology



Polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 17A1 and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

E-print Network

of lymphoproliferative diseases such as non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) may be influenced by hormonal modulation. Few studies )34T>C and CYP17A1 IVS2 105A>C polymorphisms were analyzed in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) population-based case­control study. The CYP17A1 )34CC genotype was positively associated with NHL [odds ratio (OR) ¼ 1�

California at Berkeley, University of


The role of Epstein-Barr virus in Hodgkin's disease from different geographical areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) may play a role in the aetiology of Hodgkin's disease. To determine the role of EBV in childhood Hodgkin's disease in different geographical areas, immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridisation were used to analyse latent membrane protein 1 (LMP 1) and small nuclear non-transcribed RNAs (EBER-1) respectively. Testing for EBV within the

M Weinreb; P J Day; F Niggli; J E Powell; F Raafat; P B Hesseling; J W Schneider; P S Hartley; F Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou; E R Khalek; A Mangoud; U R El-Safy; F Madanat; M Al Sheyyab; C Mpofu; T Revesz; R Rafii; K Tiedemann; K D Waters; J C Barrantes; A Nyongo; M S Riyat; J R Mann



Detection of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements in Hodgkin's disease using PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM--To detect clonal rearrangements of the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain gene in Hodgkin's disease tissue using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS--DNA extracted from 36 samples of Hodgkin's disease was analysed using PCR and primers from conserved sequences in the variable (VH) and joining (JH) regions. RESULTS--Clonal rearrangement was detected only in one case. Evidence of clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement

C A Angel; J H Pringle; L Primrose; I Lauder



Localisation intracrânienne de la maladie de Hodgkin : à propos d’un cas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hodgkin disease intracranial lesions are uncommon. We repport the case of a 24-year-old man who presented with an intracranial relapse without other evidence of disease 24 months after multiple drug therapy and extended field radiation therapy for stage III Bb type 3 Hodgkin disease. The patient was treated by whole brain irradiation (40 Gy\\/20 fractions\\/4 weeks ). Six months after completion of therapy, the

K Hadadi; H Sifat; I Saâdi; T Kebdani; L Kanouni; M El Marjany; H Mansouri; E El Ghazi; A Mansouri; H Errihani; N Benjaafar; B. K El Gueddari



Dana-Farber study finds blood levels of immune protein predict risk in Hodgkin disease

Blood levels of an immunity-related protein, galectin-1, in patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma reflected the extent of their cancer and correlated with other predictors of outcome, scientists reported at the American Society of Hematology annual meeting. In a study of 315 patients from a German database, researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute found that serum galectin-1 levels "are significantly associated with tumor burden and additional adverse clinical characteristics in newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients."


Randomized multicentre trial of filgrastim as an adjunct to combination chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was intended to ascertain whether the adjunctive administration of filgrastim (r metHuG-CSF, Amgen) would influence the dose intensity of chemotherapy or the morbidity of myelosuppression in patients receiving MOPP or MOPP\\/EVAP hybrid chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease.In a prospective randomized trial, two regimens for the treatment of Hodgkin's disease were compared. The substudy described here randomized patients receiving either

D. J. Dunlop; M. M. Eatock; J. Paul; S. Anderson; N. S. Reed; M. Soukop; N. Lucie; E. J. Fitzsimmons; P. Tansey; W. P. Steward



Hodgkin's disease with leptomeningeal involvement. Report of a case with long survival  

SciTech Connect

A 30-year-old white man with Stage IV B Hodgkin's disease, mixed cellularity type, developed leptomeningeal involvement shortly after relapsing on nitrogen mustard, Oncovin (vincristine), procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP), and while receiving Adriamycin (doxorubicin), bleomycin, Velban (vinblastine), and dacarbazine (ABVD). Whole brain irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate were successfully incorporated into his treatment program. The patient has now been in complete remission for more than 40 months. A review of this rare complication of Hodgkin's disease is presented.

Orlowski, E.P.; Hansen, R.M.; Anderson, T.; Hanson, G.A.; Kun, L.E.; Pisciotta, A.V.



Perinatal outcomes in native Chinese and Chinese-American women.  


This study aimed to compare perinatal outcomes in native Chinese, foreign-born and US-born Chinese-American women by analysing a cohort of 950,624 singleton pregnancies in south-east China and 293,849 singleton births from the US live and stillbirth certificates from 1995 to 2004. Only births at 28 weeks or later were included. Compared with US-born Chinese-American women, native Chinese and foreign-born Chinese-American women had substantially lower risks of having a small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant (adjusted relative risk [aRR] ranging from 0.46 to 0.66) or preterm birth (aRR ranging from 0.53 to 0.82). While having a White or Black father had a reduced risk of SGA (aRR=0.45 and 0.62, respectively), it has an increased risk for preterm birth (aRR=1.13 and 1.57, respectively). Infants with Chinese father and foreign-born mother were heavier than those with Chinese father and US-born mothers. All findings were statistically significant. Our findings demonstrated the protective role of foreign-born status on low birthweight and preterm delivery. The paternal contribution to fetal size is substantial. PMID:21470259

Liu, Yinghui; Zhang, Jun; Li, Zhu



[The establishment, contributions, and final results of classical medical theories].  


In countries with ancient civilization of both Eastern world and Western world, after the accumulation of clinical experiences of "empirical medicine" to a sufficient amount; in accordance of their primitive philosophical thoughts, classical medical theories were established to play an important role in guiding the clinical practice of "empirical medicine". Because of the similarity of philosophical thoughts all over the ancient world, their medical theories were also very similar to each other. After the scientific evaluation and improvement, Greek classical medical theories were inherited, refined or abandoned, and then eventually finished their historical mission. Chinese classical medical theories also need the similar scientific identification and improvement for flowing into the authorized main stream of modern medical theory systems to continuously apply their guiding roles in clinical practice. Scholars would better consider the developmental principles of cultures and sciences with a historical viewpoint and an open mind to avoid making mistakes from haughty and prejudice. PMID:23596779

Wang, Tai



Targeting the IL-4/IL-13 signaling pathway sensitizes Hodgkin lymphoma cells to chemotherapeutic drugs.  


Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg lymphoma (HL) is a clonal B-cell-related malignancy. Although many patients with HL can be cured by the current regimen of high-dose multi-agent chemotherapy, the treatment causes high risks of later pathologies including secondary malignancies. This fact highlights the demand to develop rational treatment for HL. Survival and growth of HL cells are largely dependent on their microenvironment. In this study, using the HL cell lines L1236 and KM-H2 as model systems, we investigated the role of IL-4/IL-13 signaling in regulation of drug sensitivity and resistance in HL. We show that specific blocking of IL-4 and IL-13-mediated STAT6 activation by either an IL-4-binding fusion protein APG598 or an IL-4R antagonist APG201 (R121D/Y124D) renders HL cells more prone to apoptotic killing by chemotherapeutic drugs such as Mitomycin C, 5-Fluorouracil, Etopside, Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel. This effect is due to inhibition of STAT6-mediated elevation of expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Bcl-xL. Employing ChIP analysis in combination with APG201 or STAT6-specific siRNA we identified a defined STAT6-binding site in the Bcl-xL promoter region from -1967 to -1957 of the transcription start site. Our data demonstrate that the IL-4/IL-13-STAT6-Bcl-xL axis may be an important target for HL treatment. This study also suggests that combination of classical chemotherapeutic drugs with the IL-4/IL-13 antagonists may enhance efficacy and reduce risks of toxicity from high dose of drugs in HL treatment. PMID:23553437

Natoli, Antonino; Lüpertz, Regine; Merz, Christian; Müller, Wolfgang W; Köhler, Rebecca; Krammer, Peter H; Li-Weber, Min



Classical and biochemical endpoints in the evaluation of phytotoxic effects caused by the herbicide trichloroacetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three terrestrial plant species, oat (Avena sativa ), Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris cv. chinensis) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), were exposed to different concentrations of herbicide TCA (sodium trichloroacetate) in a growth test according to guideline OECD # 208. Classical (i.e. germination and biomass) and biochemical (i.e., antioxydant enzyme activities) endpoints were investigated. Germination rate decreased significantly at 3.9 mg TCA

Claudemir Marcos Radetski; Sylvie Cotelle; Jean-François Férard



Exploration Through a Concept: Japanese Classical Acting as a Model of Harmonic Contrasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese concept of harmonic contrasts in the vocal expression and movement of the actor in the three styles of classical Japanese theatre — no, kyogen and kabuki — is explored. The Japanese theatre employs two pairs of contrasts: 1) essential contrast — kyo (fiction, abstract, etc.) and jitsu (reality, concrete, etc.); and 2) structural contrast — in (quiescence, feminine,

Zvika Serper



Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma: a New Era of Therapy  

PubMed Central

Therapy of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rapidly changing field due to a lot of currently emerging data. Treatment approaches are presently based on either the Kairos principle of giving aggressive therapy upfront and considering de-escalation of therapy if the interim PET/CT is negative or the Chronos principle of starting with ABVD followed by escalation of therapy for patients with positive interim PET/CT. The International Prognostic Score (IPS) is still valid for decision-making regarding the type of initial therapy, since patients with a high score do have an inferior progression free survival (PFS) with ABVD compared to those with a low score. Escalated BEACOPP administered upfront improves PFS; however, increase in the overall survival (OS) has not been confirmed yet, and this therapy is accompanied by elevated toxicity and fertility impairment. Completion of ongoing and currently initiated trials could elucidate multiple issues related to the management of HL patients.

Dann, Eldad J.



Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, version 2.2014.  


Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders originating in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or natural killer cells. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common subtype of indolent NHL, accounting for approximately 22% of all newly diagnosed cases of NHL. The incorporation of rituximab to chemotherapy regimens has become a widely accepted standard of care for first-line therapy for patients with FL. Maintenance and consolidation therapy with rituximab and radioimmunotherapy have also been associated with improved progression-free survival in patients experiencing response to first-line therapy. Despite therapeutic advances that have improved outcomes, FL is generally considered a chronic disease characterized by multiple recurrences with current therapies. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with FL. PMID:24925202

Zelenetz, Andrew D; Gordon, Leo I; Wierda, William G; Abramson, Jeremy S; Advani, Ranjana H; Andreadis, C Babis; Bartlett, Nancy; Bellam, Naresh; Byrd, John C; Czuczman, Myron S; Fayad, Luis E; Fisher, Richard I; Glenn, Martha J; Harris, Nancy Lee; Hoppe, Richard T; Horwitz, Steven M; Kelsey, Christopher R; Kim, Youn H; Krivacic, Susan; LaCasce, Ann S; Nademanee, Auayporn; Porcu, Pierluigi; Press, Oliver; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Reddy, Nishitha; Reid, Erin; Sokol, Lubomir; Swinnen, Lode J; Tsien, Christina; Vose, Julie M; Yahalom, Joachim; Zafar, Nadeem; Dwyer, Mary; Sundar, Hema



Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, version 4.2014.  


Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoproliferative disorders originating in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or natural killer cells. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) accounts for approximately 6% of all newly diagnosed NHL cases. Radiation therapy with or without systemic therapy is a reasonable approach for the few patients who present with early-stage disease. Rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy followed by high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDT/ASCR) is recommended for patients presenting with advanced-stage disease. Induction therapy followed by rituximab maintenance may provide extended disease control for those who are not candidates for HDT/ASCR. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory disease. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for NHL regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with MCL. PMID:25190696

Zelenetz, Andrew D; Gordon, Leo I; Wierda, William G; Abramson, Jeremy S; Advani, Ranjana H; Andreadis, C Babis; Bartlett, Nancy; Byrd, John C; Czuczman, Myron S; Fayad, Luis E; Fisher, Richard I; Glenn, Martha J; Harris, Nancy Lee; Hoppe, Richard T; Horwitz, Steven M; Kelsey, Christopher R; Kim, Youn H; Krivacic, Susan; LaCasce, Ann S; Nademanee, Auayporn; Porcu, Pierluigi; Press, Oliver; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Reddy, Nishitha; Reid, Erin; Saad, Ayman A; Sokol, Lubomir; Swinnen, Lode J; Tsien, Christina; Vose, Julie M; Yahalom, Joachim; Zafar, Nadeem; Dwyer, Mary; Sundar, Hema



Coronary heart disease mortality after irradiation for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a study designed to evaluate the hypothesis that irradiation to the heart in the treatment for Hodgkin's disease (HD) is associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. This report describes 957 patients diagnosed with HD in 1942-75 and analyzes follow-up findings through December 1977. Twenty-five coronary heart disease deaths have been observed, and 4258.2 person-years of experience at risk have been accrued. The relative death rate (RDR), defined as the CHD mortality for heart-irradiated subjects divided by the mortality for nonirradiated subjects, was estimated. After adjustment for the effect of interval of observation, age, stage, and class, the RDR estimate is 1.5 but does not differ significantly from unit (95% confidence limits: 0.59, 3.7).

Boivin, J.F.; Hutchison, G.B.



Hodgkin Disease--An Ever-Evolving Therapy  

PubMed Central

Therapy of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rapidly changing field due to plenty of currently emerging data. Treatment approaches are currently based on tailoring of therapy in order to achieve a maximal response with minimal toxicity. Since the median age of HL patients is 33 years and their prospective life expectancy of another half a century, a major emphasis needs to be put on dramatic reduction of later toxicity. The assessment of the treatment effect should be based not only on progression-free survival, but should include evaluation of cardiac toxicity, secondary neoplasms, and fertility in the long-term follow-up. The ancient principle “first do no harm” should be central in HL therapy. Completion of ongoing and currently initiated trials could elucidate multiple issues related to the management of HL patients. PMID:25386345

Dann, Eldad J.



[Molecular target therapy for non-Hodgkin lymphoma].  


Non-Hodgkin lymphomas(NHL) encompass various types of lymphoid neoplasms with different biological behavior. Comprehensive genomic analysis identifies novel mutation and signaling pathways in various tumors, which leads to rational approaches in cancer therapy. Molecular target therapy is a new approach focusing on specific protein or signaling pathways. Molecules of signaling pathways of B-cell receptor, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-kappaB are rational target, and many new drugs targeting the pathways are developing in various subtypes of lymphoma. Monoclonal and novel conjugated antibodies for cell surface proteins, epigenetic modulators and immunomodulatory agents also show promising clinical activities. This review will focus on the new molecular target drugs and their activity in NHL. PMID:25016812

Kato, Harumi; Kinoshita, Tomohiro



Treatment selection for stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease patients  

SciTech Connect

Two treatment policies for the therapy of patients with Stage IIIA Hodgkin's disease are compared. From 1969-1976, 49 newly diagnosed and pathologically staged IIIA patients received total nodal irradiation (TNI) alone (no liver irradiation). Although actuarial survival was 80% at 5 years and 68% at 10 years, actuarial freedom from relapse was only 38% at 5 years. Accordingly, a new treatment policy was instituted in 1976. Patients with either CS IIIA disease, multiple splenic nodules, IIIA with a large mediastinal mass or III/sub 2/, received combined modality therapy (combination chemotherapy and irradiation). All others received TNI. Thirty-six patients have been treated under the new program. The actuarial survival is 90% at 5 years and the relapse-free survival is 87%, suggesting the superiority of this approach. Complications from the treatments are discussed.

Prosnitz, L.R.; Cooper, D.; Cox, E.B.; Kapp, D.S.; Farber, L.R.



Pathology Case Study: Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Renal Failure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a 61-year-old man with non-HodgkinâÂÂs lymphoma is admitted with renal failure. Results from laboratory tests along with a microscopic description and images of test results are provided here. The âÂÂFinal Diagnosisâ section contains the attending doctorâÂÂs final diagnosis of the patient with commentary, and a detailed pathology. References are also included in this section. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to use to introduce or test student knowledge of renal pathology.

Bastacky, Sheldon; Rajendiran, Swaminathan



Biotech's Chinese connection  

SciTech Connect

Hong Kong last month opened the Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology (HKIB), a nonprofit R and D center. By combining Chinese expertise in medicinal compounds and cell culturing with Western technical and marketing skills, the institute hopes to develop products that could be licensed to Hong Kong or Western films. The institute is also developing experimental cell lines and making genetically engineered versions of promising compounds, taking advantage of the cell-culturing and cloning skills that are highly developed on the mainland. The Shanghai contingent is already involved in one of the institute's projects, an effort to transfer human genes into mouse fibroblasts to create cell lines for research on the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory. Other Chinese researchers are taking part in HKIB's joint venture with Syntex, which was signed last April. The mainland researchers extract candidate medicinal compounds from plants and microorganisms. In Hong Kong, the compounds are tested for their effects on neurotransmitter receptors, while Syntex scientists in Palo Alto study how the same compounds affect enzyme activity and whole cells.

Hodgson, G.



Classical dynamical localization.  


We consider classical models of the kicked rotor type, with piecewise linear kicking potentials designed so that momentum changes only by multiples of a given constant. Their dynamics display quasilocalization of momentum, or quadratic growth of energy, depending on the arithmetic nature of the constant. Such purely classical features mimic paradigmatic features of the quantum kicked rotor, notably dynamical localization in momentum, or quantum resonances. We present a heuristic explanation, based on a classical phase space generalization of a well-known argument, that maps the quantum kicked rotor on a tight-binding model with disorder. Such results suggest reconsideration of generally accepted views that dynamical localization and quantum resonances are a pure result of quantum coherence. PMID:25379918

Guarneri, Italo; Casati, Giulio; Karle, Volker



Transitioning Challenges Faced by Chinese Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review examines transitioning challenges faced by Chinese international students who pursue graduate degrees in the United States. Based on existing research on adulthood in U.S. and Chinese contexts and the features of Chinese graduate students, Chinese adults, and international students as learners in Western countries, the…

Huang, Ying



Theatricality and Cultural Critique in Chinese Cinema  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will look at the interplay between the theatrical 1 and the cinematic in Chinese fi lm. In its fl edgling stage, Chinese cinema was inseparable from traditional Chinese theatre. The earliest Chinese fi lmmakers and actors had been trained in various theatrical disciplines. Thus, for them, the transposition of theatrical performances from stage to screen was a natural

Luo Hui



Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Older Patients: an Orphan Disease?  

PubMed Central

Hodgkin Lymphoma HL can be cured in the large majority of younger patients, but prognosis for older patients, especially those with advanced-stage disease, has not improved substantially. The percentage of HL patients aged over 60 ranges between 15% and 35%. A minority of them is enrolled into clinical trials. HL in the elderly have some specificities: more frequent male sex, B-symptoms, advanced stage, sub diaphragmatic presentation, higher percentage of mixed cellularity, up to 50% of advanced cases associated to EBV. Very old age (>70) and comorbidities are factor of further worsening prognosis. Like in younger patients, ABVD is the most used protocol, but treatment outcome remains much inferior with more frequent, severe and sometimes specific toxicities. Few prospective studies with specific protocols are available. The main data have been published by the Italian Lymphoma Group with the VEPEMB schedule and the German Hodgkin Study Group with the PVAG regimen. Recently, the Scotland and Newcastle Lymphoma Study Group published the SHIELD program associating a prospective phase 2 trial with VEPEMB and a prospective registration of others patients. Patients over 60y with early-stage disease received three cycles plus radiotherapy and had 81% of 3-year overall survival (OS). Those with advanced-stage disease received six cycles, with 3-year OS of 66%. The role of geriatric and comorbidity assessment in the treatment’s choice for HL in the elderly is a major challenge. The combination of loss of activities of daily living combined with the age stratification more or less 70y has been shown as a simple and effective survival model. Hopes come from promising new agents like brentuximab-vedotin (BV) a novel antibody-drug conjugate. The use of TEP to adapt the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy according to the metabolic response could also be way for prospective studies. PMID:25045458

Thyss, Antoine; Saada, Esma; Gastaud, Lauris; Peyrade, Frederic; Re, Daniel



Three-dimensional Telomere Signatures of Hodgkin- and Reed-Sternberg Cells at Diagnosis Identify Patients with Poor Response to Conventional Chemotherapy1  

PubMed Central

In classic Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) the malignant mononuclear Hodgkin (H) and multinuclear Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells are characterized by a distinct three-dimensional nuclear telomere organization with shortening of the telomere length and the formation of telomeric aggregates. We asked if the severity of these telomere changes correlates with the clinical behavior of the disease. We retrospectively evaluated three-dimensional telomere organization by quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) of diagnostic biopsies from 16 patients who were good responders and compared them with 16 diagnostic biopsies of 10 patients with refractory or relapsing HL (eight initial biopsies, four confirming progressions, and four confirming relapses). The H cells from patients with refractory/relapsing disease contained a significantly higher percentage of very small telomeres (P = .027) and telomere aggregates (P = .032) compared with H cells of patients entering rapid remission. These differences were even more significant (P = .002 and P = .013, respectively) when comparing the eight initial diagnostic biopsies of refractory/relapsing HL with diagnostic biopsies of eight patients with ongoing long-lasting remission (mean of 47 months). This specific three-dimensional telomere Q-FISH signature identifies these highly aggressive mononuclear H cells at the first diagnostic biopsy and thus may offer a new molecular marker to optimize initial treatment. PMID:22937179

Knecht, Hans; Kongruttanachok, Narisorn; Sawan, Bassem; Brossard, Josee; Prevost, Sylvain; Turcotte, Eric; Lichtensztejn, Zelda; Lichtensztejn, Daniel; Mai, Sabine



Classical communication and non-classical fidelity of quantum teleportation  

E-print Network

In quantum teleportation, the role of entanglement has been much discussed. It is known that entanglement is necessary for achieving non-classical teleportation fidelity. Here we focus on the amount of classical communication that is necessary to obtain non-classical fidelity in teleportation. We quantify the amount of classical communication that is sufficient for two one-bit and one two-bits noisy classical channels for non-classical fidelity and we also find the necessary amount of classical communication for isotropic transformation.

Banik, Manik



Computation in classical mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One way to introduce computation into the physics curriculum is to include it in a standard upper-level physics course. A course in intermediate classical mechanics is well-suited for this purpose. We discuss our approach and examples of student projects on solving differential equations and Liouville's theorem, projectile motion on a rotating Earth, motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields, and approximate analytical and numerical solutions for a classical model of a molecule. The projects introduce students to these physics topics and develop the students' computational skills.

Timberlake, Todd; Hasbun, Javier E.



Classic Organic Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the fact that the Classic Organic Reactions Page was designed for commercial purposes, to demonstrate the capabilities of ChemPen chemical structure drawing software for Windows, the page offers a useful resource for chemistry students and professionals. The creator of this page, and author and proprietor of ChemPen, Dr. Hilton Evans, has cited the literature for each reaction. The site contains drawings for over 300 alphabetically listed classic organic reactions. The list begins with the Acetoacetic Ester Condensation and ends with the Zinke-Suhl Reaction.



Classical Mechanics Simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical Mechanics Simulations is one of a series of nine comprehensive books that have been produced by the Consortium for Upper-Level Physics software (CUPS), which is funded by the United States National Science Foundation. They are intended to be used in conjunction with physics undergraduate courses. Each volume has one or more diskettes containing a number of versatile computer programs.

Cyril Isenberg



Careers in the Classics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

America's few Black classics professors have overcome contempt and criticism to contribute a unique perspective to the study of the ancient world. Dr. Patrice Rankine, an associate professor from Purdue University, has grown used to the irony. As one of the few Black classicists teaching at an American university, he has drawn plenty of skepticism…

Lum, Lydia



Classical Mythology. Fourth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for students with little or no background in classical literature, this book introduces the Greek and Roman myths of creation, myths of the gods, Greek sagas and local legends, and presents contemporary theories about the myths. Drawing on Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Vergil, and others, the book provides many translations and paraphrases of…

Morford, Mark P. O.; Lenardon, Robert J.


Romantic / classical Science play  

E-print Network

Romantic / classical Science play Space/time [Brechtian theater] Epic theater Didactic Alienation) Iteration Fractals Free research/authority Argument from authority Logical fallacy Basic postulates Prose vs. verse Meter Alien anthropology Props and staging Believing game They Say / I Say Illusion #12;Things we


Introduction Classical Field Theory  

E-print Network

Introduction Classical Field Theory Locally Covariant Quantum Field Theory Renormalization Time evolution Conclusions and outlook Locality and Algebraic Structures in Field Theory Klaus Fredenhagen II¨utsch and Pedro Lauridsen Ribeiro) Klaus Fredenhagen Locality and Algebraic Structures in Field Theory #12

Baer, Christian


Classical Dark Matter  

E-print Network

Classical particle-like solutions of field equations such as general relativity, could account for dark matter. Such particles would not interact quantum mechanically and would have negligible interactions apart from gravitation. As a relic from the big bang, they would be a candidate for cold dark matter consistent with observations.

Mark J Hadley



Introducing Classics to Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University students in India generally dislike reading English classics, but some students well prepared in advance enjoyed Dickens'"Tale of Two Cities." They first read an illustrated comic book version, then read a dramatized version while listening to a recording, and then read an abridged version before reading the original. (CFM)

Kumar, Sarat



The Classical Cake Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)

Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.



Colorful and Classic Favorites  

E-print Network

in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity most days 1 2 #12;Colorful and Classic all can see: · large sheets of paper (flip chart pages), masking tape, and markers; or · chalk board and chalk; or · white board and erasable markers n 10-20 blank index cards or pieces of paper n Resource 1


Classical and quantum satisfiability  

E-print Network

We present the linear algebraic definition of QSAT and propose a direct logical characterization of such a definition. We then prove that this logical version of QSAT is not an extension of classical satisfiability problem (SAT). This shows that QSAT does not allow a direct comparison between the complexity classes NP and QMA, for which SAT and QSAT are respectively complete.

Anderson de Araújo; Marcelo Finger



Chinese Scrabble : a web-based speech-enabled game for Chinese vocabulary building  

E-print Network

The subject of this thesis is a web-based language game Chinese Scrabble, whose main objective is to help students of Chinese to practice speaking, to learn and review vocabulary both in pinyin and in Chinese characters. ...

Trnovcova, Zuzana



Quantum particles from classical statistics  

E-print Network

Quantum particles and classical particles are described in a common setting of classical statistical physics. The property of a particle being "classical" or "quantum" ceases to be a basic conceptual difference. The dynamics differs, however, between quantum and classical particles. We describe position, motion and correlations of a quantum particle in terms of observables in a classical statistical ensemble. On the other side, we also construct explicitly the quantum formalism with wave function and Hamiltonian for classical particles. For a suitable time evolution of the classical probabilities and a suitable choice of observables all features of a quantum particle in a potential can be derived from classical statistics, including interference and tunneling. Besides conceptual advances, the treatment of classical and quantum particles in a common formalism could lead to interesting cross-fertilization between classical statistics and quantum physics.

C. Wetterich



Chinese Rubbings Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several scholars and collectors, such as Langdon Warner and Lawrence Sickman, have presented their extensive East Asian rubbings collection to Harvard University, and these materials have remained a valuable resource for decades. Persons working in the fields of Chinese history, biography, epigraphy, calligraphy, and fine arts have come to Cambridge to consult the rubbings, and now many of them are available on this site. Visitors can browse the rubbings by title, name, subject, or genre for starters, and then move on to perform detailed searches as well. Some of the more notable rubbings in the collection include those from Xiaotangshan stone chamber, Wu Liang Shrine, and the Buddhist grotto sites in Gongxian and Longmen in Henan Province.


Chinese Historical Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Archaeological digs can tell us much about ancient civilizations, but what about more recent periods of human habitation? This fine collection from the USC Digital Library presents over 1,100 images of artifacts excavated from two sites in Southern California. The Chinatown section features 1,040 color images of artifacts from the original Los Angeles Chinatown. These items were recovered during the construction of the Metro Rail Red Line by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The online collection includes photos of wine bowls, ink stone boxes, and other fragments of items from daily household life. The second segment includes items excavated in 1992 from an old adobe structure in Santa Barbara that housed a Chinese laundry from the mid 1880s to 1905. The collection can be searched via keyword, and it is quite a resource for historians, archaeologists, and others.



Chinese Military Power  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new resource from the Commonwealth Institute's Project on Defense Alternatives (PDA) (reviewed in the January 12, 1999 Scout Report for Social Sciences) offers a gateway to "online analysis and research tools essential to understanding China's military policy, capabilities, and potential." The full-text offerings are accessed through links to a variety of English-language sources, and are grouped by topic, such as Commentary, Military Analyses, Political and Economic Conditions, Regional Context, and US Policy Toward China, among others. In addition, online resources on several special topics (China and the RMA, Arms Trade and Proliferation, Taiwan Confrontation, Cox Report and Aftermath, and China Arsenal) are also provided. Other resources include a bibliography, links to selected research sites, and contact information for a number of specialists in the field. If the site remains regularly updated as promised, it should become a useful current awareness tool for researchers and students studying Chinese military policy and US-China military relations.


The Chinese Cult of Examinations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the cult of examinations continues to affect both teachers and students in China, and concludes that any serious reform of Chinese education depends on thoroughly rethinking the role of examinations in learning. (SR)

Krebs, Sylvia H.



Chinese culture and fertility decline.  


Coale has suggested that cultural factors exert a significant influence on fertility reduction; countries in the "Chinese cultural circle" would be the first to show fertility decline. In China, the view was that traditional Chinese culture contributed to increased population. This paper examines the nature of the relationship between Chinese culture and fertility. Attention was directed to a comparison of fertility rates of developing countries with strong Chinese cultural influence and of fertility within different regions of China. Discussion was followed by an explanation of the theoretical impact of Chinese culture on fertility and direct and indirect beliefs and practices that might either enhance or hinder fertility decline. Emigration to neighboring countries occurred after the Qing dynasty. Fertility after the 1950s declined markedly in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and mainland China: all countries within the Chinese cultural circle. Other countries within the Chinese circle which have higher fertility, yet lower fertility than other non-Chinese cultural countries, are Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia. Within China, regions with similar fertility patterns are identified as coastal regions, central plains, and mountainous and plateau regions. The Han ethnic group has lower fertility than that of ethnic minorities; regions with large Han populations have lower fertility. Overseas Chinese in East Asian countries also tend to have lower fertility than their host populations. Chinese culture consisted of the assimilation of other cultures over 5000 years. Fertility decline was dependent on the population's desire to limit reproduction, favorable social mechanisms, and availability of contraception: all factors related to economic development. Chinese culture affects fertility reduction by affecting reproductive views and social mechanisms directly, and indirectly through economics. Confucianism emphasizes collectivism, self-reliance, education and cultivation of moral character, and atheism. Confucian beliefs that interfere with fertility decline are the advocacy of self-sufficient livelihood, the emphasis on family and lineage, autocracy, patriarchy and feudal rule, the 5 constant virtues, contempt for labor and working people, science and technology, and a closed-door policy. Socialism hindered fertility decline by promoting population growth as a symbol of the superiority of socialism and by lack of recognition of population or environmental problems in socialist countries. The goal is to accept Westernization, reduce obstacles, develop economically, and use cultural influence positive to fertility decline. PMID:12317926

Wu, C; Jia, S



Classifying traditional Chinese painting images  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more traditional Chinese painting art images are digitalized and exhibited on the Internet. Effective browsing and retrieving them is an imperative problem need to be addressed. This paper proposes a scheme to classify traditional Chinese paintings. The algorithm uses three low-level features to achieve such a high-level classification: Ohta histogram, color coherence vector and auto-correlation. An accuracy of

Shuqiang Jiang; Wen GaolZ; Weiqiang Wang



Review Article PET Response-Guided Treatment of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: A Review of the Evidence and Active Clinical Trials  

E-print Network

Copyright © 2011 Paul Aridgides et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Risk-adaptive therapy for Hodgkin’s lymphoma focuses on treatment modifications based on assessment of response. [ 18 F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) performed during or after completion of chemotherapy is a strong prognostic factor for eventual treatment outcome. Conceptually, this strategy seeks to increase efficacy and minimize toxicity through the appropriate selection of patients for either therapy escalation (high-risk, PET positive) or de-escalation (low-risk, PET negative). Preliminary evidence with tailoring both chemotherapy (drug selection, number of cycles, and dose) and radiotherapy (omission or inclusion) is varied; however, numerous clinical trials seeking to validate this approach are ongoing. This paper summarizes the available evidence and active protocols involving PET response-adapted therapy for adult (early and advanced stages) Hodgkin’s lymphoma. 1.

Paul Aridgides; Jeffrey Bogart; Anna Shapiro; Ajeet Gajra



Cologne high-dose sequential chemotherapy in relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: results of a large multicenter study of the German Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (GHSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We designed a dose- and time-intensified high-dose sequential chemotherapy regimen for patients with relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HD). Patients and methods: Eligibility criteria included age 18 - 65 years, histologically proven primary progressive (PD) or relapsed HD. Treatment consisted of two cycles DHAP (dexamethasone, high- dose cytarabine, cisplatinum); patients with chemosensitive disease received cyclophosphamide followed by peripheral blood

A. Josting; C. Rudolph; M. Mapara; J.-P. Glossmann; M. Sienawski; M. Sieber; H. H. Kirchner; B. Dorken; D. K. Hossfeld; J. Kisro; B. Metzner; W. E. Berdel; V. Diehl; A. Engert



Classical Language Instruction Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed by Christian Wildberg at Princeton University, the Classical Language Instruction Project is designed to function as a resource for college undergraduates hoping to gain some insight into the pronunciation and elocution of ancient Greek and Latin. As the rationale for the Project states on the site: "There may be considerable debate among scholars about the most 'authentic' way to pronounce Greek or Latin; yet it is certain that the texts from the ancient world reflect a vivid and complex spoken language, not a lifeless code." With that in mind, the site features different classical scholars reading passages by a number of writers, including Homer, Plato, Virgil, Horace, Ovid, and Seneca. As the scholars read, students can follow along, view the passage in English, and pause the recording in order to develop an understanding of the text and its pronunciation. Finally, the site also includes a brief essay on rhythm and meter in Greek and Latin.


Bidirectional coherent classical communication  

E-print Network

A unitary interaction coupling two parties enables quantum communication in both the forward and backward directions. Each communication capacity can be thought of as a tradeoff between the achievable rates of specific types of forward and backward communication. Our first result shows that for any bipartite unitary gate, coherent classical communication is no more difficult than classical communication -- they have the same achievable rate regions. Previously this result was known only for the unidirectional capacities (i.e., the boundaries of the tradeoff). We then relate the tradeoff curve for two-way coherent communication to the tradeoff for two-way quantum communication and the tradeoff for coherent communiation in one direction and quantum communication in the other.

Aram W. Harrow; Debbie W. Leung



Classical group field theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ordinary formalism for classical field theory is applied to dynamical group field theories. Focusing first on a local group field theory over one copy of SU(2) and then, on more involved nonlocal theories (colored and noncolored) defined over a tensor product of the same group, we address the issue of translation and dilatation symmetries and the corresponding Noether theorem. The energy momentum tensor and dilatation current are derived and their properties identified for each case.

Ben Geloun, Joseph



Classical Helium Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The classical-physics model of helium is a simple example of a three body problem and is similar to gravitational problem of a heavy sun and two light planets. It consists of two electrons moving in a 2/r potential well and interacting through a 1/r potential. Initial conditions can be set to show phenomena such as autoionization or braided orbits. These conditions are stored in an xml document.

Christian, Wolfgang; Gould, Harvey; Tobochnik, Jan



Classical Time Crystals  

E-print Network

We consider the possibility that classical dynamical systems display motion in their lowest energy state, forming a time analogue of crystalline spatial order. Challenges facing that idea are identified and overcome. We display arbitrary orbits of an angular variable as lowest-energy trajectories for nonsingular Lagrangian systems. Dynamics within orbits of broken symmetry provide a natural arena for formation of time crystals. We exhibit models of that kind, including a model with traveling density waves.

Alfred Shapere; Frank Wilczek



Revisiting a Classic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a 26-year-old English teacher in 1958, Chinua Achebe had no idea that the book he was writing would become a literary classic, not only in Africa but also throughout the world. He could only try to articulate the feelings he had for his countrymen and women. Achebe had a burning desire to tell the true story of Africa and African humanity. The…

Rogers, Ibram



Extended field radiotherapy, combined modality treatment or involved field radiotherapy for patients with stage IA lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma: a retrospective analysis from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Since there are no randomized studies, the treatment of choice for patients with early stage lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (LPHL) remains unclear. We thus reviewed all LPHL cases registered in the database of the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG) and compared the different treatment approaches, such as extended field (EF), involved field (IF) radiation and com- bined modality (CM) treatment

L. Nogova ´; T. Reineke; H. T. Eich; A. Josting; H. K. Muller-Hermelink; K. Wingbermuhle; C. Brillant; A. Gossmann; J. Oertel; M. V. Bollen; R.-P. Muller; V. Diehl; A. Engert



Acetylcholinesterase: `classical' and `non-classical' functions and pharmacology  

E-print Network

Acetylcholinesterase: `classical' and `non-classical' functions and pharmacology Israel Silman and Joel L Sussman The synaptic enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) terminates transmission at cholinergic reversible interaction with the nicotinic ACh receptor and, finally, hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase (ACh

Sussman, Joel L.


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Leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and residential proximity to industrial plants  

SciTech Connect

The risks of developing leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma from living near industrial facilities were evaluated among men from Iowa and Minnesota in a population-based, case-control study. We found a statistically significant increase in the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 1.4) and a slight, nonsignificant excess for leukemia (RR = 1.2) among individuals who lived .8-3.2 km (1/2-2 miles) from a factory. Risks were greater for certain histologic types: follicular lymphoma (RR = 1.5), acute lymphocytic leukemia (RR = 5.4), and acute myelocytic leukemia (RR = 2.2). For non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (but not for leukemia), the relative risks for those living within .8 km (1/2 mile) of a factory were similar or slightly larger than for those living .8-3.2 km (1/2-2 miles) from a factory. Risks did not increase with duration of residence near a factory. The elevated risks of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were particularly associated with residing near stone, clay, or glass industry facilities. The risk of developing leukemia was greater among persons who resided near chemical and petroleum plants. These preliminary findings raise the possibility that general environmental exposure associated with certain industrial activities may elevate the risk of developing leukemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Evaluation of data on proximity to industrial plants from studies in other geographic locations is needed to determine whether our results represent a meaningful association.

Linos, A.; Blair, A.; Gibson, R.W.; Everett, G.; Van Lier, S.; Cantor, K.P.; Schuman, L.; Burmeister, L. (Athens Medical School (Greece))



Concurrent epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and papillary thyroid carcinoma in the treated field of Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Simultaneous malignancies in the field of radiation for Hodgkin's disease is an extremely rare event. A unique case of concurrent thyroid and neck mass in the postirra- diation field of a young patient with Hodgkin's disease is pre- sented. Methods and Results. Thyroidectomy and excision biopsy of the neck mass were performed. A 1.5-cm papillary thyroid carci- noma was

Gokcen Yildirim; Ann M. Gillenwater; Nelson G. Ordonez; Adam S. Garden; Adel K. El-Naggar



Isolated III cranial nerve palsy: a Hodgkin's lymphoma?  


A 69-year-old woman developed ptosis and diplopia due to an isolated pupil-involving left oculomotor nerve palsy. General examination was unremarkable. Initial workup showed a mild increase in cerebrospinal fluid proteins. Imaging studies were remarkable for a left oculomotor nerve enhancement in brain MRI and hyperfixation along the nerve's pathway in full body single-photon emission CT. Assuming the possible diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis, the patient was started on high-dose methylprednisolone. Three months later she developed pancytopenia. A bone marrow biopsy was performed and histopathology revealed infiltration by Hodgkin's lymphoma. Adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine protocol chemotherapy was started and full haematological remission obtained after four cycles, despite mild oculomotor nerve palsy persisted. Isolated oculomotor palsy as the first presenting manifestation of a lymphoma is rare and alternative differential diagnosis must be considered in the absence of other lymphoma manifestations. In this case as with many rare initial manifestations of common diseases watchful waiting was crucial to the correct diagnosis and treatment strategy. PMID:24759607

Meireles, Joana; Garrett, Maria Carolina; Abreu, Pedro



Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in common variable immunodeficiency.  


The association between cancer and immunodeficiency is well established. In common variable immunodeficiency (CVI), a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by low serum immunoglobulins and poor antibody production, we previously reported a total of 13 cancers in 11 individuals arising in continuously observed group of patients. Of the 13, 7 were NHL and 1 was a myeloma which progressed to lymphoma. We report here the histologic, immunologic, cytogenetic, and clinical features of these 8 NHL along with 3 new lymphomas which have appeared in this group (now 117 patients). From our studies, the lymphomas which have arisen in CVI share certain features with the lymphomas which appear in the childhood immunodeficient syndromes. Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome, Ataxia Telangiectasia, or severe combined immunodeficiency: they are similar in overall frequency (13%), are often B-cell in origin, and extranodal in location. However, unlike the lymphomas of the immunodeficient child, lymphomas in CVI may be more differentiated and secrete immunoglobulin. For CVI patients with stage I or II disease, as for non-Hodgkin lymphomas in general, the prognosis is good. In our group, NHL in CVI have appeared most often in females of the 5th to 7th decade and not in childhood. Cytogenetic studies in lymphomas show that cytogenic abnormalities, including chromosomal translocation, can be found in this group, but more studies will be needed to assess the frequency of these events. PMID:1829873

Cunningham-Rundles, C; Lieberman, P; Hellman, G; Chaganti, R S



[Non Hodgkin lymphoma of the sigmoid colon: case report].  


Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) occurs in extranodal location in approximately 20% of patients with limited stage, high-grade disease. Colon is infrequently involved as a primary location, accounting for 4% of all extranodal NHL and far less than 1% of all colonic malignancies. Colonic NHL differs significantly in terms of presentation, therapy and outcome relative to other more common gastrointestinal sites, like stomach or small bowel. The most common location is the cecum (60-74% of cases), while the sigmoid is involved in 2.5-14%. Largely related to the lack of specific signs and symptoms, patients frequently present advanced locoregional disease. Moreover, more than half of patients require an emergent surgery, usually due to pain, bleeding, or obstruction. Therapy usually involves resection of the affected colon and regional lymph nodes followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or/and radiotherapy. Utilizing this approach 5 years survival rates range between 27-55%. We present a 59 years old man with weight loss,abdominal pain, palpable mass and intestinal obstruction. A sigmoidectomy was realized with histopathologic report of NHL. Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy and abdominal radiation were administered. After a 6 month follow-up from initial procedure he is now asymptomatic with Karnofsky of 90. Therefore a surgeon should consider the possibility of NHL when evaluating such patients. PMID:19666296

Garza-Sánchez, J; Hernández-Ramírez, D A; Rocha-Ramírez, J L; Rojas-Illanes, M; Parrado-Montaño, W; Cancino-López, J A; Dorantes-Díaz, D E; Jonguitud-Muro, L A



Proteolytic activity of human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas.  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to assess the net proteolytic activity of human non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). We have compared the extracellular matrix (ECM)-degradative abilities of human NHLs, reactive lymphoid hyperplasias, and established lymphoid cell lines using Matrigel invasion and elastin degradation assays. The inhibition studies allowed identification of the classes of proteinases involved in ECM degradation. Our results indicate that lymphocytes and other leukocytes derived from both human NHLs and reactive lymphoid hyperplasias are capable of Matrigel penetration, but only cells derived from the high-grade human NHLs degrade elastin in vitro. Established lymphoid cell lines (both malignant and Epstein-Barr virus immortalized) do not produce MMP-9, do not penetrate the Matrigel, and do not degrade elastin. Moreover, in human NHLs, elastolytic activity is blocked by metalloproteinase inhibitors, while inhibitors of the other classes of proteolytic enzymes have only minor effects. This study identifies metalloproteinases as the most important class of proteinases involved in ECM degradation by NHLs. The previous studies suggest that, within this class, MMP-9 represents the key enzyme that plays a role in the biological aggressiveness of human NHLs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:9466583

Kossakowska, A. E.; Hinek, A.; Edwards, D. R.; Lim, M. S.; Zhang, C. L.; Breitman, D. R.; Prusinkiewicz, C.; Stabbler, A. L.; Urbanski, L. S.; Urbanski, S. J.



Late cardiopulmonary toxicity after treatment for Hodgkin's disease.  

PubMed Central

Cardiac and pulmonary functions were evaluated in 75 patients aged 50 years or under, treated for Hodgkin's disease by mantle radiotherapy at least 3 years earlier; all received the same mantle field radiotherapy: radiotherapy alone, MOPP chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, MOPP and ABVD chemotherapy plus radiotherapy. No patient had any symptom of heart disease. Only borderline abnormalities of ECG or echocardiogram were observed in 12 patients. One of them showed a moderate aortic stenosis which was known before the treatment; apical or septum hypokinesia were present in four patients and one patient had a slightly right ventricular dilatation. Twelve (16%) chest radiographs showed moderate or severe abnormalities, but there was no significant correlation between the results of pulmonary function tests and Xenon ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy, the clinical examination and the intensity of the radiological sequelae. Twenty-nine (64%) Xenon scintigraphies showed a reduction of lung perfusion in the irradiated areas without any symptom. The resting mean pulmonary function test was significantly lower for the patients than for the control group with regard to Total Capacity and Vital Capacity. The exercise tolerance, as indicated by analysis of blood gases, was below the one expected for only two patients who were dyspneic during the low level of exercise. We did not find any significant difference between the three treatment groups. We conclude that the treatment with mantle field under good technical conditions (high energy photons, moderate doses...) can result in minimal cardiopulmonary dysfunction. PMID:1616862

Allavena, C.; Conroy, T.; Aletti, P.; Bey, P.; Lederlin, P.



The ISI distribution of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron  

PubMed Central

The simulation of ion-channel noise has an important role in computational neuroscience. In recent years several approximate methods of carrying out this simulation have been published, based on stochastic differential equations, and all giving slightly different results. The obvious, and essential, question is: which method is the most accurate and which is most computationally efficient? Here we make a contribution to the answer. We compare interspike interval histograms from simulated data using four different approximate stochastic differential equation (SDE) models of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron, as well as the exact Markov chain model simulated by the Gillespie algorithm. One of the recent SDE models is the same as the Kurtz approximation first published in 1978. All the models considered give similar ISI histograms over a wide range of deterministic and stochastic input. Three features of these histograms are an initial peak, followed by one or more bumps, and then an exponential tail. We explore how these features depend on deterministic input and on level of channel noise, and explain the results using the stochastic dynamics of the model. We conclude with a rough ranking of the four SDE models with respect to the similarity of their ISI histograms to the histogram of the exact Markov chain model. PMID:25339894

Rowat, Peter F.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.



Spontaneous spiking in an autaptic Hodgkin-Huxley setup.  


The effect of intrinsic channel noise is investigated for the dynamic response of a neuronal cell with a delayed feedback loop. The loop is based on the so-called autapse phenomenon in which dendrites establish connections not only to neighboring cells but also to its own axon. The biophysical modeling is achieved in terms of a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model containing such a built in delayed feedback. The fluctuations stem from intrinsic channel noise, being caused by the stochastic nature of the gating dynamics of ion channels. The influence of the delayed stimulus is systematically analyzed with respect to the coupling parameter and the delay time in terms of the interspike interval histograms and the average interspike interval. The delayed feedback manifests itself in the occurrence of bursting and a rich multimodal interspike interval distribution, exhibiting a delay-induced reduction in the spontaneous spiking activity at characteristic frequencies. Moreover, a specific frequency-locking mechanism is detected for the mean interspike interval. PMID:21230690

Li, Yunyun; Schmid, Gerhard; Hänggi, Peter; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz



Analysis of Aurora B kinase in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.  


This study explored the levels of Aurora B, a key regulator of mitosis, in 71 lymph nodes and tumor specimens excised operatively from individuals with various types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHLs). Immunohistochemical examination found that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (10/21, 48%) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) (6/7, 86%) cells highly (percentage of positive cells, >20%) expressed Aurora B in their nuclei. On the other hand, none of the low-grade B-cell lymphoma (n=20), except for one case of follicular lymphoma, highly expressed this protein kinase, suggesting that levels of Aurora B correlated with histological grade in B-cell NHLs (P<0.01). Exposure of BL/leukemia cells to AZD1152-HQPA in vitro, a selective inhibitor of Aurora B kinase, potently induced growth arrest and apoptosis in a caspase-dependent, as well as -independent manner. Moreover, AZD1152 synergistically enhanced the effects of vincristine (VCR) to induce growth arrest of these cells. Further experiments found that VCR increased levels of the p-Aurora B through the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, which was blocked in the presence of AZD1152-HQPA. PMID:19823168

Ikezoe, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Yang, Jing; Adachi, Yoshihiro; Nishioka, Chie; Furihata, Mutsuo; Koeffler, H Phillip; Yokoyama, Akihito



Testicular function following the treatment of Hodgkin's disease in childhood.  

PubMed Central

Testicular function was studied in 40 males treated in childhood for Hodgkin's disease at St Bartholomew's Hospital, and the Hospital for Sick Children, London, between 1971-1985. All patients were 16 years or over at evaluation, and off treatment more than 6 years. Basal FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured. Testicular size was measured using a Prader orchidometer, and all patients were offered a seminal analysis. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy, usually ChlVPP. Twenty-one also had radiotherapy, five below the diaphragm. Twelve patients were treated with radiotherapy alone (five below the diaphragm). Twenty-six of 28 patients treated with chemotherapy and three of five patients treated with radiotherapy alone below the diaphragm have elevated basal FSH levels, and 18 of these also have elevated basal LH levels. Median testicular volume is 11 ml (range 5-25 ml). Eleven of 13 patients investigated are azoospermic. All patients have normal testosterone levels, and normal secondary sexual characteristics. There is no biochemical evidence of healing of the damaged germinal epithelium with elevated FSH levels persisting up to 17 years from the end of therapy. These results indicate a high incidence of damage to the germinal epithelium in patients treated with ChlVPP chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy below the diaphragm. Appropriate counselling of these patients with regard to their reproductive capabilities is essential. PMID:8260374

Shafford, E. A.; Kingston, J. E.; Malpas, J. S.; Plowman, P. N.; Pritchard, J.; Savage, M. O.; Eden, O. B.



Spontaneous spiking in an autaptic Hodgkin-Huxley setup  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of intrinsic channel noise is investigated for the dynamic response of a neuronal cell with a delayed feedback loop. The loop is based on the so-called autapse phenomenon in which dendrites establish connections not only to neighboring cells but also to its own axon. The biophysical modeling is achieved in terms of a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model containing such a built in delayed feedback. The fluctuations stem from intrinsic channel noise, being caused by the stochastic nature of the gating dynamics of ion channels. The influence of the delayed stimulus is systematically analyzed with respect to the coupling parameter and the delay time in terms of the interspike interval histograms and the average interspike interval. The delayed feedback manifests itself in the occurrence of bursting and a rich multimodal interspike interval distribution, exhibiting a delay-induced reduction in the spontaneous spiking activity at characteristic frequencies. Moreover, a specific frequency-locking mechanism is detected for the mean interspike interval.

Li, Yunyun; Schmid, Gerhard; Hänggi, Peter; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz



Infradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease: long term results of combined modality therapy.  


Hodgkin's disease (HD) confined below the diaphragm accounts for less than 5% of all patients with HD. Although the major characteristics of this presentation appear established, optimal modalities of treatment still remain difficult to define. From April 1972 to October 1988, 28 patients with newly diagnosed infra-diaphragmatic HD, clinical stages I or II have been treated with 3 successive prospective protocols combining initial chemotherapy and radiotherapy (40 gy). This series of patients accounted for 4,3% of patients with HD limited to clinical stages (CS) I and II. Overall survival and freedom from relapse at 15 years were 74,4% and 73% respectively, without significant differences between clinical stages I and II, presence or absence of B symptoms or histologic subtype. There is only a trend (p < 0,10) in favour of patients younger than 40 years. In all 7 clinically staged IA patients no relapses were seen and combined treatment does not appear to be better than inverted Y irradiation alone. On the other hand initial chemotherapy seems necessary in patients with CS II A and B since 15 of our 21 patients are alive in first CR whereas the crude rate of transdiaphragmatic nodal relapses may reach up to 53% following radiotherapy alone. PMID:8907273

Ifrah, N; Hunault, M; Jais, J P; Moreau, P; Desablens, B; Casassus, P; Briere, J; Le Maignan, C; Andrieu, J M



Structure of Classical Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we study the structure of a classical group G and its Lie algebra. We choose a matrix realization of G such that the diagonal subgroup H ? G is a maximal torus; by elementary linear algebra every conjugacy class of semisimple elements intersects H. Using the unipotent elements in G, we show that the groups GL(n,\\u000a \\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\u000a\\\\mathbbC\\\\mathbb{C}

Roe Goodman; Nolan R. Wallach


Bringing the Classics to Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes incorporating the classics into the elementary school curricula in a number of public and private schools. Argues bringing classical literature and ancient history to the classroom benefits and challenges students. Presents class projects that successfully apply the classics to critical thinking, creative writing, cultural diversity,…

Wilhelm, Michelle P.; Wilhelm, Robert M.



The Chinese Educational Resources Information Centre Project (Chinese ERIC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, this site features a database of Chinese and English journal article abstracts and educational documents. According to the providers, one of the main objectives of the project is "to use the American Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) system as a reference (and) to provide a bibliographic search of individual words of document resumes (citation abstracts) to users." The database covers authors' names, titles of journal articles, and abstracts in Chinese and/or English. It also provides abstracts of local educational masters' theses and doctoral dissertations. Users can search by keyword or free-text. A list of the academic journals used in the database is also provided.


Predictors of Beginning Reading in Chinese and English: A 2-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Kindergartners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ninety Chinese children were tested once at age 4 and again 22 months later on phonological-processing and other reading skills. Chinese phonological-processing skills alone modestly predicted Chinese character recognition, and English letter-name knowledge uniquely predicted reading of both Chinese and English 2 years later. Furthermore,…

McBride-Chang, Catherine; Suk-Han Ho, Connie



Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe



Assessment of Chinese Students' Experience with Foreign Faculty: A Case Study from a Chinese University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article compares Chinese students' responses to local Chinese versus American professors, and the effectiveness of the professors' respective teaching techniques. A case study made at a single university in China, which had a joint academic program with the United States, found that Chinese students preferred local Chinese professors to…

Ho, Raymond



Management practices of Chinese managers in Chinese MNCs operating in Bangkok  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze Thai and Chinese national characteristics based on Hofstede' s cultural dimensions, Chinese human resource management approaches, and Thai and Chinese social concepts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data for the analysis were obtained by surveying MBA students currently working in Chinese multinational companies and studying in public and private universities in Bangkok,

Chanchai Bunchapattanasakda; Pisit Wong



Entrainment and chaos in a pulse-driven Hodgkin-Huxley oscillator  

E-print Network

The Hodgkin-Huxley model describes action potential generation in certain types of neurons and is a standard model for conductance-based, excitable cells. Following the early work of Winfree and Best, this paper explores the response of a spontaneously spiking Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model to a periodic pulsatile drive. The response as a function of drive period and amplitude is systematically characterized. A wide range of qualitatively distinct responses are found, including entrainment to the input pulse train and persistent chaos. These observations are consistent with a theory of kicked oscillators developed by Qiudong Wang and Lai-Sang Young. In addition to general features predicted by Wang-Young theory, it is found that most combinations of drive period and amplitude lead to entrainment instead of chaos. This preference for entrainment over chaos is explained by the structure of the Hodgkin-Huxley phase resetting curve.

Kevin K. Lin



Thoracic CT scanning for mediastinal Hodgkin's disease: results and therapeutic implications  

SciTech Connect

Thoracic CT scans were performed on 42 newly diagnosed patients with Hodgkin's disease. Five of 10 patients with negative chest X ray (CXR) had abnormal thoracic CT scans. Among the remaining 32 patients with mediastinal Hodgkin's disease (MHD) on CXR, pericardial (Ep) and chest wall invasion (Ec) were the two most common sites of involvement which were detectable by CT scan alone. Ep and Ec accounted for 16 of 19 of the changes in treatment portal or philosophy based on CT scan findings. Because of the high risk of cardiac or pulmonary radiation toxicity in Ep or Ec, radiation treatment alone may be inadequate. Treatment of mediastinal Hodgkin's disease is reviewed here. The use of CT scans for identification of Ep, Ec, and other abnormalities will allow for more precise treatment, further define the use of conventional radiotherapy, combined modality therapy or whole lung irradiation, and allow more accurate analysis of treatment results.

Rostock, R.A.; Siegelman, S.S.; Lenhard, R.E.; Wharam, M.D.; Order, S.E.



In vivo somatic mutation in the lymphocytes of Hodgkin's disease patients  

SciTech Connect

While current medical therapies for Hodgkin's disease are usually quite effective, it has become increasingly clear that some of the therapies utilized carry an inherent risk for the induction of secondary malignancies. In order to examine the cellular and genetic responses to therapy for Hodgkin's disease among individuals, the authors have determined the mutant frequency of T-lymphocytes in 3 cohorts of patients and in controls using a T-cell cloning assay selecting for 6-thioguanine resistance. Overall, the results indicated that the individual response to Hodgkin's disease therapy was a heterogeneous one with a sub-population of persons having elevated mutant frequencies even many years after their last treatment. The larger frequency of elevated MFs in those patients who received intensive therapy (chemotherapy and radiotherapy) is consistent with their increased risk for second cancer induction.

Caggana, M.; Liber, H.L.; Mauch, P.M.; Coleman, C.N.; Kelsey, K.T. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))



Chinese immigrant entrepreneurs in New England area  

E-print Network

More and more Chinese immigrants came to the U.S. to start a whole new life. Some of them became entrepreneurs. This study focused on Chinese new immigrant entrepreneurs in New England area, and analyzed what factors have ...

Zhou, Joe Xiongwei



Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis  

E-print Network

Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

Shu, Jian-Jun



Teaching With Documents: Chinese Exclusion Forms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history of Chinese immigration to the United States and provides a facsimilie of a form used to document immigrants under the Chinese Exclusion Act. Teaching suggestions are included. (JDH)

Simmons, Linda, Ed.



Mid-America Chinese Resource Guide  

E-print Network

The Mid-America Chinese Resource Guide is an Internet project of the Midwest Chapter Chinese American Librarians Association (CALA) which began in October 1997. The goal of this project is to create an online reference ...

Doll, Vickie



Iconicity of simple Chinese characters.  


The iconicity of a Chinese character, or the degree to which it looks like the concept that it represents, has been suggested as affecting the learning and processing of the character. However, previous studies have not provided good empirical information on the iconicity of specific characters. To fill this gap, 40 U.S. adults with no knowledge of Chinese were given an English word or short phrase together with two Chinese characters and were asked which character matched the meaning of the English word. The right and wrong answers had the same number of strokes, and different wrong answers were used for different participants. We examined all 213 simple-structure Chinese characters that occur in textbooks for elementary school children. The overall percentage of correct responses was 53.6%, slightly but significantly higher than would be expected by chance. Using a false discovery rate procedure, we found that 15 of the 213 characters were guessed at a level higher than chance. The proportion of correct responses to each character, which can be taken as an indicator of its degree of iconicity, should be useful to researchers studying Chinese character reading and writing. The full database, showing the proportion of correct guesses and other psycholinguistic variables for each character, can be downloaded from . PMID:22399244

Xiao, Wen; Treiman, Rebecca



Acoustics of Chinese traditional theatres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese traditional theatre is unique in the world as an architectural form. The Chinese opera evolved into maturity as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 11th-14th centuries, and Chinese theatrical buildings developed accordingly. As the Chinese opera plays on the principle of imaginary actions, no realistic stage settings are required. But Chinese audiences have placed great demands on vocal performance since ancient times. Pavilion stages that are small in area, open on three sides, and thrusting into the audience area are commonly found in traditional theatres, both the courtyard type and auditorium type. The pavilion stage is backed with a wall and a low ceiling (flat or domed). The stage functions as a reflecting shell, which enhances the sound to the audience and provides self-support to the singer. Numerous theatres of this kind exist and function in good condition to the present time. Acoustical measurements show that the sound strength and clarity in audience areas is satisfactory in moderate size courtyard traditional theatres. [Work supported by NSF.

Wang, J. Q.



The Chinese-American Workforce  

SciTech Connect

The current study focused on a group of Chinese-American professionals working in a scientific environment in the San Francisco Bay area. One of the goals of the present study is to determine to what extent do the Chinese cultural values impact job performance, interpersonal relationships and perception of job satisfaction. This was carried out by identifying the important motivational factors and optimal working conditions which provided career satisfaction for the Chinese-American professionals. Comparisons were made between the US born and foreign-born respondents to determine differences, if any, in their perceptions relative to career satisfaction due to varying acculturation levels. In addition, this study identified barriers to career advancement and compared these barriers with the results of another survey on the Chinese-American professionals working in government, industry and private sector in the Bay area. A structured survey questionnaire was designed by the investigator and sent to 167 Chinese-American professionals, composed of both US-born and foreign-born. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

Nissen, S.H.



Second neoplasms in patients with Hodgkin's disease following combined modality therapy--the Yale experience  

SciTech Connect

From 1969 to 1982, 183 patients with previously untreated stages IIIB and IV Hodgkin's disease and relapsing Hodgkin's disease after radiation therapy were treated with combination chemotherapy plus low-dose irradiation (CRT). One hundred fifty patients who achieved a complete response (CR) were analyzed for risk of developing a second neoplasm. Median follow-up has been 8.3 years. Actuarial survival of all patients is 74% at 10 years with a relapse-free survival of 68%. An additional 24 patients with stage IIIA disease were also treated with CRT. There were 22 CRs at risk who were analyzed. Median follow-up has been 3+ years with an actuarial survival of 90% at five years and a relapse-free survival of 83%. Second neoplasms have developed in 14 of 172 patients at risk: acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL; five patients); aggressive histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; three patients); and a variety of solid neoplasms (six patients). Time to second neoplasm diagnosis after initial treatment ranged from 12 to 141 months. Five patients were older than 40 years. At the time of diagnosis of the second malignancy, 11 patients were free of Hodgkin's disease (for 36 to 141 months) and three were receiving therapy for recurrent Hodgkin's disease. The 10-year actuarial risk (%) of developing ANLL was 5.9 +/- 2.8; for NHL, the risk was 3.5 +/- 2.4, and for solid neoplasms, 5.8 +/- 3.0. Our results suggest that combination chemotherapy plus low-dose irradiation does not appear to significantly increase the risk of developing second neoplasms above that already reported for combination chemotherapy when administered as either initial or salvage treatment of Hodgkin's disease.

Koletsky, A.J.; Bertino, J.R.; Farber, L.R.; Prosnitz, L.R.; Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Portlock, C.S.



Fenretinide and Rituximab in Treating Patients With B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Contiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage II Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia



A Killer of a Classic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Now that you've read To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, you might have a basis to look at it crically! It is considered a great classic in literary circles. What do you think? What is a classic? Would you call this book a classic? Why or why not? Current Knowledge As a group, create a paper. On the top of the paper, write a definition of a classic, in the literary sense. What makes a book a "classic?" Then, together, compose two lists. One list should be reasons why the book, ...

Griffiths, Mrs.



Protrusion-guided extracellular vesicles mediate CD30 trans-signalling in the microenvironment of Hodgkin's lymphoma.  


Classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL)-affected lymphoid tissue contains only a few malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells, which are disseminated within a massive infiltrate of reactive cells. In particular, the innate immune infiltrate is deemed to support tumour growth by direct cell-cell interaction. Since they are rarely found in close proximity to the malignant cells in situ, we investigated whether cHL-derived extracellular vesicles might substitute for a direct cell-cell contact. We studied the crosstalk of the transmembrane proteins CD30 and CD30 ligand (CD30L) because they are selectively expressed on HRS and innate immune cells, respectively. Here, we showed that HRS cells released both the ectodomain as a soluble molecule (sCD30) and the entire receptor on the surface of extracellular vesicles. The vesicle diameter was 40-800 nm, as determined by cryo- and immune electron microscopy. In addition to CD30, typical extracellular vesicle markers were detected by mass spectrometry and flow cytometry, including tetraspanins, flotillins, heat shock proteins and adhesion molecules. In contrast to sCD30, vesicles caused a CD30-dependent release of interleukin-8 in CD30L(+) eosinophil-like EoL-1 cells and primary granulocytes from healthy donors, underscoring the functionality of CD30 on vesicles. In extracellular matrix (ECM)-embedded culture of HRS cells, a network of actin and tubulin-based protrusions guided CD30(+) vesicles into the micro-environment. This network targeted CD30(+) vesicles towards distant immune cells and caused a robust polarization of CD30L. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of 30 µm sections showed a CD30 vesicle-containing network also in cHL-affected lymphoid tissue of both mixed-cellularity and nodular sclerosing subtypes. This network might facilitate the communication between distant cell types in cHL tissue and allow a functional CD30-CD30L interaction in trans. The tubulin backbone of the network may provide a target for the therapy of cHL with antitubulin-based CD30 antibody constructs. PMID:24659185

Hansen, Hinrich P; Engels, Hanna-Mareike; Dams, Maria; Paes Leme, Adriana F; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Simhadri, Vijaya Lakshmi; Dürkop, Horst; Reiners, Katrin S; Barnert, Sabine; Engert, Andreas; Schubert, Rolf; Quondamatteo, Fabio; Hallek, Michael; Pogge von Strandmann, Elke



Primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma and a review of the literature since 2006.  


A 28-year-old woman of Laotian origin presented with dry cough, fevers, night sweats and weight loss over the preceding 6 weeks. Radiological investigations revealed large complex cavitary lesions in the middle and lower lobes of the right lung, with no mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Bronchoscopic investigations did not yield a diagnosis. CT-guided fine-needle aspiration raised the possibility of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Open lung biopsy initially supported this, but eventually a microscopic and immunohistochemical diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma was made. The final diagnosis was primary pulmonary Hodgkin's lymphoma. We present a new case as well as a literature review of reported cases published since 2006. PMID:24711477

Cooksley, Nathania; Judge, Daniel James; Brown, James



Mucosal bridges of the upper esophagus after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease  

SciTech Connect

A 47-yr-old man developed dysphagia 4 yr after mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. X-ray series, fiberoptic endoscopy, and computerized transverse tomography showed mucosal bridges in the upper esophagus. Histologically, these bridges were constituted from normal epithelium overlying a chronic inflammatory lamina propria, without evidence of Hodgkin's disease recurrence or of squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing was improved by endoscopic electrocoagulation and Eder-Puestow dilatations. Several arguments favor the hypothesis that these mucosal bridges were the late sequelae of radiation esophagitis.

Papazian, A.; Capron, J.P.; Ducroix, J.P.; Dupas, J.L.; Quenum, C.; Besson, P.



Karyotype in secondary hematologic disorders after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. A study of 19 patients  

SciTech Connect

In 19 cases of secondary hematologic disorders in patients previously treated for Hodgkin's disease, chromosome aberrations were analyzed in relation to the type of previous chemo- and/or radiotherapy, age of the patients, histopathologic features of the Hodgkin's disease at diagnosis, time interval between the treatment and the occurrence of the secondary disorder, and survival. The karyotype was of significant prognostic value when three cytogenetic groups were considered: patients with normal karyotypes; patients with aberrations of chromosome 7 as the sole anomaly; and patients with complex rearrangements and translocations. The last group showed the lowest rate of survival. Bone marrow transplantation was successful in two patients with a normal karyotype.

Iurlo, A.; Mecucci, C.; Van Orshoven, A.; Michaux, J.L.; Boogaerts, M.; Van den Berghe, H.



[Preliminary results of conservative combination radiotherapy and chemotherapy in early stages of Hodgkin's disease].  


20 patients in early stages (I-IIB) Hodgkin's disease were treated with smaller than commonly used doses of cytostatics and radiation. Men were given EBVD-CVPP-EBVD (epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, DTIC, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, prednisone) and women: CVPP-EBVD-CVPP. Radiotherapy was limited to involved and adjacent fields. In all patients complete remission was achieved lasting now 9 to 107 months (mean 55 months). Two patients relapsed. No undesirable early side effects were observed. Further observations will show if such therapeutic option in non-advanced Hodgkin's disease is sufficient. PMID:9091857

Gabry?, K; Urbaniak-Kujda, D; Dubowik, R



Mediastinal osteosarcoma with extension to lungs in a patient treated for Hodgkin's disease.  


This article reports a patient with Hodgkin's disease in remission after combined modality therapy who developed metastatic pulmonary osteosarcoma, subsequently found to originate in soft tissue of the mediastinum, within a field irradiated 11 years previously. This patient developed a series of radiotherapy-induced complications in addition to osteosarcoma. Only 16 cases of extraskeletal osteosarcoma after radiation treatment have been reported, none originating in the mediastinum. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma occurring in a patient previously treated for Hodgkin's disease and with the sarcoma originating within the irradiated field. PMID:3052784

Catanese, J; Dutcher, J P; Dorfman, H D; Andres, D F; Wiernik, P H



A New Chinese Speech Synthesis Method Apply in Chinese Poetry Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new Chinese speech synthesis method apply in Chinese poetry teaching and learning, which focus on the\\u000a prosody of syllables and words in Chinese poetry. As the word is a key semantic unit for Chinese poetry, we concentrate on\\u000a Chinese word prosody and propose a speech synthesis method, which consider the appearance with the essence of human

Chengsong Zhu; Yaoting Zhu



Chinese-English Machine Translation System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The report documents results of a two-year R&D effort directed at the completion of a prototype system for Chinese-English machine translation of S&T literature. The system, designated QUINCE, accepts Chinese input exactly as printed, with no pre-editing of any kind, and produces English output on experimental basis. Coding of Chinese text via…

Wang, William S-Y; And Others


The Rhetoric of Chinese Layoff Memos  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this analysis the authors introduce three memos announcing layoffs in Chinese companies. The three memos, translated from Chinese, are from: (1) Hewlett Packard China, an American company doing business in China; (2) UT Starcom, founded in China; and (3) Rizhao Steel, one of China's largest steel manufacturers. Comparing the Chinese and…

Sisco, Lisa A.; Yu, Na



Chinese Orthographic Decomposition and Logographic Structure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Chinese orthographic decomposition" refers to a sense of uncertainty about the writing of a well-learned Chinese character following a prolonged inspection of the character. This study investigated the decomposition phenomenon in a test situation in which Chinese characters were repeatedly presented in a word context and assessed…

Cheng, Chao-Ming; Lin, Shan-Yuan



The Chinese American: Inscrutable to Some.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chinese Americans have been called inscrutable--not open to being understood. More casual, spontaneous, and expressive people find it hard to understand the strict discipline of feelings and highly selective and controlled expressions such as the Chinese American may practice. This paper serves as a social introduction to the Chinese American. For…

Chan, Carole


Subjective Intelligibility Testing of Chinese Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a complete methodology and rationale for the subjective intelligibility testing of Chinese speech. It replaces the combination of several previously published Chinese intelligibility tests which have been in use for almost a decade, with a single composite test procedure constructed from a foundation of subjective trials and auditory evidence. Since publication of the first elements of Chinese

Ian Vince Mcloughlin



Gambling and the Older Chinese in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada, there is a lack of research on gambling among the older adults from ethnic minority groups, especially the older Chinese. In this study, two research questions were used to examine gambling among the older Chinese: (1) What is the pattern of gambling among the older Chinese in Canada? (2) What are the predictors associated with gambling among the

Daniel W. L. Lai



Animals of the Chinese Zodiac. [Lesson Plan].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Chinese lunar calendar dates back to the second millennium BC. Unlike the western calendar, which numbers the years progressively from the birth of Jesus Christ, the Chinese calendar is cyclical. Each cycle is made up of 12 years--after the 12th year, the cycle is repeated. The Chinese associate each year of a 12-year cycle with an animal, and…



Managerial Success Factors: A Chinese Profile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on an exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China (PRC) to identify the managerial success factors perceived by Chinese managers to be important in their market economy. The study also looked at how these factors are exhibited by recent graduates of Chinese universities now working in Chinese firms.…

Stivers, Bonnie P.; Adams, Janet S.; Liu, Bin



Quantum Logic as Classical Logic  

E-print Network

We propose a semantic representation of the standard quantum logic QL within a classical, normal modal logic, and this via a lattice-embedding of orthomodular lattices into Boolean algebras with one modal operator. Thus our classical logic is a completion of the quantum logic QL. In other words, we refute Birkhoff and von Neumann's classic thesis that the logic (the formal character) of Quantum Mechanics would be non-classical as well as Putnam's thesis that quantum logic (of his kind) would be the correct logic for propositional inference in general. The propositional logic of Quantum Mechanics is modal but classical, and the correct logic for propositional inference need not have an extroverted quantum character. One normal necessity modality suffices to capture the subjectivity of observation in quantum experiments, and this thanks to its failure to distribute over classical disjunction. The key to our result is the translation of quantum negation as classical negation of observability.

Simon Kramer



Dementia studies in Chinese populations.  


Variations in the prevalence of dementia in different ethnic groups have been reported worldwide, and a number of reviews have provided a picture of epidemiological studies in dementia research. However, little is known about epidemiological studies in Chinese populations. In this review, we searched PubMed and the Web of Science for original research articles published in English up to July 2013 on the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of dementia in Chinese populations worldwide. Except for the prevalence, we included only population-based follow-up studies. We identified 25 studies in elderly Chinese residents in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, and found a higher prevalence of dementia in Mainland China than in the other locations, which may be due to that the studies from Mainland China are more recent than those from other locations. A notable increase in incidence was observed when dementia cases were diagnosed using 10/66 diagnostic criteria compared to other criteria. Studies on risk factors for dementia were limited and mostly from Mainland China. Age, gender, education, smoking, and alcohol consumption were related to the risk of dementia in Chinese populations. Only two prognostic studies were identified, and age, gender, and residential area were related to the prognosis of dementia. In conclusion, the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for dementia found in Chinese populations were comparable to other ethnic groups, but no conclusive results on prognosis were found. The differences in prevalence and incidence were influenced by the diagnostic criteria and the time of study. Longitudinal population-based studies on the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis of dementia in Chinese populations are required. PMID:24627330

Pei, Jin-Jing; Giron, Maria Stella T; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Hui-Xin



Measurement of Radiation Dose Delivered to Breast Tissue During Mantle Field Irradiation for Hodgkin’s Disease 1 1 Reprint requests to: Dr. Teresa Bruno, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Physics, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Box 701, Houston, TX 77030  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of Hodgkin’s disease involves mantle field irradiation. Patients with early stage (I–II) Hodgkin’s are often in their 20’s or 30’s and can expect to live for many decades after the successful management of their disease; however, complications, including second cancers in the treatment area, occur in some survivors. Breast cancer is among the leading second solid cancers that

Alex Kowalski; Susan Smith



The Glory of Chinese Printing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit from the Printing Museum of China examines the development, types, techniques, and artistry of Chinese printing with an emphasis on materials from ancient times. Different sections discuss the advent of standardized characters; character-carving skills; paper, writing brushes, and ink; the invention of printing; printing in the Mid- and Late-Tang, the Yuan, Ming, Song, Qing and Five dynasties; and more. Sections feature graphic elements with explanatory text (captions are provided in Chinese and English). The exhibit is supported by the Hong Kong Printers Association, the Graphic Arts Association of Hong Kong, and the Hong Kong Printing Industry Workers Union.



The History of Chinese Bookbinding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Dunhuang Project (IDP), an initiative of the Chinese section of the British Library's Oriental and India Office Collections (first mentioned in the October 16, 1998 Scout Report), has recently introduced a new site on the history of Chinese bookbinding. The site combines articles written by Colin Chinnery of the IDP with illustrations and photographs, to provide visitors with a general overview of six types of bookbinding methods used on the materials in the Dunhuang Collection. Despite its unwieldy framed format, the site presents an excellent scholarly introduction to a fascinating facet of print history.


Access Excellence Classic Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Another good resource from is the Activities Exchange Classic Collection Web site. The page presents links that focus on a single person or event by putting it into historical context and relating it to current science. Each contains a set of references, classroom activities, graphics, background information, and more. Some of the titles of the activities include The Discovery Of Radioactivity: The Dawn of the Nuclear Age; Radioactivity: Historical Figures; How We See: The First Steps of Human Vision; Discovery, Chance, and the Scientific Method; DNA Structure; and Development of Polio Vaccines. The pages and activities are well designed and offer educators some interesting and unique lessons for their students.


Classical Covariant Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Part I. Fields: 1. Introduction; 2. The electromagnetic field; 3. Field parameters; 4. The action principle; 5. Classical field dynamics; 6. Statistical interpretation of the field; 7. Examples and applications; Part II. Groups and Fields: 8. Field transformations; 9. Spacetime transformations; 10. Kinematical and dynamical transformations; 11. Position and momentum; 12. Charge and current; 13. The non-relativistic limit; 14. Unified kinematics and dynamics; 15. Epilogue: quantum field theory; Part III. Reference: A Compendium of Fields: 16. Gallery of definitions; 17. The Schrödinger field; 18. The real Klein Gordon field; 19. The complex Klein Gordon field; 20. The Dirac field; 21. The Maxwell radiation field; 22. The massive Proca field; 23. Non-Abelian fields; 24. Chern-Simons theories; 25. Gravity as a field theory; Part IV. Appendices.

Burgess, Mark



Classical Covariant Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Foreword; Part I. Fields: 1. Introduction; 2. The electromagnetic field; 3. Field parameters; 4. The action principle; 5. Classical field dynamics; 6. Statistical interpretation of the field; 7. Examples and applications; Part II. Groups and Fields: 8. Field transformations; 9. Spacetime transformations; 10. Kinematical and dynamical transformations; 11. Position and momentum; 12. Charge and current; 13. The non-relativistic limit; 14. Unified kinematics and dynamics; 15. Epilogue: quantum field theory; Part III. Reference: A Compendium of Fields: 16. Gallery of definitions; 17. The Schrödinger field; 18. The real Klein Gordon field; 19. The complex Klein Gordon field; 20. The Dirac field; 21. The Maxwell radiation field; 22. The massive Proca field; 23. Non-Abelian fields; 24. Chern-Simons theories; 25. Gravity as a field theory; Part IV. Appendices.

Burgess, Mark



Classically isospinning Hopf solitons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform full three-dimensional numerical relaxations of isospinning Hopf solitons with Hopf charge up to 8 in the Skyrme-Faddeev model with mass terms included. We explicitly allow the soliton solution to deform and to break the symmetries of the static configuration. It turns out that the model with its rich spectrum of soliton solutions, often of similar energy, allows for transmutations, formation of new solution types, and the rearrangement of the spectrum of minimal-energy solitons in a given topological sector when isospin is added. We observe that the shape of isospinning Hopf solitons can differ qualitatively from that of the static solution. In particular, the solution type of the lowest energy soliton can change. Our numerical results are of relevance for the quantization of the classical soliton solutions.

Battye, Richard A.; Haberichter, Mareike



Immunophenotyping of Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in Sudan  

PubMed Central

Introduction Non-Hodgkin?s lymphomas (NHLs) are heterogeneous group of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders. Study objectives This was a retrospective study aimed to classify NHLs into B cell and T cell types; in addition to demonstrate the histological patterns and correlate it with gender, age and site of the biopsy. Methods The study was conducted in Histopathology Department, National Heath Laboratory, during the period 2007-2010. Formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue blocks which were diagnosed as NHLs by routine Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain during the period 2000-2008 were used. Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stain were done. Immunohistochemistry stains performed according to Dako cytomation protocol 2007. Lymphoid markers which were used in this study are CD45 (LCA), CD20 (B cell marker), CD3 (T cell marker), CD15 and CD 30. Epithelial marker which was used is CK MNF116. The total number of samples collected was 66; two of them were excluded because of poor processing. Another two specimens were excluded because they are non-reactive with lymphoid markers. The remaining 62 specimens were confirmed to be NHLs and classified into B cell and T cell types. Results The study showed that B cell NHLs represented 87.1% while T cell NHLs were 12.9%. The Male: Female ratio was 1.6:1. The major affected age group was (47-67) years (38.1% of all specimens). The most frequent histological grade was intermediate grade NHLs (27% of all specimens). The most common site of NHLs in this study is the lymph node (40% of all specimens) followed by stomach (19.4%). Conclusion Extranodal locations are the most common sites affected with T cell NHLs. In conclusion; this study confirmed the fundamental role of immunohistochemistry in diagnosis and classification of NHLs. PMID:25400849

Hamid, Khalid Hamad; Elduma, Adel Hussein; Mohamed, Badereldin Mirgani Yousif; Salih, Magdi Mansour Abdel Farage



Phytanic acid and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Greater consumption of red meat, processed meat and dairy products has been associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in several previous reports. Phytanic acid, a saturated fatty acid obtained primarily through the consumption of ruminant meat and dairy products, may offer a potential underlying mechanism for these associations. In a population-based case–control study of 336 cases and 460 controls conducted in Nebraska during 1999–2002, we examined whether phytanic acid-containing foods or total phytanic acid intake, estimated from a food frequency questionnaire and the published phytanic acid values of 151 food items, were associated with increased NHL risk. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for overall NHL and the common NHL histologic subtypes. In multivariable models, higher intakes of density-adjusted beef [ORT3 vs. T1 = 1.5 (1.1–2.2); Ptrend = 0.02], total dairy products [OR = 1.5 (1.1–2.2); Ptrend = 0.02) and milk [OR = 1.6 (1.1–2.3); Ptrend = 0.01] were associated with an increased risk of NHL. Intake of total phytanic acid was positively associated with NHL risk [OR = 1.5 (1.0–2.1); Ptrend = 0.04]. In analyses stratified by NHL subtype, greater consumption of beef was associated with an increased risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and greater consumption of milk was associated with an increased risk of follicular lymphoma (FL). Total phytanic acid intake was associated with an increased risk of FL and small lymphocytic lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Our results provide support that total phytanic acid and phytanic acid-containing foods may increase NHL risk. PMID:23042099

Ollberding, Nicholas J.



Immunophenotypic criteria for the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  

PubMed Central

This study examines the immunohistologic profiles of a large series of histologically proven benign and malignant lymphoproliferative processes in order to define immunophenotypic criteria useful in the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Using a method of analysis relying solely on immunoarchitectural features of a given case, the authors were able to define immunologic criteria capable of differentiating benign from malignant lymphoid processes independent from conventional morphologic analysis. In general, these criteria involved identification of abnormal expression or loss of antigens in B- and T-lineage populations. Among B-lineage populations the following features were associated with malignant histology: 1) light-chain-restricted B lineage, 2) light chain -B lineage, 3) Leu-1+ B lineage, 4) L60+ B lineage, 5) 41H+, Ki-67+ B lineage, 6) loss of pan-B antigens, and 7) LFA-1-B lineage. Among T-cell populations outside the thymus, phenotypes associated with malignancy included 1) loss of pan-T antigens (including loss of the beta chain of the T-cell antigen receptor), 2) coexpression or loss of T-subset antigens, 3) Leu-6+ T-lineage, and 4) MB-1+ T lineage. Application of these criteria to a series of nearly 500 cases of lymphoma indicated that over 90% of B-lineage and about 80% of T-lineage neoplasms manifested immunophenotypic abnormalities that could distinguish them from benign, reactive lymphoid processes. It is concluded that immunophenotypic analysis of lymphoproliferative lesions is sufficiently sensitive and specific to confirm the histologic diagnosis of lymphoma in the vast majority of cases seen in clinical practice. Furthermore, in difficult cases or those with limited material or poor histology, immunophenotypic analysis may be the only means of making a definitive diagnosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:3111266

Picker, L. J.; Weiss, L. M.; Medeiros, L. J.; Wood, G. S.; Warnke, R. A.



The role of mitoxantrone in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.  


The development of doxorubicin was an important advance in the treatment of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Alternatives to doxorubicin, such as mitoxantrone (Novantrone), have less nonhematologic toxicity and could offer a therapeutic advantage in some situations if similar antilymphoma activity exists. Several combination regimens that include mitoxantrone have been shown to be active. These include mitoxantrone/ifosfamide (Ifex) and mitoxantrone/etoposide combinations as salvage therapy for aggressive lymphomas. Mitoxantrone in combination with fludarabine (Fludara) for the treatment of newly diagnosed follicular lymphomas and in combination with fludarabine and dexamethasone for relapsed/refractory follicular lymphomas has produced high complete response rates. Other evolving uses of mitoxantrone include combination therapy with cladribine (Leustatin) or rituximab (Rituxan), and as part of conditioning regimens for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In diffuse aggressive lymphoma, mitoxantrone, 10 mg/m2, substituted for doxorubicin, 50 mg/m2, results in a poorer response when CNOP (cyclophosphamide [Cytoxan, Neosar], mitoxantrone [Novantrone], vincristine [Oncovin], prednisone) is compared to CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin HCl vincristine, prednsione); however, increasing the mitoxantrone dose to 12 mg/m2 in either the CNOP or CMP-BOP (cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, procarbazine [Matulane], bleomycin [Blenoxane], vincristine, prednisone) regimens yields results comparable to those achieved with the doxorubicin-containing regimen. Comparable results have also been observed when 10 mg/M2 of mitoxantrone was substituted for 45 mg/M2 of doxorubicin in the m-BACOD (methorexate, bleomycin, doxorubicin [Adriamycin], cyclophosphamide, vincristine, dexamethasone) regimen. Mitoxantrone is active in NHL, and combinations including mitoxantrone can be used effectively and may provide an advantage in the elderly. PMID:12017536

Armitage, James O



Stomach Cancer Risk After Treatment for Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear. Patients and Methods We conducted an international case-control study of stomach cancer nested in a cohort of 19,882 HL survivors diagnosed from 1953 to 2003, including 89 cases and 190 matched controls. For each patient, we quantified cumulative doses of specific alkylating agents (AAs) and reconstructed radiation dose to the stomach tumor location. Results Stomach cancer risk increased with increasing radiation dose to the stomach (Ptrend < .001) and with increasing number of AA-containing chemotherapy cycles (Ptrend = .02). Patients who received both radiation to the stomach ? 25 Gy and high-dose procarbazine (? 5,600 mg/m2) had strikingly elevated stomach cancer risk (25 cases, two controls; odds ratio [OR], 77.5; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1452) compared with those who received radiation < 25 Gy and procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2 (Pinteraction < .001). Risk was also elevated (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.4) among patients who received radiation to the stomach ? 25 Gy but procarbazine < 5,600 mg/m2; however, no procarbazine-related risk was evident with radiation < 25 Gy. Treatment with dacarbazine also increased stomach cancer risk (12 cases, nine controls; OR, 8.8; 95% CI, 2.1 to 46.6), after adjustment for radiation and procarbazine doses. Conclusion Patients with HL who received subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy had dose-dependent increased risk of stomach cancer, with marked risks for patients who also received chemotherapy containing high-dose procarbazine. For current patients, risks and benefits of exposure to both procarbazine and subdiaphragmatic radiotherapy should be weighed carefully. For patients treated previously, GI symptoms should be evaluated promptly. PMID:23980092

Morton, Lindsay M.; Dores, Graca M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hall, Per; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Hodgson, David C.; Storm, Hans H.; Johannesen, Tom B?rge; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Andersson, Michael; Fossa, Sophie D.; Hauptmann, Michael; Holowaty, Eric J.; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Langmark, Fr?ydis; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Travis, Lois B.; Aleman, Berthe M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.



Quantum Computing's Classical Problem, Classical Computing's Quantum Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tasked with the challenge to build better and better computers, quantum computing and classical computing face the same conundrum: the success of classical computing systems. Small quantum computing systems have been demonstrated, and intermediate-scale systems are on the horizon, capable of calculating numeric results or simulating physical systems far beyond what humans can do by hand. However, to be commercially viable, they must surpass what our wildly successful, highly advanced classical computers can already do. At the same time, those classical computers continue to advance, but those advances are now constrained by thermodynamics, and will soon be limited by the discrete nature of atomic matter and ultimately quantum effects. Technological advances benefit both quantum and classical machinery, altering the competitive landscape. Can we build quantum computing systems that out-compute classical systems capable of some logic gates per month? This article will discuss the interplay in these competing and cooperating technological trends.

Van Meter, Rodney



Searle's Chinese Box: Debunking the Chinese Room Argument  

Microsoft Academic Search

John Searle's Chinese room argument is perhaps the most influential andwidely cited argument against artificial intelligence (AI). Understood astargeting AI proper – claims that computers can think or do think– Searle's argument, despite its rhetorical flash, is logically andscientifically a dud. Advertised as effective against AI proper, theargument, in its main outlines, is an ignoratio elenchi. It musterspersuasive force fallaciously

Larry Hauser



Histopathological features and their prognostic impact in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma - a matched pair analysis from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).  


Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare lymphoma entity. We performed a matched-pair analysis to evaluate the prognostic impact of several histopathological features in this distinct Hodgkin lymphoma subtype. Lymph node samples of NLPHL patients were tested for CD15, IgD, phosphorylated STAT6, ICOS and Epstein-Barr virus status of the malignant lymphocyte-predominant cells as well as epithelioid cell clusters and activated T cells in the microenvironment. None of these features was associated with a particular clinical outcome. However, patients presenting with epithelioid cell clusters showed a non-significant trend towards a lower relapse rate, justifying further evaluation of this marker. PMID:24965443

Hartmann, Sylvia; Eichenauer, Dennis A; Plütschow, Annette; Mottok, Anja; Bob, Roshanak; Koch, Karoline; Bernd, Heinz-Wolfram; Cogliatti, Sergio; Hummel, Michael; Feller, Alfred C; Ott, German; Möller, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Stein, Harald; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Engert, Andreas; Klapper, Wolfram



Intensification of the CHOEP Regimen for High-Grade Non Hodgkin’s Lymphoma by G-CSF: Feasibility of a 14Day Regimen  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground: The efficacy of chemotherapy protocols for the treatment of high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) has not improved significantly during the last decade. Treatment results in patients presenting with high-grade NHL are not satisfactory. At present, etoposide remains the only drug that may add to the efficacy of the CHOP regimen. Hemopoietic growth factors like G-CSF allow a dose intensification of

L. Trümper; Ch. Renner; M. Nahler; A. Engert; P. Koch; V Diehl; M. Pfreundschuh



[Safety evaluation of Chinese medicine on tumor therapy].  


As a characteristic tumor therapy in China, Chinese medicine (CM) plays an important position in comprehensive treatment of tumor. It's a critical issue of objective realization, analysis and evaluation of CM safety for scientific decision-making in tumor safe medication and it also is a pivotal issue which affects the international communication. The safety evaluation of CM includes three phases: pre-clinical safety evaluation, clinical trials (micro-dose studies and traditional clinical trials) and post-marketing CM safety assessment. The key point of evaluation should be distinguished among different stages and various types of CM (such as classic formulas, Chinese herbal extracts, etc). Emphasis should be given to chronic toxicity when evaluating oral Chinese herbal , microdose studies and quality control must be underlined while injection is evaluated and more attention should be pay to the dose-effect relationship and time-effect relationship when turned to toxic Chinese medicine , and so as for the toxicity grading study. Moreover, we should constantly improve CM safety assessment method in various stages of tumor treatment, such as introducing the concept of syndrome classification theory, bringing in metabonomics and real-world research method which are similar to the CM therapeutic concept. Most importantly, we must keep its own feature of CM theory when we learn the concept of safety evaluation from abroad. Actively exploring the anti-tumor medicine safety evaluation methods and strategies is of great significance for clinical and experimental research, and it can provide supportability platform to CM's international communication. PMID:24791513

Liu, Rui; Hua, Bao-Jin; Li, Jie



Iodine I 131 Monoclonal Antibody BC8 Before Autologous Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia



The prognostic impact of variant histology in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG).  


Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) accounts for approximately 5% of all Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implication of histopathologic NLPHL variants. Biopsies of 423 NLPHL patients treated within 9 prospective clinical trials performed by the German Hodgkin Study Group were classified as tumor cell-rich cases (n = 10), typical NLPHL (n = 308), or histopathologic variants (n = 105). Histopathologic variants were characterized by the presence of lymphoma cells outside the B-cell nodules or B-cell depletion of the microenvironment. Compared with typical NLPHL, histopathologic variants were associated with advanced disease (29.5% vs 14.6%, P = .0012) and a higher relapse rate (18.1% vs 6.5% at 5 years, P = .0009). Variant histology represented an independent prognostic factor (odds ratio = 2.955) in a multivariate model of progression/relapse. A prognostic score, including the risk factors variant histopathologic growth pattern, low serum albumin, and male gender, was derived from this model and allowed the definition of 3 distinct risk groups. NLPHL patients presenting with histopathologic variants have a poorer outcome compared with those showing typical histology. The newly developed prognostic score combining histologic and clinical features allows allocating NLPHL patients to defined risk groups. PMID:24100447

Hartmann, Sylvia; Eichenauer, Dennis A; Plütschow, Annette; Mottok, Anja; Bob, Roshanak; Koch, Karoline; Bernd, Heinz-Wolfram; Cogliatti, Sergio; Hummel, Michael; Feller, Alfred C; Ott, German; Möller, Peter; Rosenwald, Andreas; Stein, Harald; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Engert, Andreas; Klapper, Wolfram



Alisertib in Combination With Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma, B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; B-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Cutaneous B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Extranodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Intraocular Lymphoma; Nodal Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma; Noncutaneous Extranodal Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Mixed Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Small Cleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides/Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hairy Cell Leukemia; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; T-cell Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; T-cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia; Testicular Lymphoma; Waldenström Macroglobulinemia



Modern Chinese Literature and Culture Resource Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Modern Chinese Literature and Culture (MCLC) Resource Center provides an abundance of reference information on modern Chinese art, culture, film, and literature. This vast site includes an images archive; a collection of Chinese e-texts; a listing of works in translation; and several bibliographies on Chinese literature, film and media, music, art, and education. In addition, the site posts a list of associated library catalogs and bookstores, points to relevant online journals, and links to the syllabi of university courses on modern China. The MCLC Resource Center is produced at The Ohio State University's Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures by Kirk A. Denton, Associate Professor of Chinese Literature and editor of Modern Chinese Literature and Culture , with the assistance of Jeremy Sieg, a graduate student in Chinese Literature.



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center





ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




School Choice with Chinese Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the major characteristics of school choice in the Chinese context. It highlights the involvement of cultural and economic capital, such as choice fees, donations, prize-winning certificates and awards in gaining school admission, as well as the use of social capital in the form of "guanxi". The requirement for these resources…

Wu, Xiaoxin



Reproductive Rights and Chinese Women  

E-print Network

Reproductive Rights and Chinese Women Kelly Vogel "If the family planning program posed a conflict in fertility and life expectancy = global problem (40s and 50s) #12;Defining "Reproductive Rights" As defined by the UNFPA... Reproductive and sexual health as a component of overall health Reproductive decision making

New Hampshire, University of


Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron



Eye Movements during Chinese Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

respects, and for this reason, interest in the nature of the cognitive processes underlying Chinese reading has flourished over recent years. A number of researchers have used eye movement methodology as a measure of on-line processing to understand more about…

Liversedge, Simon P; Hyona, Jukka; Rayner, Keith



Bertrand Russell on Chinese Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The visit of Bertrand Russell to China during 1920 to 1921 was one of the most significant events in May Fourth Movement, and Russell pointed out that education was the most important thing for Chinese reconstruction. The author argues that we should interpret Russell's educational idea of China from a theoretic and practical point of view. The…

Zheng, Wei-ping



Chinese energy and Asian security  

Microsoft Academic Search

n early March 1997, a Chinese oil rig, the Kantan III, entered the waters between Hainan Island and the Vietnamese coast to explore for oil and natural gas in what Beijing considered a part of its Ledong exploration area. Vietnam, claiming the same area as part of its Block 113, protested vigorously. After some inconclusive talks between the two countries,

Felix K. Chang



Chinese American Librarians Job Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed a survey of 157 Chinese American librarians working in American libraries and found that more work in academic (44.6%) than in public (30.6%) libraries, that 80.9% are satisfied with their current jobs, and that 75% have managerial positions. Major barriers at work were identified as cultural differences (35.7%), race (23.6%), and…

Yang, Zheng Ye



Aspects of the Chinese Verb.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has long been realized that tense is not a feature of the Chinese verb system, which is controlled by a set of particles attached to the verb or to the sentence as a whole. The various usages involving these particles have been listed and described, the author points out, but the system as a whole has not been clearly defined. He suggests the…

Thompson, J. Charles



American Drama through Chinese Eyes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An American instructor taught a 5-week course on the family in American drama to a group of graduate English majors on the campus of Hebei Teachers' University in the People's Republic of China. The instructor learned as much about Chinese culture as the students learned about American culture. Lecture is the standard pedagogy even in graduate…

Brown, Joanne


Instructional Technology: The Chinese Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the current state of instructional technology in Chinese universities. Topics discussed include organizational patterns in audiovisual centers; the use of various media, including film, videotapes, overhead projectors, and television; the use of technology in language instruction; audiovisual equipment and appropriate technology; and…

Miller, William F.



Population-based survivorship research using cancer registries: a study of non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma survivors

J Cancer Surviv (2007) 1:49–63 DOI 10.1007/s11764-007-0004-3 Population-based survivorship research using cancer registries: a study of non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma survivors Neeraj K. Arora & Ann S. Hamilton & Arnold L. Potosky & Julia H. Rowland & Noreen


Radiation-induced chondrosarcoma of the clavicle complicating Hodgkin's disease. A case report  

SciTech Connect

Review of the literature reveals that postradiation chondrosarcoma is a rare secondary malignant bone tumor. This case report demonstrates a Grade 1 chondrosarcoma of the proximal right clavicle in a 17-year-old boy, eight years after extensive chemotherapy and radiation therapy for a Stage IIB Hodgkin's disease.

Aprin, H.; Calandra, J.; Mir, R.; Lee, J.Y.



Aqueous Extract of Lavender Angustifolia Inhibits Lymphocytes Proliferation of Hodgkin's Lymphoma Patients  

PubMed Central

Background There are several types of cancer, which cause millions of deaths worldwide every year. Many studies have confirmed that plants are adequate natural sources to be examined as anti-cancer drugs with fewer side effects than chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study the anti-cancer properties of Lavender aqueous extract on lymphocytes derived from patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma has been studied. Methods In order to determine the cytotoxic effects of the extract on lymphocytes of patients in stages III and IV of Hodgkin's lymphoma and two different cell lines in the presence of different concentrations of aqueous extract of Lavender, MTT colorimetric assay and flow cytometry analysis were used. Results Findings indicated that Lavender inhibited cell proliferation in both lymphocytes and cell lines with different effects. The effective concentration of Lavender that decreased viability of Hodgkin's lymphoma cells below Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50) value was 100 µg/ml and this was half of the therapeutic dose. In addition, apoptosis was the main mechanism the Hodgkin's lymphoma cell encountered when exposed to the aqueous extract of Lavender. Conclusion This experiment proposes that aqueous Lavender extract can be regarded as a potential anti-cancer agent in future studies.

Dalilan, Sona; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Heidari-Keshel, Saeed; Zamanian Azodi, Mona; Zali, Hakimeh



Harvard study finds body weight, diet may be risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma:

Body weight in young adulthood and diet appeared to be associated with the risk for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, according to results presented at the 10th AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, held Oct. 22-25, 2011.


Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphomas in Greece according to the WHO Classification of Lymphoid Neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this retrospective study, the largest unselected series in our country, was to illustrate the clinicopathological features of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of lymphoid neoplasms. A retrospective analysis was conducted and clinical features of histological subtypes were established in 810 patients (age ?15 years) with NHL who were treated at

T. Economopoulos; S. Papageorgiou; M. A. Dimopoulos; N. Pavlidis; C. Tsatalas; A. Symeonidis; A. Foudoulakis; D. Pectasides; D. Rontogianni; E. Rizos; P. Chalkia; A. Anagnostopoulos; M. Melachrinou; E. Papageorgiou; G. Fountzilas



Phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols as risk factors for soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

SciTech Connect

A population-based case-control study evaluated the relationship between soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and past exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols in western Washington state. A major purpose of the study was to determine if the risk of cancer was elevated in relation to chemicals potentially contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). A total of 160 men with soft tissue sarcoma and 581 men with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were group-matched with 694 randomly selected controls and were interviewed in person. Among the general population, no increased risks for either cancer were seen in relation to intensity or duration of past exposure to phenoxy herbicides or chlorophenols. Preliminary risk estimates for specific occupations that involve phenoxy herbicide or chlorophenol exposure included: farmer, herbicide formulator, applicator, forest sprayer, farmland sprayer, work in sprayed area, and work with or manufacture chlorophenyls. In addition, the risks of both soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were elevated among men with past exposure to various insecticides, organic solvents and metals, and among those with preexisting compromise of the immune system. Multivariate studies are in progress to ascertain the contribution of diverse factors to the risks of soft tissue sarcoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in association with phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols, and/or TCDD.

Woods, J.; Polissar, L.; Severson, R.; Heuser, L.



Reducing Treatment Intensity Doesn't Compromise Results in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

Reducing the dose of chemotherapy and radiotherapy did not compromise treatment efficacy in patients  with early-stage, low-risk Hodgkin lymphoma but led to fewer side effects, according to a study published August 12, 2010, in the New England Journal of Medicine.


Adding Radiation to Chemotherapy May Improve Outcomes in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adding radiation therapy to chemotherapy may improve outcomes in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, according to a paper published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in February 2011, but the long-term effects of this regimen are not known.


Late Effects May Not Warrant Using Radiation to Treat Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma

Patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who were treated with multidrug chemotherapy alone were more likely to be alive 12 years later than patients who received treatment that included radiation therapy, according to findings from a phase III clinical trial.


An Unusual Cervical Tumor as Presentation of a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Rare cervical cancers are responsible for a minority of cases encountered by a clinician. However, behavioral patterns, management, and prognosis of certain rare cervical cancers differ from either squamous carcinomas or adenocarcinomas. Here we present a case of a locally advanced cervical tumor as a presentation of an extranodal cervical non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with a review of the current literature. PMID:24782935

De Greve, Tom; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Van Hoof, Achiel; Coenegrachts, Kenneth; Van Trappen, Philippe



Body Mass Index, Leptin and Leptin Receptor Polymorphisms, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

E-print Network

ratios (ORs) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and the two major subtypes, diffuse large cell (DLCL to develop NHL or its major subtypes than persons with body mass index of 20 to . Among those with the LEP 19G allele, an increased risk esti- mate was found for all NHL [OR = 1

California at Berkeley, University of


Epidemiology of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL): trends, geographic distribution, and etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

While for most cancers incidence and mortality are decreasing, those of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) are steadily increasing. Research to define reasons for this increase is extensive, but has not yet resolved them. We have conducted a literature analysis on trends regarding changes in the incidence, geographic distribution, and etiologic factors of NHL. From our own and previous analyses, an increasing

Antonia M. S. Müller; Gabriele Ihorst; Roland Mertelsmann; Monika Engelhardt




E-print Network

describes the survival after childhood acute leukemia (AL) and non- Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the French 3995 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), 812 of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 1137 of NHL-61) and 87% (95% CI 85-89) for ALL, AML and NHL, respectively. Survival after AL increased from 77% (95% CI

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Polymorphisms in Ghrelin and Neuropeptide Y Genes Are Associated with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

E-print Network

and leptin receptor genes that are involved in body weight regulation, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL-based case-control study of NHL to further explore the role of genes involved in energy homeostasis and obesity in susceptibility to NHL. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone that induces NPY release and inhibits

California at Berkeley, University of


Polymorphisms in innate immunity genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

E-print Network

and infections have been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and NHL subtypes system may influence NHL susceptibility. To test this hypothesis, two large popu- lation-based case­control studies of NHL, conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area and the UK, were examined for polymorphisms

California at Berkeley, University of


Environmental and Behavioral Factors and the Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma  

E-print Network

for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) increased steadily and substantially over the last five decades of the 20th of the InterLymph Consor- tium to discuss the role of environment in NHL risk. Papers from that meeting workers and may represent occupational groups at risk of NHL, even without a known causal agent. It seems

California at Berkeley, University of


RESEARCH Open Access Age-period-cohort modelling of non-Hodgkin's  

E-print Network

2 , Arlette Danzon2 Abstract Background: The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has risen and cohort effects to NHL incidence patterns and therefore to provide clues to explain the increasing incidence. Methods: Population and NHL incidence data were provided for the Doubs region (France) during

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Polymorphisms and haplotypes in folate-metabolizing genes and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma  

E-print Network

-control study of non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area between 1988 and 1995 and NHL risk. The TYMS 6 base pair (bp) 6bp (homozygous for 6bp deletion), IVS6 68C>T, and 1053C>T genotypes (all in complete linkage disequilibrium) were all inversely associ- ated with NHL (TYMS; odds

California at Berkeley, University of


A single-institution case series of patients with cutaneous melanoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Over the past two decades, cutaneous melanoma (CM) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have both experienced unabated increases in incidence. Population-based studies have documented an elevated risk of subsequent NHL among patients with CM and vice versa. Methods: To better characterize the clinical features of patients who have had both malignancies, we retrospectively identified all patients with CM at the

Hensin Tsao; Kimberly Kwitkiwski; Arthur J. Sober



Computer-based Decision Support in the Management of Primary Gastric non-Hodgkin  

E-print Network

-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the stomach is a relatively rare malignant disorder, accounting for about 5% of gastric tumours. Until recently, the aetiology of gastric NHL was unknown; it is now generally believed researchers have recognised the need for decision support in the clinical manage- ment of patients with NHL [7

Lucas, Peter


Computer-based Decision Support in the Management of Primary Gastric non-Hodgkin  

E-print Network

lymphoma. 1 Introduction Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) of the stomach is a relatively rare malignant disorder, accounting for about 5% of gastric tumours. Until recently, the aetiology of gastric NHL in the clinical manage- ment of patients with NHL [7], NHL of the stomach included [8]. Therapy selection

Utrecht, Universiteit


Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation in Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Before and After Histologic Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with disseminated follicular non-Hodgkin's lym- phoma (NHL) are only occasionally cured with standard chemotherapy regimens. Although most of these tumors are initially responsive to chemotherapy. in 40% to 70% of patients the lymphoma will eventually transform to an NHL of higher grade malignancy and a poorer prognosis. We treated 1 8 patients having an original diagnosis of follicular NHL

Harry C. Schouten; Philip J. Bierman; William P. Vaughan; Anne Kessinger; Julie M. Vose; Dennis D. Weisenburger



A case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and exposure to pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has increased in most Western countries during the last few decades. Immunodefective conditions are established risk factors. In 1981, the authors reported an increased risk for NHL following exposure to certain pesticides. The current study was designed to further elucidate the importance of phenoxyacetic acids and other pesticides in the etiol- ogy of

Lennart Hardell; Mikael Eriksson



Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk and insecticide, fungicide and fumigant use in the Agricultural Health Study  

EPA Science Inventory

Farming and pesticide use have previously been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM). We evaluated agricultural use of specific insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants and risk of NHL and NHL-subtypes (including CLL an...


Study Finds Increased Lung Cancer Risk Following Treatment for Hodgkin's Disease

People with Hodgkin's disease (HD) who receive chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of the two treatments, are at higher risk of developing lung cancer, according to a report in the Feb. 6, 2002, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.


Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Pesticide Exposure: 25 Years of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 40 years, a substantial rise in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been observed. Epidemiologic studies aimed at understanding this rise have revealed some association with occupational exposure. NHL is common among farmers, where pesticides have been described as the culprit. The association between pesticides and NHL has been demonstrated mainly in case-control studies, while retrospective

Jacob Dreiher; Ella Kordysh



Gene Mutations Reveal Potential New Targets for Treating a Type of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Researchers have discovered genetic mutations that may contribute to the development of an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These findings provide insight into a mechanism that cancer cells may use to survive, thus identifying potential new targets for treatment of the disease.


Psychological distress after cancer cure: a survey of 459 Hodgkin's disease survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the levels of psychological distress and identify predictors of anxiety\\/depression caseness after cancer cure, a national population of 557 Hodgkin's disease (HD) survivors was surveyed. The respondents [204 women, 255 men, mean age 44 years (SD = 12)] returned a mailed questionnaire including The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Disease and treatment variables were based on the

JH Loge; AF Abrahamsen; Ø Ekeberg; E Hannisdal; S Kaasa



Differences in Nuclear DNA Organization Between Lymphocytes, Hodgkin and ReedSternberg Cells Revealed  

E-print Network

Revealed by Structured Illumination Microscopy Christiaan H. Righolt,1,2 Amanda Guffei,1 Hans Knecht,3 lymphocytes, Hodgkin cells and Reed� Sternberg cells using 3D structured illumination microscopy (SIM). We the changes of the nuclear DNA structure in any disease with superresolution light microscopy. J. Cell

van Vliet, Lucas J.


Biophysical Synaptic Dynamics in an Analog VLSI Network of Hodgkin-Huxley Neurons  

E-print Network

Biophysical Synaptic Dynamics in an Analog VLSI Network of Hodgkin-Huxley Neurons Theodore Yu1--We study synaptic dynamics in a biophysical net- work of four coupled spiking neurons implemented from a biophysical origin basis for the model implementation of the neurons and synapses coupled

Cauwenberghs, Gert


Contribution of PET imaging to the initial staging and prognosis of patients with Hodgkin's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Positron emission tomographic (PET) scanning utilizing (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a new method of tumor imaging based on the increased glucose metabolic activity of malignant tumors. In Hodgkin's disease (HD), PET has proven value for the evaluation of residual masses following treatment and for the early diagnosis of relapse. In the initial staging of HD, PET frequently shows a higher

R. Munker; J. Glass; L. K. Griffeth; T. Sattar; R. Zamani; M. Heldmann; R. Shi; D. L. Lilien



Drug shortage linked to greater risk of relapse in young Hodgkin lymphoma patients

A national drug shortage has been linked to a higher rate of relapse among children, teenagers and young adults with Hodgkin lymphoma enrolled in a national clinical trial, according to a report by researchers involved in the multi-institutional study.


Alisertib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Adult Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Hepatosplenic T-cell Lymphoma; Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma



Utility of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scanning in Managing Patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET\\/ computed tomography (CT) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) continues to expand worldwide. PET is currently widely utilized for response assessment after comple- tion of therapy and, to a lesser extent, for pretreat- ment staging and assessment of response during therapy (therapy monitoring). In pretreatment staging, PET cannot replace CT or bone marrow biopsy