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Sample records for chinese ethnic groups

  1. Dermatoglyphics from all Chinese ethnic groups reveal geographic patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao

    2010-01-01

    Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry. PMID:20098698

  2. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs haplotypes of Chinese Tibetan ethnic minority group.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhou; Jun, Wang; XingBo, Song; XiaoJun, Lu; Liu, Ding; BinWu, Ying

    2010-03-01

    We have co-amplified and analyzed 17 Y-chromosomal STRs loci (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, DYS439, DYS437, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635, YGATA-H4 and DYS385a/b) in 132 healthy unrelated autochthonous male individuals of Chinese Tibetan ethnic group residing in Lassa area of China. The gene diversity values for the Y-STRs loci ranged from a minimum 0.206 for DYS391 locus to a maximum of 0.912 for DYS385a/b locus in the populations. A total of 123 haplotypes were identified, among which 115 were unique and 8 occurred more than once. The overall haplotype diversity for 17 Y-STRs loci was 0.998. Research results will be valuable for forensic use in the regions and for Chinese population genetic study. PMID:20116321

  3. 24 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic structure for Chinese Kazak ethnic group and its genetic relationships with other groups.

    PubMed

    Mei, Ting; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yao-Shun; Chen, Jian-Gang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-09-01

    The Kazak ethnic minority is a large ethnic group in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and is valuable resource for the study of ethnogeny. In the present study, 24 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci were analyzed in 201 unrelated Kazak male individuals from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. The gene diversity of the 24 Y-STR loci in the studied Kazak group ranged from 0.0050 to 0.9104. According to haplotypic analysis of the 24 Y-STR loci, 113 different haplotypes were obtained, 96 of which were unique. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity in Kazak group were 0.9578 and 0.5622 at 24 STR loci, respectively. The haplotype diversity and discrimination capacity at Y-filer 17 loci, extended 11 loci, and minimal 9 loci were reduced to 0.9274 and 0.4279, 0.8459 and 0.3284, and 0.8354 and 0.2985, respectively, which could indicate that the more loci were detected, the higher forensic efficacy was obtained. We evaluated the application value of the 24 loci in forensic sciences and analyzed interpopulation differentiations by making comparisons between the Kazak1 (represent our samples from Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture) group and other 14 groups. The results of pairwise genetic distances, multidimensional scaling plot, and neighbor-joining tree at the same set of 17 Y-filer loci indicated that the Kazak1 group had the closer genetic relationships with Kazak2 (represent samples from the whole territory of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region), Mongolian, and Uygur ethnic groups. The present results may provide useful information for paternal lineages in forensic cases and can also increase our understanding of the genetic relationships between Kazak1 and other groups. PMID:27085524

  4. Mother-Toddler Interaction and Maternal Perception of Child Temperament in Two Ethnic Groups: Chinese-American and European-American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sheila; Freedman, Daniel G.

    A study was conducted to compare experiential features of mother/toddler interaction and maternal perception of toddler temperament in two ethnic groups: Chinese-Americans and European-Americans. Subjects were 16 mother/toddler dyads with five girls and three boys in each group matched for sex, age, and birth order. Caucasian mothers were…

  5. Genetic analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal STR loci of Chinese Tujia ethnic group residing in Youyang Region of Southern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-Ran; Jing, Yu-Ting; Zhang, Guo-Dong; Fang, Xiang-Dong; Yan, Jiang-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Y-STR haplotype data were obtained in a population sample of 197 unrelated healthy male individuals of Chinese Tujia ethnic minority group residing in an autonomous county of Southern China using 17 Y-chromosome STR markers. A total of 197 haplotypes were identified in the set of Y-STR loci. The overall haplotype diversity for the Tujia population at 17 Y-STR loci was 1.0000±0.0005. Genetic distance was estimated between this population and other 14 Chinese populations including Paiwan and Atayal populations of Taiwan, and Southern Han, Dong, Jing, Miao, Yao, Zhuang, Yi, Maonan, She, Hui, Sala, and Tibetan ethnic groups. The results demonstrated that the 17 Y-STR loci analyzed were highly polymorphic in Tujia ethnic group examined and hence useful for forensic cases, paternity testing, and population genetic studies. PMID:24565965

  6. Genetic polymorphism analyses of 30 InDels in Chinese Xibe ethnic group and its population genetic differentiations with other groups

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Liu, Wen-Juan; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic group from northwestern China and studied the genetic relationships between the studied Xibe group and other reference groups. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.1704 at HLD118 locus to 0.5247 at HLD92 locus while the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1559 at HLD118 locus to 0.4997 at HLD101 locus. The cumulative power of exclusion and total probability of discrimination power in the studied group were 0.9867 and 0.9999999999902 for the 30 loci, respectively. Analyses of structure, PCA, interpopulation differentiations and phylogenetic tree revealed that the Xibe group had close genetic relationships with South Korean, Beijing Han and Guangdong Han groups. The results indicated that these 30 loci should only be used as a complement for autosomal STRs in paternity cases but could provide an acceptable level of discrimination in forensic identification cases in the studied Xibe group. Further studies should be conducted for better understanding of the Xibe genetic background. PMID:25651970

  7. Genetic polymorphism analyses of 30 InDels in Chinese Xibe ethnic group and its population genetic differentiations with other groups.

    PubMed

    Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Shen, Chun-Mei; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Yang, Chun-Hua; Jin, Rui; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Wang, Hong-Dan; Liu, Wen-Juan; Jing, Hang; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we obtained population genetic data and forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci in Chinese Xibe ethnic group from northwestern China and studied the genetic relationships between the studied Xibe group and other reference groups. The observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.1704 at HLD118 locus to 0.5247 at HLD92 locus while the expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1559 at HLD118 locus to 0.4997 at HLD101 locus. The cumulative power of exclusion and total probability of discrimination power in the studied group were 0.9867 and 0.9999999999902 for the 30 loci, respectively. Analyses of structure, PCA, interpopulation differentiations and phylogenetic tree revealed that the Xibe group had close genetic relationships with South Korean, Beijing Han and Guangdong Han groups. The results indicated that these 30 loci should only be used as a complement for autosomal STRs in paternity cases but could provide an acceptable level of discrimination in forensic identification cases in the studied Xibe group. Further studies should be conducted for better understanding of the Xibe genetic background. PMID:25651970

  8. Citizenship, Education, and Identity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese in Korea and Ethnic Koreans in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2004-01-01

    The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…

  9. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  10. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. PMID:27091319

  11. Minoritarianism and Ethnic Group Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwankwo, Robert L.; Reedy, Maybelle A.

    This article contends that the relational aspects of minority ethnic group communication have not been given due attention and that an adequate explication of the concept of minoritarianism is necessary for the better understanding of minority group communication processes. The paper deals with the explication problem and presents the findings of…

  12. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident. PMID:1636945

  13. Literacy, Place, and Migration in Philadelphia among Ethnic Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovito, Michael; Masucci, Michele

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the need for scholars interested in literacy, geography, and cultural studies to examine the role of English language literacy in shaping assimilation experiences of recent immigrant groups. We consider a case study of English language self-efficacy among ethnic Chinese immigrants in the Philadelphia metropolitan area to suggest how…

  14. Relationship of Ethnic Identity, Acculturation, and Psychological Well-Being among Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…

  15. The Generic and Rhetorical Structures of Expositions in English by Chinese Ethnic Minorities: A Perspective from Intracultural Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jianxin

    2008-01-01

    This contrastive study is concerned with relations between rhetoric and ethnicity in second language (L2) writing. It investigates the influence of Chinese rhetoric on expository writing in English by three groups: the majority Chinese Han group, and two ethnic minorities, Tibetan and Mongolian. Relying on a contrastive text analysis of 30…

  16. Ethnic Identity and the Daily Psychological Well-Being of Adolescents from Mexican and Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Yip, Tiffany; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Witkow, Melissa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    Protective effects of ethnic identity on daily psychological well-being were examined in a sample of 415 ninth graders from Mexican and Chinese backgrounds. Utilizing daily diary assessments and multilevel modeling, adolescents with a greater regard for their ethnic group exhibited greater levels of daily happiness and less daily anxiety averaged…

  17. Ethnicity, Achievement and Friendship: Korean Chinese Students' Construction of Peer Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    This research reported in this article ethnographically examines ethnicity and achievement in the formation of Korean Chinese students' peer networks. With the significance of children's peer networks in their interaction and school experience in mind, this article demonstrates how a group of ethnic Korean students at one Korean bilingual school…

  18. Empathy, Group Norms and Children's Ethnic Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Griffith, Judith; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Two minimal group studies (Ns=150, 123) examined the impact of emotional empathy on the ethnic attitudes of 5 to 12-year old white Anglo-Australian children. Study 1 evaluated the relationship between empathy and attitudes towards a same (Anglo-Australian) versus different ethnicity (Pacific Islander) outgroup. A significant empathy x outgroup…

  19. The Effect of Ethnic Identity and Bilingual Confidence on Chinese Youth's Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer Wen-shya

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the interrelated issues of private and public domains of self-esteem, ethnic identity formation, and bilingual confidence among youth of a minority group in a city in western Canada. One hundred, ten Chinese students aged 11-18 from a Chinese-language school were randomly surveyed. Most items of the instrument are derived from…

  20. Heritage Language Fluency, Ethnic Identity, and School Effort of Immigrant Chinese and Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.

    2008-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978

  1. Daily Variation in Ethnic Identity, Ethnic Behaviors, and Psychological Well-Being among American Adolescents of Chinese Descent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined links among global ethnic identity and ethnic behaviors, ethnic identity salience, and psychological well-being among Chinese American adolescents. Analysis of daily diary entries over a 2-week period indicated a positive daily association between engagement in ethnic behaviors and ethnic salience, while links between ethnic…

  2. A Neuroanatomical Signature for Schizophrenia Across Different Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Gong, Qiyong; Dazzan, Paola; Scarpazza, Cristina; Kasai, Kyioto; Hu, Xinyu; Marques, Tiago R; Iwashiro, Norichika; Huang, Xiaoqi; Murray, Robin M; Koike, Shinsuke; David, Anthony S; Yamasue, Hidenori; Lui, Su; Mechelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling clinical syndrome found across the world. While the incidence and clinical expression of this illness are strongly influenced by ethnic factors, it is unclear whether patients from different ethnicities show distinct brain deficits. In this multicentre study, we used structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging to investigate neuroanatomy in 126 patients with first episode schizophrenia who came from 4 ethnically distinct cohorts (White Caucasians, African-Caribbeans, Japanese, and Chinese). Each patient was individually matched with a healthy control of the same ethnicity, gender, and age (±1 year). We report a reduction in the gray matter volume of the right anterior insula in patients relative to controls (P < .05 corrected); this reduction was detected in all 4 ethnic groups despite differences in psychopathology, exposure to antipsychotic medication and image acquisition sequence. This finding provides evidence for a neuroanatomical signature of schizophrenia expressed above and beyond ethnic variations in incidence and clinical expression. In light of the existing literature, implicating the right anterior insula in bipolar disorder, depression, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and anxiety, we speculate that the neuroanatomical deficit reported here may represent a transdiagnostic feature of Axis I disorders. PMID:26264820

  3. Problem Definition and Problem Solving among the Five Major Ethnic Groups in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Sarah Sanderson

    To determine what factors either alone or together interact to create ethnic variations in mental health care use in the State of Hawaii, a study interviewed subjects who were randomly selected from the higher income area of Diamond Head/Kahala and the lower income area of Kalihi/Palama. Ethnic groups studied included Caucasian, Japanese, Chinese,…

  4. Surname lists to identify South Asian and Chinese ethnicity from secondary data in Ontario, Canada: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surname lists are useful for identifying cohorts of ethnic minority patients from secondary data sources. This study sought to develop and validate lists to identify people of South Asian and Chinese origin. Methods Comprehensive lists of South Asian and Chinese surnames were reviewed to identify those that uniquely belonged to the ethnic minority group. Surnames that were common in other populations, communities or ethnic groups were specifically excluded. These surname lists were applied to the Registered Persons Database, a registry of the health card numbers assigned to all residents of the Canadian province of Ontario, so that all residents were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population. Ethnic assignment was validated against self-identified ethnicity through linkage with responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey. Results The final surname lists included 9,950 South Asian surnames and 1,133 Chinese surnames. All 16,688,384 current and former residents of Ontario were assigned to South Asian ethnicity, Chinese ethnicity or the General Population based on their surnames. Among 69,859 respondents to the Canadian Community Health Survey, both lists performed extremely well when compared against self-identified ethnicity: positive predictive value was 89.3% for the South Asian list, and 91.9% for the Chinese list. Because surnames shared with other ethnic groups were deliberately excluded from the lists, sensitivity was lower (50.4% and 80.2%, respectively). Conclusions These surname lists can be used to identify cohorts of people with South Asian and Chinese origins from secondary data sources with a high degree of accuracy. These cohorts could then be used in epidemiologic and health service research studies of populations with South Asian and Chinese origins. PMID:20470433

  5. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States. PMID:25133408

  6. Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus: Challenges for different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Lili; Wong, Vincent W

    2015-01-01

    Ethnicity is defined as “belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition”. Membership of certain ethnic groups has long been associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies that examined ethnic differences amongst women with GDM were often conducted in western countries where women from various ethnic backgrounds were represented. The prevalence of GDM appears to be particularly high among women from South Asia and South East Asia, compared to Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic communities. For some, but not all ethnic groups, the body mass index is a risk factor for the development of GDM. Even within a particular ethnic group, those who were born in their native countries have a different risk profile for GDM compared to those born in western countries. In terms of treatment, medical nutrition therapy (MNT) plays a key role in the management of GDM and the prescription of MNT should be culturally sensitive. Limited studies have shown that women who live in an English-speaking country but predominantly speak a language other than English, have lower rates of dietary understanding compared with their English speaking counterparts, and this may affect compliance to therapy. Insulin therapy also plays an important role and there appears to be variation as to the progression of women who progress to requiring insulin among different ethnicities. As for peri-natal outcomes, women from Pacific Islander countries have higher rates of macrosomia, while women from Chinese backgrounds had lower adverse pregnancy outcomes. From a maternal outcome point of view, pregnant women from Asia with GDM have a higher incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance test results post-partum and hence a higher risk of future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. On the other hand, women from Hispanic or African-American backgrounds with GDM are more likely to develop hypertension post-partum. This review highlights the

  8. American Ethnic Groups: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Task Force on Ethnic Studies.

    This bibliography provides a survey of selective, recent literature on American ethnic groups. Emphasis is on the immigrant experience, political and social development, and contemporary rediscovery and resurgence. The majority of the literature in this last category is popular and journalistic but does provide a beginning to understanding recent…

  9. Ethnic Groups--Their Cultures and Contributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Anne, Ed.

    Seeking to promote appreciation of the culture of American Indians, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Oriental Americans, this 701-item annotated bibliography with references from 1929 to 1970 gives citations related to the history, culture, and mores of these ethnic groups. The bibliography includes classified (by subject and usage level)…

  10. Mortality from coronary heart disease and stroke for six ethnic groups in California, 1985 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Wild, S H; Laws, A; Fortmann, S P; Varady, A N; Byrne, C D

    1995-11-01

    Coronary heart disease and stroke death rates were compared for six ethnic groups (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, African-American, Chinese, Japanese, and Asian Indian) by sex and age (25 to 44, 45 to 64, 65 to 84, and 25 to 84 years old) using California census and 1985 to 1990 death data. African-American men and women in all age groups had the highest rates of death from coronary heart disease, stroke, and all causes (except for coronary heart disease in the oldest men). Hispanics, Chinese, and Japanese in all age-sex groups had comparatively low death rates for coronary heart disease and stroke, although stroke was proportionally an important cause of death for Chinese and Japanese groups. Coronary heart disease was an important cause of death for Asian Indians although death rates were generally not higher than those for other ethnic groups. Ethnic differences were most marked for women and younger age groups. PMID:8680605

  11. Behavioral Constructs and Mammography in Five Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.

    2010-01-01

    Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74 interviewed by telephone in their preferred languages. The relationship between base-line constructs and mammography 2 years later was assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Intention predicted mammography overall and among Whites (odds ratio [OR] = 5.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4, 10), with racial/ethnic differences in association (p = .020). Self-efficacy predicted mammography overall and among Whites (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 11), with no racial/ethnic interaction. Perceived benefits and subjective norms were associated with screening overall and in some racial/ethnic groups. These results generally support cross-cultural applicability of four of the five constructs to screening with mixed predictive value of measures across racial/ethnic groups. Additional in-depth inquiry is required to refine assessment of constructs. PMID:19805790

  12. Tooth wear in three ethnic groups in Sabah (northern Borneo).

    PubMed

    Milosevic, A; Lo, M S

    1996-12-01

    The prevalence and associated aetiologies of tooth wear were investigated in three ethnic groups in Sabah (Northern Borneo) using the Tooth Wear Index (TWI). The number of surfaces with enamel wear only, dentine exposed for less than a third or dentine exposed for more than a third were categorised into the TW minimal, moderate or severe respectively. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit medical/dental history, oral hygiene practices, satisfaction with body image, diet and other personal habits/details. The sample comprised of a self selected sample of 148 dental hospital attenders; 47 (32 per cent) each of ethnic Chinese and Malay and 54 (36 per cent) of ethnic Kadazan, matched for age and with a similar number of scoreable teeth per subject. Dentine exposure within the total sample was a common finding (95 per cent TW with moderate, 41 per cent TW severe). The Kadazan group had significantly (P < 0.05) more surfaces with severe tooth wear than the Chinese or Malay. Tobacco chewing was positively associated (rho = +0.4, P < 0.05) with both moderate and severe tooth wear, as was the habit of crushing/eating bones. Neither carbonated beverages or fresh fruit intake were associated with tooth wear, but their frequency of consumption was low. The buccal and occlusal surfaces of the posterior teeth were the most severely worn. Generally, wear was greater in the upper anterior sextant compared to the lower anterior sextant, with the exception of the lower incisal edges in the Kadazan group. Tooth wear into dentine was a common occurrence, especially among the Kadazan subjects and least among the Chinese subjects. The aetiological factors associated with this tooth wear are different to those encountered in Western cultures. PMID:9023582

  13. -141C insertion/deletion polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor gene is associated with schizophrenia in Chinese Han population: Evidence from an ethnic group-specific meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yinglin; Chen, Kaiyuan; Li, Duolu; Han, Chao; Kan, Quancheng

    2016-09-01

    Accumulate evidence has implicated dopamine D2 receptor gene polymorphisms in the etiology of schizophrenia. A single nucleotide polymorphism, -141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) (rs1799732), in the promoter region of the dopamine D2 receptor gene has been linked to schizophrenia; however, the data are inconclusive. This study investigated whether the -141C polymorphism is associated with the risk of schizophrenia in different ethnic groups by performing a meta-analysis. A total of 24 case-control studies examining the association between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia were identified according to established inclusion criteria. Significant association was revealed between -141C Ins/Del polymorphism and schizophrenia risk in dominant genetic model (Ins/Ins + Ins/Del versus Del/Del) (odds ratio = 0.33, 95% confidence interval = 0.14-0.81, z = 2.41, P = 0.02) in Chinese Han but not in Caucasian, Japanese or India populations. Our results indicate that -141C Ins/Del polymorphism might be a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia in Chinese Han population. PMID:26346037

  14. When Social Class Meets Ethnicity: College-Going Experiences of Chinese and Korean Immigrant Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Successful educational outcomes among Asian American college students often obscure the challenges and nuanced educational experiences of Asian immigrant ethnic groups. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the college-going experiences of Chinese and Korean immigrant students by examining the relationship between these…

  15. Co-Ethnic Network, Social Class, and Heritage Language Maintenance among Chinese Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…

  16. Nativity, US Length of Residence, and BMI Among Diverse Asian American Ethnic Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p < 0.001). In fully adjusted models, heterogeneity was attenuated (p = 0.05) with BMI among all US-born ethnic groups significantly higher than BMI for immigrants with the exception of South Asians. Longer US residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups. PMID:25192818

  17. Ethnic Groups and the American Dream(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    Examines what the American dream means to ethnic Americans. Specifically discussed are: (1) how official documents of the dream have dealt with ethnicity; (2) how ethnic groups have interpreted the dream; (3) how the 1960s redefined the dream; and (4) the future of the dream in terms of changing American ethnicity. (RM)

  18. Ethnic Identity in Young Adults from Three Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Ambarsoom, Hamlet

    The theoretical basis of most studies of identity development is Erikson's theory, which proposes that the achievement of a personal identity is the central developmental task of adolescence. Although Erikson mentioned the role of culture, no research has examined ethnicity directly as a dimension of identity. This study examined ethnic identity…

  19. Diurnal Rhythms of Bone Turnover Markers in Three Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Jean; Fulford, Anthony J.; Jarjou, Landing; Zhou, Bo; Prentice, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Context: Ethnic groups differ in fragility fracture risk and bone metabolism. Differences in diurnal rhythms (DRs) of bone turnover and PTH may play a role. Objective: We investigated the DRs of plasma bone turnover markers (BTMs), PTH, and 1,25(OH)2D in three groups with pronounced differences in bone metabolism and plasma PTH. Participants: Healthy Gambian, Chinese, and white British adults (ages 60–75 years; 30 per country). Interventions: Observational study with sample collection every 4 hours for 24 hours. Main Outcomes: Levels of plasma C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, procollagen type-1 N-propeptide, N-mid osteocalcin, bone alkaline phosphatase, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured. DRs were analyzed with random-effects Fourier regression and cross-correlation and regression analyses to assess associations between DRs and fasting and 24-hour means of BTMs and PTH. Results: Concentrations of BTMs, PTH, and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were higher in Gambians compared to other groups (P < .05). The DRs were significant for all variables and groups (P < .03) and were unimodal, with a nocturnal peak and a daytime nadir for BTMs, whereas PTH had two peaks. The DRs of BTMs and PTH were significantly cross-correlated for all groups (P < .05). There was a significant positive association between C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and PTH in the British and Gambian groups (P = .03), but not the Chinese group. Conclusions: Despite ethnic differences in plasma BTMs and PTH, DRs were similar. This indicates that alteration of rhythmicity and loss of coupling of bone resorption and formation associated with an elevated PTH in other studies may not uniformly occur across different populations and needs to be considered in the interpretation of PTH as a risk factor of increased bone loss. PMID:27294326

  20. Ethnicity and Accommodation: Malay-Chinese Relations in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raybeck, Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Argues that despite antipathy toward the Chinese manifested at state and urban levels, the Malay-Chinese relations at the village level in Kelantan, Malaysia, are better than corresponding relationships in the country's more developed states. Suggests both cultural and political reasons for the success of the Chinese group. (Author/GC)

  1. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  2. Ethnic Self-Labeling in Young American Adults from Chinese Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Self-reported ethnic labels were examined among 242 young American adults with Chinese ancestry (age range = 18-32 years, M = 23.97; 73% female, 27% male). Ethnic labels fell under broad categories whereby 22% reported heritage national labels (e.g., Chinese), 35% added American to their heritage national label (e.g., Chinese American), and 42%…

  3. Ethnicity and American Group Life. A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weed, Perry L., Comp.

    This bibliography grew out of a broad scale effort by the American Jewish Committee, especially its National Project on Ethnic America, to focus new attention on the positive aspects of multi-ethnicity in our society, and also to encourage deeper study and programming for solving the problems of polarization, fragmentation, and white ethnic…

  4. Ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino ethnic groups: an examination of hypothesized pathways.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia

    2014-11-01

    Studies among US Latinos provide the most consistent evidence of ethnic density effects. However, most studies conducted to date have focused on Mexican Americans, and it is not clear whether ethnic density effects differ across Latino sub-groups, generational status, or measures of ethnic density. In addition, the mechanisms behind ethnic density are not well understood. This study uses a multi-group structural equation modeling approach to analyze the Latino sample from the National Latino and Asian-American Study (n=1940) and examine ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino sub-groups, and explore two hypothesized mechanisms: increased neighborhood cohesion and reduced exposure to interpersonal racism. Results of the main effects between ethnic density and health, and of the hypothesized mechanisms, show clear differences across Latino ethnic groups, generational categories and measures of ethnic density. Findings highlight that ethnic density effects and their mechanisms depend on the current and historical context of Latino sub-groups, including reasons for migration and rights upon arrival. PMID:25305475

  5. Effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Utsey, Shawn O; Chae, Mark H; Brown, Christa F; Kelly, Deborah

    2002-11-01

    This study examined the effect of ethnic group membership on ethnic identity, race-related stress, and quality of life (QOL). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Index of Race Related Stress--Brief Version, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life--Brief Version were administered to 160 male and female participants from 3 ethnic groups (African American, Asian American, and Latino American). Results indicated that African American participants had significantly higher race-related stress, ethnic identity, and psychological QOL scores than did Asian and Latino American participants. A stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that ethnic identity and cultural racism were significant predictors of QOL and accounted for 16% of the total variance for the entire sample. PMID:12416322

  6. Wyoming's Early Settlement and Ethnic Groups, Unit IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming's early settlement and ethnic groups provides concepts, activities, stories, charts, and graphs for elementary school students. Concepts include the attraction Wyoming held for trappers; the major social, economic, and religious event called "The Rendezvous"; the different ethnic and religious groups that presently inhabit…

  7. Sex and Ethnic-Group Differences on Accomplishments Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Rock, Donald A.; Bennett, Randy Elliot

    2001-01-01

    Studied sex and ethnic group differences on 6 scales that measure accomplishments for 739 male and 1,746 female graduate school applicants. With the exception of the scale measuring mechanical accomplishment, men and women did not differ in performance, and ethnic groups did not differ on any scale. (SLD)

  8. Elaboration and Learning Efficiency in Four Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kee, Daniel W.; Rohwer, William D., Jr.

    Paired-associate learning efficiency was assessed within four low-SES ethnic populations (black, Chinese-American, Latino-American, and white) as a function of presentation conditions and method of measurement (verbal recall vs. pictorial recognition). A mixed-list paired-associate task was administered individually to 40 second grade children…

  9. China's ethnic groups: fertility change in five autonomous regions.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Zhu, H

    1993-08-01

    The ethnic population of China increased from 35 million in the early 1950s to more than 90 million in 1990. They make up about 8% of China's population. The changes in the fertility levels of the Mongolian, the Tibetan, the Zhuang, the Hui, and the Uygur ethnic peoples inhabiting autonomous regions were investigated. The total fertility rates (TFRs) of the Mongolian, the Zhuang, and the Hui had declined to below 3.5 by the late 1980s. The TFR of the Mongolians dropped from 6.5 in the early 1970s to 3.0 in the late 1970s, rose to 3.6 in 1981 and 1982, and fell again to 2.3 in 1989. During 1985-89 the TFR of the Uygurs was 5.09 compared to 2.42 of the Han (Chinese) women in the region. The average life-time births during this period were: 2.7 for Mongolians, 3.5 for the Zhuang, 3.6 for the Hui, 0.8 higher than for the Han women. The average TFR of the Han women declined to 3.19 during 1985-89. Implementation of the same family planning program could account for the similar fertility levels of the latter 2 groups. The TFR of the Hui women was 7.0 before 1976, staying at 6.7 during the 1970s. However, it dropped from 6.5 in 1983 to 3.58 during 1985-89. The TFR of Tibetans was 5.0 in the early 1960s, and 30 years later it hovered between 4.0 and 5.0. The Uygurs maintained a TFR of 5.0 to 6.0 in the 20 years prior to 1993, although in 3 successive years after 1985 a decline started. 10% of Uygur women aged 18 already had 1 child. 5% of Hui women aged 20 in 1988 had born children. The infertility rates of ethnic women aged 49-57 in 1988 were; 14% for the Tibetans, 5% for the Uygurs, 2% for the Mongolians, and 1% each for the Hui and the Zhuang. The decline of fertility of ethnic groups started in the 1980s, and it was rather uneven as a consequence of implementation of family planning programs after a major decline of the fertility rate of the national population in the 1970s. PMID:12287606

  10. Genetic Polymorphisms Analysis of Pharmacogenomic VIP Variants in Miao Ethnic Group of Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tianbo; Aikemu, Ainiwaer; Zhang, Mingxia; Geng, Tingting; Feng, Tian; Kang, Longli; Luo, Manlin

    2015-01-01

    Background Genetic polymorphisms have a potential clinical role in determining both inter-individual and inter-ethnic differences in drug efficacy, but we have not found any pharmacogenomics information regarding minorities, such as the Miao ethnic group. Our study aimed to screen numbers of the Miao ethnic group for genotype frequencies of VIP variants and to determine differences between the Miao and other human populations worldwide. Material/Methods In this study, we genotyped 66 Very Important Pharmacogene (VIP) variants selected from PharmGKB in 98 unrelated, healthy Miao individuals from the Guizhou province and compared our data with 12 other populations, including 11 populations from the HapMap data set and Xi’an Han Chinese. Results Using the χ2 test, we found that the allele frequencies of the VDR rs1544410 and VKORC1 (rs9934438) variants in the Miao population are quite different from that in other ethnic groups. Furthermore, we found that genotype frequencies of rs1801133 (MTHFR) in the 13 selected populations are significantly different. Population structure and F-statistics (Fst) analysis show that the genetic background of the Miao is relatively close to that of Chinese in metropolitan Denver, CO, USA (CHD). Conclusions Our results help complete the information provided by the pharmacogenomics database of the Miao ethnic group and provide a theoretical basis for safer drug administration, which may be useful for diagnosing and treating diseases in this population. PMID:26632549

  11. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised: Measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan D.; Unger Hu, Kirsten A.; Mevi, Ashley A.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one’s ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the “Gestational diabetes’ Effect on Moms” diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated two-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the two MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24188656

  12. Ethnic Identity and the Academic Adjustment of Adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Andrew J.; Witkow, Melissa; Garcia, Carla

    2005-01-01

    The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant…

  13. Genome-Wide Association Studies of HIV-1 Host Control in Ethnically Diverse Chinese Populations

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zejun; Liu, Yang; Xu, Heng; Tang, Kun; Wu, Hao; Lu, Lin; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Zhengjie; Xu, Junjie; Zhu, Yufei; Hu, Landian; Shang, Hong; Zhao, Guoping; Kong, Xiangyin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed several genetic loci associated with HIV-1 outcome following infection (e.g., HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. To systematically investigate the inherited predisposition to modulate HIV-1 infection in Chinese populations, we performed GWASs in three ethnically diverse HIV-infected patients groups (i.e., HAN, YUN, and XIN, N = 538). The reported loci at 6p21.33 was validated in HAN (e.g., rs9264942, P = 0.0018). An independent association signal (rs2442719, P = 7.85 × 10−7, HAN group) in the same region was observed. Imputation results suggest that haplotype HLA-B*13:02/C*06:02, which can partially account for the GWAS signal, is associated with lower viral load in Han Chinese. Moreover, several novel loci were identified using GWAS approach including the top association signals at 6q13 (KCNQ5, rs947612, P = 2.15 × 10−6), 6p24.1 (PHACTR1, rs202072, P = 3.8 × 10−6), and 11q12.3 (SCGB1D4, rs11231017, P = 7.39 × 10−7) in HAN, YUN, and XIN groups, respectively. Our findings imply shared or specific mechanisms for host control of HIV-1 in ethnically diverse Chinese populations, which may shed new light on individualized HIV/AIDS therapy in China. PMID:26039976

  14. Ethnic Identity and Its Relation to Personal Self-Esteem: A Comparison of Canadian-Born and Foreign-Born Chinese Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lay, Clarry; Verkuyten, Maykel

    1999-01-01

    Examines ethnic identity and its relation to personal self-esteem by comparing Chinese adolescents who immigrated to Canada and Canadian-born Chinese adolescents. Finds that aspects of collective self-esteem were positively related to personal self-esteem for the foreign-born group, not the Canadian-born group. (CMK)

  15. Y-STR haplotypes and the genetic structure from eight Chinese ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Tian-Xiao, Zhang; Li, Yang; Sheng-Bin, Li

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the genetic structure of 8 Chinese ethnic populations, haplotype data of 9 short tandem repeats (STR) loci on non-recombining region of the Y chromosome (NRY) from 1816 individuals of 12 populations was obtained from the Database of Genome Diversity and Variation for Chinese Populations (HGD-Chn), unpublished data from Key Laboratory of Forensic Sciences and the prior literature. No specific Chinese population groups could be identified through the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on Y-chromosomal STRs from these samples. Pairwising F(ST) and Nei's genetic distance values were calculated and significant heterogeneity among these populations were observed. The phylogenetic trees were attained based on both the Nei's genetic and pairwising F(ST) values, and pairwising F(ST) based multidimensional scaling plot was also obtained. Several genetic features were observed through the analysis above, and it indicated some further cultural, religious and geographic significance. PMID:19346150

  16. Why are some ethnic groups more violent than others? The role of friendship network's ethnic composition.

    PubMed

    Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk

    2011-10-01

    Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's ethnic composition on ethnic differences in violent behavior, although different sociological and criminological theories suggest that the composition of friendship networks can play an important role for attitudes and behavior of its members. Using data of a survey conducted in 2006 among all ninth-grade pupils in Hanover (Germany), we investigated the influence of friendship network's ethnic composition on violent behavior in general, and on ethnic differences in violent behavior in particular. Due to the specific sampling procedure, it was also possible to look for neighborhood effects both on (ethnic differences in) juvenile delinquency and friendship network composition. Findings indicate that there are significant differences in the network composition across the ethnic groups. After controlling for these network characteristics, ethnic differences in violent behavior disappeared. Furthermore, the results show that the friendship network's ethnic composition also depends on community characteristics. PMID:21156682

  17. Ethnic Bilingual Education for Canada's Minority Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, James Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Historical forces and factors affecting the development of Canada's bilingual programs for ethnic minorities include changing immigration policies, a decline in Anglo-conformism and growth in multiculturalism, fears about native language maintenance and second language learning, and language and cultural attitudes in second language learning. (MSE)

  18. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy between ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001

    PubMed Central

    Wohland, Pia; Rees, Phil; Nazroo, James; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to develop robust estimates of disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and healthy life expectancy (HLE) for ethnic groups in England and Wales in 2001 and to examine observed variations across ethnic groups. Design. DFLE and HLE by age and gender for five-year age groups were computed for 16 ethnic groups by combining the 2001 Census data on ethnicity, self-reported limiting long-term illness and self-rated health using mortality by ethnic group estimated by two methods: the Standardised Illness Ratio (SIR) method and the Geographically Weighted Method (GWM). Results. The SIR and GWM methods differed somewhat in their estimates of life expectancy (LE) at birth but produced very similar estimates of DFLE and HLE by ethnic group. For the more conservative method (GWM), the range in DFLE at birth was 10.5 years for men and 11.9 years for women, double that in LE. DFLE at birth was highest for Chinese men (64.7 years, 95% CI 64.0–65.3) and women (67.0 years, 95% CI 66.4–67.6). Over half of the ethnic minority groups (men: 10; women: 9) had significantly lower DFLE at birth than White British men (61.7 years, 95% CI 61.7–61.7) or women (64.1 years, 95% CI 64.1–64.2), mostly the Black, Asian and mixed ethnic groups. The lowest DFLE observed was for Bangladeshi men (54.3 years, 95% CI 53.7–54.8) and Pakistani women (55.1 years, 95% CI 54.8–55.4). Notable were Indian women whose LE was similar to White British women but who had 4.3 years less disability-free (95% CI 4.0–4.6). Conclusions. Inequalities in DFLE between ethnic groups are large and exceed those in LE. Moreover, certain ethnic groups have a larger burden of disability that does not seem to be associated with shorter LE. With the increasing population of the non-White British community, it is essential to be able to identify the ethnic groups at higher risk of disability, in order to target appropriate interventions. PMID:24897306

  19. Adapting health promotion interventions for ethnic minority groups: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Jing; Davidson, Emma; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark; Netto, Gina; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation of health interventions has garnered international support across academic disciplines and among various health organizations. Through semi-structured interviews, we sought to explore and understand the perspectives of 26 health researchers and promoters located in the USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Norway, working with ethnic minority populations, specifically African-, South Asian- and Chinese-origin populations in the areas of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, to better understand how adaptation works in practice. We drew on the concepts of intersectionality, representation and context from feminist, sociology and human geography literature, respectively, to help us understand how adaptations for ethnic groups approach the variable of ethnicity. Findings include (i) the intersections of ethnicity and demographic variables such as age and gender highlight the different ways in which people interact, interpret and participate in adapted interventions; (ii) the representational elements of ethnicity such as ancestry or religion are more complexly lived than they are defined in adapted interventions and (iii) the contextual experiences surrounding ethnicity considerations shape the receptivity, durability and continuity of adapted interventions. In conclusion, leveraging the experience and expertise of health researchers and promoters in light of three social science concepts has deepened our understanding of how adaptation works in principle and in practice for ethnic minority populations. PMID:25561680

  20. Ethnic awareness, prejudice, and civic commitments in four ethnic groups of American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Constance A; Syvertsen, Amy K; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-04-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by African- and Arab-Americans. Parental admonitions against discrimination were heard by all but African Americans, Latinos and those who reported prejudice heard that it could pose a barrier. Adolescents' beliefs that America is an equal opportunity society were negatively associated with experiences of discrimination and African-Americans were least likely to believe that the government was responsive to the average person. With respect to civic goals, all youth endorsed patriotism but ethnic minorities and ethnically aware youth were more committed to advocating for their ethnic group and European-Americans were less committed than were African Americans to improving race relations. PMID:19636724

  1. Ethnicity and adolescent depression: the case of Chinese Americans.

    PubMed

    Chen, I G; Roberts, R E; Aday, L A

    1998-10-01

    This paper is concerned with whether an instrument developed in the U.S. may identify lower rates of major depression among Chinese, because its content may not cover culture-specific symptoms of depression. Data were obtained from approximately 952 Anglo and Chinese American middle school students, aged 10 to 17 years, in the Teen Life Changes Survey conducted in the spring of 1994. We investigated the hypothesis that rates of missing values would be higher, the mean score for total depression items would be lower, and internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the DSM Scale for Depression (DSD) would be lower for Chinese American adolescents compared with Anglo American adolescents. We also examined whether response functions on the DSD item would differ for these two groups. Only the latter was observed. Five of 26 items in the DSD exhibited differential functioning between Anglo and Chinese students. The results suggest that the lower prevalence of depression was not due to the ethnocentric character of the instrument in the Chinese sample. Stronger immunity to depression or other cultural factors may contribute to the lower rate of depression for the Chinese American adolescents in the Teen Life Changes study. PMID:9788639

  2. Influenza vaccination coverage across ethnic groups in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Quach, Susan; Hamid, Jemila S.; Pereira, Jennifer A.; Heidebrecht, Christine L.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Quan, Sherman D.; Brien, Stephanie; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The success of influenza vaccination campaigns may be suboptimal if subgroups of the population face unique barriers or have misconceptions about vaccination. We conducted a national study to estimate influenza vaccine coverage across 12 ethnic groups in Canada to assess the presence of ethnic disparities. Methods: We pooled responses to the Canadian Community Health Survey between 2003 and 2009 (n = 437 488). We estimated ethnicity-specific self-reported influenza vaccine coverage for the overall population, for people aged 65 years and older, and for people aged 12–64 years with and without chronic conditions. We used weighted logistic regression models to examine the association between ethnicity and influenza vaccination, adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health status. Results: Influenza vaccination coverage ranged from 25% to 41% across ethnic groups. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors and health status for people aged 12 years and older, all ethnic groups were more likely to have received a vaccination against influenza than people who self-identified as white, with the exception of those who self-identified as black (odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88–1.15). Compared with white Canadians, Canadians of Filipino (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.67–2.40) and Southeast Asian (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.36–2.03) descent had the greatest likelihood of having received vaccination against influenza. Interpretation: Influenza vaccine coverage in Canada varies by ethnicity. Black and white Canadians have the lowest uptake of influenza vaccine of the ethnic groups represented in our study. Further research is needed to understand the facilitators, barriers and misconceptions relating to vaccination that exist across ethnic groups, and to identify promotional strategies that may improve uptake among black and white Canadians. PMID:22966054

  3. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  4. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  5. Population genetics of 14 ethnic groups using phenotypic data from VNTR loci.

    PubMed

    Balazs, I

    1993-01-01

    Population genetic studies were performed using five VNTR loci (D2S44, D4S163, D14S13, D17S79, D18S27). The populations examined were Caucasian (Australia, Brazil and U.S.A.), Australian aborigine, Chinese, Amerindian (Cheyenne, Maya, Navajo, Pima, Tobas/Wicnis), North American Black, North American Hispanic (California, Miami, New York, Texas). The overall size range of the alleles for these loci, in PstI-digested DNA, was the same in all populations. The major difference among populations was the relative frequency of particular groups of alleles. These differences were small among similar ethnic groups, while sometimes varying several fold among some of the more distinct populations. However, groups of alleles that were rare in the major ethnic groups (Caucasian, Black, Chinese) were also rare in the other populations. The frequency databases generated by typing individuals for 4 loci were used to compare the random DNA profile frequencies among populations. The results show that the estimated frequency of any 4 locus profile is very low in all populations examined (e.g., median value < 10(-8)). Analysis of relative genetic similarity among populations was used to create the most likely clustering of these ethnic groups. Results show an uncanny similarity between the clusters generated and genetic distance measurements obtained with traditional calculations of conventional genetic markers. PMID:8104559

  6. Being "Good" or Being "Popular": Gender and Ethnic Identity Negotiations of Chinese Immigrant Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baolian Qin, Desiree

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, a corpus of research has been conducted to understand immigrant adolescent ethnic identity formation. However, few studies have examined the intersection of gender and ethnic identity. In this paper, drawing on mainly qualitative data collected on 72 Chinese immigrant adolescents, I present findings on the gendered…

  7. Reading and Written Expression Performance of Ten Asian/Pacific-Islander Ethnic Groups on the Eighth Grade California Assessment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Morris K.; And Others

    For the first time, Asian and Pacific-Islander (API) eighth-grade students taking part in the California Assessment Program (CAP) were identified as belonging to one of the following 10 API ethnic groups: Asian-Indian, Cambodian, Chinese, Filipino, Hmong, Japanese, Korean, Laotian, Pacific-Islander, and Vietnamese. In school districts associated…

  8. CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Li; Wang, Hongju; Zheng, Bo; Wu, Desheng; Yang, Xifei; Liu, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    Background: China is a multinational country. The relationship between gene polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and national ethnicity has not previously investigated among Chinese people. The aim of this study was to investigate distributions of CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 gene polymorphisms in five ethnic groups of China. Methods: 829 blood samples were collected from five ethnic groups (Han, Shui, Miao, Zhuang, Bouyei). Taqman-MGB probe was used in Real-time PCR to test the gene polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (rs1048943 and rs4646903) and CYP2E1 (rs2031920 and rs6413420). We further validate the SNP genotyping results through DNA sequencing. Results: The genotype distribution of all four SNPs was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium except the genotype distribution of rs4646903 in Han and Bouyei ethnic groups (p=0.013 and 0.0005, respectively). CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group in China. The results of DNA sequencing were entirely in line with the SNP genotyping assay. Conclusions: The CYP1A1 and CYP2E1 genetic polymorphisms were different in different ethnic groups in China. CYP2E1 gene rs6413420 polymorphism was first found in the Bouyei ethnic group of China. PMID:25419409

  9. Expectations About Ethnic Peer Group Inclusivity: The Role of Shared Interests, Group Norms, and Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated three factors that contribute to social exclusion: group norms, individual characteristics, and stereotypes. Non-Arab American 12- and 16-year-olds (N = 199) judged their expectations about the inclusivity of Arab American and non-Arab American peer groups toward new peers characterized by: (a) different ethnic identity but similar interests (e.g., hobbies) and (b) same ethnic identity but different interests. Participants expected that when groups had exclusive norms, Arab American peers would base inclusion decisions on ethnic identity, but that their own non-Arab group would base decisions on shared interests. Participants who reported stereotypes expected their in-group to be ethnically less inclusive. With age, ethnic-based exclusion increased. The findings are discussed in light of current research on developmental intergroup relationships. PMID:26154412

  10. Oral health-related cultural beliefs for four racial/ethnic groups: Assessment of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations. PMID:18793438

  11. Gender and Ethnic Variation in Arranged Marriages in a Chinese City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zang, Xiaowei

    2008-01-01

    Using a data set (N = 1,600) collected in the city of Urumchi in 2005, this article examines ethnic differences in arranged marriages in urban China. Data analysis shows a rapid decline in parental arrangement for both Uyghur Muslims and Han Chinese in Urumchi. Han Chinese are less likely than Uyghur Muslims to report arranged marriages, with main…

  12. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…

  13. Contraception in ethnic minority groups in Bedford.

    PubMed

    Beard, P

    1982-08-01

    As an aid to health visitors who must provide advice on family planning, this article discusses the cultural and religious backgrounds of Italians, West Indians, Bengalis, and Punjabis as they affect family size and family planning, and describes a survey of the contraceptive practices of 100 mothers from these groups in Bedford. Family planning advice is provided to all mothers by doctors and health visitors, and services are available at family planning clinics or through general practitioners. Most of the Italians in Bedford originated in southern Italy. Traditional family life and strict morality remain strong, and Roman Catholic attitudes toward childbearing and birth control are influential. There are trends toward greater fertility decision making by couples, however. West Indians are characterized by a high illegitimacy rate, unstable unions, and early sexual experience, but their birthrate has fallen since their initial immigration to Britain. Among Bengalis, childbearing is the only means of prestige for women and sons are regarded as a source of security. Contraceptives are approved by the Islam religion but are seen as a threat to the traditional power structure of the male-dominated family. Punjabis, at one time a peasant group, are tending to become craftsmen with better education and the nuclear family is more common. Hinduism stresses early marriage and having many sons, but among Sikhs women may work outside the home and exercise great influence in family affairs. 10 West Indian, 9 Bengali, 44 Italian, and 37 Punjabi women having babies since June 1979 were selected from the birth record books of 3 health visitors in Bedford. There was no control group, and a true comparison was not possible. Average age and parity were 24 and 1.7 for West Indians, 27 and 4.4 for Bengalis, 26 and 1.8 for Italians, and 26 and 2.3 for Punjabis. 4 of 10 West Indians were unmarried, but there were no unmarried Asian mothers and only 1 Italian. Most women went to

  14. On General Issues of Bilingual Education for Minority Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingyuan, Gu

    2014-01-01

    Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…

  15. Study: California Ethnic Groups Seeing Increased Cancer Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A statewide study on cancer and ethnicity hints that cancer rates among immigrant groups may be tied to their degree of assimilation into American culture. The study, released by the University of Southern California's Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, marks the first statewide look at cancer rates among Vietnamese and South Asians and provides…

  16. Comparison of dental maturity between two ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Stefanac-Papić, J; Alkadri, K Z; Legović, M; Galić, N

    1998-12-01

    Dental maturity is one of the indicators of the craniofacial region growth and development. The aim of the study was to identify and compare dental growth and development in two ethnic groups. The material consisted of 480 orthopantomograms; 240 selected from orthodontic and dental patients from Zagreb (Croatia) and Damascus (Syria) each. Each ethnic group included 120 boys and 120 girls, while the radiographs were classified into 6 groups of 20 each, according to sex and chronologic age (8-13 years). Dental maturity was evaluated by the method of Nolla. The results were statistically analyzed and presented in tables. The subjects from Damascus showed a delay in dental maturity by 1 (girls) to 2 (boys) years compared to the homologous group from Zagreb. The reference values determined in the study may serve as a diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic tool in the orthodontics and pedodontics of the respective cities. PMID:9951152

  17. Blood pressure, ethnic group, and salt intake in Belize.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, D

    1983-01-01

    A total of 1316 individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. This represented 92% of the area population aged over 18. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups--Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant relationships with blood pressure were found with obesity, age, and number of children. An early morning urine specimen was obtained from a random 50% of the men, and only in Creoles was there an association between raised blood pressure and sodium/potassium urinary excretion ratio. PMID:6875443

  18. Ethnicity and Child Health in Northern Tanzania: Maasai Pastoralists Are Disadvantaged Compared to Neighbouring Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  19. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  20. Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Stanford M.

    This book on the Chinese Americans focuses on such aspects of intergroup relations, community characteristics, social problems, acculturation, racial and social discrimination, and economic opportunities for the ethnic group as: the Chinese diaspora; forerunners of overseas Chinese community organization; Chinese community organization in the…

  1. Who are the traffic offenders among ethnic groups and why?

    PubMed

    Elias, Wafa; Blank-Gomel, Aharon; Habib-Matar, Caroline; Shiftan, Yoram

    2016-06-01

    Marginalized populations, particularly ethnic minorities, are often at a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes and committing traffic violations. Prominent explanations for this "ethnic traffic risk gap" include cultural and socioeconomic factors, usually measured at an aggregate level. In particular, it has been hypothesized that ethnic minorities commit traffic violations as a form of social resistance to what they perceive to be an oppressing regime. The current study examined the mechanisms underlying traffic violations at the individual level within a single ethnic minority, Israeli-Arabs. The study sample (n=231) included a group of known offenders (n=60) and non-offenders (n=171), all of which completed the Traffic Violation Questionnaire. The results show that offenders and non-offenders tended to have different types of occupations, although these did not translate into significant differences in level of income. Offenders reported significantly lower levels of trust in some hegemonic institutions (the police, government ministries) but not others (parliament, the juridical system). However, offenders displayed remarkably different daily activity patterns, including much higher exposure to traffic (3h/day vs. 0.75) and more complex trip patterns. Our results find little support for the social resistance hypothesis, as it fails to explain the differential treatment of hegemonic institutions. Daily activity patterns stand out as a central mechanism influencing the risk of violations. These results suggest policymakers should adopt a holistic approach for traffic safety interventions but avoid monolithic views of ethnic minorities which may lead to an inefficient use of resources. PMID:26974023

  2. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women’s cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p<0.01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p<0.05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. PMID:25826460

  3. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiovascular Symptoms in Four Major Racial/Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women: A Secondary Analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic minority midlife women frequently do not recognize cardiovascular symptoms that they experience during the menopausal transition. Racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular symptoms are postulated as a plausible reason for their lack of knowledge and recognition of the symptoms. The purpose of this study was to explore racial/ethnic differences in midlife women's cardiovascular symptoms and to determine the factors related to these symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. This was a secondary analysis of the data from a larger study among 466 participants, collected from 2006 to 2011. The instruments included questions on background characteristics, health and menopausal status, and the Cardiovascular Symptom Index for Midlife Women. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics, including Poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. Significant racial/ethnic differences were observed in the total numbers and total severity scores of cardiovascular symptoms (p < .01). Non-Hispanic Asians had significantly lower total numbers and total severity scores compared to other racial/ethnic groups (p < .05). The demographic and health factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms were somewhat different in each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are needed about possible reasons for the racial/ethnic differences and the factors associated with cardiovascular symptoms in each racial/ethnic group. PMID:25826460

  4. The Association between Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Mild Cognitive Impairment among Different Ethnic Minority Groups in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, ZhiZhong; Ma, Wanrui; Liu, Lan

    2014-01-01

    The association, in different ethnic groups, of apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene polymorphism with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been unclear. Few studies have examined the association in Chinese minorities. The current study explores the association between apoE gene polymorphism and MCI in one of the biggest ethnic groups—the Hui—and compares it with the Han. The Minimental State Exam, Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 306 ethnic Hui and 618 ethnic Han people aged ≥55 years. ApoE genotypes were determined using the high resolution melting curve method. The distribution of the apoE genotype and the frequency of alleles ε2, ε3, and ε4 were similar in the Hui and Han groups. In analyses adjusted for age, gender, and education level, the ε4 allele was a risk factor for MCI in both the Hui group (OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.02–6.66) and the Han group (OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.19–4.67), but the apoE ε2 allele was protective for MCI only in the Han group (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.38–0.88). The association of some apoE genotypes with MCI may differ in different ethnic groups in China. Further studies are needed to explore this effect among different populations. PMID:25161798

  5. Genetic structure of Tunisian ethnic groups revealed by paternal lineages.

    PubMed

    Fadhlaoui-Zid, Karima; Martinez-Cruz, Begoña; Khodjet-el-khil, Houssein; Mendizabal, Isabel; Benammar-Elgaaied, Amel; Comas, David

    2011-10-01

    Tunisia has experienced a variety of human migrations that have modeled the myriad cultural groups inhabiting the area. Both Arabic and Berber-speaking populations live in Tunisia. Berbers are commonly considered as in situ descendants of peoples who settled roughly in Palaeolithic times, and posterior demographic events such as the arrival of the Neolithic, the Arab migrations, and the expulsion of the "Moors" from Spain, had a strong cultural influence. Nonetheless, the genetic structure and the population relationships of the ethnic groups living in Tunisia have been poorly assessed. In order to gain insight into the paternal genetic landscape and population structure, more than 40 Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms and 17 short tandem repeats were analyzed in five Tunisian ethnic groups (three Berber-speaking isolates, one Andalusian, and one Cosmopolitan Arab). The most common lineage was the North African haplogroup E-M81 (71%), being fixed in two Berber samples (Chenini-Douiret and Jradou), suggesting isolation and genetic drift. Differential levels of paternal gene flow from the Near East were detected in the Tunisian samples (J-M267 lineage over 30%); however, no major sub-Saharan African or European influence was found. This result contrasts with the high amount of sub-Saharan and Eurasian maternal lineages previously described in Tunisia. Overall, our results reveal a certain genetic inter-population diversity, especially among Berber groups, and sexual asymmetry, paternal lineages being mostly of autochthonous origin. In addition, Andalusians, who are supposed to be migrants from southern Spain, do not exhibit any substantial contribution of European lineages, suggesting a North African origin for this ethnic group. PMID:21915847

  6. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  7. A Theoretical Study on English Teaching in Chinese Ethnic Minority Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian, Huang

    2013-01-01

    From an investigation about the factors influencing the trilingual education in Chinese ethnic minority regions, the author find out that the minority students are incompetent in English learning. Inappropriate teaching strategies, learning materials as well as language policy hinder the development of teaching and learning progress in those…

  8. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Counseling Services among Chinese International Students: Acculturation, Ethnic Identity, and English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiaqi; Marbley, Aretha Faye; Bradley, Loretta J.; Lan, William

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the help-seeking attitudes of 109 Chinese international students studying in the United States. Results revealed that significant relationships exist among acculturation, ethnic identity, English proficiency, and attitudes toward seeking professional counseling services. Limitations and recommendations for future research are…

  9. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture. PMID:23656627

  10. Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups. NCES 2010-015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan; Fox, Mary Ann; KewalRamani, Angelina

    2010-01-01

    "Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups" examines the educational progress and challenges of students in the United States by race/ethnicity. This report shows that over time, the numbers of students of each race/ethnicity who have completed high school and continued their education in college have increased. Despite these…

  11. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  12. The social costs of academic success across ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Doan, Stacey N

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the longitudinal association between academic achievement and social acceptance across ethnic groups in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13,570; M(age) = 15.5 years). The effects of school context are also considered. Results show that African American and Native American adolescents experience greater social costs with academic success than Whites. Pertaining to school context, findings suggest that the differential social consequences of achievement experienced by African Americans are greatest in more highly achieving schools, but only when these schools have a smaller percentage of Black students. Students from Mexican descent also showed differential social costs with achievement in particular contexts. The implications of these findings to theory, policy, and future research are discussed. PMID:21077858

  13. Less Favorable Body Composition and Adipokines in South Asians Compared to Other U.S. Ethnic Groups: Results from the MASALA and MESA Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Arti D.; Kandula, Namratha R.; Lin, Feng; Allison, Matthew A.; Carr, Jeffrey; Herrington, David; Liu, Kiang; Kanaya, Alka M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Small studies have shown that South Asians (SAs) have more total body, subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat and abnormal adipokine levels compared to Whites. However, comprehensive studies of body composition and adipokines in SAs compared to other ethnic groups are lacking. Methods Using harmonized data, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of two community-based cohorts: Mediators of Atherosclerosis of South Asians Living in America (MASALA, n=906) and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA which included 2,622 Whites; 803 Chinese Americans; 1,893 African Americans; and 1,496 Latinos). General linear models were developed to assess ethnic differences in ectopic fat (visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation), lean muscle mass, and adipokines (adiponectin and resistin). Models were adjusted for age, sex, site, alcohol use, smoking, exercise, education, household income and BMI. Ectopic fat models were additionally adjusted for hypertension, diabetes, HDL, and triglycerides. Adipokine models were adjusted for subcutaneous, visceral, intermuscular, and pericardial fat; and hepatic attenuation. Results Compared to all ethnic groups in MESA (Whites, Chinese Americans, African Americans, and Latinos), SAs had greater intermuscular fat (pairwise comparisons to each MESA group, p < 0.01), lower hepatic attenuation (p < 0.001), and less lean mass (p < 0.001). SAs had greater visceral fat compared to Chinese Americans, African Americans and Latinos (p < 0.05) and greater pericardial fat compared to African Americans (p < 0.001). SAs had lower adiponectin levels compared to other ethnic groups (p < 0.01; except Chinese Americans) and higher resistin levels than all groups (p < 0.001), even after adjusting for differences in body composition. Conclusion There are significant ethnic differences in ectopic fat, lean mass, and adipokines. A less favorable body composition and adipokine profile in South Asians may partially

  14. Ethnic Identity and Social-Cognitive Maturity in a Multicultural Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer M.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined a multicultural group experience on students' ("N"= 94) ethnic identity development and social-cognitive maturity. Although no differences were identified between treatment and comparison group participants, group therapeutic factors scores were predictive of ethnic identity development and social-cognitive…

  15. Ecological association between HIV and concurrency point-prevalence in South Africa's ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Chris

    2013-11-01

    HIV prevalence between different ethnic groups within South Africa exhibits considerable variation. Numerous authors believe that elevated sexual partner concurrency rates are important in the spread of HIV. Few studies have, however, investigated if differential concurrency rates could explain differential HIV spread within ethnic groups in South Africa. This ecological analysis, explores how much of the variation in HIV prevalence by ethnic group is explained by differential concurrency rates. Using a nationally representative survey (the South African National HIV Prevalence, HIV Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey, 2005) the HIV prevalence in each of eight major ethnic groups was calculated. Linear regression analysis was used to assess the association between an ethnic group's HIV prevalence and the point-prevalence of concurrency. Results showed that HIV prevalence rates varied considerably between South Africa's ethnic groups. This applied to both different racial groups and to different ethnic groups within the black group. The point-prevalence of concurrency by ethnic group was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (R(2) = 0.83; p = 0.001). Tackling the key drivers of high HIV transmission in this population may benefit from more emphasis on partner reduction interventions. PMID:25871377

  16. Longitudinal Reciprocal Relationships Between Discrimination and Ethnic Affect or Depressive Symptoms Among Chinese American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yang; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie; Shen, Yishan; Orozco-Lapray, Diana

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination plays an important role in the development of ethnic minority adolescents. However, previous studies have often adopted a unidirectional model examining the influence of discrimination on adolescent development, thus leaving the potential reciprocal relationship between them understudied. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies on Chinese Americans in the discrimination literature. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the reciprocal relationships between discrimination and two measures of adolescent outcomes (i.e., ethnic affect and depressive symptoms) from early adolescence to emerging adulthood in Chinese Americans. Participants were 444 adolescents (54 % female), followed at four-year intervals, beginning at 7th or 8th grade (M age.wave1 = 13.03) in 2002, for a total of three waves. An examination of cross-lagged autoregressive models revealed two major findings. First, in contrast to the rejection-identification model, perceived discrimination at early adolescence negatively related to ethnic affect at middle adolescence. Conversely, ethnic affect at early adolescence also negatively related to discrimination at middle adolescence. These results held the same direction but became insignificant from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. Second, perceived discrimination positively related to depressive symptoms across the studied developmental periods, and depressive symptoms positively related to perceived discrimination from middle adolescence to emerging adulthood. The strength of these longitudinal relationships did not change significantly across developmental periods or gender. These findings highlight the bidirectional relationship between perceived discrimination and adolescent outcomes; they also demonstrate the value of studying the discrimination experiences of Chinese Americans. PMID:25963446

  17. Elephants classify human ethnic groups by odor and garment color.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lucy A; Sayialel, Katito N; Njiraini, Norah W; Moss, Cynthia J; Poole, Joyce H; Byrne, Richard W

    2007-11-20

    Animals can benefit from classifying predators or other dangers into categories, tailoring their escape strategies to the type and nature of the risk. Studies of alarm vocalizations have revealed various levels of sophistication in classification. In many taxa, reactions to danger are inflexible, but some species can learn the level of threat presented by the local population of a predator or by specific, recognizable individuals. Some species distinguish several species of predator, giving differentiated warning calls and escape reactions; here, we explore an animal's classification of subgroups within a species. We show that elephants distinguish at least two Kenyan ethnic groups and can identify them by olfactory and color cues independently. In the Amboseli ecosystem, Kenya, young Maasai men demonstrate virility by spearing elephants (Loxodonta africana), but Kamba agriculturalists pose little threat. Elephants showed greater fear when they detected the scent of garments previously worn by Maasai than by Kamba men, and they reacted aggressively to the color associated with Maasai. Elephants are therefore able to classify members of a single species into subgroups that pose different degrees of danger. PMID:17949977

  18. Do Ethnic Identity and Other-Group Orientation Protect against Discrimination for Asian Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Ethnic identity and other-group orientation were examined as possible moderators and mediators on the effects of personal ethnic discrimination and minority group discrimination in 2 studies of Asian Americans. Results demonstrated that discrimination, particularly when directed personally at an individual, correlated negatively with psychological…

  19. Creating Culturally Relevant Alzheimer's Support Groups for Racial and Ethnic Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Joseph Neil

    Although data indicate that Alzheimer's disease occurs among all racial and ethnic populations, the Alzheimer's disease support group system is used nationally primarily by white, middle-class caregivers. Developing a model ethnic-specific support group for Hispanics requires delineation of formal and informal health care networks in the ethnic…

  20. Mitochondrial DNA genetic diversity among four ethnic groups in Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Bruce A; Wilson, Jamie Lee; Kirbah, Salwa; Sidney, Sheree S; Rosenberger, Joshua; Bassie, Larry; Alie, Joe A D; McLean, David C; Garvey, W Timothy; Ely, Bert

    2005-09-01

    Although there are numerous ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, the Mende and Temne together account for approximately 60% of the total population. To see if genetic differences could be observed among ethnic groups in Sierra Leone, the nucleotide sequence of the hypervariable 1 (HV1) region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was determined from samples of the two major ethnic groups, the Mende (n=59) and Temne (n=121), and of two minor ethnic groups, the Loko (n=29) and Limba (n=67). Among these 276 HV1 sequences, 164 individual haplotypes were observed. An analysis of molecular variance indicated that the distribution of these haplotypes within the Limba sample was significantly different from that of the other ethnic groups. No significant genetic variation was seen between the Mende, Temne, and Loko. These results indicate that distinguishing genetic differences can be observed among ethnic groups residing in historically close proximity to one another. Furthermore, we observed some mitochondrial DNA haplotypes that are common among the Sierra Leone ethnic groups but that have not been observed in other published studies of West African ethnic groups. Therefore, we may have evidence for mtDNA lineages that are unique to this region of West Africa. PMID:15761855

  1. Learners' Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Pronunciation Accuracy: A Sociolinguistic Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel; Magid, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between ethnic group affiliation (one's sense of belonging to a primary ethnic group) and second-language (L2) pronunciation accuracy defined here as native-like, nonaccented L2 speech or L2 speech that contains no first language (L1) influences. The study addressed these questions: (a) Is there a…

  2. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  3. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-01-01

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p < 0.0001) were all observed for the 3 parameters of heterozygosity (Ho, He and UHe) among the 5 ethnic groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups. PMID:26634331

  4. What is an Ethnic Group? A Multi-Ethnic Supplementary Learning Packet, Grade Levels: Elementary/Secondary, Grades K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Patricia A.

    The activities in this publication will help elementary and secondary students learn about ethnic groups. The first part of the publication contains teacher instructions. The second part contains the activity dittos for students. Some examples of the kinds of activities provided follow. Students are asked to define and list the characteristics of…

  5. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) polymorphism among ethnic groups in Singapore with report of additional alleles at loci 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Saha, N; Wee, K P

    1989-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GST; E.C.2.5.1.18) were phenotyped by starch gel electrophoresis in post-mortem liver samples from 683 unrelated subjects of both sexes. 305 were Chinese, 185 Indians, 147 Malays and 46 from other racial groups of South-East Asia. GST1 and GST2 were found to be polymorphic in these populations. Additional alleles (GST1*3 and GST2*O) were observed at low frequency in all the ethnic groups. The frequency of GST1*1 was lower and that of GST1*2 was higher in Indians and Malays as compared to Chinese. GST1*0 and GST1*3 frequencies were similar in all these ethnic groups. The gene frequencies of the alleles of the GST2 locus varied significantly in the population studied. GST2*0 frequency was significantly higher in Indians than in Chinese and Malays, while the lowest frequency of GST2*1 was found in the Indians. GST2*2 frequency was higher in the Malays than in Chinese and Indians. GST1 and GST2 phenotype distributions were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups studied. Sex made no significant difference in the phenotype distribution. PMID:2487053

  6. Neighborhoods, Family, and Substance Use: Comparisons of the Relations across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoonsun; Harachi, Tracy W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how substance use among adolescents is related to several risk and protective factors derived from two ecological contexts: the neighborhood and the family. It explicitly investigates how the relationships between substance use and the factors vary across different racial and ethnic groups. Findings suggest many common correlates and processes of substance use for adolescents, regardless of race or ethnicity, including that neighborhood safety is associated with substance use. There are also some racial and ethnic group differences in relationships, including that low attachment to and lack of social opportunities in neighborhoods more strongly predict substance use among whites than among other racial and ethnic groups and that family management decreases the relationship between neighborhood safety and substance use among African Americans. A better understanding of the associations among factors that influence substance use across racial and ethnic subgroups can help effectively target preventive interventions for different groups. PMID:18461154

  7. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Bai and Han ethnic groups in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Li, H-L; Dong, L; Li, Q; Zhang, L; Chen, J; Zou, F-C; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-03-01

    Eating raw pork and/or liver is a custom of the Bai ethnic group in China. Most people living in Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, southwestern China are of Bai ethnicity. Little is known of the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Bai and Han ethnic populations in this region. In the present survey, a total of 555 and 595 blood samples were obtained from Bai and Han ethnic groups in Dali urban and rural areas, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine T. gondii IgG antibodies. Total positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgG in Bai and Han groups in this region was 21·6% (248/1150). The total seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly higher in the Bai ethnic group (32·3%, 179/555) than in the Han ethnic group (11·6%, 69/595) (P < 0·01). The results of statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between cat feeding/non-cat feeding groups in the Bai ethnic group, the most important risk factor was consumption of raw pork and/or liver for the Bai group, but feeding a cat may be the main route of T. gondii infection for the Han group. Therefore, it is essential to implement integrated strategies to prevent and control T. gondii infection in this unique region of the world. PMID:24933039

  8. The influence of ethnic group variation on victimization and help seeking among Latino women.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. PMID:25111549

  9. Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor gene diversity in the Tibetan ethnic minority group of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo-feng; Wang, Hong-dan; Shen, Chun-mei; Deng, Ya-jun; Yang, Guang; Wu, Qing-ju; Xu, Peng; Qin, Hai-xia; Fan, Shuan-liang; Huang, Ping; Deng, Li-bin; Lucas, Rudolf; Wang, Zhen-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) gene polymorphisms in the Tibetan ethnic minority of China. To that purpose, we have studied KIR gene frequencies and genotype diversities of 16 KIR genes and three pseudogenes (2DL1, 2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL4, 2DL5A, 2DL5B, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS4*001/002, 2DS4*003-007, 2DS5, 3DL1, 3DL2, 3DL3, 3DS1, 2DP1, 3DP1*001/002/004, and 3DP1*003) in a population sample of 102 unrelated healthy individuals of the Tibetan population living in Lhasa city, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Tibetans mainly live in "the roof of the world," the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China and surrounding areas stretching from central Asia in the North and West to Myanmar and mainland China in the East, and India, Nepal, and Bhutan to the south. KIR gene frequencies and statistical parameters of Tibetan ethnic minority were calculated. Fifteen KIR genes were observed in the 102 tested Tibetan individuals with different frequencies. The allelic frequencies of the 15 KIR genes ranged from 0.06 to 0.86. In addition, KIR 2DL1, 2DL4, 3DL2, and 3DL3 were found to be present in every individual. Variable gene content, together with allelic polymorphisms, can result in individualized human KIR genotypes and haplotypes, with the A haplotypes being predominantly observed. The results of tested linkage disequilibrium (LD) among KIR genes demonstrated that KIR genes present a wide range of linkage disequilibrium. Moreover, a comparison of the population data of our study with previously published population data of other ethnic groups or areas was performed. The differences of allelic frequency distribution in KIR2DL2, 2DL3, 2DL5, 3DL1, 2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 3DS1, and 2DP1 were statistically significant among different populations using the statistical method of the standard χ(2) test. In conclusion, the results of the present study can be valuable for enriching the Chinese ethnical gene information resources of the KIR gene pool and for

  10. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  11. Why Are Some Ethnic Groups More Violent than Others? The Role of Friendship Network's Ethnic Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…

  12. Coney Island Hospital focuses on healthcare for ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Since its beginnings as a first aid station on the famous New York beach, Coney Island Hospital has evolved as a well-known public hospital serving a multi-cultural community. Part of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corp. it has made extensive efforts to provide "ethnically correct" services to all of its constituents. These measures have been covered by National Public Radio and recognized as a "best practices" example by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Profile's article offers insights about how it's done and how it is publicized, including what its associate director calls "ethnic marketing on the cheap." PMID:11552591

  13. Life Satisfaction among Ethnic Minorities: The Role of Discrimination and Group Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel

    2008-01-01

    For most immigrants and ethnic minority groups, everyday life in the country of settlement raises question of adaptation and belonging. Aside from factors such as lower income, lower education and poorer health, being an ethnic minority member carries additional factors that can lower general life satisfaction. Using data from two studies the…

  14. Normativity and Friendship Choices among Ethnic Majority- and Minority-Group Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.; Ben-Hmeda, Malak; Cox, Jo; Loucas, Christina; Seltzer-Eade, Sophia; Hine, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Two-hundred-and-fifty-eight White British (ethnic majority) and British South Asian (minority) children (5, 9 and 13 years old) chose potential friends from descriptions of peers who had traits and preferences that were either consistent (normative) or inconsistent (deviant) with ethnic group membership. White children chose peers from the ethnic…

  15. Motivation and Attribution at Secondary School: The Role of Ethnic Group and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siann, Gerda; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Results of a questionnaire completed by 985 secondary school students in England (180 Asian females), indicate that Asian females enjoy school as much as or more than their counterparts, and enjoy subjects along sex stereotypical lines regardless of ethnicity. Grouping students by ethnicity for studies of motivation is questioned. (SLD)

  16. A Model of Intercultural Communication: The Interaction of Japanese and Other Ethnic Groups in Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Dennis M.

    Several research studies have looked at Japanese-American interaction with other ethnic groups in Hawaii. A study by McCandless and Hoyt, "Sex, Ethnicity, and Play Preferences of Preschool Children," reveals that children in Hawaii base their choice of friends on racial distinctions. This is due, however, not to racial hostility or discrimination…

  17. Patterns and Predictors of Father-Infant Engagement across Race/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Hofferth, Sandra L.; Chae, Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether levels of father engagement (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) vary by race/ethnicity using a model that controls for fathers' human capital, mental health, and family relationships. It also tests whether the models work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Its sample of N = 5089 infants and their…

  18. Predictors of Career Indecision in Three Racial/Ethnic Groups of College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Ann-Yi, Sujin

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the contributions of career-related barrier and social support perceptions, barrier-related coping beliefs, and career decision-making self-efficacy beliefs to the prediction of career indecision in three racial/ethnic groups of college women. Results indicate that although there are no racial/ethnic differences across scores…

  19. Self-Esteem Changes in the Middle School Years: A Study of Ethnic and Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Sue K.; Kuhn, Jennifer; Rhodes, Jean

    2006-01-01

    The current study investigated how ethnicity and gender affect changes in the self-esteem of early adolescents during the middle school years. Self-report data were collected from more than 4,000 early adolescents from three ethnic groups: European American, African American, and Hispanic and analyzed using a consecutive three-year cross-sectional…

  20. Differentiation of Self, Personal Adjustment, Problem Solving, and Ethnic Group Belonging among Persons of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on examining the cross-cultural validity of Bowen family systems theory (M. Bowen, 1978), namely differentiation of self for individuals of color. Ethnic minority men and women completed measures of differentiation of self, ethnic group belonging, and 3 indices of personal adjustment. Initial support for the cross-cultural…

  1. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  2. Group identification and outgroup attitudes in four South African ethnic groups: a multidimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Duckitt, John; Callaghan, Jane; Wagner, Claire

    2005-05-01

    Although Sumner's ethnocentrism hypothesis, which expects stronger group identification to be associated with more negative outgroup attitudes, has been widely accepted, empirical findings have been inconsistent. This research investigates the relationship of four dimensions of ethnocultural group identification previously proposed by Phinney, that is, salience, evaluation, attachment, and involvement, with attitudes to ethnic outgroups in four South African ethnocultural groups (Africans, Afrikaans Whites, English Whites, Indians). The findings supported the factorial independence of the four identification dimensions and indicated that only one, ethnocultural evaluation (ingroup attitudes), was systematically related to outgroup attitudes, but the association could be positive, negative, or zero. Both functionalist and similarity-dissimilarity approaches to intergroup relations seemed to provide plausible explanations for the pattern of relationships obtained between ingroup and outgroup attitudes. PMID:15802658

  3. Culture, Threat, and Mental Illness Stigma: Identifying Culture-Specific Threat among Chinese-American Groups

    PubMed Central

    Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Kotabe, Hiroki; Link, Bruce G.; Saw, Anne; Wong, Gloria; Phelan, Jo C.

    2014-01-01

    We incorporate anthropological insights into a stigma framework to elucidate the role of culture in threat perception and stigma among Chinese groups. Prior work suggests that genetic contamination that jeopardizes the extension of one’s family lineage may comprise a culture-specific threat among Chinese groups. In Study 1, a national survey conducted from 2002–2003 assessed cultural differences in mental illness stigma and perceptions of threat in 56 Chinese-Americans and 589 European-Americans. Study 2 sought to empirically test this culture-specific threat of genetic contamination to lineage via a memory paradigm. Conducted from June to August 2010, 48 Chinese-American and 37 European-American university students in New York City read vignettes containing content referring to lineage or non-lineage concerns. Half the participants in each ethnic group were assigned to a condition in which the illness was likely to be inherited (genetic condition) and the rest read that the illness was unlikely to be inherited (non-genetic condition). Findings from Study 1 and 2 were convergent. In Study 1, culture-specific threat to lineage predicted cultural variation in stigma independently and after accounting for other forms of threat. In Study 2, Chinese-Americans in the genetic condition were more likely to accurately recall and recognize lineage content than the Chinese-Americans in the non-genetic condition, but that memorial pattern was not found for non-lineage content. The identification of this culture-specific threat among Chinese groups has direct implications for culturally-tailored anti-stigma interventions. Further, this framework might be implemented across other conditions and cultural groups to reduce stigma across cultures. PMID:23702210

  4. The relationship between air layers and evaporative resistance of male Chinese ethnic clothing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Faming; Peng, Hui; Shi, Wen

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the air layer distribution and evaporative resistances of 39 sets of male Chinese ethnic clothing were investigated using a sweating thermal manikin and the three-dimensional (3D) body scanning technique. Relationships between the evaporative resistance and air layers (i.e., air gap thickness and air volume) were explored. The results demonstrated that the clothing total evaporative resistance increases with the increasing air gap size/air volume, but the rate of increase gradually decreases as the mean air gap size or the total air volume becomes larger. The clothing total evaporative resistance reaches its maximum when the average air gap size and the total air volume are 41.6 mm and 69.9 dm(3), respectively. Similar general trends were also found between local mean air gap size and clothing local evaporative resistance at different body parts. However, different body parts show varied rates of increase and decrease in the local evaporative resistance. The research findings provide a comprehensive database for predicting overall and local human thermal comfort while wearing male Chinese ethnic clothing. PMID:27184328

  5. The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Haralur, Satheesh B.; Dibas, Ahmed Mohammed; Almelhi, Nabil Abdullah; Al-Qahtani, Dhafer Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between skin and tooth colour parameters in various ethnic groups. Materials and Methods. Saudi Arabian, Indian, African, and East Asian ethnic groups of 75 each were included in the study. The tooth colour was determined by spectrophotometer in CIELAB parameters. The skin colour was measured at earlobe, forehead, and malar locations by clinical skin photography. The data was statistically analysed by one-way ANOVA and correlation tests. Results. The “L” vale for the Saudi Arabian group had a strong correlation at earlobe location (r = 0.275), while correlation was found at forehead (r = 0.271) and malar region (r = 0.261) with Indian ethnic group. A strong negative correlation was observed in African ethnic group at all three locations for “L” parameter. The redness value “a” is found to have strong negative linear correlation between the earlobe and tooth for Saudi Arabian (r = −0.240) and Indian ethnic groups (r = −0.268). The “b” showed no correlation with skin location in all groups except positive correlation in African ethnic groups. Conclusions. The strong correlation was found between the skin and tooth colour parameters; hence the skin colour can be used as a guide for artificial tooth selection in edentulous patients. PMID:25101125

  6. Factorial validity of the multidimensional health locus of control scales for three American ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Malcarne, Vanessa L; Fernandez, Senaida; Flores, Lise

    2005-09-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties (specifically, the factorial invariance) of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scales in a multicultural sample of college students. The original 18-item MHLC was administered, along with measures of ethnicity-related variables, to 1845 college students from three ethnic groups (Caucasian Americans, Filipino Americans and Latino Americans). Confirmatory factor analysis failed to confirm a three-factor structure for any of the three groups. Subsequent exploratory principal components analysis supported a cross-ethnic-group three-factor structure that had reduced numbers of items loading adequately on each factor. Shortened scales were created, and internal consistency reliability for each scale was acceptable for each ethnic group. Filipino Americans scored higher on all three scales. Regression analyses predicting MHLC scales from demographic and sociocultural variables revealed few predictive relationships. PMID:16033787

  7. Does the ‘Scottish effect’ apply to all ethnic groups? All-cancer, lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancer in the Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, Raj S; Bansal, Narinder; Steiner, Markus; Brewster, David H

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Although ethnic group variations in cancer exist, no multiethnic, population-based, longitudinal studies are available in Europe. Our objectives were to examine ethnic variation in all-cancer, and lung, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers. Design, setting, population, measures and analysis This retrospective cohort study of 4.65 million people linked the 2001 Scottish Census (providing ethnic group) to cancer databases. With the White Scottish population as reference (value 100), directly age standardised rates and ratios (DASR and DASRR), and risk ratios, by sex and ethnic group with 95% CI were calculated for first cancers. In the results below, 95% CI around the DASRR excludes 100. Eight indicators of socio-economic position were assessed as potential confounders across all groups. Results For all cancers the White Scottish population (100) had the highest DASRRs, Indians the lowest (men 45.9 and women 41.2) and White British (men 87.6 and women 87.3) and other groups were intermediate (eg, Chinese men 57.6). For lung cancer the DASRRs for Pakistani men (45.0), and women (53.5), were low and for any mixed background men high (174.5). For colorectal cancer the DASRRs were lowest in Pakistanis (men 32.9 and women 68.9), White British (men 82.4 and women 83.7), other White (men 77.2 and women 74.9) and Chinese men (42.6). Breast cancer in women was low in Pakistanis (62.2), Chinese (63.0) and White Irish (84.0). Prostate cancer was lowest in Pakistanis (38.7), Indian (62.6) and White Irish (85.4). No socio-economic indicator was a valid confounding variable across ethnic groups. Conclusions The ‘Scottish effect’ does not apply across ethnic groups for cancer. The findings have implications for clinical care, prevention and screening, for example, responding appropriately to the known low uptake among South Asian populations of bowel screening might benefit from modelling of cost-effectiveness of screening, given comparatively low

  8. Behavioral Constructs and Mammography in Five Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan L.; Rakowski, William; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    Intention, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, and subjective norms are key constructs of health behavior theories; their predictive validity for cancer screening has not been ascertained in multiethnic populations. Participants were 1,463 African American, Chinese, Filipina, Latina, and White women aged 40 to 74…

  9. Glycaemic and insulin responses, glycaemic index and insulinaemic index values of rice between three Asian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Tan, V M H; Wu, T; Henry, C J; Lee, Y S

    2015-04-28

    Asians exhibit larger glycaemic response (GR) and insulin response (IR) than Caucasians, predisposing to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to determine the GR and IR as well as the glycaemic index (GI) and insulinaemic index (II) of two rice varieties among three ethnic groups in Singapore. A total of seventy-five healthy males (twenty-five Chinese, twenty-five Malay and twenty-five Asian-Indians) were served the available equivalent carbohydrate amounts (50 g) of test foods (Jasmine rice and Basmati rice) and a reference food (glucose) on separate occasions. Postprandial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured at fasting ( -5 and 0 min) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after food consumption. Using the trapezoidal rule, GR, IR, GI and II values were determined. The GR did not differ between ethnic groups for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice. The IR was consistently higher for Jasmine rice (P=0·002) and Basmati rice (P=0·002) among Asian-Indians, probably due to compensatory hyperinsulinaemia to maintain normoglycaemia. The GI and II of both rice varieties did not differ significantly between ethnicities. The overall mean GI for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were 91 (sd 21) and 59 (sd 15), respectively. The overall mean II for Jasmine rice was 76 (sd 26) and for Basmati rice was 57 (sd 24). We conclude that the GI values presented for Jasmine rice and Basmati rice were applicable to all three ethnic groups in Singapore. Future studies should include deriving the II for greater clinical utility in the prevention and management of T2DM. PMID:25789978

  10. Ethnobotany of the Monpa ethnic group at Arunachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies. PMID:21995750

  11. Developmental Validation of the Huaxia Platinum System and application in 3 main ethnic groups of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10(-27), 4.3791 × 10(-28) and 6.9118 × 10(-27), respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing. PMID:27498550

  12. Developmental Validation of the Huaxia Platinum System and application in 3 main ethnic groups of China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Jia, Zhenjun; Li, Luyao; Wu, Wei; Li, Chengtao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    STRs, scattered throughout the genome with higher mutation rate, are attractive to genetic application like forensic, anthropological and population genetics studies. STR profiling has now been applied in various aspects of human identification in forensic investigations. This work described the developmental validation of a novel and universal assay, the Huaxia Platinum System, which amplifies all markers in the expanded CODIS core loci and the Chinese National Database in one single PCR system. Developmental validation demonstrated that this novel assay is accurate, sensitive, reproducible and robust. No discordant calls were observed between the Huaxia Platinum System and other STR systems. Full genotypes could be achieved even with 250 pg of human DNA. Additionally, 402 unrelated individuals from 3 main ethnic groups of China (Han, Uygur and Tibetan) were genotyped to investigate the effectiveness of this novel assay. The CMP were 2.3094 × 10−27, 4.3791 × 10−28 and 6.9118 × 10−27, respectively, and the CPE were 0.99999999939059, 0.99999999989653 and 0.99999999976386, respectively. Aforementioned results suggested that the Huaxia Platinum System is polymorphic and informative, which provides efficient tool for national DNA database and facilitate international data sharing. PMID:27498550

  13. Beta-2 adrenergic receptor genotypes and haplotypes in different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Taylor J; Ameyaw, Margaret-Mary; Pritchard, Stuart; Thornton, Nadia; Folayan, Gbolahan; Githang'a, Jessie; Indalo, Anne; Tariq, Mohammed; Mobarek, Abeer; Evans, David A; Ofori-Adjei, David; Templeton, Alan R; McLeod, Howard L

    2005-10-01

    The human beta-2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) is responsible for the binding of endogenous catecholamines and their exogenously administered agonists and antagonists. Three functional polymorphisms in codons 16, 27 and 164 have been described which have clinical importance for several diseases, including asthma, hypertension, heart failure, cystic fibrosis and obesity, as well as response to beta-agonist therapy. These were evaluated in 726 individuals from 8 distinct ethnic populations (Chinese, Filipino, Southwest Asian, Saudi, Ghanaian, Kenyan, Sudanese, and European from Scotland). The results show that most haplotypes are shared among all populations, yet there are marked differences in their frequency distributions geographically. The genetic distance tree is different from standard human population distance trees, implying a different mode of evolution for this locus than that for human population gene-flow history. The multilocus frequency differences between the observed clusters of populations correspond to historical haplotype groupings that have been found to be functionally different with respect to multiple medically related phenotypes. Further studies are needed to see if functional relationships are the same across populations. PMID:16142389

  14. Experiencing maternity care: the care received and perceptions of women from different ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Office for National Statistics, approximately a quarter of women giving birth in England and Wales are from minority ethnic groups. Previous work has indicated that these women have poorer pregnancy outcomes than White women and poorer experience of maternity care, sometimes encountering stereotyping and racism. The aims of this study were to examine service use and perceptions of care in ethnic minority women from different groups compared to White women. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a survey of women in 2010 was undertaken. The questionnaire asked about women’s experience of care during pregnancy, labour and birth, and the postnatal period, as well as demographic factors. Ethnicity was grouped into eight categories: White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African, and Other ethnicity. Results A total of 24,319 women completed the survey. Compared to White women, women from minority ethnic groups were more likely to be younger, multiparous and without a partner. They tended to access antenatal care later in pregnancy, have fewer antenatal checks, fewer ultrasound scans and less screening. They were less likely to receive pain relief in labour and, Black African women in particular, were more likely to deliver by emergency caesarean section. Postnatally, women from minority ethnic groups had longer lengths of hospital stay and were more likely to breastfeed but they had fewer home visits from midwives. Throughout their maternity care, women from minority ethnic groups were less likely to feel spoken to so they could understand, to be treated with kindness, to be sufficiently involved in decisions and to have confidence and trust in the staff. Conclusion Women in all minority ethnic groups had a poorer experience of maternity services than White women. That this was still the case following publication of a number of national policy documents and local initiatives is a cause for concern. PMID

  15. Morbidity and mortality in relation to smoking among women and men of Chinese ethnicity: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives We examined the association among cigarette smoking, smoking cessation and a broad range of cancer incidence and all cause and cause-specific mortality in a population-based cohort of adults of Chinese ethnicity in Singapore. Methods Subjects were 61,320 participants of the Singapore Chinese Health Study (44.5% men, aged 45–74 years, recruitment from 1993–1998) who were free of cancer at the baseline examination. Main outcomes-of-interest included cancer incidence, all cause and cause-specific mortality as of December 31, 2005. Results Cigarette smoking was positively associated with overall cancer incidence, including cancers at the following specific sites: head and neck region, upper gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary and pancreas cancer, lung, and bladder/renal pelvis cancer. Compared to never smokers, the relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of cancer incidence (all cancer sites) among current smokers smoking >22 cigarettes/day was 1.9 (1.7–2.1), p-trend<0.0001. Similarly, cigarette smoking was associated with all cause and cause-specific mortality, including deaths due to cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart diseases, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compared to never smokers, RR (95%CI) of all cause mortality among current smokers smoking >22 cigarettes/day was 1.8 (1.6–2.0), p-trend<0.0001. Also, relative to current smokers, ex-smokers experienced reduced cancer incidence and total mortality. The population attributable risk of smoking in men for cancer incidence as well as all-cause mortality was 23%, whereas in women it ranged from 4–5%. Conclusions Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for cancer incidence and major causes of mortality in Chinese men and women of Singapore. PMID:18006298

  16. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously. PMID:25046125

  17. Cross-Border Choice as Identity Investment: Cases of Malaysian and Indonesian Ethnic Chinese Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Pik Lin

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a case study on two ethnic Chinese students, one from Malaysia and one from Indonesia, who chose to pursue higher education in Hong Kong. By placing the students at the center of investigation against the social, political, economic, and educational contexts of their home countries, as well as the host territory, the present…

  18. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses.…

  19. Hepatitis B virus infection and genotype in asymptomatic people from 10 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuan-Ying; Hou, Wei; Yang, Zhan-Qiu; Xiao, Wen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the infection and genotype distribution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. METHODS: Two thousand five hundred and eighty-four asymptomatic local people from 10 ethnic groups were investigated in Yunnan, China. Infection and genotype distribution were evaluated by serological and genetic methods. Genotyping was verified by sequencing. Ethnic genotype distribution was compared by proportion test. RESULTS: Four types of infection model based on HBV serum markers were identified, and the average HBV infection rate was 5.7% in those asymptomatic local people. The genotype prevalence was 59.6% for B, 21.1% for C and 19.3% BC; subgenotypes Ba, Cs and Ce were identified in this study. Hepatitis B surface antigen-positive rate and the proportion of genotype B were significantly lower in ethnic groups with a northern origin compared to those with a southern origin (50% vs 73.9%, P = 0.037; 4.2% vs 10.5%, P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: Genotype B is dominant and genotype BC has high occurrence in asymptomatic local ethnic groups in Yunnan. HBV infection status and genotype distribution may associate with ethnic origin. PMID:26640334

  20. Population genetic structure of peninsular Malaysia Malay sub-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  1. Population Genetic Structure of Peninsular Malaysia Malay Sub-Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference. PMID:26839545

  3. Conspiracy beliefs about the origin of HIV/AIDS in four racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Essien, E James; Torres, Isabel

    2006-03-01

    We examined beliefs about the origin of HIV as a genocidal conspiracy in men and women of four racial/ethnic groups in a street intercept sample in Houston, Texas. Groups sampled were African American, Latino, non-Hispanic white, and Asian. Highest levels of conspiracy theories were found in women, and in African American and Latino populations (over a quarter of African Americans and over a fifth of Latinos) with slightly lower rates in whites (a fifth) and Asians (less than one in ten). Reductions in condom use associated with such beliefs were however only apparent in African American men. Conspiracy beliefs were an independent predictor of reported condom use along with race/ethnicity, gender, education, and age group. Data suggest that genocidal conspiracy beliefs are relatively widespread in several racial/ethnic groups and that an understanding of the sources of these beliefs is important to determine their possible impact on HIV prevention and treatment behaviors. PMID:16540935

  4. Do wealth disparities contribute to health disparities within racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, Craig Evan; Cubbin, Catherine; Sania, Ayesha; Hayward, Mark; Vallone, Donna; Flaherty, Brian; Braveman, Paula A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Though wide disparities in wealth have been documented across racial/ethnic groups, it is largely unknown whether differences in wealth are associated with health disparities within racial/ethnic groups. Methods Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances (2004, ages 25–64) and the Health and Retirement Survey (2004, ages 50+), containing a wide range of assets and debts variables, was used to calculate net worth (a standard measure of wealth). Among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white populations, we tested whether wealth was associated with self-reported poor/fair health status after accounting for income and education. Results Except among the younger Hispanic population, net worth was significantly associated with poor/fair health status within each racial/ethnic group in both datasets. Adding net worth attenuated the association between education and poor/fair health (in all racial/ethnic groups) and between income and poor/fair health (except among older Hispanics). Conclusions The results add to literature indicating the importance of including measures of wealth in health research for what they may reveal about disparities not only between but also within different racial/ethnic groups. PMID:23427209

  5. Biomarkers of Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Racial/Ethnic Groups at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 39 hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962

  6. Stability and Change in Private and Public Ethnic Regard among African American, Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Chinese American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe; Rivas-Drake, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that ethnic identity in adolescence is multifaceted and dynamic, encompassing a number of aspects of content and self-definition. The present study examines "private regard" (i.e., youths' positive evaluations of their ethnic group) as well as "public regard", which refers to their perceptions…

  7. The Ethnic Identity, Other-Group Attitudes, and Psychosocial Functioning of Asian American Emerging Adults from Two Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juang, Linda P.; Nguyen, Huong H.; Lin, Yunghui

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from two samples of Asian American emerging adults, one in an ethnically concentrated context (n = 108) and the other in an ethnically-dispersed, mainly White context (n = 153), we examined (a) how ethnic identity and other-group attitudes were related to psychosocial functioning (i.e., depression, self-esteem, and connectedness to…

  8. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations. PMID:19538757

  9. Dietary sources of five nutrients in ethnic groups represented in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sangita; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shen, Lucy; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2013-04-28

    Data are limited on how dietary sources of energy and nutrient intakes differ among ethnic groups in the USA. The objective of the present study was to characterise dietary sources of energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, dietary fibre and added sugar for five ethnic groups. A validated quantitative FFQ was used to collect dietary data from 186,916 men and women aged 45-75 years who were living in Hawaii and Los Angeles between 1993 and 1996. Participants represented five ethnic groups: African-American; Japanese-American; Native Hawaiian; Latino; Caucasian. The top ten dietary sources of energy contributed 36·2-49·6% to total energy consumption, with rice and bread contributing the most (11·4-27·8%) across all ethnic-sex groups. Major dietary sources of total fat were chicken/turkey dishes and butter among most groups. Ice cream, ice milk or frozen yogurt contributed 4·6-6·2% to saturated fat intake across all ethnic-sex groups, except Latino-Mexico women. Chicken/turkey and bread were among the top dietary sources of protein (13·9-19·4%). The top two sources of dietary fibre were bread and cereals (18·1-22%) among all groups, except Latino-Mexico men. Regular sodas contributed the most to added sugar consumption. The present study provides, for the first time, data on the major dietary sources of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, fibre and added sugar for these five ethnic groups in the USA. Such data are valuable for identifying target foods for nutritional intervention programmes and directing public health strategies aimed at reducing dietary risk factors for chronic disease. PMID:22947145

  10. Mutation analyses in pedigrees and sporadic cases of ethnic Han Chinese Kallmann syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Qian; Yang, Guo-Qing; Hong, Tian-Pei; Zhu, Da-Long; Yang, Jin-Kui; Ning, Guang; Jin, Nan; Chen, Kang; Zang, Li; Wang, An-Ping; Du, Jin; Wang, Xian-Ling; Yang, Li-Juan; Ba, Jian-Ming; Lv, Zhao-Hui; Dou, Jing-Tao; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2015-11-01

    Kallmann syndrome, a form of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, is characterized by developmental abnormalities of the reproductive system and abnormal olfaction. Despite association of certain genes with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, the genetic inheritance and expression are complex and incompletely known. In the present study, seven Kallmann syndrome pedigrees in an ethnic Han Chinese population were screened for genetic mutations. The exons and intron-exon boundaries of 19 idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism)-related genes in seven Chinese Kallmann syndrome pedigrees were sequenced. Detected mutations were also tested in 70 sporadic Kallmann syndrome cases and 200 Chinese healthy controls. In pedigrees 1, 2, and 7, the secondary sex characteristics were poorly developed and the patients' sense of smell was severely or completely lost. We detected a genetic mutation in five of the seven pedigrees: homozygous KAL1 p.R191ter (pedigree 1); homozygous KAL1 p.C13ter (pedigree 2; a novel mutation); heterozygous FGFR1 p.R250W (pedigree 3); and homozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H (pedigrees 4 and 5). No genetic change of the assayed genes was detected in pedigrees 6 and 7. Among the 70 sporadic cases, we detected one homozygous and one heterozygous PROKR2 p.Y113H mutation. This mutation was also detected heterozygously in 2/200 normal controls and its pathogenicity is likely questionable. The genetics and genotype-phenotype relationships in Kallmann syndrome are complicated. Classical monogenic inheritance does not explain the full range of genetic inheritance of Kallmann syndrome patients. Because of stochastic nature of genetic mutations, exome analyses of Kallmann syndrome patients may provide novel insights. PMID:26031747

  11. Patterns of Ability Factors among Four Ethnic Groups. Project Access Research Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaugher, Ronald L.; Rock, Donald A.

    Differing patterns of abilities among high school males of four ethnic groups were investigated, as reflected in the interrelationships of scores on a multi-test aptitude battery. If such differences in patterns of ability exist among these groups, their existence and nature should be revealed in the interrelationships of the various test scores…

  12. Interaction Patterns in Cooperative Groups: The Effects of Gender, Ethnicity, and Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrenet, Jacob; Terwel, Jan

    The central question of this study was how gender, ethnicity, and ability influence students' participation in small cooperative groups, especially in relation to leadership. Interaction processes during cooperative group work were recorded in detail on the basis of direct observation and audio-recordings, and transcripts were analyzed by "pattern…

  13. Ethnic and Gender Diversity, Process and Performance in Groups of Business Students in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umans, Timurs; Collin, Sven-Olof; Tagesson, Torbjorn

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the complex interrelation between ethnic and gender diversity, process and performance among groups of business students. The article is based on an empirical survey of business students working on a complex assignment in groups of two to five in a small Swedish university. The results indicate that gender diversity leads…

  14. Chicago's Two Public School Systems: Standardized Test Results Compared by Racial/Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, James H.

    Throughout the Chicago Public Schools systematic differences exist between the performance of children of different racial and ethnic groups. In most schools where students of more than one group are found, Asians and Whites test at higher levels than Blacks and Hispanics. When income level and school type are controlled, small differences are…

  15. Use of Group Counseling to Address Ethnic Identity Development: Application with Adolescents of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Krista M.; Paone, Tina R.; Humphreys, Kourtney; Martinez, Triana

    2010-01-01

    This article provides qualitative outcomes from a group counseling intervention whose goal was to facilitate the ethnic identity development of Mexican-origin youth. Outcomes revealed that participants perceived group participation as meaningful. Themes that emerged from the data included the importance of the relationship to engender change,…

  16. Gender and Ethnic Group Differences on the GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeman, Brent; McHale, Frederick

    Gender and ethnic group differences on the Analytical Writing Assessment that is part of the Graduate Management Admissions Test were evaluated. Data from the first operational administration for 36,583 examinees in October 1994 were used. Standardized differences from the White male reference group were computed separately for men and women in…

  17. Racial-Ethnic Comparisons of Temperament Constructs for Three Age Groups Using the Student Styles Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Mary E.; Oakland, Thomas D.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses construct validity for comparisons of racial-ethnic group response patterns on the SSQ when age is considered as a factor. Assesses whether the SSQ's factor structure is similar for African American, Hispanic American, and Anglo American children and youth, grouped by ages 8-10, 11-13, and 14-17 years old. (RJM)

  18. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  19. Ethnic Conflict, Group Polarization, and Gender Attitudes in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunovich, Robert M.; Deitelbaum, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    We examine the sources of traditional gender attitudes during a period of social conflict and change. Using survey data from Croatia (Center for the Investigation of Transition and Civil Society, 1996; N=2,030) we explore the relationships between war-related experiences, in-group and out-group polarization, and two dimensions of gender attitudes:…

  20. Composition, concentration and deprivation: exploring their association with social cohesion among different ethnic groups in the UK.

    PubMed

    Bécares, Laia; Stafford, Mai; Laurence, James; Nazroo, James

    2011-01-01

    Although studies in the US have shown an association between the ethnic residential composition of an area and reports of decreased social cohesion among its residents, this association is not clear in the UK, and particularly for ethnic minority groups. The current study analyses a merged dataset from the 2005 and 2007 Citizenship Survey to assess the evidence for an association between social cohesion and ethnic residential concentration, composition and area deprivation across different ethnic groups in the UK. Results of the multilevel regression models show that, after adjusting for area deprivation, increased levels of social cohesion are found in areas of greater ethnic residential heterogeneity. Although different patterns emerge across ethnic groups and the measure of social cohesion used, findings consistently show that it is area deprivation, and not ethnic residential heterogeneity, which erodes social cohesion in the UK. PMID:22165157

  1. Race-Ethnicity and Health Trajectories: Tests of Three Hypotheses across Multiple Groups and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; O’Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories. PMID:22940814

  2. Inequality of child mortality among ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Brockerhoff, M.; Hewett, P.

    2000-01-01

    Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly

  3. Geographical and Ethnic Distributions of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C and MTRR A66G Gene Polymorphisms in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Dingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The geographical and ethnic distributions of the polymorphic methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations (C677T and A1298C) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) mutation (A66G) remain heterogeneous in China. The goal of this study was to estimate the pooled frequencies of the alleles and associated genotypes of these gene polymorphisms among healthy populations in Mainland China. Objective and Methods We systematically reviewed published epidemiological studies on the distributions of 3 genetic variants in Chinese healthy populations living in Mainland China through a meta-analysis. The relevant electronic databases were searched. All of the raw data of the eligible citations were extracted. The frequency estimates were stratified by geography, ethnicity and sex. Results Sixty-six studies were identified with a total of 92277 study participants. The meta-analysis revealed that the frequencies of the MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MTRR A66G gene polymorphisms varied significantly between different ethnic groups and along geographical gradients. The frequencies of the 677T allele and 677TT genotype increased along the southern-central-northern direction across Mainland China (all Pvalues≤0.001). The frequencies of the 1298C, 1298CC, 66G and 66GG genotypes decreased along the south-central-north direction across the country (all Pvalues≤0.001). Conclusions Our meta-analysis strongly indicates significant geographical and ethnic variations in the frequencies of the C677T, A1298C, and A66G gene polymorphisms in the folate metabolism pathway among Chinese populations. PMID:27089387

  4. Serogroup distribution of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis in urban ethnic groups in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verweij, S P; Quint, K D; Bax, C J; Van Leeuwen, A P; Mutsaers, J A E M; Jansen, C L; Oostvogel, P M; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A; Peters, R P H

    2014-02-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis varies between ethnic groups in The Netherlands. It is, however, unknown whether this is associated with specific serogroups. The objective of this study was to determine whether serogroup distribution is associated with ethnic origin in the region of The Hague, The Netherlands. Serogroups of 370 microbiologically confirmed C. trachomatis-positive samples were analysed. The samples were obtained from 247 women and 123 men between January and October 2008, of self-reported Dutch Caucasian, Dutch Antillean, Surinamese, N. African/Turkish or other descent. We observed a difference in serogroup distribution comparing Dutch Caucasian women to Dutch Antillean women (χ2 for distribution P = 0·035). Serogroup C was more common in Dutch Antillean women, whereas serogroup B was less common (P = 0·03). This difference was not observed for Dutch Antillean men. The observed difference in distribution of C. trachomatis serogroups between ethnic groups is relevant for further transmission studies. PMID:23611401

  5. It Takes a Village (or an Ethnic Economy): The Varying Roles of Socioeconomic Status, Religion, and Social Capital in SAT Preparation for Chinese and Korean American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic economies promote interclass contact among East Asian Americans, which facilitates the exchange of information and resources through social capital networks. However, low-income Korean Americans are more likely than low-income Chinese Americans to take SAT prep, although both communities have extensive ethnic economies. In the analysis of a…

  6. The Development of Children's Ethnic Identity in Immigrant Chinese Families in Canada: The Role of Parenting Practices and Children's Perceptions of Parental Family Obligation Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Tina F.; Costigan, Catherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' role in children's ethnic identity development was examined among 95 immigrant Chinese families with young adolescents living in Canada. Children reported their feelings of ethnic identity and perceptions of parental family obligation expectations. Parents reported their family obligation expectations; parents and children reported on…

  7. Does socioeconomic disparity in cancer incidence vary across racial/ethnic groups?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Cyllene; Allen, Mark; Cress, Rosemary; Bates, Janet; Liu, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    Objective Very few studies have simultaneously examined incidence of the leading cancers in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity in populations including Hispanics and Asians. This study aims to describe SES disparity in cancer incidence within each of four major racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic white, black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander) for five major cancer sites, including female breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Methods Invasive cancers of the five major sites diagnosed from 1998 to 2002 (n = 376,158) in California were included in the study. Composite area-based SES measures were used to quantify SES level and to calculate cancer incidence rates stratified by SES. Relative index of inequality (RII) was generated to measure SES gradient of cancer incidence within each racial/ethnic group. Results Significant variations were detected in SES disparities across the racial/ethnic groups for all five major cancer sites. Female breast cancer and prostate cancer incidence increased with increased SES in all groups, with the trend strongest among Hispanics. Incidence of cervical cancer increased with decreased SES, with the largest gradient among non-Hispanic white women. Lung cancer incidence increased with decreased SES with the exception of Hispanic men and women, for whom SES gradient was in the opposite direction. For colorectal cancer, higher incidence was associated with lower SES in non-Hispanic whites but with higher SES in Hispanics and Asian/Pacific Islander women. Conclusions Examining SES disparity stratified by race/ethnicity enhances our understanding of the complex relationships between cancer incidence, SES, and race/ethnicity. PMID:20567897

  8. Factor structure of the Bulimia Test--Revised in college women from four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Senaida; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Malacrne, Vanessa L; Wilfley, Denise E; McQuaid, John

    2006-07-01

    The factor structure of the Bulimia Test--Revised (BULIT-R) was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The sample consisted of 2,671 female college students (African American, Asian American, Caucasian American, and Latino American). Reliability coefficients were excellent across groups. African Americans scored significantly lower on the BULIT-R than Caucasian Americans. Across groups, CFA and EFA results suggest a six-factor solution is most appropriate. Consistent across groups were factors representing bingeing, body image, purging, and extreme weight loss behaviors, while few differences were observed across groups. These findings suggest that the measure is reliable and valid for use with diverse ethnic groups. Future research should focus on culturally salient psychological correlates of disordered eating in diverse ethnic groups. PMID:16881746

  9. Offline and online civic engagement among adolescents and young adults from three ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Jugert, Philipp; Eckstein, Katharina; Noack, Peter; Kuhn, Alexandra; Benbow, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Levels of civic engagement are assumed to vary according to numerous social and psychological characteristics, but not much is known about online civic engagement. This study aimed to investigate differences and similarities in young people's offline and online civic engagement and to clarify, based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB), associations between motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, collective efficacy, and civic engagement. The sample consisted of 755 youth (native German, ethnic German Diaspora, and Turkish migrants) from two age groups (16-18 and 19-26; mean age 20.5 years; 52 % female). Results showed that ethnic group membership and age moderated the frequency of engagement behavior, with Turkish migrants taking part more than native Germans, who were followed by ethnic German Diaspora migrants. Analyses based on TPB showed good fit for a model relating intention for offline and online civic engagement to motivation for civic engagement, peer and parental norms, and collective efficacy. Ethnic group moderated the findings for offline civic engagement and questioned the universality of some model parameters (e.g., peer and parental norms). This study showed the utility of the TPB framework for studying civic engagement but also reveals that the predictive utility of peer and parental norms seems to vary depending on the group and the behavior under study. This study highlights the importance of including minority samples in the study of civic engagement in order to identify between-group similarities and differences. PMID:22903193

  10. Genetic polymorphism analyses of a novel panel of 19 X-STR loci in the Chinese Uygur ethnic minority* #

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu-xin; Chen, Jian-gang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Jiang-wei; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tian-hua; Zhang, Li-ping; Yang, Guang; Meng, Hao-tian; Zhang, Yu-dang; Mei, Ting; Liu, Yao-shun; Dong, Qian; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2016-01-01

    The population genetic data and forensic parameters of 19 X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) loci in Chinese Uygur ethnic minority are presented. These loci were detected in a sample of 233 (94 males and 139 females) unrelated healthy individuals. We observed 238 alleles at the 19 X-STR loci, with the corresponding gene frequencies spanning the range from 0.0021 to 0.5644. After Bonferroni correction (P>0.0026), there were no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The cumulative power of discrimination in females and males, and the probability of exclusion of the 19 X-STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 998 091, 0.999 999 999 999 966, and 0.999 999 986 35, respectively. The cumulative mean exclusion chance was 0.999 999 992 849 in deficiency cases, 0.999 999 999 999 628 in normal trios, and 0.999 999 998 722 in duo cases. The high value of the forensic parameters mentioned above revealed that the novel panel of 19 loci had important values for forensic applications in the Uygur group. PMID:27143264

  11. Genetic polymorphism analyses of a novel panel of 19 X-STR loci in the Chinese Uygur ethnic minority.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Xin; Chen, Jian-Gang; Wang, Yan; Yan, Jiang-Wei; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tian-Hua; Zhang, Li-Ping; Yang, Guang; Meng, Hao-Tian; Zhang, Yu-Dang; Mei, Ting; Liu, Yao-Shun; Dong, Qian; Zhu, Bo-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The population genetic data and forensic parameters of 19 X-chromosome short tandem repeat (X-STR) loci in Chinese Uygur ethnic minority are presented. These loci were detected in a sample of 233 (94 males and 139 females) unrelated healthy individuals. We observed 238 alleles at the 19 X-STR loci, with the corresponding gene frequencies spanning the range from 0.0021 to 0.5644. After Bonferroni correction (P>0.0026), there were no significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The cumulative power of discrimination in females and males, and the probability of exclusion of the 19 X-STR loci were 0.999 999 999 999 999 999 998 091, 0.999 999 999 999 966, and 0.999 999 986 35, respectively. The cumulative mean exclusion chance was 0.999 999 992 849 in deficiency cases, 0.999 999 999 999 628 in normal trios, and 0.999 999 998 722 in duo cases. The high value of the forensic parameters mentioned above revealed that the novel panel of 19 loci had important values for forensic applications in the Uygur group. PMID:27143264

  12. The use of a new indirect method to estimate ethnic-group fertility rates for subnational projections for England.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Rees, Philip; Wohland, Pia

    2014-03-01

    To project the ethnic-group populations of local authorities in England to 2051, estimates of ethnic-specific fertility rates were needed. In the absence of ethnic information on birth records, we developed indirect estimation methods that use a combination of vital statistics, the census (both microdata and aggregate tables), and survey data (Labour Force Survey). We estimated age-specific and total fertility rates successively for five broad ethnic groups encompassed by all data-sets, and for eight ethnic groups encompassed by the 1991 and 2001 Censuses for England. We then used census data to disaggregate the estimates to the 16 ethnic groups required for the subnational projections and the Hadwiger function to estimate single-year-of-age estimates. We estimated the uncertainty around the fertility estimates and used a logistic model to project rates to 2021, after which we assumed rates would remain constant. PMID:23879768

  13. A Quantitative Review of Ethnic Group Differences in Experimental Pain Response: Do Biology, Psychology and Culture Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Williams, Ameenah K.K.; Fillingim, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response, and factors contributing to group differences. Method We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944-2011, and utilized the PUBMED bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes, identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli and measures, and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. Results We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; African Americans demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. Conclusion There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences, has translational merit for culturally-competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. PMID:22390201

  14. Effects of Tailored Knowledge Enhancement on Colorectal Cancer Screening Preference across Ethnic and Language Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Richard L.; Fiscella, Kevin; Sohler, Nancy; Romero, Raquel Lozano; Parnes, Bennett; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Turner, Charles; Dvorak, Simon; Franks, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective Tailoring to psychological constructs (e.g. self-efficacy, readiness) motivates behavior change, but whether knowledge tailoring alone changes healthcare preferences - a precursor of behavior change in some studies - is unknown. We examined this issue in secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial of a tailored colorectal cancer (CRC) screening intervention, stratified by ethnicity/language subgroups (Hispanic/Spanish, Hispanic/English, non-Hispanic/English). Methods Logistic regressions compared effects of a CRC screening knowledge-tailored intervention versus a non-tailored control on preferences for specific test options (fecal occult blood or colonoscopy), in the entire sample (N = 1164) and the three ethnicity/language subgroups. Results Pre-intervention, preferences for specific tests did not differ significantly between study groups (experimental, 64.5%; control 62.6%). Post-intervention, more experimental participants (78.6%) than control participants (67.7%) preferred specific tests (P <0.001). Adjusting for pre-intervention preferences, more experimental group participants than control group participants preferred specific tests post-intervention [average marginal effect (AME) = 9.5%, 95% CI 5.3-13.6; P <0.001]. AMEs were similar across ethnicity/language subgroups. Conclusion Knowledge tailoring increased preferences for specific CRC screening tests across ethnic and language groups. Practice Implications If the observed preference changes are found to translate into behavior changes, then knowledge tailoring alone may enhance healthy behaviors. PMID:22985627

  15. Measurement Equivalence across Racial/Ethnic Groups of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire for Childhood Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banh, My K.; Crane, Paul K.; Rhew, Isaac; Gudmundsen, Gretchen; Stoep, Ann Vander; Lyon, Aaron; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    As research continues to document differences in the prevalence of mental health problems such as depression across racial/ethnic groups, the issue of measurement equivalence becomes increasingly important to address. The Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) is a widely used screening tool for child and adolescent depression. This study applied a…

  16. Academic Motivation and Self-Determination among Three Ethnic Groups of Nigerian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olagbami, Abiola Olabisi

    2013-01-01

    The need related behavioral dynamics that are revealed in self-determination and academic motivation research control factors which pinpoint and examine settings that facilitate self-motivation and well-being. This study examined differences in motivational and self-determination behaviors among three ethnic groups of Nigerian university students…

  17. Parental Beliefs about Young Children's Socialization across US Ethnic Groups: Coexistence of Independence and Interdependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Chen, Wan-Chen; Cheng, Chi-Chia; Liang, Angel S.; Contreras, Helen; Zanger, Dinorah; Robinson, Courtney

    2008-01-01

    This study compared dimensions of independence and interdependence in parents' beliefs about daily child-rearing practices across four ethnic groups. Two questionnaires were completed by 310 parents of preschool-age children, and three belief constructs were identified. "Conformity" was least valued by European Americans. "Autonomy" was equally…

  18. Afghanistan's Ethnic Groups Share a Y-Chromosomal Heritage Structured by Historical Events

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E.; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F.; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A.

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia. PMID:22470552

  19. Cultural Orientations in the United States: (Re)Examining Differences among Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Heather M.; Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in individualism and collectivism between the U.S.'s four largest ethnic groups (African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and European Americans). Surveys of Michigan college students indicated that Asian Americans and African Americans but not Hispanic Americans scored higher in collectivism that did…

  20. Understanding the Decision to Enroll in Graduate School: Sex and Racial/Ethnic Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Laura W.

    2004-01-01

    Women continue to receive fewer doctoral and first-professional degrees than men, even though women receive more bachelor's degrees. The underrepresentation of women holds even after allowing for time to complete an advanced degree. Although researchers have examined sex and racial/ethnic group differences in undergraduate enrollment (e.g.,…

  1. Health Service Access across Racial/Ethnic Groups of Children in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Rebecca; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Bai, Yu; Belue, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined health service access among children of different racial/ethnic groups in the child welfare system in an attempt to identify and explain disparities. Methods: Data were from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW). N for descriptive statistics = 2,505. N for multiple regression model = 537.…

  2. Using Intercollegiate Response Groups To Help Teacher Education Students Bridge Differences of Race, Class, Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Judith; Smith, Sally

    To provide preservice teachers with opportunities for contact with people from racially and ethnically different backgrounds, one university initiated intercollegiate reader response groups using the WebCT format, which allowed students to converse with one another over distances, both within and across universities. Students from separate…

  3. Cardiovascular Fitness and Maximal Heart Rate Differences Among Three Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of differences in maximal heart rate and treadmill time among three ethnic groups revealed no significant age-adjusted differences among white, black, and Mexican-American males, and suggested that black females' lower maximal heart rate may be explained by their lower cardiovascular fitness level when compared to those of other…

  4. Global and Ethnic Self-Esteem in School Context: Minority and Majority Groups in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2004-01-01

    There is a considerable body of research that has explored the impact of school characteristics on the self-esteem of racial and ethnic minority group children. This work, however, has been mainly conducted among African Americans and has various conceptual and methodological problems. The present large-scale study in 182 classes from 82 schools…

  5. Parental Involvement in Predicting School Motivation: Similar and Differential Effects across Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weihua; Williams, Cathy M.; Wolters, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated how different dimensions of parental involvement similarly or differentially linked to various constructs of school motivation (academic self-efficacy in mathematics and English, intrinsic motivation toward mathematics and English, and engagement) across ethnic groups of Caucasian, African American, Asian American, and…

  6. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  7. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  8. Radio vs. Television: Their Cognitive Impact on Children of Different Socioeconomic and Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Patricia; Beagles-Roos, Jessica

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies which compared the impact of radio and television on children from different social classes and ethnic groups. Found that radio was more stimulating than television to the imagination (especially among white children) and that television led to greater overall recall of information. (ARH)

  9. Epidemiology of drinking, alcohol use disorders, and related problems in US ethnic minority groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Chartier, Karen G; Mills, Britain A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews selected epidemiologic studies on drinking and associated problems among US ethnic minorities. Ethnic minorities and the White majority group exhibit important differences in alcohol use and related problems, including alcohol use disorders. Studies show a higher rate of binge drinking, drinking above guidelines, alcohol abuse, and dependence for major ethnic and racial groups, notably, Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. Other problems with a higher prevalence in certain minority groups are, for example, cancer (Blacks), cirrhosis (Hispanics), fetal alcohol syndrome (Blacks and American Indians/Alaskan Natives), drinking and driving (Hispanics, American Indians/Alaskan Natives). There are also considerable differences in rates of drinking and problems within certain ethnic groups such as Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaskan Natives. For instance, among Hispanics, Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans drink more and have higher rates of disorders such as alcohol abuse and dependence than Cuban Americans. Disparities also affect the trajectory of heavy drinking and the course of alcohol dependence among minorities. Theoretic accounts of these disparities generally attribute them to the historic experience of discrimination and to minority socioeconomic disadvantages at individual and environmental levels. PMID:25307601

  10. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  11. The Value of Telephone Support Groups among Ethnically Diverse Caregivers of Persons with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…

  12. Predictors of Learning for Students from Five Different Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 2,836 students from 5 different racial/ethnic groups, this study identified the ways student engagement and institutional features predict student learning. A supportive campus environment and high academic challenge predicted learning in general education, personal development, and practical competence for all racial/ethnic…

  13. College-Going and University Eligibility: Differences between Racial/Ethnic Groups. Report 09-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    College-going rates vary greatly in California, with low figures for Blacks and Latinos and students from schools in low-income areas. In all income and racial/ethnic groups, college-going rates for males are lower than rates for females. The variation in college-going is partly the result of low eligibility among Black and Latino students.

  14. Synergy between Molecular and Contextual Views of Coping among Four Ethnic Groups of Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Francine; Magai, Carol; McPherson-Salandy, Renee; Milano, Kate

    2010-01-01

    The coping styles of four ethnic groups of older adults in response to negative life events were analyzed in a population-based study of 1118 residents of Brooklyn, New York. Using a molecular approach, data regarding the context of events and the corresponding coping responses was obtained. Open-ended semi-structured interviews allowed…

  15. Illegitimate Participation? A Group of Young Minority Ethnic Children's Experiences of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Ian

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore how a group of children, the majority of whom were of minority ethnic heritage, experienced starting nursery school in a setting where the majority of staff were of white indigenous heritage. The nursery is in a small town in the north-west of England, and the children were aged three and four. Observations were carried…

  16. The association between acanthosis nigricans and dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth grade students

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of acanthosis nigricans (AN) and to quantify its association with dysglycemia in an ethnically diverse group of eighth-grade students. Data were collected in 2003 from a cross-sectional study of students from 12 middle schools in three US stat...

  17. Group Identity and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study of Group Identity, Perceived Peer Acceptance, and Friendships amongst Ethnic Minority English Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Jugert, Philipp; Nigbur, Dennis; Brown, Rupert; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Landau, Anick; Le Touze, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    This research examined whether peer relationships amongst ethnic minority status children reflect the social groups to which children belong and the degree to which they identify with these groups. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the influence of group identities (i.e., ethnic and national) on children's perceived peer acceptance…

  18. Measuring cultural identity: validation of a modified Cortes, Rogler and Malgady Bicultural Scale in three ethnic groups in New York.

    PubMed

    Mezzich, Juan E; Ruiperez, Maria A; Yoon, Gihyun; Liu, Jason; Zapata-Vega, Maria I

    2009-09-01

    Cultural identity is central to health. Acculturation may be formulated with a bicultural model, assessing in parallel the degree of identification with both the original and the host culture. The Cortes, Rogler and Malgady Bicultural Scale (CRM-BS) is composed of two subscales: "original" culture and "mainstream-United States" (US) culture. It was modified into three ethnic versions: Latino, Korean and Chinese. Validation of the CRM-BS was conducted using health professionals and psychiatric patients from the above three ethnic groups and a control sample of mainstream-US (main-US) health professionals in New York City (n = 394). Mean time of completion was 3.7 min and 73% judged it to be easy to use. Strong test-retest reliability correlation coefficients were found (original culture, 0.78; mainstream-US, 0.82). The internal consistency was documented by high Cronbach's alpha values (original culture, 0.88; mainstream-US, 0.80). Factorial analysis revealed two factors, the first one involving all the items of the original culture and the second all of the mainstream-US items. Concerning its discriminant validity, non-main-US subjects scored significantly higher than main-US subjects on the original culture subscale, and vice versa. Construct validity was assessed comparing intergenerational mean scores on both subscales; as generations become older, mean scores for the original culture decreased, while those for the "host" culture increased. Results for each specific ethnic version are also presented. Cutoff scores were calculated to categorize the involvement with the original culture or the host culture, both of them, or neither. PMID:19543817

  19. Trilingual Education for Ethnic Minorities: Toward Empowerment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Zhenzhou

    2010-01-01

    Trilingual education (encompassing ethnic minority languages, Chinese, and English) for minority students gains popular support from local ethnic communities to redress educational inequality issues affecting majority and minority groups in China. This paper explores the uses of these three languages on two university campuses, representative of…

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical

  1. The prevalence of neural tube defects among ethnic groups in Brooklyn, New York.

    PubMed

    Feldman, J G; Stein, S C; Klein, R J; Kohl, S; Casey, G

    1982-01-01

    Records of almost 174,000 consecutive births at six Brooklyn hospitals during the years 1968-1976 were reviewed for congenital neural tube defects. Prevalence of anencephaly, myelomeningocele and occipital encephalocele combined was significantly higher in infants delivered to mothers born in Puerto Rico than in offspring of non-Puerto Rican whites or blacks. The association of prevalence rates with ethnicity remained significant after adjustment for several variables. However, when adjustment was made for private or service status the difference between Puerto Ricans and whites, although still appreciable, was no longer statistically significant. No significant differences in prevalence rates between whites and blacks were observed. Sex ratios of affected infants were close to unity in each ethnic group. Statistically significant associations were found between the prevalence of neural tube defects and parity, gravidity and economic status. The patterns of these associations varied among the ethnic groups. A declining trend in the prevalence of myelomeningocele was observed for all ethnic groups. PMID:7200098

  2. [Polymorphism of LW blood group gene in Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Su, Yu-Qing; Yu, Qiong; Liu, Xu; Liang, Yan-Lian; Wei, Tian-Li

    2008-06-01

    In order to study the polymorphism of Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) blood group gene in Chinese population, peripheral blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA from 160 unrelated volunteer blood donors were randomly collected, and genomic DNA were extracted. 160 DNA samples were analyzed for exon 1 of LW gene by direct DNA sequencing, and detected for LWa/LWb allele by improved PCR-SSP genotyping. The results showed that all LW allele in 160 donors were LWa homozygous, and the LWa allele occurred commonly. In conclusion, LWa allele occurs with incidence of 100% of donors in this study, while LWb allele has not been found in Chinese population. PMID:18549656

  3. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background. PMID:18489287

  4. Qualitative focus group study investigating experiences of accessing and engaging with social care services: perspectives of carers from diverse ethnic groups caring for stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Nan; Holley, Jess; Ellmers, Theresa; Mein, Gill; Cloud, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Informal carers, often family members, play a vital role in supporting stroke survivors with post-stroke disability. As populations age, numbers of carers overall and those from minority ethnic groups in particular, are rising. Carers from all ethnic groups, but especially those from black and minority ethnic groups frequently fail to access support services, making understanding their experiences important. The study therefore explored the experiences of carers of stroke survivors aged 45+ years from 5 ethnic groups in accessing and receiving social care services after hospital discharge. Design This qualitative study used 7 recorded focus groups with informal carers of stroke survivors. Data were analysed thematically focusing on similarities and differences between ethnic groups. Setting Carers were recruited from voluntary sector organisations supporting carers, stroke survivors and black and minority ethnic groups in the UK. Participants 41 carers from 5 ethnic groups (Asian Indian, Asian Pakistani, black African, black Caribbean, white British) participated in the focus groups. Results Several interconnected themes were identified including: the service gap between hospital discharge and home; carers as the best person to care and cultural aspects of caring and using services. Many themes were common to all the included ethnic groups but some related to specific groups. Conclusions Across ethnic groups there were many similarities in the experiences of people caring for stroke survivors with complex, long-term care needs. Accessing services demands effort and persistence on carers’ part. If carers believe services are unsatisfactory or that they, rather than formal services, should be providing support for stroke survivors, they are unlikely to persist in their efforts. Cultural and language differences add to the challenges black and minority ethnic group carers face. PMID:26826148

  5. Radiographic hand osteoarthritis in two ethnic groups living in the same geographic area.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Malkin, Ida; Batsevich, Valery; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA) and its association with age, sex, body mass index in two ethnic groups, Russian and Buryats who reside in the same geographic area. It was a cross-sectional observational study. The study population comprised ethnic Russians (N = 572) and Buryats (N = 327) from the Barguzinsky District of the Buryat Republic, Russian Federation. OA was evaluated in 14 joints of the left hand according to Kellgren and Lawrence's grading system. A diagnosis of OA was determined by the number of affected joints and by the presence of at least one affected joint. Statistical analyses included prevalence estimation, linear and logistic regressions, and chi(2) tests. Our major finding was that individuals of different ethnic groups, residing in the same location, have similar prevalence and severity of radiographic hand OA. Considering the results of our previous study, where we found significant differences in the prevalence and severity of hand OA between the Russian samples (same ethnicity) with diverse places of residence, we conclude that environmental factors play an important role in the development of hand OA. PMID:20372909

  6. Patterns and predictors of father-infant engagement across race/ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Natasha J.; Hofferth, Sandra L.; Chae, Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether levels of father engagement (e.g., verbal stimulation, caregiving, and physical play) vary by race/ethnicity using a model that controls for fathers’ human capital, mental health, and family relationships. It also tests whether the models work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Its sample of N=5,089 infants and their families is drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). We found that, after including controls, African American and Latino fathers had higher levels of engagement in caregiving and physical play activities than White fathers. There were no differences in verbal stimulation activities across race/ethnicity. Fathers’ education (college level) predicted more verbally stimulating activities whereas fathers’ report of couple conflict predicted less caregiving and physical play. Although levels of engagement differed across the groups, the overall models did not differ by race/ethnicity, except for physical play. African American mothers who reported high levels of depressive symptoms had partners who engaged in more physical play than White mothers with high levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:22110258

  7. Recognition and context memory for faces from own and other ethnic groups: a remember-know investigation.

    PubMed

    Horry, Ruth; Wright, Daniel B; Tredoux, Colin G

    2010-03-01

    People are more accurate at recognizing faces from their own ethnic group than at recognizing faces from other ethnic groups. This other-ethnicity effect (OEE) in recognition may be produced by a deficit in recollective memory for other-ethnicity faces. In a single study, White and Black participants saw White and Black faces presented within several different visual contexts. The participants were then given an old/new recognition task. Old responses were followed by remember-know-guess judgments and context judgments. Own-ethnicity faces were recognized more accurately, were given more remember responses, and produced more accurate context judgments than did other-ethnicity faces. These results are discussed in a dual-process framework, and implications for eyewitness memory are considered. PMID:20173186

  8. Sources of vegetables, fruits, and vitamins A, C and E among five ethnic groups: Results from the Multiethnic Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Data are limited on how dietary sources of food and nutrients differ among ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to determine the main sources of fruit, vegetables, and vitamins A, C, and E for five ethnic groups. Methods Dietary data were collected using a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire from participants in the Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and Los Angeles County between 1993 and 1996. Data were analyzed for 186,916 participants representing five ethnic groups; African Americans, Japanese Americans, Native Hawaiians, Latinos, and Caucasians. Results Lettuce was the most consumed vegetable (6.0%-9.9%) in all ethnic-sex groups, except African American women and Mexican-born Latino men and women. Oranges and bananas contributed more than one quarter to total fruit intake among all groups. Overall, more ethnic variation in food choices was observed for the top ten vegetables than fruit. The top sources for vitamins A, C and E were carrots, orange/grapefruit/pomelo and combined dishes, respectively. Between micronutrients studied, the greatest ethnic variation in foods consumed was observed among the top ten food sources of vitamin A. Conclusions This is the first study providing data on the main types of fruit and vegetables consumed and the major sources of vitamins A, C, and E among these ethnic groups in the U.S. Such data are valuable for developing and implementing public health strategies to meet the USDA dietary recommendations and guiding ethnic-specific nutrition education and intervention programs. PMID:24398639

  9. CEMTDD: The database for elucidating the relationships among herbs, compounds, targets and related diseases for Chinese ethnic minority traditional drugs

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tao; Yao, Hong; Pang, Xiaobo; Sun, Fuzhou; Ouyang, Liang; Wang, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    China has different ethnic minorities that establish their own medical systems and practice experience for thousand years, thereafter named Chinese Ethnic Minority Traditional Drugs (CEMTDs) (http://www.cemtdd.com/index.html). Since many compounds from CEMTDs have been reported to perturb human's dysfunction network and restore human normal physiological conditions, the relationships amongst a series of compounds from specific herbs, their targets and relevant diseases have become our main focus in CEMTD modernization. Herein, we have constructed the first Chinese Ethnic Minority Traditional Drug Database (CEMTDD) mainly from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), retrieving CEMTD-related information from different resources. CEMTDD contains about 621 herbs, 4, 060 compounds, 2, 163 targets and 210 diseases, among which most of herbs can be applied into gerontology therapy including inflammation, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative disease. Gerontology is highly occurred in XUAR, and has abundant experience in treating such diseases, which may benefit for developing a new gerontology therapeutic strategy. CEMTDD displays networks for intricate relationships between CEMTDs and treated diseases, as well as the interrelations between active compounds and action targets, which may shed new light on the combination therapy of CEMTDs and further understanding of their herb molecular mechanisms for better modernized utilizations of CEMTDs, especially in gerontology. PMID:25970778

  10. Attitudes to cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority groups in Britain: cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, and ethnic identity salience as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women. PMID:22376196

  11. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological reactivity to ethnically matched and ethnically mismatched film clips.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole A; Levenson, Robert W

    2006-11-01

    This study examined whether individuals from 4 major ethnic groups within the United States (African American, Chinese American, European American, and Mexican American) showed greater subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to emotional film clips (amusement, sadness, and disgust) with actors from their own ethnic group (ethnically matched) compared with actors from the other 3 ethnic groups (ethnically mismatched). Evidence showed greater responsivity to ethnically matched films for African Americans and European Americans, with the largest effect for African Americans. These findings were consistent across both sex and level of cultural identification. Findings of ethnic difference notwithstanding, there were many areas in which ethnic differences were not found (e.g., little or no evidence was found of greater response to ethnically matched films in Chinese-American or Mexican- American participants). These findings indicate that the emotional response system clearly reacts to stimuli of diverse ethnic content; however, the system is also amenable to subtle "tuning" that allows for incrementally enhanced responding to members of one's own ethnic or cultural group. PMID:17144754

  12. Genetic Polymorphism of Cytochrome p450 (2C9) Enzyme in Iranian Baluch Ethnic Group

    PubMed Central

    Tabari, Mojdeh Ghiyas; Naseri, Fatemeh; Ataby, Maryam Agh; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare the frequencies of the cytochrome P450 CYP2C9 variations in the Baluch ethnic group (n=110) with other ethnic groups. The allele frequencies of CYP2C9*1, CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 were 80.90%, 11.82% and 7.27%, respectively. 70.90%, 11.82%, 8.18%, 4.55%, 2.73% and 1.82% of subjects were with CYP2C9*1/*1, CYP2C9*1/*2, CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2C9*2/*2, CYP2C9*2/*3 and CYP2C9*3/*3 genotypes, respectively. Different mutants may effect on prediction of drug dose requirements in different ethnic groups. Thus, CYP2C9 variants to be determined for findings high risk groups use optimal dosage of drugs metabolized by this polymorphic enzyme. PMID:26464589

  13. Association study between SMPD1 p.L302P and sporadic Parkinson’s disease in ethnic Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Tang, Bei-Sha; Yang, Nan-Nan; Kang, Ji-Feng; Liu, Zhen-Hua; Liu, Rui-Qi; Yan, Xin-Xiang; Shen, Lu; Guo, Ji-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The protein encoded by sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1, acid lysosomal (SMPD1) is a lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase. While there are increasing evidences to suggest that lysosomal enzyme defects and Parkinson’s disease (PD) have strong associations, and recently, SMPD1 p.L302P (c.T911C, NM_000543) was found to be a risk factor for PD in Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry population, we try to investigate the possible association between SMPD1 p.L302P and sporadic PD in ethnic Chinese population. Methods: 455 sporadic PD and 476 health controls were included in our study. SMPD1 p.L302P (c.T911C) was genotyped by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Our results showed that none of 455 sporadic PD and 476 health controls carried p.L302P. All of the 931 subjects’ genotypes were wild type TT. Our data indicated that in an ethnic Chinese population, p.L302P did not appear to be enriched in sporadic PD, and p.L302P may not be a risk factor for Chinese sporadic PD. And combine our data with the results from previous studies, we found that all of the 2,268 participants of Chinese population carrying no p.L302P. Conclusions: We could make a conclusion that p.L302P may not be common events for Chinese population. Sequencing of SMPD1 gene to find additional novel rare variants in the SMPD1 gene in diverse populations is needed. PMID:26550340

  14. Meeting folks where they are: collecting data from ethnic groups in the community.

    PubMed

    Patsdaughter, C A; Christensen, M H; Kelley, B R; Masters, J A; Ndiwane, A N; Paatsdaughter, C A

    2001-01-01

    Since the Nazi medical experiments in Europe and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study in the United States, members of ethnic groups have been reluctant to participate in research. However, a National Institutes of Health policy mandates that researchers develop and implement strategies to insure the inclusion of women and minorities as subjects in clinical investigations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss methods found to be effective in recruiting and retaining members of ethnic groups as participants in three research projects. The three studies were: (a) Gambling Behaviors in African American Elders and Perceived Effects on Health, (b) Adolescent Risk Behavior, Self Esteem, and Social Influence: Comparison of Dominican Youth in Their Homeland and in the United States, and (c) A Multicultural Study of Support for Alzheimer's Caregivers. PMID:11908076

  15. Ethnic groups' perception of physicians' attentiveness: implications for health and obesity.

    PubMed

    Basáñez, Tatiana; Blanco, Lyzette; Collazo, Jose Luis; Berger, Dale E; Crano, William D

    2013-01-01

    Variables from the Health Tracking Household Survey 2007 were mapped to fit the "integrative model" of patient-doctor communication proposed by Ashton et al. (2003) to describe how communication patterns between patients and doctors influence patients' health outcomes. Patients' perceptions of their physician's attentiveness were examined to determine if perceived attentiveness mediated the relationship between physicians' recommendations (to diet and exercise) and health. Ethnic group differences related to these variables were explored. Overall, patient perception of physician attentiveness did significantly mediate the relationship between recommendations and patients' general health status. Hispanics and African Americans perceived their physicians as significantly less attentive to them, compared to Caucasians' perception of attentiveness. Across all ethnic groups, there was no evidence that doctors' recommendations to diet and exercise had an effect on patients' body mass index. The findings support previous research regarding the importance of physicians' communication skills and cultural sensitivity in promoting patient adherence to health recommendations. PMID:22533465

  16. Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity and Muscle Lipids may Differ with Muscle Group and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Gower, Barbara A.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Muñoz, A. Julian; Darnell, Betty E.; Oster, Robert A.; Buchthal, Steven D.; Goran, Michael I.; Newcomer, Bradley R.

    2011-01-01

    Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) has been inversely associated with insulin sensitivity in some, but not all, studies. This study utilized fast, high-resolution, magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to: investigate relationships between muscle lipids (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL)) and insulin sensitivity in muscles of varying oxidative capacity, explore ethnic differences in these relationships, and determine whether a eucaloric, low-fat dietary intervention would reduce IMCL and increase insulin sensitivity. Subjects were 30 healthy, African-American (AA; n=14) and European-American (EA; n=16) males, BMI 26.49 (±5.57) kg/m2, age 21.80 (±7.84) yrs. Soleus and tibialis anterior muscle lipids were quantified using MRSI. Insulin sensitivity was assessed via intravenous glucose tolerance test. A 2-week, eucaloric, low-fat diet intervention was conducted in a sub-group (n=12) subjects with assessments at baseline and post-intervention. Neither IMCL nor EMCL levels differed between ethnicities. In the total group, and within EA (but not AA), both tibialis anterior IMCL and EMCL were inversely associated with insulin sensitivity (P<0.05 for both); soleus muscle lipids were not associated with insulin sensitivity. Soleus, but not tibialis anterior, IMCL declined in both ethnic groups (average 25.3%; p<0.01) following dietary intervention; insulin sensitivity was unchanged. Results suggest that an association of muscle lipids with insulin sensitivity may be influenced by the oxidative capacity of the muscle group studied and may vary with ethnicity. PMID:22039395

  17. Conservation of Helicobacter pylori genotypes in different ethnic groups in Houston, Texas.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Y; Malaty, H M; Osato, M S; Graham, D Y

    2000-06-01

    This study was concerned with whether the Helicobacter pylori strains circulating among ethnic groups living in the same region differ. The polymerase chain reactions to genotype (cagA, vacA, and iceA) H. pylori isolates from healthy volunteers from 4 ethnic groups (black, n=35; white Hispanic, n=31; whites, n=30; Vietnamese, n=29) residing in Houston were examined. The Vietnamese volunteers had the "East Asian"-type cagA 3' repeat region structure, and the others had the "non-Asian" type. The most common genotypes were delineated as follows: blacks and Hispanics, cagA+, vacA s1b-m1, and iceA2; whites, cagA+, vacA s1a-m2, and iceA2; and Vietnamese, cagA+, vacA s1c-m2, and iceA2. Two Hispanic families were also examined. H. pylori isolates from the children and their mothers had the same genotype and were different from those associated with the children's fathers or brothers-in-law. Conservation of an H. pylori genotype within ethnic groups over the course of generations will prove useful for epidemiological study of the coevolution of humans and H. pylori. PMID:10837199

  18. Variability in the Inter-Group Attitudes of White Children: What We Can Learn from Their Ethnic Identity Labels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Spatzier, Agnieszka; Tobin, Mollie

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the ethnic identity of White (N = 120), Latino (N = 87), and African-American (N = 65) children and early adolescents (aged = 9-14 years), with an emphasis on whether the specific ethnic label White children used to describe themselves might reflect differences in their inter-group attitudes and whether those differences…

  19. Experiences of Mental Health Services by People with Intellectual Disabilities from Different Ethnic Groups: A Delphi Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonell, S.; Underwood, L.; Radhakrishnan, V.; McCarthy, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patient experience of those accessing mental health services has been found to be different between ethnic groups. Although the needs of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) from different ethnic communities are being increasingly recognised, little has been published about their experiences of mental health services. The aim of…

  20. Learned fear to social out-group members are determined by ethnicity and prior exposure.

    PubMed

    Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White (Swedish) participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias toward Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears toward Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning. PMID:25762953

  1. Learned fear to social out-group members are determined by ethnicity and prior exposure

    PubMed Central

    Golkar, Armita; Björnstjerna, Marie; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson et al., 2005). To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White (Swedish) participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias toward Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears toward Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning. PMID:25762953

  2. Researching Ethnic Minority Students in a Chinese Context: Mixed Methods Design for Cross Cultural Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kerry J.; Hue, Ming Tak

    2011-01-01

    Research on and with ethnic minority students is characterised by a growing international literature that privileges "liberal multiculturalism" as a lens through which to understand their experiences, yet ethnic diversity is constructed and responded to in many societies that are not underpinned by liberal democratic values. In this paper we use…

  3. The Psychological and Cultural Aspects of Ethnic Politics: The Case of the Japanese and Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Moon H.

    Chinese immigration to the United States, which began around 1850, sparked strong anti-Asian sentiment and legal and economic restrictions upon these immigrants. Although some Chinese organizations helped immigrants, the overall response of the Chinese to systematic oppression was one of meekness and compliance. The Japanese began to immigrate to…

  4. Preliminary examination of ethnic group differences in adolescent girls' attitudes toward depression treatments.

    PubMed

    Caporino, Nicole E; Chen, Jason I; Karver, Marc S

    2014-01-01

    Efficacious treatments are only valuable to the extent that they are used. Given ethnic disparities in mental health service utilization, this preliminary study examined differences between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adolescents' ratings of the acceptability of depression treatments and related constructs. Female high school students (N = 67; 54% Hispanic) read a vignette describing a depressed adolescent and rated the acceptability of four single treatments for depression (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, family therapy, and pharmacotherapy) and three treatment combinations. Hispanic adolescents completed a self-report measure of acculturation and all adolescents were interviewed about their beliefs of the causes of depression. Results showed more similarities than differences between ethnic groups, with Hispanic and NHW adolescents favoring psychological treatments over pharmacotherapy. Among Hispanic participants, overall ratings of treatment acceptability were significantly higher for bicultural adolescents than Hispanic adolescents immersed predominantly in non-Hispanic culture. Hispanic and NHW adolescents generally showed similar beliefs about the causes of depression, with both groups endorsing personality and cognitions at high rates, but Hispanics were significantly less likely than NHWs to endorse trauma as a cause of depression. Implications for decreasing ethnic disparities in unmet need for treatment are discussed. PMID:23834256

  5. Acculturation and Plasma Fatty Acid Concentrations in Hispanic and Chinese-American Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Cassandra S.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Chen, Tzu-An; Baranowski, Tom; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Rich, Stephen S.; St-Jules, David E.; Steffen, Brian T.; Tsai, Michael Y.; Siscovick, David S.; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acculturation to the U.S. is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiologic pathways are not fully understood. Plasma fatty acid levels exhibit ethnic differences and are emerging as biomarkers and predictors of cardiovascular disease risk. Thus, plasma fatty acids may represent one pathway underlying the association between acculturation and cardiovascular disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids in a diverse sample of Hispanic- and Chinese-American adults. Methods and Findings Participants included 377 Mexican, 320 non-Mexican Hispanic, and 712 Chinese adults from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who had full plasma phospholipid assays and acculturation information. Acculturation was determined from three proxy measures: nativity, language spoken at home, and years in the U.S., with possible scores ranging from 0 (least acculturated) to 5 (most acculturated) points. α-Linolenic acid, linoleic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid were measured in fasting plasma. Linear regression models were conducted in race/ethnicity-stratified analyses, with acculturation as the predictor and plasma phospholipid fatty acids as the outcome variables. We ran secondary analyses to examine associations between acculturation and dietary fatty acids for comparison. Covariates included age, gender, education, and income. Contrary to our hypothesis, no statistically significant associations were detected between acculturation and plasma phospholipid fatty acids for Chinese, non-Mexican Hispanic, or Mexican participants. However, acculturation was related to dietary total n-6 fatty acids and dietary n-3/n-6 ratios in expected directions for Mexican, non-Mexican Hispanic, and combined Hispanic participants. In Chinese individuals, acculturation was unexpectedly associated with lower arachidonic acid intake. Conclusion Absence of

  6. Population-ethnic group specific genome variation allele frequency data: a querying and visualization journey.

    PubMed

    Viennas, Emmanouil; Gkantouna, Vassiliki; Ioannou, Marina; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Rigou, Maria; Poulas, Konstantinos; Patrinos, George P; Tzimas, Giannis

    2012-08-01

    National/ethnic mutation databases aim to document the genetic heterogeneity in various populations and ethnic groups worldwide. We have previously reported the development and upgrade of FINDbase (www.findbase.org), a database recording causative mutations and pharmacogenomic marker allele frequencies in various populations around the globe. Although this database has recently been upgraded, we continuously try to enhance its functionality by providing more advanced visualization tools that would further assist effective data querying and comparisons. We are currently experimenting in various visualization techniques on the existing FINDbase causative mutation data collection aiming to provide a dynamic research tool for the worldwide scientific community. We have developed an interactive web-based application for population-based mutation data retrieval. It supports sophisticated data exploration allowing users to apply advanced filtering criteria upon a set of multiple views of the underlying data collection and enables browsing the relationships between individual datasets in a novel and meaningful way. PMID:22659238

  7. Socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices among USA ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Rams, T E; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    In this study, socio-behavioral determinants of oral hygiene practices were examined across several dentate ethnic and age groups. Oral hygiene scale scores were constructed from toothbrushing and dental floss frequencies self-reported by population-based samples of middle-aged (35-44 years) and older (65-74 years) dentate adults representing Baltimore African-American and White, San Antonio Hispanic and non-Hispanic White, and Navajo and Lakota Native American persons participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) survey. Female gender, education, certain oral health beliefs, household income, and the presence of a usual source of care were revealed with multivariate analysis to show a significant positive relationship with higher oral hygiene scale scores (indicating better personal oral hygiene practices). Other socio-behavioral variables exhibited a more varied, ethnic-specific pattern of association with oral hygiene scale scores. PMID:9549990

  8. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene in patients with oculocutaneous albinism from various ethnic groups in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Gershoni-Baruch, R. ); Rosenmann, A. ); Droetto, S.; Holmes, S.; Tripathi, R.K.; Spritz, R.A. )

    1994-04-01

    The authors have analyzed the tyrosinase (TYR) gene in 38 unrelated patients with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), derived from several different ethnic groups of the diverse population of Israel. They detected TYR gene mutations in 23 of the 34 patients with apparent type I (i.e., tyrosinase-deficient) OCA and in none of the patients with other clinical forms of albinism. Among Moroccan Jews with type IA (i.e., tyrosinase-negative) OCA, they detected a highly predominant mutant allele containing a missense substitution, Gly47Asp (G47D). This mutation occurs on the same haplotype as in patients from the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico, suggesting that the G47D mutation in these ethnically distinct populations may stem from a common origin. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Effect of Duration of Disease on Ventilatory Function in an Ethnic Saudi Group of Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan A.; Al Drees, Abdul Majeed; Ahmed, Jehangeer; Ahmed Shah, Sayed Fayaz; Al-Regaiey, Khalid; Husain, Ashraf; Al-Rubean, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of illness and death across the world and is responsible for a growing proportion of global health care expenditures. The present study was designed to observe the effect of diabetes mellitus on lung function in patients with diabetes belonging to a specific ethnic group, namely Saudis. Method In this study, a group of 47 apparently healthy volunteer male Saudi patients with diabetes was randomly selected. Their ages ranged from 20 to 70 years. The patients were matched with another group of 50 healthy male control subjects in terms of age, height, weight, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Both groups met exclusion criteria as per standard. Spirometry was performed with an electronic spirometer (Schiller AT-2 Plus, Switzerland), and results were compared by a Student's t test. Results Subjects with diabetes showed a significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) relative to their matched controls. However, there were no significant differences in the forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC%) and the middle half of the FVC (FEF25–75%) between the groups. We observed a significantly negative correlation between duration of disease and pulmonary function, as measured by FEV1 (r = 0.258, p = 0.04), FVC (r = 0.282, p = 0.28), and the middle half of the FVC (FEF25–75%) (r = 0.321, p = 0.014). Conclusions Pulmonary function in a specific ethnic group of patients with diabetes was impaired as evidenced by a decrease in FVC and FEV1 compared to pulmonary function in matched controls. Stratification of results by years of disease revealed a significant correlation between duration of disease and a decline in pulmonary function. PMID:19885139

  10. Human Candidate Polymorphisms in Sympatric Ethnic Groups Differing in Malaria Susceptibility in Mali

    PubMed Central

    Maiga, Bakary; Dolo, Amagana; Touré, Ousmane; Dara, Victor; Tapily, Amadou; Campino, Susana; Sepulveda, Nuno; Risley, Paul; Silva, Nipula; Corran, Patrick; Rockett, Kirk A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Clark, Taane G.; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria still remains a major public health problem in Mali, although disease susceptibility varies between ethnic groups, particularly between the Fulani and Dogon. These two sympatric groups share similar socio-cultural factors and malaria transmission rates, but Fulani individuals tend to show significantly higher spleen enlargement scores, lower parasite prevalence, and seem less affected by the disease than their Dogon neighbours. We have used genetic polymorphisms from malaria-associated genes to investigate associations with various malaria metrics between the Fulanai and Dogon groups. Two cross sectional surveys (transmission season 2006, dry season 2007) were performed. Healthy volunteers from the both ethnic groups (n=939) were recruited in a rural setting. In each survey, clinical (spleen enlargement, axillary temperature, weight) and parasitological data (malaria parasite densities and species) were collected, as well as blood samples. One hundred and sixty six SNPs were genotyped and 5 immunoassays (AMA1, CSP, MSP1, MSP2, total IgE) were performed on the DNA and serum samples respectively. The data confirm the reduced malaria susceptibility in the Fulani, with a higher level of the protective O-blood group, and increased circulating antibody levels to several malaria antigens (p<10-15). We identified SNP allele frequency differences between the 2 ethnic groups in CD36, IL4, RTN3 and ADCY9. Moreover, polymorphisms in FCER1A, RAD50, TNF, SLC22A4, and IL13 genes were correlated with antibody production (p-value<0.003). Further work is required to understand the mechanisms underpinning these genetic factors. PMID:24098393

  11. Variation of DAT1 VNTR alleles and genotypes among old ethnic groups in Mesopotamia to the Oxus region.

    PubMed

    Banoei, Mohammad Mehdi; Chaleshtori, Morteza Hashemzadeh; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Houshmand, Massoud; Majidizadeh, Tayebeh; Soltani, Niloofar Jahangir; Golalipour, Massoud

    2008-02-01

    Variation of a VNTR in the DAT1 gene in seven ethnic groups of the Middle East was used to infer the history and affinities of these groups. The populations consisted of Assyrian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Armenian, Turkmen, and Arab peoples of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait. Three hundred forty subjects from these seven ethnic groups were screened for DAT1. DAT1 VNTR genotyping showed 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 alleles in the samples. Analysis of these data revealed differentiation and relationship among the populations. In this region, which covers an area of 2-2.5 million km2, the influence of geography and especially of linguistic characteristics has had potentially major effects on differentiation. Religion also has played a major role in imposing restrictions on some ethnic groups, who as a consequence have maintained their community. Overall, these ethnic groups showed greater heterogeneity compared to other populations. PMID:18505046

  12. Effectiveness of a Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Ethnic Groups in Two Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Marti, C. Nathan; Cheng, Zhen Hadassah

    2014-01-01

    Objective As young women from certain ethnic minority groups have reported less pursuit of the thin ideal and body dissatisfaction than European American young women we tested whether a dissonance-based prevention program designed to reduce thin-ideal internalization among women with body dissatisfaction is less effective for the former relative to the later groups. We also tested whether intervention effects are larger when participants from minority groups worked with a facilitator matched versus not matched on ethnicity. Method In Study 1, 426 female undergraduates (M age = 21.6, SD = 5.6) were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups or an educational control group. In Study 2, 189 female undergraduates were randomized to peer-led Body Project groups or a waitlist control condition. Results Although there was some variation in risk factor scores across ethnic groups, ethnic minority participants did not demonstrate consistently higher or lower risk relative to European American participants. Intervention effects did not significantly differ for participants from minority groups versus European American participants in either trial. There was no evidence that effects were significantly larger when minority participants and facilitators were matched on ethnicity. Conclusions Results suggest that the Body Project is similarly effective for African American, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic female college students, and when participants and facilitators are matched or not on minority ethnicity status, implying that this prevention program can be broadly disseminated in this population. PMID:24655465

  13. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. Aim To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. Materials and Methods This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Results Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Conclusion Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.

  14. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  15. The Association between Relationship Distress and Psychopathology is Consistent across Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    McShall, Jared R.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The association between intimate relationship discord and DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders has been described in studies that oversampled White participants; however, the racial and ethnic differences in marital distress and divorce as well as in prevalence rates of some forms of psychopathology led us to hypothesize that the association between relationship discord and psychopathology would vary across races and ethnicities. Relationship quality and psychopathology were assessed in three national surveys (the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the National Latino and Asian American Study, and the National Survey of American Life), for a total sample size of 10,057. We found that the log odds of being diagnosed with both narrow-band (e.g., major depressive disorder) and broad-band disorders (e.g., mood disorder) were negatively associated with relationship quality consistently across 11 different racial and ethnic groups. We discuss the implications of the cross-cultural reliability of the association between relationship discord and psychopathology in the context of etiological models and culturally competent practices. PMID:25402736

  16. Risk factors for early adolescent drug use in four ethnic and racial groups.

    PubMed Central

    Vega, W A; Zimmerman, R S; Warheit, G J; Apospori, E; Gil, A G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. It is widely believed that risk factors identified in previous epidemiologic studies accurately predict adolescent drug use. Comparative studies are needed to determine how risk factors vary in prevalence, distribution, sensitivity, and pattern across the major US ethnic/racial groups. METHODS. Baseline questionnaire data from a 3-year epidemiologic study of early adolescent development and drug use were used to conduct bivariate and multivariate risk factor analyses. Respondents (n = 6760) were sixth- and seventh-grade Cuban, other Hispanic, Black, and White non-Hispanic boys in the 48 middle schools of the greater Miami (Dade County) area. RESULTS. Findings indicate 5% lifetime illicit drug use, 4% lifetime inhalant use, 37% lifetime alcohol use, and 21% lifetime tobacco use, with important intergroup differences. Monotonic relationships were found between 10 risk factors and alcohol and illicit drug use. Individual risk factors were distributed disproportionately, and sensitivity and patterning of risk factors varied widely by ethnic/racial subsample. CONCLUSIONS. While the cumulative prevalence of risk factors bears a monotonic relationship to drug use, ethnic/racial differences in risk factor profiles, especially for Blacks, suggest differential predictive value based on cultural differences. PMID:8427320

  17. The association between relationship distress and psychopathology is consistent across racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    McShall, Jared R; Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-02-01

    The association between intimate relationship discord and DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders has been described in studies that oversampled White participants; however, the racial and ethnic differences in marital distress and divorce as well as in prevalence rates of some forms of psychopathology led us to hypothesize that the association between relationship discord and psychopathology would vary across races and ethnicities. Relationship quality and psychopathology were assessed in three national surveys (the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, the National Latino and Asian American Study, and the National Survey of American Life), for a total sample size of 10,057. We found that the log odds of being diagnosed with both narrow-band (e.g., major depressive disorder) and broad-band disorders (e.g., mood disorder) were negatively associated with relationship quality consistently across 11 different racial and ethnic groups. We discuss the implications of the cross-cultural reliability of the association between relationship discord and psychopathology in the context of etiological models and culturally competent practices. PMID:25402736

  18. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. Design A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants 219 276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205 326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Main outcome measures Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001–2004, 2005–2008 and 2009–2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. Results During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p=0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p=0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p=0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p=0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. Conclusions We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. PMID:26260346

  19. Complexity and valence in ethnophaulisms and exclusion of ethnic out-groups: what puts the "hate" into hate speech?

    PubMed

    Leader, Tirza; Mullen, Brian; Rice, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Ethnophaulisms (A. A. Roback, 1944) are the words used as ethnic slurs to refer to out-groups in hate speech. The results of previous archival research have suggested that it is the complexity, more so than the valence, of ethnophaulisms that predicts the exclusion of ethnic immigrant out-groups from the receiving society. This article reports the results of 3 experimental examinations of the relative contributions of complexity and valence in ethnophaulisms to the exclusion of an ethnic out-group. Experiment 1 demonstrated that exclusion of the ethnic out-group was increased by the use of low-complexity ethnophaulisms. Experiment 2 demonstrated that exclusion of the ethnic out-group decreased by the use of high-complexity ethnophaulisms. Experiment 3 confirmed the demonstration that exclusion decreased by the use of a different set of high-complexity ethnophaulisms. The results of these three experiments converge to indicate that low complexity exerts more of an effect than negative valences on the exclusion of an ethnic out-group. The implications of these results for theoretical approaches to intergroup behavior are considered. PMID:19210073

  20. Identification of Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2W1 in the Three Main Chinese Ethnicities: Han, Tibetan, and Uighur.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanwei; Kang, Xing; Yang, Ge; Dai, Penggao; Chen, Chao; Wang, Huijuan

    2016-09-01

    CYP2W1 is an orphan member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Recently, CYP2W1 has gained great research interest because of its unknown enzymatic function and tumor-specific expression property. This study aims to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2W1 gene in Chinese populations and explore the functions of the detected variants. All of the nine exons and exon-intron junction regions of the CYP2W1 gene were sequenced in 150 Chinese subjects, including 50 Han Chinese, 50 Tibetans, and 50 Uighurs. A total of 26 genetic variants were identified in this study, and 19 polymorphisms were detected in each population. Frequency comparison between populations showed that nine variants exhibited significantly different allelic distributions. A total of 12 different haplotypes were inferred from 150 samples by using the genotype data of nine exonic variants found in this study. CYP2W1*1A, *1B, *2, *4, and *6 were detected as the main alleles/haplotypes. Moreover, one, three, and two ethnically specific haplotypes were observed in the Han, Tibetan, and Uighur samples, respectively. Then, the effects of four detected missense mutations (Ala181Thr, Gly376Ser, Val432Ile, and Pro488Leu) on the CYP2W1 protein function were predicted using three in silico tools: Polymorphism Phenotyping v2, Sorts Intolerant from Tolerant, and MutationTaster. The results showed that Gly376Ser and Pro488Leu may have deleterious effects. In summary, this study showed that the genetic pattern of CYP2W1 is interethnically different among the three Chinese populations, and this finding can extend our understanding of population genetics of CYP2W1 in the Chinese population. PMID:27307299

  1. Findings from Focus Groups Indicating what Chinese American immigrant women think about breast cancer and breast cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Lin, Frances; Menon, Usha; Nail, Lillian; Lutz, Kristin F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To explore beliefs of Chinese American, immigrant women related to breast cancer and mammography. Design Qualitative description with semi-structured focus groups. Setting Metropolitan Portland, Oregon. Participants Thirty eight foreign-born Chinese women, age 40 and older, in five focus groups. Methods Focus group discussions in Chinese were audio taped, transcribed, and translated into English. Using a process of directed content analysis, group transcripts were coded for themes based on the discussion guide. Results Three main themes emerged from the analysis: knowledge and beliefs; support, communication, and educational needs; and access to care. Subthemes included beliefs such as barriers and facilitators to screening and perceptions about personal breast cancer risk. Several women were profoundly affected by the negative breast cancer-related experiences of relatives and friends. Some common myths remain about causes and treatment of breast cancer. Conclusions Although Chinese American immigrant women share beliefs with other minority women in the United States, some culturally-related barriers such as alienation due to cultural reasons for not sharing diagnosis with anyone and beliefs about the efficacy of Eastern versus Western medicine may affect adherence to screening and treatment. Facilitators included being told to get the test and getting screened for the sake of the family, while erroneous information about the cause of breast cancer such as diet and stress remained. Primary care providers such as advanced practice nurses should take into account culturally driven motivations and barriers to mammography adherence among Chinese American immigrant women. Provider-client interactions should involve more discussion about women’s breast cancer risks and screening harms and benefits. Such awareness could open a dialogue around breast cancer that is culturally sensitive and non-threatening to the patient. Information may need to be tailored to

  2. Retention in Depression Treatment among Ethnic and Racial Minority Groups in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Lisa R.; Alegria, Margarita; Gao, Shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Premature discontinuation of psychiatric treatment among ethnic-racial minorities is a persistent concern. Prior research on identifying factors associated with ethnic-racial disparities in depression treatment has been limited by the scarcity of national samples with adequate representation of minority groups and especially non-English speakers. In this article we aim to identify variations in the likelihood of retention in depression treatment among ethnic-racial minority groups in the US as compared to non-Latino whites. Secondly, we aim to identify factors which are related to treatment retention. Methods We use data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) to examine differences and correlates of depression treatment retention among a representative sample (n=564) of non-Latino whites, Latinos, African American and Asian respondents with last 12 month depressive disorder and who report receiving formal mental health treatment in the last year. We define retention as attending at least four visits or remaining in treatment over a 12 month period. Results Being seen by a mental health specialist as opposed to being seen by a generalist and having received medication are correlates of treatment retention for the entire sample. However, after adjusting for demographics, clinical factors including number of co-occurring psychiatric disorders and level of disability, African Americans are significantly less likely to be retained in depression treatment as compared to non-Latino whites. Conclusions Availability of specialized mental health services or comparable treatment within primary care could improve treatment retention. Low retention suggests persistent problems in the delivery of depression treatment for African Americans. PMID:20336808

  3. Digital discrimination: Political bias in Internet service provision across ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Nils B; Benitez-Baleato, Suso; Hunziker, Philipp; Glatz, Eduard; Dimitropoulos, Xenofontas

    2016-09-01

    The global expansion of the Internet is frequently associated with increased government transparency, political rights, and democracy. However, this assumption depends on marginalized groups getting access in the first place. Here we document a strong and persistent political bias in the allocation of Internet coverage across ethnic groups worldwide. Using estimates of Internet penetration obtained through network measurements, we show that politically excluded groups suffer from significantly lower Internet penetration rates compared with those in power, an effect that cannot be explained by economic or geographic factors. Our findings underline one of the central impediments to "liberation technology," which is that governments still play a key role in the allocation of the Internet and can, intentionally or not, sabotage its liberating effects. PMID:27609892

  4. [Migration strategies and ethnic networks compared: the Burkina Faso and Senegalese groups in Italy].

    PubMed

    Schmidt Di Friedberg, O

    1996-03-01

    "African immigration towards Italy is presented as part of the wider international context. The function of emigration networks is briefly examined. A comparison is made between the Burkinabe and Senegalese groups, the latter being the most important group from West Africa. The different ways of entering the labour market are studied according to the legal situation of migrants (whether regulars or clandestines), the Italian region of settlement, and above all according to the characteristics of the ethnic networks established by the two above-mentioned nationalities.... The article shows how the choice of individual or group integration strategies depends both on cultural factors of the society of origin and on the economic and social situation of the Italian region of settlement." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) PMID:12320684

  5. The effect of cancer on suicide in ethnic groups with a differential suicide risk.

    PubMed

    Nakash, Ora; Barchana, Micha; Liphshitz, Irena; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Levav, Itzhak

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the suicide risk among persons with cancer in ethnic groups with differential suicide mortality in the general population. We calculated the suicide standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) among Europe-America and Asia-North Africa-born Israelis with cancer, relative to the respective rates in the general population. The SIRs were higher in the European-American group [men: 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.30; women: 2.03, 95% CI 1.51-2.56], but not significantly different in the Asian-North African group (men: 0.86, 95% CI 0.52-1.20; women: 0.80, 95% CI 0.10-1.50). Assessment of suicide risk must consider the 'suicide culture' of the person with cancer. PMID:22539628

  6. Parental Choice of Schooling, Learning Processes and Inter-Ethnic Friendship Patterns: The Case of Malay Students in Chinese Primary Schools in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sua, Tan Yao; Ngah, Kamarudin; Darit, Sezali Md.

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys 200 Malay students enrolled in three Chinese primary schools in relation to three issues, i.e., parental choice of schooling, learning processes and inter-ethnic friendship patterns. The three issues are explored through a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. Parental expectations for their…

  7. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  8. Sex of preceding child and birth spacing among Nigerian ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Fayehun, O A; Omololu, O O; Isiugo-Abanihe, U C

    2011-06-01

    In seeking for more effective ways of fertility control and improvement of maternal and child health through birth spacing in a predominantly patrilineal society like Nigeria, this study explores how the sex of a previous child affects birth interval among ethnic groups, controlling for demographic and socioeconomic variables. The study utilized birth history data from the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The findings showed that the effect of sex of prior births on the birth interval is slightly significant among the Igbo and the Southern minorities, who tend to desire to have a male child sooner if preceding births were female. Among all the ethnic groups, women who are yet to meet their ideal sex preference have a shorter birth interval than those who have. Apart from the evident sex preferences, these results suggest that Nigerian parents also undertake sex balancing among their children. There is a consistent and strong relationship between the survival of a child and subsequent birth interval, which suggest that women have a short birth interval, and hence a large family size, because they are not certain that their children would survive. PMID:22590895

  9. Absence of Multiple Sclerosis and Demyelinating Diseases among Lacandonians, a Pure Amerindian Ethnic Group in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Jose; González, Silvia; Morales, Ximena; Yescas, Petra; Ochoa, Adriana; Corona, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a highly polymorphic disease characterized by different neurologic signs and symptoms. In MS, racial and genetic factors may play an important role in the geographic distribution of this disease. Studies have reported the presence of several protective alleles against the development of autoimmune disorders. In the case of MS, however, they help define MS as a complex disease, and confirm the importance of environmental agents as an independent variable not associated with ethnicity. We carried out an on-site epidemiological study to confirm the absence of MS or NMO among Lacandonians, a pure Amerindian ethnic group in Mexico. We administered a structured interview to 5,372 Lacandonians to assess by family background any clinical data consistent with the presence of a prior demyelinating event. Every participating subject underwent a comprehensive neurological examination by a group of three members of the research team with experience in the diagnosis and treatment of demyelinating disorders to detect clinical signs compatible with a demyelinating disease. We did not find any clinical signs compatible with multiple sclerosis among study participants. PMID:22973516

  10. High prevalence of hypertension among an ethnic group in Sudan: implications for prevention.

    PubMed

    Noor, Sufian K; Elsugud, Nada A; Bushara, Sarra O; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2016-04-01

    Objective Hypertension is an emerging non-communicable disease in developing countries. Due to its silent nature and serious complications, active screening is essential in order to prevent complications. For instance, premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases could be prevented by the effective control of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among Nuba ethnic group living in Atbara city, north Sudan and to identify the associated risk factors. Subject and methods All consenting 500 adults from Nuba tribe who live in El Wihda District, Atbara were included. Blood pressure (BP) and body mass index were measured. Standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic data, and lifestyle characteristics. Results Among the 500 participants, females were 364 (72.8%) and males were 136 (27.2%). The overall prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 49.4% (30.8% stage 1 hypertension and 18.6% stage 2 hypertension). In addition, 41% of the population was having prehypertension. The significant risk factors for high BP were: male sex, age above 45 years, overweight, illiteracy, and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Undiagnosed high BP is very common among Nuba ethnic group; therefore, active screening and early management are recommended to prevent complications. PMID:26738696